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Vinaya Texts

Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
and
Hermann Oldenberg

Oxford, the Clarendon Press
[1881]
The Second Part of Volume XVII and Volume XX of The Sacred Books of the East

This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer

Kulla Vagga

 


[299]

Ninth Khandhaka

On Exclusion from the Pâtimokkha Ceremony

 


 

1

1.1 Now at that time the Blessed One was staying at Sâvatthi, in the Eastern Ârâma, the mansion of the mother of Migâra. And at that time, it being Uposatha Day, the Blessed One was seated in the midst of the Bhikkhu-samgha. And the venerable Ânanda, when the night was far spent, when the first watch was passing away, arose from his seat, arranged his robe over one shoulder, and stretching out his joined hands towards the Blessed One, said to the Blessed One:

'The night, Lord, is far spent. The first watch is passing away. For a long time has the Bhikkhu-samgha been seated here. Let my lord the Blessed One recite to the Bhikkhus the Pâtimokkha.'

When he had thus spoken, the Blessed One remained silent. And a second time, when the second watch was passing away [he made the same request with the same result]. And a third time, when the third watch had begun, and the dawn was breaking[1] he made the same request].

The assembly, Ânanda, is not pure[2].'

[300] 1.2 Then the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna thought, 'What individual can the Blessed One be referring to in that he says, "The assembly, Ânanda, is not pure."' And the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna considered the whole Bhikkhu-samgha, penetrating their minds with his. Then the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna perceived who was that individual,--evil in conduct, wicked in character, of impure and doubtful[3] behaviour, not a Samana though he had taken the vows of one, not a religious student though he had taken the vows of one, foul within, full of cravings, a worthless creature,--who had taken his seat amongst the Bhikkhu-samgha. On perceiving which it was, he went up to that individual, and said to him, 'Arise, Sir! The Blessed One has found you out. There can be no communion[4] between you and the Bhikkhus!'

When he had thus spoken, that man kept silence. And a second and a third time the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna addressed to him [the same words, and with the same result]. Then the venerable Mahâ Moggallâna took that man by the arm and made him go out beyond the porch[5], and bolted the door, [301] and went up to the place where the Blessed One was, and said to him, 'Lord, I have made that man go out. The assembly is now undefiled. May my lord the Blessed One recite the Pâtimokkha to the Bhikkhus.'

'How astonishing and curious a thing it is, Moggallâna, that that foolish fellow should have waited up to the very point when he had to be taken by the arm.'

1.3 And the Blessed One said to the Bhikkhus: 'There are, O Bhikkhus, in the great ocean, then, eight astonishing and curious qualities, by the constant perception of which the mighty creatures take delight in the great ocean. And what are the eight?

'The great ocean, O Bhikkhus, gets gradually deeper, slope following on slope, hollow succeeding hollow, and the fall is not precipitously abrupt[6]. This is the first [of such qualities][7].

'Again, Ô Bhikkhus, the great ocean remains of the same nature[8], and passes not beyond the shore. This is the second [of such qualities].

'Again, O Bhikkhus, the great ocean will not brook association with a dead corpse. Whatsoever dead corpse there be in the sea, that will it--and quickly--draw to the shore, and cast it out on the dry ground[9]. This is the third [of such qualities].

'Again, O Bhikkhus, all the great rivers--that is to say, the Gaṅgâ, the Yamunâ, the Akiravatî, the [302] Sarabhû, and the Mahî--they, when they have fallen into the great ocean, renounce their names and lineage, and are reckoned thenceforth as the great ocean. This is the fourth [of such qualities].

'Again, O Bhikkhus, though all the streams in the world flow on till they reach the great ocean, and all the waters of the sky fall into it, yet does it not thereby seem to be the more empty or more full. This is the fifth [of such qualities].

'Again, O Bhikkhus, the great ocean has only one taste, the taste of salt. This is the sixth [of such qualities].

'Again, O Bhikkhus, the great ocean is full of gems, of gems of various kinds; among which are these gems--that is to say, the pearl, the diamond, the catseye, the chank, rock, coral, silver, gold, the ruby, and the cornelian[10]. This is the seventh [of such qualities].

'Again, O Bhikkhus, the great ocean is the dwelling-place of mighty beings, among which are these--that is to say, the Timi, the Timiṅgala, the Timitimiṅgala, the Asuras, the Nâgas, and the Gandhabbas. There are in the great ocean creatures so constituted that they stretch from one to five hundred leagues[11]. This is the eighth [of such qualities].

1.4 'And just in the same way, O Bhikkhus, there are in this doctrine and discipline eight marvellous and wonderful qualities, by the constant perception [303] of which the Bhikkhus take delight in this doctrine and discipline. What are the eight?

'Just, O Bhikkhus, as the great ocean gets gradually deeper, slope following on slope, hollow succeeding hollow, and the fall is not precipitately abrupt just so, O Bhikkhus, in this doctrine and discipline is the training a gradual one, work following on work, and step succeeding step; and there is no sudden attainment to the insight (of Arahatship)[12]. This is the first [of such qualities].

Just, O Bhikkhus, as the great ocean remains of the same nature, and passes not beyond the shore--just so, O Bhikkhus, is the body of precepts which I have established for those who are hearers of my word, and which they, their lives long, do not pass beyond. This is the second [of such qualities].

Just, O Bhikkhus, as the great ocean will not brook association with a dead corpse; but whatsoever dead corpse there be in the sea that will it--and quickly--draw to the shore, and cast it out upon the dry land just so, O Bhikkhus, if there be any individual evil in conduct, wicked in character, of impure and doubtful behaviour, not a Samana though he have taken the vows of one, not a religious student though he have taken the vows of one, foul within, full of cravings, a worthless creature; with him will the Samgha brook no association, but quickly, on its meeting together, will it cast him out. And what though that man should himself be seated in the midst of the Bhikkhu-samgha, verily, both is he afar off from the Samgha, [304] and the Samgha from him. This is the third (of such qualities].

'Just, O Bhikkhus, as the great rivers--that is to say, the Gaṅgâ, the Yamunâ, the Akiravatî, the Sarabhû, and the Mahî--when they have fallen into the great ocean, renounce their name and lineage and are thenceforth reckoned as the great ocean just so, O Bhikkhus, do these four castes--the Khattiyas, the Brahmans, the Vessas, and the Suddas--when they have gone forth from the world under the doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Tathâgata, renounce their names and lineage, and enter into the number of the Sakyaputtiya Samanas. This is the fourth [of such qualities].

'Just, O Bhikkhus, as though all the streams in the world flow on till they reach the great ocean, and all the waters of the sky fall into it, yet does it not seem thereby to be either more empty or more full just so, O Bhikkhus, though many Bhikkhus pass entirely away in that kind of passing away which leaves not a trace behind, yet does not [the Samgha] thereby seem to be either more empty or more full. This is the fifth [of such qualities].

'Just, O Bhikkhus, as the great ocean has only one taste, the taste of salt just so, O Bhikkhus, has this doctrine and discipline only one flavour, the flavour of emancipation. This is the sixth [of such qualities].

'Just, O Bhikkhus, as the great ocean is full of gems, of gems of various kinds--that is to say, the pearl, the diamond, the catseye, the chank, rock, coral, silver, gold, the ruby, and the cornelian--just so, O Bhikkhus, is this doctrine and discipline full of gems, of gems of various kinds, among which are [305] these gems,--that is to say, the four Earnest Meditations, the fourfold Great Struggle, the four Roads to Iddhi, the five Moral Powers, the five Moral Senses, the seven kinds of Wisdom, and the noble eightfold Path. This is the seventh [of such qualities].

'Just, O Bhikkhus, as the great ocean is the dwelling-place of mighty beings, among which are the Timi, the Timiṅgala, the Timitimiṅgala, the Asuras, the Nâgas. and the Gandhabbas; just as there are in the great ocean creatures so constituted that they stretch from one to five hundred leagues--just so, O Bhikkhus, is this doctrine and discipline the resort of mighty beings, among whom are he who has entered the First Path (the converted man, the Sotâpanno) and he who has realised the fruit thereof, he who has entered the Second Path (the Sakadâgâmin) and he who has realised the fruit thereof, he who has entered the Third Path (the Anâgâmin) and he who has realised the fruit thereof, the Arahat, and he who has realised the fruit of Arahatship. This is the eighth [of such qualities].

'These, O Bhikkhus, are the eight marvellous and wonderful qualities in this doctrine and discipline by the constant perception of which the Bhikkhus take delight therein.'

And the Blessed One, on perceiving that matter, gave forth at that time this ecstatic utterance:

'The rain falls heavily on that which is covered, not upon that which is revealed.

'Reveal, therefore, what thou hast concealed, and the rain shall touch thee not[13].'

 


 

2.

2.1 Now the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'Now henceforth I, O Bhikkhus, will not hold Uposatha, nor recite the Pâtimokkha; let you yourselves, O Bhikkhus, henceforth hold Uposatha and recite the Pâtimokkha. It is, O Bhikkhus, an impossible thing and an inexpedient that the Tathâgata should hold Uposatha and recite the Pâtimokkha before an assembly which is not pure. And the Pâtimokkha, O Bhikkhus, is not to be listened to by one who has committed an offence. Whosoever shall so listen to it, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, for whomsoever shall listen to the Pâtimokkha at a time when he is guilty, to interdict for him the Pâtimokkha[14].

'And thus, O Bhikkhus, is it to be interdicted. On the day of Uposatha, on the fourteenth or fifteenth day of the month, and at a time when that individual is present, thus shall it be proposed in the midst of the Samgha:

'"Let the venerable Samgha hear me. Such and such an individual is guilty of an offence. For him [307] do I interdict the Pâtimokkha to the effect that it shall not be recited when he is present. The Pâtimokkha is accordingly interdicted."'

 


 

3.

3.1 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus thinking, 'No one knows that we are guilty' listened to the Pâtimokkha. The Thera Bhikkhus, who understood the thoughts of other men, told the Bhikkhus, saying, 'Such and such a one, Sirs, and such and such a one, Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus, thinking, "No one knows that we are guilty," are listening to the Pâtimokkha.'

When the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus heard that, they, thinking 'the good Bhikkhus will (otherwise) first interdict the Pâtimokkha to us,' interdicted the Pâtimokkha to the Bhikkhus who were pure and innocent before (they had time to do so to them), and this without ground and without cause.

Those Bhikkhus who were moderate murmured, &c (as usual, down to) told the matter to the Blessed One.

'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, that the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus have [acted thus]?'

'It is true, Lord!'

Then he rebuked them, and when he had delivered a religious discourse, he said: 'The Pâtimokkha is not, O Bhikkhus, to be interdicted to pure and innocent Bhikkhus without ground and without cause. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.

3.2 'There is one kind of inhibition of the Pâtimokkha, O Bhikkhus, which is illegal, and one [308] which is legal. There are two . . . ., three . . . ., four (&c., up to) ten kinds of inhibition of the Pâtimokkha which are illegal, and one, two (&c., up to) ten which are legal.

3.3 'Which is the one kind of inhibition of the Pâtimokkha which is illegal? When one inhibits the Pâtimokkha for a breach of morality without ground. This is the one kind, &c.

'And which is the one kind of inhibition of the Pâtimokkha which is legal? When one inhibits the Pâtimokkha for a breach of morality with good ground. This is the one kind, &c.

'And which are the two kinds of inhibition of the Pâtimokkha which are illegal? When one inhibits the Pâtimokkha for a breach of morality, or for an offence against conduct, and each of them without ground. These are the two kinds, &c.

'And which are the two kinds of inhibition of the Pâtimokkha which are legal? When one inhibits the Pâtimokkha for a breach of morality, and for an offence against conduct, and each of them with good ground. These are the two kinds, &c

'And which are the three kinds, &c.? [as the last two, adding "offence against doctrine."]

'And which are the four kinds, &c.? [as the last, adding "offence against the right mode of livelihood."]

'And which are the five kinds of inhibition of the Pâtimokkha which are illegal? When one inhibits the Pâtimokkha for a Pârâgika, or for a Samghâdisesa, or for a Pâkittiya, or for a Pâtidesanîya, or for a Dukkata, and each of them without ground. These are the five kinds, &c.

'And which are the five kinds of inhibition of the [309] Pâtimokkha which are legal? [Same as the last, "with good ground."]

'And which are the six kinds of inhibition of the Pâtimokkha which are illegal? When one inhibits the Pâtimokkha for an offence against morality . . . . conduct . . . . doctrine[15] . . . . without ground, the offence being one of omission--when one inhibits the Pâtimokkha for an offence against morality . . . . conduct . . . . doctrine . . . . without ground, the offence being one of commission[16]. These are the six, &c.

'And which are the six kinds of inhibition of the Pâtimokkha which are legal? [Same as the last, "with good ground."]

'And which are the seven kinds of inhibition of the Pâtimokkha which are illegal? When one inhibits the Pâtimokkha for a Pârâgika, or for a Samghâdisesa, or for a Thullakkaya, or for a Pâkittiya, or for a Pâtidesanîya, or for a Dukkata, or for a Dubbhâsita, and each of them without ground. These are the seven kinds, &c.

'And which are the seven kinds of inhibition of the Pâtimokkha which are legal? [Same as the last, "with good ground."]

'And which are the eight kinds of inhibition of the Pâtimokkha which are illegal? [The same as the six, adding "offence against the right means of livelihood."]

[310] 'And which are the nine kinds of inhibition of the Pâtimokkha which are illegal . . . . legal? [The same as the six, adding for each kind of offence, "the offence being one both of omission and of commission."]

'And which are the ten kinds of inhibition of the Pâtimokkha which are illegal? When (a Bhikkhu) who has been guilty of a Pârâgika is not seated in that assembly[17],--when no discussion is still going on (in the assembly) as to a Pârâgika offence (supposed to have been committed by a Bhikkhu then present),--when (a Bhikkhu) who has abandoned the precepts[18] is not seated in that assembly,--when no discussion is still going on (in the assembly) in respect of (a Bhikkhu then present having been charged with) abandoning the precepts,--when (the person charged) submits himself to the legally prescribed concord (of the assembly)[19],--when (the person charged) does not withdraw his acceptance of the legally prescribed concord (of the assembly)[20],--when no discussion is still going on (in the assembly) in respect of the withdrawal of (any member's) acceptance of the legally (prescribed) concord (of the assembly),--when (the Bhikkhu charged) has not been suspected of an offence against morality, nor seen (to have committed one), nor heard (to have committed one)--. . . . of an offence against conduct--. . . . of an [311] offence against doctrine These are the ten kinds, &c.

And which are the ten kinds of inhibition of the Pâtimokkha which are legal? [The same as the last, positive instead of negative.]

3.4 'And how (can it be legally said that) a Bhikkhu who has been guilty of a Pârâgika offence is seated in the assembly?

'In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu sees that (another) Bhikkhu is incurring a Pârâgika offence by those means, marks, and signs by which the incurring of a Pârâgika offence is brought about. Or in case a Bhikkhu does not himself see that (another) Bhikkhu is incurring a Pârâgika offence, but another Bhikkhu inform the (first-mentioned) Bhikkhu, saying, "Such and such a Bhikkhu, Sir, has been guilty of a Pârâgika offence." Or in case a Bhikkhu does not himself see that another Bhikkhu is incurring a Pârâgika offence, but that one himself inform the (first-mentioned) Bhikkhu, saying, "I, Sir, have been guilty of a Pârâgika offence."

'(In either of these cases), O Bhikkhus, if he seem to do so, the Bhikkhu may, on the ground of what he has seen and heard and suspected, bring forward the following resolution on an Uposatha day, on the fourteenth or fifteenth day of the month, at a time when that individual is present in the midst of the Samgha: "Let the venerable Samgha hear me. Such and such an individual has been guilty of a Pârâgika offence. I interdict for him the Pâtimokkha, to the effect that the Pâtimokkha ought not to be recited at a time when he is present." That is a legal inhibition of the Pâtimokkha.

'If, when the Pâtimokkha his been inhibited for [312] that Bhikkhu, the assembly should rise on account of any one or other of the Ten Dangers[21]--danger arising from the king, or from thieves, or from fire, or from water, or from human beings, or from non- human beings, or from beasts of prey, or from creeping things, or danger of life, or danger against chastity--the Bhikkhu may, if he desire to do so, bring forward the following resolution, either in that circle of residence or in another circle of residence, at a time when that individual is present in the midst of the assembly: "Let the venerable Samgha hear me. A discussion had commenced with regard to a Pârâgika offence of such and such a person, but that matter was not decided. If the time seems meet to the Samgha, let the Samgha decide that matter." If he thus succeed, it is well. If not, then on an Uposatha day, on the fourteenth or fifteenth day of the month, at a time when that individual is present in the midst of the Samgha, let him bring forward the following resolution: "Let the venerable Samgha hear me. A discussion had commenced with regard to a Pârâgika offence of such and such a person, but that matter was not decided. I interdict the Pâtimokkha for him to the effect that the Pâtimokkha ought not to be recited at a time when he is present." That is a legal inhibition of the Pâtimokkha.

3.5 'And how (can it be legally said that a Bhikkhu) who has abandoned the precepts is seated in the assembly?'

[The same as last, reading 'abandoned the precepts,' &c., for 'Pârâgika offence,' &c.]

3.6 'And how (can it be legally said that the person [313] charged) does not submit himself to the legally (prescribed) concord (of the assembly)?'

[Same as last, reading 'not submit himself to the legally (prescribed) concord of the assembly,' &c., instead of 'abandon the precepts,' &c.]

3.7 'And how (can it be legally said that the person charged) withdraws his acceptance of the legally (established) concord (of the assembly)?'

[Same as last, reading 'withdraws his acceptance,' &c., for 'does not submit,' &c.]

3.8 'And how can it be legally said that the person charged has been seen or heard or suspected of having committed an offence against morality . . . . an offence against conduct . . . . an offence against doctrine?'

[Same as 4, reading 'offence against morality,' &c., for 'Pârâgika offence.]

These are the ten kinds of the inhibition of Pâtimokkha which are legal.

Here ends the First Portion for Recitation.

 


 

4.

4.1 Now the venerable Upâli[22] went up to the Blessed One, and bowed down before him, and took his seat on one side. And when he was so seated, the venerable Upâli said to the Blessed One:

'When a Bhikkhu, Lord, intends to take upon himself the conduct (of any matter that has to be [314] decided)[23], under what conditions should he take the conduct thereof upon himself[24]?'

'A Bhikkhu, Upâli, who intends to take upon himself the conduct of any matter, should take such conduct upon himself under five conditions.

'(In the first place.) A Bhikkhu, Upâli, who intends to take the conduct of any matter upon himself, should thus consider: "The conduct of this matter which I intend to take upon myself; is it now the right time for the taking charge of the conduct thereof, or is it not?" If that Bhikkhu, Upâli, so considering, come to the conclusion that it is not the right time, he should not, Upâli, take charge of it.

'(Secondly.) If that Bhikkhu, Upâli, so considering, come to the conclusion that it is the right time, he should, Upâli, further consider thus: "The conduct of this matter which I intend to take upon myself, is it just, or is it not?" If that Bhikkhu, Upâli, so considering, come to the conclusion that it would not be just, he should not take charge of it.

'(Thirdly.) If that Bhikkhu, Upâli, so considering, come to the conclusion that it would be just, he should, Upâli, further consider thus: "The conduct of this matter which I intend to take upon myself; would it tend to advantage, or would it not?" If that Bhikkhu, Upâli, so considering, come to the conclusion that it would not tend to advantage, he should not, Upâli, take charge of it.

'(Fourthly.) If that Bhikkhu, Upâli, so considering, come to the conclusion that it would tend to [315] profit, he should, Upâli, further consider thus: "While I am taking the conduct of this matter upon myself, shall I find that the Bhikkhus who are my intimates and associates are on my side in accordance with the Dhamma and the Vinaya, or shall I not?" If that Bhikkhu, Upâli, so considering, come to the conclusion that he will not, he should not, Upâli, take charge of it.

(Fifthly.) If that Bhikkhu, Upâli, so considering, come to the conclusion that he will find them so, he should further, Upâli, consider thus: "Whilst I am taking the conduct of this matter upon myself, will the Samgha, as a result thereof, fall into strife, quarrel, contention, or dispute, or will there arise a split in the Samgha, disunion in the Samgha, diversity of position in the Samgha, diversity of action in the Samgha[25]?" If that Bhikkhu, Upâli, so considering, come to the conclusion that that will happen, he should not take charge of it. But if that Bhikkhu, Upâli, thus considering, should come to the conclusion that that will not happen, he should take charge of it. The taking charge of a matter, Upâli, subject to these five conditions, will not give cause to subsequent remorse.'

 


 

5.

5.1 'When, Lord, a Bhikkhu who takes upon himself to warn another, is about to do so, of how many qualities should he consider whether they are within himself before he does so?'

(a) 'A Bhikkhu who warns another should, Upâli, [316] when he is about to do so, consider thus: "Am I pure in the conduct of my body; pure therein without a flaw, without a fleck? Is this quality found in me, or is it not?" If, Upâli, the Bhikkhu is not so, there will be some who will say to him: "Come, now, let your reverence continue still to train yourself in matters relating to the body!"--thus will they say.

(b) 'And further, a Bhikkhu who warns another should, Upâli, when he is about to do so, consider thus: "Am I pure in the conduct of my speech; pure therein without a flaw, without a fleck? Is this quality found in me, or is it not?" If, Upâli, the Bhikkhu is not so, there will be some who will say to him: "Come, now, let your reverence continue still to train yourself in matters relating to speech!"--thus will they say.

(c) 'And further, a Bhikkhu who warns another should, Upâli, consider thus: "Is a kindly mind ever present in me, one without anger against those who are my companions in the religious life? Is this quality found in me, or is it not?" If, Upâli, such a mind is not in that Bhikkhu, there will be some who will say to him: "Come, now, let your reverence continue still to cultivate a friendly feeling towards those who are your companions in the religious life!"--thus will they say.

(d) 'And further, a Bhikkhu who warns another should, Upâli, consider thus: "Am I a man versed in the tradition, a custodian of the tradition, a storehouse of the tradition? Whatsoever truths, lovely in their origin, lovely in their progress, lovely in their consummation, magnify the higher life, both in the spirit and in the letter, and in all its points, in [317] all its perfectness,--in such truths am I well versed, of such am I full, are such laid up in my words, dwelt on in my heart, penetrated throughout through right insight[26]? Is this quality found in me, or is it not?" If that Bhikkhu, Upâli, is not such a man, there will be some who will say to him: "Come, now, let your reverence continue still to learn the faith!"--thus will they say.

(e) 'And further, a Bhikkhu who warns another should, Upâli, consider thus: "Have both the Pâtimokkhas been completely handed down to me in their full extent; have I well divided them, well established them, well investigated them, both Rule by Rule[27], and in every detail? Is this quality found in me, or is it not?" If, Upâli, that is not so, then when he is asked, "Where has this, Sir, been declared by the Blessed One?" he will not be able to explain[28], and there will be some who will say to him: "Come, now, let your reverence continue still to learn the Vinaya!"--thus will they say.

These are the five qualities, Upâli, of which a Bhikkhu about to warn another should consider before he does so. whether they are within himself or not.'

2. 'When, Lord, a Bhikkhu who takes upon himself to warn another, is about to do so, how many qualities should he call up (establish) within himself before he does so?'

[318] 'A Bhikkhu, Upâli, who is about to warn another, should call up within himself five qualities before he does so, (saying to himself): "At the right time will I speak, not at the wrong time. In truth will I speak, and not in falsehood. Gently will I speak, and not in harshness. To profit will I speak, and not senselessly. In kindly spirit will I speak, and not in anger[29].

'These, Upâli, are the five,' &c.

3. 'In how many ways, Lord, is repentance to be brought home to a Bhikkhu who has wrongfully warned another Bhikkhu?'

'In five ways, Upâli, is repentance to be brought home to a Bhikkhu who has wrong-fully warned another Bhikkhu, (that is to say, by saying to him): "At the wrong time did you warn him, Sir, not at the right time: wherein is need of repentance. Untruthfully did you warn him, Sir, and not according to fact: wherein is need of repentance. In harshness did you warn him, Sir, and not gently: wherein is need of repentance. Senselessly did you warn him, Sir, and not in a way redounding to profit: wherein is need of repentance. In anger did you warn him, Sir, and not in kindly spirit: wherein is need of repentance.

'In these five ways, Upâli, should repentance be brought home to a Bhikkhu who has wrongfully warned another Bhikkhu. And why? That no other Bhikkhu may think that warning is to be given not according to fact.'

4. 'In how many ways, Lord, is it to be brought [319] about that repentance shall not be brought home to a Bhikkhu who has been wrongfully warned?'

'In five ways, Upâli, (that is to say, by saying to him): "At the wrong time, Sir, were you warned, and not at the right time: there is no need of repentance," [&c., as in 3, paragraph 2, with similar alterations.]

5. 'In how many ways, Lord, is the contrary of repentance to be brought home to a Bhikkhu who has rightfully warned another Bhikkhu?'

[The answer is the exact contrary of § 3.]

6. [This section is the contrary of § 5.]

7. 'When, Lord, a Bhikkhu who warns another Bhikkhu, is about to do so, how many things should he call to mind before he does so?'

'Five things, Upâli--to wit: mercy, seeking the good of others, compassion, the giving up of offences, and deference towards the Vinaya. These are the five,' &c.

'And a Bhikkhu, Lord, who is warned, in how many qualities should he keep himself firm?'

'In two thing, Upâli--to wit: in truth and in freedom from anger.'

Here ends the Ninth Khandhaka, on the Interdiction of the Pâtimokkha.

 


[1] Nandimukhiyâ rattiyâ ti arunadhata-kâle pîti-mukhâ viya ratti khâyati ten’ âha nandimukhiyâ ti (B.). See also our note on this at Mahâvagga VIII, 13, 1.

[2] That is, there is some one present who is disqualified by some [300] fault from taking part in the proceedings, which would therefore be invalid.

[3] Samkassara. See the passages quoted by Dr. Morris in the introduction to his edition of the Aṅguttara (pp. viii, ix), though we cannot accept his conclusions. We may add that the Tibetan rendering of Dhammapada 312, given in Rockhill's 'Udâna-varga,' p. 49, from which we might expect some help, throws no light on the exact meaning of the word, the translator contenting himself with an ambiguous phrase.

[4] Samvâso. See Mahâvagga I, 79, 2, and Kullavagga.

[5] On these expressions, see the notes above, V, 14, 3, in accordance with which we should read here, in the text sûki, for suki.

[6] Na âyataken’ eva. See Kullavagga V, 3, 1, and V, 27, 2.

[7] Paragraph 1 is here, and in the succeeding paragraphs, repeated in full.

[8] Thita-dhammo, 'has characteristics which are stable.'

[9] For ussâreti read ussâdeti. See our note on VI, 11, 3.

[10] On these gems, compare Rh. D.'s note on the Mahâ-sudassana Sutta I, 4, in 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pâli,' pp. 249, 250.

[11] On this belief, compare above, VII, 2, 2. of land creatures, where the same term, attabhâva, is used.

[12] Aññâ-pativedho. On the use of aññâ, standing alone, in this sense, see the note above on Mahâvagga V, I, 19.

[13] This enigmatical saying amounts apparently to this: 'As a usual thing, no doubt, the rain falls not on that which is covered [306] with a roof; but in morals it is precisely where there is already a fault concealed, unconfessed, that new faults rain in upon him who adds deceit to his fault.' Buddhaghosa says, Khannam ativassatîti âpattim âpaggitvâ patikkhâdento aññam navam âpattim âpaggatîti idam etam sandhâya vuttam. Vivatam nâtivassatîti âpattim âpaggitvâ vivaranto aññam n’ âpaggatîti idam etam sandhâya vuttam.

[14] Pâtimokkham thapetum: exactly analogous to pavâranam thapetum at Mahâvagga IV, 16, 2. H.O. has already pointed out (in his 'Buddha,' p. 381, note 2) that we have evidently here a later innovation. The whole frame of the Pâtimokkha shows that it was at first intended that a guilty Bhikkhu should confess his offence during the recitation, if he had not done so before.

[15] The paragraph is repeated in the section full for each of these cases.

[16] Kata . . . . akatâ . . . . katâkatâ we have rendered here and below as offence of omission--of commission--of both, as seems imperatively demanded by the context. Buddhaghosa, however, says, Akatâya ti tena puggalena sâ vipatti katâ vâ hotu akatâ vâ pâtimokkha-thapanakassa saññâ amûlika-vasena amûlikâ hoti. Katâkatâyâ ti katañ ka akatañ ka ubhayam gahetvâ vuttam.

[17] This and the following phrase are further enlarged upon in 6 4 and the following sections.

[18] See our note on Mahâvagga II, 22, 3.

[19] See Mahâvagga X, 5, 13, &c.

[20] Pakkâdîyati. Buddhaghosa says here, pakkâdîyatî ti puna kâtabbam kammam pakkâdîyati. Tena ukkotanake pâkittiyam âpaggati.

[21] See the rule laid down in Mahâvagga II, 15, 4.

[22] No doubt in his rôle of a chief of the Vinaya-dharas, as in Mahâvagga IX, 6, &c.

[23] As, for instance, in the last chapter (§§ 4 and following) the Bhikkhu who lays the matter before the Samgha.

[24] Attâdânam âdîyati, in our explanation of which we follow Buddhaghosa.

[25] This list has occurred above, Mahâvagga X, 1, 6; X, 5, 13; Kullavagga VII, 5, 1.

[26] On the whole of this and of the next paragraph, which have occurred already above at IV, 14, 19, see our notes there.

[27] That is, 'Sutta by Sutta.' On the whole stock phrase, compare our remarks in p. xviii of the Introduction; and above, Mahâvagga I, 36, 14; Kullavagga IV, 14, 19.

[28] Read na sampâyati, in accordance with H.O.'s note at P.364 of the text.

[29] On these phrases, compare the Kûla Sîlam, translated by Rh. D. in 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 190.


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