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Vinaya Texts

Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
and
Hermann Oldenberg

Oxford, the Clarendon Press
[1881]
The Second Part of Volume XVII and Volume XX of The Sacred Books of the East

This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer

Kulla Vagga

 


[320]

Tenth Khandhaka

On the Duties of Bhikkhunîs

 


 

1

1.1 Now at that time the Blessed Buddha was staying among the Sâkyas in Kapilavatthu, in the Nigrodhârâma. And Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî went to the place where the Blessed One was, and on arriving there, bowed down before the Blessed One, and remained standing on one side. And so standing she spake thus to the Blessed One:

'It would be well, Lord, if women should be allowed to renounce their homes and enter the homeless state under the doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Tathâgata.'

'Enough, O Gotamî! Let it not please thee that women should be allowed to do so.'

[And a second and a third time did Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî make the same request in the same words, and receive the same reply.]

Then Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî sad and sorrowful for that the Blessed One would not permit women to enter the homeless state, bowed down before the Blessed One, and keeping him on her right hand as she passed him, departed thence weeping and in tears.

1.2 Now when the Blessed One had remained at Kapilavatthu as long as he thought fit, he set out on his journey towards Vesâlî; and travelling [321] straight on he in due course arrived thereat. And there at Vesâlî the Blessed One stayed, in the Mahâvana, in the Kûtâgâra Hall.

And Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî cut off her hair, and put on orange-coloured robes, and set out, with a number of women of the Sâkya clan, towards Vesâlî; and in due course she arrived at Vesâlî, at the Mahâvana, at the Kûtâgâra Hall. And Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî, with swollen feet and covered with dust, sad and sorrowful, weeping and in tears, took her stand outside under the entrance porch.

And the venerable Ânanda saw her so standing there, and on seeing her so, he said to Mahâ-pagâpatî?: 'Why standest thou there, outside the porch, with swollen feet and covered with dust, sad and sorrowful, weeping and in tears?'

'Inasmuch, O Ânanda, as the Lord, the Blessed One, does not permit women to renounce their homes and enter the homeless state under the doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Tathâgata.'

1.3 Then did the venerable Ânanda go up to the place where the Blessed One was, and bow down before the Blessed One, and take his seat on one side. And, so sitting, the venerable Ânanda said to the Blessed One:

'Behold, Lord, Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî is standing outside under the entrance porch, with swollen feet and covered with dust, sad and sorrowful, weeping and in tears, inasmuch as the Blessed One does not permit women to renounce their homes and enter the homeless state under the doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Blessed One. It were well, Lord, if women were to have permission granted to them to do as she desires.'

[322] Enough, Ânanda! Let it not please thee that women should be allowed to do so.'

[And a second and a third time did Ânanda make the same request, in the same words, and receive the same reply.]

Then the venerable Ânanda thought: 'The Blessed One does not give his permission, let me now ask the Blessed One on another ground.' And the venerable Ânanda said to the Blessed One:

'Are women, Lord, capable--when they have gone forth from the household life and entered the homeless state, under the doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Blessed One--are they capable of realising the fruit of conversion, or of the second Path, or of the third Path, or of Arahatship?'

'They are capable, Ânanda.'

'If then, Lord, they are capable thereof, since Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî has proved herself of great service to the Blessed One, when as aunt and nurse she nourished him and gave him milk, and on the death of his mother suckled the Blessed One at her own breast, it were well, Lord, that women should have permission to go forth from the household life and enter the homeless state, under the doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Tathâgata[1].'

1.4 'If then, Ânanda, Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî take upon herself the Eight Chief Rules[2] let that be reckoned to her as her initiation.'

[3][They are these]: (1) 'A Bhikkhunî, even if of [323] a hundred years standing, shall make salutation to, shall rise up in the presence of, shall bow down before, and shall perform all proper duties towards a Bhikkhu, if only just initiated. This is a rule to be revered and reverenced, honoured and observed, and her life long never to be transgressed.

(2) 'A Bhikkhunî is not to spend the rainy season (of Was) in a district[4] in which there is no Bhikkhu. This is a rule . . . . never to be transgressed.

(3) 'Every half month a Bhikkhunî is to await from the Bhikkhu-samgha two things, the asking as to (the date of) the Uposatha ceremony[5], and the (time when the Bhikkhu) will come to give the Exhortation[6]. This is a rule . . . . never to be transgressed.

(4) 'After keeping the rainy season (of Was), the Bhikkhunî is to hold Pavâranâ (to enquire whether any fault can be laid to her charge) before both Samghas--as well that of Bhikkhus as that of Bhikkhunîs--with respect to three matters, namely, what has been seen, and what has been heard, and what has been suspected[7]. This is a rule . . . . never to be transgressed.

[324] (5) 'A Bhikkhunî who has been guilty of a serious offence is to undergo the Mânatta discipline towards both the Samghas (Bhikkhus and ]Bhikkhunîs). This is a rule . . . . never to be transgressed.

(6) 'When a Bhikkhunî, as novice, has been trained for two years in the Six Rules[8], she is to ask leave for the upasampadâ initiation from both Samghas (as well that of Bhikkhus as that of Bhikkhunîs[9]). This is a rule . . . . never to be transgressed.

(7) 'A Bhikkhunî is on no pretext to revile or abuse a Bhikkhu[10]. This is a rule . . . . never to be transgressed.

(8) 'From henceforth official admonition[11] by Bhikkhunîs of Bhikkhus is forbidden, whereas the official admonition of Bhikkhunîs by Bhikkhus is not forbidden. This is a rule . . . . never to be transgressed.

'If, Ânanda, Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî take upon herself these Eight Chief Rules, let that be reckoned to her as her initiation.'

1.5 Then the venerable Ânanda, when he had learnt from the Blessed One these Eight Chief Rules, went to Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî and [told her all that the Blessed One had said].

[325] 'Just, Ânanda, as a man or a woman, when young and of tender years, accustomed to adorn himself, would, when he had bathed his head, receive with both hands a garland of lotus flowers, or of jasmine flowers, or of atimuttaka flowers, and place it on the top of his head; even so do I, Ânanda, take upon me these Eight Chief Rules, never to be transgressed my life long.'

1.6 Then the venerable Ânanda returned to the Blessed One, and bowed down before him, and took his seat on one side. And, so sitting, the venerable Ânanda said to the Blessed One: 'Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî, Lord, has taken upon herself the Eight Chief Rules, the aunt of the Blessed One, has received the upasampadâ initiation.'

If, Ânanda, women had not received permission to go out from the household life and enter the homeless state, under the doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Tathâgata, then would the pure religion, Ânanda, have lasted long, the good law would have stood fast for a thousand years. But since, Ânanda, women have now received that permission, the pure religion, Ânanda, will not now last so long, the good law will now stand fast for only five hundred years. Just, Ânanda, as houses in which there are many women[12] and but few men are easily violated[13] by robber burglars[14]; just so, Ânanda, under [326] whatever doctrine and discipline women are allowed to go out from the household life into the homeless state, that religion will not last long. And just, Ânanda, as when the disease called mildew falls upon a field of rice in fine condition, that field of rice does not continue long; just so, Ânanda, under whatsoever doctrine and discipline women are allowed to go forth from the household life into the homeless state, that religion will not last long. And just, Ânanda, as when the disease called blight falls upon a field of sugar-cane in good condition, that field of sugar-cane does not continue long; just so, Ânanda, under whatsoever doctrine and discipline women are allowed to go forth from the household life into the homeless state, that religion does not last long. And just, Ânanda, as a man would in anticipation build an embankment to a great reservoir, beyond which the water should not overpass; just even so, Ânanda, have I in anticipation laid down these Eight Chief Rules for the Bhikkhunîs, their life long not to be overpassed.'

Here end the Eight Chief Rules for the Bhikkhunîs.

 


 

2.

2.1 Now Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî went up to the place where the Blessed One was, and bowed down before him, and stood respectfully on one side. And, so standing, Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî spake thus to the Blessed One: 'What course, Lord, [327] should I pursue towards these women of the Sâkya clan?'

Then the Blessed One taught Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî and incited her, and aroused her, and gladdened her with religious discourse; and she, so taught, incited, aroused, and gladdened, bowed down before the Blessed One, and keeping him on net right hand as she passed him, she departed thence.

Then the Blessed One, in that connexion, delivered a religious discourse, and said to the Bhikkhus, 'I allow Bhikkhunîs, O Bhikkhus, to receive the upasampadâ initiation from Bhikkhus[15].'

2.2 Now those Bhikkhunîs said to Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî: 'Neither have you received the upasampadâ initiation, nor have we; for it has thus been laid down by the Blessed One: "Bhikkhunîs are to be initiated by Bhikkhus."'

Then Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî went to the venerable Ânanda, and [repeated their words to him]. And the venerable Ânanda went to the Blessed One, and [repeated them to him].

'In that moment, Ânanda, when Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî took upon herself the Eight Chief Rules, that was to her as the upasampadâ initiation.'

 


 

3.

3.1 Now Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî went up to the place where the venerable Ânanda was, and bowed down before him, and stood respectfully on one side.

[328] And, so standing, Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî said to the venerable Ânanda: 'One thing, Ânanda, would I ask of the Blessed One. It were well, Sir, if the Blessed One would allow the making of salutations, the rising up in presence of another, the paying of reverence, and the performance of proper duties one towards another, to take place as between both Bhikkhus and Bhikkhunîs (equally) according to seniority.'

And the venerable Ânanda went to the Blessed One [and repeated her words to him].

'This is impossible, Ânanda, and unallowable, that I should so order. Even those others, Ânanda, teachers of ill doctrine, allow not such conduct towards women; how much less, then, can the Tathâgata allow it?'

And the Blessed One, on that occasion, having delivered a religious discourse, addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to bow down before women, to rise up in their presence, to stretch out your joined hands towards them, nor to perform towards them those duties that are proper (from an inferior to a superior). Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

 


 

4.

4.1 Now Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî went up to the place where the Blessed One was, and bowed down before him, and stood respectfully on one side. And, so standing, Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî said to the Blessed One: 'What course, Lord, shall we pursue with reference to those precepts for the [329] Bhikkhunîs which are applicable also to the Bhikkhus?'

'Train yourselves, Gotamî, therein in the same manner as the Bhikkhus do.'

'And what course, Lord, should we pursue in reference to those precepts for the Bhikkhunîs which are not applicable also to the Bhikkhus?'

'Train yourselves, Gotamî, therein according to the substance thereof, as they are laid down.

 


 

5.

5.1 Now Mahâ-pagâpatî the Gotamî went to the Blessed One [&c., as before], and said: 'May the Blessed One preach to me the Dhamma (truth, doctrine) in abstract; so that, having heard the doctrine of the Blessed One, I may remain alone and separate, earnest, zealous, and resolved[16].'

'Of whatsoever doctrines thou shalt be conscious, Gotamî, that they conduce to passion and not to peace, to pride and not to veneration, to wishing for much and not to wishing for little, to love of society and not to seclusion, to sloth and not to the exercise of zeal, to being hard to satisfy and not to content[17]--verily mayest thou then, Gotamî, bear in mind [330] that that is not Dhamma, that that is not Vinaya, that that is not the teaching of the Master. But of whatsoever doctrines thou shalt be conscious, Gotamî, that they conduce to peace and not to passion, to veneration and not to pride, to wishing for little and not to wishing for much, to seclusion and not to love of society, to the exercise of zeal and not to sloth, to content and not to querulousness--verily mayest thou then bear in mind that that is Dhamma, and that is Vinaya, and that the teaching of the Master.'

 


 

6.

6.1 Now at that time the Pâtimokkha was not recited to the Bhikkhunîs.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow the Pâtimokkha, O Bhikkhus, to be recited to the Bhikkhunîs.'

Now it occurred to the Bhikkhunîs: 'By whom should the Pâtimokkha be recited to the Bhikkhunîs?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the Pâtimokkha to be recited to Bhikkhunîs by Bhikkhus.'

Now at that time Bhikkhus went to the residence of the Bhikkhunîs and recited the Pâtimokkha to the Bhikkhunîs there. The people murmured, and were indignant, saying: 'There are their wives, there are their mistresses; now will they take pleasure together.'

The Bhikkhus heard this, and told the matter to the Blessed One.

'Bhikkhus are not, O Bhikkhus, to recite the [331] Pâtimokkha to the Bhikkhunîs at their residence. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow Bhikkhunîs, O Bhikkhus, to recite the Pâtimokkha to the Bhikkhunîs.'

The Bhikkhunîs did not know how to recite the Pâtimokkha. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to tell Bhikkhunîs how to recite the Pâtimokkha.'

6.2 Now at that time the Bhikkhunîs did not confess the faults (they had committed).

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî, O Bhikkhus, is not to leave a fault unconfessed. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

The Bhikkhunîs did not know how to confess their faults. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to tell Bhikkhunîs how they should confess their faults.'

Then it occurred to the Bhikkhus: 'By whom ought the confession of a fault to be received from the Bhikkhunîs?' They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to receive the confession of a fault from Bhikkhunîs.'

Now at that time Bhikkhunîs, on seeing a Bhikkhu on the road, or in a street closed at one end, or at the place where four cross-roads met, would place their bowl on the ground, and arranging their robes over one shoulder, would crouch down on their heels, and stretch forth their joined hands, and confess a fault. The people murmured, were indignant, and complained, saying: 'There are their wives, there are their mistresses; they are asking [332] pardon now after having treated them scornfully overnight.'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'Bhikkhus are not, O Bhikkhus, to receive the confessions of a fault from Bhikkhunîs. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow Bhikkhunîs, O Bhikkhus, to receive the confession of a fault from Bhikkhunîs.'

The Bhikkhunîs did not know how to receive the confession of a fault. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to tell Bhikkhunîs how to receive the confession of a fault.'

6.3 Now at that time disciplinary proceedings (Kammas) were not carried out against Bhikkhunîs. They told that matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow disciplinary proceedings, O Bhikkhus, to be carried out against Bhikkhunîs.'

Then the Bhikkhus thought: 'By whom ought disciplinary proceedings to be carried out against Bhikkhunîs?' They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to carry out disciplinary proceedings against Bhikkhunîs.'

Now at that time Bhikkhunîs who had been subjected to disciplinary proceedings, on seeing a Bhikkhu on the road, or in a street closed at one end, or at the place where four cross-roads met, would place their bowls on the ground, and arranging their robes over one shoulder, would crouch down on their heels, and stretching out their joined palms would ask for pardon, thinking that that was the proper time for doing so. The people murmured [&c., as before].

[333] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'Bhikkhus are not, O Bhikkhus, to carry out disciplinary proceedings against the Bhikkhunîs. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.' I allow Bhikkhunîs, O Bhikkhus, to carry out disciplinary proceedings against Bhikkhunîs.'

The Bhikkhunîs did not know how to carry out the disciplinary proceedings. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to tell the Bhikkhunîs how to carry out disciplinary proceedings.'

 


 

7.

7.1 Now at that time Bhikkhunîs in Samgha assembled, having fallen into quarrel, strife, and dispute, got to blows, and were unable to settle the point at issue. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to settle for Bhikkhunîs a point at issue.'

Now at that time Bhikkhus were settling for Bhikkhunîs a point at issue, and as the point at issue was being enquired into, it was found that both Bhikkhunîs competent to take part in an official act[18], and Bhikkhunîs who had been guilty of an offence (had taken part in the Samgha during the official act (the Kamma) at which the point in issue arose).

The Bhikkhunîs said: 'It would be well if you, Sirs, would carry out disciplinary proceedings against the guilty Bhikkhunîs, or absolve their offence: for [334] thus has it been laid down by the Blessed One: "Bhikkhus are to settle for the Bhikkhunîs a point at issue."'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to set on foot[19] an official act for Bhikkhunîs, and then to give it in charge for Bhikkhunîs to carry out the official act against Bhikkhunîs. And I allow Bhikkhus to set on foot the (dealing with an) offence for Bhikkhunîs, and then to give it in charge for Bhikkhunîs to accept the confession thereof.'

 


 

8.

8.1 Now at that time a Bhikkhunî, a pupil of the Bhikkhunî Uppalavannâ, followed the Blessed One for seven years, learning the Vinaya; but she, being forgetful, lost it as fast as she received it. And that Bhikkhunî heard that the Blessed One was about to go to Sâvatthi. Then she thought: 'For seven years have I followed the Blessed One, learning the Vinaya; and, being forgetful, I have lost it as fast as I received it. Hard is it for a woman to follow the Blessed One her life long. What now shall I do?'

And that Bhikkhunî told this matter to the Bhikkhunîs, and they told it to the Bhikkhus, and the Bhikkhus told it to the Blessed One.

'I allow Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, to teach the Vinaya to Bhikkhunîs.'

Here ends the First Portion for Recitation.

 

 


 

9.

9.1 [335] Now when the Blessed One had stayed at Vesâlî as long as he thought fit, he sat out towards Sâvatthi; and, journeying straight on, he in due course arrived thereat. And there, at Sâvatthi, the Blessed One remained in the Getavana, Anâtha Pindika's Park.

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus threw dirty water over Bhikkhunîs, thinking, perhaps, they would fall in love with them[20].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhu is not, O Bhikkhus, to throw dirty water at a Bhikkhunî. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow a penalty, O Bhikkhus, to be imposed on that Bhikkhu.

Then the Bhikkhus thought: 'What penalty is it that ought to be imposed on him?' They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'That Bhikkhu is to be declared to be one who is not to be saluted by the Bhikkhunî-samgha[21].'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhus uncovered their bodies, or their thighs, or their private parts, and showed them to Bhikkhunîs, or addressed Bhikkhunîs with wicked words, or associated with Bhikkhunîs, thinking, perhaps, they would fall in love with them[22].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

[336] 'A Bhikkhu is not, O Bhikkhus, to do [any of these things]. Whosoever does, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow, O Bhikkhus, a penalty to be imposed on that Bhikkhu.'

Then the Bhikkhus thought: 'What penalty is it that ought to be imposed on him?' They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'That Bhikkhu is to be declared to be one who is not to be saluted by the Bhikkhunî-samgha.'

9.2 [The last section repeated of the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhunîs, the decision being the same down to]

Then the Bhikkhus thought: 'What penalty is it that ought to be imposed on her?' They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to prohibit her (from entering a Vihâra)[23].'

When the prohibition was laid upon them, they would not accept it. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to inhibit them from the Exhortation.'

9.3 Then the Bhikkhus thought: 'Is it lawful to hold Uposatha with a Bhikkhunî who has been inhibited from the Exhortation, or is it not lawful?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to hold Uposatha with a Bhikkhunî who has been inhibited from the Exhortation until such time as her case has been settled.'

Now at that time the venerable Udâyi, after having inhibited the Exhortation (to one or more Bhikkhunîs), went away on a journey. The Bhikkhunîs [337] murmured, were indignant, and complained, saying: 'How can the venerable Udâyi [act so]?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to go on a journey after having inhibited the Exhortation. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time foolish and incompetent Bhikkhus inhibited the Exhortation,

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'The Exhortation is not, O Bhikkhus, to be inhibited by a foolish, incompetent Bhikkhu. When such a one does so, he shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time Bhikkhus inhibited the Exhortation without grounds and without cause.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to inhibit the Exhortation without ground and without cause. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time Bhikkhus, who had inhibited the Exhortation, would not give a decision (on the matter out of which the inhibition arose).

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'When, O Bhikkhus, you have inhibited the Exhortation, you are not to abstain from giving a decision (on the matter out of which the inhibition arose). Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

9.4 Now at that time Bhikkhunîs did not go to the Exhortation. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî, O Bhikkhus, is not to omit going to the Exhortation. Whosoever does so, shall be dealt with according to the rule[24].'

[338] Now at that time the whole Bhikkhunî-samgha went to the Exhortation together. The people murmured, were indignant, and complained, saying: 'There are their wives, there are their mistresses; now will they take pleasure together.'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'The whole Bhikkhunî-samgha is not, O Bhikkhus, to go to the Exhortation together. And if it should so go, it is guilty of a dukkata. I allow, O Bhikkhus, four or five Bhikkhunîs to go together.'

[The same when four or five went the decision ending,]

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, two or three Bhikkhunîs to go together to Exhortation; and let them go up to some one Bhikkhu, and arrange their robes over one shoulder, and, sitting down on their heels, let them stretch forth their joined palms, and thus address him: "The Bhikkhunî-samgha salutes the feet of the Bhikkhu-samgha, and requests permission to come for the purpose of the Exhortation being held; may that be granted, they say, to the Bhikkhunî-samgha."

'Then he who is entrusted with the recitation of the Pâtimokkha is to ask: "Is there any Bhikkhu who has been appointed to hold the Exhortation of the Bhikkhunîs?"

'If a Bhikkhu has been appointed thereto, the reciter of the Pâtimokkha is to say: "Such and such a Bhikkhu has been appointed to hold Exhortation to the Bhikkhunîs. Let the Bhikkhunî-samgha come to him accordingly."

'If no Bhikkhu has been appointed thereto the reciter of the Pâtimokkha is to say: "Which of the venerable ones is able to hold Exhortation to [339] the Bhikkhunîs?" If any one is able to do so, and is possessed of the eight qualifications[25], he is to appoint him thereto, and is to say: "Such and such a Bhikkhu is appointed to hold Exhortation to the Bhikkhunîs. Let the Bhikkhunî-samgha come to him."

'If no one is able to do so, the reciter of the Pâtimokkha is to say: "There is no Bhikkhu appointed to hold Exhortation to the Bhikkhunîs. May the Bhikkhunî-samgha obtain its desire in peace[26]."'

9.5 Now at that time Bhikkhus did not accept the (office of holding) Exhortation. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'The Exhortation is not, O Bhikkhus, to be declined. Whosoever shall not accept it, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu was stupid. To him the Bhikkhunîs went, and said: 'Sir, please to accept the (duty of holding) Exhortation.'

'I, sister, am stupid. How can I accept the Exhortation?'

'You should take it, Sir; for thus has it been laid down by the Blessed One: "Bhikkhus are to accept the (duty of holding) Exhortation to the Bhikkhunîs."'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, all the rest, save the stupid, to accept the Exhortation.'

[The same repeated of a sick Bhikkhu, and a [340] Bhikkhu on a journey. The same case put of a Bhikkhu living in the jungle. The decision is,]

'I allow a Bhikkhu living in the jungle, O Bhikkhus, to accept the Exhortation, and to appoint a time and place for the meeting[27], saying: "There will I perform it."'

Now at that time Bhikkhus accepted the Exhortation, but did not perform it. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'The Exhortation, O Bhikkhus, is not to be neglected. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time Bhikkhunîs did not attend at the place appointed. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to omit attending at the place appointed. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

 


 

10.

10.1 Now at that time Bhikkhunîs wore long girdles, and out of them they arranged fringes[28]. The people murmured, were indignant, and complained, saying: 'As the women who are still enjoying the pleasures of the world do!'

[341] 'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to wear a long girdle. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow a Bhikkhunî, O Bhikkhus, a girdle that will go once round the body[29], and fringes are not to be arranged in it. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time Bhikkhunîs arranged fringes in cloth of bambû fibre[30], or in leather, or in white cotton cloth[31], or in plaited cotton cloth[32], or in fringed cotton cloth[33], or in white or, in plaited or in fringed kola cloth[34], or in plaits or fringes made of thread. The people murmured, were indignant, and complained, saying: 'As the women who are still enjoying the pleasures of the world do!'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to wear any of these things. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

10.2 Now at that time Bhikkhunîs had their backs scrubbed with the steak-bone of an ox, or slapped with the jaw-bone of an ox; and had their fore-arms[35], [342] and the backs of their hands[36], and their calves[37], and the upper part of their feet[38], and their thighs, and their faces, and their gums, so slapped. The people murmured, were indignant, and complained, saying: 'As the women who are still enjoying the pleasures of the world do!'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to [do any of these things]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

10.3 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhunîs [&c., down to]

'[39]A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to anoint her face, nor to rub ointments on to her face[40], nor to put chunam on to her face, nor to smear red arsenic on to her face, nor to paint her body, nor to paint her face, nor to paint her body and face. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

10.4 [Similar paragraph concluding,]

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to make (tattoo marks) by the corners of her eyes[41], or on her cheeks[42], nor to peep out of window[43], nor to stand in the [343] light (of a half-opened door)[44], nor to have dances performed, nor to keep courtesans, nor to keep a tavern, nor to keep a slaughter-house, nor to open a shop, nor, to practise usury, nor to supply men slaves or women slaves, or men servants or maid servants, or animals, nor to carry on the business of florist and seedsman[45], nor to carry the razor case[46].'

[Similar paragraph concluding,]

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to wear robes that are all of a blue, light yellow, crimson, black, brownish-yellow, or dark yellow colour nor to wear robes with skirts to them which are not made of torn pieces of cloth, or are long, or have flowers worked on them, or cobras' hoods; nor to wear jackets, nor dresses made of the fibre of the Tirîtaka plant[47]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

 


 

11.

11.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhunî, when on her death-bed, said: 'After I am gone, let my set of necessaries[48] belong to the Samgha.' Then the

[344] Bhikkhus and the Bhikkhunîs disputed as to it,' saying: 'It belongs to us; it belongs to us.'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'If, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhunî, or a novice under training to become one (a Sikkhamânâ), when on her death-bed, should say: "After I am gone, let my set of necessaries belong to the Samgha," then it is the Bhikkhunî-samgha it belongs to; the Bhikkhu-samgha is not the owner thereof. If a Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, or a novice under training to become one (a Sâmanera), when on his death-bed, should say: "After I am gone, let my set of necessaries become the property of the Samgha," then it is the Bhikkhu-samgha it belongs to; the Bhikkhunî-samgha is not the owner thereof[49]'

 


 

12.

12.1 Now at that time a certain woman, who had formerly belonged to the clan of the Mallas[50] had entered the Order of the Bhikkhunîs. She, seeing a weakly Bhikkhu on the road, struck up against him with the edge of her shoulder, and knocked him over. The Bhikkhus murmured, were indignant, and complained, saying: 'How can a Bhikkhunî assault a Bhikkhu?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to assault a [345] Bhikkhu. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I prescribe that a Bhikkhunî, O Bhikkhus, on seeing a Bhikkhu, should get out of the way when still at a distance, and make room for him.'

 


 

13.

13.1 Now at that time a certain woman, while her husband was on a journey, became with child by a paramour. She had a premature delivery, and asked a Bhikkhunî, a confederate of hers, to carry away the foetus in her bowl. And that Bhikkhunî put it into her bowl, and, covering it over with her upper robe, went away.

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu, who was on an alms-pilgrimage, had made a vow not to partake of the first food given to him until he had already given of it either to a Bhikkhu or to a Bhikkhunî. On seeing the Bhikkhunî; that Bhikkhu said: 'Come, sister! take some food.'

'No thank you, Sir.'

[And a second and a third time the Bhikkhu made the same request, and received the same reply. Then he said,]

'Sister! I have made a vow not to partake myself of the first food given to me until I have already given of it either to a Bhikkhu or to a Bhikkhunî. Come, sister! take the food.'

Then that Bhikkhunî, being so pressed by the Bhikkhu, pulled out her bowl, and showed him what was inside of it. And the Bhikkhu was indignant, and annoyed, and remonstrated, saying: 'How can you do such a thing?' And he told the Bhikkhus, and they were indignant, &c., and told the Blessed One.

[346] 'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to carry away a foetus in her bowl. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow a Bhikkhunî, O Bhikkhus, on seeing a Bhikkhu, to pull out her bowl, and show it to him.'

 


 

14.

14.1 The following short section will scarcely bear translating into modern English.

 


 

15.

15.1 Now at that time the people gave food to the Bhikkhus, and the Bhikkhus gave to the Bhikkhunîs. The people murmured, were indignant, and complained, saying: 'How can their reverences give away to others what was given for them to have--as if we did not know how to give gifts?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, is not to give away to others what was given for them themselves to have. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time the Bhikkhus had come into the possession of some (meat for) food. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give it to the Samgha.'

Too much came into their possession.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give away that which was given to special individuals (and to keep that which had come into the possession of the Samgha as a whole[51]).'

[347] Now at that time food, which had been stored up for the Bhikkhus, had come into their possession.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow food that has been stored up to be enjoyed by the Bhikkhunîs after they have had it given over to them by the Bhikkhus.'

2. [The same repeated, reading Bhikkhunî for Bhikkhu, and vice versâ.]

 


 

16.

16.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhus had come into the possession of some bedding, and the Bhikkhunîs had none. The Bhikkhunîs sent a messenger to the Bhikkhus, saying: 'It would be well if their reverences the Bhikkhus would give us some bedding on loan[52].'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to give bedding to the Bhikkhunîs on loan.'

16.2 Now at that time Bhikkhunîs, in their courses, sat down or lay down on stuffed bedsteads and chairs, and the stuffing was soiled with blood.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to sit down or lie down on a stuffed bedstead or chair. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow the use, O Bhikkhus, of an indoor's robe[53].'

The indoor's robe got soiled.

[348] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a thigh-cloth (a cloth to reach nearly down to the knee[54]).'

The thigh-cloth slipped down.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow it, O Bhikkhus, to be fastened by a thread to be tied round the thigh.'

The thread broke.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a loin-cloth, and a string going round the hips (to keep it up)[55].'

Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhunîs used to wear the hip-string always. The people murmured, &c., saying: 'Like the women who still enjoy the pleasures of the world!' They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to wear a hip-string for constant use[56]. I allow its use to one who is in her courses.'

 


 

17.

17.1 [349] Now at that time there were found among the Bhikkhunîs some who were [deformed in one or other of eleven ways][57].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that a woman on whom the upasampadâ initiation is being conferred, is to be questioned as touching the four-and-twenty Disqualifications[58]. And thus, O Bhikkhus, is she to be questioned:

(1-11) "Have you any one or other of the eleven deformities [each repeated as above]?"

(12-16) "Have you any of the following diseases--leprosy, boils, dry leprosy, consumption, or fits?"

(17) "Are you a human being[59]?"

(18) "Are you a female?"

(19) "Are you a free woman?"

(20) "Are you free from debts?"

(21) "Are you not in the king's service?"

(22) "Have your father and mother given their consent?"

(23) "Are you full twenty years of age?"

(24) "Are you duly provided with robes and alms-bowl?"

"What is your name?"

[350] "What is the name of your proposer[60]?"'

17.2 Now at that time Bhikkhus put the questions as touching the Disqualifications to Bhikkhunîs[61], and they who were seeking after the upasampadâ initiation became disconcerted and perplexed, and were unable to answer.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that initiation is to be conferred in the Bhikkhu-samgha upon a Bhikkhunî who has been initiated on the one side in the Bhikkhunî-samgha, and has there cleared herself (from the Disqualifications).'

Now at that time the Bhikkhunîs questioned those who desired to receive the upasampadâ initiation about the Disqualifications, without having had them instructed beforehand (how to answer). The persons who desired to be ordained became disconcerted and perplexed, and were not able to answer[62].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you first instruct the women about to be initiated (how to answer), and that you then question them as to the Disqualifications.'

Then they instructed the candidates in the midst of the assembly, and they still became disconcerted, and could not answer.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

[351] 'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that they be instructed aside, and then questioned in the midst of the assembly.

And thus, O Bhikkhus, ought they to be instructed:--First they ought to be made to choose an instructor[63]; when they have chosen an instructor their robes and bowl must be shown to them: "This is your alms-bowl, this is your waist-cloth, this is your upper garment, this is your under garment, this is your vest, this is your bathing dress[64]. Go and stand in such and such a place."'

17.3 Ignorant and incompetent (Bhikkhunîs) instructed them, and they became disconcerted, perplexed, and unable to answer.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'They are not to be instructed, O Bhikkhus, by unlearned, incompetent Bhikkhunîs. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that they be instructed by learned and competent Bhikkhunîs.'

17.4 Bhikkhunîs not appointed (to the office of doing so) instructed them.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'Let no one, O Bhikkhus, instruct them without [352] having been appointed thereto. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that a Bhikkhunî appointed to the office instruct them.

'And thus, O Bhikkhus, ought she to be appointed--one may either appoint herself, or one may be appointed by another. And how is a Bhikkhunî to appoint herself? Let a learned, competent Bhikkhunî lay the following motion (ñatti) before the Samgha "Let the Samgha, reverend Ladies, hear me. N. N. desires to receive the upasampadâ initiation from the venerable lady, M. M. If it seem meet to the Samgha, I will instruct N. N." Thus may a Bhikkhunî appoint herself.

And how is a Bhikkhunî to be appointed by another? Let a learned, competent Bhikkhunî lay the following resolution before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Ladies, hear me. N. N. desires to receive the upasampadâ initiation from the venerable lady, M. M. If it seem meet to the Samgha, let A. A. instruct N. N." Thus may one Bhikkhunî be appointed by another.

17.5 'Then let that so appointed Bhikkhunî go to the person who is seeking to be initiated, and thus address her: "Listen to me, N. N. This is the time for you to speak the truth, to declare that which is. When you are asked about what has happened before the Samgha, you ought, if it is so, to answer: "That is so;" if it is not so, to answer: "That is not so," Be not perplexed, be not disconcerted. I shall ask you thus: "Are you deformed (&c., down to the end of the twenty-six questions in § 1)."'

(After the instruction was over, the instructor and the candidate) returned together to the assembly.

[353] 'They are not to return together. Let the instructor return first, and lay the following resolution before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Ladies, hear me. N. N. desires to receive the upasampadâ initiation from the venerable lady, M. M.; and she has been instructed by me. If it seem meet to the Samgha, let N. N. come forward." Then let her be told to come forward. Then let her be told to adjust her upper robe over one shoulder only, to bow down before the Bhikkhunîs, to sit down on her heels, and stretching forth her joined palms, to ask for the upasampadâ initiation, saying: "I ask the Samgha, reverend Ladies, for initiation. May the Samgha, reverend Ladies, raise me up (out of the worldly life), having pity on me." And a second and a third time is she to repeat that request.

17.6 'Then let a learned and competent Bhikkhunî lay the following resolution before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Ladies, hear me. This person, N. N., desires to receive the upasampadâ initiation from M. M.; and she has been instructed by me. If it seem meet to the Samgha, let me question N. N. as touching the Disqualifications. Listen to me, N. N. [as before, down to the end of the questions]."

17.7 'Then let a learned and competent Bhikkhunî lay the following motion before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Ladies, hear me. This person, N. N., desires to receive the upasampadâ initiation from the venerable lady, M. M. She is free from the Disqualifications, and is duly provided with alms-bowl and robes. This person, N. N., asks the Samgha for the upasampadâ initiation, the venerable [354] lady, M. M., being her proposer. If it seem meet to the Samgha, let the Samgha receive N. N., the venerable lady, M. M., being her proposer. That, then, is the motion.

'"Let the Samgha, venerable Ladies, hear me. N. N. desires to receive the upasampadâ, the lady, M. M., being her proposer. The Samgha confers the upasampadâ upon N. N., the lady, M. M., being her proposer. Whosoever of the venerable ones agrees thereto, let her keep silence; whosoever agrees not thereto, let her speak. A second time I say the same thing." [The whole of this paragraph repeated.] And a third time I say the same thing. [Paragraph repeated.]

'The Samgha has conferred the upasampadâ upon N. N., the lady, M. M., being her proposer. The Samgha agrees thereto. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand.'

17.8 'Then, further, let her be taken before the Bhikkhu-samgha, and there told to arrange her robe over one shoulder only, to bow down before the Bhikkhus, and, sitting down on her heels, to stretch forth her joined palms, and say: "I, Sirs, N. N., who, being desirous of receiving the upasampadâ initiation from M. M., have received it on the one side (of the Samgha, from the Bhikkhunîs), and have there been declared free (from the Disqualifications), do hereby ask the Samgha for the upasampadâ." [The rest of the proceedings are the same as before the Bhikkhunî-samgha.] "May the Samgha, reverend Sirs, raise me up (out of the worldly life), having pity on me." And a second time do I hereby ask [&c., repeated]. And a third time do I hereby ask [the same repeated].

[355] [The rest of the proceedings are the same as in the last sections 6 and 7, putting 'Bhikkhu' for 'Bhikkhunî,' and 'reverend Sirs' for 'reverend Ladies.]

'Then, further, let them (the Bhikkhus) measure the shadow, tell (the newly-received Bhikkhunî) what season and what date it is, tell her what part of the day it is, tell her the whole formula[65], and tell the Bhikkhunîs: "You are to teach her what are the three things allowed[66], and what are the eight things interdicted[67]."'

 


 

18.

18.1 Now at that time Bhikkhunîs wasted their time in the dining-hall, doubting as to which should take which seat.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the senior eight Bhikkhunîs shall take their seats according to seniority, and the rest as they happen to come in.'

Now at that time Bhikkhunîs, on the ground that the Blessed One had so prescribed, let the eight senior Bhikkhunîs in every other place take [356] exclusive possession (of the first eight seats), and the rest arranged themselves as they came in.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, as above, only in the case of the dining-hall. Everywhere else let there be no exclusive right to seats by seniority.'

 


 

19.

19.1 Now at that time the Bhikkhunîs did not hold Pavâranâ.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to omit holding Pavâranâ. Whosoever does so, shall be dealt with according to law[68].'

Now at that time the Bhikkhunîs held Pavâranâ by themselves, and not in the Bhikkhu-samgha.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to hold Pavâranâ apart, and not in the Bhikkhu-samgha. Whosoever does so, shall be dealt with according to law[69].'

Now at that time Bhikkhunîs holding Pavâranâ with the Bhikkhus only, and not apart by themselves, disturbed (the meeting of the Bhikkhu-samgha).

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to hold Pavâranâ with the Bhikkhu-samgha only. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata[69].'

Now at that time Bhikkhunîs spent all their time [357] before noon holding Pavâranâ [and so had no time left for the early meal].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that they hold Pavâranâ in the afternoon.'

When holding Pavâranâ in the afternoon, they had not time enough [to conclude their own ceremony that day, and take part in that of the Bhikkhus].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow them, O Bhikkhus, to hold their own Pavâranâ one day, and that with the Bhikkhus the next day.'

19.2 Now at that time the whole of the Bhikkhunî-samgha declaring, each one for herself, her Pavâranâ before the Bhikkhu-samgha, disturbed (the proceedings).

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that some one learned and competent Bhikkhunî be deputed to make the Pavâranâ invitation on behalf of the Bhikkhunî-samgha before the Bhikkhu-samgha. And thus, O Bhikkhus, is she to be deputed:

'"First, the Bhikkhunî is to be asked (whether she be willing to serve). When that has been done, a learned and discreet Bhikkhunî is to lay this motion before the Samgha: Let the Samgha, venerable Ladies, hear me. If it seem meet to the Samgha, let the Samgha depute N. N. to make the Pavâranâ invitation on behalf of the Bhikkhunî-samgha before the Bhikkhu-samgha. That is the motion.

'"Let the Samgha, venerable Ladies, hear me. The Samgha deputes N. N. to make the Pavâranâ invitation on behalf of the Bhikkhunî-samgha before the Bhikkhu-samgha. Whosoever of the venerable [358] ones approves thereof, let her keep silence. Whosoever approves not thereof, let her speak.

'"N. N. is deputed by the Samgha to make the Pavâranâ invitation on behalf of the Bhikkhunî-samgha before the Bhikkhu-samgha. The Samgha approves thereof. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand."'

19.3 'When that Bhikkhunî has been deputed, she, accompanied by the Bhikkhunî-samgha, is to go before the Bhikkhu-samgha, arrange her robe over one shoulder, bow down before the Bhikkhus, and sitting on her heels, to stretch forth her joined palms, and say: "The Bhikkhunî-samgha invites the Bhikkhu-samgha (to point out to them any faults they may have committed) in respect of things heard, or seen, or suspected. May the Bhikkhu-samgha speak to the Bhikkhunî-samgha (if there be anything wherein they have offended) out of compassion toward them. Then will they, if they perceive the offence, confess the same. And a second time the Bhikkhunî-samgha . . . . . . [the whole repeated]. And a third time . . . . . . [the whole repeated][70]."'

 


 

20.

20.1 Now at that time Bhikkhunîs inhibited Bhikkhus from the Uposatha, or from the Pavâranâ, or from the Exhortation, or issued commands to them, or asked them to give them leave to rebuke them, or warned them of some offence they supposed they [359] were committing, or called upon them to remember whether or not they had committed an offence[71].

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to perform any one of these official acts towards a Bhikkhu. Should she do so, the act is itself invalid, and she is guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time Bhikkhus inhibited Bhikkhunîs [&c., as before, giving the contrary decision].

 


 

21.

21.1 Now at that time the Khabbaggiya Bhikkhunîs had themselves carried in vehicles to which cows were yoked with a bull between them[72], or bulls were yoked with a cow between them. People were annoyed, murmured, and became indignant, saying: 'That is what is done at the feast of the Gaṅgâ, and the Mali[72].'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to be carried in a vehicle. Whosoever does so, shall be dealt with according to law[73].'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhunî was sick, and unable to go on foot.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow the use of a carriage, O Bhikkhus, to a sick (Bhikkhunî)[74].'

[360] Now the Bhikkhunîs thought: 'Should the carts be yoked with cows or bulls?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a cart yoked with cows or bulls, or drawn by hand[75].'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhunî was much distressed by the jolting of the cart.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a litter or sedan chair[76].'

 


 

22.

22.1 Now at that time a courtesan named Addhakâsî[77] had adopted the religious life under the Bhikkhunîs, and she wanted to go to Sâvatthi to be received as full member of the Order (to receive the upasampadâ initiation) by the Blessed One himself. And men of abandoned life heard of it, and beset the road. And when Addhakâsî, the courtesan, heard that they had done so, she sent a messenger to the Blessed One, saying: 'I want to receive the upasampadâ initiation: what course of action should I adopt?'

Then the Blessed One, in that connection, addressed the Bhikkhus, after delivering a religious discourse[78], and said: 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to confer the upasampadâ initiation (upon Bhikkhunîs) even by a messenger[79].'

[361] 22.2 They conferred it by (sending) a Bhikkhu as the messenger.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'You are not, O Bhikkhus, to confer the upasampadâ initiation on a Bhikkhunî by sending a Bhikkhu as messenger. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

They conferred it by sending a female student . . . . . a male novice . . . . . a female novice . . . . . an ignorant, incompetent Bhikkhunî, as the messenger.

[Similar decision in each case.]

'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to confer the upasampadâ initiation by sending a learned, competent Bhikkhunî, as a messenger.'

22.3 'That Bhikkhunî messenger is to go before the Samgha, and arranging her robe over one shoulder, is to bow down before the Samgha, and sitting on her heels, to stretch forth her joined palms, and say "N. N., having been desirous of receiving the upasampadâ initiation with the lady, M. M. (as her proposer), has received it on the one hand from the Bhikkhunî-samgha, and has there been declared free (from the Disqualifications[80]). But she is prevented by some danger or other from coming before the Samgha (to have her initiation confirmed)[81]. N. N. asks the Samgha for initiation, Let the Samgha raise her up (out of the worldly life) out of compassion upon her.' [To be said thrice.]

[362] 'Then let a learned, competent Bhikkhu lay the motion before the Samgha. "Let the Samgha, venerable Sirs, hear me. N. N., having been desirous . . . . . [statement of fact, as before]. If it seem meet to the Samgha, let the Samgha confer the upasampadâ initiation upon N. N., M. M. being her proposer. That is the motion.

'"Let the Samgha, venerable Sirs, hear me. N. N., . . . . [statement of fact, as before]. The Samgha hereby confers the upasampadâ initiation upon N. N., M. M. being her proposer. Whosoever of the venerable ones approves thereof, let him keep silence. Whosoever approves not thereof, let him speak. And a second time I say the same thing. N. N., . . . . . (&c., down to) let him speak. And a third time I say the same thing. N. N., . . . . . (&c., down to) let him speak.

'"The Samgha has hereby conferred the upasampadâ initiation upon N. N., M. M. being her proposer. The Samgha approves thereof. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand."'

'Then, further, let them (the Bhikkhus) measure the shadow, tell (the messenger that she may tell the newly-received Bhikkhunî) what season and what date it is, tell her what part of the day it is, tell her the whole formula; and tell the Bhikkhunîs to teach her what are the three things allowed, and what are the eight things interdicted[82].'

 


 

23.

23.1 Now at that time Bhikkhunîs dwelt in the forest, and men of abandoned life violated them.

[363] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to adopt the forest life. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata[83].'

 


 

24.

24.1 Now at that time a certain lay disciple had given to the Bhikkhunî-samgha a servant's lodge[84] (to live in).

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of a stable.'

It did not satisfy (their wants)[85]. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, a separate residence for Bhikkhunîs.'

That did not satisfy their wants. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow, O Bhikkhus, building operations[86] (to be carried on for the benefit of Bhikkhunîs).'

[364] That did not satisfy their wants. They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow Bhikkhunîs, O Bhikkhus, to assign certain places to live in to individual members of the Order[87].'

 


 

25.

25.1 Now at that time a certain woman who had already conceived, but did not know it, was received into the Order among the Bhikkhunîs. Afterwards her womb moved within her[88]. Then that Bhikkhunî thought: 'How shall I now conduct myself towards this child?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow her, O Bhikkhus, to bring it up till it have attained to years of discretion[89].'

Then the Bhikkhunî thought: 'It is not permissible for me to live alone, nor for any other Bhikkhunî to live with a male child. What course ought I to pursue?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow the Bhikkhunîs, O Bhikkhus, to depute any one Bhikkhunî, and give her as a companion to that (first-mentioned) Bhikkhunî.'

[365] 'And thus, O Bhikkhus, is she to be appointed: First that Bhikkhunî ought to be asked (whether she be willing to undertake the duty). After she has been asked, a learned and competent Bhikkhunî ought to lay the motion before the Samgha, saying:

'"Let the Samgha, venerable Ladies, hear me. If it seem meet to the Samgha, let the Samgha depute N. N. as a companion to M. M. That is the motion.

'"Let the Samgha,"' [&c., as usual, to the end of the Kammavâkâ.]

25.2 Then that companion Bhikkhunî thought: 'Now how should I conduct myself towards this child?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I prescribe that the Bhikkhunîs, O Bhikkhus, conduct themselves towards that child precisely as they would towards other men, save only as regards the sleeping under the same roof[90].'

25.3 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhunî, who had been guilty of a grievous offence, was living subject to the Mânatta penance[91]. Then that Bhikkhunî thought: 'It is not permissible for me to live alone, and it is not permissible for any other Bhikkhunî to live with me. What now ought I to do?'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

I allow the Bhikkhunîs, O Bhikkhus, to depute any one Bhikkhunî, and to give her as a companion to that Bhikkhunî. And thus, O Bhikkhus, ought [366] she to be deputed [&c., as in last section but one, down to the end of the Kammavâkâ].'

 


 

26.

26.1 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhunî first abandoned the precepts, and then threw off the robes[92]. Afterwards she came back, and asked the Bhikkhunîs to admit her into the Order again.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî ought not, O Bhikkhus, to abandon the precepts. But by having thrown off the robes she is ipso facto incapable of being a Bhikkhunî.'

26.2 Now at that time a certain Bhikkhunî, though still wearing the orange-coloured robe, joined a sect of the Titthiyas. Afterwards she came back, and asked the Bhikkhunîs to receive her into the Order again.

They told this matter to the Blessed One. .

'A Bhikkhunî, O Bhikkhus, who, when still wearing the orange-coloured robe, has gone over to the Titthiyas, is not to be received again[93].'

 


 

27.

27.1 Now at that time Bhikkhunîs, fearing to offend, would not let men salute them, or cut their hair or nails, or dress their wounds.

[367] They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow them, O Bhikkhus, to permit those things.'

27.2 Now at that time Bhikkhunîs, when sitting on a divan, allowed (other people thereon) to touch them with their heels.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to sit on a divan[94]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time a certain Bhikkhunî was sick, and without using a divan she could not be at ease.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'I allow Bhikkhunîs, O Bhikkhus, to use a half-divan[95].'

27.3 [Rule as to construction of privies[96].]

27.4 Now at that time the Bhikkhunîs used chunam at their baths.

People murmured, saying, 'As the women in the world do!'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to use chunam at her bath. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of clay and the red powder of rice husks[97].'

[368] [Similar paragraph, ending]

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to use scented clay at her bath[98]. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow, O Bhikkhus, the use of common clay.'

Now at that time Bhikkhunîs bathing together in the steam-bath room made a tumult.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'Bhikkhunîs are not, O Bhikkhus, to bathe in a steam-bath. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time Bhikkhunîs bathing against the stream allowed the rush of water against them.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to bathe against the stream. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time Bhikkhunîs bathed in a place not a common bathing-place, and men of abandoned life violated them.

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to bathe at a place not a common bathing-place. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata.'

Now at that time Bhikkhunîs bathed at a bathing-place used also by men. People murmured, were indignant, and complained, saying, 'As those women do who are still living in the pleasures of the world[98].'

They told this matter to the Blessed One.

[369] 'A Bhikkhunî is not, O Bhikkhus, to bathe at a bathing-place used also by men. Whosoever does so, shall be guilty of a dukkata. I allow, Bhikkhunîs, O Bhikkhus, to bathe at a bathing-place used by women.'

End of the Third Portion for Recitation.

End of the Tenth Khandhaka, the Bhikkhunî-Khandhaka.

 


[1] Ânandâ s conduct in this matter was afterwards charged against him as a dukkata. See below, XI, 1, lo.

[2] The Attha Garudhammâ, on which see further our note above on the 21st Pâkittiya, and below, X, g.

[3] The whole of the following eight paragraphs recur in the [323] Sutta Vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya XXI, 3, 1. It is very instructive to notice the curious blunders which the Tibetan writers (translated by Rockhill in his 'Life of the Buddha,' pp. 62, 63) make in the rendering of the difficult technical terms in these Eight Rules.

[4] Âvâsa. Compare Kullavagga I, 18, 1, VI, 15, I, VIII, x, 2. This rule is the 56th Bhikkhunî Pâkittiya.

[5] The Bhikkhunîs are to ask two or three days beforehand whether the Uposatha is to be held on the 14th or 15th day of the month; says Buddhaghosa here. Compare also the 59th Bhikkhunî Pâkittiya, where the whole passage recurs.

[6] Compare the 21st Pâkittiya, and our note there.

[7] See Mahâvagga IV, 1, 13, 14. This rule is the same as the 57th Bhikkhunî Pâkittiya. The mode of carrying out this rule is explained in detail below, X, 19.

[8] Khasu dhammesu. The Six Rules for novices. They are referred to in the Bhikkhunî Vibhaṅga, under Pâkittiyas LXIII-LXVII.

[9] The actual ordination (upasampadâ) itself is not complete till it has been conferred by Bhikkhus (see the rule at X, 2, 2). The whole proceeding is fully set out below, X, 27. Compare also the 63rd and 64th Bhikkhunî Pâkittiyas.

[10] This is the 52nd Bhikkhunî Pâkittiya.

[11] Vakana-patho. That is, literally, speech. But the reference is, no doubt, to the various kinds of official admonitions given in detail in chapter 20 below.

[12] Bahutthikâni. The context shows that we are to understand itthi and not attha. Compare Rockhill's 'Life of the Buddha,' p.61.

[13] Suppadhamsiyâni. Compare Bhikkhunî Vibhaṅga, Samghâdisesa III, 1, 2, and see also Kullavagga VII, 5, 4.

[14] Korehi kumbatthenakehi; on which Buddhaghosa has the following note:--Kumbathenakehiti kumbhe dîpam gâletvâ ena âlokena paraghare bhandam vikinitvâ thenakakorehi.

[15] Compare the 6th Garudhammâ above, X, 1, 4.

[16] These last words are the standing expression for the preparatory stage to Arahatship. Compare Mahâvagga I, 6, 16; Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta V, 68. The whole speech frequently occurs in the Samyutta Nikâya at the commencement of conversations with the Buddha.

[17] Most of these terms have already occurred in the standing 'religious discourse' which is related to have preceded the enunciation of so many of the rules for Bhikkhus (Kullavagga I, 2, 3).

[18] Kammappattâ; on which see Parivâra XIX, 6, 7.

[19] Ropetum, on which Buddhaghosa says: Tagganiyâdisu imam nâma kammam etissâ kâtabban ti evam ropetvâ.

[20] On sâraggeyyun compare sâraggati at V, 3, I.

[21] On this decision compare the 'sending to Coventry' of Khanna for levity of conduct towards Bhikkhus at Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta VI, 4, and Kullavagga XI, 1, 12 (where the penalty is called Brahma-danda).

[22] On sampayogeti compare Kullavagga I, 5, at the end.

[23] Âvaranan ti vihârapavesane nivâranam, says Buddhaghosa.

[24] Bhikkhunî Pâkittiya LVIII.

[25] These are given at length in the Sutta Vibhaṅga, Pâkittiya XXI, 2, 1.

[26] Pâsâdikena sampâdetu, on which Buddhaghosa has no note. Perhaps 'by means of faith' would be a better rendering.

[27] On samketam, see our note above on Mahâvagga VIII, 23, 3.

[28] Pâsuke namentîti gihidârikâyo viya ghanapattakena kâyabandhanena pâsuke namanatthâya bandhanti, says Buddhaghosa. Pâsuka is probably equal to the Sanskrit pârsvaka, and means a fringe arranged round the body, as shown in Plate LI of Cunningham's 'Bharhut Tope,' being so called from the rib-like arrangement of the strings or cloth or other substance of which it was made. On corresponding girdles worn by men and forbidden to Bhikkhus, see Kullavagga V, 29, 2.

[29] Ekapariyâkatan ti ekavâram parikkhipanakam, says the Samanta Pâsâdikâ.

[30] Vilivena pattenâti (sic) sanheti veluvilvehi (sic) katapattena.

[31] Dussapattenâti setavatthapattena.

[32] Dussaveniyâti dussena kataveniyâ.

[33] Dussavattiyâti dussena katavattiyâ.

[34] Kolapattâdisu kolakâvâsam kolan ti veditabbam.

[35] Hattham kottâpentîti aggam bâham kottâpetvâ morapattâdîhi kittakam karonti, says Buddhaghosa. The meaning is not clear. No. 10 of the tattoo marks figured on Plate LII of Cunningham's 'Bharhut Tope,' referred to in the note on the next section, is a representation of a peacock's feathers. On atthilla, see Buddhaghosa's note at p. 327 of the text. Compare the prohibition of the use by Bhikkhus of back-scratchers and other like things (Kullavagga V, 1, 1) connected with shampooing of luxurious bathing.

[36] Hattha-kokkhan ti pitthi-hattham.

[37] Pâdan ti gaṅgham.

[38] Pâda-kokkhan ti pitthi-pâdam.

[39] This paragraph has already occurred above, V, 2, 5 of the Bhikkhus.

[40] These two injunctions are found also in the 90th and 91st Bhikkhunî Pâkittiyas.

[41] Avaṅgam karontîti avaṅga-dese adhomukham lekham karonti (B.). Avaṅga = Sanskrit apâṅga.

[42] Visesakam karontîti ganda-padese vikitra-santhânam visesakam karonti (B.). A number of tattoo marks on the cheeks are figured in Plate LII of Cunningham's 'Bharhut Tope.'

[43] Olokentîti vâtapânam vivaritvâ vîthim olokenti (B.).

[44] Sâloke titthantîti dvârom vivaritvâ upaddha-kâyam dassentiyo titthanti (B.). Compare Theri-gâthâ 73.

[45] Harîtaka-pannikam pakinantîti harîtakañ k’ eva panniñ ka pakinanti, pakinnakâpanam pasârentîli vuttam hoti (B.). Compare pannika-upâsako in the Gâtaka I, 411 = II, 180.

[46] Namatakam dhâreti. See V, 27, 3, and our note above on V, 11, 1. The expression evidently means here 'to be a barber.'

[47] This paragraph has already occurred above, in respect to the Bhikkhus (Mahâvagga VIII, 29), where see our notes on the various items.

[48] Parikkhâro; that is, the eight things over which a member [344] of the Buddhist Order was allowed proprietary rights--the three robes, the alms-bowl, razor, needle, girdle, and water-strainer.

[49] By the rule laid down in the Mahâvagga VIII, 27, the set of robes and the bowl are to be assigned by the Samgha to those that waited on the sick--at least in the case of Bhikkhus,--and the analogy would doubtless hold good of the Bhikkhunîs also.

[50] Well known as wrestlers.

[51]Puggalikam dâtum. On this phrase compare the similar one below at X, 24. Buddhaghosa has no note either here or there.

[52] Tâvakâlikam. See the passages quoted in our note above on Kullavagga VI, 18.

[53] Âvasatha-kîvaram. See the Old Commentary on this word as occurring in the 47th Bhikkhunî Pâkittiya.

[54] Âni-kolakam. Buddhaghosa has no note on this. Âni must be here 'that part of the leg immediately above the knee, the front of the thigh.' Compare Böhtlingk-Roth s.v. No. 2.

[55] Samvelliyam kati-suttakam. The samvelliyam is the ordinary undress as worn for the sake of decency, even now, by a labourer working in muddy paddy fields, or at any severe task. It is a wedge-shaped strip of cotton cloth about a foot and a half long, about five inches wide at one end, and tapering down to one inch in width at the other. The broad end is fixed on to a string going round the waist (kati-suttakam), and hangs down, when put on, in front of the legs. When worn under other clothes, it remains so; but when the other clothes are taken off for work the narrow end is passed under the body between the legs, and twisted round the hip-string behind (at the small of the back) so as to keep it fast. Its use is forbidden to Bhikkhus at V, 29, 5, where Buddhaghosa says, 'Such as wrestlers and labourers wear.'

[56] Its use is also forbidden to Bhikkhus (above, Kullavagga V 2, 1).

[57] Here follow a number of abnormities, deformities, or diseases, all of which have reference to the womb or its accessories. Some of them are unintelligible to us. Compare the corresponding section in respect to Bhikkhus at Mahâvagga I, 68.

[58] Of these twenty-four, eleven are the deformities just referred to, and the rest are the same as those for Bhikkhus at Mahâvagga I, 76. The number of questions is, in fact, twenty-six, but the last two do not refer to Disqualifications.

[59] For the reason of this, see Mahâvagga I, 63.

[60] Pavattinî; corresponding to upagghâya in the case of Bhikkhus.

[61] This is in accordance with the rule laid down in X, 2, 2, that Bhikkhus, and not Bhikkhunîs, are to confer the upasampadâ.

[62] This paragraph is word for word the same as Mahâvagga I, 76, 2 of the Bhikkhus.

[63] Upaggham. It should be observed that this expression is found only here, and in the corresponding section for the Bhikkhus, at Mahâvagga I, 76, 3. Elsewhere, throughout, Upagghâya is the form used for Bhikkhus, and Pavattinî for Bhikkhunîs. The word is probably here also, as in the Mahâvagga I, 76, 3, to be taken as a masculine.

[64] These last two are omitted in the corresponding section for the Bhikkhus, Mahâvagga I, 76, 3. On Samkakkhikam, see the note of the Old Commentator on the 96th Bhikkhunî Pâkittiya, and on Udaka-sâtikâ, the same on the 22nd Bhikkhunî Pâkittiya.

[65] Samgîti. On the meaning of this curious use of the word, see our note on the corresponding section for the Bhikkhus (Mahâvagga I, 77).

[66] The three Nissayas, which are doubtless the same as the 1st, 2nd, and 4th of the four Resources mentioned in the corresponding paragraph for Bhikkhus (Mahâvagga I, 77). The third is forbidden to Bhikkhunîs, below, X, 23.

[67] Attha akaranîyâni. These must bear he same relation to the eight Bhikkhunî Pârâgikas as the four Interdicts in the corresponding paragraph for the Bhikkhus (Mahâvagga I, 78) do to the four Bhikkhu Pârâgikas.

[68] The 57th Bhikkhunî Pâkittiya, which is the same as the 4th Garudhamma above, X, I, 4.

[69] See last note.

[70] This, of course, is the same form that each separate member of the Order uses before his or her own Samgha. Compare our notes above on the corresponding passage in the Mahâvagga, IV, I, 4.

[71] On all these official acts of a Bhikkhunî, see the notes above on Kullavagga I, 5.

[72] On all these expressions, see our notes above at Mahâvagga V, 9, 3, where they recur word for word.

[73] This is the 85th Bhikkhunî Pâkittiya.

[74] This is repeated from the 85th Bhikkhunî Pâkittiya. The corresponding permission is given to Bhikkhus by Mahâvagga V, 10, 2.

[75] Hattha-vattakam. See the note on Mahâvagga V, 10, 3.

[76] So also for Bhikkhus at Mahâvagga V, 10, 3.

[77] On the meaning of this nickname or epithet, compare our note on Mahâvagga VIII, 2 (and see also VIII, 1, 1, and 3).

[78] As set out in Kullavagga I, 1; Mahâvagga I, 35, 6.

[79] he ordinary rule, no doubt, required, as in the case of Bhikkhus, [361] a Samgha of not less than ten persons (Mahâvagga I, 31, 2, and IX, 4, 1), each of ten years standing or more (Mahâvagga I, 31, 8). But even for Bhikkhus there were, under special circumstances, certain relaxations of this rule (Mahâvagga V, 13, II).

[80] See above, X, 17, 1, for the twenty-four Disqualifications.

[81] Compare above, X, 1, 4, and X, 17.

[82] See above, X, 17, 8.

[83] Compare Mahâvagga I, 30, 4, and I, 77, and our note above on X, 17, 8.

[84] This word has already occurred, in a list of various buildings, at Mahâvagga III, 5, 9, where we have rendered it stable. Buddhaghosa says here uddositan (MS. udosita) ti bhanda-sâlâ, and as at Mahâvagga I, 61, assa-bhandâ and hatthi-bhandâ are evidently grooms attending on horses or elephants (compare Gâtaka I, 62, 3), bhanda-sâlâ may mean a servant's hall for the use of that particular class of servants. A lawsuit about an uddosita forms the Introductory Story to the 1st Bhikkhunî Samghâdisesa, but the passage throws no light on the special meaning of the term. See also the Sutta-vibhaṅga on Nissaggiya II, 3, 5, and Khudda Sikkhâ III, 19. The Sanskrit equivalent might perhaps be udavasita, if the reading of the Samanta Pâsâdikâ had any traditional value; but the dd is not doubtful in the MSS. of the text at any of the passages quoted. Assa-sâlâ is the word for stable at Gâtaka I, 62, 3.

[85] Na sammati. See the note on V, 13, 3.

[86] Navakammam. See the note above at V, 13, 3.

[87] Puggalikam kâtum. See the note above on X, 15, 1.

[88] There is a touching story founded on a similar incident which is given as the Introductory Story to No. 12 of the Gâtakas, translated in Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 199-205. By the 61st Bhikkhunî Pâkittiya it is lawful or unlawful to initiate a pregnant woman according as she is unconscious or conscious of the fact of her conception.

[89] Viññutam pâpunâti. That is, no doubt, to puberty. Compare the opening phrases of the Introductory Story referred to in the last note (Gâtaka I, 231) and also Gâtaka III, 437.

[90] Sâgâram; on which Buddhaghosa has no note.

[91] For what this implied, see Kullavagga II, 1, 2, and II, 6, 1, and compare the 5th Garudhamma above, X, 1, 4.

[92] On the distinction between these two phrases, see the note on Mahâvagga II, 22, 3.

[93] For the similar rule in the case of Bhikkhus, see Mahâvagga I, 38, 1.

[94] Pallaṅkam. Compare Mahâvagga V, 10, 4, 5; Kullavagga V, 37, VI, 8, VI, 14; and the 42nd Bhikkhunî Pâkittiya.

[95] Addha-pallaṅkam. Probably a cushion, which only one person could use at a time.

[96] Compare the Rules for the Bhikkhus, Kullavagga VIII, q, 10, which we have also left untranslated. Buddhaghosa says here, Hetthâ-vivate uparikkhanne ti ettha sake kûpo khato hoti upari pana padaramattam eva sabba-disâsu paññâyati evarûpe pi vattati.

[97] Kukkusam. Buddhaghosa says here, Kukkusam mattikan [368] ti kundakañ k’ eva mattikañ ka. The use of these last two was allowed to Bhikkhus by Kullavagga VI, 3, I, for building purposes.

[98] This is apparently covered by the 88th and 89th Bhikkhunî Pâkittiya.


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