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Vinaya Texts

Translated from the Pāli by
T. W. Rhys Davids
and
Hermann Oldenberg

Oxford, the Clarendon Press
[1881]
The Second Part of Volume XVII and Volume XX of The Sacred Books of the East

This work is in the Public Domain.
Reformatted from the Internet Sacred Text Archive version scanned and formatted by Christopher M. Weimer

Kulla Vagga

 


[386]

Twelfth Khandhaka

On the Council of Vesâlî

 


 

1

1.1 Now at that time, a century[1] after the death of the Blessed One, the Bhikkhus of Vesâlî, Vaggians, promulgated at Vesâlî the ten theses:--(1) that storing salt in a horn vessel was permissible; (2) that the midday meal might be eaten when the sun's shadow showed two finger breadths after noon; (3) that he who intends to go into the village could begin to eat again after he had once left off; (4) that a number of Bhikkhus residing within the same boundary might hold Uposatha separately; (5) that a Samgha not at unity within itself might carry out an official act, undertaking to inform Bhikkhus of it; (6) that it was permissible for a Bhikkhu to do anything adopted as a practice by his Upagghâya; (7) that curds might be eaten by one who had already finished his midday meal; (8) that it was permissible to drink unfermented toddy; (9) that a rug or mat need not be of the limited size prescribed if it had no fringe; (10) that it was permissible to receive gold and silver[2].

[387] Now at that time the venerable Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka, who was wandering through the Vaggian country, arrived at Vesâlî; and there the venerable Yasa stayed at the Mahâvana, in the Kûtâgâra Hall.

Now at that time the Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî, on Uposatha day, filled a copper pot with water and placed it in the midst of the Bhikkhu-samgha, and said to such of their Vesâlian lay disciples as came there: 'Give, Sirs, to the Samgha a kahâpana[3], or half a one, or a pâda, or a mâsaka. It will be wanted for the Samgha, for the provision of various utensils.'

When they had thus spoken, the venerable Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka, said to the lay disciples: 'Do, Sirs, nothing of the kind. The use of gold and silver is not allowed to the Sakyaputtiya Samanas. The Sakyaputtiya Samanas neither allow it to be given to them, nor take charge of it. The Sakyaputtiya Samanas are men whose gems and jewelry have been laid aside, and who are without silver and without gold.'

Though the lay disciples from Vesâlî had been thus addressed by the venerable Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka, they gave money to the Samgha. And the Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî, at the close of the night, reserving one portion[4], divided that money according to the number of the Bhikkhus. And they said to the venerable Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka:

'This, friend Yasa, is thy due portion of the money.'

[388] 'I have no due portion in that money. I do not allow any money to be given to me.'

1.2 Then the Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî said one to another: 'This brother, Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka, upbraids and reviles, and renders dissatisfied believing and faithful followers. Come, let us carry out against him the Act of Reconciliation[5].' And they did so.

Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka, said to them: 'It has been laid down, Sirs, by the Blessed One, that a companion shall be appointed to go as messenger with a Bhikkhu against whom the Act of Reconciliation has been carried out[6]. Appoint, Sirs, a Bhikkhu, as companion messenger to me.' And the Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî deputed a Bhikkhu to that work, and gave him as a companion messenger to the venerable Yasa.

And the venerable Yasa, taking the companion Bhikkhu with him, entered into Vesâlî, and said to the believing laymen there:

'I am said, Sirs, to be upbraiding and reviling, and rendering dissatisfied believing and faithful followers, thereby that I have said what is against the Dhamma to be against the Dhamma, and what is Dhamma to be Dhamma, and what is against the Vinaya to be against the Vinaya, and what is Vinaya to be Vinaya.

1.3 'Now the Blessed One was once, Sirs, staying at Sâvatthi in the Getavana, Anâtha Pindika's pleasure-ground. And there, Sirs, the Blessed One exhorted the Bhikkhus, and said:

[389] '"There are, O Bhikkhus, four obstructions of the sun and moon, by which when the sun and moon are affected, they give no heat and they give no light, and they are no longer glorious. And what are the four? They are clouds and fog and dusty smoke and Râhu[7], by which when the sun and the moon are affected they give neither heat nor light nor sheen. Just so, O Bhikkhus, there are four stains by which when Samanas and Brâhmans are affected they give neither heat nor light nor sheen. And what are the four? There are some Samanas and Brâhmans who drink strong drink, and things intoxicating, abstaining not therefrom[8]. This is the first of such stains. And further, O Bhikkhus, there are some Samanas and Brâhmans who practise sexual intercourse, and abstain not therefrom. This is the second of such stains. And further, O Bhikkhus, there are some Samanas and Brâhmans who accept silver and gold, abstaining not from the use thereof. This is the third of such stains. And lastly, O Bhikkhus, there are some Samanas and Brâhmans who gain their livelihood by low arts[9], abstaining not from such means of life. This is the fourth of such stains."

'Thus spoke, Sirs, the Blessed One: and when the Happy One had thus spoken, the Master further said:

'"Stained by lust and malice, some Samanas and Brâhmans,
[390] Men blinded by ignorance, praise things that seem to have delight.
Strong drink they drink and fierce, indulge in sensual acts,
Devoid of wisdom, silver and gold they take.
And by low arts some Samanas and Brâhmans live.
Stains are such actions called by the Buddha of the Solar race,
Stains--by which defiled some Samanas and Brâhmans,
Impure brutes and unclean, give neither heat nor light.
Covered rather by darkness, purblind, enslaved by craving lusts,
They enlarge the realm of death[10], and dread rebirth they gain."

'It is for upholding this opinion that I, Sirs, have been said to be upbraiding and reviling and rendering dissatisfied believing and faithful followers, in that I have said what is against the Dhamma to be against the Dhamma, and what is Dhamma to be Dhamma; what is against the Vinaya to be against the Vinaya, and what is Vinaya to be Vinaya.

1.4 'And once the Blessed One was staying, Sirs, at Râgagaha, in the Veluvana, at the Kalandaka Nivâpa. Now at that time among the royal attendants sitting together in the women's apartment in the palace, the following saying was heard: "Silver and gold is allowed to the Sakyaputtiya Samanas.

[391] The Sakyaputtiya Samanas accept it, and take it in charge." Now at that time Manikûlaka, a village headman, was present. And he said to the people there: "Say not so, Sirs. Neither is silver and gold allowed to the Sakyaputtiya Samanas, nor do they accept it, nor take it in charge. The Sakyaputtiya Samanas are men who have laid aside gems and jewelry, and are without silver, and without gold." And the headman, Manikûlaka, succeeded in satisfying them.

'Then the headman, Manikûlaka, went to the place where the Blessed One was and saluted him, and took his seat on one side. And he told the Blessed One the whole matter[11], and said:

'"Now am I, Lord, in maintaining as I did, one who speaks according to the word of the Blessed One, one who does not falsely represent the Blessed One, one who does not put forth minor matters in the place of the true Dhamma? And is there anything that leads to blame in such discussion, this way and that, as touching the observance of the rules of the order[12]?"

'"Most certainly, Manikûlaka, in maintaining thus you speak in accordance with my word, and do not represent me falsely, nor put forth minor matters as the true Dhamma. Nor is there any thing leading to blame in such discussions. For gold and silver is not allowed, Manikûlaka, to the Sakyaputtiya Samanas, nor ought they to accept it, nor take it in charge. Men who have laid aside gems and jewelry are the Sakyaputtiya Samanas, [392] men without silver and without gold. For to whomsoever, Manikûlaka, gold and silver are allowed, to him also the five kinds of sensual pleasure[13] are allowed. And to whomsoever these five kinds of pleasure are allowed, him you may know of a certainty to be following neither the rule of the Samanas, nor the rule of the sons of Sâkya. Although, Manikûlaka, I have said that he who is in need of grass may seek for grass, and he who is in need of wood may seek for wood, and he who is in need of a conveyance may seek for a conveyance, and he who is in need of a servant may seek for a servant; yet have I never said in any way whatever that gold or silver may be sought after or accepted."

'It is for maintaining this opinion that I, Sirs, have been said to be upbraiding and reviling and rendering dissatisfied believing and faithful followers, in that I have said what is against the Dhamma to be against the Dhamma, and what is Dhamma to be Dhamma; that what is against the Vinaya is against the Vinaya, and what is Vinaya is Vinaya.'

1.5 'And once, Sirs, the Blessed One at the same place, at Râgagaha, on the occasion of the matter of Upananda, the Sâkyan, distinctly laid down a precept by which gold and silver were forbidden[14].

'It is for maintaining this opinion that I, Sirs, have been said to be upbraiding and reviling and rendering dissatisfied believing and faithful followers, in that I have said what is against the [393] Dhamma to be against the Dhamma, and what is Dhamma to be Dhamma; that what is against the Vinaya is against the Vinaya, and what is Vinaya is Vinaya.'

1.6 When he had thus spoken, the lay brethren said to Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka There is but one, Sirs[15], who is a Sakyaputtiya Samana, our master, Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka. All the rest are no Samanas, neither Sakyaputtiyas. Let the venerable Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka, dwell among us. We will exert ourselves to provide him with robes, and food, and medicine, and the necessaries for the sick.'

Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka, having gained over the lay brethren, returned with the companion Bhikkhu to the Ârâma,

1.7 And the Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî asked the companion Bhikkhu: 'Did Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka, obtain, Sir, the forgiveness of the lay brethren?'

'Evil, Sirs, hath been wrought against us. Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka, and he alone has been decided to be a Sakyaputtiya Samana, and all of us neither Samanas nor Sakyaputtiyas.'

Then the Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî said: 'The venerable Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka, without being deputed by us, has proclaimed to laymen (a false doctrine)[16]. Come, let us carry out the Act of Suspension[17] against him.' And [394] they assembled together with the intention of doing so.

But the venerable Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka, rose up into the sky and descended at Kosambî. And he sent messengers to the Bhikkhus of the Western country, and of Avanti, and of the Southern country[18], saying, 'Let your reverences come! We must take in charge this legal question before what is not Dhamma is spread abroad, and what is Dhamma is put aside; before what is not Vinaya is spread abroad, and what is Vinaya is put aside; before those who argue against the Dhamma become powerful, and those who argue in favour of the Dhamma become weak; before those who argue against the Vinaya become powerful, and those who argue in favour of the Vinaya become weak.'

1.8 Now at that time the venerable Sambhûta Sânavâsî[19] was dwelling on the Ahogaṅga Hill[20]. And thither the venerable Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka, went; and on his arrival he saluted the venerable Sambhûta Sânavâsî, and took his seat on one side: and being so seated he said to him:

'Lord, these Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî have [395] put forward ten theses.' And he told him what they were[21], and added: 'Come now, Lord, let us take in charge this last question before what is not Dhamma is spread abroad, and what is Dhamma is put aside; before what is not Vinaya is spread abroad, and what is Vinaya is put aside; before those who argue against the Dhamma become powerful, and those who argue in favour of the Dhamma become weak; before those who argue against the Vinaya become powerful, and those who argue in favour of the Vinaya become weak.'

'Even so, Lord,' said the venerable Sambhûta Sânavâsî, in assent to the venerable Yasa Kâkandaka-putta.

Then about sixty Bhikkhus from the Western country, all of whom were hermits, all of whom lived only on alms, all of whom dressed only in cast-off clothes, and kept only three robes, and all of whom were Arahats, assembled together at the Ahogaṅga Hill. And about eighty-eight from Avanti and the Southern country, some of whom were hermits, and some of whom, lived only on alms, and some of whom dressed only in cast-off clothes, and some of whom kept only three robes, but all of whom were Arahats, met together with them on the Ahogaṅga Hill.

1.9 And the Thera Bhikkhus, consulting together, came to this conclusion: 'This legal question, now, is hard and subtle. How can we obtain such support that we may have the greater power at the decision thereof[22]?'

[396] Now at that time the venerable Revata was dwelling at Soreyya, and he was wise in the traditions, one who had learned the Agamas (the four Nikâyas), and knew by heart the Dhamma, the Vinaya, and the Mâtikâs; intelligent, discreet, and wise, modest, conscientious, devoted to the precepts[23]. And the Thera Bhikkhus thought that if they could gain him over to their side, they would attain their end.

And the venerable Revata, by the divine ear, clear and surpassing that of men, heard the Thera Bhikkhus as they were thus consulting together; and he thought: 'This legal question is both hard and subtle, it would not become me to hold back therefrom. But even now those Bhikkhus (the Vaggians) will be coming. It would be unpleasant travelling for me were I to fall in with them. Let me go on before them.'

So the venerable Revata went from Soreyya to Samkassa. And when the Thera Bhikkhus went to Soreyya, and asked: 'Where is the venerable Revata?' they said: 'He is gone to Samkassa.'

Now the venerable Revata had gone on from Samkassa to Kannakugga. And when the Thera Bhikkhus came to Samkassa, and asked: 'Where is the venerable Revata?' they said: 'He is gone on to Kannakugga.' And in the same way they followed him thither, and to Udumbara, and to Aggalapura, and to Sahagâti, and there they met with the venerable Revata.

1.10 And the venerable Sambhûta Sânavâsî said to the venerable Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka:

[397] 'Friend, the brother Revata is wise in the traditions, has learnt the Agamas, knows by heart the Dhamma, the Vinaya, and the Mâtikâs, he is intelligent, discreet, and wise, modest, conscientious, and devoted to the precepts. If we ask the venerable Revata a puzzling question, he is capable of spending the whole night on that one question. And even now the venerable Revata will call upon a Bhikkhu who is an intoner[24], and a pupil of his. Do you, therefore, when the Bhikkhu has concluded, go to the venerable Revata and ask him concerning these ten theses (points).'

'Even so, Sir,' said the venerable Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka, in assent to the venerable Sambhûta Sânavâsî.

And the venerable Revata called upon the Bhikkhu, the pupil of his, the intoner. And when the Bhikkhu had concluded, the venerable Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka, went to the venerable Revata, and saluted him, and took his seat beside him. And, so seated, he said to the venerable Revata[25]:

'Is the horn-salt-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this horn-salt-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, to carry about salt in a horn with the intention of putting it into food which has not been salted?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Is the two-inch-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this two-inch-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, to eat the midday meal [398] beyond the right time, provided only that the shadow has not yet turned two inches?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Is the village-trip-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this village-trip-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, for one who has once finished his meal, and refused any more, to eat food which has not been left over, on the ground that he is about to proceed into the village?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Is the circuit-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this circuit-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, for a number of Bhikkhus who dwell within the same circuit, within the same boundary, to hold separate Uposathas?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Is the indemnity-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this indemnity-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, for a Samgha, which is not legally constituted[26], to perform an official act on the ground that they will afterwards obtain the sanction of such Bhikkhus who may subsequently arrive?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Is the precedent-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this precedent-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, to do a thing on the ground that, "My preceptor (upagghâya) has practised this; or my teacher (âkariya) has practised that?"'

'In some cases, Sir, this is allowable, and in some not[27].'

[399] 'Is the churn-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this churn-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, for one who has once finished his meal, and has refused any more, to drink milk not left over from the meal, on the ground that it has left the condition of milk, and has not yet reached the condition of curds[28]?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Is it allowable, Lord, to drink toddy?'

'What, Sir, is this toddy?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, to drink spirits which have left the condition of not being spirits, and yet have not acquired intoxicating properties[29]?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable?'

'Is a rug or mat (when it is beyond the prescribed size) lawful, Lord, because it is unfringed?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Is gold and silver, Lord, allowable?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

These are the ten theses, Lord, which these Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî have put forth. Come, Lord, let us take this legal question in hand before that which is not Dhamma is spread abroad, and that which is Dhamma is put aside; before that which is not Vinaya is spread abroad, and that which is Vinaya is put aside; before those who argue against the Dhamma become powerful, and those [400] who argue in favour of the Dhamma become weak; before those who argue against the Vinaya become powerful, and those who argue in favour of the Vinaya become weak.'

'Even so, Sir,' said the venerable Revata, in assent to the venerable Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka.

Here ends the First Portion for Recitation.

 


 

 

2

2.1 Now the Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî heard the rumour: 'Yasa, they say, the son of Kâkandaka, wishing to take this legal question in hand, is seeking about for support, and support they say he is succeeding in getting.' And they thought: 'This legal question, now, is hard and subtle. How can we obtain such support that we may have the greater power at the decision thereof[30]?'

And they thought: 'The venerable Yasa, who dwells at Soreyya, is wise in the traditions, and is one who has learnt the Agamas, who knows by heart the Dhamma, the Vinaya, the Mâtikâs, is intelligent, discreet, and wise, modest, conscientious, and devoted to the precepts. If we could gain him over to our side, we should attain our end.'

Then the Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî got together much property, requisites, a number of things of the Samanas' life--to wit, bowls and robes, and rugs, and needlecases, and girdles, and filters, and regulation-pots[31]. And, taking this property with [401] them, they went up stream by boat to Sahagâti, and there disembarked, and took their meal at the foot of a certain tree.

2.2 Now to the venerable Sâlha, who retired apart and was plunged in meditation, there occurred this doubtful problem: 'Are the Bhikkhus of the East, or the Bhikkhus of the West, the more in accordance with the Dhamma in the opinion that they hold?' And having gone over the Dhamma and the Vinaya in his mind, he came to the conclusion, 'The Bhikkhus of the East are not, and the Bhikkhus of the West are, in accordance with the Dhamma in the opinion that they hold.'

And a certain one of the deities in the Pure Abode[32] perceived how this doubtful problem had arisen in the venerable Sâlha's mind, and as quickly as a strong man could stretch forth his bent arm, or draw it in again when it was outstretched, so quickly did that deity vanish from the Pure Abode, and appeared before the venerable Sâlha; saying to him: 'Thou art quite right, Sâlha; it is the Eastern Bhikkhus whose opinions are against the Dhamma, and the Western Bhikkhus whose opinions accord therewith. Do thou, therefore, O Sâlha, even as the Dhamma is, so take thy stand!'

'Both formerly, O deity, and now, also, do I take my stand even as the Dhamma is. Notwithstanding, I shall not make manifest my opinion until (the Samgha) shall have appointed me (judge) over this question[33].'

2.3 Now the Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî, taking with them the aforesaid property, went to the place [402] where the venerable Revata was, and said to him: 'Let the venerable Thera receive at our hands these requisites of a Samana's life.'

But he refused to receive it, saying, 'Not so, my friends. I have all the things[34] I want.'

Now at that time a Bhikkhu named Uttara, who had been twenty years admitted into the Order[35], was the attendant upon the venerable Revata. And the Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî went to him, and said: 'Let your reverence receive at our hands these requisites of a Samana's life.'

But he made the same reply.

Then they said: 'People used to offer such requisites to the Blessed One. If he received them, they were happy. If he did not receive them, they used to offer them to the venerable Ânanda, saying, "Let the venerable Thera receive these requisites of a Samana's life: that will be just as if the Blessed One had received them." Let the venerable Uttara receive these things: that will be as if the Thera had received them.'

Then the venerable Uttara, being thus importuned by the Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî, accepted one robe, saying, 'You may tell me, friends, what you want.'

'Let the venerable Uttara say thus much for us to the Thera: "Let the venerable Thera say thus much in the meeting of the Samgha--'It is in the regions of the East that the Buddhas, the Blessed Ones, are born. It is the Bhikkhus of the East who hold opinions in accord with the Dhamma, whereas the Bhikkhus of the West do not.'"'

[403] 'Even so, Sirs,' said the venerable Uttara, in assent to the Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî. And he went to Revata, and told him what they had said.

'Thou urgest me, O Bhikkhu, to that which is against the Dhamma,' said the Thera, and sent away the venerable Uttara[36].

And the Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî said to the venerable Uttara: 'What, fiend Uttara, did the Thera say?'

'It is an evil you have wrought me, Sirs. The Thera has sent me away, saying, "Thou urgest me, O Bhikkhu, to what is against the Dhamma."'

'Are you not, Sir, of full age, of twenty years (since your upasampadâ)?'

'Yes, Sirs, I am.'

'Then do we take the nissaya under you as your pupils[37].'

2.4 Now the Samgha met together with the intention of deciding the legal question. And the venerable Revata laid a resolution before the Samgha, saying,

'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. If we were to settle this question, it might be that those Bhikkhus who had at first taken the matter in hand might raise it again[38]. If it seem meet to the Samgha, let the Samgha settle it at that place where it arose.'

[404] Then the Thera Bhikkhus went to Vesâlî, with the intention of settling the matter there.

Now at that time the eldest Thera in the world, Sabbakâmî by name, one who was of a hundred and twenty years' standing from the date of his upasampadâ, and who had been a pupil[39] of the venerable Ânanda, was living at Vesâlî. And the venerable Revata said to the venerable Sambhûta Sânavâsî:

'I shall go to that Vihâra in which the Thera Sabbakâmî dwells. Do you go betimes to the venerable Sabbakâmî, and question him as touching these ten points.'

'Even so, Lord,' said the venerable Sambhûta Sânavâsî, in assent to the venerable Revata.

And the venerable Revata came to that Vihâra in which the venerable Sabbakâmî lived; and a sleeping-place was made ready for the former in the inner chamber, and for the latter in front thereof. And the venerable Revata, thinking, 'This Thera, though so old, does not care to sleep,' did not go to rest. And the venerable Sabbakâmî, thinking, 'This Bhikkhu, though a traveller and tired, does not care to sleep,' did not go to rest.

2.5 Then when the night was far spent, the venerable Sabbakâmî said to the venerable Revata:

'By what manner of life, beloved one, have you lived now these so many years?'

'By continuing in the sense of love, honoured friend, have I continued thus so many years.'

'They say that you have continued thus, beloved one, by easiness of life: and that indeed, beloved one, is an easy life, (I mean) the continuing in love.'

[405] 'Even long ago, Sir, when I was a layman, was much love laid up in my heart, therefore is it that now also I live much in the sense of love, and indeed since long I have attained to Arahatship. And by what manner of life have you lived now these many years?'

'By continuing in the sense of the emptiness (of worldly things) have I, beloved one, lived these many years.'

'They say that you, honoured friend, have continued thus by the sense of being a man born to greatness[40]; and that indeed, honoured friend, is the same feeling, (I mean) the sense of the emptiness of things.'

'Even long ago, beloved one, when I was a layman, had I a strong sense of the emptiness of things, therefore is it that now also I live much in that feeling, and indeed since long I have attained to Arahatship.'

2.6 Now[41] this conversation between the Thera Bhikkhus was still unfinished when the venerable Sambhûta Sânavâsî arrived there. And he went up to the venerable Sabbakâmî, and saluted him, and took his seat beside him. And, so seated, he said to the venerable Sabbakâmî:

'These Vaggian Bhikkhus of Vesâlî have put forth in Vesâlî these ten points;' and he told them all[42]. 'Now you, O Thera, have mastered much Dhamma and Vinaya at the feet of your preceptor.

[406] What, then, is the conclusion to which you, O Thera, come as you lay over in your mind the Dhamma and the Vinaya;--whose opinion is in accordance with the Dhamma, that of the Bhikkhus of the East, or that of the Bhikkhus of the West?'

'You also, Sir, have mastered much Dhamma and Vinaya at the feet of your preceptor. What, then, is the conclusion to which you, Sir, come as you lay over in your mind the Dhamma and the Vinaya;--whose opinion is in accordance with the Dhamma, that of the Bhikkhus of the East, or that of the Bhikkhus of the West?'

'The conclusion to which I come, Lord, as I so lay over in my mind the Dhamma and the Vinaya, is this--that the Bhikkhus of the East hold an opinion that is not in accord with the Dhamma, while the Bhikkhus of the West are in accord with the Dhamma. Notwithstanding, I do not intend to make manifest my opinion until (the Samgha) shall have appointed me (referee) over this question[43].'

'The conclusion to which I also have come, Sir, as I lay over in my mind the Dhamma and the Vinaya, is this--that the Bhikkhus of the East hold an opinion that is not in accordance with the Dhamma, while the Bhikkhus of the West are in accord with the Dhamma. Notwithstanding, I do not intend to make manifest my opinion until (the Samgha) shall have appointed me (referee) over this question.'

2.7 Then the Samgha met together with the intention of enquiring into this legal question. But while they were enquiring into it, both was much pointless speaking brought forth and also the sense [407] in no single speech was clear[44]. Then the venerable Revata laid a resolution before the Samgha:

'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. Whilst we are discussing this legal question, there is both much pointless speaking, and no sense is clear in any single speech. If it seem meet to the Samgha, let the Samgha settle this legal question by referring it (to a jury)[45].'

And he chose four Bhikkhus of the East and four Bhikkhus of the West--from the Bhikkhus of the East the venerable Sabbakâmî, and the venerable Sâlha, and the venerable Khugga-sobhita, and the venerable Vâsabha-gâmika--and from the Bhikkhus of the West, the venerable Revata, and the venerable Sambhûta Sânavâsî, and the venerable Yasa, the son of Kâkandaka, and the venerable Sumana. Then the venerable Revata laid a resolution before the Samgha:

'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. During the enquiry into this matter there has been much pointless talk among us, and in no single utterance is the sense clear. If it seem meet to the Samgha, let the Samgha delegate four Bhikkhus of the East and four Bhikkhus of the West to settle this question by reference. This is the resolution.

'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. During the enquiry into this matter there has been much pointless talk among us, and the sense in any single utterance is not clear. The Samgha delegates four Bhikkhus of the East and four Bhikkhus of the West to settle this question by reference. Whosoever [408] of the venerable ones approves thereof, let him keep silence. Whosoever approves not thereof, let him speak. The delegation is made accordingly. The Samgha approves thereof. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand.'

Now at that time a Bhikkhu named Agita, of ten years' standing, was the reciter of the Pâtimokkha to the Samgha. Him did the Samgha appoint as seat regulator[46] to the Thera Bhikkhus.

Then the Thera Bhikkhus thought, 'At what place, now, ought we to settle this legal question?' And it occurred to them: 'This Vâlika Ârâma is a pleasant place, quiet and undisturbed. Let us settle the matter there.' And thither the Thera Bhikkhus proceeded to enquire into the question.

2.8 Then the venerable Revata laid a resolution before the Samgha[47]: 'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. If it seem meet to the Samgha, I will question the venerable Sabbakâmî as touching the Vinaya.' And the venerable Sabbakâmî laid a resolution before the Samgha: 'If it seem meet to the Samgha, I, when asked by Revata touching the Vinaya, will give reply.'

And the venerable Revata said to the venerable Sabbakâmî: 'Is the horn-salt-license, Lord, allowable?'

[409] 'What, Sir, is this horn-salt-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, to carry about salt in a horn with the intention of putting it into food which has not been salted?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Where was such a claim rejected?'

'At Sâvatthi, in the Sutta Vibhaṅga.'

'Of what offence is the person, who does so, guilty?'

'Of Pâkittiya, in eating food which has been put by[48].'

'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. This first point, having been examined into by the Samgha, has been found to be false Dhamma and false Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the Master. Thus do I cast the first vote.'

'Is the two-inch-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this two-inch-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, to eat the midday meal beyond the right time, provided only that the shadow of the sun has not yet turned two inches?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Where has such a claim been rejected?'

'At Râgagaha, in the Sutta Vibhaṅga.'

'Of what offence is he, who does so, guilty?'

'Of Pâkittiya, in eating at the wrong time[49].'

'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. This second point, having been examined into by the Samgha, has been found to be false Dhamma and false Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the Master. Thus do I cast the second vote.'

'Is the village-trip-license, Lord, allowable?'

[410] 'What, Sir, is this village-trip-license?'

'Is it allowable for one who has once finished his meal, and has refused any more, to eat food which has not been left over, on the ground that he is about to proceed into the village?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Where was such a claim rejected?'

'At Sâvatthi, in the Sutta Vibhaṅga.'

'Of what offence is he, who does so, guilty?'

'Of Pâkittiya, in eating food which has not been left over[50].'

'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. This third point, having been examined into by the Samgha, has been found to be false Dhamma and false Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the Master. Thus do I cast the third vote.'

'Is the circuit-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this circuit-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, for a number of Bhikkhus who dwell within the same circuit, within the same boundary, to hold separate Uposathas?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Where was such a claim rejected?'

'At Râgagaha, in the Uposatha Samyutta[51]'

'Of what offence is he, who does so, guilty?' 'Of Dukkata, in neglecting the Vinaya.'

'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. This fourth point, having been examined into by the Samgha, has been found to be false Dhamma and false Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the Master. Thus do I cast the fourth vote.'

[411] 'Is the indemnity-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this indemnity-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, for a Samgha which is not legally constituted to perform an official act, on the ground that they will afterwards obtain the sanction of such Bhikkhus as subsequently arrive?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Where was such a claim rejected?'

'In the Kampeyyaka section, in the body of the Vinaya[52].'

'Of what offence is he, who does so, guilty?'

'Of Dukkata, in neglecting the Vinaya.'

'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. This fifth point, having been examined into by the Samgha, has been found to be false Dhamma and false Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the Master. Thus do I cast this fifth vote.'

'Is the precedent-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this precedent-license?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, to do a thing on the ground that "My preceptor (upagghâya) has practised this," or "My teacher (âkariya) has practised that?"'

'In some cases, Sir, it is allowable, and in some not[53]'

'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. This sixth point, having been examined into by the Samgha, has been found to be false Dhamma and false Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the Master. Thus do I cast this sixth vote.'

'Is the churn-license, Lord, allowable?'

'What, Sir, is this churn-license?'

[412] 'Is it allowable, Lord, for one who has once finished his meal, and has refused any more, to drink milk not left over from the meal, on the ground that it has left the condition of milk and has not yet reached the condition of curds?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Where was such a claim rejected?'

'At Sâvatthi, in the Sutta Vibhaṅga.'

'Of what offence is he, who does so, guilty?'

'Of Pâkittiya, in eating food which has not been left over[54].'

'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. This seventh point, having been examined into by the Samgha, has been found to be false Dhamma and false Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the Master. Thus do I cast this seventh vote.'

'Is it allowable, Lord, to drink toddy?'

'What, Sir, is this toddy?'

'Is it allowable, Lord, to drink spirits which have not yet become spirits and have not yet acquired intoxicating properties?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Where was it rejected?'

'At Kosambî, in the Sutta Vibhaṅga:

'Of what offence is he, who does so, guilty?'

'Of Pâkittiya, in the drinking of fermented liquors and strong drink[55].'

'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. The eighth point, having been examined into by the Samgha, has been found to be false Dhamma and false Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the Master. Thus do I cast this eighth vote.'

[413] 'Is the unfringed-seat, Lord, allowable[56]?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Where has it been rejected?'

'At Savatthi, in the Sutta Vibhaṅga.'

'Of what offence is he, who uses such a seat, guilty?'

'Of Pâkittiya, in using a thing which ought to be cut down (to the proper size)[57].'

'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. This ninth point, having been examined into by the Samgha, has been found to be false Dhamma and false Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the Master. Thus do I cast this ninth vote.'

'Is gold and silver, Lord, allowable?'

'No, Sir, it is not allowable.'

'Where was it forbidden?'

'At Râgagaha, in the Sutta Vibhaṅga.'

'Of what offence is he, who takes it, guilty?'

'Of Pâkittiya, in accepting gold and silver[58].'

'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. This tenth point, having been examined into by the Samgha, has been found to be false Dhamma and false Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the Master. Thus do I cast this tenth vote.'

'Let the venerable Samgha hear me. These ten points, having been examined into by the Samgha, have been found to be false Dhamma and false Vinaya, and not contained in the teaching of the Master.'

[414] '[59]This legal question, Sir, has been concluded; and being settled, it is settled once for all. Nevertheless, Sir, do you question me on these ten points in the midst also of the Samgha [60], in order to persuade those Bhikkhus[61].'

So the venerable Revata questioned the venerable Sabbakâmî on the ten points also in the midst of the Samgha, and as he was questioned on one after the other, the venerable Sabbakâmî gave reply.

9. Now whereas at this rehearsal of the Vinaya seven hundred Bhikkhus, without one more, without one being wanting, took part, therefore is that rehearsal of the Vinaya called 'That of the seven hundred[62].'

Here ends the Twelfth Khandhaka, on the Rehearsal by the Seven Hundred.

 


[1] As pointed out at xxii of our Introduction, we believe this number ought not to be taken too literally, but to be considered a round number.

[2] The above terms are explained below, §§ 1, 10, and 2, 8.

[3] About a penny; on this and the following terms, see Rh. D.'s 'Ancient Coins and Measures, &c.,' p. S.

[4] Pativiso. See Mahâvagga VIII, 27, 4.

[5] Patisâraniya-kamma. See Kullavagga I, 18.

[6] On Anudûta, see Kullavagga I, 20-22.

[7] That is, eclipse.

[8] It is curious that this matter is not, like all the following, referred to in the Sîlas. See Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 190.

[9] Those, namely, which are set out in the Mahâ Sîla (Rh. D.'s Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 196-203).

[10] That is, by being repeatedly reborn they continually die. Vaddhenti katasin ti punappunam kalevara-nikkhipamâna-bhûmim vaddhenti, says Buddhaghosa. The word occurs at Gâtaka I, 146.

[11] The whole is repeated in the text.

[12] The whole of this speech recurs, nearly word for word, in the Mahâvagga VI, 31, 4.

[13] Compare Kullavagga VII, 1, 2.

[14] This is set out in full in the Sutta Vibhaṅga in the Introduction to the 18th Nissaggiya Pâkittiya,

[15] They are speaking to Yasa and the anudûta.

[16] This cannot refer to the 9th Pâkittiya, which only speaks of making known grievous offences. Aṅguttara II, 5, 2 refers to laymen as well as to sâmaneras.

[17] Ukkhepaniya-kamma. See Kullavagga I, 25.

[18] On these terms, compare note on Mahâvagga VII, 1, 1.

[19]navâsî is, literally, he who wears a hempen dress. In the traditions of the Sanskrit Buddhist literature we find mentioned a Sânavâsika, said to be a predecessor, in the teacher and pupil line, of Upagupta (Wassilief, p. 44). The Nepalese call him Sonavâsî (Rajendralâl Mitra, 'Sanskrit Buddhist Literature of Nepâl,' p. 10). He is the hero of the Sânavâsi Avadâna part of the Bodhisatva Avadâna Kalpalatâ (Mitra, p. 67, Bendall 'Catalogue of Cambridge MSS.,' p. 42), where the name is explained: 'I wished for an ochre-coloured robe (sona); hence I was called Sânavâsi.'

[20] See, for the position of this mountain, our note last quoted.

[21] In the text the full words of I, 1 are here repeated.

[22] Compare below, XII, 2, I.

[23] These adjectives have occurred above at Mahâvagga X, I, 2, and Kullavagga I, 11, 1.

[24] Sarabhânakam. See our note above at Kullavagga V, 3, 2.

[25] The whole of the following questions and answers recur below at XII, 2, 8, where the reasons of the answers also appear.

[26] Vaggena. See our note on the 21st Pâkittiya, and Kullavagga V, 2, 1.

[27] That is, of course, according as the thing enjoined is, or is not, [399] lawful. Ekakko kappatî ti idam dhammikam âkinnam sandhâya vuttam, says Buddhaghosa.

[28] That is, which is neither liquid nor solid: something apparently like buttermilk.

[29] It is a question constantly arising under the excise laws in India and Ceylon, whether the liquor in the case has become arrack, or is only arrack in the making, and unfermented. This last is called unfermented toddy.

[30] Compare above, XII, 1, 9.

[31] On Dhamma-karaka, see our note at Kullavagga V, 13, I.

[32] The Heaven, so called.

[33] Compare below, § 6.

[34] Literally, 'I have the three robes.'

[35] Vîsativasso; that is, since his upasampadâ.

[36] Panâmesi. That is, permanently from attendance upon him. Compare Mahâvagga I, 27. 2, where the word is used of the formal dismissal or turning away of a pupil.

[37] Garu-nissayam ganhâma; on which Buddhaghosa has nothing, though the phrase does not occur elsewhere in the Khandhakas.

[38] Compare the 63rd Pâkittiya.

[39] Literally, 'had dwelt in the same Vihâra with.'

[40] Mahâpurisa. On the subsequent history of which word, see Senart's 'Légende du Buddha,' pp. 54, 127,

[41] Karahi. Compare 'Book of the Great Decease,' III, 53; Childers, p. 32.

[42] The text repeats XII, 1, 1.

[43] Compare above, § 2.

[44] So above in Kullavagga IV, 24, 19, where the proceeding adopted in the subsequent sentences is laid down for use on such an occasion.

[45] Ubbâhikâya. See the passage quoted in the last note.

[46] Âsana-paññâpakam. This office is not mentioned in the other Khandhakas. We should expect to find it at Kullavagga VI, 21, 2. The reason of this is that it is no office of authority. The different referees would take their seats in the order of their seniority, and all that the âsana-paññâpaka would have to do would be to see that they were provided with everything they required (it was not much, chiefly mats or rugs to sit upon) in the hall or grove where they met.

[47] Here, of course, consisting of the eight referees.

[48]kittiya XXXVIII.

[49]kittiya XXXVII.

[50]kittiya XXXV.

[51] Samyutta must here be used for Khandhaka. The passage referred to is Mahâvagga II (the Uposatha Khandhaka), 8, 3.

[52] Vinaya-vatthu. Here used as a title, apparently of the Khandhakas. The passage referred to is in the Kampeyyaka Khandhaka (Mahâvagga IX, 3, 5).

[53] See the note above on XII, I. 10.

[54]kittiya XXXV.

[55]kittiya LI.

[56] That is, does the fact of its being unfringed make legal a mat or rug otherwise illegal by reason of its size? See above, XII, 1, 10.

[57]kittiya LXXXIX.

[58] The 18th Nissaggiya Pâkittiya.

[59] It is clear from the word tvam âvuso, that Sabbakâmî is here addressing Revata.

[60] That is not only of the referees, but of all the Bhikkhus there at Vesâlî.

[61] Bhikkhûnam saññattiyâ. See the use of this phrase at Kullavagga IV, 14, 26, and VII, 4. I. and our note on the latter of those two passages.

[62] Compare XI, 1, 15.


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