RHYS DAVIDS: BUDDHIST INDIA

323

 

 


 

 

INDEX

— A —

Aboriginal tribes in India, 43, 44, 54, 55
Ādityas, the gods, 236
Āgama, later term for Nikāya, 168
Agni, 216, 219, 235, 242
Ajātasattu, king of Magadhā, 3, 12-16, 89
Ājīvakas, an order of ascetics, 143, 290
Akbar, 307
Ākhyānas (Akkhānas), 183, 185
Aldermen of the guilds, 96, 97
Alexander, his Indian coin, 100;
 his invasion of India, 267, 268
Alphabets, 116-118, 124, 131
Alwis, James, 28
Ambattha's visit to the Sākiyas, 19
Amitra-ghāta, 272
Ancient history and modern, the dividing line between, 240
Andhra dynasty, 310-312
Angas, name of a tribe, 23;
 name of Jain books, 164
Animism, 210-230
Añjana, the Buddha's grandfather, 18
Añjana Wood, near Sāketa, 39
Anurādhapura, 69, 70, 75, 85, 201, 277, 311
Āpastamba, date of, 32
Arachosia, 268
Archaeology in India, 41, 132 Architecture in old times, 63 foll.
Ārdha-Māgadhi, 154
Armies, size of, in India, 266
Aryan, immigration, routes of, 31;
 settlements in the South, 156
Āsavas (Intoxications) 296
Asceticism, see Tapas
Asoka, not mentioned in the Buddhist canon, 174,
 nor by the Greeks, 272;
 Indian accounts of, 276;
 his treatment of the Buddha relics, 278;
 his marriage, 279;
 his coronation, 280;
 his conquest of Kalinga, 282;
 his conversion, 282-284;
 his buildings, 286-290;
 his Edicts, 290-299;
 his missions, 298-300;
 his sending the Bo tree to Ceylon, 302-304;
 other measures to propagate his Dhamma, 304;
 his failures, 305;
 his character, 306
Asoka Avadāna, 276
Āsramas, the four, brahmin theory of 249, 250
Assakas, an ancient tribe, 27, 203
Assattha tree, 230, 234
Assyria, 113
Asuras, see Titans
Asvaghosha, poet, 315
Asvins, 236
Ātānaṭiya Suttanta, 219
Atharva Veda, 166, 213, 252
Attha Sālinī, revised in Ceylon, 175
Authors, none known before Asoka, 179, 180
Avantī, one of the four great kingdoms, 3, 4, 27, 28;
 incorporated into Magadhā, 267;
 probable home of Pāli, 153, 154
Avesta, 181
Ayojjhā, 34, 39

— B —

Babylon, 104, 113, 115, 116
Bacon's Essays, 166
Baktria, 313
Bali offerings, 227
Banyan Deer Jātaka, 190-194, 198
Barbers, guild of, 94
Barrows, round, the origin of stūpas, 80
Barter, traffic by, 100
Basket makers, 54, 90
Baths, hot-air, 74;
 open-air, 75
Baveru (Babylon), 104
Behar, 42
Benares, conquest of, by Kosalā, 25;
 size of, 34
Bengal, ignored in old records, 29
Bhaddiya, consul of the Sākiyas, 19
Bhandarkar, Professor, 32, 150, 177
Bharahat Tope, 10, 82, 198, 209, 288
Bharhut, see Bharahat
Bharukaccha, first mention of, 31;
 trade at, 38;
 sea vogages from, 96, 104, 116
Bimbisāra, king of Magadhā, 3;
 builds Rājagaha, 37
Bindusāra, king of Magadhā 272, 304
Blacksmiths, 264
Boats, 94, 103
Bodh Gaya, 288, 302
Bodhi, prince of the Vacchas, 7
Bodhi, the sacred tree, 229
Bodhisatva, progress of the idea, 177
Books and MSS., 110
Bower MS., 124, 128
Brahmā, the god, 235
Brahma-Vihāras, 197
Brāhmaṇas, language of, 147;
 morality of, 240, 247
Brāhmī Lipī, later name of the Asoka alphabet, 117
Brahmin, spelling of the word, 2;
 their social rank, 54;
 trades they followed, 57;
 could marry a Kshatriya, 59;
 were considered low-born as compared with Kshatriyas, 60;
 their theories as to learning, 118;
 claimed to be divinities, 118;
 as grammarians, 149, 317;
 their influence in Buddhist times, 150, 159;
 their struggle against the rajputs, iii, 158;
 the debt we owe to the learned, 210;
 their divisions, 249
Bricks used for writing on, 121-124
Buddha Carita, 315
Buddha Vaṃsa, age of, 176
Buddhaghosa, 201, 277
Buddhist Literature, down to Asoka, chronological table of, 188
Bühler, Professor, 43, 113, 126, 202, 319
Burgess, James, 31
Burma, 94, 104
Burnouf, 171
Butchers, 93

— C —

Caravans, 98
Cariyā Piṭaka, 176, 196
Carpenters, 264
Carts, 93, 98
Caste, 56, 59, 62
Cattle, customs as to village, 45, 46
Cetis, an ancient tribe, 26, 29
Ceylon Chronicles, 261, 274-277
Ceylon, ignored in the old records, 29;
 date of first Aryan settlement in, 33, 104;
 history of language in, 155;
 were the Pāli books forged there? 170 foll.;
 scholarship in, 304
Chambā, 32
Champā, 23, 35, 104, 260
Chānakya, 270
Chandragupta, emperor of India, 259-271
Charms, 5
Childers, Professor, 201
Cholas, 298, 311
Chunam work in ancient buildings, 69, 82
Cities, very few in number, 50;
 architecture of, 61 foll.;
 great size of, 35, 263
Clans, in ancient India, 17-22
Climate, influence of, 42, 43
Coins, 100 foll., 106;
 the oldest Sanskrit, 136
Colours, the four, 53, 62
Commensality and connubium, 52, 57, 58
Common lands, 45-48
Constantine, 298
Copper plates, 122-125
Cowell, Professor, 189
Credit, instruments of, 101
Cromwell, 306, 307
Cutch, see Kacch

— D —

Dagabas, 80
Dakkhināpatha, 30
Dancing and music, 186
Dantapura, settlement at, 31
Dasaratha, Asoka's grandson, 143
Dead, curious customs as to disposal of the, 78-82
Dekkan, 30, 311, 312
Delhi, 27
Deussen, Professor, 190
Devadaha, the Buddha's ancestor, 18
Devadatta, the Buddha's cousin, 13, 193
Dhamma, meaning of, 292;
 sketch of Asoka's, 294-297
Dhamma-kathika, 167
Dhana Nanda, king of Magadhā, 267
Dialogues of the Buddha, date of, 107
Diana, the goddess, 217
Diogenes, 245
Dīpavaṃsa, 276, 277
Disease due to escape of the soul, 252
Divyāvadāna, a book of legends, 10
D'Oldenburg, Professor Serge, 209
Drama, use of the, 184-186
Dravidian, names of imports into the West, 116;
 tribes, civilisation of, 53, 56;
 dialects, charged with Sanskrit, 156;
 kingdoms, 311
Dreams, 252, 253
Drugs, 98
Dundubhissara, 299, 300
Dushṭa Gāmini, king of Ceylon, 278, 311
Dvāraka, capital of Kambojā, 28
Dyaus, 236
Dyers, 93

— E —

Earth, the mother, 47, 219
East, the immovable, 237
Economic conditions, 87 foll., 258
Eights, the name of a book of lyrics, 178
Elephant, legend of the decoy, 5;
 their use in war, 266-268
Elu, the Prakrit of Ceylon, 155
Endogamy and exogamy, 52
Epics, growth of, 179-183, 206
Eran coins, 115

— F —

Family rights, 47
Famines, 49, 50
Fausböll, Professor, 189, 200, 204
Feer, M. Leon, 194
Fergusson, James, 227
Fick, Dr., 62, 87, 202
Fields, custom as to cultivation of, 46;
 not salable, 47
Fire-drill, 231
Fishing, only in rivers, not in the sea, 93
Fleet, Mr. J.F., 31
Folk-lore, 208
Forests, large expanse of, 20, 21;
 see Mahā-vana
Fortifications of Pāṭaliputta, 262
Forts in ancient times, 38, 63
Franke, Professor Otto, 315
Freedom of thought in ancient India, 247, 258
Frescoes, 96

— G —

Gaggarā, queen of Angā, 35
Gambling halls, public, provided by the king. 71, 72
Games, 108
Gandak, river, 259
Gandhārā, the country, 28
Gandharvas, 220
Garudas, harpies or griffins, 224
Gavelkind, custom of, 47
Gedrosia, ceded to Magadhā, 268
Geiger, Professor, vi, 275
Geldner, Professor, 181
Giribbaja, old capital of Maghaha, 37, 38
Giri-nagara (Girnar), in the Kathiawad, 134, 312
Gods, origin of, 255
Godhāvari river, 27, 30, 156
Gold plates used for writing, 124
Golden Age, in India, 187
Gonaddha, in Avantī, 103
Gosinga Vihara, MS. from, 122, 124, 128, 173
Grammar, studied in the North-West, 203
Grierson, Mr., 32
Grimblot, 185
Grünwedel, Dr., 303
Guilds of work people, the eighteen, 90 foll. 96
Gupta dynasty, 150, 308

— H —

Hardy, Professor E., 298
Hardy, Spence, 30
Hermits, 140;
distinct from Wanderers, 143
Hillebrandt, Professor, 242
Himālayas, 29;
 dialects of, 32;
 as boundary, 260;
 missionaries sent to, 299-301
Hiranya-kesin, date of, 32
History, how treated in brahmin records, 157
Hoernle, Dr., 120
Hopkins, Professor, 87, 152
Hume's "Essay," 166
Hunting and hunters, 44, 93

— I —

Images, none in ancient times, 241
Indika of Megasthenes, 260 foil.
Indra, the god, 232-235
Inscriptions in India, were first in Pāli, 130;
 gradual growth of use of Sanskrit in, 131-139;
 specimen of an Asoka, 135;
 donations recorded in, 151
Interest on loans, 101
Intermarriages in ancient India, 59
Internal evidence as to the age of literary records, 165
Intoxication, god of, see Soma;
 ethical, 296
Irish legends, 181
Irrigation, 46, 86, 264
Isisinga legend, 201
I-Tsing's travels, 35
Ivory, 94;
 ivory-workers, 93, 98

— J —

Jacobi, Professor, 31, 163, 164, 183, 185, 227. 235
Jain records, 12, 163, 318
Jain temple at Khujarao, 285, 290
Jains, founder of, 41;
 early name of, 143
Janaka, king of Videha, 26
Jātaka Book, discussion of history of, 189-208;
 summary of results, 207, 208
Jetavana, 99
Jewellers, 93
Jhānas, 197
Jumna, the river, 27
Jupiter, 235

— K —

Kacch, Gulf of, 28, 32, 38
Kahāpana, square copper coin, 100-102
Kāḷāsoka, king of Magadhā, makes Pāṭaliputta the capital, 37
Kalinga, earliest settlement in, 31
Kalpa-rukkha, the Wishing Tree, 227
Kambojā, the country, 28
Kammāssa-dhamma, in the Kurū country, 27
Kampilla, capital of the Kurus, 27, 35
Kāñcipura, 156
Kanishka, 315-320
Kanoj, capital1 of the Kurus, 27
Kapilavastu, the old town and the new, 18, 103
Kāsī, township of, matter of dispute between Kosalā anil Magadhā, 3;
 the Kāsis as one of the sixteen great tribes, 24
Kassapa, the Buddha, 229
Kassapa-gotta, a Buddhist missionary, 299, 300
Kathā Vatthu, the book, age of, 167, 176;
 author of, 299
Kennedy, Mr., 115
Kerala, 311
Kharavela, king of Kalinga, 310
Kharosṭrī alphabet, 124
Khotan, MS. from, 124
Kolarian tribes, 53, 56
Konāgamana, the Buddha, 290
Kosalā, one of the four great Kingdoms, 3;
 importance of, in the Buddha's time, 25;
 its influence on language, 147;
 the language of, its place in history, 153;
 the Rāmayana arose in, 183;
 centre of Buddhist literary activity, 183
Kosambi, city on the Jumna. 3, 36, 103
Kshatriyas, 53;
 working as artisans, 54, 55;
 not always Aryan by race, 56;
 when made outcaste, 58;
 disputed the claim of the brahmins to social supremacy, 61
Kumārila, iv, 156
Kurus, ancient tribe, 27
Kushanas, 314 foll.
Kusinārā, the Mallian town, 26, 37, 103
Kuvera, the god, 220

— L —

Land tenure, 46 foll.
Language, outline of history of, in India, 153, 211
Learning, its nutriment, 111
Leather-workers, 54, 92
Lena dialect, 154
Lettering, an ancient game, 108
Levi, Professor, 124, 240
Licchavis, the clan, 26, 40;
 their public hall for religious and philosophical discussion, 141;
 their political power, 25, 260
Linga, worship of, 166
Literature, pre-Buddhistic, 120 foll.;
 Pāli, 161 foll.
Luck, goddess of, see Siri;
 Asoka's view of, 295
Lüders, Dr., 201

— M —

McCrindle, his Ancient India, 261
Macchas, an ancient tribe, 27
Macdonell, Professor, 226
Madda, the country, 29, 39
Madhurā, on the Jumna, 36;
 in South India, 311
Magadhā, one of the four great kingdoms, 3;
 one of the sixteen main tribes, 24;
 its struggle with Champā, 260;
 in Alexander's time, 267;
 after Asoka's death, 309 310
Mahā-bharata, iii, 183, 184, 190, 214, 255
Mahā Kaccāna, lived at Madhurā, 36
Mahā Kosalā, king of Kosalā, 8, 10
Mahā-nama, 278
Mahā-samaya Suttanta, 219
Mahā-setthi, 97
Mahā-sudassana Jātaka, 195-197
Mahā-vaṃsa, 276-278
Malia-vana, the Great Wood, 20, 21, 41, 142
Mahā-vastu, 173
Mahāyāna, 177, 319
Māhissati, 103
Mahosadha, his underground dwelling, 66
Maine, Sir Henry, 238
Mallas, their Mote Hall, 19;
 their territory, 26;
 their power, 29
Mallikā, queen at Sāvatthi, her hall for public debates, 141
Marcus Aurelius, 307
Markets, 100, 101
Maruts, wind gods, 236
Maung-gon, gold plates from, 124, 126
Medicine, ancient, 231
Megasthenes, 49, 50, 260-268, 274
Mesa inscription, 113
Mesopotamia, its influence on India, 70
Metal-work, 90
Middle Country, the so-called, 172
Milanda, the king, 39
Milinda, the book, 37, 38, 167, 173
Millionaires, 102
Miners, 264
Mithilā, capital of Videha, 37
Mitra, a god, 236
Moggallāna, 288
Moon, as a god, 219
Mora-nivāpa, 142
Mortgage, not allowed, 46
Mote Halls, in the old republics, 19;
 in heaven, 66
Mother Earth, 47, 219, 220
Mountains, Spirit of the, 220

— N —

Nāgas, siren-serpents, 220-224, 233. 235
Nālandā, in Magadhā, 103
Nikāyas, the five, 168;
 differ in doctrine, 173;
 age of, 176;
 importance of, 187;
 tree-worship in, 226
Nirvana, under the tree, 231
Northern and Southern Buddhism, discussion of the phrase, 171-173

— O —

Occupation, facility of change of, 56, 57
Octroi duties, 98
Oldenberg, Professor, 181
Ophir, perhaps - Sovīra, 38
Order, the Buddhist, 304, 316
Orissa, 29
Ossian, 181

— P —

Painting, 96
Paithana, see Patiṭṭhana
Pajāpati, the god, 235
Pajjota, king of Avant, 3 foll.
Pāli, its relation to Sanskrit, 120-153;
 the Pāli literature, 161 foll.
 Text Society, 163
Pañca-nekāyika, 168
Pañchālas, ancient tribes, 27, 203
Pāṇḍyas, 298, 311
Pāṇini, 144, 203
Pañjab, 260, 267
Paramatta, the god, 224, 256
Pārāmitās, the ten, a late doctrine, 177
Parantapa, king at Kosambi, 7
Parasāriya, a brahmin teacher, 144
Pārāyana, sixteen lyrics, 178
Pasenadi, king of Kosalā, 3, 8-11, 19
Pataliputta, capital of Magadhā, 203;
 its size and fortifications, 262
Pātimokkha, rules of the order, learnt by heart, 111
Patiṭṭhāna, 30, 103, 311
Pāvā, a capital of the Mallas, 26
Payāga, 30
Peasantry, social position of, 51
Peppé, Mr. Peppé's discovery of the Sākiya Tope, 84, 130, 131
Peṭakin, one who knows a Piṭaka, 167
Peta Vallhu, the book, age of, 176
Phallus-worship, 165
Philpot, Mrs., 224
Piṇḍola, a recluse, 7
Pingalaka, a king, 176
Pippal tree, 230, 234
Pischel, Professor, 148, 154
Piyadassi, name of Asoka, 273-276
Police, 21, 98, 108
Population in ancient India, 18, 33
Potters, 54, 55, 92
Prakrit, meaning of the term, and date of, 154
Prices of commodities, 101
Prinsep, his first readings of the Asoka inscriptions, 273
Progressive societies, 238, 239
Pukkusāti, king of Gandhārā, 28

— R —

Rainy season, 112
Rāja, meaning of the word on old documents, 19
Rājagaha, capital of Magadhā, 36, 37
Rājasthan, dialects of, 32
Rājasūya sacrifices, 203
Rāma-gāma, 290
Rāma-ganga river, 259
Rāmayana, geography of, 31, 34;
 place of origin of, 183
Rapson, Mr., 136
Republics, in ancient India, 1, 2;
 organisation of, 17 foll.;
 their Mote Halls, 18;
 consuls in the, 19;
 list of names of, 22
Rhys-Davids, Mrs., on economic conditions, 87;
 on the Attlia Sālinī, 175;
 on the meaning of Dhamma, 292
Riddles of Sakka, an old Suttanta, 180
Rig Veda, 30, 46, 213, 223, 226, 232, 236, 242
Roruka, later Roruva, capital of Sovīra, 38
Rudradāman's inscription, 28, 134, 267

— S —

Sacrifice, brahmin theory of, 240-242;
 lay view, of 248, 249;
 Asoka's view of, 296
Sāgala, capital of the Maddas, 38
Sailors, 94
Sakas, 312 foll.
Sāketa, town in Kosalā, 39, 103
Sākiyas, the clan, 17 foll.;
 Viḍūdabha's campaign against, 11;
 pride of, 11;
 the Sākiya tope, 17, 90, 100, 130, 133;
 subject to Kosalā, 259
Sakka, the god, the riddles he asked, 180;
 takes the place of Indra, 234
Samajja, 185
Samaratī, queen of the Vacchas, 7
Sambodhi, 282
Sanam Kumāra, the god, 224
Sānchi Tope, 198, 288
Sanitary arrangements, 78
Sankara, 156, 187
Sanskrit, Indian use of the term, 154;
 its relation to Pāli, 128-139;
 date of the use of, in India, 134-136, 315, 316;
 compared to Latin, 136, 137;
 was it a spoken language? 148, 149, 154;
 its alphabets, 155;
 of the schools, 211
Sāriputta, 169, 288
Satraps, 312-314
Sāvatthi, in Nepal, capital of Kosalā, 25, 40, 103, 290
Scrollwork, along buildings, 77
Seleukos Nikator, 268
Self-torture, see Tapas
Semitic alphabets, 114
Senart, on caste, 62;
 on the Gosinga anthology, 124;
 on the Asoka inscriptions, 132;
 on the post-Asoka inscriptions, 152;
 on the Jātaka verses, 205;
 on the Ceylon chronicles, 276
Seniya, an ascetic, 245
Setavya, in Kosalā, 103
Seven-storied buildings, 70
Sigālovada Suttanta, 185
Silas, a tract, 107, 215
Singhalese, the so-called canon of the, 171;
 commentaries, 201, 207
Siri, the goddess of luck, 217
Sisunāga, king of Magadhā, makes Vesāli the capital, 37
Sirva, the god, 166
Sivi, the country, 28
Slaves in ancient India, origin, position, and numbers of, 55, 263
Smith, Mr. Vincent, 315
Social grades in ancient India, 52-62
Soma, the intoxicating drink, as god, 219, 231, 235
Soṇa, the river, 24
Sophists, 246, 248
Soul-theories, souls in trees, 227,
 size and shape of the soul, 250;
 absent in disease and sleep, 252
South India, not mentioned in the Buddhist canon, 29-32, 174
Sovīra, the country, 29, 38, 104;
 the port, 116
Spelling, in Indian inscriptions, compared with English, 132-135
Spiritual matters, 247 257
Stars, beliefs about, 6
Stonework, 66, 90
Strabo, 260 foll.
Stylites, St. Simeon, 244
Suddhodana, the Buddha's father, 19
Sūdras, their position among the Colours, 54;
 fate of learned, 118
Suicide, 109
Sumanā, princess in Kosalā, 10
Sun-god, 197, 219, 255
Suppāraka, the seaport, 31, 38, 116
Surā, intoxicating drink, 204
Sūrasenas, ancient tribe, 27
Sutta, as name of book or chapter, 168, 109
Sutta Nipāta, growth of, 177-180;
 tree-worskip in, 226
Suttantas, treatises so-called, 8;
 learning them by heart, 110;
 cut off at the root, 111;
 forgotten, 112;
 afterwards called Suttas, 169
Suttantika, one who knows a Suttanta, 168

— T —

Tagara, the town, 31
Tagara-sikhin, 31
Takka-silā (Takshila), seat of learning in N. W. India, 8, 28, 203;
 copper plates from, 124;
 capital of the Kushanas, 314
Tamil words in use in the West, 116
Tāamralipti, seaport, 103
Tanks, for bathing, 74, 75;
 for irrigation, 86
Tapas, self-torture, growth of doctrine of, 242 foll.
Teaching, etiquette of, 5;
 brahmin views about, 249
Temples, -none, in ancient times, 241
Tilaura Kot, site of Kapilavastu, 18
Tirhut, 32, 41
Tissa, son of Moggali, 299
Titans, 224, 241
Toleration, 296
Topes, see Dagabas
Trade routes, 102-104
Trades, 89 foll.
Tree-worship, 224-233
Tribal migration in India, 32
Tribes, the sixteen chief, in pre-Buddhistic times, 23 foll.
Trita, the god, 235
Truth, lower than sacrifice, 243
Turbans, 94, 97
Turkestan, MSS. discovered in, 128

— U —

Uddālaka Āruṇi, his defeat in argument, 247;
 his influence on pantheistic thought, 257
Udena, king of Kosambi, 3 foll., 7
Udyāna, the country, 29
United Provinces, 42
Ujjeni, capital of Avantī, 3, 40, 103;
 Magadha viceroys at, 260, 272
Upanishads, 162, 187, 223, 226, 250, 255
Upāsaka, 282, 294
Ūrvasī, 236.

— V —

Vacchas, see Vamsas
Vaikhānasa Sūtra, 144
Vaisyas, their social rank, 54
Vājapeya sacrifices, 203
Vajirā, daughter of Pasenadi, married to Ajātasattu, 4
Vajjians, their powerful confederation, 25, 26, 40
Vālmīki, 31
Vamsas, or Vatsas, 3, 27
Varuṇa, the god, 219, 235
Vāsula-dattā, legend of, 4 foll.
Vāyu, wind-god, 235
Vedānta, 163, 168
Vedic language, 153;
 divinities, 155, 158;
 hymns, interpretation of, 162
Vedisa, in Avantī, 103, 288
Vegetable diet, result of, 42
Vekhanassa, follower of Vikhanas, 142, 144
Vesāli, 29, 40
Vessas, 54, 55
Vessavana, the god, see Kuvera
Videha, as kingdom and republic, 26, 37
Viḍūḍabha, king of Kosalā, 4, 11, 12
Vikhanas, a teacher, 144
Village, customs, 45 foll.;
 head men, 49
Vimāna Vatthu, 176
Vindhya Hills, 29
Vishṇu, 219, 236

— W —

Wanderers, the, their discussion halls, 141;
 names of corporate bodies among, 143-146;
 freedom of thought among, 247, 258;
 their Dhamma, 294
Weavers, 54, 57, 90
Weber, Professor, 113, 114
Wickramasinha, Mr., 115
Windisch, Professor, 180
Winternitz, Professor, 190
Wisdom-tree, 230
Woodwork, 66, 90, 264
Writers, as trade, 108
Writing, history of, 107-127

— Y —

Yoga Sūtras, 197
Yueh-ti, 313 foll.

— Z —

Zimmer, Professor, 87, 232

 

 

 


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[Preface]  [Table of Contents][1. The Kings]  [2. The Clans and Nations]  [3. The Village]  [4. Social Grades]  [5. In the Town]  [6. Economic Conditions]  [7. Writing — The Beginnings]  [8. Writing — It's Development]  [9. Language and Literature. I. General View]  [10. Literature. II. The Pali Books]  [11. The Jataka Book]  [12. Religion — Animism]  [13. The Brahmin Position]  [14. Chandragupta]  [15. Asoka]  [16. Kanishka]  [Appendix]  [Index]

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