The Buddha gives the chain of interdependent links leading from blindness to pain and then gives definitions of the individual links.
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Defining the Terms
Avijja. Non-Vision. The not seeing as it is that this is Pain; that Pain originates with hunger; that to end the Pain, one must end the Hunger; that the Way to end the Hunger is to conform one's behavior to high view, high principles, high talk, high works, high lifestyle, high self-control, high memory, high serenity.
Saŋkhārā. Own-making, Con-struction. Identification with the intent to create experience for the self through acts of body, speech and mind, and the resulting identified-with thing that is made.
Viññāṇa. Consciousness. Knowing knowing. Awareness of being aware. Where it is a result of Own-making, it is 'Identified-with consciousness'. There is visual consciousness, auditory consciousness, olfactory consciousness, consciousness of taste, and the mind's consciousness of consciousness.
Nāma/rūpa. Named and Shape or a Named shape. The entity and it's identity. Name encompasses sense-experience, perception, intent, contact, and work of mind. Shape encompasses the Four Great Characteristics of solidity, liquidity, heat and motion and those shapes derived from these.
Saḷāyatana. The six sense spheres. Eye and sight; ear and sound, nose and scents, tongue and tastes; body and contact; mind and things.
Phassa. Touch, contact, connection. There is personal, or identified-with contact with the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind.
Vedanā. The personal or identified-with or connected-to sensations of pleasure, pain, and neither pleasure nor pain connected with experience of the senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste, contact and consciousness.
Taṇhā. Hunger/thirst. Desire, wanting, craving. There are these thirsts: for visual objects, sounds, scents, savours, touches and mental objects; thirst for pleasure; thirst for existence; and thirst for non-existence.
Upādāna. Bind-ups. The thinking about and pondering over and formation of intentions to obtain the pleasure of sensate existence that give fuel to and support the fire of existence. There are these fuels which support existence: Sense-pleasure, view, ethical practices, self-experience. Think of this as the sphere of temptations.
Bhava. Existence. Living. Becoming. The being in existence as a living being in some realm of being. All things being in constant change the Pali idea of 'existence' or 'being' is of 'becoming'. There is Sense-pleasure-existence, formed-existence, formless-existence
Jāti. 'Born this.' Whatsoever in this or that being in this or that set body of beings is birth, own-birth, re-occurance, rolling-on in, rolling-on-in-upon, taking up existence in the piled-up heap, the regaining of the spheres of sense.
See also: SN2 12.28