# Weights and Measures

#### Nahuta*

10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

One followed by 28 zeros. A very large number. See also: Lilavati Definitions for more large numbers.

**Pali Text Society, Pali English Dictionary (edited entry):**

**Nahuta: **... a vast number, a myriad Sn 677; J I.25, 83; Pv IV.17; DhA I.88; PvA 22, 265.

#### Asa'nkheyya*

100,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

A measure of years. See also: Lilavati Definitions for more large numbers.

**Pali Text Society, Pali English Dictionary (edited entry):**

**Asankheyya: **(adj.) [a + sankheyya, grd. of sa'n-khyaa] incalculable, innumerable, nt. an immense period A II.142; Miln 232 (cattaari a.), 289 DhA I.5, 83, 104.

#### Crore

10,000,000

A unit of quantity often referenced in the Suttas (more often in the Jatakas), equal to 10^{7} or 10 million.

#### Lakh*

100,000

The lakh or lac: a measure of quantity, equal to 100,000.

*

Childers: [abridged entry]: The numerals are called *sa'nkhyaa* (Sen. K. 404). The high numerals rare given at *Ab.* 474-476 and *Sen. K.* 412, 413: they are as follows,

*sata.m,* a hundred,

*sahassa.m,* a thousand,

*dasasahassa.m* or *nahuta.m* ten thousand,

*satasahassa.m* or *lakkha.m,* a hundred thousand, a lac,

*dasasatasahassa.m,* a million,

*ko.ti,* ten millions.

From ko.ti upwards each succeeding numeral is ten million times the preceding one. They are:

*pako.ti* ( = ten million ko.tis)

*ko.tippako.ti, nahuta.m, ninnahuta.m, akkhohinii, bindu, abbuda.m, nirabbuda.m, ahaha.m, ababa.m, a.ta.ta.m, sogandhika.m, uppala.m, kumuda.m, pu.n.dariika.m, paduma.m, kathaanam, mahaakathaana.m, asa'nkheyya.m.*

#### Kahaapa.na

Illust.

Pali Text Society:

Rhys Davids:

Buddhist India,

Fig. 24.

Ancient Indian Coins.

A coin described as square, made of copper or silver and possibly of gold weighing about 146 grains.

(There are 437.499999999 grains/oz)

PED describes the purchasing power as being about that of the florin = 2 shillings (in Rhys David's day - 1903 -

Today (7.14.2011) the 1903 GBP = US$ $3067.87039.

Two Pounds, 2 Shillings (or 2 Guineas) GBP in 1903 had the purchasing power of about Aa150.36 GBP today.

1 pound = 20 shillings.

1 shilling = $1.61

1 florin = $3.22.)

Today (Tuesday, April 01, 2003 12:02 PM - PM London Gold Fix: 334.35/oz) a gold kahaapa.nn would be worth @ $111.50; a silver k. @ $1.47; and a copper K. @ $0.015.

[Updated July 14, 2011, 3:26 AM - AM London Gold Fix: $1592.50/oz; a gold kahaapa.na would be worth $531.07; silver $13.12; copper @ $0.088.

Today (7.14.2011) with the British Pound at $1.61 USD,

20 shillings/pound,

the purchasing power of 2 shillings = $0.0805]

Worth four Padas or twenty masakas^{[3]}

Maasa^{3} [identical with maasa^{2}] a small coin ( = maasaka) J II.425 (satta maasaa = s. maasakaa C.).

Maasaka [fr. maasa2+ka = maasa3] lit. a small bean, used as a standard of weight and value; hence a small coin of very low value. Of copper, wood and lac (DhsA 318; cp. KhA 37; jatu-, daaru-, loha-); the suva.n.na- (golden m.) at J IV.107 reminds of the "gold" in fairy tales. That its worth is next to nothing is seen from the descending progression of coins at DhA III.108 = VvA 77, which, beginning with kahaapa.na, a.d.dha-paada, places maasaka and kaaha.nikaa next to mudhaa "gratis." It only "counts" when it amounts to 5 maasakas. - Vin III.47, 67; IV.226 (pa~nca-); J I.112 (a.d.dha-maasaka.m na agghati is worth nothing); IV.107; V.135 (first a rain of flowers, then of maasakas, then kahaapa.nas); DhA II.29 (pa~nca-m.-matta.m a sum of 5 m.); PvA 282 (m+a.d.dha- half-pennies and farthings, as children's pocket-money).

Kaaka.na (nt.) [kaa (for kad-) + ka.na = less than a particle] a coin of very small value Sdhp 514.

Kaaka.nikaa (f.) = prec. J I.120, 419; VI.346; DA I.212; DhA I.391; VvA 77 = DhA III.108. From the latter passages its monetary value in the opinion of the Commentator may be guessed at as being 1/8 of a kahaapa.na; it occurs here in a descending line where each succeeding coin marks half the value of the preceding one, viz., kahaapa.na, a.d.dha, paada, maasaka, kaaka.nikaa, upon which follows mudhaa "for nothing."
-agghanaka "not even a farthing's worth," worth next to nothing J VI.346.

See also: Lilavati Definitions for more on the weight of these coins.

#### League

Derived from an ancient Celtic unit and adopted by the Romans as the leuga, the league became a common unit of measurement throughout western Europe. It was intended to represent, roughly, the distance a person could walk in an hour. The Celtic unit seems to have been rather short (about 1.5 Roman miles, which is roughly 1.4 statute miles or 2275 meters), but the unit grew longer over time. In many cases it was equal to 3 miles, using whatever version of the mile was current. At sea, the league was most often equal to 3 nautical miles, which is 1/20 degree [2], 3.45 statute miles, or exactly 5556 meters. In the U.S. and Britain, standard practice is to define the league to be 3 statute miles (about 4828.03 meters) on land or 3 nautical miles at sea.^{[1]}

#### Yojana

A measure of distance: the amount that could be travelled in one day with one yoke (two) of oxen, or about 7 miles

See also: Lilavati Definitions for more on the Yojana and measures of distance.

**Yoke**^{6}: OED: One-fourth of a *suling,* about 50 or 60 acres (cf. *oxgang* as 1/8 of a *plough-land*); hence, later, applied vaguely to small manors. (Cf. yoklet.) Kent.

#### Gaavuta

A measure of distance: about 1/4 of a Yojana, or 1-3/4 miles.

#### Usabha

A measure of distance/length: Equal to 20 ya.t.this, or 140 cubits (@18") or 210 feet

#### Ya.t.thi

A measure of length. The length of a staff or goad or the stalk of the sugar cane (to cane): working back from Usabha, equal to about 10 feet

#### Cubit Hasta (Hattha)

A measure of length: the distance between the tip of the forefinger to the end of the elbow. |

#### Span

A measure of length: the distance between the tip of the little finger to the tip of the thumb with the fingers stretched wide. |

#### Hand

A measure of length: the distance of the width of four "men's" fingers about 3" later taken to be the width of the hand at the palm: (but now exactly) 4". |

#### Fathom [*Vyaama*]

A measure of length: the distance between the fingers when the arms are extended as far as a man can reach. Today: 2 yards |

#### Magadha Karika

A measure of volume: A twelve-edged [solid] with width, length, and height measured by one |

**Naa.likaa** (f.) [Sanskrit naa.dikaa andnaalikaa] a stalk, shaft; a tube, pipe or cylinder for holding anything; a small measure of capacity Vin II.116 (suuci-, cp. suucighara, needle-case); D I.7 ( = bhesajja- DA I.89); A I.210; J I.123 (ta.n.dula- a naa.li full of rice); VI.366 (a.d.dha-n-matta); Nd2 229. Cp. pa-. -odana a naa.li measure of boiled rice S I.82; DhA IV.17; -gabbha an (inner) room of tubular shape Vin II.152.[PED]

**Do.na** [Sanskrit dro.na (nt.) conn. with *dere*o tree, wood, wooden, see dabbi and daaru and cp. Sanskrit dru.nii pail] a wooden pail, vat, trough; usually as measure of capacity (4 aa.lhaka generally) Pv IV.333 (mitaani sukhadukkhaani donehi pi.takehi). ta.n.dula- a do.na of rice DhA III.264; IV.15. At J II.367 do.na is used elliptically for do.namaapaka (see below).

-paaka of which a d. full is cooked, a do.na measure of food S I.81; DhA II.8.

-maapaka (mahaamatta) (a higher official) supervising the measuring of the do.na-revenue (of rice) J II.367, 378, 381; DhA IV.88;

-mita a d. measure full D I.54; M I.518.[PED]

**Aa.lhaka** (m. and nt.) [Sanskrit aa.dhaka, from *aa.dha probably meaning "grain"] a certain measure of capacity, originally for grain; in older texts usually applied to a liquid measure (udaka-). Its size is given by Bdhgh. at SnA 476 as follows: "cattaaro patthaa aa.lhakaani do.na.m etc." - udakaa.lhaka S V.400; A II.55 = III.337; VvA 155.[PED]

^{[1]}How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement

^{[2]}Brown University, Department of Mathematics, History of Mathematics, See: Lilavati Definitions.

^{[3]}On the Mashaka we have something: (From: Early Monetary Systems of Lanka (Ceylon))Some rock inscriptions refer to a relationship between money and weights. The famous 'Vessagiri' inscription refers to an instance where King Dappula V(l0th Century A.D.) paid or agreed to pay by means of 'kalan' and 'aka' for the construction of a dagoba. The following table of weights as given in the `Abhidhanappadipika', a book written in the 12th Century A.D. may be considered as relevant.

4 Paddy seeds = 1 Gunja 2 Gunjas = 1Mashaka(Masa?) 2-1/2 Mashakas = 1 Aka 8 Aka = 1 Dharana 5 Dharanas = 1 Suvanna 5 Suvannas = 1 Nikha 2 Suvannas = 1 Pala 100 Palas = 1 Thula 20 Thulas = 1 Bhara

**References:**

How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement

**Miscellaneous, to be researched:**
catu-nahuta ninety-four J I.25; VI.486;

catu-pa.n.nasa fiftyfour DhA I.4;

#### Additional Miscellaneous Information Holding Area:

Dvi [Sanskrit dvi, dva etc. - Bases: I. dvi = Sanskrit dvi in dvipad = Latin bipes (from d*ipes), Ags. twifete; dvidant = bidens. Reduced to di (see B I.4) as in Gr. di\pous ( = dipad), Latin diennium and preference dis- (cp. Goth. twis asunder, Ogh. zwisk between). - II. du ( = dvi in reduced grade, cp. Latin du-plex, dubius etc.). - III. dvaa (and dva) = Sanskrit dvaau, dvaa, f. nt. dve (declined as dual, but the Paali (plural) inflexion from base I. see B I.1); Gr. du/w, Latin duo; Oir. daau, daa, f. dii; Goth. twai, f. twos; Ags. twaa ( = E. two); Ohg. zwene, zwo zwei. Also in cpd. num. dva-dasha twelve = Gr. d(*v)w/Qeka = Latin duodecim. ] number two.

A. Meanings-I. Two as unit: 1. with objective foundation: (a) denoting a combination (pair, couple) or a repetition (twice). In this conn. frequent both objective and impersonal in mentioning natural pairs as well as psychologically contrasted notions. E. g. dvipad (biped), naagassa dve dantaa (elephants' tusks), cakkhuuni (eyes); dvija (bird), duvija (tooth), dijivha (snake). See also dutiya and dvaya. - dve: kaamaa, khi.d.daa, gatiyo (Sn 1001), daanaani (It 98), piyaa, phalaani (Sn 896; It 39), mittaa, sinehaa etc. See Nd2 under dve, cp. A I.47 100; D III.212-214. - (b) denoting a separation (in two, twofold etc.): see dvidhaa and compounds - 2. with symbolic, sentimental meaning: (a) only two (i. e. next to one or "next to nothing"), cp. the two mites of the widow (Mark XII. 42), two sons of Rachel (Gen. 30): dumaasika not more than 2 months (Vin II.107); dvemaasiko gabbho (Pv I.67); dvevaacika; duvangula (see below). - (b) a few-more than one, some, a couple (often intermediate between 1 and 3, denoting more than once, or a comparatively long, rather long, but not like 3 a very long time): maasadvaya.m a couple of months; dvisahassa diipaa 2000 islands ( = a large number); diya.d.dhasata 150 = very long etc.; dviihatiiha (2 or 3 = a couple of days) q. v.; dvirattatiratta (id. of nights); dviisu tiisu manussesu to some people (PvA 47); dvatikkhattu.m soveral times; cp. dvikkhattu.m (more than once), dutiya.m (for the 2nd time).

II. Two as unit in connection with its own and other decimals means a complex plus a pair, which amounts to the same as a large and a small unit, or so to speak "a year and a day." E. g. 12 (sometimes, but rarely = 10+2, see sep.); - 32: rests usually on 4 X 8, but as No. of the Mahaapurisa-lakkha.naani it denotes 30+2 = the great circle plus the decisive (invisible) pair; - 62: views of heresy: see di.t.thi; also as a year of eternity = 60 kappas+2; - 92: as measure of eternity = 90+2 kappas = a year and a day.

III. Number twelve. 1. Based on natural phenomena it denotes the solar year (dvaadasamaasako sa'nvaccharo VvA 247). - 2. Connected with the solar cult it is used with human arrangements to raise them to the level of heavenly ones and to impart to them a superior significance. Thus: (a) as denoting a set (cp. 12 months 12 companions of the Sun) it is the No. of a respectful, holy, venerable group (cp. 12 sons of Jacob Gen. 35, 22; cakes as shewbread Lev. 25, 5; stones erected Josh. 4, 8; apostles Math. 10, 2; patriarchs Acts 7, 8; companions of Odysseus Hom. Od. 9, 195; Knights of Arthur etc.): of theras, accompd by 12 bhikkhus PvA 67, 141. 179 etc.; dvaadasa ko.tisataani Sn 677; five groups of 12 musicians VvA 96 (cp. 5 X 12 cromlechs in the outer circle of Stonehenge). - (b) as measure of distance in space and time it implies vast extent, great importance, a climax, divine symmetry etc. 12 yojanas wide extends the radiance VvA 16; 12 y. as respectful distance PvA 137 (cp. 2000 cubits in same sense at Josh. 3, 4); 12 y. in extent (height, breadth and length) are the heavenly palaces of the Vimaana-petas or Yakkhas Vv 551; J VI.116; VvA 6, 217, 244, 291, 298 etc. In the same connection we freq. find the No. 16: solasa-yojanika.m kanaka-vimaana.m Vv 671; VvA 188, 289 etc. - Of years: J III.80; VvA 157 (dvaadasa-vassikaa; in this sense also 16 instead of 12: so'asa-vassuddesika VvA 259 etc. See so'asa).

B. Bases and Forms-I. dvi; main base for numeral and nominal composition and derivation, in:

1. numeral dve (and duve) two: nom. acc. dve (Sn p. 107; It 98; J I.150; IV.137 etc.) and (in verse) duve (Sn 896, 1001); gen. dat. dvinna.m (It 39, 40, 98; J II.154); instr. dviihi (J I.87: v. l. diihi; 151; II.153); loc. dviisu (J I.203; PvA 47) and duvesu (Vv 412).

2. as numeral base:

-sahassa 2000 (see A I. 2b) J I.57; VvA 261; PvA 74; also in dvittaa and adv. dvikkhattu.m twice and dvidhaa in two parts. - (b) as nominal base: - (r)aava.t.ta [Sanskrit dvih. cp. Latin bis] turning twice S I.32;

-ja "twice born," i. e. a bird J I.152 (ga.naa);

-jaatin one who is born twice, i. e. a braahma.na Th, 2, 430 (ThA 269 = Brahmaajaatin);

-taalamatta of the size of 2 palms DhA II.62;

-pad [Sanskrit dvipad, Latin bipes, Gr. di/pous etc.] a biped, man S I.6;

-pala twofold Vism 339;

-paadaka = dvipad Vin II.110;

-bandhu having two friends J VI.281;

-rattatiratta two or three nights Vin IV.16; also in dviiha two days (q. v.).

3. as diaeretic form duvi-:

-ja (cp. dija) "growing again" i. e. a tooth J V.156.

4. as contracted form di-: -(y)a.d.dha one and a half (lit. the second half, cp. Ger. anderthalb) Dh 235; J I.72 (diya.d.dha-yojana-satika 150 y. long or high etc.), 202; IV.293 (-yaama); DhA I.395; DA I.17; Miln 243, 272; DhsA 12;

-gu.na twofold, double Vin I.289; Sn 714; J V.309; Miln 84; DhA II.6; VvA 63, 120;

-ja (cp. dvija, duvija) (a) "twice-born," a bird S I.224; Sn 1134 (d. vuccati pakkhii Nd2 296); J I.152, 203; II.205; IV.347; V.157; Pv II.124; Vv 358 (cp. VvA 178); Miln 295. - (b) a brahmin ThA, 70, 73;

-jivha "twotongued," i. e. a snake (cp. du-) J III.347;

-pad (-pada or -pa) a biped (cp. dvi-) A I.22; V.21; Sn 83 (dipa-duttama), 995 (id.) 998; Dh 273;

-paadaka = -pad Th 1, 453 = Sn 205.

5. as sec. cpd. form (with gu.na) dve- (and de-):

-caturanga twice fourfold - eightfold Th 1, 520 (-gaamin);

-patha a "double" path, a border path, the boundary between two villages Vv 5317 (-siimantika-patha VvA 241);

-piccha having two tail-feathers J V.341 (cp. de-);

-pitika having two feathers J V.424;

-bhaava doubling kacc. 21;

-maasika two months old Pv I.67;

-vaacika pronouncing (only) two words, viz. Buddha and Dhamma (cp. tevaacika, saying the whole sara.na-formula), Vin I.4; J I.81;

-sattaratta twice seven nights, a fortnight [cp. Sanskrit dvisapta] J VI.230. - See also der. from numer. adv. dvidhaa, viz. dvejjha (and dejjha), dvedhaa-, dve'haka.

6. as noun-derivation dvaya a dyad (q. v.).

II. du; reduced base in numeral and nominal compounds and dern:

-(v)addhato from both sides (a distorted form of dubhato q. v.) Vv 6419 ( = dubhato VvA 281); -(v)angika consisting of two parts Dhs 163; -(v)angula and dvangula two finger-breadths or depths, two inches long, implying a minimum measure (see above A I.2a) Vin II.107; IV.262; usually in compounds - kappa the 2 inch rule, i. e. a rule extending the allotted time for the morning meal to 2 inches of shadow after mid day Vin II.294 306;

-pannaa wisdom of 2 finger-breadths, i. e. that of a woman S I.129 = Th 2, 60 (dvanguli-, at ThA 66 as -sa~n~naa);

-buddhika = -pa~n~naa VvA 96;

-jivha twotongued (cp. di-); a snake J IV.330; V.82, 425;

-pa.t.ta "double cloth" (Hind. dupa.t.taa; Kanarese dupa.ta, duppa.ta; Tamil tuppa.t.taa a cloak consisting of two cloths joined together, see Kern, Toev. I.179); J I.119; IV.114, 379 (ratta-); DhA I.249 (suratta-); III.419 (-ciivaraa);
-matta (about) 2 in measure Miln 82;

-maasika 2 months old or growing for 2 months (of hair) Vin II.107;

-vagga consisting of two Vin I.58;

-vassa 2 years old Vin I.59;

-vidha twofold, instr. duvidhena M III.45 sq.; etc. - Derivations from du- see sep. under duka (dyad), dutiya (the second), and the contamination forms dubha (to) and dubhaya (for ubha and ubhaya).

III. dvaa (and reduced dva), base in numeral compounds only: dvatikkhattu.m two or three times J I.506; DA I.133, 264; DhA IV.38; dvaadasa twelve (on meaning of this and following numerals see above A II. and III.) J III.80; VI.116; DhA I.88; III.210; VvA 156, 247 etc.;

-yojanika J I.125; IV.499; dvaaviisati (22) VvA 139; dvatti.msa (32) Kh II. (-aakaara the 32 constituents of the body); DhA II.88; VvA 39 etc.; dvaacattaaliisa (42) Nd2 15; Vism 82; dvaasa.t.thi (Nd2 271III. and dva.t.thi (62) D I.54; S III.211; DA I.162); dvaanavuti (92) PvA 19, 21. - Note. A singular case of dva as adv. = twice is in dva-ha.m Sn 1116.

Naa.likaa (f.) [Sanskrit naa.dikaa andnaalikaa] a stalk, shaft; a tube, pipe or cylinder for holding anything; a small measure of capacity Vin II.116 (suuci-, cp. suucighara, needle-case); D I.7 ( = bhesajja- DA I.89); A I.210; J I.123 (ta.n.dula- a naa'i full of rice); VI.366 (a.d.dha-n-matta); Nd2 229. Cp. pa-. -odana a naa'i measure of boiled rice S I.82; DhA IV.17; -gabbha an (inner) room of tubular shape Vin II.152.

Naavutika (adj.) [from navuti] 90 years old J III.395 (-aa itthi); SnA 172.

Pattha^{2} [cp. late Sanskrit prastha] a Prastha (certain measure of capacity) = 1/4 of an aa'haka; a cooking utensil containing one Prastha DhA II.154; SnA 476 (cattaaro patthaa aa'haka.m).

Paddha^{2} (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit praardha] half (*) J III.95 (probably = paddha^{1}, but C. explinations as a.d.dha upa.d.dha).

**Childers, A Dictionary of the Pali Language**

RATHARE.NU (m.), A very minute measure of weight, a mite (Ab. 194).

RATANA.M, ... There is a measure of length called ratana.m, equivuleut to the hattha or cubit (two vidatthis}; it must be the Sanskrit (Ab. 196, 268; Alw, 1. 76). At Mah. 128 the reading is I think ratanattayassa ratanatta.m, the precioussness of the Three Gems.

Amma.nam. According to **Childers, A Dictionary of the Pali Language** this would be about eight thousand acres.

Kariisa (nt.) a square measure of land, being that space on which a kariisa of seed can be sown (Tamil kariisa), see Rhys Davids, Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon, p. 18; J I.94, 212; IV.233, 276; VvA 64.

"*Nikkha.*" *Nikkho* is a variable weight, equal to 250 *phalas,* which we may call grains.

**Xuanzang** born Chen Hui or Chen Yi, was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang Dynasty.

- Wikipedia

Born: 602 AD, Henan, China

Died: February 5, 664 AD

Books: Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, Cheng Weishi Lun, Treatise on groups of elements

- p.p.

Time: *Kha.no vaa layo vaa muhutto vaa;* the Chinese traveller, Hiuen Tsiang (or Yuan Chwang), has the following note on these periods: The shortest portion of time is called a *ksha.na;* 120 *ksha.nas* make a *taksha.na;* 60 of these make a *lava* (sic); 30 of these make a *muhuurta*; 5 of these make a *kaala;* 6 of these make a day and night. Beal's *Records* 71. See *Childers, muhutto.*

Likkhaa (f.) [*Sanskrit lik.saa egg of a louse, as measure equal to 8 trasare.nu (BR.). - Connected with Latin ricinus a kind of vermin (see Walde, Latin Wtb. s. v.)] a kind of measure VbhA 343 (36 rattare.nus equal to one likkhaa, 7 likkhaas equal to 1 uukaa); KhA 43 (-matta).

* Tigaavuta:* about six miles. Equal to three Magadhan village fields. [AN 5.100 n.5]. Childers: Three Leagues. PED:

*(nt.) [cp. Vedic*

**Gaavuta***gavyuuti*pasture land, district] a linear measure, a quarter of a

*yojana*= 80

*usabhas*, a little less than two miles, a league

*J*I.57, 59; II.209;

*Vism.*118;

*DhA.*I.396.

From: Sacred Books of the East, Volume 7, The Institutes of Visnu, translated by Julius Jolly, 1880; #4: Weights and Measures, p. 23, Ii IV.

1. The (very small mote of) dust which may be discerned in a sun-beam passing through a lattice is called trasarenu (trembling dust).

2. Eight of these (trasarenus) are equal to a nit.

3. Three of the latter are equal to a black mustard-seed.

4. Three of these last are equal to a white mustard-seed.

5. Six of these are equal to a barley-corn.

6. Three of these equal a Krishnala.

[6. Krishnala (literally, 'seed, of the Gu~ngâ creeper') is another {footnote p. 24} name for Raktikâ or Ratî, the lowest denomination in general use. According to Prinsep (Useful Tables, p. 97) it equals 1.875 grains = 0.122 grammes of the metrical system. According to Thomas (see Colebrooke's Essays, ed. by Cowell, I, p. 529, note) it equals 1.75 grains.]

7. Five of these equal a Mâsha.

8. Twelve of these are equal to half an Aksha.

9. The weight of half an Aksha, with four Mâshas added to it, is called a Suvarna.

10. Four Suvarnas make a Nishka.

11. Two Krishnalas of equal weight are equal to one Mâshaka of silver.

12. Sixteen of these are equal to a Dharana (of silver).

13. A Karsha (or eighty Raktikâs) of copper is called Kârshâpana.

14. Two hundred and fifty (copper) Panas are declared to be the first (or lowest) amercement, five hundred are considered as the middlemost, and a thousand as the highest.