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The Pali is transliterated as Velthuis (aaiiuu.m'n~n.t.d.n.l). Alternatives:
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Satipatthana Resources
Rhys Davids Introduction to their translation of the Satipatthana Sutta, and the translation itself
Puremind, M. Punnaji, Awakening Meditation, 1-13, 1-15, 3-12, 4-3, 4-6, 6-8, 7-6,7, 7-11, 8-52, 8-60, 8-61, 8-86
[MN 10]
WP: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, Bhikkhu Nanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi, 10: The Foundations of Mindfulness, pp 145
[DN 22]
WP: The Long Discourses of the Buddha, Maurice Walshe, 22: The Greater Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness, pp335
PTS:, Middle Length Sayings I, #10: Discourse on the Applications of Mindfulness, Horner, pp70
The Pali Line:Part IV The 10th Question, Part 1 The Powers
Warren: Buddhism in Translations: Ii 69. World-Cycles Ii 65. The Six High Powers



Pali MO Nyanasatta Thera Soma Thera Hare Horner Punnaji Bodhi Nanamoli T.W. Rhys Davids C.A.F. Rhys Davids Thanissaro Walshe Woodward
citte emotion, heart, mind consciousness consciousness thought, mind consciousness, mind emotion, mood mind mind thoughts thoughts mind, intent mind, consciousness



Pali Text Society
Pali English Dictionary
Edited by T. W. Rhys Davids and William Stede


Citta: [Sk. citta, orig. pp. of cinteti, cit...]

I. Meaning: the heart (psychologically), i. e. the centre & focus of man's emotional nature as well as that intellectual element which inheres in & accompanies its manifestations; i. e. thought. In this wise citta denotes both the agent & that which is enacted...for in Indian Psychology citta is the seat & organ of thought...

The meaning of citta is best understood when explaining it by expressions familiar to us, as: with all my heart; heart and soul; I have no heart to do it; blessed are the pure in heart; singleness of heart (cp. ekagga); all of which emphasize the emotional & conative side or "thought" more than its mental & rational side...It may therefore be rendered by intention, impulse, design; mood, disposition, state of mind, reaction to impressions. It is only in later scholastic lgg. that we are justified in applying the term "thought" in its technical sense. It needs to be pointed out, as complementary to this view, that citta nearly always occurs in the singular (=heart), & out of 150 cases in the Nikaayas only 3 times in the plural (=thoughts). The substantiality of citta (cetas) is also evident from its connection with kamma (heart as source of action), kaama & the senses in general...

Citta in it's relation to other terms referring to mental processes.

1. citta-hadya, the heart as incorporating man's personality: hadaya'n phaleyya, cittavikkhepa'n papu.neyya (break his heart, upset his reason) S I.126; . . . S I.207, 214; Sn p. 32; . . .

2. c. as mental status, contrasted to (a) physical status: e. g. kilanta* weary in body & mind D I.20=III.32; aatura* S III.2-5; nika.t.tha* A II.137; .thita* steadfast in body & soul (cp. .thitatta) S V.74; *passaddhi quiet of body & soul S V.66. . . .

3. c. as emotional habitus:

(a) active=intention, contrasted or compared with: (a) will, c. as one of the four samaadhis, viz. chanda, viriya, c., vima'nsa D III.77; S V.268; Vbh 288. - (b) action, c. as the source of kamma: . . . "when the intention is evil, the deed is evil as well" A I.262; . . . - Esp. in contrast to kaaya & vaacaa, . . . (in deed & speech & will . . .

(b) passive=mood, feelings, emotion, ranging with kaaya & pa~n~naa under the (3) bhaavanaa D III.219; S IV.111; A III.106; cp. M I.237...classed with kaaya vedanaa dhammaa under the (4) satipa.t.thaanas D II.95, 100, 299 sq.; S V.114, etc. . . .As part of the siilakkhandha (with siila ethics, pa~n~naa understanding) in adhisiila, etc. Vin V.181. . . - citta & pa~n~naa are frequently grouped together, e. g. S I.13 = 165; D III.269... As feeling citta is contrasted with intellection in the group sa~n~naa c. di.t.thi A II.52...

Citta in its range of semantical applications: (1) heart, will, intention, etc.

(a) heart as general status of sensory-emotional being; its relation to the senses (indriyaani). A steadfast & constrained heart is the sign of healthy emotional equilibrium, this presupposes the control over the senses; . . . a guarded heart turns to great profit A I.7; . . . "from the fetters of Mara those are released who control their heart" Dh 37 . . .

(b) Contact with kaama & raaga: a lustful, worldly, craving heart. - (a) kaama; S IV.210; S I.188;. . . A IV.392; S I.92; . . . A II.211 . . . (my h. does not leap, sit or stand in cravings) D III.239; . . .(b) raaga: raago citta'n anuddha'nseti (defilement harasses his heart) S I.185; II.231=271; A II.126; III.393; . . . A III.285; . . .S IV.73; . . .S IV.74; Sn 235; PvA 168. . . .

(c) A heart, composed, concentrated, settled, self-controlled, mastered, constrained. . . S I.98; A I.207; III.248; A IV.209, 213; S III.133; A III.245; S II.273; IV.263; A II.94, 157; D I.13=III.30, 108; S I.120, 129, 188; IV.78=351; A I.164; II.211; III.17, 280; IV.177; S III.93; V.154; 301; D III.101; A V.195; S I.132; A I.165; . . .

(e) An evil heart; D I.20= III.32; A I.8; IV.92; A I.262: S IV.322; A II.220; D I.79; II.299; III.281. . .

(f) "blessed are the pure in heart," a pure, clean, purified (cp. Ger. geläutert), emancipated, free, detached heart. (a) mutta-c*, vimutta-c*, etc. (cp. cetaso vimokkho, ceto-vimutti, muttena cetasaa) S III.132, etc.; vi* Sn p. 149. - vimutta: S I.28 (+subhaavita), 29, 46=52; III.45 (+viratta), 90; IV.236 (raaga); - suvimutta: S I.126, 141, 233; IV.164; A III.245; V.29. - (b) citta'n parisodheti M I.347; A II.211; S IV.104. - (g) aliina c. (unstained) S I.159; A V.149.

(g) good-will, a loving thought, kindliness, tenderheartedness, love ("love the Lord with all your heart"). - (a) metta-c* usually in phrase mettacitta'n bhaaveti "to nourish the heart with loving thought," to produce good-will D I.167; S II.264; A I.10; V.81; Sn 507 (cp. mettaa-sahagatena cetasaa). - (b) bhavita-c* "keep thy heart with all diligence" (Prov. 4, 23) S I.188 (+susamahita); IV.294; V.369 (saddhaa-paribhavita); A I.6 (+bahulikata, etc.); Sn 134 (=S I.188); Dh 89=S V.29; PvA 139.

(h) a heart calmed, allayed, passionless (santa* upasanta*) D.III.49; S I.141; Sn 746.

(i) a wieldy heart, a heart ready & prepared for truth, an open & receptive mind: kalla*, mudu*, udagga*, pasanna* A IV.186; kalla* PvA 38 (sanctified); lahu* S I.201; udagga* Sn 689, 1028; S I.190 (+mudita)...

(k) Various phrases. Abbhuta-cittajaataa "while wonder filled their hearts" S I.178; eva'ncitto "in this state of mind" S II.199; Sn 985; cittam me Gotamo jaanaati (G. knows my heart) S I.178; theyya-citto intending to steal Vin III.58; aaraddha-citto of determined mind M I.414; S II.21, cp. 107; Sn p. 102; a~n~naacitta'n upa.t.thaapeti S II.267; naanaa* of varying mind J I.295; nihiinacitto low-minded PvA 107; nika.t.tha* A II.137; ahata* A IV.460=V.18; supahata* S I.238 (cp. Miln 26); visankhaaragata* Dh 154; sampanna* Sn 164; vibbhanta* S I.61=A I.70=II.30=III.391.

(2) thought: maa papaka'n akusala'n citta'n cinteyyaatha (do not think any evil thought) S V.418; na cittamattam pi (not even one thought); mama citta'n bhaveyya (I should think)...

-uppaada the rise of a thought, i. e. intention, desire as theyya *'n uppaadesi he had the intention to steal (a thought of theft) Vin III.56; M I.43; III.45; J II.374;
-ekaggataa "one-pointedness of mind," concentration Nett 15, 16; Vism 84, 137, 158; DhA III.425; ThA 75; cp. ekagga-citto A III.175;
-kilesa stain of h. Dh 88 (DhA II.162=pa~nca nivara?a);
-cetasika belonging to heart & thought, i. e. mental state, thought, mind D I.213; Dhs 1022 (-dhamma, Mrs. Rh. D.: emotional, perceptual & synthetic states as well as those of intellect applied to sense-impressions), 1282; Ps I.84; Miln 87; Vism 61, 84, 129, 337;
-passaddhi calm of h., serenity of mind (cp. kaya*) S V.66; Dhs 62;
-bhaavanaa cultivation of the h. M III.149;
-mala stain of h. PvA 17;
-mudutaa plasticity of mind (or thought) Dhs 62, 277, 325;
-ruupa'n according to intention, as much as expected Vin I.222; II.78; III.161; IV.177, 232;
-samaadhi (cp. ceto-samaadhi) concentration of mind, collectedness of thought, self-possession S IV.350; V.269; Vbh 218;


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