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The Pali is transliterated as Velthuis (aaiiuu.m'n~n.t.d.n.l). Alternatives:
[ ASCII (aiumnntdnl) | IAST Unicode (āīūṃṅñṭḍṇḷ) ]




Mulapariyaya Resources section of BuddhaDust
[MN 1]
PTS: Middle Length Sayings I, #1: Discourse on the Synopsis of Fundamentals, Horner, trans., pp 3.
WP: Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: The Root of All Things, Bhikkhu Nanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi, trans., pp 83 Examining the Mulapariyaya - Analysis
The Root Sequence, Bhikkhu Thanissaro, translation of the Mulapariyaya
Knowledge of Former Habitations.

Pali MO Hare Horner Punnaji Bodhi Rhys Davids (Mrs)Rhys Davids Thanissaro Walshe Woodward
devas gods devas gods devas gods


Pali Text Society
Pali English Dictionary
Edited by T. W. Rhys Davids and William Stede


Deva: [Vedic deva. Indogermanic dejaa to shine...orig. adj. *deiuuos belonging to the sky, cp. AV daeevoo (demon), Latin deus, Lith. deevas; Old High German Zio; AngloSaxon Tiig, gen. Tiiwes (=Tuesday); Old Irish. dia (god).] The popular etymology refers it to the root div in the sense of playing, sporting or amusing oneself...a god, a divine being; usually in pl. devaa the gods. As title attributed to any superhuman being or beings regarded to be in certain respects above the human level. Thus primarily ...used of the first of the next-world devas, Sakka, then also of subordinate deities, demons and spirits (deva~n~nataraa some kind of deity; snake-demons; naagas, tree-gods; rukkha-devataa, etc.) Also title of the king. Always implying splendour...and mobility, beauty goodness and light, and as such opposed to the dark powers of mischief and destruction (asuraa, Titans; petaa: miserable ghosts; nerayikaa satta: beings in Niraya). A double position (dark and light) is occupied by Yama, the god of the Dead...Always implying also a kinship and continuity of life with humanity and other beings; all devas have been man and may again become men (cp. D I.17; S III. 85), hence "gods" is not a coincident term. All devas are themselves in sa'nsaara, needing salvation. Many are found worshipping saints...The collective appellations differ; there are various groups of divine beings, which in their totality ...include some or most of the well-known Vedic deities...Lists of popular gods are to be found, e.g. at D II.253; III.194
1. good etc...a god a diety or divine being (M I.71)
2. the sky, but only in its rainy aspect, i.e. rain-cloud, rainy sky, rain-god
3. king
Dibba: [Latin: diius=divine. of the next world, diviine, heavenly, celestial, superb, magnificent, fit for exalted beings higher than man...superhuman..
diva: [Sk. diva (nt.), weak base diuu (div) of strong form diiee... to *deiieuuo to shine; cp. Sk dyo heaven, divaa adv. by day; Lat. biduum (bi-divom) two days](a) heaven (b) day



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