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The Pali is transliterated as Velthuis (aaiiuu.m'n~n.t.d.n.l). Alternatives:
[ ASCII (aiumnntdnl) | IAST Unicode (āīūṃṅñṭḍṇḷ) ]


Rupa encompasses it all, including nama; Nama encompasses it all, including rupa


Light, Shape, Form, Thingness


[AN 1.1]
Puremind Press: Awakening Meditation, M. Punnaji, pp.7-16
[DN 33]
Sangiti Suttanta 1s and 2s
PTS: Dialogs of the Buddha III, #33: The Recital, T.W. and C.A.F. Rhys Davids, trans., pp201
WP: The Long Discourses of the Buddha, #33: The Chanting Together, M. Walshe, trans., pp479
[DN 22]
PTS: Dialogs of the BuddhaThe Setting Up of Mindfulness
Soma Thera, ATI: The Discourse on the Arousing of Mindfulness
ATI: Thanissaro Bhikkhu, Frames of Reference
[MN 10]
PTS: The Middle Length Sayings, I, #10: Applications of Mindfulness, Horner, trans., pp78
WP: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, #10: The Foundations of Mindfulness, Bhikkhu Nanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi, trans., pp152
[AN 10.27]
PTS: The Book of the Gradual Sayings, V: The Book of the Tens, The Great Chapter, The Great Questions, Woodward, trans., pp36ff

Pali MO Hare Horner Punnaji Bodhi Nanamoli Rhys Davids (Mrs)Rhys Davids Thanissaro Walshe Woodward Soma Thera
ruupa materiality, thingness form material shape appearance material form material form material qualities, form material qualities, form form form, materiality form material form


Pali Text Society
Pali English Dictionary
Edited by T. W. Rhys Davids and William Stede


Ruupa (nt.) [cp. Vedic ruupa, connected etymologically with varpa...form, figure, appearance, principle of form, etc. (lit.) appearance, form, figure (=form either contrasted with what is unseen, or taken for both seen and unseen)...(*-) of such and such a form, like, kind, of a certain condition or appearance. In this appln very frequent and similar to E. -hood, or Ger. -heit, i. e. an abstract formation. Often untranslatable because of the latter character. It is similar to kaaya, but not so much with ref. to life and feeling as to appearance and looks. adissamaana- invisible (lit. with invisible form); ummatta- as if mad, under the appearance of madness, like a madman; eva- in such a condition; tapassii- appearing to be an ascetic; taaraka- the (shapes of the) stars; deva- as a deva. Pleonastically e. g. in: anupatta- attaining; taramaana- quickly; yutta- fit; sucitta- variegated. -- Cases ad verbially: citta-ruupa.m according to intention; cetabba-ruupa.m fit to be thought upon. -atta-ruupena on my own account S IV.97; godha-ruupena as an iguana -- D. (as philos. t. t.) principle of (material) form, materiality, visibility. -- There are var. groups of psychological and metaphysical systematizations, in which ruupa functions as the material, gross factor, by the side of other, more subtle factors. In all these representations of ruupa we find that an element of moral psychology overshadows the purely philosophical and speculative aspect. 1. ruupa as aayatana or sense object. It is the object of the activity or sphere of the organ of sight (cakkhu). As such it heads the list of the 6 baahiraani aayatanaani with "cakkhunaa ruupa.m disvaa" (the others: sota>sadda, ghaana>gandha, jivhaa>rasa, kaaya>pho.t.thabba, mano>dhamma). 2. (metaphysically) as the representative of sensory or material existence: (a) universally as forming the corporeal stratum in the world of appearance or form (ruupa- bhava) as compared with the incorporeal (aruupa-bhava), being itself above, and yet including the kaama-bhava. (The kaamabhava is a subdivision of ruupabhava, which has got raised into a third main division.) This triad is also found in combns with loka or dhaatu. A similar sequence ruupa aruupa and nirodha (i. e. nibbaana) in old verses. On indriya-ruupa "faculty as form" see indriya. -- (b) individually in the sphere of sa'nsaara as one (i. e. the material quality) of the substrata of sensory individual existence or the khandhas. They are the 5: ruupa-kkhandha, vedanaa-, sa~n~naa-, sankhaaraa-,; otherwise called ruup'uupaadaana-kkhandha etc. (e. g. D III.223, 278; Vism 443). See khandha II. B. -- In this property ruupa consists of 28 subdivisions, viz. the 4 (great) dhaatuus (mahaabhuutaani or else bhuuta-ruupa primary matter) and 24 upaadaaruupaani; the 24 consist of: cakkhu, sota, ghaana, jivhaa, kaaya, ruupa, sadda, gandha, rasa, itthindriya, purisindriya, jiivitindriya, hadaya vatthu, kaaya-vi~n~natti, vacii-vi~n~natti, aakaasa-dhaatu, (ruupassa) lahutaa mudutaa kamma~n~nataa, upacaya santati jarataa aniccataa, kaba'inkaar' --aahaara;...: caatu-mahaabhuutika.m ruupa.m catunna.m ca mahaabhuutaana.m upaadaaya ruupassa pa~n~natti. The ruupakkhandha shares with the others the qualities of soullessness, evanescence and ill (anattaa, anicca, dukkha). -- (c) in the making up of the individuality as such (naama-ruupa), where in contrast with naama (as abstract, logical, invisible or mind-factor) ruupa represents the visible (material) factor, resembling kaaya (cp. phrase naama-kaaya in same sense). The foll. are current defns of naama-ruupa: naama-(kaaya)=vedanaa, sa~n~naa, cetanaa, phassa, manasikaara (otherwise citta-sankhaaraa), ruupa(-kaaya)=cattaaro mahaa-bhuutaa catunna.m m-bhuutaana.m upaadaaya ruupa.m (otherwise kaaya-sankhaaraa) S II.4. See also under pa.ticca-samuppaada



Rupa is the "having become a thingness of anything." This includes ideas and such invisible things as sounds. Rupa includes the mental (nama) that has become an aspect of individual existance, cannot be separated from the mental, and is, itself, encompassed by the mental. Look at the Chinese Ying/Yang symbol.


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