Vijjaa, Tisso Vijjaa
Vision, 'Seeing', Knowledge, The 3-fold Vision
|Pali||MO||Hare||Horner||Punnaji||Bodhi||Nanamoli||Rhys Davids||(Mrs)Rhys Davids||Thanissaro||Walshe||Woodward||Soma Thera|
|vijjaa||Vision, 'Seeing'||Knowledge||knowledge||consciousness||true knowledge||true knowledge||The Higher Wisdom||The Higher Wisdom||Clear Knowing||Knowledge||knowledge||Wisdom|
Pali Text Society
Pali English Dictionary
Edited by T. W. Rhys Davids and William Stede
Vijjaa: (f.) [cp. Vedic vidyaa knowledge: vid both in meaning "to know" and "to find"; cp. Gr for "I saw" and "I know"; Sk. veda "Veda," Greek for "idol"; Vedic vindati to find, vetti to know, vidyaa knowledge; Gothic, witan to observe (MO: wit?) and know = German wissen; Gothic weis = English wise, etc, for which see Walde, Latin, Wth. s.v. video] one of the dogmatic terms of Buddhist teaching, varying in meaning in diff. sections of the Canon. It is not always the positive to avijjaa (which has quite a well defined meaning from its first appearance in Buddhist psych. ethics), but has been taken into the terminology of Buddhism from Brahmanic and popular philosophy. The opposite of avijjaa is usually ~na.na (but cp. S III.162 f., 171; V.429). Although certain vijjaas pertain to the recognition of the "truth" and the destruction of avijjaa, yet they are only secondary factors in achieving "vimutti" (cp. abhi~n~naa, ~na.na-dassana & pa~n~naa). That vijjaa at M I.22 is contrasted with avijjaa is to be expld as a word-play in a stereotype phrase.
-- A diff. side of "knowledge" again is given by "bodhi."
(a) Vijjaa is a general, popular term for lore in the old sense, science, study, esp. study as a practice of some art (something like the secret science of the medicine man: cp. vejja!); hence appld in special, "dogmatic" sense as "secret science," revelation (put into a sort of magic formula), higher knowledge (of the learned man), knowledge which may be applied and used as an art (cp. magister artium!), practical knowledge; but also mysterious knowledge: "charm."
(b) vijjaa, having a varying content in its connotation, is applied to a series of diff. achievements. A rather old tabulation of the stages leading by degrees to the attainment of the highest knowledge is given in the Saama~n~na-phala-sutta (D I.63-86), repeated in nearly every Suttanta of D 1. It is composed of the 3 sampadaas, viz. siila-, citta- & pa~n~naa-. Under the first group belong siila(-kkhandha), indriya-sa'nvara, sati-sampaja~n~na, santu.t.thi; the second is composed (1) of the overcoming of the nivara.nas, (2) of the 4 jhaanas; the third consists of 8 items, viz. (1) ~na.na-dassana, (2) manomaya-kaaya, (3) iddhi, (4) dibba-sota, (5) ceto-pariya~na.na, (6) pubbe-nivaas' ¢nussati~na.na, (7) cut' ûpaapatti-~na.na, (8) aasavana'n khaya-~na.na...- In the enumn of 3 vijjaas at M I.22 sq. only Nos. 6-8 of the 3rd sampadaa (said to have been attained by the Buddha in the 3 night watches) with the verbs anussaarati (No. 6), pajaanati (7), abhijaanati (8), each signifying a higher stage of ("saving") knowledge, yet all called "vijjaa." Quoted at Vism 202, where all 8 stages are given as "a.t.tha vijjaa," and cara.na with 15 qualities (siila-sa'nvara, indriyesu guttadvaara etc.). The same 3 vijjaas (No. 6, 7, 8) are given at D III.220, 275, and poetically at A II.165 as the characteristics of a proper (ariya, Buddhist) monk (or braahma.na)...-- Tevijjaa (adj.) in same meaning at S I.146 (where it refers to Nos. 3, 5, 8 of above enumn), 192, 194....It is doubtful whether the defn of ~na.na as " ti.so vijjaa" at Vin III.91 is genuine. On vijjaa-cara.na see also D III.97, 98, 237; S I.153, 166; II.284; V.197; A II.163; IV.238; V.327;...-- On vijjaa in the doctrinal appln see: D III.156, 214, 274; S II.7 sq. (cakkhu, ~na.na, pa~n~naa, vijjaa, aloka); III.47; 163; 171; IV.31, 49 sq. A I.83; II.247;...(c) popular meanings & usage of vijjaa: science, craft, art, charm, spell D I.213 (Gandhaarii nama v., also mentioned at J IV.498 as practised by physicians), 214 (Ma.nika n. v.); J III.504 (Cintaama.ni v.); IV.323 (vatthu-: see under vatthu), 498 (ghora-); V.458 (anga- palmistry);...
-gata having attained wisdom...
-cara.na (-sampanna) (endowed with) special craft (wisdom) & virtue...
-.t.thaana branch of study; there are 18 vijjaa--.t.thaanani or "arts & sciences," subjects of study, referred to at J I.259.
-dhaaraa a knower of charms, a sorcerer J III.303, 529; IV.496; V.94;...
-bhaagiyaa (dhammaa) (states) conducive to wisdom (6 kinds of sa~n~na) A III.334; cp. D III.243; S V.395; A IV.52 sq.
-mayaa (iddhi) (potency) accomplished by art or knowledge...
-vimutti wisdom (higher knowledge) as salvation S V.28, 335 sq.;...
PTS: Woodward, The Book of the Gradual Sayings, V, The Book of the Tens, XI, ii, pp148: "Monks, these seven limbs of wisdom, if made to grow, if made much of, complete the threefold knowledge."