Anguttara Nikaya


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A'nguttara-Nikaaya
II. Dukanipaata
IV. Samacittaa Vagga

The Book of the
Gradual Sayings
or
More-Numbered Suttas

Part II
The Book of the Twos

Suttas 31-40
Of Tranquil Mind.[56]

Translated from the Pali by
F.L. Woodward, M.A.

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
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[56]

Sutta 31

[31.1] [than] 'Monks, I will teach you
the condition of the unworthy[57]
and that of the worthy.
Do ye listen to it.
Attend closely and I will speak.'

'Yes, Lord,' replied those monks to the Exalted One.

The Exalted One said:

'Monks, the unworthy man
is ungrateful,
forgetful of benefits.[58]
This ingratitude,
this forgetfulness
is congenial to mean people.[59]
It is altogether a feature
of unworthy people,
this ingratitude
and forgetfulness of benefits.

But, monks, the worthy person
is grateful
and mindful of benefits done to him.
This gratitude,
this mindfulness,
is congenial to the best people.
It is altogether a feature
of the best people,
this gratitude
and mindfulness of benefits.

 

§

 

Sutta 32

[32.1][than][olds] Monks, one can never repay two persons,
I declare.
What two?

Mother and father.

Even if one should carry about
his mother on one shoulder
and his father on the other,[60]
and so doing should live a hundred years,
attain a hundred years;
and if he should support them,[61]
anointing them with unguents,
kneading, bathing and rubbing their limbs,
and they meanwhile
should even void their excre- [57] ments upon him,
- even so could he not repay his parents.
Moreover, monks,
if he should establish his parents
in supreme authority,
in the absolute rule
over this mighty earth
abounding in the seven treasures,
- not even thus
could he repay his parents.
What is the cause of that?

Monks, parents do much for their children:
they bring them up,
they nourish them,
they introduce them[62] to this world.

Moreover, monks,
whoso incites his unbelieving parents,
settles and establishes them
in the faith;
whoso incites his immoral parents,
settles and establishes them
in morality;
whoso incites his stingy parents,
settles and establishes them
in liberality;
whoso incites his foolish parents,
settles and establishes them
in wisdom,
- such an one,
just by so doing,
does repay,
does more than repay
what is due to his parents.'

 

§

 

Sutta 33

[33.1] Then a certain braahmin
came to visit the Exalted One,
and on coming to him greeted him courteously.
Having greeted him courteously,
he took a seat to one side.
As he sat at one side
that braahmin said this to the Exalted One:

'What view does the worthy Gotama hold and promulgate?'

'I hold the view of action
and I hold the view of inaction,[63] braahmin.'

'Pray in what way
does the worthy Gotama hold this view?'

'Thus, braahmin, do I uphold inaction:
I uphold inaction in divers wicked, unprofitable things
for the immoral in deed, word and thought.
And I uphold action, braahmin.
I uphold action in divers good, profitable things
for the moral in deed, word and thought.
Thus, braahmin,
I hold the view of action and inaction.'

'Excellent, master Gotama!
Excellent it is, master Gotama!
Even as one raises what is fallen
or shows forth what [51] is hidden,
or points out the way
to him that wanders astray,
or holds up a light in the darkness
so that they who have eyes may see objects,
- even so in divers ways
has Dhamma, been set forth
by master Gotama.
I myself go for refuge to Gotama,
the Exalted One,
to Dhamma
and the Order of monks.
May the worthy Gotama
accept me as a follower
from this day forth,
so long as life lasts,
as one who has so taken refuge.'

 

§

 

Sutta 34

[34.1] Now the housefather Anaathapi.n.dika came to visit the Exalted One
and on coming to him greeted him courteously.
Having greeted him courteously,
he took a seat to one side.
So seated he said this to the Exalted One:

'Pray, lord, how many in the world
are worthy of offerings,
and where should an offering be made?'

'Two in the world, housefather,
are worthy of offerings,
the learner and the adept.

These two are worthy of offerings
in the world,
and here an offering should be made.'

Thus spake the Exalted One.
Having thus said,
the Happy One added this as Teacher:

'Worthy of gifts from those that sacrifice
In this world are the learner and adept.
They walk upright in body, speech and mind,
A field of merit unto them that give:
And great the fruit of offerings unto them.'

 

§

 

Sutta 35

[35.1][than] Thus have I heard:

Once the Exalted One was staying near Saavatthii,
at Jeta Grove in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

Now on that occasion
the venerable Saariputta was staying near Saavatthii, at East Park
in the terraced house of Migaara's mother.[64]

Then the venerable Saariputta
addressed the monks, saying:
'Monks, reverend sirs!'

'Yes, reverend,'
replied those monks to the venerable Saariputta.

The venerable Saariputta said this:

'I will teach you about the person
who is fettered as to the self
and the person who is fettered outwardly.
Do ye listen to it.
Pay close attention and I will speak.'

'Yes, reverend sir,'
replied those monks to the venerable Saariputta,
who then said:

'Who is the person
that is fettered as to the self?[65]

Now herein a monk lives moral
and restrained with the restraint[66] of the obligations;
proficient in following the [59] practice
of right conduct
he sees danger in the slightest faults:
he takes up and trains himself
in the rules of morality.
When body breaks up after death
he is reborn in a certain company of devas.
Thence deceasing,
he is a returner,
he comes back to this state of things.
This one is called
"one fettered as to the self,
a returner,
one who comes back
to this state of things."[67]

And who is the person
that is fettered outwardly?

Herein we have one
who lives moral and restrained
with the restraint of the obligations:
following the practice of right conduct
he sees danger in the slightest faults:
he takes up and trains himself
in the rules of morality.
When body breaks up after death
he is reborn in a certain company of devas.
Thence deceasing
he is a non-returner,
he comes not back to this state of things.
This is the one who is called
"one fettered outwardly,
a non-returner,
one who comes not back
to this state of things."

Again, reverend sirs,
a monk lives moral and restrained
with the restraint of the obligations:
following the practice of right conduct
he sees danger in the slightest faults:
he takes up and trains himself
in the rules of morality.
He is proficient in his revulsion,
his dispassion for,
the ending of sensuality.
He is proficient in his revulsion,
his dispassion for,
the ending of any existence.[68]
When body breaks up after death
he is reborn in a certain company of devas.[69]
Thence deceasing
he is a non-returner,
he comes not back
to this state of things.

This, reverend sirs, is called
"a person fettered outwardly,
a non-returner,
who comes not back
to this state of things."'

 

§

 

Sutta 35a[ed1]

[35a.1] Now a great number
of devas of tranquil mind[70]
came to visit the Exalted One,
and on coming to him
saluted the Exalted One
and stood at one side.
So standing
those devas said this to the Exalted One:

[60] 'Lord, here is this venerable Saariputta at East Park,
in the terraced house of Migaara's mother,
teaching the monks
about the person who is fettered inwardly
and the person fettered outwardly.
The company is delighted.
It were a good thing, lord,
if the Exalted One would pay a visit
to the venerable Saariputta
out of compassion for him.'[71]

The Exalted One consented by silence.

Then, even as a strong man
might straighten out his bent arm
or draw in his arm stretched out,
even so did the Exalted One
vanish from Jeta Grove
and appear in the presence of the venerable Saariputta
at East Park
in the terraced house of Migaara's mother.

And the venerable Saariputta
saluted the Exalted One
and sat down at one side.
As he thus sat
the Exalted One said this to the venerable Saariputta:

'Saariputta, a great number
of devas of tranquil mind
came to visit me and on coming to me
saluted me
and stood at one side.
So standing
those devas said this to me:

'Lord, here is this venerable Saariputta at East Park,
in the terraced house of Migaara's mother,
teaching the monks
about the person who is fettered inwardly
and the person fettered outwardly.
The company is delighted.
It were a good thing, lord,
if the Exalted One would pay a visit
to the venerable Saariputta
out of compassion for him.'

Now, Saariputta, those devas,
though numbering ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty or sixty,
- yet they all stood in a space
not greater than that made
by the point of a gimlet,[72]
and that without crowding each other.

Now you may think, Saariputta:
Surely it was yonder[73] (in the heaven world)
that those devas' mind
must have been trained to this attainment, to wit:
that, though numbering ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty or sixty,
yet they all stood in a space
no greater than that made
by the point of a gimlet,
and that without crowding each other.
But that is not how you must regard it, Saariputta.
It was just[74] here, Saariputta,
that their mind was trained to this attainment, to wit:
that, though numbering ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty or sixty,
yet they all stood in a space
no greater than that made
by the point of a gimlet,
and that without crowding each other.

[61] Wherefore, Saariputta, thus must you train yourself:
"We will become tranquil in senses
and tranquil in mind."
That is how you must train yourself.

Indeed, Saariputta,
those who are thus tranquil in sense,
tranquil in mind,
their bodily action also will be tranquil.
And the same for speech and thought;
thus must you train yourself:
"We will present to our fellows in the righteous life
tranquillity of speech
and tranquillity of thought,[75]
- a present of tranquillity."
That is how you must train yourself.

Those wanderers of other views, Saariputta,
who have not heard this Dhamma-teaching,
are utterly discomfited.'[76]

 

§

 

Sutta 36

[36.1][than] Thus have I heard:

On a certain occasion the venerable Kaccaana the Great was staying at Vara.naa
on the bank of Muddy Pool.[77]

Now a certain braahmin named Aaraamada.n.da
came to visit the venerable Kaccaana[78] the Great,
and on coming to him greeted him courteously.
Having greeted him courteously,
he took a seat to one side.
So seated the braahmin said this:

'Pray, master Kaccaana,
what is the reason,
what is the cause,
why nobles quarrel with nobles,
braahmins with braahmins,
and householders with householders?'

'They do so because of their
bondage and servitude to sensual lusts,
their greed for sensual lusts;
because they are possessed
by attachment[79] to the lusts of sensuality.'

'But pray, master Kaccaana,
what is the reason,
what is the cause
why recluses quarrel with recluses?'

'They do so because of their
bondage and servitude to the lust of opinion,
their greed for the lust of opinion;
because they are possessed
by attachment to the lust of opinion.'

'But pray, master Kaccaana,
is there anyone in the world [62]
who has passed beyond
this bondage and servitude to sensual lusts,
this greed for sensual lusts;
this being possessed
by attachment to the lust of sensuality;
this bondage and servitude
to the lust of opinion,
this greed for the lust of opinion;
this being possessed
by attachment to the lust of opinion?'

'There are such, braahmin.'

'Pray who are they?'

'There is a town called Saavatthii, braahmin,
in the eastern districts.
There now dwells that Exalted One,
that Arahant who is a Fully Enlightened One.
That Exalted One, braahmin,
has passed beyond both of these lusts.'

At these words Aaraamada.n.da the braahmin
rose from his seat,
drew his robe over one shoulder and,
resting his right knee on the ground,
stretched out his joined palms
in the direction of the Exalted One,
and thrice uttered these solemn words:[80]
'Honour to him, the Exalted One,
the Arahant who is a Fully Enlightened One,
in that he hath transcended the bondage,
the servitude,
the attachment to the lust of sensuality:
in that he hath transcended the bondage,
the servitude,
the attachment to the lust of opinion!

Excellent, master Kaccaana!
Excellent it is, master Kaccaana!
Even as one raises what is overthrown,
or shows forth what is hidden,
or points out the way
to him that wanders astray,
or holds up a light in the darkness,
that they who have eyes may see objects,
- even so in divers ways
hath the Norm been set forth
by the worthy Kaccaana.
I myself, master Kaccaana,
do go for refuge to that Exalted One,
to Gotama,
to Dhamma and to the Order of monks.
May the worthy Kaccaana accept me as a follower
from this day forth
so long as life shall last,
as one who hath so taken refuge.'

 

§

 

Sutta 37

[37.1][than] On a certain occasion the venerable Kaccaana the Great was staying at Madhuraa[81]
in Gundaa Grove.

Then the braahmin Ka.n.daraayana
came to visit the venerable Kaccaana [63] the Great
and on coming to him greeted him courteously.
Having greeted him courteously,
he took a seat to one side.
So seated he said this to the venerable Kaccaana:

'I have heard it said, master Kaccaana,
that Kaccaana the recluse
does not salute broken-down old braahmins,
who are aged,
far gone in years,
who have reached life's end:
nor does he stand up to greet them
or invite them to take a seat.

In so far as the master Kaccaana
does none of these things,
it is not well[82] done by him.'

'Braahmin, the standing of old age
and that of youth
have been set forth by the Exalted One,
who knows, who sees,
that Arahant who is a Fully Enlightened One:

Even though a braahmin be old,
eighty, ninety, a hundred years old,
yet, if he still takes pleasure in sense-desires
and dwells amid them,
if he burns with the burning of sense-desires,
is preyed on[83] by the imagination of them,
is eager in the quest for sense-desires,
- then such an one is reckoned a fool.

Even though a braahmin be young,
a mere lad, blackhaired,
blessed with the luck of youth,[84]
in his early prime,
yet if he takes no pleasure in sense-desires,
dwells not amid them,
if he burns not with the burning of sense-desires,
is not preyed on by the imagination of them,
is not eager in the quest for sense-desires,
- then such an one is reckoned a wise man,
an elder.'[85]

At these words the braahmin Ka.n.daraayana
rose up from his seat,
threw his robe over one shoulder
and worshipped with bis head
at the feet of the monks
who were mere[86] lads, saying:
'Your worships are in truth old men,
of the standing of old men.
It is I who am a youngster
and of the standing of a youngster!

Excellent, master Kaccaana!
Excellent it is, master Kaccaana!
Even as one raises what is overthrown,
or shows forth what is hidden,
or points out the way
to him that wanders astray,
or holds up a light in the darkness,
that they who have eyes may see objects,
- even so in divers ways
hath the Norm been set forth
by the worthy Kaccaana.
I myself, master Kaccaana,
do go for refuge to that Exalted One,
to Gotama,
to Dhamma and to the Order of monks.
May the worthy Kac- [64] caana accept me as a follower
from this day forth
so long as life shall last,
as one who hath so taken refuge.'

 

§

 

Sutta 38

[38.1] 'Monks, when robbers are strong
and rulers are weak,
at such time
it is not easy for rulers
to go out and about
or to supervise[87] the border townships:
nor is it easy for householders
to go out and about
or to inspect work done outside.

Just so, when depraved monks are strong,
well-conducted monks are weak.
At such time well-conducted monks
cower[88] silent,
without a word,
amid the Order;
or else they resort to the border townships.
This, monks, is to the loss of many folk,
to the discomfort of many folk,
to the loss, discomfort and sorrow
of devas and mankind.

But, monks, when rulers are strong,
robbers are weak.
At such time it is easy for rulers
to go out and about
or to supervise the border townships.
At such time it is easy for householders
to go out and about
and inspect work done outside.

Just so, monks, when well-conducted monks are strong,
at such time depraved monks are weak.
At such time depraved monks cower silent,
without a word, amid the Order,
or else depart in various ways.[89]
This, monks, is to the profit of many folk,
to the happiness of many folk,
to the welfare, profit and happiness
of devas and mankind.

 

§

 

Sutta 39

[39.1] Monks, I praise not wrong conduct in two,
either householder or home-leaver.[90]
If wrongly conducted,
neither householder nor home-leaver
can win the true Method,
the [65] true Dhamma,
as result and consequence
of their wrong conduct.

Monks, I do praise right conduct in two,
whether householder or home-leaver.
If rightly conducted,
both householder and home-leaver
can win the true Method,
the true Dhamma,
as result and consequence
of their right conduct.

 

§

 

Sutta 40

[40.1][olds] Those monks who bar out
both the letter and the spirit,
by taking the discourses wrongly[91]
and interpreting according to the letter,[92]
- such are responsible
for the loss of many folk,
for the discomfort of many folk,
for the loss, discomfort and sorrow
of devas and mankind.
Moreover such monks beget demerit
and cause the disappearance
of this true Dhamma.

But those monks who,
by taking the discourses rightly
and interpreting according to the letter,
conform to both letter and spirit,
- such are responsible
for the profit, for the welfare of many folk,
for the profit, the welfare, the happiness
of devas and mankind.
Moreover such monks beget merit
and establish this true Dhamma.'

 


[ed1]Woodward marks this as sutta #6; text (and context) includes it in #5. - ed.

[56]For the title (Samacittaa) see Ii6.

[57]Asappurisa-bhuumi'n. Comy. pa.ti.t.thaana-.t.thaana'n.

[58]Akata-vedi'n. Cf. Pugg. Ii 20.

[59]Asabbhi (here instr. plur. of sat) upa~n~naata'n = va.n.nita'n, thomita'n, pasa.t.tha'n.

[60]Acc. to Comy. the mother would have the position of honour on the right shoulder.

[61]There is no verb here in MSS. Text supplies pa.tijaggeyya from Comy. to complete the sense.

[62]Dassetaaro, cf. infra, text 132.

[63]For kiriya-vaadii and akiriya-vaadii cf. Vin. i, 233 ff.; Dialog. i, 70, etc.; K.S. iii, 168. In their orthodox sense they mean the doctrine of Karma (retribution) and its opposite. Here the Buddha plays upon the words.

[64]She was Visakhaa, also the mother of the Elder Migajaala.

[65]Cf. Pugg. 22. The former is one who has broken the five lower fetters (that bind the personality or lower self) of kaama-ruupa worlds. The latter, one who has broken the five superior fetters (which bind the individuality or higher self) of ruupa- and aruupa-worlds.

[66]Paa.timokkha.

[67]Itthatta'n = ittha-bhaava'n (not 'thusness' but 'this world '). Cf. K.S. i (App.), p. 318; A. ii, 160. For aagantaa Cf. text, p. 159 (pl. aagantaaro); It. 4.

[68]I.e. kaama-, ruupa-, aruupa-bhava.

[69]'Of the Pure Abodes.' Comy.

[70]Samacitta = cittassa sukhuma-bhaava-samataaya. Comy. adding that they were not 'born so' but had created an appearance resembling their state of mind. Cf. note below.

[71]I take this to be (as generally) a formal phrase meaning 'be so good as to,' in spite of Comy.

[72]Aaragga-ko.ti-nittudana-matte. Cf. SA. i, 74; A. iii, 403, and 'how many angels can stand on the point of a needle?'

[73]Tattha; the implication is that one must undergo the necessary discipline in this very earth-life.

[74]Idh'eva (kho) = saasane vaa manussa-loke vaa bhumma'n (imasmi'n yeva saasane imasmi'n yeva manuasa-loke ti attho).

[75]Santa'n yeva upahaara'n upaharissaama kaaya-cittuupahaara'n santa'n nibbuta'n paniita'n yeva upaharissaama. Comy. Our text is not very clearly punctuated here.

[76]Anassu'n = na.t.thaa, vina.t.thaa. Comy.

[77]I find no other mention of this place, pool or braahmin. Comy. says nothing.

[78]Cf. supra, text 23.

[79]Ajjkosaana, lit. 'devouring.' Cf. Buddh. Psych. Eth. 277 n.

[80]Udaana'n udaanesi. Comy. gives the usual definition of the term. Cf. DA. i, 141; SA. i, 60; UdA. 2.

[81]Not the now famous town in Madras Presidency, but on the Jumna (Yamunaa) S. of Delhi. See Buddhist India, 36-7. At M. ii, 83 Kaccaana converses with the raajah of Madhuraa, Avantiputta, and states that all four castes are equal.

[82]Na sampannam eva = na yuttam eva, na anucchavikam eva. Comy. Similar passages are at A. iii, 223: iv, 173: Vin. iii, 2. The idea here is 'not the perfect gentleman,' or 'bad form.'

[83]Khajjati. Cf. M. i, 504; S. iii, 87.

[84]Yuvaa susu kaalakeso bhadrena yobbanena, as at S. i, 8 (K.S. i, 15).

[85]Comy. quotes Dhp. 260, na tena thero so hoti yen'assa phalita'n siro, etc.

[86]Suday, here an expletive. Cf. M. i, 77, tapassii suda'n homi.

[87]Anusa~n~naatuu'n, such as the building of bridges, tanks and houses. Comy.

[88]Text sankasaayanti; Sinh. text sa~n~naayanti; some sankaayanti. (Comy. sanjhaayanti, expl. as jhaayantaa viya.) The context requires the meaning I have given. Comy. on S. i, 202 does not help; on S. ii, 277 it expl. as viharanti; on S. iv, 178 as acchati (sits). See Words in S. (J.P.T.S., 1909).

[89]Text papatanti (? come by a fall there); B. na pakkamanti. Comy. does not notice. I propose the reading (a common phrase) yena vaa tena vaa pakkamanti.

[90] At M. ii, 197.

[91]Duggahitehi = uppatipaatiyaa gahitehi. Comy. (i.e. 'by impossible renderings').

[92]Vya~njana-pa.tiruupakehi = bya~njanen'eva pa.tiruupakehi, akkharacintakaaya laddhakehi (acc. to the rules of grammar).


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