Anguttara Nikaya


[Site Map]  [Home]  [Sutta Indexes]  [Glossology]  [Site Sub-Sections]

The Pali is transliterated as Velthuis (aaiiuu.m'n~n.t.d.n.l). Alternatives:
[ ASCII (aiumnntdnl) | IAST Unicode (āīūṃṅñṭḍṇḷ) ]

 

A'nguttara-Nikaaya
III. Tikanipaata
X. Lo.naphala Vagga

The Book of the
Gradual Sayings
or
More-Numbered Suttas

Part III
The Book of the Threes

Chapter X. A Grain of Salt

Sutta 100

Pa.msudhovaka Sutta.m

Gold-refiner[1]

Translated from the Pali by
F.L. Woodward, M.A.

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


[231]

[1][than] Thus have I heard:

Once the Exalted One was dwelling near Saavatthii.

There the Exalted One addressed the monks, saying:

'Monks.'

'Yes, lord,' they replied, and the Exalted One said:

'Monks, there are gross impurities in gold,
such as dust
and sand,
gravel
and grit.

The dirt-washer
or his prentice
heaps it into a trough
and washes it,
washes it up and down,[2]
and runs the dirt out.[2]

When this process is abandoned and ended,
there still remain moderate impurities in the gold,
such as fine grit
and coarse sand.

The dirt-washer
or his man
repeats the process.

When this is abandoned and ended
there still remain trifling impurities
such as fine sand
and black dust.

The dirt-washer
or his man
repeats the process.

Thereafter the gold-dust alone remains.

2. Then the goldsmith
or his man
heaps that sterling gold
into a crucible[3]
and blows it (till it melts),
melts it together
but does not run it out of the crucible.[4]

That sterling gold is then blown till it melts:
it is molten but not flawless,[5]
it is not done with yet,
its impurities are not yet strained off.[6]

It is not pliable
nor workable
nor glistening.

It is brittle,
not[7] capable of perfect workmanship.

But a time comes, monks,
when that goldsmith
or his man
blows that gold till it melts,
melts it down
and runs it out of the crucible.

Then that sterling gold is melted,
molten,
flawless,
done with,
its impurities strained off.

It is pliable,
workable,
glistening,
no longer brittle;
it is capable of perfect [232] workmanship.

For whatsoever sort of ornament one wishes,
be it a gold plate,[8]
or a ring
or necklace
or golden chain,
he can make use of it for[9] that purpose.

3. Just in the same way
in a monk who is given to developing the higher consciousness[10]
there are gross impurities of deed,
word
and thought.

This fault the thoughtful,[11] able[12] monk abandons,
keeps in check;
he makes an end of it,
he makes it not recur.

When this fault is done with
and made an end of,
there are still in that monk
who is given to developing the higher consciousness
certain moderately gross impurities
which cling to him,
such as sensual reflections,
malicious
and cruel reflections.

These faults he abandons,
keeps in check;
he makes an end of it,
he makes it not recur.

When this fault is done with
and made an end of,
there are still in that monk
who is given to developing the higher consciousness
certain minute impurities
which cling to him,
such as reflections about his relatives,[13]
his district,
reflections about his reputation.[14]

Such a fault the thoughtful,
able monk abandons,
keeps in check:
he makes an end of it,
makes it not recur.

4. When that is done with
and made an end of,
there still remain reflections
about mind-states.[15]

Now this sort [233] of concentration
is neither calm nor lofty,
nor has it gotten tranquillity
nor reached one-pointedness;
but it is a state
dependent on painful habitual restraint.[16]

Yet there comes a time
when that mind of his[17]
becomes inwardly well established,
settles down,
is one-pointed,
becomes concentrated.

Such concentration is calm,
lofty,
has gotten tranquillity,
has reached one-pointedness,
is not a state
dependent on painful habitual restraint;
and to whatsoever branch of special knowledge
he may direct bis mind
for the realization thereof,
he attains the power
to realize personally such,
whatever his range[18] may be.[19]

5. For instance, if he desire:

May I enjoy
in divers ways
manifold forms of more-power
thus:

From being one,
may I be many:
from being many,
may I be one:

manifest or invisible,
may I pass unhindered through a wall,
through a rampart,
through a mountain,
as if it were through the air:

may I plunge into the earth
and shoot up again as if in water:

may I walk upon water
without parting it,
as if on solid ground:

may I travel
sitting cross-legged
through the air
like a bird upon the wing:

even this moon and sun,
though of such mighty magic power and majesty,
let me handle,
let me stroke them with my hand:

even as far as the Brahmaa world
may I have power with my body, -

he attains the power to do so,
whatever be his range.[20]

6. If he desire:

With the deva-power of hearing,
purified and surpassing that of men,
let me hear sounds
both of devas and of humans,
whether far or near, -
he attains the power to do so,
whatever be his range.

7. If he desire:

Let me know the minds of other beings,
of other persons,
with my own mind grasping them.

Of the mind that is lustful,
let me know it to be a mind that is lustful.

Of the mind [234] free from lust,
let me know it to be a mind free from lust.

Of the mind full of hate,
let me know it to be a mind full of hate.

Of the mind free from hate,
let me know it to be a.

Of the mind deluded,
let me know it to be a mind free from hate.

Of the mind free from delusion,
let me know it to be a mind free from delusion.

Of the mind that is cramped,
let me know it to be a mind that is cramped.

Of the mind diffuse,
let me know it to be a mind diffuse.

Of the mind that is lofty,
let me know it to be a mind that is lofty.

Of the mind that is mean,
let me know it to be a mind that is mean.

Of the mind that is inferior,
let me know it to be a mind that is inferior.

Of the mind that is superior,
let me know it to be a mind that is superior.

Of the mind that is uncontrolled,
let me know it to be a mind that is uncontrolled.

Of the mind that is controlled,
let me know it to be a mind that is controlled.

Of the mind that is in bondage,
let me know it to be a mind that is in bondage.

Of the mind that is released,
let me know it to be a mind that is released, -

he attains the power to do so,
whatever be his range.

8. If he desire:

Let me call to mind
my former births
in divers ways,
thus:

One birth,
two births,
three, four, five,
even ten births,
twenty, thirty, forty, fifty births:
even a hundred births,
a thousand,
a hundred thousand births:
let me call to mind divers aeons,
the various destructions of aeons,
the various renewals of aeons,
both the destructions and the renewals of aeons:
let me know:

Such was I by name
in such and such a place,
such was I by clan,
by caste:
thus was I nourished,
thus did I undergo pleasure and pain:
such was my span of life.

Let me know:

Thence I deceased
and rose up so and so:
there I dwelt,
of such and such a name,
of such a clan,
of such a caste,
so nourished:
such and such pleasures and pains did I undergo,
such was my span of life.

Thence deceased
I rose up in the present life.

Thus in fact and detail[21]
let me call to mind
in divers ways
my former births, -

then he attains the power to do so,
whatever be his range.

9. If he desire:

With the deva-sight,
purified and surpassing that of men,
let me behold beings:
as they decease and rise up (elsewhere)
let me know them,
both mean and exalted,
of features fair and foul,
gone to weal or gone to woe
according to their deeds,
thus:

Alas! these good folk,
given to the practice of evil deeds,
of evil words,
of evil thoughts,
scoffing at the noble ones,
of perverted view
and reaping the fruit
of their perverted view, -
these folk,
on the dissolution of the body,
after death arose again in the Waste,
the Downfall
and the Constant Round.

Ah! and these good folk,
given to the practice of good deeds,
good words,
good thoughts,
not [235] scoffing at the noble ones,
of sound view
and reaping tbe benefit of their sound view, -
these beings,
on the dissolution of the body,
after death arose in the Happy Lot,
in the Heaven World.

Thus with deva-sight,
purified and surpassing that of men,
let me behold beings
as they decease and rise up (elsewhere):
let me know them,
both mean and exalted,
of features fair and foul,
gone to weal or gone to woe
according to their deeds, -

if he so desire he attains the power to do so,
whatever be his range.

10. If he desire:

By the destruction of the aasavas,
in this very life
myself thoroughly knowing it
let me win the heart's release,
the release by insight
which is free from the aasavas;
let me realize it
and dwell therein, -
he attains the power to do so,
whatever be his range.

[11][22] [than] Monks, three characteristics
are to be attended to
from time to time by the monk
who is given to developing the higher consciousness:

From time to time
he must attend
to the characteristic of concentration,
to that of energetic application,[23]
to that of equanimity.[24]

12. Now, monks, if a monk
who is given to developing the higher consciousness
give exclusive[25] attention
to the characteristic of concentration,
it is probable[26] that his mind
will be liable to indolence.

Should he give exclusive attention
to the characteristic of energetic application,
it is probable that his mind
will be liable to distraction.

Should he give exclusive attention
to the characteristic of equanimity,
it is probable that his mind
will not be perfectly poised
for the destruction of the aasavas.

But if he give attention
to [236] to the characteristic of concentration,
to that of energetic application,
to that of equanimity
from time to time,
then his mind becomes pliable,
workable,
radiant,
not stubborn,
but perfectly poised
for the destruction of the aasavas.

13. Suppose, monks, a goldsmith
or his man
sets up his furnace,
and having done so
puts fire to the receptacle,[27]
and taking up sterling gold with pincers
thrusts it into the crucible
and from time to time
blows on it,[28]
from time to time
sprinkles it with water,
from time to time
examines it closely.[29]

Now, monks, if the goldsmith
or his man
were to blow continuously on that gold,
it is probable that he would burn it up.

If he kept sprinkling it with water
he would make it cold.

If he kept examining it always
it is probable that the sterling gold
would not come to full perfection.

But if he do these things from time to time,
occasionally,
then that sterling gold
becomes pliable,
workable,
lustrous,
not brittle:
it becomes capable of perfect workmanship.

For whatever sort of ornament one wishes,
be it a gold plate
or a ring
or a necklace
or a golden chain,
he can make use of it
for that purpose.

14. In the same way
are these three characteristics
to be attended to
from time to time by a monk
who is devoted to developing the higher consciousness:

From time to time
he must attend
to the characteristic of concentration,
to that of energetic application,
to that of equanimity.

12. Now, monks, if a monk
who is given to developing the higher consciousness
give exclusive attention
to the characteristic of concentration,
it is probable that his mind
will be liable to indolence.

Should he give exclusive attention
to the characteristic of energetic application,
it is probable that his mind
will be liable to distraction.

Should he give exclusive attention
to the characteristic of equanimity,
it is probable that his mind
will not be perfectly poised
for the destruction of the aasavas.

But if he give attention
to the characteristic of concentration,
to that of energetic application,
to that of equanimity
from time to time,
then his mind becomes pliable,
workable,
radiant,
not stubborn,
but perfectly poised
for the destruction of the aasavas,
and to whatever branch of special knowledge
he may direct his mind
for the realization thereof,
he attains the power personally to realize such,
whatever be his range.

15. For instance, if he desire:

May I enjoy
in divers ways
manifold forms of more-power
thus:

From being one,
may I be many:
from being many,
may I be one:

manifest or invisible,
may I pass unhindered through a wall,
through a rampart,
through a mountain,
as if it were through the air:

may I plunge into the earth
and shoot up again as if in water:

may I walk upon water
without parting it,
as if on solid ground:

may I travel
sitting cross-legged
through the air
like a bird upon the wing:

even this moon and sun,
though of such mighty magic power and majesty,
let me handle,
let me stroke them with my hand:

even as far as the Brahmaa world
may I have power with my body, -

he attains the power to do so,
whatever be his range.

16. If he desire:

With the deva-power of hearing,
purified and surpassing that of men,
let me hear sounds
both of devas and of humans,
whether far or near, -
he attains the power to do so,
whatever be his range.

17. If he desire:

Let me know the minds of other beings,
of other persons,
with my own mind grasping them.

Of the mind that is lustful,
let me know it to be a mind that is lustful.

Of the mind free from lust,
let me know it to be a mind free from lust.

Of the mind full of hate,
let me know it to be a mind full of hate.

Of the mind free from hate,
let me know it to be a.

Of the mind deluded,
let me know it to be a mind free from hate.

Of the mind free from delusion,
let me know it to be a mind free from delusion.

Of the mind that is cramped,
let me know it to be a mind that is cramped.

Of the mind diffuse,
let me know it to be a mind diffuse.

Of the mind that is lofty,
let me know it to be a mind that is lofty.

Of the mind that is mean,
let me know it to be a mind that is mean.

Of the mind that is inferior,
let me know it to be a mind that is inferior.

Of the mind that is superior,
let me know it to be a mind that is superior.

Of the mind that is uncontrolled,
let me know it to be a mind that is uncontrolled.

Of the mind that is controlled,
let me know it to be a mind that is controlled.

Of the mind that is in bondage,
let me know it to be a mind that is in bondage.

Of the mind that is released,
let me know it to be a mind that is released, -

he attains the power to do so,
whatever be his range.

18. If he desire:

Let me call to mind
my former births
in divers ways,
thus:

One birth,
two births,
three, four, five,
even ten births,
twenty, thirty, forty, fifty births:
even a hundred births,
a thousand,
a hundred thousand births:
let me call to mind divers aeons,
the various destructions of aeons,
the various renewals of aeons,
both the destructions and the renewals of aeons:
let me know:

Such was I by name
in such and such a place,
such was I by clan,
by caste:
thus was I nourished,
thus did I undergo pleasure and pain:
such was my span of life.

Let me know:

Thence I deceased
and rose up so and so:
there I dwelt,
of such and such a name,
of such a clan,
of such a caste,
so nourished:
such and such pleasures and pains did I undergo,
such was my span of life.

Thence deceased
I rose up in the present life.

Thus in fact and detail
let me call to mind
in divers ways
my former births, -

then he attains the power to do so,
whatever be his range.

19. If he desire:

With the deva-sight,
purified and surpassing that of men,
let me behold beings:
as they decease and rise up (elsewhere)
let me know them,
both mean and exalted,
of features fair and foul,
gone to weal or gone to woe
according to their deeds,
thus:

Alas! these good folk,
given to the practice of evil deeds,
of evil words,
of evil thoughts,
scoffing at the noble ones,
of perverted view
and reaping the fruit
of their perverted view, -
these folk,
on the dissolution of the body,
after death arose again in the Waste,
the Downfall
and the Constant Round.

Ah! and these good folk,
given to the practice of good deeds,
good words,
good thoughts,
not scoffing at the noble ones,
of sound view
and reaping tbe benefit of their sound view, -
these beings,
on the dissolution of the body,
after death arose in the Happy Lot,
in the Heaven World.

Thus with deva-sight,
purified and surpassing that of men,
let me behold beings
as they decease and rise up (elsewhere):
let me know them,
both mean and exalted,
of features fair and foul,
gone to weal or gone to woe
according to their deeds, -

if he so desire he attains the power to do so,
whatever be his range.

20. If he desire:

By the destruction of the aasavas,
in this very life
myself thoroughly knowing it
let me win the heart's release,
the release by insight
which is free from the aasavas;
let me realize it
and dwell therein, -
he attains the power to do so,
whatever be his range.

The Second Great-Fifty is finished.

 


[1] This is translated by Grimm, op. cit. 444.

[2] Sandhovati, niddhovati. Text should read a full-stop after niddhovati. Tasmi.m, etc., should begin the next paragraph. The same error runs through the sutta.

[3] Muusa (not in Dict.). Comy. and Childers muusaa. Musala is the pounder or pestle. Musaa is the mortar.

[4] There is some confusion of terms here in the attempt to preserve the prefixes of verbs (as above in the washing process) - viz., sandhamati, niddhamati. Text brackets na before niddhamati, but it should be read. The process is not final yet.

[5] Or 'it is not run out.'

[6] Text aninniita-kasaava. Comy. anikkhitta-k.

[7] Text wrong here. It should read (as at S. v, 92) na ca sammaa upeti kammaaya.

[8] Pa.t.takaaya = pa.t.t'atthaaya, Comy. It may mean 'frontlet.'

[9] Tassa attha.m anubhoti (or attha may be trans. 'profit, benefit').

[10] Adhi-cittam-anuyuttassa.

[11] Sacetaso.

[12] Dabba-jaatiko = pa.n.dita-j. Comy. Cf. M. i, 114.

[13] ~Naati-vitakko. Text reads jaati-.

[14] Anava~n~natti = 'not being despised.' Comy. paraphr. 'O may not others look down on me.'

[15] Dhamma-vitakkaa = dasa-vipassan'uupakilesa-vitakkaa. Here the Pali Dict., trans. 'righteous thought,' which hardly meets the case. Grimm, loc. cit., p. 445 has 'thoughts about mental states' (which I prefer). Gooneratna, p. 271, 'qualities of reflection.' Vitakka in this sense is 'initial' thought as opposed to vicaara, the sustained progress of it. It would seem to imply here the struggle with mental impressions which have to be abandoned by the yogii before samaadhi is thoroughly attained. As Comy. remarks, there are ten reflections which make insight turgid (cf. V.M. 633, obhaaso, ~naa.na.m, piiti, passaddhi, sukha.m, adhimokkho, paggaho, uupa.t.thaana.m, uupekkhaa, nikanti,) because the mind is trying to realize all of these excellences at once. Text mis-punctuates so hoti samaadhi.

[16] Sasankhaara-niggayha-vaarita-vato.

[17] Yay ta.m vitta.m = yasmi.m samaye ta.m vipassanaa-ciita.m. Comy.

[18] Sati sati aayatane = s. s.-kaara.ne. Comy.

[19] Cf. the similar passage at M. i, 494 ('as your mind shall dictate,' Lord Chalmers); Path of Purity (loc. cit.) trans. 'whatever be the circumstances,' quoting .Tiikaa on AA.

[20] Cf. D. (Aakankheyya Sutta) [sic. MN 6]; K.S. v, 236, etc., where see notes.

[21] Saakara.m sa-uddesa.m.

[22] Comy. takes this as a fresh sutta. It is quoted V.M. i, 246; Path of Purity, ii, 283; from some of the terms used there I differ, for which see below.

[23] Paggaaha. At Dhs. 56 (Buddh. Psych. Eth. 25), trans. 'grasp.' Comy. viriyassa naama.m; Path of Purity (loc. cit.) 'upholding.' It means 'to keep up the concentration without faltering.'

[24] Uupekhaa, cf. V.M. i, 161; Path of Purity, ii, 185 'Neutral energy, being free from contraction and expansion, is called indifference.'

[25] Ekanta.m.

[26] .Thaana.m = kaara.na.m (vijjaii yena ta.m citta.m kosajja-bhaave santi.t.theyya).

[27] Ukkaa-mukha, lit. 'the opening of the furnace.'

[28] 'Through a reed,' says Comy.

K.S. v. 372 n.: "A.; this word curiously has two opposite meanings: to attend to and to neglect (look with complacency on). Hence some MSS read anajjkh. (The simile is ref. to at PvA. 149, in a similar sense.)" Suggest: detachment, or objective detachment which has both these 'opposite' meanings.

p.p. explains it all - p.p.

[29] Ajjhupekkhati. Path of Purity (loc. cit.) 'remains indifferent.' My rendering is supported by Comy., which says: 'satisfies himself as to whether it is properly molten (cooked).' Ajjhupekkhitaa, has this double meaning (of scrutinizing and remaining indifferent, as an onlooker), as I have shown at K.S. v, 69 n. [? there is no note on this here in my edition] and 372 n.


Contact:
E-mail
Copyright Statement