Anguttara Nikaya


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Anguttara Nikaaya
Ekaadasako nipaato

The Book of the Gradual Sayings
The Book of the Elevens

2. Recollection

Sutta 18

The cowherd (a)[1]

Translated from the Pali by F. L. Woodward, M.A.

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[1][than] 'Possessing eleven qualities, monks,
a cowherd cannot become[2]
the man to lead a herd about
and make it prosperous.
What eleven qualities?

[348] Herein, monks, a cowherd knows not bodily forms[3]
and is unskilled in distinguishing the marks;
he does not remove flies' eggs
or dress wounds;
he makes no fumigation;[4]
he knows not the ford,
the watering-place
or the road;
he is unskilled in pastures;
he milks dry;
pays no special respect to the bulls,
the sires and leaders of the herd.

Possessing these eleven qualities
a cowherd cannot become the man
to lead about a herd
and make it prosperous.

In the same way
a monk possessing eleven qualities
cannot become the man
to reach growth, increase and maturity
in this dhamma-discipline.
What eleven?

Herein a monk knows not objects,
is unskilled in the marks;
removes no flies' eggs,
dresses not a wound,
makes no fumigation,
knows not the ford,
knows not the watering-place,
knows not the road,
is unskilled in pastures,
pays no special respect
to those elder monks
who have gone forth many a day,
who are sires of the Order,
leaders of the Order.

And how is a monk
one who knows not bodily forms?

Herein a monk comes not to know
of any object whatsoever
that it is the four great essentials
or derived therefrom.

That is how a monk is one
who knows not bodily forms.

And how is a monk
unskilled in distinguishing the marks?

[225] Herein a monk comes not to know
that a fool is marked by his deed,
that a sage is marked by his deed.

That is how a monk
is one who is unskilled in distinguishing the marks.

And how is a monk
one who removes not flies' eggs?

Herein a monk
cleaves to sensual thinking when it arises,
abandons it not, restrains it not,
makes not an end thereof,
causes it not to go to non-existence;
he cleaves to malicious thinking when it arises,
abandons it not, restrains it not,
makes not an end thereof,
causes it not to go to non-existence;
he cleaves to harmful thinking when it arises,
abandons it not, restrains it not,
makes not an end thereof,
causes it not to go to non-existence;
he cleaves to evil, unprofitable states
whensoever arisen
he cleaves, abandons them not,
restrains them not,
makes not an end thereof,
causes them not to go to non-existence.

That is how a monk
is one who removes not flies' eggs.

And how does a monk
not dress wounds?

Herein a monk,
seeing an object with the eye,[5]
is entranced by its general features
and by its details.
Although coveting and dejection,
those evil, unprofitable states,
might flow in upon one
who dwells with the eye-faculty uncontrolled,
yet he applies not himself to such control,
he sets no guard over the faculty of eye,
wins no restraint thereof.
Hearing a sound with the ear
or with the nose [349] smelling an odour,
with tongue tasting a savour,
with body contacting tangibles,
or with mind cognizing mental states,
he is entranced by their general features
and by their details.
Though coveting and dejection,
those evil, unprofitable states,
might flow in upon one
who dwells with this mental faculty uncontrolled,
yet he applies not himself to such control,
he sets no guard over the mental faculty,
wins no restraint thereof.

That is how a monk
is one who does not dress wounds.

And how is a monk
one who makes no fumigation?

Herein a monk expounds not to others
in detail
dhamma as he himself has heard it
and borne it in mind.

That is how a monk
is one who makes no fumigation.

And how is a monk
one who knows not the ford ?

Herein a monk
frequents not from time to time
the company of monks of wide knowledge,[6]
who are versed in the sayings,
who know the outlines thoroughly,
who know the discipline and summaries by heart.
He inquires not of them
nor questions them thus:
'How is this, your reverence?
What [226] is the meaning of this?'
To him those worthies
open not up what was sealed,
make not clear what was obscure,
and on divers doubtful points of doctrine
resolve not his doubts.

That is how a monk
is one who knows not the ford.

And how is a monk
one who knows not the watering-place?

Herein a monk,
when dhamma proclaimed by the Wayfarer is preached,
gets no thrill of the meaning,
no thrill of dhamma,
he gets no thrill of the joy[7]
that goes along with dhamma.
Thus he knows not the watering-place.

Thus a monk
is one who knows not the watering-place.

And how is a monk
one who knows not the road?

Herein a monk
comes not to know the Ariyan eightfold way
as it really is.

That is how a monk
is one who knows not the road.

And how is a monk
one not skilled in pastures?

[350] Herein a monk comes not to know,
as they really are,
the four arisings of mindfulness.

That is how a monk
is one not skilled in pastures.

And how is a monk one who milks dry?

Herein a monk,
when believing householders
supply a monk to the full[8]
with offerings of robe and almsfood,
lodging and seat,
medicines and comforts in sickness,
knows no moderation in accepting such.

That is how a monk
is one who milks dry.

And how is a monk
one who pays no special respect
to the bulls,
the sires and leaders of the herd?

Herein a monk
treats not with kindly action
of body, speech and mind,
either openly or in secret,
those elder monks
who have gone forth many a day,
who are sires of the Order
leaders of the Order.

That is how a monk
is one who pays no special respect
to the bulls,
the sires and leaders of the herd.

Thus, monks,
possessing these eleven qualities
a monk cannot become the man
to reach growth, increase and maturity
in this dhamma-discipline.

 


 

Now a cowherd who possesses eleven qualities
can become the man
to lead about a herd
and make it prosperous.
What eleven?

[351-3] Herein, monks, a cowherd knows bodily forms
and is skilled in distinguishing the marks;
he removes flies' eggs
and dresses a wound;
he makes a fumigation;
he knows the ford,
the watering-place
and the road;
he is skilled in pastures;
he milks not dry;
pays special respect to the bulls,
the sires and leaders of the herd.

Possessing these eleven qualities
a cowherd can become the man
to lead about a herd
and make it prosperous.

In the same way
a monk possessing eleven qualities
can become one
to reach growth, increase and maturity
in this dhamma-discipline.
What eleven?

Herein a monk knows objects,
is skilled in the marks;
removes flies' eggs,
dresses a wound,
makes a fumigation,
knows the ford,
knows the watering-place,
knows the road,
is skilled in pastures,
pays special respect
to those elder monks
who have gone forth many a day,
who are sires of the Order,
leaders of the Order.

And how is a monk
one who knows bodily forms?

Herein a monk comes to know
of any object whatsoever
that it is the four great essentials
or derived therefrom.

That is how a monk is one
who knows bodily forms.

And how is a monk
skilled in distinguishing the marks?

Herein a monk comes to know
that a fool is marked by his deed,
that a sage is marked by his deed.

That is how a monk
is one who is skilled
in distinguishing the marks.

And how is a monk
one who removes flies' eggs?

Herein a monk
cleaves not to sensual thinking when it arises,
abandons it, restrains it,
makes an end thereof,
causes it to go to non-existence;
he cleaves mot to malicious thinking when it arises,
abandons it, restrains it,
makes an end thereof,
causes it to go to non-existence;
he cleaves not to harmful thinking when it arises,
abandons it, restrains it,
makes an end thereof,
causes it to go to non-existence;
he cleaves not to evil, unprofitable states
whensoever arisen
he cleaves not, abandons them,
restrains them,
makes an end thereof,
causes them to go to non-existence.

That is how a monk
is one who removes flies' eggs.

And how does a monk
dress wounds?

Herein a monk,
seeing an object with the eye,
is not entranced by its general features
and by its details.
Because coveting and dejection,
those evil, unprofitable states,
might flow in upon one
who dwells with the eye-faculty uncontrolled,
he applies himself to such control,
he sets guard over the faculty of eye,
wins restraint thereof.
Hearing a sound with the ear
or with the nose smelling an odour,
with tongue tasting a savour,
with body contacting tangibles,
or with mind cognizing mental states,
he is not entranced by their general features
and by their details.
Because coveting and dejection,
those evil, unprofitable states,
might flow in upon one
who dwells with this mental faculty uncontrolled,
he applies himself to such control,
he sets guard over the mental faculty,
wins restraint thereof.

That is how a monk
is one who dresses wounds.

And how is a monk
one who makes fumigation?

Herein a monk expounds to others
in detail
dhamma as he himself has heard it
and borne it in mind.

That is how a monk
is one who makes fumigation.

And how is a monk
one who knows the ford ?

Herein a monk
frequents from time to time
the company of monks of wide knowledge,
who are versed in the sayings,
who know the outlines thoroughly,
who know the discipline and summaries by heart.
He inquires of them
and questions them thus:
'How is this, your reverence?
What is the meaning of this?'
To him those worthies
open up what was sealed,
make clear what was obscure,
and on divers doubtful points of doctrine
resolve his doubts.

That is how a monk
is one who knows the ford.

And how is a monk
one who knows the watering-place?

Herein a monk,
when dhamma proclaimed by the Wayfarer is preached,
gets the thrill of the meaning,
the thrill of dhamma,
he gets the thrill of the joy
that goes along with dhamma.

Thus a monk
is one who knows the watering-place.

And how is a monk
one who knows the road?

Herein a monk
comes to know the Ariyan eightfold way
as it really is.

That is how a monk
is one who knows the road.

And how is a monk
one skilled in pastures?

Herein a monk comes to know,
as they really are,
the four arisings of mindfulness.

That is how a monk
is one skilled in pastures.

And how is a monk one who milks not dry?

Herein a monk,
when believing householders
supply a monk to the full
with offerings of robe and almsfood,
lodging and seat,
medicines and comforts in sickness,
knows moderation in accepting such.

That is how a monk
is one who milks not dry.

And how is a monk
one who pays special respect
to the bulls,
the sires and leaders of the herd?

Herein a monk
treats with kindly action
of body, speech and mind,
either openly or in secret,
those elder monks
who have gone forth many a day,
who are sires of the Order
leaders of the Order.

That is how a monk
is one who pays special respect
to the bulls,
the sires and leaders of the herd.

[227] Thus, monks,
possessing these eleven qualities
a monk can become the man
to reach growth, increase and maturity
in this dhamma-discipline.

 


[1] At M. i, 220 (Mahaagopaalaka-sutta).

[2] Abhahbo.

[3] Comy. 'cannot recognize them by counting or by colour.'

[4] Dhuuma'n. Comy. 'against mosquitoes, etc.'

[5] Cf. D. i, 70; A. ii, 16; K.S. iv. 63.

[6] Cf. G.S. i, 101.

[7] Attha-veda and dhamma-veda (= somanassa) seem explained by the following sentences. Comy. at MA. i. 173 explains 'unwavering confidence in. 'Vedo ti gantho pi ~naa.nam pi somanassam pi. Cf. above, Ii 12 of the Elevens.

[8] Abhihatthu'n (Comy. = abhihaaritvaa) pavaarenti. The two abhihaaraa are of speech and necessaries. Also infin. of abhiha'nsati, 'to serve till satisfied.'


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