Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikaaya
I. Muulapa.n.naasa
5. Cuu.la Yamaka Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
I. The First Fifty Discourses
5. The Lesser Division of the Pairs

Sutta 50

Maara Tajjaniya Sutta.m

Discourse On A Rebuke To Maara

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
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[1][chlm][upal] THUS have I heard:

At one time the venerable Moggallaana the Great was staying among the Bhaggas in Sumsumaaragira
in Bhesaka.laa Grove in the deer-park.

Now at that time the venerable Moggallaana the Great was pacing up and down in the open.

Now at that time Maara the Evil One,
entering the venerable Moggallaana the Great's belly,
got into his stomach.

Then it occurred to the venerable Moggallaana the Great:

"Now why is my belly heavy as if it were heaped full?"[1]

Then the venerable Moggallaana the Great, having come down from the place for pacing up and down in,
having entered the dwelhng-plaee,
sat down on a seat made ready.

As he was sitting down,
the venerable Moggallaana the Great reflected carefully about himself.

Then the venerable Moggallaana the Great saw that Maara the Evil One,
having entered his belly,
had got into his stomach;
seeing him, he spoke thus to Maara the Evil One:

"Get out, Evil One;
Evil One, get out;
do not annoy a Tathaagata
[396] or a Tathaagata's disciple,
lest for a long time there be woe and sorrow for you."

Then it occurred to Maara the Evil One:

"This recluse speaks thus not even knowing,
not even seeing me:

'Get out, Evil One,
Evil One, get out.

Do not annoy a Tathaagata or a Tathaagata's disciple,
lest for a long time there be woe and sorrow for you.'

Even his teacher could not know me so quickly,
so how can this disciple know me?"

Then the venerable Moggallaana the Great spoke thus to Maara the Evil One:

"But I do know you, Evil One.

Do not you think:

'He does not know me.'

You, Evil One, are Maara.

It occurred to you, Evil One:

"This recluse speaks thus not even knowing,
not even seeing me:

'Get out, Evil One,
Evil One, get out.

Do not annoy a Tathaagata or a Tathaagata's disciple,
lest for a long time there be woe and sorrow for you.'

Even his teacher could not know me so quickly,
so how can this disciple know me?"

Then it occurred to Maara the Evil One:

"It is because this recluse knows and sees me that he speaks thus:

'Get out, Evil One,
Evil One, get out.

Do not annoy a Tathaagata or a Tathaagata's disciple,
lest for a long time there be woe and sorrow for you.'

Then Maara the Evil One, having gone out through the venerable Moggallaana the Great's mouth,
stood against the door.[2]

Then the venerable Moggallaana the Great saw
Maara the Evil One
standing against the door;
seeing him,
he spoke thus to Maara the Evil One:

"Indeed I do see you now, Evil One.

Do not think:

'He does not see me';

it is you, Evil One,
standing against the door.

Once upon a time, I, Evil One,
was the Maara called Duusin;[3]
as such Kaa.li was the name of my sister,
you were her son,
thus you were my nephew.

Now at that time, Evil One, Kakusandha,
the Lord,
the perfected one,
fully self-awakened one,
had uprisen in the world.

Now, Evil One, Vidhura and Sa~njiiva were the pair of disciples which was the chief,
the lucky pair of Kakusandha,[4]
the Lord,
the perfected one,
the fully self-awakened one.

Of all the disciples, Evil One,
of Kakusandha,
the Lord,
perfected one,
fully self-awakened one,
there was none there equal to the venerable Vidhura
in regard to teaching dhamma.

It was because of this, [397] Evil One,
that the venerable Vidhura's name came to be Vidhura, the Peerless.

But the venerable Sa~njiiva, Evil One,
forest-gone,
gone to the roots of trees
and gone to empty places,
with no trouble
attained the stopping of perceiving and feeling.

Once upon a time, Evil One, the venerable Sa~njiiva was sitting at the root of a certain tree
attaining the stopping of perceiving and feeling.

Then, Evil One, cowherds, goatherds, yeoman farmers, travellers,[5]
saw the venerable Sa~njiiva sitting at the root of that tree
attaining the stopping of perceiving and feeling;
having seen him,
it occurred to them:

'Indeed it is wonderful,
indeed it is marvellous,
that this recluse is just sitting dead.

Come, we will cremate him.'

Then, Evil One, these cowherds, goatherds, yeomen farmers, travellers,
having collected grass and sticks and cow-dung
and having heaped them over the venerable Sa~njiiva's body,
lit the fire and departed.

Then, Evil One, the venerable Sa~njiiva,
having emerged towards the end of that night
from that attainment,
having shaken his robes,
having dressed in the morning,
taking his bowl and robe,
entered a village for almsfood.

Evil One, those cowherds, goatherds, yeomen farmers and travellers
saw the venerable Sa~njiiva walking for almsfood;
having seen him,
it occurred to them:

'Indeed it is wonderful,
indeed it is marvellous
that this recluse who was just sitting dead -
that he has come back to life.'[6]

It was because of this, Evil One,
that the venerable Sa~njiiva's name
came to be Sa~njiiva, the Quick.

Then, Evil One, it occurred to the Maara Duusin:

'I simply do not know
either the coming or the going
of these monks who are of moral habit,
lovely in character.

Suppose I were to visit brahmans and householders (and say):

"Come, do you revile, abuse, vex, annoy
the monks who are of good moral habit,
lovely in character,
for it is likely
that when they are being reviled, abused, vexed and annoyed by [399] you
there will be a change of heart
so that Duusin the Maara might get a chance over them."

'Then, Evil One, the Maara Duusin visited brahmans and householders (and said):

"Come, do you revile, abuse, vex, annoy
the monks who are of good moral habit,
lovely in character,
for it is likely
that when they are being reviled, abused, vexed and annoyed by you
there will be a change of heart
so that Duusin the Maara might get a chance over them."

Then, Evil One, those brahmans and householders
who had been visited by the Maara Duusin
reviled, abused, vexed and annoyed
the monks who were of good moral habit,
lovely in character, saying:

'But these little shaveling recluses are menials,
black,
the offscourings of our kins- [398] man's feet.[7]

They say,

"We are meditatives,
we are meditatives",

and with their shoulders drooping,
with their faces cast down,
as if drugged,[8]
they meditate,
they meditate absorbed,
they meditate more absorbed,
they meditate quite absorbed.[9]

As an owl
on the branch of a tree
when tracking a mouse
meditates,
meditates absorbed,
meditates more absorbed,
meditates quite absorbed,
so do these little shavehng recluses,
menials,
black the offscourings of our kinsman's feet
meditate quite absorbed.

And as a jackal
on the bank of a river
when tracking fish
meditates,
meditates absorbed,
meditates more absorbed,
meditates quite absorbed,
so do these little shaveling recluses,
menials,
black the offscourings of our kinsman's feet
meditate quite absorbed.

And as a cat
on the edge of a refuse heap
when tracking a mouse[10]
meditates,
meditates absorbed,
meditates more absorbed,
meditates quite absorbed,
so do these httle shaveling recluses,
menials,
black the offscourings of our kinsman's feet
meditate quite absorbed.

And as an ass
at the edge of a refuse-heap,
its burden removed,
meditates,
meditates absorbed,
meditates more absorbed,
meditates quite absorbed,
so do these little shavehng recluses,
menials,
black,
the offscourings of our kinsman's feet,
saying:

'We are meditatives,
we are meditatives,'

with their shoulders drooping,
with their faces cast down,
as if drugged,
meditate,
meditate absorbed,
meditate more absorbed,
meditate quite absorbed.

Evil One, nearly all the people
who passed away at that time,
at the breaking up of the body after dying
arose in a sorrowful state,
a bad bourn,
the abyss,
Niraya Hell.

Then, Evil One, Kakusandha,
the Lord,
perfected one,
fully self-awakened one,
addressed the monks, saying:

'Monks,
brahmans and householders have been visited by the Maara Duusin (who said):

"Come, do you revile, abuse, vex, annoy
the monks who are of good moral habit,
lovely in character,
for it is likely
that when they are being reviled, abused, vexed and annoyed by you
there will be a change of heart
so that Duusin the Maara might get a chance over them."

Come, do you, monks, abide,
having suffused the first quarter with a mind of friendliness,
likewise the second,
like wise the third,
likewise the fourth;
just so above,
below,
across;
abide having suffused the whole world,
everywhere,
in every way
with a mind of friendhness,
that is far-reaching,
widespread,
immeasurable,
without enmity,
without malevolence.

Abide, having suffused the first quarter with a mind of compassion,
likewise the second,
like wise the third,
likewise the fourth;
just so above,
below,
across;
abide having suffused the whole world,
everywhere,
in every way
with a mind of friendhness,
that is far-reaching,
widespread,
immeasurable,
without enmity,
without malevolence.

Abide, having suffused the first quarter with a mind of sympathetic joy,
likewise the second,
like wise the third,
likewise the fourth;
just so above,
below,
across;
abide having suffused the whole world,
everywhere,
in every way
with a mind of friendhness,
that is far-reaching,
widespread,
immeasurable,
without enmity,
without malevolence.

Abide, having suffused the first quarter with a mind of equanimity,
likewise the second,
like wise the third,
likewise the fourth;
just so above,
below,
across;
abide having suffused the whole world,
everywhere,
in every way
with a mind of friendhness,
that is far-reaching,
widespread,
immeasurable,
without enmity,
without malevolence.

Then, Evil One, these monks,
forest-gone
and gone to the roots of trees
and gone to empty places,
thus exhorted,
thus instructed by Kakusandha,
the Lord,
perfected one,
fully self-awakened one,
abided, having suffused the first quarter with a mind of friendliness,
likewise the second,
like wise the third,
likewise the fourth;
just so above,
below,
across;
abide having suffused the whole world,
everywhere,
in every way
with a mind of friendhness,
that is far-reaching,
widespread,
immeasurable,
without enmity,
without malevolence.

Abided, having suffused the first quarter with a mind of compassion,
likewise the second,
like wise the third,
likewise the fourth;
just so above,
below,
across;
abide having suffused the whole world,
everywhere,
in every way
with a mind of friendhness,
that is far-reaching,
widespread,
immeasurable,
without enmity,
without malevolence.

Abided, having suffused the first quarter with a mind of sympathetic joy,
likewise the second,
like wise the third,
likewise the fourth;
just so above,
below,
across;
abide having suffused the whole world,
everywhere,
in every way
with a mind of friendhness,
that is far-reaching,
widespread,
immeasurable,
without enmity,
without malevolence.

Abided, having suffused the first quarter with a mind of equanimity,
likewise the second,
like wise the third,
likewise the fourth;
just so above,
below,
across;
abide having suffused the whole world,
everywhere,
in every way
with a mind of friendhness,
that is far-reaching,
widespread,
immeasurable,
without enmity,
without malevolence.

Then, Evil One, it occurred to the Maara Duusin:

'Even although I am working thus,
I do not know the coming
or the going
of these monks who are of good moral habit,
lovely in character.

Suppose I were to visit brahmans and householders (and say):

"Come, do you reverence,
revere,
respect,
honour the monks who are of good moral habit,
lovely in character,
for it is likely that when they are being reverenced,
revered,
respected
and honoured by you,
there will be a change of heart,
so that Duusin the Maara can get a chance over them."'

Then, Evil One, the Maara Duusin visited these brahmans and householders (and said):

"Come, do you reverence,
revere,
respect,
honour the monks who are of good moral habit,
lovely in character,
for it is likely that when they are being reverenced,
revered,
respected
and honoured by you,
there will be [400] a change of heart,
so that Duusin the Maara can get a chance over them."'

Then, Evil One, these brahmans and householders who had been visited by Duusin the Maara,
reverenced,
revered,
respected
and honoured those monks
who were of good moral habit,
lovely in character.

Evil One, nearly all the people
who passed away at that time,
at the breaking up of the body after dying
arose in a good bourn,
a heaven world.

Then, Evil One, Kakusandha,
the Lord,
perfected one,
fully self-awakened one,
addressed the monks, saying:

'Monks, brahmans and householders have been visited by the Maara Duusin (who said):

"Come, do you reverence,
revere,
respect,
honour those monks
who are of good moral habit,
lovely in character,
for it is likely that when they are being reverenced,
revered,
respected
and honoured by you
there will be a change of heart
so that Duusin the Maara can get a chance over them."

Come, do you, monks,
dwell beholding what is unlovely in the body,[11]
conscious of the cloying of food,[12]
conscious of there being no delight in the whole world,[13]
beholding[14] the impermanence of all constructions.'[15]

Then, Evil One, these monks,
forest-gone,
gone to the roots of trees
and gone to empty places,
being exhorted thus,
being instructed thus by Kakusandha,
the Lord,
perfected one,
fully self-awakened one,
dwelt beholding what is unlovely in the body,
conscious of the cloying of food,
conscious of there being no delight in the whole world,
beholding the impermanence of all constructions.

Then, Evil One, Kakusandha,
the Lord,
perfected one,
fully self-awakened one,
having dressed in the morning,
taking his bowl and robe,
entered a village for almsfood
with the venerable Vidhura as his attendant.

Then, Evil One, Duusin the Maara,
having visited a certain young man,
having taken up a stone,
gave a blow to the venerable Vidhura's head;
his head split.

Then, Evil One, the venerable Vidhura
with his head broken
and dripping with blood, -
even so followed close after Kakusandha,
the Lord,
the perfected one,
fully self-awakened one.

Then, Evil One, Kakusandha,
the Lord,
perfected one,
fully self-awakened one,
looked around with the "elephant-look."[16] and thought:

"Indeed, this Duusin the Maara does not know moderation."

While he was looking [401] around, Evil One, Duusin the Maara deceased from that place
and arose in the Great Niraya Hell.

Evil One, there are three appellations of that Great Niraya Hell:

it is called
"Belonging to the sphere of the Six Sensory Impingements"[17]
and it is called
"The Meeting of the Spikes"[18]
and it is called
"The Separate Feelings."

Then, Evil One, the guardian of Niraya Hell,
having approached me, spoke thus:

'When, good sir, spike shall meet spike within your heart,
then you should understand this:

There will be a thousand years
of boiling in Niraya Hell for me.'

Then I, Evil One, for many years,
for many a hundred,
for many a thousand years,
boiled in that Great Niraya Hell.

Vu.t.thaanima. PED doesn't help. Childers refers this to Utthaa- something having to do with rising up. I'm going to take a wild guess based on what follows (Ussada = 'protruding') and suggest it is the experience of being boiled from the neck down as a man while the head protruding from the curry suffocates out in the air in the form of a fishhead. At one point in Castenada's story, Don Juan tells of his teacher's captivity by a creature described like this fish-headed man.

p.p. explains it all - p.p.

After ten thousand years
of that Great Niraya Hell itself,
feeling a feeling called vu.t.thaanima (pain),
I was boiled in Ussada (Hell).

Because of this, Evil One,
my body came to be such, like a man's;
my head came to be such, like a fish's."

[19]What was that Niraya Hell like where Duusin was boiled
For striking the disciple Vidhura and the brahman[20] Kakusandha?

It was that of the hundred iron spikes, all suffered separately -
This[21] was the Niraya Hell where Duusin was boiled
For striking the disciple Vidhura and the brahman Kakusandha.

Whatever monk, the Awakened One's disciple, understands this -
Dark One, for striking such a monk you go to suffering.[22]

Mansions[23] stand for an eon in the middle of the sea,
The hue of beryl-stones,[24] brilliant, glowing, radiant;
There dance full many nymphs in divers hues.

Whatever monk, the Awakened One's disciple, understands this -
Dark One, for striking such a monk you go to suffering.

Whoever, urged on by the Awakened One, watched by the Order of monks,
With his great toe shakes the palace of Migaara's mother[25]-

[402] Whatever monk, the Awakened One's disciple, understands this -
Dark One, for striking such a monk you go to suffering.

Whoever with his great toe shakes Vejayanta Palace,[26]
Rigid through psychic power and strongly moves the devataas -

Whatever monk, the Awakened One's disciple, understands this -
Dark One, for striking such a monk you go to suffering.

Whoever inquires of Sakka in the Vejayanta Palace,
'Have you, friend, found the freedoms by the destruction of craving?[27]
To whom Sakka truthfully answers the question put to him -

Whatever monk, the Awakened One's disciple, understands this -
Dark One, for striking such a monk you go to suffering.

Whoever inquires of Brahmaa in conclave in Sudhammmaa's hall,[28]
'Do you,[29] friend, even today hold those views which formerly were views of yours?
Do you see the passing radiance in the Brahma-world?'[30]
To whom, Brahmaa truthfully answers (those questions) in succession:[31]
'Good sir, those views are not mine which formerly were views of mine;
I see the passing radiance in the Brahma-world;
How could I say today: I am permanent, eternal?' -

Whatever monk, the Awakened One's disciple, understands this -
Dark One, for striking such a monk you go to suffering.

Who, by dehverance,[32] has gained great Neru's[33] peak,
The forest[34] of the Eastern Videhas,[35] and whatever men sleep on the ground[36] -

Whatever monk, the Awakened One's disciple, understands this -
Dark One, for striking such a monk you go to suffering.

Verily, a fire does not think, 'I am burning a fool,'
For the fool is burnt by assailing the blazing fire;
Even so, you, Maara, by assaihng the Tathaagata,
Will yourself burn yourself like a fool touching a fire.
Maara[37] acquires demerit for assaihng a Tathaagata.
But do you not think, Evil One: Evil does not mature for me?
The evil done (by you) must be heaped up[38] for a long time, End-maker.
Maara, turn away from the Wake,[39] have no hopes among the monks.

Thus did a monk tilt at[40] Maara in the Bhesaka.laa Grove,
Wherefore that dejected fiend[41] vanished then and there."[42]

Discourse on a Rebuke to Maara
the Tenth

Lesser Division of the Pairs
the Fifth

TOLD ARE THE FIRST FIFTY

 


[1] masacitam. See VbhA. 510 (on Vbh. 386), and PED.

[2] paccagga.le a.t.thasi. PED. "stuck in his throat." MA. ii. 416 says pa.ti-agga.le a.t.thaasi. Agga.la.m vuccati kavaa.ta.m.

[3] At Vism. 229 is said to have died untimely as his life-current was cut off by kamma.

[4] D. ii. 4; S. ii. 191; Budv. XXIII. 20; Jaa. i. 42.

[5] As at Vin. iv. 108.

[6] pa.tisa~njiivito. This feat is called samaadhivipphaaraa iddhi; seeBudv. A. 26, Vism. 380-81, Pts. ii. 212.

[7] M. ii. 177; D. i. 90; S. iv. 117. MA. ii. 418 = DA. 264 refers to th¢ brahman theory of the origin of the four castes, and says recluses sprang from the soles of Brahma's feet.

[8] madhurakajaata. Not here, as more frequently, combined with kaayagata; cf. D. ii. 99; S. iii. 106; A. iii. 69. See K.S. iii. 90, n. 2. MA. ii. 418 gives a.lasiyajaata, slothful, lazy.

[9] jhaayanti pajjhaayanti nijjhaayanti apajjhaayanti. As at M. iii. 14. MA. ii. 418 says these prefixes have an increasing emphasis. Therefore the final one would not be "de-trance" (Chalmers), for the a- would not be privative; the prefix would be apa-, and would denote a rather more advanced state than those denoted by the other prefixes.

[10] S. ii. 270.

[11] MA. ii. 420 cites A. iv. 46-7. [AN 7.46 P 46; AN 7.46 Hare]

[12] MA. ii. 420 cites A. iv. 49. [AN 7.46 P 49; AN 7.46 Hare]

[13] MA. ii. 420 cites A. iv. 50. [AN 7.46 P 50; AN 7.46 Hare]

[14] MA. ii. 420 cites A. iv. 51. [AN 7.46 P 51; AN 7.46 Hare]

[15] Cf. A. iii. 79, 83, 143.

[16] That is, not merely twisting the neck from this side to that, but turning the whole body.

[17] See S. iv. 125.

[18] See Jaa. vi. 453.

[19] At Thag. 1187-1208 these verses are ascribed to Maara.

'Brahman here of course' - not necessarily, Kakusandha Buddha was a Brahmin.

p.p. explains it all - p.p.

[20] Brahman here of course in the sense of arahant.

[21] MA. ii. 422 says this is described in the Devaduuta Sutta, M. iii. 178; cf. A. i. 138 ff.

[22] = Thag. 25.

[23] MA. ii. 422 says they are to be understood as in Vv. and Pv.

[24] Or, lapis lazuli, ve.luriya.

[25] MA. ii. 422 refers us to Paasaadakampanasutta, (S. v. 269).

[26] MA. ii. 422 refers us to Cuulatanhasankhayavimuttisutta (M. i. 251; Cf. S. i. 234 f.).

[27] M. i. 255.

[28] See M. Sta. 49 (referred to by the Comy. as Baka Brahma Sutta) and S. i. 142. MA. ii. 422 also says that Sudhammaa's hall is here meant to be in the Brahma-world, not in the Taavatimsa abode, but there is no deva-world without its Sudhammasabhaa. The whole Brahma-world was one glory, MA. ii. 423.

[29] As at S. i. 145.

[30] I.e. the radiance of Saariputta, Moggallaana, Kassapa the Great and so on as they were sitting in the Lord's effulgence in the Brahma-world, having attained the condition of heat. MA. ii. 423 and see S. i. 145.

[31] anupubba.m yathaatatha.m, as at Sn. 600. Thag. 1199 reads (as in previous stanza) pa~nha.m puu.t.tho.

[32] MA. ii. 423, deliverance through jhaana.

[33] A mountain in Himavaa, at Jaa. iii. 247. Neru, Sineru, Meru are different mountains.

[34] Jambudiipa (India), MA. ii. 423.

[35] One of the four great continents (or islands).

[36] The men of Aparagoyaana and Uttarakuru; the former is one of the four great continents, the latter a mythical region. Bu. here refers to Nando-panandadamana. See Jaa. v. 126.

[37] Also at S. i. 114.

[38] karoto ciiyati paapa.m; v. ll. karoto te nijiyati, karoto casati. Thag. 1207 reads karato te miyyate paapam. Cf. pahuutam ciiyate pu~n~na.m, Sn. 428.

[39] buddhamhaa. No need to translate this as "the awakened mind," or to annotate: "applied to a disciple." On the contrary it is in opposition to the disciples, the "monks" of the next phrase. Maara, in point of fact, followed Gotama from the day of his enlightenment to that of his parinibbaana.

[40] agha.t.tesi, v.ll. asaddhesi, asajjesi; Thag. 1208 atajjesi (which is perhaps best).

[41] yakkha.

[42] Last line also at Sn. 449; cf. Vin. i. 21, 22.


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