Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikaaya
II. Majjhima-Pa.n.naasa
5. Braahma.na Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
II. The Middle Fifty Discourses
5. The Division on Brahmans

Sutta 100

Sa'ngaarava Sutta.m[1]

Discourse with Sa'ngaarava

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


 

[1][chlm][upal] Thus have I heard:

At one time the Lord was walking on tour among the Kosalans
together with a large Order of monks.

Now at that time the brahman lady called Dhaana~njaanii,[2]
who had confident belief in the Awakened One,
in dhamma
and in the Order,
was residing in Ca.n.dalakappa.[3]

Then the brahman lady Dhaana~njaanii,
having tripped,[4]
three times uttered this solemn utterance:

"Praise to that Lord,
perfected One,
fully Self-Awakened One.

Praise to that Lord,
perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One.

Praise to that Lord,
perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One."

Now at that time the brahman youth Sa'ngaarava
was residing in Ca.n.dalakappa;
he was master of the three Vedas,[5]
versed in the vocabularies and rituals
together with the phonology and exegesis
and the legendary tradition as the fifth;
he was learned in idioms,
a grammarian,
proficient in popular philosophy
and the marks of a Great Man.

The brahman youth Sa'ngaarava heard what the brahman lady [399] Dhaana~njaanii was saying;
on hearing it
he spoke thus to the brahman lady Dhaana~njaanii:

"This brahman lady Dhaana~njaanii is mean,
this brahman lady Dhaana~njaanii is disgraced
in that,
while there are brahmans in existence,
she speaks in praise
of this little shaveling recluse."

"But do not you, dear learned friend,[6]
know this Lord's moral habit and wisdom?[7]

If you, dear learned friend,
were to know this Lord's moral habit and wisdom,
you, dear learned friend,
would not consider that this Lord
should be abused and reviled."

"Well then, lady,
if the recluse Gotama arrives in Ca.n.dalakappa,
you might let me know."

"Yes, learned friend,"
the brahman lady Dhaana~njaanii
answered the brahman youth Sa'ngaarava
in assent.

Then as the Lord was walking on tour among the Kosalans
he gradually arrived at Ca.n.dalakappa.

While he was there
the Lord stayed in the mango grove
of the brahmans of Tudi.[8]

Then the brahman lady Dhaana~njaanii
heard that the Lord had arrived at Ca.n.dalakappa
and was staying in the mango grove
of the brahmans of Tudi.

Then the brahman lady Dhaana~njaanii
approached the brahman youth Sa'ngaarava;
having approached,
she spoke thus to the brahman youth Sa'ngaarava:

"Dear learned friend,
this Lord has arrived at Ca.n.dalakappa
and is staying in the mango grove
of the brahmans of Tudi.

Dear learned friend,
you must do now that
for which you think it the right time."

"Yes, lady,"
and the brahman youth Sa'ngaarava,
having answered the brahman lady Dhaana~njaanii in assent,
approached the Lord;
having approached,
he exchanged greetings with the Lord;
having conversed in a friendly and courteous way,
he sat down at a respectful distance.

As he was sitting down at a respectful distance,
Sa'ngaarava the brahman youth
spoke thus to the Lord:

"There are, good Gotama,
some recluses and brahmans who claim that,
in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,[9]
they [400] have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond
through super-knowledge.[10]

Among those recluses and brahmans, good Gotama,
who elaim that,
in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,
they have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond through super-knowledge -
of which (sort) is the revered Gotama?"

"I, Bhaaradvaaja, say
that there is a difference among those who claim that,
in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,
they have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond through super-knowledge.

There are, Bhaaradvaaja,
some recluses and brahmans who depend on report;[11]
these claim that it is through report
that, in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,
they have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond through super-knowledge -
such as the three-Veda-brahmans.

But there are, Bhaaradvaaja,
some recluses and brahmans
who with only mere faith
claim that,
in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,
they have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond through super-knowledge -
such as reasoners
and investigators.[12]

There are, Bhaaradvaaja,
some recluses and brahmans
who by fully understanding dhamma
of themselves only,[13]
although these truths had not been heard before,[14]
claim that,
in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,
they have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond through super-knowledge.

Now, Bhaaradvaaja,
I am one of those recluses and brahmans
who by fully understanding dhamma
of themselves only,
although these truths had not been heard before,
claim that,
in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,
they have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond through super-knowledge.

You must understand it in this way, Bhaaradvaaja,
that I am one of those recluses and brahmans
who by fully understanding dhamma
of themselves only,
although these truths had not been heard before,
claim that,
in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,
they have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond through super-knowledge.

As to this,[15] Bhaaradvaaja,
before my Self-awakening
while I was still [401] the bodhisatta,
not fully awakened,
it occurred to me:

Narrow ia the household life,
a path of dust,
going forth is in the open,
nor is it easy
while dwelling in a house
to lead the Brahma-faring
completely fulfilled,
completely purified,
polished like a conch-shell.

Suppose now that I,
having cut off hair and beard,
having donned saffron garments,
should go forth from home into homelessness?

So I, Bhaaradvaaja,
after a time,
being young,
my hair coal-black,
possessed of radiant youth,
in the prime of my life -
although my unwilling parents wept and wailed - having cut off my hair and beard, having put on yellow robes, went forth from home into homelessness.

I, being gone forth thus,
a quester for whatever is good,
searching for the incomparable,
matchless path to peace,
approached Aa.laara the Kaalaama;
having approached,
I spoke thus to Aa.laara the Kaalaama:

'I, reverend Kaalaama, want to fare the Brahmaa-faring
in this dhamma and discipline.'

This said, Bhaaradvaaja, Aa.laara the Kaalaama spoke thus to me:

'Let the venerable one proceed;
this dhamma is such that an intelligent man,
having soon realised super-knowledge for himself
(as learnt from) his own teacher,
may enter on and abide in it.'

So I, Bhaaradvaaja, very soon,
very quickly,
mastered that dhamma.

I, Bhaaradvaaja, as far as mere lip service,
mere repetition
were concerned,
spoke the doctrine of knowledge,
and the doctrine of the elders,
and I claimed -
I as well as others -
that 'I know, I see.'

Then it occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'But Aa.laara the Kaalaama does not merely proclaim this dhamma
simply out of faith:
Having realised super-knowledge for myself,
entering on it,
I am abiding therein.

For surely Aa.laara the Kaalaama proceeds knowing, seeing this dhamma.'

Then did I, Bhaaradvaaja,
approach Aa.laara the Kaalaama;
having approached,
I spoke thus to Aa.laara the Kaalaama:

'To what extent do you, reverend Kaalaama,
having realised super-knowledge for yourself,
entering thereon,
proclaim this dhamma?'

When this had been said, Bhaaradvaaja, Aa.laara the Kaalaama proclaimed the plane of no-thing.

Then it occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'It is not only Aa.laara the Kaalaama who has faith,
I too have faith.

It is not only Aa.laara the Kaalaama who has energy,
I too have energy.

It is not only Aa.laara the Kaalaama who has mindfulness,
I too have mindfulness.

It is not only Aa.laara the Kaalaama who has concentration,
I too have concentration.

It is not only Aa.laara the Kaalaama who has intuitive wisdom,
I too have intuitive wisdom.

Suppose now that I should strive
for the realisation of that dhamma
which Aa.laara the Kaalaama proclaims:
'Having realised super-knowledge for myself,
entering on it
I am abiding therein?'

So I, Bhaaradvaaja, very soon,
very quickly,
having realised super-knowledge for myself,
entering on that dhamma,
abided therein.

Then I, Bhaaradvaaja,
approached Aa.laara the Kaalaama;
having approached,
I spoke thus to Aa.laara the Kaalaama:

'Is it to this extent
that you, reverend Kalama,
proclaim this dhamma,
entering on it,
having realised it by your own super-knowledge?'

'It is to this extent
that I, your reverence,
proclaim this dhamma,
entering on it,
having realised it by my own super-knowledge.'

'I too, your reverence,
having realised this dhamma
by my own super-knowledge,
entering on it
am abiding in it.'

'It is profitable for us,
it is well gotten for us, your reverence,
that we see a fellow Brahmaa-farer
such as the venerable one.

This dhamma that I, entering on,
proclaim,
having realised it by my own super-knowledge,
is the dhamma that you,
entering on,
are abiding in,
having realised it by your own super-knowledge;
the dhamma that you,
entering on,
are abiding in,
having realised it by your own super-knowledge,
is the dhamma that I,
entering on,
proclaim,
having realised it by my own super-knowledge.

The dhamma that I know,
this is the dhamma that you know.

The dhamma that you know,
this is the dhamma that I know.

As I am,
so are you;
as you are,
so am I.

Come now, your reverence,
being just the two of us,
let us look after this group.'

In this way, Bhaaradvaaja,
did Aa.laara the Kaalaama,
being my teacher,
set me - the pupil -
on the same level as himself
and honoured me with the highest honour.

Then it occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'This dhamma does not conduce to disregard
nor to dispassion
nor to stopping
nor to tranquillity
nor to super-knowledge
nor to awakening
nor to Nibbaana,
but only as far as reaching the plane of no-thing.'

So I, Bhaaradvaaja,
not getting enough from this dhamma,
disregarded and turned away from this dhamma.

 


 

Then I, Bhaaradvaaja,
a quester for whatever is good,
searching for the incomparable,
matchless path to peace,
approached Uddaka, Raama's son;
having approached,
I spoke thus to Uddaka, Raama's son:

'I, your reverence,
want to fare the Brahmaa-faring
in this dhamma and discipline.'

This said, Bhaaradvaaja, Uddaka, Raama's son,
spoke thus to me:

'Let the venerable one proceed;
this dhamma is such
that an intelligent man,
having soon realised super-knowledge for himself,
(as learnt from) his own teacher,
may enter on and abide in it.'

So I, Bhaaradvaaja, very soon,
very quickly,
mastered that dhamma.

I, Bhaaradvaaja, as far as mere lip service,
mere repetition were concerned,
spoke the doctrine of knowledge
and the doctrine of the elders,
and I claimed -
I as well as others -
that 'I know, I see.'

Then it occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'But Uddahka, Raama's son, does not merely proclaim this dhamma
simply out of faith:
Having realised super-knowledge for myself,
entering on it,
I am abiding in it.

For surely Uddaka, Raama's son,
proceeds knowing and seeing this dhamma.'

Then did I, Bhaaradvaaja,
approach Uddaka, Raama's;
having approached,
I spoke thus to Uddaka, Raama's son:

'To what extent do you, reverend Raama,
having realised super-knowledge for yourself,
entering thereon
proclaim this dhamma?'

When this had been said, Bhaaradvaaja, Uddahka, Raama's son,
proclaimed the plane of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.

Then it occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'It is not only Raama who has faith,
I too have faith.

It is not only Raama who has energy,
I too have energy.

It is not only Raama who has mindfulness,
I too have mindfulness.

It is not only Raama who has concentration,
I too have concentration.

It is not only Raama who has intuitive wisdom,
I too have intuitive wisdom.

Suppose now that I should strive for the realisation of that dhamma
which Raama proclaims:
'Having realised super-knowledge for myself,
entering on it
I am abiding in it?'

So I, Bhaaradvaaja, very soon,
very quickly,
having realised super-knowledge for myself,
entering on that dhamma,
abided therein.

Then I, Bhaaradvaaja,
approached Uddaka, Raama's son;
having approached,
I spoke thus to Uddaka, Raama's son:

'Is it to this extent
that you, reverend Raama,
proclaim this dhamma,
entering on it,
having realised it by your own super-knowledge?'

'It is to this extent
that I, your reverence,
proclaim this dhamma,
entering on it,
having realised it by my own super-knowledge.'

'I too, your reverence,
having realised this dhamma by my own super-knowledge,
entering on it
am abiding in it.'

'It is profitable for us,
it is well gotten by us,
your reverence,
that we see a fellow-Brahmaa-farer such as the venerable one.

This dhamma that I,
entering on,
proclaim,
having realised it by my own super-knowledge,
is the dhamma that you,
entering on,
are abiding in,
having realised it by your own super-knowledge;
the dhamma that you,
entering on,
are abiding in,
having realised it by your own super-knowledge,
is the dhamma that I,
entering on,
proclaim,
having realised it by my own super-knowledge.

The dhamma that I know,
this is the dhamma that you know.

That dhamma that you know,
this is the dhamma that I know.

As I am,
so are you;
as you are,
so am I.

Come now, your reverence,
being just the two of us,
let us look after this group.

In this way, Bhaaradvaaja, did Uddaka, Raama's son,
being my teacher,
set me - the pupil -
on the same level as himself
and honoured me with the highest honour.

Then it occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'This dhamma does not conduce to disregard
nor to dispassion
nor to stopping
nor to tranquillity
nor to super-knowledge
nor to awakening
nor to Nibbaana,
but only as far as reaching the plane of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.'

So I, Bhaaradvaaja, not getting enough from this dhamma,
disregarded and turned away from this dhamma.

 


 

Then I, monka, a quester for whatever is good,
searching for the incomparable,
matchless path to peace,
walking on tour through Magadha
in due course arrived at Uruvela,
the camp township.

There I saw a delightful stretch of land
and a lovely woodland grove,
and a clear flowing river
with a delightful ford,
and a village for support nearby.

It occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'Indeed it it is a delightful stretch of land,
and the woodland grove is lovely,
and the river flows clear
with a delightful ford,
and there is a village for support nearby.

Indeed this does well
for the striving
of a young man set on striving.'

Moreover, Bhaaradvaaja, three similes occurred to me spontaneously,
never heard before:

It is as if there were a wet sappy stick placed in water;
then a man might come along
bringing an upper piece of fire-stick,
and thinking:

'I will hght a fire,
I will get heat.'

What do you think about this, Bhaaradvaaja?

Could that man, bringing an upper piece of fire-stick,
and rubbing that wet sappy stick
that had been placed in water (with it),
light a fire,
could he get heat?"

"No, good Gotama.

What is the cause of this?

It is, good Gotama,
that such a stick is wet and sappy
and that it was placed in water.

That man would only get fatigue and distress."

"In like manner, Bhaaradvaaja,
whatever recluses or brahmans dwell not aloof
from pleasures of the senses that are bodily,
then if that which is for them,
among the sense-pleasures,
desire for sense-pleasure,
affection for sense-pleasure,
infatuation with sense-pleasure,
thirst for sense-pleasure,
fever for sense-pleasure -
if that is not properly got rid of subjectively
nor properly allayed,
whether these worthy recluses and brahmans experience feelings which are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe,
they could not become those for knowledge,
for vision,
for the incomparable Self-awakening;
and whether these worthy recluses and brahmans do not experience feelings which are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe,
they could not become those for knowledge,
for vision,
for the incomparable Self-awakening.

This, Bhaaradvaaja, was the first parable
that occurred to me spontaneously,
never heard before.

Then, Bhaaradvaaja, a second parable
occurred to me spontaneously,
never heard before.

It is as if, Bhaaradvaaja, a wet, sappy stick
were placed on dry ground,
far from water.

Then a man might come along
bringing an upper piece of fire-stick,
and thinking:

'I will light a fire,
I will get heat.'

What do you think about this, Bhaaradvaaja?

Could that man,
bringing an upper piece of fire-stick,
and rubbing that wet sappy stick
that had been placed on the dry ground,
far from water,
light a fire,
could he get heat?"|| ||

"No, good Gotama.

What is the cause of this?

It is, good Gotama, that that stick is wet and sappy
although it had been placed on dry ground,
far from water.

So that man would only get fatigue and distress."

"In like manner, Bhaaradvaaja,
whatever recluses or brahmans dwell not aloof
from pleasures of the senses that are bodily,
then if that which is for them,
among the sense-pleasures,
desire for sense-pleasure,
affection for sense-pleasure,
infatuation with sense-pleasure,
thirst for sense-pleasure,
fever for sense-pleasure -
if that is not properly got rid of subjectively
nor properly allayed,
whether these worthy recluses and brahmans experience feelings which are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe,
they could not become those for knowledge,
for vision,
for the incomparable Self-awakeningi;
and whether these worthy recluses and brahmans do not experience feelings which are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe,
they could not become those for knowledge,
for vision,
for the incomparable Self-awakening.

This, Bhaaradvaaja, was the second parable
that occurred to me spontaneously,
never heard before.

Then, Bhaaradvaaja, a third parable
occurred to me spontaneously,
never heard before.

It is as if, Bhaaradvaaja, a dry sapless stick
were placed on the dry ground,
far from water.

Then a man might come along
bringing an upper piece of fire-stick,
and thinking:

'I will light a fire,
I will get heat.'

What do you think about this, Bhaaradvaaja?

Could that man, bringing an upper piece of fire-stiek,
and rubbing that dry sapless stick
that had been placed on dry ground,
far from water,
light a fire,
could he get heat?"

"Yes, good Gotama.

What is the cause of this?

It is, good Gotama,
that that stick was dry and sapless
and had been placed on dry ground
far from water."

"In like manner, Bhaaradvaaja,
whatever recluses or brahmans dwell aloof
from pleasures of the senses that are bodily,
then if that which is for them,
among the sense-pleasures,
desire for sense-pleasure,
affection for sense-pleasure,
infatuation with sense-pleasure,
thirst for sense-pleasure,
fever for sense-pleasure -
if this is well got rid of subjectively,
well allayed,
then whether these worthy recluses and brahmans experience feelings that are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe,
indeed they become those for knowledge,
for vision,
for the incomparable Self-awakening;
and whether these worthy recluses and brahmans do not experience feelings that are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe,
indeed they become those for knowledge,
for vision,
for the incomparable Self-awakening.

This, Bhaaradvaaja, was the third parable
that occurred to me spontaneously,
never heard before.

These, Bhaaradvaaja, were the three parables
that occurred to me spontaneously,
never heard before.

 


 

It occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'Suppose now that I,
with my teeth clenched,
with my tongue pressed against the palate,
by mind should subdue,
restrain and dominate my mind?'

So I, Bhaaradvaaja, with my teeth clenched,
with my tongue pressed against the palate,
by mind subdued,
restrained
and dominated my mind.

While I was subduing,
restraining
and dominating my mind,
with the teeth clenched,
the tongue pressed against the palate,
sweat poured from my armpits.

It is as if, Bhaaradvaaja,
a strong man,
having taken hold of a weaker man
by his head or shoulders,
would subdue,
restrain
and dominate him.

Even so, while I, Bhaaradvaaja,
was subduing,
restraining
and dominating my mind by mind,
with my teeth clenched,
with my tongue pressed against the palate,
sweat poured from my armpits.

Although, Bhaaradvaaja, unsluggish energy came to be stirred up in me,
unmuddled mindfulness set up,
yet my body was turbulent,
not calmed,
because I was harassed in striving
by striving against that very pain.

It occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'Suppose now that I should meditate
the non-breathing meditation?

So I, Bhaaradvaaja,
stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose.

When I, Bhaaradvaaja,
had stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose,
there came to be an exceedingly loud noise
of winds escaping by the auditory passages.

As there comes to be an exceedingly loud noise
from the roaring of a smith's bellows,
even so when I, Bhaaradvaaja, stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose,
there came to be an exceedingly loud noise
of wind escaping by the auditory passages.

Although, Bhaaradvaaja, unsluggish energy came to be stirred up in me,
unmuddled mindfulness set up,
yet my body was turbulent,
not calmed,
because I was harassed in striving
by striving against that very pain.

It occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'Suppose now that I should still meditate
the non-breathing meditation?'

So I, Bhaaradvaaja, stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears.

When I, Bhaaradvaaja, had stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears,
exceedingly loud winds rent my head.

As, Bhaaradvaaja, a strong man
might cleave one's head
with a sharp-edged sword,
even so when I, Bhaaradvaaja, stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears,
exceedingly loud winds rent my head.

Although, Bhaaradvaaja, unsluggish energy came to be stirred up in me,
unmuddled mindfulness set up,
yet my body was turbulent,
not calmed,
because I was harassed in striving
by striving against that very pain.

It occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'Suppose that I should still meditate
the non-breathing meditation?'

So I, Bhaaradvaaja, stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears.

When I, Bhaaradvaaja, had stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears,
I came to have very bad headaches.

As, Bhaaradvaaja, a strong man
might clamp a turban on one's head
with a tight leather strap,
even so when I, Bhaaradvaaja, stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears,
did I come to have very bad headaches.

Although, Bhaaradvaaja, unsluggish energy came to be stirred up in me,
unmuddled mindfulness set up,
yet my body was turbulent,
not calmed,
because I was harassed in striving
by striving against that very pain.

It occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'Suppose now that I should still meditate
the non-breathing meditation?'

So I, Bhaaradvaaja, stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears.

When I, Bhaaradvaaja, had stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears,
very strong winds cut through my stomach.

As, Bhaaradvaaja, a skilled cattle-butcher
or his apprentice
might cut through the stomach
with a sharp butcher's knife,
even so, Bhaaradvaaja, did very strong winds
cut through my stomach.

Although, Bhaaradvaaja, unsluggish energy came to be stirred up in me,
unmuddled mindfulness set up,
yet my body was turbulent,
not calmed,
because I was harassed in striving
by striving against that very pain.

It occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'Suppose now that I should still meditate
the non-breathing meditation?'

So I, Bhaaradvaaja, stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears.

When I, Bhaaradvaaja, had stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears,
there came to be a fierce heat in my body.

As, Bhaaradvaaja, two strong men,
having taken hold of a weaker man by his limbs,
might set fire to him,
might make him sizzle up
over a charcoal pit,
even so, Bhaaradvaaja,
when I had stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears,
did there come to be a fierce heat in my body.

Although, Bhaaradvaaja, unsluggish energy came to be stirred up in me,
unmuddled mindfulness set up,
yet my body was turbulent,
not calmed,
because I was harassed in striving
by striving against that very pain.

In addition to this, Bhaaradvaaja,
devataas, having seen me, spoke thus:

'The recluse Gotama has passed away.'

Other devataas spoke thus;

'The recluse Gotama has not passed away,
but he is passing away.'

Other devataas spoke thus:

'The recluse Gotama has not passed away,
nor is he passing away;
the recluse Gotama is a perfected one,
the mode of living of a perfected one
is just like this.'

It occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'Suppose now that I should take the line
of desisting from all food?'

Then, Bhaaradvaaja, devataas,
having approached me,
spoke thus:

'Do not, good sir,
take the line of desisting from all food.

If you, good sir,
take the line of desisting from all food,
then we will give you deva-like essences
to take in through the pores of the skin;
you will keep going by means of them.'

Then, Bhaaradvaaja, it occurred to me:

'Suppose that I should take the line
of not eating anything,
and these devataas were to give me deva-like essences
to take in through the pores of the skin,
and that I should keep going by means of them,
that would be an imposture in me.'

So I, Bhaaradvaaja, rejected those devataas
I said,
'Enough.'

It occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'Suppose now that I were to take food
little by little,
drop by drop,
such as bean-soup
or vetoh-soup
or chick-pea-soup
or pea-soup?

So I, Bhaaradvaaja, took food
little by little,
drop by drop,
such as bean-soup
or veteh-soup
or chick-pea-soup
or pea-soup.

While I, Bhaaradvaaja, was taking food
little by little,
drop by drop,
such as bean-soup
or vetch-soup
or chick-pea-soup
or pea-soup,
my body became exceedingly emaciated.

Because I ate so little,
all my limbs became like the joints of withered creepers;
because I ate so little,
my buttocks became like a bullock's hoof;
because I ate so little,
my protruding backbone
became like a string of balls;
because I ate so little,
my gaunt ribs
became like the crazy rafters
of a tumble-down shed;
because I ate so little,
the pupils of my eyes
appeared lying low and deep;
because I ate so little,
my scalp became shrivelled and shrunk
as a bitter white gourd
cut before it is ripe
becomes shrivelled and shrunk by a hot wind.

If I, Bhaaradvaaja, thought:

'I will touch the skin of my belly,'
it was my backbone that I took hold of.

If I thought:

'I will touch my backbone,'
it was the skin of my belly that I took hold of.

For because I ate so little,
the skin of my belly, Bhaaradvaaja,
came to be cleaving to my backbone.

If I, Bhaaradvaaja, thought:

'I will obey the calls of nature,'
I fell down on my face then and there,
because I ate so little.

If I, Bhaaradvaaja, soothing my body,
stroked my limbs with my hand,
the hairs,
rotted at the roots,
fell away from my body
as I stroked my limbs with my hand,
because I ate so little.

And further, Bhaaradvaaja, men,
having seen me,
spoke thus:

'The recluse Gotama is black.'

Other men spoke thus:

'The recluse Gotama is not black,
the recluse Gotama is deep brown.'

Some men spoke thus:

'The recluse Gotama is not black,
he is not even deep brown,
the recluse Gotama is of a sallow colour.'

To such an extent, Bhaaradvaaja,
was my clear pure complexion
spoilt because I ate so little.

This, Bhaaradvaaja, occurred to me:

'Some recluses and brahmans
in the past
have experienced feelings that were acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe;
but this is paramount,
nor is there worse than this.

And some recluses and brahmans
in the future
will experience feelings that are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe;
but this is paramount,
nor is there worse than this.

And some recluses and brahmans
are now
experiencing feelings that are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe;
but this is paramount,
nor is there worse than this.

But I,
by this severe austerity,
do not reach states of further-men,
the excellent knowledge and vision
befitting the ariyans.

Could there be another way to awakening?

This, Bhaaradvaaja, occurred to me:

'I know that while my father, the Sakyan,
was ploughing,
and I was sitting in the cool shade of a rose-apple tree,
aloof from pleasures of the senses,
aloof from unskilled states of mind,
entering on the first meditation,
which is accompanied by initial thought
and discursive thought,
is born of aloofness,
and is rapturous and joyful,
and while abiding therein,
I thought:

'Now could this be a way to awakening?'

Then, following on my mindfulness, Bhaaradvaaja,
there was the consciousness:

'This is itself the Way to awakening.'

This occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'Now, am I afraid of that happiness
which is happiness
apart from sense-pleasures,
apart from unskilled states of mind?'

This occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'I am not afraid of that happiness
which is happiness
apart from sense-pleasures,
apart from unskilled states of mind.'

This occurred to me, Bhaaradvaaja:

'Now it is not easy to reach that happiness
by thus subjecting the body
to extreme emaciation.

Suppose I were to take material nourishment -
boiled rice
and sour milk?'

So I, Bhaaradvaaja, took material nourishment -
boiled rice
and sour milk.

Now at that time, Bhaaradvaaja,
five monks were attending me
and (they thought):

'When the recluse Gotama wins dhamma
he will announce it to us.'

But when I, Bhaaradvaaja, took material nourishment -
boiled rice
and sour milk -
then these five monks turned on me in disgust,
saying:

'The recluse Gotama lives in abundance,
he is wavering in his striving,
he has reverted to a life of abundance.'

But when I, Bhaaradvaaja, had taken some material nourishment,[16]
having picked up strength,
aloof from pleasures of the senses,
aloof from unskilled states of mind,
I entered on
and abided in
the first meditation
which is accompanied by initial thought
and discursive thought,
is born of aloofness,
and is rapturous and joyful.

By allaying initial thought
and discursive thought,
with the mind subjectively tranquillised
and fixed on one point,
I entered on
and abided in
the second meditation
which is devoid of initial and discursive thought,
is born of concentration,
and is rapturous and joyful.

By the fading out of rapture
I dwelt with equanimity,
attentive and clearly conscious,
and I experienced in my person
that joy of which the ariyans say:
'Joyful lives he who has equanimity and is mindful,'
and I entered on
and abided in
the third meditation.[17]

By getting rid of joy
and by getting rid of anguish,
by the going down of former pleasures and sorrows,
I entered into
and abided in
the fourth meditation
which has neither anguish nor joy
and which is entirely purified
by equanimity and mindfulness.

 


 

With the mind composed thus,
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
fixed,
immovable,
I directed my mind
to the knowledge and recollection
of former habitations:

I remembered a variety of former habitations, thus:
one birth,
two births,
three births,
four births,
five births,
ten births,
twenty births,
thirty births,
forty births,
fifty births,
a hundred births,
a thousand births,
a hundred thousand births,
and many an eon of integration
and many an eon of disintegration
and many an eon of integration-disintegration;
such a one was I by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so was I nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I came to be in another state
where such a one was I by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so was I nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I arose here.

Thus I remember divers former habitations
in all their modes and detail.

This, Bhaaradvaaja,
was the first knowledge attained by me
in the first watch of the night;
ignorance was dispelled,
knowledge arose,
darkness was dispelled,
light arose,
even as I abided diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute.

Then with the mind composed,
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
fixed,
immovable,
I directed my mind
to the knowledge of the passing hence
and the arising of beings.

With the purified deva-vision
surpassing that of men
I see beings as they pass hence
or come to be;
I comprehend that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going,
according to the consequences of their deeds,
and I think:

Indeed these worthy beings
who were possessed of wrong conduct in body,
who were possessed of wrong conduct of speech,
who were possessed of wrong conduct of thought,
scoffers at the ariyans,
holding a wrong view,
incurring deeds consequent on a wrong view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a sorrowful state,
a bad bourn,
the abyss,
Niraya Hell.

But these worthy beings
who were possessed of good conduct in body,
who were possessed of good conduct in speech,
who were possessed of good conduct in thought,
who did not scoff at the ariyans,
holding a right view,
incurring deeds consequent on a right view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a good bourn,
a heaven world.

Thus with the purified deva-vision
surpassing that of men
do I see beings as they pass hence,
as they arise;
I comprehend that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going
according to the consequences of their deeds.

This, Bhaaradvaaja,
was the second knowledge attained by me
in the middle watch of the night;
ignorance was dispelled,
knowledge arose,
darkness was dispelled,
light arose,
even as I abided diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute.

Then with the mind composed
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
fixed,
immovable,
I directed my mind
to the knowledge of the destruction of the cankers.

I understood as it really is:

This is anguish,
this is the arising of anguish,
this is the stopping of anguish,
this is the course leading to the stopping of anguish.

I understood as it really is:

These are the cankers,
this is the arising of the cankers,
this is the stopping of the cankers,
this is the course leading to the stopping of the cankers.

Knowing this thus,
seeing thus,
my mind was freed
from the canker of sense-pleasures,
and my mind was freed
from the canker of becoming,
and my mind was freed
from the canker of ignorance.

In freedom
the knowledge came to be:

I am freed;

and I comprehended:

Destroyed is birth,
brought to a close is the Brahma-faring,
done is what was to be done,
there is no more of being such or such.

This, Bhaaradvaaja,
was the third knowledge attained by me
in the last watch of the night;
ignorance was dispelled,
knowledge arose,
darkness was dispelled,
light arose
even as I abided diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute.

When this had been said,
the brahman youth Sa'ngaarava spoke thus to the Lord:

"Indeed the good Gotama's striving was steadfast,[18]
indeed it was that of a true man[19]
such as that of a perfected one,
a fully Self-Awakened One.

But now, good Gotama,
are there devas?"[20]

"Certainly, Bhaaradvaaja,
it is known to me that there are devas."

[402] "But why do you, good Gotama,
on being asked if there are devas
say that it is certainly known to you
that there are devas?

Even if this is so, good Gotama,
is it not a vain falsehood?"

"If on being asked, Bhaaradvaaja,
'Are there devas?
one should say:
'There are devas'
and should say:
'Certainly they are known to me,'
then the conclusion to be reached
by an intelligent person
is indubitable,
namely that there are devas."

"But why did not the revered Gotama
explain this to me at the beginning?"

"It is commonly[21] agreed in the world, Bhaaradvaaja,
that there are devas."

When this had been said,
the brahman youth Sa'ngaarava
spoke thus to the Lord:

"It is excellent, good Gotama,
excellent, good Gotama.

It is as if, good Gotama,
one might set upright what had been upset,
or might disclose what was covered,
or point out the way
to one who had gone astray,
or might bring an oil-lamp into the darkness
so that those with vision might see material shapes -
even so is dhamma made clear
in many a figure by the good Gotama.

I am going to the Lord[22] Gotama for refuge,
and to dhamma
and to the Order of monks.

May the revered Gotama accept me
as a lay-follower,
one gone for refuge from today forth
for as long as life lasts."

Discourse to Sa'ngaarava:
The Tenth
Division on Brahmans:
The Fifth

TOLD ARE THE MIDDLE FIFTY

 


[1] Six other Sa'ngaarava suttas are given in DPPN., but probably not all were addressed to the Sa'ngaarava of this M. Sta.

[2] See S. i. 160; and K.S. i. 199, n. 1, 2.

[3] There are several v.ll, for this name, MA. iii. 451 for example reading Ma.n.dalakappa. It was a little village.

[4] The text reading is upakkhalitvaa, which means having tripped or stumbled; S. i. 160 (in a rather different context) reads upakkamitvaa, having approached or gone on to, with v.l. upakkhalitvaa; MA. iii. 451 reads pakkhalitvaa, which can mean either "having washed" or "having stumbled." Brahmans often wash before a ceremonial event, but I have chosen to render by "tripped" in conformity with the textual meaning. The udaana (solemn utterance) would then be an expression used for warding off the ill-luck which might otherwise ensue after stumbling. Cf. Mhvu. iii. 223.

[5] As at M. ii. 133.

[6] bhadramukha, as at M. ii. 53. See above, p. 249, n. 1.

[7] siilapa~n~naa.na, as at D. i. 124. See note at Dial. i. 156.

[8] Todeyyaana'm braahma.naana'm. These brahmans were so-called because they lived in Tudi (-gaama), Only the one was called Todeyya because he was the head of these; see above, p. 386, n. 1.

[9] MA. iii. 453 says of aadibrahmacariya'm: brahmacariyassa aadibhuutaa uppaadakaa jaanakaa ti, which seems to mean that they were producers and generators of the Brahma-faring; but the grammar is against this. I think it more likely that the "fundamentals of the Brahma-faring" refer to "the practices that have been pointed out by me for disciples," enumerated in M. Sta. 77.

[10] abhi~n~naavosaanapaaramippatta. Cf. M. ii. 11 ff. (see above, p. 211, n. 2).

[11] Cf. M. i. 520, anussavika.

[12] Cf. M. i. 520, takkii-viima'msii.

[13] I.e. not learning it or hearing it from others; cf. Vin. i. 8, na me aacariyo atthi, "I have no teacher."

[14] As at A. iii. 9; cf. D. ii. 33; S. ii. 9, 105. "Truths" is dhammesu, which AA. iii. 225 explains as catu-saccadhammesu. Dhammaa can also mean things; or mental states, elements or ultimates.

[15] As at M. i. 240.

[16] As at M. i. 247.

[17] The fourth meditation, not mentioned here, is I think omitted in error.

Tmesis. > Greek: cutting. The separation of parts of a coompound word by the intervention of one or more words. - Websters. e.g.: un-f-----g-believable: unbelievable.

p.p. explains it all - p.p.

[18] a.t.thita. This is a case of tmesis, for a.t.thita is to be taken with padhaana. The meaning may more properly be that the striving was that of (or, worthy of) a steadfast man.

[19] sappurisa, also a case of tmesis.

[20] Cf. M. ii. 130 (above, p. 311).

[21] ucce. MA. iii. 464 says uccena saddena sammata'm (v.l. samma) paaka.ta'm mata'm lokasmi'm, with a loud noise agreed upon by the usual thought of the world.

[22] Reading here is bhagavanta'm.


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