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Sa'nyutta Nikaaya
I. Sagaatha Vagga
11. Sakka-sa'nyutta

The Book of the Kindred Sayings
I. Kindred Sayings with Verses
11. The Sakka Suttas

Translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids
Assisted by Suuriyago.da Sumangala Thera
Public Domain

Honour to that Exalted One Arahant Buddha Supreme!

 


 

I.

Sutta 1

Suviira

 


 

[1.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

And there the Exalted One discoursed to the brethren, saying:

'Bhikkhus!'

'Lord!' they responded.

The Exalted One said:

'In days gone by the Asuras marched out against[1] the gods. Then Sakka, ruler of the gods, called to Suviira, son of the gods[2]:

'These Asuras, my dear Suviira, are come out against us. Go thou out to meet them.'

'So be it, lord,' responded Suviira, son of the gods, but he played the slacker. Yea, twice and even thrice did Sakka summon him; and twice and even thrice with no better result.

Then Sakka, ruler of the gods, addressed Suviira, son of the gods, in the verses: -

Where happiness is found at journey's end
By him who ne'er bestirs himself nor tries: -
Go thou, Suviira, get thee to that goal,
And make me also thither find the way.

[Suviira: -]

For sluggard who bestirreth not himself
Nought that he undertaketh can he do.
For one whose every wish hath reaped success
What is the goal supreme,[3] O Sakka, say?[4]

[Sakka: -]

Where sluggard who bestirreth ne'er himself
Doth win his way to final happiness: -
Go thou, Suviira, get thee to that goal,
And make me also thither find the way.

[Suviira: -]

But may one without action, chief of gods,
Such happiness discover and possess
As sorrow and despair may never dim?
What is the goal supreme, O Sakka, say?

[Sakka: -]

If it may be that where no deed is done[5]
No man comes anywhere again to birth,
Nibbaana is the wy to compass that.
Go thou, Suviira, get thee to that goal
And make me also thither find the way.

Verily, bhikkhus, Sakka, ruler of gods, subsisting on the fruit of his own well-doing, ruling over and governing the Thirty-three Gods, will be one who commends exertion and energy. Now in this Rule, bhikkhus, ye do enhance his words when ye, who have gone forth under a Norm and Discipline so well proclaimed, do exert yourselves, and strive and endeavour to attain to the unattained, to arrive where ye had not arrived, to realize that which ye had not realized.

 


 

Sutta 2

Susiima[6]

 


 

[2.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

And there the Exalted One discoursed to the brethren, saying:

'Bhikkhus!'

'Lord!' they responded.

The Exalted One said:

'In days gone by the Asuras marched out against the gods. Then Sakka, ruler of the gods, called to Susiima, son of the gods:

'These Asuras, my dear Susiima, are come out against us. Go thou out to meet them.'

'So be it, lord,' responded Susiima, son of the gods, but he played the slacker. Yea, twice and even thrice did Sakka summon him; and twice and even thrice with no better result.

Then Sakka, ruler of the gods, addressed Susiima, son of the gods, in the verses: -

Where happiness is found at journey's end
By him who ne'er bestirs himself nor tries: -
Go thou, Susiima, get thee to that goal,
And make me also thither find the way.

[Susiima: -]

For sluggard who bestirreth not himself
Nought that he undertaketh can he do.
For one whose every wish hath reaped success
What is the goal supreme, O Sakka, say?

[Sakka: -]

Where sluggard who bestirreth ne'er himself
Doth win his way to final happiness: -
Go thou, Susiima, get thee to that goal,
And make me also thither find the way.

[Susiima: -]

But may one without action, chief of gods,
Such happiness discover and possess
As sorrow and despair may never dim?
What is the goal supreme, O Sakka, say?

[Sakka: -]

If it may be that where no deed is done
No man comes anywhere again to birth,
Nibbaana is the wy to compass that.
Go thou, Susiima, get thee to that goal
And make me also thither find the way.

Verily, bhikkhus, Sakka, ruler of gods, subsisting on the fruit of his own well-doing, ruling over and governing the Thirty-three Gods, will be one who commends exertion and energy. Now in this Rule, bhikkhus, ye do enhance his words when ye, who have gone forth under a Norm and Discipline so well proclaimed, do exert yourselves, and strive and endeavour to attain to the unattained, to arrive where ye had not arrived, to realize that which ye had not realized.

 


 

Sutta 3

The Top of the Banner[7]

 


 

[3.1][than][piya][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

And there the Exalted One discoursed to the brethren, saying:

'Bhikkhus!'

'Lord!' they responded.

The Exalted One said:

'Long ago, bhikkhus, a battle was raging between the gods and the Asuras. Then Sakka, ruler of the gods, addressed the Thirty-three Gods, saying: "If in you, dear sirs, when ye are gone into the battle, fear and panic and creeping of the flesh should arise, look up at the crest of my banner. If ye do so, any fear and panic and creeping of the flesh[8] that will have arisen will be overcome. If ye look not up to the crest of my banner, look up at that of Pajaapati, king of the gods, ... or at that of Varu.na,[9] king of the gods, ... or at that of Isaana, king of the gods, and any fear and panic and creeping of the flesh that will have arisen will be overcome.

Now, bhikkhus, in them that look up to the crest of one or other of these four banners, any fear and panic and creeping of the flesh that has arisen may be overcome, or again it may not.

And why is this?

Because Sakka, ruler of the gods, is not purged of passions, hate, or ignorance, is timid, given to panic, to fright, to running away.[10]

But I say thus unto you, bhikkhus: If in you when ye have gone into forests, to the roots of trees, to empty places, fear and panic and creeping of the flesh should arise, do ye in that hour only call me to mind and think: 'This, that is the Exalted One, Arahant, supremely enlightened, proficient in knowledge and in conduct, the Blessed One, who understands the world, peerless tamer and driver of the hearts of men, the Master, the Buddha for gods and men, Exalted One. For if ye so call me to mind, bhikkhus, any fear, panic, creeping of the flesh that will have arisen will be overcome.

And if ye cannot call me to mind, call to mind the Norm, and think: 'Well proclaimed by the Exalted One is the Norm, relating to the present, immediate in its results, inviting all, giving gidance, appealing to each, to be understood by them that can understand. For if ye so call the Norm to mind your fear panic, creeping of the flesh that will have arisen will be overcome.

And if ye cannot call the Norm to mind, then call to mind the Order, and think: 'Well practised is the Exalted One's Order of Disciples, practised in integrity, in intellectual methods, in right lines of action - to with the four pairs, the eight groups of persons[11]: - this is the Exalted One's Order of Disciples worthy of offerings, oblations, gifts, salutations, the world's peerless field for merit. For if ye so call the Order to mind, your fear, panic, creeping of the flesh will be overcome.

And why is this?

Because the Tathaagata, bhikkhus, Arahant Supremely Enlightened, is purged of passion, hate, ignorance, is without timidity or panic or fright, and fleeth not.'

Thus said the Exalted One, and the Blessed One so saying, the Master spake yet further: -

Whene'er in forest or in leafy shade
Or lonely empty places ye abide,
Call to your mind, bhikkhus, th'Enlightened One;
No fear, no sense of peril will ye know.

Or if ye cannot on the Buddha think -
The chief, the senior of the world, the Bull of men -[12]
Then call the Norm to mind, the well-taught guide.

Or if ye cannot think upon the Norm -
The well-taught doctrine wherein guidance lies -
Then turn your thoughts to the Fraternity,
Unrivalled field where men may sow good deeds.

If ye in Buddha, Order, Norm thus refuge take,
Fear, panic, creeping of the flesh will never rise.

 


 

Sutta 4

Vepacitti,[13] or Forbearance

 


 

[4.1][olen][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

And there the Exalted One discoursed to the brethren, saying:

'Bhikkhus!'

'Lord!' they responded.

The Exalted One said:

Long time ago, bhikkhus, gods and Asuras were mingled in battle. And Vepacitti, ruler of the Asuras, addressed the Asuras, saying: - 'If, dear sirs, in the battle now raging between gods and Asuras, the Asuras are victorious, the gods, defeated, when ye have bound Sakka, ruler of the gods, hand and foot and neck,[14] bring him before me into the City of the Asuras.'

Sakka also, bhikkhus, ruler of the gods, addressed the Thirty-three Gods, saying: - 'If, dear sirs, in the battle now raging between gods and Asuras, the gods are victorious, the Asuras defeated, when ye have bound Vepacitti, ruler of the Asuras, hand and foot and neck, bring him before me into the hall Sudhammaa.'

Now in that battle, bhikkhus, the gods were victorious, the Asuras were defeated. And the Thirty-three Gods bound Vepacitti hand and foot and neck, and brought him before Sakka into the hall Sudhammaa. And Vepacitti, thus bound, railed at and reviled Sakka as he entered and whenhe left the hall, with coarse and scurrilous words.[15]

Then, bhikkhus, Maatali, the charioteer, addressed Sakka, ruler of the gods, with the verse: -

Now is it, Sakka, that thou art afraid,
Or because thou art weak that thou forbear'st,
When thou dost hear these speeches scurrilous
By Vepacitti cast into thy teeth?

[Sakka: -]

Nay, not from fear nor weakness do I bear
With Vepacitti. How should any man
Who lacks not understanding, such as I,
Engage himself to bandy with[16] a fool?

[Maatali: -]

But fools may only wax ever more wroth
If there be none to put a stop to them.
Wherefore by heavy chastisement and sharp
Let the strong-minded man restrain the fool.

[Sakka: -]

But in my judgment this alone avails
To stop [the railing of] a foolish man: -
When he who has a mind alert, and sees
Another filled with rage, grows calm and still.

[Maatali: -]

In this, that thou dost patiently forbear,
A grievous error, Vaasava,[17] I see.
For when the fool doth fancy: ''t is from fear
He bears with me,' the dolt will prss you hard,
Like cow [that charges] more when you do flee.[18]

[Sakka: -]

O let him fancy as he will - or won't: -
That I do bear with him because I fear.
'Mong highest matters of our spirit's growth[19]
Nought ranks above[20] forbearing patiently.
Yea, surely he that hath the upper hand
And beareth patiently with him that's down; -
Ever to tolerate the weaker side: -
This the supreme forbearance hath been called.
Whoso doth think the strength of fools is strength,
Will say of the strong man: A weakling he!
For the strong man whom righteousness doth guard,
To bandy words comes not into his thought.
Worse[21] of the two is he who, when reviled,
Reviles again. Who doth not, when reviled,
Revile again, a twofold victory wins.
Both of the other and himself he seeks
The good; for he the other's angry mood
Doth understand and groweth calm and still.
He who of both is a physician, since
Himself he healeth and the other too,
Folk deem him fool, they knowing not the Norm.

Verily this Sakka, bhikkhus, ruler of the gods, subsisting on the fruit of his own good works, and ruling over and governing the Thirty-three Gods, will be of those who commend forbearance and gentleness. Now in this Rule, bhikkhus, ye do enhance his virtue when ye who have gone forth under a Norm and Discipline so well proclaimed become forbearing and gentle.'

 


 

Sutta 5

Victory by Speeches

 


 

[5.1][than][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

And there the Exalted One discoursed to the brethren, saying:

'Bhikkhus!'

'Lord!' they responded.

The Exalted One said:

'Long time ago, bhikkhus, a battle was raging between the gods and the Asuras. And Vepacitti, ruler of the Asuras, said to Sakka, ruler of the gods: "Let the victory, ruler of the gods, be according to excellence in speech!'"

'So be the victory, ruler of the Asuras!'

Then bhikkhus, the gods and the Asuras, arrayed their audiences, saying: 'These willjudge what is well-spoken and what is ill-spoken.'

Then Vepacitti said to Sakka: 'Recite thou a verse, ruler of the gods!' And Sakka replied: 'Thou, Vepacitti, art here the older god; speak thou a verse.'

Then Vepacitti, bhikkhus, spoke this verse: -

They that are foolish ever wax more wroth
If there be none to put a stop to them.
Wherefore by heavy chastisement and sharp
Let the strong-minded man restrain the fool.[22]

Now the Asuras, bhikkhus, applauded the verse spoken by Vepacitti; the gods remained silent.

Thereupon Sakka spoke this verse: -

But in my judgment this alone avails
To stop [the railing of] a foolish man: -
When he who has a mind alert, and sees
Another filled with rage, grows calm and still.

Now the gods, bhikkhus, applauded the verse spoken by Sakka; the Asuras remained silent.

Then Sakka said to Vepacitti: 'Recite thou a verse, Vepacitti!'

[Vepacitti: -]

In this that thou dost patiently forbear,
A grievous error, Vaasava, I see.
For when the fool doth fancy: ''T is from fear
He bears with me,' the dolt will press you hard
Like cow [that charges] more the more you flee.

Now the Asuras applauded; the gods remained silent.

Then Vepacitti said to Sakka: 'Recite a verse, ruler of the gods.' And Sakka spake these verses: -

O let him fancy as he will - or won't: -
That one doth bear with him because of fear
'Mong highest matters of our spirit's growth
Nought ranks above forbearing patiently.
Yea, surely he that hath the upper hand
And beareth patiently with him that's down; -
Ever to tolerate the weaker side: -
This the supreme forbearance hath been called.
Whoso doth think the strength of fools is strength,
Will say of the strong man: A weakling he!
For the strong man whom righteousness doth guard,
To bandy words comes not into his thought.
Worse of the two is he who, when reviled,
Reviles again. Who doth not, when reviled,
Revile again, a twofold victory wins.
Both of the other and himself he seeks
The good; for he the other's angry mood
Doth understand and groweth calm and still.
He who of both is a physician, since
Himself he healeth and the other too,
Folk deem him fool, they knowing not the Norm.

Then the gods applauded the verses spoken by Sakka, the Asuras remained silent. Thereuon the audiences of gods and Asuras spoke thus: -

'The verses spoken by Vepacitti, ruler of Asuras, belong to the sphere of force and violence, of quarrelling, strife, and contention. The verses spoken by Sakka, ruler of gods, belong to the sphere of persuasion and mildness, of concord, amity, and harmony.[23] To Sakka, ruler of the gods, the victory by excellence of speech!'

And thus, bhikkhus, did Sakka win the victoryby excellence of speech.

 


 

Sutta 6

Nests

 


 

[6.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

And there the Exalted One discoursed to the brethren, saying:

'Bhikkhus!'

'Lord!' they responded.

The Exalted One said:

Long time ago, bhikkhus, a battle was raging betweenthe gods and the Asuras. And inthat fight[24] the Asuras conquered, the gods were defeated. And the defeated gods retreated towards the north, the Asuras pursuing them.

Now Sakka, ruler of the gods, addressed Maatali, his charioteer, in the verse: -

See that the chariot pole, O Maatali,
Keeps clear of nests 'mong the silk-cotton trees,[25]
Let us choose rather to give up our lives
To Asuras than nestless make these birds.

'So be it, lord! said Maatali, and in obedience to Sakka he turned back the chariot with its team of a thousand thoroughly trined horses.

Then, bhikkhus, the Asuras thought: 'The chariot of Sakka is now turned back, the devas will engage the Asuras in a second battle. And terrified, they retreated into the City of the Asuras.

Thus, bhikkhus, was Sakka victory by rightesousness.

 


 

Sutta 7

Not Treacherously

 


 

[7.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

And there the Exalted One discoursed to the brethren, saying:

'Bhikkhus!'

'Lord!' they responded.

The Exalted One said:

'Long time ago, bhikkhus, to Sakka, ruler of the gods, meditating in private, this idea arose in his mind: "Whoever may be my enemy, even him I may not betray."'

Then Vepacitti, ruler of the Asuras, discerning in mind the mind of Sakka, came up to him. And Sakka saw him coming from afar, and seeing him, called: 'Stop, Vepacitti, thou art my prisoner!'

'That which was just now in thy mind, dear sir, renounce it not!'

'Thou mayest swear, Vepacitti, that I will use no treachery.'[26]

[Vepacitti: -]

The evil fruit that from false speaking comes,
The evil fruit from blasphemy of saints,[27]
The evil fruit from perfidy to friends,[28]
The evil fruit borne by ingratitude:[29]
That evil fruit, O consort of Sujaa,
He reaps who showeth treachery to thee.

 


 

Sutta 8

Verocana, Lord of Asuras, or Aims

 


 

[8.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

Now on that occasion the Exalted One had gone at noon to take siesta, and was meditating.

Then Sakka, ruler of gods, and Verocana,[30] lord of Asuras, came to visit the Exalted One, and waited, leaning one against each doorpost.[31]

A man should only strive until
His purpose[32] is accomplishèd.
A purpose shines when perfected: -
Verocana doth utter this.

[Sakka: -]

A man should only strive until
His purpose is accomplished.
A purpose shines when perfected.
Nothing forbearance doth excel.

[Verocna: -]

All beings have some task in view
Now here now there as they are fit,
Food that is excellently blent
Will every creature satisfy.[33]
Our tasks when finished look their best: -
Verocana doth speak this word.

[Sakka: -]

All beings have some aim in view,
Now here now there as they are fit.
Food that is excellently blent
Will every creature satisfy.
Nothing forbearance doth excel.

 


 

Sutta 9

Forest Seers, or Perfume

 


 

[9.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

Long time ago, bhikkhus, many seers, virtuous and lovely in character, dwelt together in leaf-huts in a wild forest.[34]

And Sakka, ruler of the gods, and Vepacitti, lord of Asuras, came to visit them. Then Vepacitti, having put on this buskined shoes,[35] his sword hanging at his side, with his canopy of state borne over his head, entered the hermitage by the principal gate; whereby, having insulted[36] thos seers, virtuous and lovely in character, he transgressed. But Sakka, having put off his buskined shoes, given his sword to others, and caused his canopy of state to be folded, entered the hermitage by a gate,[37] and took his stand to leeward of those seers, virtuous and lovely in character, rendering them homage with clasped hands.

Then, bhikkhus, those seers, virtuous and lovely in character, addressed this verse to Sakka, ruler of the gods: -

The scent of seers long vowed to holy things,
Fall'n from their bodies by the breeze is born,
And wafted hence to thee, O thousand-eyed![38]
The scent of seers is foul, O king of gods!'

[Sakka: -]

The scent of seers long vowed to holy things,
Fall'n from their bodies may the breezes waft,
Like wreath of varied blossoms on the head.
This is the scent we look for, reverend sirs,
Nought is there here to bring the gods disgust.[39]

 


 

Sutta 10

Seers of the Seaside, or Sambara

 


 

[10.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

Long time ago, bhikkhus, many seers, virtuous and lovely in character, were living together in leaf-huts on the seashore.[40]

Now at that time, bhikkhus, a battle was raging between the gods and the Asuras. And in those seers the thought arose: - 'The gods are righteous, the Asuras are unrighteous. There may be danger even for us[41] from the Asura. What if we were now to go to Sambara,[42] lord of Asuras, and ask for apledge of safety?'[43] Then those Rishis, as quickly as a strong man might stretch out his bent arm, or bend in his arm stretched out, vanished from their leaf-huts on the seashore and appeared before Sambara. Then, bhikkhus, those Rishis, virtuous and lovely of character, addressed Sambara, lord of Asuras, in a verse: -

We Rishis, come to Sambaraa,
Entreat of him a safety-pledge.
Do as thou listest. Give that we
In peril or in safety dwell.

[Sambara: -]

Safety is not for such as ye!
Who Sakka serve choose ill their time.
To you entreating safety-pledge,
Terror is all that I do give.

[Rishis: -]

And dost thou only peril give
To us who ask for safety-pledge?
Lo! then accepting this from thee,
May never-dying fear be thine!
According to the seed that's sown
So is the fruit ye reap therefrom.
Doer of good [will gather] good,
Doer of evil evil [reap].
Sown is the seed and planted well.
Thou shalt enjoy the fruit thereof.

Then, bhikkhus, those Rishis, virtuous and lovely of character, having laid a curse on Sambara, ruler of the Asuras, as a strong man might stretch out his bent arm, or bend in his arm stretched out, vanished from the presence of Sambara and reapeared in their leaf-huts on the seashore. But Sambara, on whom those Rishis had laid a curse, that very night woke up thrice seized with terror.[44]

 


 

II

 


 

Sutta 11

The Gods, or The Rules

 


 

[11.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

In the days, behikkhus, when Sakka, ruler of the gods, was a man,[45] he undertook and carried out seven rules of conduct, whereby he attained his celestial sovereignty. What were the seven?

1. As long as I live, may I maintain my parents.

2. As long as I live, may I revere the head of the family.

3. As long as I live, may I use gentle language.

4. As long as I live, may I utter no slander.

5. As long as I live, with a mind rid of stain and selfishness, may I conduct myself in the home with generosity, with clean hands,[46] delighting in renunciation, amenable to petitions,[47] delighting in sharing gifts.

6. As long as i live, may I speak the truth.

7. As long as I live, may I not give way to anger: if anger should rise, may I swiftly repress it.

By undertaking and carrying out these rules when he was a human being, Sakka attained his celestial position.

Whoso his mother and his father keeps,
The senior in his family reveres,
Converseth gently and with soft-toned speech,
And all that makes for slander puts aside,
Who sets himself all meanness to suppress,
A man of truth, his temper 'neath control: -
On such an one the Three and Thirty Gods
Do verily confer the name: Good Man.[48]

 


 

Sutta 12

The Gods (2)

 


 

[12.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

When Sakka, ruler of the gods, was formerly a human being, bhikkhus, he was a son of brahmins named Magha, and hence one of his names is 'of the Maghas.'[49] As such, he bestowed gifts from town to town, hence one of his names is Purindada: 'townlord-giver.' As such he gave munificiently, hence one of his names is Sakka - 'thorough' (sakkacca'n). As such he gave dwelling-places, hence one of his names is Vaasava: 'house-owner.'

Sakka can in a moment think of a thousand matters, hence one of his names is Thousand-eyed (sahass'akkha).

Sakka became consort to the Asura maiden named Sujaa, hence one of his names is Consort of Sujaa (Sujampati).

Sakka rules over and governs the Thirty-three Gods, hence one of his name is Ruler[50] of the Gods.

In the days, behikkhus, when Sakka, ruler of the gods, was a man, he undertook and carried out seven rules of conduct, whereby he attained his celestial sovereignty. What were the seven?

1. As long as I live, may I maintain my parents.

2. As long as I live, may I revere the head of the family.

3. As long as I live, may I use gentle language.

4. As long as I live, may I utter no slander.

5. As long as I live, with a mind rid of stain and selfishness, may I conduct myself in the home with generosity, with clean hands, delighting in renunciation, amenable to petitions, delighting in sharing gifts.

6. As long as i live, may I speak the truth.

7. As long as I live, may I not give way to anger: if anger should rise, may I swiftly repress it.

By undertaking and carrying out these rules when he was a human being, Sakka attained his celestial position.

Whoso his mother and his father keeps,
The senior in his family reveres,
Converseth gently and with soft-toned speech,
And all that makes for slander puts aside,
Who sets himself all meanness to suppress,
A man of truth, his temper 'neath control: -
On such an one the Three and Thirty Gods
Do verily confer the name: Good Man.

 


 

Sutta 13

The Gods (3)

 


 

[13.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Vesaalii, in the Great Wood at the Gabled Hall.

And Mahaali the Licchavite[51] went to see the Exalted One and, salutinghim, sat down at one side. So seated, he said:

'Hath the Exalted One seen Sakka, ruler of the gods?'

'I have seen him, Mahaali.'

Was that perhaps someone, your reverence, who looked like Sakka, for Sakka is surely hard to see?'

'I know Sakka, Mahaali, and those Norms that Sakka set himself, by the undertaking and carrying out of which he attained to his celestial position - I know them also.[52]

When Sakka, ruler of the gods, was formerly a human being, Mahaali, he was a son of brahmins named Magha, and hence one of his names is 'of the Maghas.' As such, he bestowed gifts from town to town, hence one of his names is Purindada: 'townlord-giver.' As such he gave munificiently, hence one of his names is Sakka - 'thorough' (sakkacca'n). As such he gave dwelling-places, hence one of his names is Vaasava: 'house-owner.'

Sakka can in a moment think of a thousand matters, hence one of his names is Thousand-eyed (sahass'akkha).

Sakka became consort to the Asura maiden named Sujaa, hence one of his names is Consort of Sujaa (Sujampati).

Sakka rules over and governs the Thirty-three Gods, hence one of his name is Ruler of the Gods.

In the days, behikkhus, when Sakka, ruler of the gods, was a man, he undertook and carried out seven rules of conduct, whereby he attained his celestial sovereignty. What were the seven?

1. As long as I live, may I maintain my parents.

2. As long as I live, may I revere the head of the family.

3. As long as I live, may I use gentle language.

4. As long as I live, may I utter no slander.

5. As long as I live, with a mind rid of stain and selfishness, may I conduct myself in the home with generosity, with clean hands, delighting in renunciation, amenable to petitions, delighting in sharing gifts.

6. As long as i live, may I speak the truth.

7. As long as I live, may I not give way to anger: if anger should rise, may I swiftly repress it.

By undertaking and carrying out these rules when he was a human being, Sakka attained his celestial position.

Whoso his mother and his father keeps,
The senior in his family reveres,
Converseth gently and with soft-toned speech,
And all that makes for slander puts aside,
Who sets himself all meanness to suppress,
A man of truth, his temper 'neath control: -
On such an one the Three and Thirty Gods
Do verily confer the name: Good Man.
Do verily confer the name: Good Man.

 


 

Sutta 14

The Poor Man

 


 

[14.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Raajagaha, in the Bamboo Grove, at the Squirrels' Feeding-ground. And there he addressed the brethren as follows: -

'Long time ago, bhikkhus, a certain man dwelt in this Raajagaha, and he was poor, destitute,[53] and of no account. He embraced the faith of the Norm and Discipline set forth by the Tathaagatas, and the morals and the learning and the charity and the wisdom thereof. And because he did so, he was reborn, after death and the dissolution of the body, in the world of bliss and light, into the communion of the Three and Thirty Gods, where he outshone the other gods in beauty and in glory. Thereupon, bhikkhus, the Thirty-three Gods were verily vexed and fretted and were consumed with indignation at this strange and unheard-of event, that a poor pauper of no account, reborn from the world of men, should so outshine them. But Sakka spoke to them saying: 'Be not vexed, dear sirs, at this son of the gods, for he, while yet a human being, embraced the faith of the Norm and Discipline set forth by Tathaagatas, likewise the moral code, the learning, charity, and wisdom. Hence it is that he doth outshine you all.'

And in appeasing the Thirty-three, Sakka, ruler of the gods, on that occasion spoke these verses: -

Whose faith in the Tathaagata
Is firm and well-established,
Whose moral code is pure and good,
To Ariyans dear and by tem praised,
Who for the Brotherhood is filled
With loyalty, whose vision's straight: -
'Not poor that man,' they rightly say,
Nor sterile is the life he lives.
Wherefore the wise should cultivate,
Teaching of Buddhas born in mind,
Faith, virtue, loyal piety,
And clear discernment of the Truths.[54]

 


 

Sutta 15

Enjoyable

 


 

[15.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

[Ed.: There] Sakka, ruler of the gods, once came to visit the Exalted One, and saluting him, stood at one side. So standing, he said:

'What, lord, is by its situation enjoyable?'

The varied beauties[55] of the park, the grove,
Or lakes of lotuses and lovely line
For man's enjoyment are of little worth.
In village or the wild, in vale, on hill,
Where'er the 'men of worth' - the Arahants -
Their dwelling make, that is thespot
By situation most enjoyable.[56]

 


 

Sutta 16

For Them That Sacrifice

 


 

[16.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

Vulture's Head Rock
Vulture's Head - p.p.

The Exalted One was once staying near Raajagaha, on Vulture's Peak Hill. And Sakka, ruler of the gods, came to visit him, and, saluting him, stood at one side. So standing, he addressed the Exalted One in the verse:

For mankind offering sacrifice,
For creatures fain to earn reward,
Who work good deeds for life renewed;
Where do the gifts they offer here
Entail herafter ample fruit?

[The Exalted One: -]

The four who travel on the Paths,
The four who in Fruition stand,[57]
This Brotherhood whose way lies straight,
In virtue and in insight trained: -
For mankind offering sacrifice,
For creatures fain to earn reward,
Who work good deeds for life renewed;
Whate'er they to that Order give
Entails hereafter ample fruit.[58]

 


 

Sutta 17

Worship

 


 

[17.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

On one occasion, when at the Jeta Vana, The Exalted One had retired at noon to take siesta, meditating. Then Sakka, ruler of the gods, and Brahmaa Sahampati[59] came to see the Exalted One, and stood leaning each against a doorpost.[60] And Sakka, ruler of the gods, uttered this verse in the presence of the Exalted One: -

Arise, O Hero, Victor in the fight,
Whose burden lieth low,[61] who hast no debts,[62]
   Walk o'er the world!
Wholly emancipated is thy heart,
Like moon at large on night of fifteenth day.

[Brahmaa Sahampati: -]

'Nay, ruler of the gods, not so is the Tathaagata to be worshipped, but on this wise: -

Arise, O Hero, Victor in the fight,
Who hast no debts, Lord of the Cravan,
   Walk o'er the world,
   And teach the Norm,
Exalted One! there are who'll understand.

 


 

Sutta 18

Sakka's Worshipping (1)

 


 

[18.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

Long time ago, bhikkhus, Sakka, ruler of the gods, summoned his charioteer Maatali, sying: 'Harness, good Maatali, the thousand thoroughbreds[63] to our chariot, and let us go to the Gardens that we may see their beauty.' 'So be it, lord,' responded Maatali, and obeyed. When the chariot was ready, he sent word to Sakka, saying: 'Harnessed, dear sir, are the thousand horoughbreds to the chariot and await thy pleasure.'

Then Sakka, ruler of the gods, descending from the Vejayanta palace, with clasped hands did obeisance toward the different quarters.

And Maatali the charioteer addressed to him the verses: -

They of the Tiple Lore do honour thee,
And all the nobly born that dwell on earth,
The Four Great Kings[64] and the renowned Thrice Ten.[65]
But who may he, this yakkha,[66] be to whom
Thou, Sakka, dost such signal honour pay?

[Sakka: -]

They of the Triple Lore do honour me,
And all the nobly born that dwell on earth,
The Four Great Kings and the renowned Thrice Ten.
But I my homage render unto them
Who, in all virtuous habit graduates,
Long-time experts in mastery of mind,
Leaving the world, by highest motives led,[67]
Find in the higher life support and goal.

And householders besides, who merit work,
Laymen of virtue and of piety,
Who with integrity maintain their wife,[68]
To them I pay my homage, Maatali.

[Maatali: -]

Yea, I have heard, the best in all the world
Are these whom thou, Sakka, thus honourest.
I too do render homage unto them
Whom thou thus honourest, O Vaasava!

Thus spake he of the Maghas, thus the king
Of gods, Sujampaati, and having paid
To all the divers quarters reverence,
Mounted his chariot and led the way.[69]

 


 

Sutta 19

Sakka's Worshipping (2)

 


 

[19.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

Long time ago, bhikkhus, Sakka, ruler of the gods, summoned his charioteer Maatali, saying: 'Harness, good Maatali, the thousand thoroughbreds to our chariot, and let us go to the Gardens that we may see their beauty.' 'So be it, lord,' responded Maatali, and obeyed. When the chariot was ready, he sent word to Sakka, saying: 'Harnessed, dear sir, are the thousand thoroughbreds to the chariot and await thy pleasure.' Then Sakka, ruler of the gods, descending from the Vejayanta palace, with clasped hands did obeisance to the Exalted One.

And Maatali the charioteer addressed to him the verse:

Thee, Vaasava, both gods and men revere.
But who may he, this yakkha, be to whom
Thou, Sakka, dost such signal honour pay?

[Sakka: -]

The perfectly Enlightened, in this world
With all its gods, illustrious Master, him
I honour and revere, O Maatali.

They who have given up passion, enmity,
And ignorance, the Ar'hants poison-purged
Ihonour and revere, O Maatali.

And they who by suppressing lust and hate
And out of ignorance emerging follow on,
As learners[70] finding joy in pulling down,[71]
And training with allzeal and strenuousness: -
I honour and revere them, Maatali.

[Maatali: -]

Yea, I have heard, the best in all the world
Are these whom thou, Sakka, thus honourest.
I too do render homage unto them
Whom thou thus honourest, O Vaasava!

Thus spake he of the Maghas, thus the king
Of gods, Sujampati, and having paid
To the Exalted One due reverence,
Mounted his chariot and led the way.

 


 

Sutta 20

Sakka's Worshipping (3)

 


 

[20.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

Long time ago, bhikkhus, Sakka, ruler of the gods, summoned his charioteer Maatali, saying: 'Harness, good Maatali, the thousand thoroughbreds to our chariot, and let us go to the Gardens that we may see their beauty.' 'So be it, lord,' responded Maatali, and obeyed. When the chariot was ready, he sent word to Sakka, saying: 'Harnessed, dear sir, are the thousand thoroughbreds to the chariot and await thy pleasure.' Then Sakka, ruler of the gods, descending from the Vejayanta palace, with clasped hands did obeisance to the Order of Brethren.

And Maatali the charioteer addressed him in the verse: -

Surely 't is they should thee revere,
These men who live in bodies foul.
In carrion sunk,[72] who hunger, thirst.
What in these homeless houseless folk
Canst see to envy, Vaasava?
Delcare to us how Rishis live;
Thus wil't be ours to hear thy voice.[73]

[Sakka: -]

This in these homeless, houseless folk
I see to envy, Maatali: -
When from the village they depart,
They go their way free from all care.
In granary they nothing hoard,
Nor storehouse-jar nor crate [is theirs].
Others make ready what they seek.
Hence they maintain their goodly ways,
With eloquent words in steadfastness,
Or silent in serenity.[74]

The gods contend with Asuras,
And men fight alway, Maatali.
Non-combatant mid combatants,
At peace where others go self-armed.
Not laying hold'mong them that grip: -
These do I reverence, Maatali.

[Maatali: -]

Yea, I have heard, the best in all the world
Are these whom thou, Sakka, thus honourest.
I too do render homage unto them
Whom thou thus honourest, O Vaasava!

Thus spake he of the Maghas, thus the king
Of gods, Sujampati, and having paid
To the Exalted One due reverence,
Mounted his chariot and led the way.

 


 

III
The Sakka-Quintuplet[75]

 


 

Sutta 21

What Must We Slay?[76]

 


 

[21.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

At Jeta Vana, Sakka, ruler of the gods, once came to visit the Exalted One, and saluting him, stood at one side and addressed him in the verse: -

What must we slay if we would happy live?
What must we slay, if we would weep no more?
What is't above all other things, whereof
The slaughter thou approvest, GOTAMA?

[To whom the Exalted One: -]

Wrath must ye slay if ye would happy live.
Wrath must ye slay if ye would weep no more.
Of anger, Vaasava, with poisoned source,
And fevered climax, murderously sweet,
That is the slaughter by the Ariyans praised;
That must ye slay in sooth, to weep no more.

 


 

Sutta 22

Little Ugly

 


 

[22.1][bit][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

Long time ago, bhikkhus, a certain yakkha, ill-favoured, a pot-bellied dwarf[77] came to be seated on the throne of Sakka, ruler of the gods. Thereat the Thirty-three Gods were annoyed, vexed and consumed with indignation at this strange and unheard-of procedure. Now in proportion as they became annoyed, vexed indignant, that yakkha grew ever handsomer and more presentable and more attractive. Then they went and told Sakka what had happened. Ad they asked: 'Will this, then, dear sir, be a yakkha who feeds on anger?'

Then Sakka came up to that anger-nourished yakkha, and draping his robe over one shoulder, and kneeling on his right knee, bent forth his clasped hands towards him, calling his own name thrice: 'I, dear sir, am Sakka, ruler of the gods!'[78]

Now in proportion, as Sakka did this, that yakkha became more and more ill-favoured and dwarfed and pot-bellied, till he vanished there and then. Thereupon Sakka, taking his seat on his throne, appeasing the Thirty-three Gods in that hour, addressed them in these verses: -

Nay, not so easily put out am I,
Nor in the whirl of passin lightly drawn.[79]
Long time ye know[80] it is since I was wroth;
In me wrath findeth no abiding place.
To harsh and angry words I give no breath,
Nor to my creed may I inconstant prove.[81]
But I restrain and hold myself in check,
Heedful of my own spiritual growth.

 


 

Sutta 23

Magic Art

 


 

[23.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

Long time ago, bhikkhus, Vepacitti, lord of the Asuras, was ill[82] and suffering, and much afflicted. And Sakka, ruler of the gods, went to Vepacitti to inquire after his health.

Vepacitti saw him coming afar off, and said: 'Heal me, O ruler of the gods!'

'Then do thou, Vepacitti, tell me Sambara's magic art.'[83]

'Wait, dear sir, till I have held consultation.'

Then Vepacitti consulted the Asuras, saying: 'May I, dear sirs, tell Sakka, ruler of the gods, Sambara's magic art?'

'Nay, dear sir, do not tell him!'

Then, bhikkhus, Vepacitti, lord of Asuras, addressed this verse to Sakka, ruler of the gods: -

Thou of the Maghas, Sakka, king of gods,
Sujampati, the conjuror's magic art
Leads to the dread abyss where Sambara
The Asura hath been a century.[84]

 


 

Sutta 24

Gentleness at Offence

 


 

[24.1][bodh] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

On one occasion, at the Jeta Vana, two of the brethren had a dispute, in which one of them gave offence. Aware of this, he confessed his offence to the other as such, but the latter would not accept his apology.

Now many of the brethren went and reported this to the Exalted One, who said: 'Bhikkhus, there are two fools: he who does not see his offence as such and he who does not accept the other's right ruling. A wise pair were two of whom this one saw the offence as such, and that one accepted the other's right ruling.

Long time ago, bhikkhus, Sakka, ruler of the gods, when calming the Thirty-three Gods in the Sudhammaa Hall, spoke in that hour this verse: -

Let anger come beneath your sway.
Be there in friendship no decay.
Blame not where censure is not due.
And be no slander spread by you.
By wrath bad folk are overthrown
As if an avalanche came down.

 


 

Sutta 25

Mildness (and Kindness)

[24.1][bodh]The Exalted One was once staying near Saavatthii, at Jeta Grove, in Anaathapi.n.dika's Park.

There he addressed the brethren: -

Long time ago, bhikkhus, Sakka, ruler of the gods, when calming the Thirty-three Gods in the Sudhammaa Hall, spoke in that hour this verse: -

Let anger not o'ermaster you,
And rage ye not 'gainst them that rage.
For love and kindness [felt and shown][85]
Ever 'mong Ariyans find a home.
Bad folk by wrath are overthrown
As when an avalanche comes down.

 


[1] B. seems to be ignorant of the bygone lustre of the word Asura - as = Ahura [mazda], and a name of title of Varu.na He gives his traditional version of the immediate antecedents of Sakka, as a virtuous, public-spirited citizen of a Magadha village, and of his rebirth in the lowest deva-world (on Mt. Sineru, or Meru) as its King. Other versions are given in the Kulaavaka Jaataka (No. 31) and in the Mahaali-pa~nha story of the Comy. on Dhp. ver. 30 (i, 263 f.). Merely touching on the good works of Sakka as the brahmin Magha, and on his seven Rules of Conduct (see 2, §1 below), he names 33, not 30 co-operating fellow-citizens who were also reborn, as they died, in the same heaven, as if wishing it to be inferred that these became the '33 gods' immediately beneath Sakka (see below, §3). We may presume that, for Buddhists, the thrones and powers of the 33 were relative permanencies, like the Sakkatta (Sakka-hood) of Sakka, occupied successively by long-lived devas. B.'s version of the Asura wars is, that certain devas tried to get the vigorous and virtuous new rulers into their ower by doping them with ga.n.dapaana. Sakka warned his comrades to abstain; the plotters alone got dead drunk and were thrown down Sineru. They formed a kingdom below, and lived a-sura, without strong drink, trying from time to time to regain the lost Paradise.

[2] We do not meet ellsewhere with Suviira.

[3] Varu'n disa.n.

[4] 'Say' is supplied by the Comy.

[5] A-kammena. B. is singularly wanting over these interesting verses, combining as they do (1) the doctrine of the non-accumulation of Karma (cf. p. 301, n. 2), good or bad, with (2) the primary importance of strenusous persevering activity of a right sort: training in the Paths for no earthly or celestial reward.

[6] He is called Sakka's son; presumably the Susiima, son of the devas, of II, 3, §9.

[7] This Sutta was translated by the late E.R. Gooneratne in the Ceylon National Review, 1906. No graphic device is described by B. as forming the agga, or crest of the banner of these vast devas - Sakka's was 250 yojanas in length, himself and his chariot of proportional size - but from it the wind elicited music. Hence it served both as a bagpipes and as a visible rallying point.

[8] This triplet of terms occurs in the Maara and Bhikkhunii Suttas, but not in the other Nikaayas.

[9] This interesting trio are represented as invoked in the Tevijja Sutta, Dialogues, i, 310. On the first three, see Macdonell's Vedic Mythology. Isaana is an older name for Rudra, called euphemistically Siva (Böthlingk and Roth). So distorted had their myths become for B., that he assigns them places immediately below Sakka, and hence presumably among the 33!

[10] See this sequence of terms, III, 3, §4.

[11] Those disciples reckoned to have attained one or other of the Four Paths or Four Fruits.

[12] Naraasabha, for nara-usabha. Cf. Dhp. ver. 422, and Comy. iv, 231): 'by his undauntedness.'

[13] Pronounce .hchitti.

[14] 'Both hands and both feet, the neck making the fifth,' and B. adds the curious comment: 'these five fetters appear to the eye like a web of rushes, or a spider's web, and obstruct movement. By thought only was he bound by them, by thought (cittena) only was he loosed.

[15] B.'s list of scurrilous epithets is not without interest: 'Thou art a thief, a fool, a bungler (muu'ho), a camel, a bullock, a donkey, a hell-man, a beast; there's neither heaven nor hell tobe expected by such as thou.'

[16] Pa.tisayyuje.

[17] See below, p. 295.

[18] The metaphors are a little mixed. Ajjhaaruuhati (=ajjhottharati), 'press you hard,' is to climb on to and over you,' 'spread over,' and is used for e.g. parasitic plants. Jaat. iii, 399. In the second figure: the herd watching two bulls fighting, will join in pursuit quickly enough when one of the two yields and runs away. Comy.

[19] Here is another instance of the use of the pregnant term attha in two shades of meaning. The Pali pada is sadattha-paramaa atthaa. (Cf. above, X, §12.) I take sad-attha- (sakattha-, Comy.) in the sense of vuddhi, '[spiritual] growth,' and atthaa in the sense of kaara.naa, 'matters,' 'grounds,''causes.'

[20] Bhiyyo.

[21] These verses occurred in VII, 1, §§2,3.

[22] There is a pleasant humour in putting into Vepacitti's mouth the verses in which Maatali arraigned him (see §4), but this is lost on B.

[23] I take the positive forms; none of the negatives givenin the Pali: non-force, etc. - would appeal to us who prefer positive forms of expression.

[24] Here the Comy. gives, in its own words, another portion of the Kulaavaka Jaataka (see above, p. 279, n.1).

[25] The Simbali Vana, Silk-cotton-tree Wood (Bombax Heptaphyllum, according to the Wilsonian botanical lore incororated by Childers in his Dictionary) stood on the slope of Mt. Sineru, and was the abode of Garu.da or roc-birds (cf. VI, 1, §6). These were gret creatures, hence their nests torn by the enormous chariot-pole of the deva's chariot is not a fancy so out of proportion as it might at first seem.

[26] Sapassu. Comy.: 'I being without perfidy, make thou an oath [on it].'

[27] 'Like that of the Kokaalikan' (see VI, 1, §10). Comy.

[28] 'As in the Great Ape Jaataka.' Comy. The Mahaa-kapi Jaataka, No. 407, iii, p.225 f., is meant.

[29] B. instances Devadatta's case.

[30] Presumably a name of Vepacitti, meaning the Shining One or sun. B. passes him over. In the text-summary he is Virocano.

[31] Cf. above, VI, 1, §§7,8.

[32] Once more the elusive *attha. B. here paraphrases it by kicca; function, task, duty, something to be done, a meaning he did not include in the six given above (X, §12). Atthajaataa ti kiccajaataa. 'From dogs and jackals upward, there is no being who is a-kiccajaato. (Is this 'born without a task,' or 'for whom no function has arisen'?). His definition comes nearest to that meaning which he calls 'vicakkha.na,' and means 'discerned need': atthi me attho... 'I need. ...'

[33] The figure is a little obscure; the achieved task is likened to a skilfully compounded, well-cooked rice-pudding, not fit to be eaten till ready.

[34] B. places this in the Himaalayas in a charming spot fitted with day and night 'cloisters' etc. These two persons, father- and son-in-law (janaa jaamaatika-sasuraa), he goes on, were sometimes at war, sometimes in concord (ekato caranti); just then they were the latter.'

[35] B. explains a.taliyo as ga.nanga.nuupaahanaa. Cf. Vin. Texts ii, 14, n. 1: - 'with many linings' (?soles). My guess is that they were buskins, state-footwear, or war ditto. The word occurs in the Assalaayana-Sutta (M. ii, 155), where B. has the same comment.

[36] Apabyaamato karitvaa. See Points of Controversy, p. 270, n. 2.

[37] We should have expected 'side-door.' See above, p. 233. n.3.

[38] Sahassanetta, a variant of Sahassakkha. See list of his names below, 295.

[39] The perfume of virtue is described in Dhp. ver. 54. The smell of mankind, washed or unwashed, is said to 'offend the gods a hundred leagues away.' Dialogues, ii, 355. Cf. below, p. 302.

[40] A mythical spot by 'the great sea of the Cakkavaala, on sands glistening like sheets (pa.t.ta) of gold. Comy.

[41] B., reading no, explains: siyaa pi amhaaka'n.

[42] I.e. Vepacitti. See below, XI, 3, §3.

[43] I.e. a 'non-fear-gift.' Bhaya has the double sense of 'fear' and 'thing feared' or 'peril.' The gift apparently consisted simply in the king's promise to give orders for their being unmolested, when the fighting came their way. Sakka, B. says, had already conferred (mantetvaa) with the Rishis, and the Asuras, wrathful lest this meant an enlisting of Rishis' magic powers, had on one occasion smashed up their hermitage.

[44] And this, writes B. graphically amplifying the slender narrative of Sambara's nightmares, is how, his mind getting deranged (vipati-citto), he came to be called Vepacitti (crazy-nerve). Cf. below, 3, §3. That Rishis, armed with their weapon of effective cursing, should seek protection seems incongruous, but it is a common trait in the European fairy-story for the witch, etc., to crave a boon.

[45] See Kulaavaka Jaataka and XI, 1, §1 above. Cf. Milinda's similar 8 rules, also called vatapadaani (p. 90; trs. i, 138).

[46] B. takes this literally, 'hands always washen in order to give gifts.'

[47] 'Worthy of being solicited (by others), or devoted to the practice of soliciting.' Comy. Sakka, or Magha, being rich, this can only mean 'devoted to raising subscriptions.'

[48] Quoted in Dhammapada Comy.. i, 265.

[49] See Kulaavaka Jaataka, and Dhammapada Comy., i, 263 f., where the Buddha is made to address Mahaali (see next Sutta). For a more scholarly comment on these titles see Rhys Davids in Dialogues, ii, 297, introduction to Sakku-Pa~nha-Sutta. The titles omitted above are Kosiya and Sahassanetta (see above, p. 291).

[50] Devaanam-inda, On Inda and Indra, see op. et loc. cit.

[51] Cf. Jaataka, iv, 148 f., and Dhp. Comy., references in Index (vol. v.).

[52] 'Giving these as a sample 'of his great knowledge.' Comy. B. refers to a fuller account of this little episode given in his Comy. on the Diigha Nikaaya (Sumangala-Vilaasinii). The dialogue occurs almost verbatim in the Sutta in Dhammapada Comy., i, 263 f. (on vr.30).

[53] B. explains this term (kapa.na) as 'one who has attained to pity.' Cf. the triplet in Suppabuddha's story, Udaana, V, 3.

[54] All these lines are in Ang. ii, 57. B.'s Comy. on them there (Mano-rathapuura.nii) explains 'loyaliety' (pasaada) as faith in the Buddha, Norm, Order, and dhammadassana'n as translated here (he Four Truths)

[55] Cetyaa 'in the sense of variegated, of many colours.' Comy.

[56] In the Dhp. Comy. (ii, 195) on ver. 98, these four lines are ascribed to the Buddha, but in the Theragaathaa (Pss. of the Brethren, vers. 991, 992), to Saariputta. But in both works they are spoken concerning his younger brother Revata, and his love for wild or desolate places.

[57] See above, p. 282, n. 2.

[58] Cf. above, pp. 103, 123 f.

[59] Cf. above, VI, 1, §1 f. and compare the verses in that Sutta. It was 'up' to B. to discuss the correction of Sakka's version by the 'higher criticism' of the Brahmaa, but he passes it by. The latter insists on the missionary emphasis in the classic and orthodox version. He had interceded with the new Buddha to bring abut his gret mission.

[60] Cf. above other august door-keepers, VI, 1, §§ 7, 8; XI, 1, §8.

[61] An epithet applied to the Arahant. Cf. a list of such, Points of Controversy, p. 113.

[62] Anothr such epithet, but confined to the Thera-therii-gaathaa (Brethren, vers. 789, 882; Pss. of the Sisters, vrs. 2, 110). 'Debtless bliss' is applied also to a layman in Ang., ii, 69.

[63] Lit. the 'thousand-yoked thoroughbred-chariot.' On 'thousand' associated with Sakka, cf. two of his names above (2, §2). Possibly a term of solar-myth origin. 'Bred' is here to be understood in the sense of being thorughly trained, of 'good breeding,' rather than 'good pedigree.' Possibly it needed a horse of good strain to achieve that rational development claimed by B. (and the Pali term) for a highly trained horse. See above, pp.11, n. 1; and 38 (iii).

[64] Lower deities of the four quarters. See Dialogues, ii, 242.

[65] See above, p. 9, n.1.

[66] See above, p. 262. n. 1.

[67] Sammaa, who have 'rightly, ' or 'perfectly' left, i.e. from saddhaa, 'confidence' in their object and course, not from lower motives.

[68] Representing 'the family.' Comy.

[69] At the head of his deva-retinue.' Comy.

[70] Those in the three lower Paths are being described (see Compendium, p. 217, § 10; Bud. Psych. Ethics, p. 95 f.). The Arahant was a-sekha: 'non-learner,' or adept.

[71] See above, p. 280, n. 1. Bud. Psych. Ethics, p. 82, n. 2.

[72] These terms, writes B., may refer to the material matrix, or to their own bodies. The gods were animistic, as was shown in the First Chapter, and would speak naturally of the man, soul, self, as 'immersed in' the body.

[73] Sakka's voice was very sweet, like the sound of a golden bell proceeding from the exquisite screen of his teeth. Comy.

[74] These verses resemble Rohinii's apologia for recluses (Sisters, LXVII). Three of the lines: 'In granary, etc.' are included in her verses. But Pischel's edition (PTS) of the Therigaathaa gives parini.t.thita'n 'completed,' where the Sa'nyutta has parani.t.thita'n, 'made ready by another.' Their alms, explains B., are 'cooked' in 'other' folk's houses, made ready by 'others' - an earthy, but safer substitute for the loftier (and grammaticallly forced) guess of my earlier translation.
Again, the Theriigaathaa has osenti for openti = pa'ikkhipanti: 'deposit' ('hoard').

[75] The second appended group of Five in these collections of Suttas. See Maara Suttas, p. 147.

[76] The Sutta appears for the fourth time (I, 8, §1; II, 1, §VII; 1, §1).

[77] Oko.timako, explained as both lakun.tako and mahodaro, in fact, quite a Punch-silhouette. This Sutta is translated in Warren's Buddhism in Translations, 426. The Master is in a humorous vein.

[78] See III, 2, §1.

[79] Kodhaavattena, so Comy., not -va.t.tena.

[80] Vo, dative of reference, obsolete with us. I give the nearest substitute.

[81] B. is silent over this not very obvious clause. But I think Feer is right and Warren wrong: 'And ne'er proclaim my virtue's fame' (dhammaani). This neuter plural is not unknown, but the proclaiming is precisely what the dear good god was doing! I read dhammaa as equivalent to the instrumental dhammena. And nikittaye, 'I may not be false, or inconsistent to,' is good Sanskrit, though not yet found in Pali. Sakka's dhamma (norm or creed) was especially Forbearance.

[82] See above, 1, §10. 'Through the Rishis' curse.' Comy.

[83] Sambari(yaa) maayaa. Juggling, or ? white magic is all that maayaa ever means in early buddhist literature of in Theravaada literature. Asura-vidyaa is used in the .Srauta Suutras as a synonym for maayaa. See Vedic Index, Macdonell and Keith, s.v.

[84] Here is apparently a curious anomaly in B.'s comments. (1) He has told us that Vepacitti's real name was Sambara, Inda, or ruler of the Asuras (1, §10). (2) He calls the magician or conjurer whose art is known to Vepacitti, or is Vepacitti's, and who practised it, with direful results, Sambaro Asurindo. (3) He explains the last line as 'Sambara ruler of Asuras, a juggler, who, having practised maayaa (maayaavii maaya'n payojetvaa) is "roasting" since a century ago in purgatory:' - and all without making any distinction between any two Sambaras. The only inference is that there was a post of Sambaratta (Sambarahood) as there was of Sakkatta (Sakka-hood), and that the 'late' ruler of the Asuras had an art which was either an heirloom taught to, or an innate talent possessed by each succeeding Sambara. But what an opportunity for our good B. to have missed!
The Asuras naturally fear to put more power into Sakka's hands: - 'he will torment us, destroy us!' Vepacitti advises him and his, as honest men (tumhe dhammikaa va), to keep clear of it (ala'n vo na maayaaya). The legend adds that Sakka's other offer of healing was to take Vepacitti to beg pardon of the Rishis. But to the champion of 'frightfulness' this was too much.

[85] 'Non-anger is love (or amity) at its inception (pubbabhaago), non-cruelty is compassion in its inception and after.' Comy.


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