Samyutta Nikaya Masthead


[Site Map]  [Home]  [Sutta Indexes]  [Glossology]  [Site Sub-Sections]

The Pali is transliterated as Velthuis (aaiiuu.m'n~n.t.d.n.l). Alternatives:
[ ASCII (aiumnntdnl) | IAST Unicode (āīūṃṅñṭḍṇḷ) ]

 

Sa.myutta Nikaya:
Sagathavagga:
IV: Maara Samyutta

Connected Discourses with Maara

Translated by Bhikkhu Bodhi

"OoBhikkhu Bodhi 2000., The Connected Discourses of the Buddha (Wisdom Publications, 2000)
This selection from The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Sa.myutta Nikaaya by Bhikkhu Bodhi is reprinted with permission of Wisdom Publications, 199 Elm St., Somerville MA 02144 U.S.A
and Suttas 1, 2, and 3 are also licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Based on a work at http://www.wisdompubs.org/book/connected-discourses-buddha.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://www.wisdompubs.org/terms-use.

Suttas 1-25

 


I The First Subchapter
(Life Span)


 

Sutta 1

Austere Practice

[1.1][pts][bd][mnl] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Uruvelaa on the bank of the river Nera~njaraa at the foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree just after he had become fully enlightened.[260] Then, while the Blessed One was alone in seclusion, a reflection arose in his mind thus:

"I am indeed freed from that gruelling asceticism! It is good indeed that I am freed from that useless gruelling asceticism! It is good that, steady and mindful, I have attained enlightenment!"[261]

Then Maara the Evil One, having known with his own mind the reflection in the Blessed One's mind, approached the Blessed One and addressed him in verse:

"Having deviated from the austere practice
By which men purify themselves,
Being impure, you think you're pure:
You have missed the path to purity."[262]

Then the Blessed One, having understood, "This is Maara the Evil One," replied to him in verses:

"Having known as useless any austerity
Aimed at the immortal state,[263]
That all such penances are futile
Like oars and rudder on dry land,[264]

By developing the path to enlightenment -
Virtue, concentration, and wisdom -
I have attained supreme purity:
You're defeated, End-maker!"[265]

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 2

The King Elephant

[2.1][pts][bd][mnl] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Uruvelaa on the bank of the river Nera~njaraa at the foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree just after he had become fully enlightened. [104] Now on that occasion the Blessed One was sitting out in the open air in the thick darkness of the night while it was drizzling.[266]

Then Maara the Evil One, wishing to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in the Blessed One, manifested himself in the form of a giant king elephant and approached the Blessed One. His head was like a huge block of steatite; his tusks were like pure silver; his trunk was like a huge plough pole.

Then the Blessed One, having understood, "This is Maara the Evil One," addressed him in verse:

"You've wandered through the long course
Creating beautiful and hideous shapes.
Enough, Evil One, with that trick of yours:
You're defeated, End-maker!"[267]

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 3

Beautiful

[3.1][pts][bd][mnl] While dwelling at Uruvelaa. Now on that occasion the Blessed One was sitting out in the open air in the thick darkness of the night while it was drizzling. Then Maara the Evil One, wishing to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in the Blessed [197] One, approached the Blessed One and, not far from him, displayed diverse lustrous shapes, both beautiful and hideous. Then the Blessed One, having understood, "This is Maara the Evil One," addressed him in verses:

"You've wandered on through the long course
Creating beautiful and hideous shapes.
Enough, Evil One, with that trick of yours:
You're defeated, End-maker!

"Those who are well restrained
In body, speech, and mind,
Do not come under Maara's control
Nor become Maara's henchmen"[268]

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 4

Maara's Snare

[4.1][pts][mnl] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Baaraa.nasii in the Deer Park at Isipatana. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus!"[269]

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this:

"Bhikkhus, by careful attention, by careful right striving, I have arrived at unsurpassed liberation, I have realized unsurpassed liberation. You too, bhikkus, by careful attention, by careful right striving, must arrive at unsurpassed liberation, must realize unsurpassed liberation."[270]

Then Maara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and addressed him in verse:[271]

"You are bound by Maara's snare
Both celestial and human;
You are bound by Maara's bondage:
You won't escape me, ascetic!"[272]

[The Blessed One:]
"I am freed from Maara's snare Both celestial and human;
[198] I am freed from Maara's bondage:
You're defeated, End-maker!"

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 5

Maara's Snare (2)

[5.1][pts][mnl] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Baaraa.nasii in the Deer Park at Isipatana.

There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus:

"Bhikkhus!"

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied.

The Blessed One said this:

"Bhikkhus, I am freed from all snares,
both celestia] and human.

You too, bhikkhus, are freed from all snares,
both celestial and human.

Wander forth, 0 bhikkhus,
for the welfare of the multitude,
for the happiness of the multitude,
out of compassion for the world,
for the good, welfare, and happiness of devas and humans.

Let not two go the same way.
Teach, 0 bhikkhus, the Dhamma
that is good in the beginning,
good in the middle,
good in the end,
with the right meaning and phrasing.
Reveal the perfectly complete and purified holy life.

There are beings with little dust in their eyes
who are falling away
because they do not hear the Dhamma.

[106] There will be those who will understand the Dhamma.

I too, bhikkhus, will go to Senaanigama in Uruvelaa
in order to teach the Dhamma."[273]

Then Maara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and addressed him in verse:[274]

You are bound by all the snares
Both celestial and human;
You are bound by the great bondage:
You won't escape me, ascetic!"

[The Blessed One:]
"I am freed from all the snares
Both celestial and human;
I am freed from the great bondage:
You're defeated, End-maker!"

 

§

 

Sutta 6

Serpent

[6.1][pts][mnl] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Raajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary.

Now on that occasion the Blessed One was sitting out in the open in the thick darkness of the night while it was drizzling.

Then Maara the Evil One ... manifested himself in the form of a giant king serpent and approached the Blessed One.

Its body was like a huge boat made from a single tree trunk;
its hood, like a large brewer's sieve;
its eyes, like the large bronze dishes of Kosala;
its tongue darting out from its mouth,
like flashes of lightning emitted when the sky thunders;
the sound of its breathing in and out,
like the sound of a smith's bellows filling with air.

Then the Blessed One, having understood,
"This is Maara the Evil One,"
addressed Maara the Evil One in verses:

"He who resorts to empty huts for lodging -
He is the sage, self-controlled.
He should live there, having relinquished all:
That is proper for one like him[275]

"Though many creatures crawl about,
Many terrors, flies, serpents, [107]
The great sage gone to his empty hut
Stirs not a hair because of them.

"Though the sky might split, the earth quake,
And all creatures be stricken with terror,
Though men brandish a dart at their breast,
The enlightened take no shelter in acquisitions."[276]

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing,
"The Blessed One knows me,
the Fortunate One knows me,"
sad and disappointed,
disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 7

Sleep

[7.1][pts][mnl] On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Raajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary.

Then, when the night was fading, the Blessed One, having spent much of the night walking back and forth in the open, washed his feet, entered his [200] dwelling, and lay down on his right side in the lion's posture, with one leg overlapping the other, mindful and clearly comprehending, having attended to the idea of rising.

Then Maara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and addressed him in verse:

"What, you sleep? Why do you sleep?
What's this, you sleep like a wretch?[277]
Thinking 'The hut's empty' you sleep:
What's this, you sleep when the sun has risen?"

[The Blessed One:]

"Within him craving no longer lurks,
Entangling and binding, to lead him anywhere;
With the destruction of all acquisitions
The Awakened One sleeps:

Why should this concern you, Maara?"[278]

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 8

He Delights

[8.1][ati][pts][mnl] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Saavatthii in Jeta's Grove, Anathapi.n.dika's Park.

Then Maara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and recited this verse in the presence of the Blessed One:

"One who has sons delights in sons,
One with cattle delights in cattle.
[108] Acquisitions truly are a man's delight;
Without acquisitions one does not delight."

[The Blessed One:]
"One who has sons sorrows over sons,
One with cattle sorrows over cattle.
Acquisitions truly are a man's sorrow;
Without acquisitions one does not sorrow."

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 9

Life Span (1)

[201]

[9.1][pts][mnl] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Raajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary. There the Blessed One addressed tbe bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus!"

"'Venerable sir!" tbose bhikklms replied. The Blessed One said this:

"Bhikkhus, this life span of human beings is short. One has to go on to the future life. One should do what is wholesome and lead the holy life; for one who has taken birth there is no avoiding death. One who lives long, bhikkhus, lives a hundred years or a little longer."

Then Maara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and addressed him in verse:

"Long is the life span of human beings,
The good man should not disdain it.
One should live like a milk-sucking baby:
Death has not made its arrival."[279]

[The Blessed One:]
"Short is the life span of human beings,
The good man should disdain it.
One should live like one witb head aflame:
There is no avoiding Death's arrival"

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 10

Life Span (2)

[10.1][pts][mnl] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Raajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary. There tile Blessed One addressed tbe bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus!"

"'Venerable sir!" tbose bhikklms replied. The Blessed One said this:

"Bhikkhus, this life span of human beings is short. One has to go on to the future life. One should do what is wholesome and lead the holy life; for one who has taken birth there is no avoiding death. One who lives long, bhikkhus, lives a hundred years or a little longer."

Then Maara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and addressed him in verse:

[109] "The days and nights do not fly by,
Life does not come to a stop.
The life span of mortals rolls along
Like the chariot's felly round the hub."[280]

[202] [The Blessed One:]
"The days and nights go flying by,
Life comes to a stop.
The life span of mortals is depleted
Like the water in rivulets."

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 


II. The Second Subchapter
(Rulership)

.

 

Sutta 11

Paasaa.na

[11.1][pts][mnl] On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Raajagaha on Mount Vulture Peak. Now on that occasion the Blessed One was sitting out in the open in the thick darkness of the night while it was drizzling. Then Maara the Evil One, wishing to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in the Blessed One, shattered a number of huge boulders not far away from him.

Then the Blessed One, having understood, "This is Maara the Evil One," addressed Maara the Evil One in verse:

"Even if you make this Vulture Peak
Quake all over in its entirety,
The enlightened are not perturbed,
For they are are fully liberated."

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 12

Lion

[12.1][pts][mnl] On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Saavatthii in Jeta's Grove, Anathapi.n.dika's Park. Now on that occasion the Blessed One was teaching the Dhamma while surrounded by a large assembly.

[110] Then it occurred to Maara the Evil One: "This ascetic Gotama is teaching the Dhamma while surrounded by a large assembly. Let me approach the ascetic Gotama in order to confound them."[281]

[203] Then Maara the Evil One approadled the Blessed One and addressed him in verse:

"Why now do you roar like a lion,
Confident in the assembly?
For there is one who's a match for you,
So why think yourself the victor?"

[The Blesed One:]
"The great heroes roar their lion's roar
Confident in the assemblies -
The Tathaagatas endowed witb the powers Have crossed over attachment to tbe world."[282]

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 13

The Splinter

[13.1][pts][ati][mnl] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Raajagaha in the Maddakucchi Deer Park.

Now on that occasion the Blessed One's foot had been cut by a stone splinter.

Severe pains assailed the Blessed One - bodily feelings that were painful, racking, sharp, piercing, harrowing, disagreeable. But the Blessed One endured them, mindful and cearly comprehending, without becoming distressed.

Then the Blessed One had his outer robe folded in four, and he lay down on his right side in the lion posture with one leg overlapping the other, mindful and clearly comprehending.[283]

Then Maara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and addressed him in verse:

"Do you lie down in a daze or drunk on poetry?
Don't you have sufficient goals to meet?
Alone in a secluded lodging
Why do you sleep with a drowsy face?"[284]

[The Blessed One:]
"I do not lie in a daze or drunk on poetry;
Having reached the goal, I am rid of sorrow.
Alone in a seduded lodging
I lie down full of compassion for all beings.

[204] "Even those with a dart stuck in the breast
Piercing their heart moment by moment -
Even these here, stricken, get to sleep;
[111] So why should I not get to sleep
When my dart has been drawn out?[285]

"I do not lie awake in dread,
Nor am I afraid to sleep.
The nights and days do not afflict me,
I see for myself no decline in the world.
Therefore I can sleep in peace,
Full of compassion for all beings."

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 14

Suitable

[14.1][pts][mnl] On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the Kosalans at the brahmin village of Ekasaalaa. Now on that occasion the Blessed One was teaching the Dhamma surrounded by a large assembly of laypeople.

Then it occurred to Maara the Evil One: "This ascetic Gotama is teaching the Dhamma while surrounded by a large assembly of laypeople. Let me approach the ascetic Gotama in order to confound them."

Then Maara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and addressed him in verse:

"This is not suitable for you,
That you instruct others.
When so engaged don't get caught
In attraction and repulsion."[286]

[The Blessed One:]
"Compassionate for their welfare,
The Buddha instructs others.
The Tathaagata is fully released
From attraction and repulsion."

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 15

Mental

[205]

[15.1][pts][mnl] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Saavatthii in Jeta's Grove, Anathapi.n.dika's Park. Then Maara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and addressed him in verse:[287]

There is a snare moving in the sky'
Something mental which moves about[288]
By means of which I'll catch you yet:
You won't escape me, ascetic!"

[The Blessed One:]
"Forms, sounds, tastes, odours,
And delightful tactile objects -
Desire for these has vanished in me:
You're defeated, End-maker!"

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 16

Almsbowls

[112]

[16.1][pts][mnl] At Saavatthii. Now on that occasion the Blessed One was instructing, exorting, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus with a Dharnma talk concerning the five aggregates subject to clinging. And those bhikkhus were Lstemng to the Dhamma with eager ears, attending to it as a matter of vital concern applying their whole minds to it.

Then it occurred to Maara the Evil One: "This ascetic Gotama is instructing, exhorting, inspiring, and gladdenng the bhikkhuswith a Dharnma talk concerning the five aggregates subject to clinging. And those bhikkhus were Lstemng to the Dhamma with eager ears, attending to it as a matter of vital concern applying their whole minds to it. Let me approach the ascetic Gotama in order to confound them."

Now on that occasion a number of almsbowls had been put out in the open. Then Maara the Evil One manifested himself in the form of an ox and approached those almsbowls. Then one bhikkhu said to another: "Bhikkhu, bhikkhu! That ox may break the almsbowls." When this was said, the Blessed One said to that bhikkhu: "That is not an ox, bhikkhu. That is Maara the Evil One, who has comehere in order to confound you."

[206] Then the Blessed One, having understood, "This is Maara the Evil One," addressed Maara the Evil One in verses:

"Form, feeling, and perception,
Consciousness, and formations -
'I am not this, this isn't mine,'
Thus one is detached from it.[289]

"Though they seek him everywhere,
Maara and his army do not find him:
The one thus detached, secure,
Who has gone beyond all fetters."[290]

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 17

Six Bases for Contact

[17.1][pts][mnl] On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Vesaalii in the Great Wood in the Hall with the Peaked Roof. [113] Now on that occasion the Blessed One was instructing, exhorting, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk concerning the six bases for contact. And those bhikkhus were listening to the Dhamma with eager ears, attending to it as a matter of vital concern, applying their whole minds to it.

Then it occurred to Maara the Evil One: "This ascetic Gotama is instructing, exhorting, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk concerning the six bases for contact. And those bhikkhus are listening to the Dhamma with eager ears, attending to it as a matter of vital concern, applying their whole minds to it. Let me approach the ascetic Gotama in order to confound them."

Then Maara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and, not far from him, made a loud noise, frightful and terrifying, as though the earth were splitting open.[291] Then one bhikkhu said to another: "Bhikkhu, bhikkhu! It seems as though the earth is splitting open." When this was said, the Blessed One said to that bhikkhu: "The earth is not splitting open, bhikkhu. That is Maara the Evil One, who has come here in order to confound you."

Then the Blessed One, having understood, "This is Maara the Evil One," addressed Maara the Evil One in verses:

[207] "Forms, sounds, tastes, odours,
Tactiles, and all mental objects:
This is the terrible bait of the world
With which the world is infatuated.

"But when he has transcended this,
The mindful disciple of the Buddha
Shines radiantly like the sun,
Having surmounted Maara's realm."[292]

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 18

Alms

[18.1][pts][mnl] On one occasion the Blessed Oae was dwelling among the Magadhans at the brahmin village of Pa~ncasaalaa. [114] Now on that occasion the gift-festival of the young people was being held at the brahmin village Cli Pa~ncasaalaa.[293] Then, in the morning, the Blessed One dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Pa~ncasaalaa for alms. Now on that occasion Maara the Evil One had taken possession of the brahmin householders of Pa~ncasaalaa, [inciting in them the thought,] "Don't let the ascetic Gotama get alms."

Then the Blessed One left Pa~ncasaalaa with his bowl just as cleanly washed as it was when he entered it for alms. Then Maara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and said to him:

"Maybe you got alms, ascetic?"

"Was it you, Evil One, who saw to it that I didn't get alms?"

"Then, venerable sir, let the Blessed One enter Pa~ncasaalaa a second time for alms. I will see to it that the Blessed One gets alms."[294]

[The Blessed One:]
"You have produced demerit, Maara,
Having assailed the Tathaagata.
Do you really think, 0 Evil One,
'My evil does not ripen'?

"Happily indeed we live,
We who ownnothing at all.

[208]We shall dwell feeding on rapture Like the devas of Streaming Radiance."[295]

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 19

The Farmer

[19.1][bit][pts][ati][mnl] At Saavatthii. Now on that occasion the Blessed One was instructing, exhorting, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk concerning Nibbaana. And those bhikkhus were listening to the Dhamma with eager ears, attending to it as a matter of vital concern, applying their whole minds to it.

[115] Then it occurred to Maara the Evil One: "This ascetic Gotama is instructing, exhorting, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk concerning Nibbaana. And those bhikkhus are listening to the Dhamma with eager ears, attending to it as a matter of vital concern, applying their whole minds to it. Let me approach the ascetic Gotama in order to confound them."

Then Maara the Evil One manifested himself in the form of a farmer, carrying a large plough on his shoulder, holding a long goad stick, his hair dishevelled, wearing hempen garments, his feet smeared with mud. He approached the Blessed One and said to him: "Maybe you've seen oxen, ascetic?"

"What are oxen to you, Evil One?"

"The eye is mine, ascetic, forms are mine, eye-contact and its base of consciousness are mine.[296]

Where can you go, ascetic, to escape from me?

The ear is mine, ascetic, sounds are mine ...
The nose is mine, ascetic, odours are mine ...
The tongue is mine, ascetic, tastes are mine ...
The body is mine, ascetic, tactile objects are mine ...
The mind is mine, ascetic, mental phenomena are mine,
Mind-contact and its base of consciousness are mine.

Where can you go, ascetic, to escape from me?"

"The eye is yours, Evil One, forms are yours, eye-contact and its base of consciousness are yours; but, Evil One, where there is no eye, no forms, no eye-contact and its base of consciousness - there is no place for you there, Evil One.[297]

The ear is yours, Evil One, sounds are yours, ear-contact and its base of consciousness are yours; but, Evil One, where there is no ear, no sounds, no ear-contact and its base of consciousness - there is no place for you there, Evil One.

The nose is yours, Evil One, odours are yours, nose-contact and its base of consciousness are yours; but, Evil One, where there is no nose, no odours, no nose- [209] contact and its base of Cosciousness - there is no place for you there, Evil One.

[116] The tongue is yours, Evil One, tastes are yours, tongue-contact and its base of consciousness are yours; but, Evil One, where there is no tongue, no tastes, no tongue-contact and its base of consciousness - there is no place for you there, Evil One.

The body is yours, Evil One, tac1ile objects are yours, body-contact and its base of consciousness are yours; but, Evil One, where there is no body, no tactile objects, no body-contact and its base of consciousness - there is no place for you there, Evil One.

The mind is yours, Evil One, mental phenomen are yours, mind-contact and its base of consciousness are yours; but, Evil One, where there is no mind, no mental phenomena, no mind-contact and its base of consciousness - there is no place for you there, Evil One."

[Maara:]
'That of which they say 'It's mine,'
And those who speak in terms of 'mine' -
If your mind exists among these,
You won't escape me, ascetic."

[The Blessed One:]
"That which they speak of is not mine
I'm not one of those who speak [of mine].
You should know thus, O Evil One:
Even my path you will not see."

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 20

Rulership

[20.1][pts][mnl] On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the Kosalans in a small forest hut in hhe Himalayan region. Then, when the Blessed One was alone in seclusion, a reflection arose in his mind thus: "Is it possible to exercise rulership righteously: without killing and without instigating others to kill, without confiscating and without instigating others to confiscate, without sorrowing and without causing sorrow?"[298]

Then Maara the Evil One, having known with his own mind the reflection in the Blessed One's mind, approached the Blessed [210] One and said to him: "Venerable sir, let the Blessed One exercise rulership righteously: without killing and without instigating others to kill, without confiscating and without instigating others to confiscate, without sorrowing and without instigating others to cause sorrow."

"But what do you see, Evil One, that you speak thus to me?"

"Venerable sir, the Blessed One has developed and cultivated the four bases for spiritual power, made them a vehicle, made them a basis, stabilized them, exercised himself in them, and fully perfected them. And, venerable sir, if the Blessed One wishes, he need only resolve that the Himalayas, the king of mountains, should become gold, and it would turn to gold."[299]

[117] [The Blessed One:]

"If there were a mountain made of gold,
Made entirely of solid gold,
Not double this would suffice for one:
Having known this, fare evenly.[300]

"How could a person incline to sensual pleasures
Who has seen the source whence suffering springs?
Having known acquisition as a tie in the world,
A person should train for its removal."[301]

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 


III. The Third Subchapter
(The Maara Pentad)


 

Sutta 21

A Number

[21.1][pts][mnl] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the Sakyans at Silaavati. Now on that occasion a number of bhikkhus were dwelling not far from the Blessed One - diligent, ardent, and resolute. Then Maara the Evil One manifested himself in the form of a brahmin, with a large mat- [211] ted topknot, clad in an antelope hide, old, crooked lile a roof bracket, wneezing, holding a staff of udumbara wood.[302] He approached those bbikkhus and said to them: "You, sirs, have gone forth while young, lads with black hair, endowed with the blessing of youth, in the prime of life, without having dallied with sensual pleasures. Enjoy human sensual pleasures, sirs; do not abandon what is directly visible in order to pursue wnat takes time."[303]

"We haye not abandoned what is directly visible, brahmin, in order to pursue wnat takes time. We have abandoned what takes time in order to pursue wnat is directly visible. For the Blessed One, brahmin, has stated that sensual pleasures are time-consuming, full of suffering, full of despair, and the danger in them is still greater, while this Dhamma is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise."

[118] When tms was said, Maara the Evil One shook his head, lolled his tongue, knit his brow into three furrows, and departed leaning on his staff.[304]

Then those bhikkhus approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and reported everything in full.

[The Blessed One said:] "That was not a brahmin, bhikkhus. That was Maara the Evil One, who had come in order to confound you."

Then the Blessed One, having undersiood the meaning of this, on that occasion recited this verse:

"How could a person incline to sensual pleasures
Who has seen the source whence suffering springs?
Having known acquisition as a tie in the world,
A person should train for its removal"

 

§

 

Sutta 22

Samiddhi

[22.1][pts][mnl] [119] On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the Sakyans at Silaavati. Now on that occasion the Venerable Samiddhi was dwelling not far trom the Blessed One - diligent, ardent, and reselute.[305] Then, while the Venerable Samiddhi was alone in seclusion, a reflection arose in his mind thus: "It is indeed a gain for me, it is well gained by me, that my teacher is [212] the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One! It is indeed a gain for me, it is well gained by me, that I have gone forth in this well-expounded Dhamma and Discipline! It is indeed a gain for me, it is well gained by me, that my companions in the holy life are virtuous, of good character!"

Then Maara the Evil One, having known with his own mind the reflection in the mind of the Venerable Samiddhi, approached him and, not far from him, made a loud noise, frightful and terrifying, as though the earth were splitting open.[306]

Then the Venerable Samiddhi approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and reported what had happened.

[The Blessed One said:] "That was not the earth splitting open, Samiddhi. That was Maara the Evil One, who had come in order to confound you. Go back, Samiddhi, and dwell diligent, ardent, and resolute."

"Yes, venerable sir," the Venerable Samiddhi replied. [120] Then he rose from his seat, paid homage to the Blessed One, and departed, keeping him on the right.

A second time, while the Venerable Samiddhi was alone in seclusion, a reflection arose in his mind thus: "It is indeed a gain for me, it is well gained by me, that my teacher is the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One! It is indeed a gain for me, it is well gained by me, that I have gone forth in this well-expounded Dhamma and Discipline! It is indeed a gain for me, it is well gained by me, that my companions in the holy life are virtuous, of good character!".

And a second time Maara the Evil One, having known with his own mind the reflection in the mind of the Venerable Samiddhi, approached him and, not far from him, made a loud noise, frightful and terrifying, as though the earth were splitting open.

Then the Venerable Samiddhi, having understood, "This is Maara the Evil One," addressed him in verse:

"I have gone forth out of faith
From the home to the homeless life.
My mindfulness and wisdom are mature,
And my mind well concentrated.
Conjure up whatever forms you wish,
But you will never make me tremble."[307]

Then Maara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhu Samiddhi knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.

 

§

 

Sutta 23

Godhika sutta.m

[23.1][pts][mnl] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Raajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary.

[213] Now on that occasion the Venerable Godhika was dwelling on the Black Rock on the Isigili Slope. Then, while the Venerable Godhika was dwelling diligent, ardent, and resolute, he reached temporary liberation of mind, but he fell away from that temporary liberation of mind.[308]

A second time, while the Venerable Godhika was dwelling diligent, ardent, and resolute, he reached temporary liberation of mind, but he fell away from that temporary liberation of mind.

A third time ... A fourth time ... [121] A fifth time ... A sixth time, while the Venerable Godhika was dwelling diligent, ardent, and resolute, he reached temporary liberation of mind, but he fell a way from that temporary liberation of mind.

A seventh time, while the Venerable Godhika was dwelling diligent, ardent, and resolute, he reached temporary liberation of mind.

Then it occurred to the Venerable Godhika: "Six times already I have fallen away from temporilry liberation of mind. Let me use the knife."[309]

Then Maara the Evil One, having known with his own mind the reflection in the Venerable Godhika's mind, approilched the Blessed One and addressed him with these verses:[310]

"0 great hero, great in wisdom,
Blazing forth with power and glory!
I worship your feet, One with Vision,
Who has overcome all enmity and fear.

"0 great hero who has vanquished death,
Your disciple is longing for death.
He intends [to take his own life]:
Restrain him from this, O luminous one!

"How, 0 Blessed One, can your disciple -
One delighting in the Teaching,
A trainee seeking his mind's ideal -
Take his own life, 0 widely famed?"[311]

Now on that occasion the Venerable Godhika had just used the knife.[312] Then the Blessed One, having understood, "This is Maara the Evil One," addressed him in verse:

[214] "Such indeed is how the steadfast act: They are not attached to life. Having drawn out craving with its root, Godhika has attained final Nibbaana."

Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Come, bhikkhus, let us go to the Black Rock on the Isigili Slope, where the clansman Godhika has used the knife."

"Yes, venerable sir," those bhikkhus replied. Then the Blessed One, together with a number of bhikkhus, went to the Black Rock on the Isigili Slope. The Blessed One saw in the distance the Venerable Godhika lying on the bed with his shoulder turned.[313]

[122] Now on that occasion a cloud of smoke, a swirl of darkness, was moving to the east, then to the west, to the north, to the south, upwards, downwards, and to the intermediate quarters. The Blessed One then addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Do you see, bhikkhus, that cloud of smoke, that swirl of darkness, moving to the east, then to the west, to the north, to the south, upwards, downwards, and to the intermediate quarters?"

"Yes, venerable sir."

"That, bhikkhus, is Maara the Evil One searching for the consciousness of the clansman Godhika, wondering: 'Where now has the consciousness of the clansman Godhika been established?' However, bhikkhus, with consciousness unestablished, the clansman Godhika has attained final Nibbana."[314]

Then Maara the Evil One, taking a lute of yellow vilva-wood, approached the Blessed One and addressed him in verse:

"Above, below, and across,
In the four quarters and in between,
I have been searching but do not find
Where Godhika has gone."

[The Blessed One:]
"That steadfast man was resolute,
A meditator always rejoicing in meditation,
Applying himself day and night
Without attachment even to life.

[215] "Having conquered the army of Death,
Not returning to renewed existence,
Having drawn out craving with its root,
Godliika has attained final Nibbana."

So much was he stricken with sorrow
That his lute dropped from his armpit.
Thereupon that disappointed spirit
Disappeared right on the spot.[315]

 

§

 

Sutta 24

Seven Years of Pursuit

[24.1][pts][mnl] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling atUruvelaa on the bank of the river Nera~njaraa at the foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree. Now on that occasion Maara the Evil One had been following the Blessed One for seven years, seeking to gain access to him but without success[316] Then Maara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and addressed him in verse:

[123] "Is it because you are sunk in sorrow
That you meditate in the woods?
Because you've lost wealth or pine for it,
Or commmitted some crime in the village?
Why don't you make friends with people?
Why don't you form any intimate ties?"

[The Blessed One:]
"Having dug up entirely the root of sorrow,
Guiltless, I meditate free from sorrow.
Having cut of all greedy urge for existence,[317]
I meditate taintless, 0 kinsman of the negligent!"

[Maara:]
"That of which they say 'It's mine,'
And those who speak in terms of 'mine' -
If your mind exists among these,
You won't escape me, ascetic."

[The Blessed One:)
"That which they speak of is not mine,
[216] I'm not one of those who speak [of mine].
You should know thus, 0 Evil One:
Even my path you will not see."

[Maara:]
"If you have discovered the path,
The secure way leading to the Deathless,
Be off and walk that path alone;
What's the point of instructing others?"

[The Blessed One:]
"Those people going to the far shore
Ask what lies beyond Death's realm.
When asked, I explain to them
The truth without acquisitions."[318]

[Maara:] "Suppose, venerable sir, not far from a village or a town there was a lotus pond in which a crab was living.[319] Then a group of boys and girls would leave the village or town and go to the pond. They would pull the crab out from the water and set it down on high ground. Then, whenever that crab would extend one of its claws, those boys and girls would cut it off, break it, and smash it to bits with sticks and stones. Thus, when all its claws have been cut off, broken, and smashed to bits, that crab would be unable to return to that pond. So too, venerable sir, all those distortions, manoeuvres, and contortions of mine have been cut off, [124] broken, and smashed to bits by the Blessed One. Now, venerable sir, I am unable to approach the Blessed One again seeking to gain access to him."

Then Maara the Evil One, in the presence of the Blessed One, recited these verses of disappointment:[320]

"There was a crow that walked around
A stone that looked like a lump of fat.
'Let's find something tender here,' [he thought,]
'Perhaps there's something nice and tasty.'

But because he found nothing tasty there,
The crow departed from that spot.

[217] Just like the crow that attacked the stone,
We leave Gotama dissappointed."

 

§

 

Sutta 25

Maara's Daughters

[25.1][pts][mnl] Then Maara the Evil One, having spoken these verses of disappointment in the presence of the Blessed One, went away from that spot and sat down cross-legged on the ground not far from the Blessed One, silent, dismayed, with his shoulders drooping, downcast, brooding, unabole to speak, scratching the ground with a stick.[321]

Then Maara's daughters - Ta.nhaa, Aratii, and Ragaa - approached Maara the Evil One and addressed him in verse:[322]

"Why are you despondent, father?
Who's the man for whom you grieve?
We'll catch him with the snare of lust
As they catch the forest elephant.

We'll bind him tightly and bring him back, And he'll be under your control."[323]

[Maara:]
"The Arahant, the Fortunate One in the world
Is not easily drawn by means of lust.
He has gone beyond Maara's Realm:
Therefore I sorrow so bitterly."

Then Maara's daughters - Ta.nhaa, Aratii, and Ragaa - approached the Blessed One and said to him: "We serve at your feet, ascetic." But the Blessed One paid no attention, as he was liberated in the unsurpassed extinction of acquisitions.[324]

Then Maara's daughters - Ta.nhaa, Aratii, and Ragaa - went off to the side and took counsel: "Men's tastes are diverse. Suppose we each manifest ourselves in the form of a hundred maidens." [125] Then Maara's three daughters, each manifesting herself in the form of a hundred maidens, approached the Blessed One and said to him: "We serve at your feet, ascetic." But the Blessed One paid no attention, as he was liberated in the unsurpassed extinction of acquisitions.

Then Maara's daughters went off to the side and again took [218] counsel: "Men's tastes are diverse. Suppose we each manifest ourselves in the form of a hundred women who have never given birth." Then Maara's three daughters, each manifesting herself in the form of a hundred women who have never given birth ... in the form of a hundred women who have given birth once ... in the form of a hundred women who have given birth twice ... in the form of a hundred women of middle age ... in the form of a hundred old women, approached the Blessed One and said to him: "We serve at your feet, ascetic." But the Blessed One paid no attention, as he was liberated in the unsurpassed extinction of acquisitions.

Then Maara's daughters - Ta.nhaa, Aratii, and Ragaa - went off to the side and said: "What our father told us is true:

"The Arahant, the Fortunate One in the world ...
Therefore I sorrow so bitterly.'

"If we had assailed with such tactics any ascetic or brahmin who was not devoid of lust, either his heart would have burst, or he would have vomited hot blood from his mouth, [126] or he would have gone mad or become mentally deranged; or else he would have dried up and withered away and become shrivelled, just as a green reed that has been mowed down would dry up and wither away and become shrivelled."

Then Maara's daughters - Ta.nhaa, Aratii, and Ragaa - approached the Blessed One and stood to one side. Standing to one side, Maara's daughter Ta.nhaa addressed the Blessed One in verse:

"Is it because you are sunk in sorrow
That you meditate in the woods?
Because you have lost wealth or pine for it,
Or committed some crime in the village?
Why don't you make friends with people?
Why don't you form any intimate ties?"

[The Blessed One:]
"Having conquered the army of the pleasant and agreeable,
Meditating alone, I discovered bliss,
The attainment of the goal, the peace of the heart.[325]
[219] Therefore I don't make friends with people, Nor will I form any intimate ties,"

Then Maara's daughter Aratii addressed the Blessed One in verse:

"How does a bhikkhu here often dwell
That, five floods crossed, he here has crossed the sixth?
How does he meditate so sensual perceptions
Are kept at bay and fail to grip him?"[326]

[The Blessed One:]
"Tranquil in body, in mind well liberated,
Not generating, mindful, homeless,
Knowing Dhamma, meditating thought-free
He does not erupt, or drift, or stiffe.[327]

"When a bhikkhu here often dwells thus,
With five floods crossed, he here has crossed the sixth.
When he meditates thus, sensual perceptions
Are kept at bay and fail to grip him."

[127] Then Maara's daughter Ragaa addressed the "Blessed One in verse:

"He has cut off craving, faring with his group and order;
Surely many other beings will cross.
Alas, this homeless one will snatch many people
And lead them away boeyond the King of Death."[328]

[The Blessed One:]
"Truly the Tathaagatas, the great heroes,
Lead by means of the true Dhamma.
When they are leading by means of the Dhamma,
What envy can there be in those who understand?[329]

Then Maara's daughters - Ta.nhaa, Aratii, and Ragaa - approached Maara the Evil One. Maara saw them coming in the distance and addressed them in verse:[330]

[220] "Fools! You tried to batter a mountain
With the stalks of lotus flowers,
To dig up a mountain with your nails,
To chew iron with your teeth.

"As if, having lifted a rock with your head,
You sought a foothold in the abyss;
As if you struck a stump with your breast,
You part from Gotama disappointed."

They had come to him glittering with beauty -
Ta.nhaa, Aratii, and Ragaa -
But the Teacher swept them away right there
As the wind, a fallen cotton tuft.

 


[260] Spk assigns this sutta to the first week after the Buddha's enlightenment.

[261] I translate the last sentence in accordance with the reading of Se and Eel and 2: saadhu thito sato bodhi.m samajjhaga.m. Be reads: saadhu vatamhi mutto bodhi.m samajjhaga.m. By gruelling asceticism (dukkarakaarikaa) the Buddha refers to the rigorous austerities he practised for six years before he discovered the "middle way" to enlightenment.

[262] There is a delicate irony here in Maara the Tempter, usually the suave proponent of sensual indulgence, now recommending strict asceticism. This confirms the old maxim that the extremes are actually closer to each other than either is to the mean. I read paada d with Se and Eel as suddhimaggam aparaddho as against Be and Ee2 suddhimaggaa aparaddho.

[263] I read with Be and Se amara.m tapa.m, as against Eel and 2 apara.m tapa.m. The expression, a split compound, occurs also at Th 219d. See CPD, s.v. amaratapa. Spk: Low austerity practised for the sake of immortality (amarabhaavatthaaya kata.m lukhatapa.m); that is, devotion to self-mortification (attakilamathaanuyogo). Spk-pt: For the most part one is devoted to the practice of bodily mortification for the sake of immortality, and when that is pursued by those who accept kamma it may be for the sake of becoming a deva (believed to be immortal). See too Sn 249d.

[264] Piyaaritta.m va dhammani. Spk: Ara~n~ne thale piyaaritta.m viya; "like oars and rudder on high forest ground." Spk-pt: Dhamma.m vuccati va.n.nu; so idha dhamman ti vuttal.m. Dhammani va.n.nupadese ti attho; "It is sand that is called 'dhamma.m'; that is what is meant here by 'dhamma.m.' The meaning is: in a sandy place." PED lists darmmani but does not explain the derivation; but see MW, s.v. dhanvan, where the meanings given include dry soil, shore, desert.

Spk: "This is meant: If a ship were placed on high ground, and were loaded with merchandise, and the crew would board it, take hold of the oars and rudder, and pull and push with all their might, for all their effort they would not be able to advance the ship even one or two inches; the effort would be useless, futile. So, having known austerities thus, I rejected them as futile. "

[265] Virtue, concentration, and wisdom are the three divisions of the Noble Eightfold Path: virtue (siila) includes right speech, action, and livelihood; concentration (samaadhi), right effort, mindfulness, and concentration; and wisdom (pa~n~naa), right view and right intention. Maara is called the End-maker (antaka) because he binds beings to death.

[266] Devo ca ekam eka.m phusaayati. I understand this idiom (which recurs at 6:13 and 7:22) to mean that rain was falling drop by drop, not that it was falling continuously (the meaning ascribed to it by CPO). It would hardly seem sensible for the Buddha to sit out in the open if rain was falling heavily.

Spk: He was sitting there reviewing his practice of striving in order to provide a model for clansmen in the future, who would strive in emulation of the Teacher.

[267] In paada a we should read with Be, Se, and Ee2 sa.msara.m rather than Eel sa.msaara.m. The "long course" (diigham addhaana.m) is sa.msaara. Spk: It is said that there is no form that Maara had not previously assumed in order to frighten the Blessed One.

[268] Na te maarassa paddhaguu. The last word is read here as in Ee2 and Sn 1095. Be and Se have baddhaguu, Eel paccaguu. PED conjectures that paddhagu may represent Skt "*praadhvaga, "those who accompany one on a journey," that is, one's servants. Spk glosses: "They do not become your disciples, pupils, apprentices" (baddhacaraa sissaa antevaasikaa na honti). The word baddhacara [Spk-pt: = pa.tibaddhacariya] occurs at v. 578a.

[269] This discourse is also at Vin I 22,24-36, set soon after the Buddha's first rains residence at the Deer Park in Isipatana. The Buddha had already sent out his first sixty arahant disciples to spread the Dhamma. The present admonition, it seems, is addressed to the newly ordained bhikkhus who had come to the Buddha in response to the missionary work of the first disciples.

[270] Spk: Careful attention (yoniso manasikaara) is attention that is the right means (upaayamanasikaara). Careful right striving (yoniso sammappadhaana) is energy that is the right means, energy that is the causal basis (upaayaviriya kaara.naviriya). Unsurpassed liberation (anuttaravimutti) is liberation of the fruit of arahantship. On the role of careful attention, see 46:51. Right striving is the fourfold right effort; see 45:8, 49:1.

[271] Spk: Maara approached and spoke, thinking: "He won't be satisfied that he himself put forth energy and attained arahantship. Now he is eager to get others to attain it. Let me stop him!"

[272] Spk: Maara's snare (maarapaasa) is the snare of the defilements, that is, the celestial and human cords of sensual pleasure.

[273] This is the Buddha's famous injunction to his first sixty arahant disciples to go forth and spread the Dhamma. The passage also occurs at Vin I 20,36-21,16, in correct temporal sequence, preceding 4:4. Vv. 476-77 follow immediately, though here they are separated and assigned to an encounter in Saavatthii. A BHS parallel, including the verses, is at Mvu III 415-16; see Jones, 3:416-17.

Spk explains the threefold goodness of the Dhamma in various ways pertaining both to practice and doctrine. For example, virtue is the beginning; serenity, insight, and the path are the middle; the fruits and Nibbaana are the end; or the opening of a sutta is good, and so too the middle portion and the conclusion. When the Buddha went to Uruvelaa he converted the thousand ja.tila ascetics, which culminated in the Fire Sermon (35:28).

[274] Spk: Maara approached and spoke, thinking: "Like one directing a great war, the ascetic Gotama enjoins the sixty men to teach the Dhamma. I am not pleased even if one should teach, let alone sixty. Let me stop him!"

[275] I follow Spk in dividing seyyaa and so and in taking seyyaa to be dative in sense (Spk = seyyatthaaya), and so a pronoun used in apposition to muni (Spk: so Buddhamuni). I also follow Spk in taking seyyaa to mean "lodging," though both C.Rh.D and Geiger interpret it as well-being. Spk explains vossajja careyya tattha so thus: "He should live having relinquished - that is, having abandoned - desire for and attachment to his individual existence (i.e., his body and life). "

[276] Spk: Upadhi here is khandhuupadhi, "acquisitions as the aggregates"; see n. 21. In the last line the change of the subject from the singular to the plural is in the text. Spk: The enlightened do not resort to such a shelter because they have eradicated all fear.

[277] Be, Se, and Ee2 read dubbhago; Eel dubbhayo (which may be a misprint); SS dubbhato. Spk Like one dead and unconscious (mato viya visa~n~nii viya ca). Spk-pt: A wretch is one who is luckless, whose fortune has been broken; he is similar to the dead and the unconscious.

[278] Spk: Craving is said to be entangling (jaalini) because it spreads net-like over the three realms of existence. It is called binding (visattikaa) because it latches on to sense objects such as forms. It leads anywhere [Spk-pt: within the three realms of existence]. The acquisitions that are all destroyed are the aggregates, defilements, volitional formations, and cords of sensual pleasure (see n. 21). Why should this concern you, Maara?: "Maara, why do you go about finding fault with this and that like small flies unable to settle on hot porridge?" This sutta might be compared with 4:13 and 9:2, which have a similar theme. I have translated Buddha here as "Awakened One" to highlight the contrast with sleep, but it is uncertain whether such a tension of ideas was intended in the original. On the description of craving as "entangling and binding," see AN II 211-13.

[279] Spk paraphrases: "The good man should live like a baby who, after drinking milk, might lie down on a blanket and fall asleep, unconcerned whether life is long or short."

[280] The point may be that as the felly revolves around the stable hub, so the changing forms of life revolve around the stable soul or life-principle. The verse seems to be alluding to a simile in the B.rhadaara.nyaka Upani.sad II.5.15: "And as all spokes are contained in the axle and in the felly of a wheel, all beings, and all those selves (of the earth, water, etc.), are contained in that Self" (Muller, The Upanishads, 2:116). See too Chaandogya Upani.sad VII.15.1 (The Upanishads, 1:120).

[281] Vicakkhukammaaya, lit. "for making eyeless." Spk: Out of a desire to destroy the wisdom-eye of the people in the assembly. He is unable to destroy the Buddha's wisdom-eye, but he could do so for the people in the assembly by manifesting a frightening sight or noise.

[282] Spk: In the assemblies: in the eight assemblies (see MN I 72,18-20). Endowed with the powers: endowed with the ten powers of a Tathaagata (see MN I 69-71). At MN I 69,31-34, the Buddha says that, endowed with the ten Tathaagata powers, he roars his lion's roar in the assemblies.

[283] See 1:38 and n. 86.

[284] Spk paraphrases kaaveyyamatto in paada a thus: "Do you lie down thinking up a poem like a poet, who lies down intoxicated with the composing of poetry?" The expression recurs at v. 753a. Sampacuraa, glossed by bahuvo, is at AN II 59,12 and 61,l0, also in apposition to atthaa.

[285] Muhu.m muhu.m, in paada b, is not in PED, and Spk and Spk-pt are silent, but see MW, s.v. muhur. The expression occurs at Th 125d, glossed by Th-a II 7,13-14 as abhikkha.na.m, and at Th 1129b. glossed by Th-a III 158,8-9 as abhi.nhato. Both glosses mean "often," but here it seems the more literal sense of "moment by moment" or "constantly" is implied. The dart (salla) is elsewhere identified with craving; see vv. 214c, 737c. At 35:90 (IV 64,33-34) it is said that the dart is the state of being stirred (ejaa salla.m), ejaa being a synonym for ta.nhaa; and the Tathaagata, who is unstirred by craving, dwells with the dart removed (viitasallo). See too MN II 260,17: Sallan ti kho Sunakkhatta ta.nhaay'eta.m adhivacana.m.

[286] Spk: Attraction and repulsion (anurodha-virodha): attachment and aversion (raaga-pa.tigha). For when someone gives a Dhamma talk, some people express appreciation, and towards them attachment arises; but others listen disrespectfully, and towards them aversion arises. Thus a speaker on the Dhamma becomes caught in attraction and repulsion. But because the Tathaagata is compassionate for others, he is free from attraction and repulsion.

[287] At Vin I 21 this exchange of verses is set in the Deer Park at Isipatana and immediately follows the pair of verses at 4:5. A BHS parallel is at Mvu III 416-17, but the first couplet is equivalent to v. 77ab.

[288] Antalikkhacaro paaso yo ya.m carati maanaso. Spk states: "The snare is the snare of lust (raagapaasa), which binds even those who move in the sky (i.e., by psychic power)." It is more likely antalikkha-caro is intended to suggest the incorporeal nature of lust, which can propel the mind across vast distances; see vv. 210b, 21lb.

[289] Vedayita.m in paada a and sa'nkhata.m in paada b are merely metrical adaptations of vedanaa and sa'nkhaaraa, the second and fourth aggregates.

[290] Spk: Though they seek him everywhere - in all realms of existence, modes of origin, destinations, stations of consciousness, and abodes of beings - they do not find him, do not see him. See v. 49 (= v.105),4:23 (I 122,1-13), 22:87 (III 124,1-13), and MN 1140,3-7. It seems that both the living arahant and the arahant after his parinibbaana are intended.

[291] Se and Eel and 2: udriiyati; Be: undriiyati. PED explains as a passive form from ud + d.r.noti. See MW, s.v. d.ri > pass. diryate. Spk: Aya.m mahaapa.thavi pa.tapa.tasadda.m kurumaanaa viya ahosi; "This great earth seemed to be making a crackling sound." Spk-pt: Undriyati ti viparivattati; "'Is splitting open' means: is turning over." The word recurs at 4:22 (I 119,17 foll.). On the evolution of the word in Paali, see von Hinüber, "Remarks on the Critical Paali Dictionary (II)," in Selected Papers, pp. 152-55.

[292] On lokaamisa, "the bait of the world," see n. 10. Spk explains maaradheyya, "Maara's realm," as the round of existence with its three realms, which is the place for Maara to stand. The more usual expression is maccudheyya, "the realm of Death," as at v. 16d; the two are effectively synonymous. See too v. 102d and n. 70.

[293] Se and Eel and 2 have kumaarakaana.m as against Be kumaarikaana.m, "of the young girls." Spk explains that on this day - "a kind of St. Valentine's Day" (KS 1:143, n. 1) - the young girls send presents to their sweethearts among the boys, and the boys send ornaments to the girls, even a garland of flowers if they can give nothing else.

[294] Spk: Five hundred maidens were about to offer festival cakes to the Buddha, and the Buddha would have given them a discourse at the conclusion of which they would have been established in the fruit of stream-entry; but Maara, wishing to prevent this outcome, took possession of the girls. The expression yathaa dhotena pattena, "with a bowl just as cleanly washed as when he entered," is a euphemistic way of saying that the bowl was empty. Spk: Maara made a false promise when he offered "to see to it" that the Euddha would get alms. He actually wanted the Buddha to expose himself to ridicule by the village boys (for coming for alms a second time after leaving with an empty bowl).

[295] Spk explains ki~ncana, in paada b, as "the various kinds of defilements such as the 'something' (called) lust, etc." On the use of ki~ncana to denote defilements, see 41:7 (IV 297,lS-19). The devas of Streaming Radiance (devaa Aabhassaraa) inhabit the highest plane corresponding to the second jhaana, located in the form realm. They are said to subsist on rapture (pitibhakkhaa) because they are sustained by the nourishment of the jhaana. The verse occurs at Dhp 200, the story at Dhp-a 257-58; see BL 3:72-73. In the sequel to this verse, omitted in BL, the five hundred girls hear the Buddha's verse and become established in the fruit of stream-entry.

[296] I follow Spk, which resolves cakkhusamphassavi~n~naa.naayatana thus: cakkhuvi~n~naa.nena sampayutto cakkhusamphasso pi vi~n~naa.naayatanam pi; "eye-contact associated with eye conscious and also the base of consciousness." Spk says that "eye-contact" irnplies all the mental phenomena associated with consciousness; "the base of consciousness," all types of consciousness that have arisen in the eye door beginning with the adverting consciousness (aavajjanacitta). The same method applies to the ear door, etc. But in the mind door, "mind" (mano) is the bhava'ngacitta together with adverting; "mental phenomena" are the mental objects (aaramma'nadhammaa); "mind-contact," the contact associated with bhava'nga and adverting; and "the base of consciousness," the javanacitta and tadaaramma'nacitta, i.e., the "impulsion" and "registration" consciousness. For an account of these types of consciousness (fundamental to the Paali Abhidhamma), see CMA 3:8. Maara's reply, and the Buddha's rejoinder, hinge on the practice of using Paali words for cattle metaphorically to signify the sense faculties. See GD, pp. 141-42, n. to 26-27.

[297] Here the Buddha is obviously referring to Nibbaana. Cp. 35:117 on the cessation of the six sense bases.

[298] A slightly more elaborate version of the incident, including the verses, is recorded at Dhp-a IV 31-33; see BL 3:213-14. Spk: "The Buddha reflected thus with compassion, having seen people afflicted with punishments in realms ruled by unrighteous kings."

[299] At 51:10 (V 259,18-20 = DN II 103,23-26) it is said that one who has mastery over the four bases for spiritual power could, if he so desired, live on for an aeon or for the remainder of an aeon. Maara has made this appeal to the Buddha, not out of respect for his leadership ability, but because he wants to tempt him with lust for power and thereby keep him under his own control. It is interesting that the sutta does not offer an answer to the question whether righteous governance is possible, and this ambiguity pervades the Paali Canon as a whole. While some texts admit that righteous rulers do arise (the "wheel-turning monarchs"), the general consensus is that the exercise of rulership usually involves the use of violence and thus is hard to reconcile with perfect observance of the precepts. For an insightful discussion of the ambiguity, see Collins, Nirvana and Other Buddhist Felicities, pp. 419-36,448-70.

[300] In paada c, Be and Se read dvittaava, though the orthography in Eel and 2, dvittaa va, is preferable. Spk: "Let alone one mountain, even as much as double (dvikkhattum pi taava) a large golden mountain would not suffice for one person." BHS parallels to this verse read vitta.m, treasure, in place of dvittaa (see Concordance 1 (B)).

[301] Spk: "Suffering has its source in the five cords of sensual pleasure; that is 'the source whence it springs' (yatonidaana.m). When a person has seen this thus, for what reason should he incline to thosee sensual pleasures which are the source of suffering? Upadhi in paada c is glossed by Spk as kaamagu.na-upadhi; see n. 21. In place of sa'ngo, tie, the BHS versions read .salyam (Paali sallam), dart.

Spk-Ft: The source of suffering is craving, and the source of craving is the five cords of sensual pleasure. Therefore it is said that the five cords of sensual pleasure - the condition for craving - are the source of suffering. When one wao has fully understood reality has seen suffering as it really is with the eye of wisdom, and seen the cords of sensual pleasure to be its source, there is no reason for him to incline to sensual pleasures.

[302] 302 Spk: "The staff of udumbara wood, slightly crooked, was for the sake of showing that he was of few wishes (appicchabhaava, an ascetic virtue)." In the Vedic sacrifices, udumbara wood was used for all kinds of ritual purposes; the sacrificial post, ladle, and amulets were made of this wood (Macdonell and Keith, Vedic Index, s.v. udumbara).

[303] See 1:20. Here Maara appears as a proponent of the brahmanical idea that renunciation (sannyaasa) must be postponed until after one has enjoyed a full married life. On how young bhikkhus, lads "in the prime of life, who have not dallied with sensual pleasures," can live the holy life without being overcome by sensual desire, see 35:127.

[304] This is a gesture of frustration. Da.n.dapaa.ni the Sakyan is described in the same terms at MN I 109,1-2.

[305] Samiddhi has already appeared at 1:20.

[306] As at 4:l7; see n. 29l.

[307] The verse = Th 46, Samiddhi's sale stanza. I understand buddhaa in paada b to be simply a variant spelling of vu.d.dhaa (the reading at Th 46), though Spk glosses buddhaa here as ~naataa, to which Spk-p.t adds: Taa ariyamaggena jaananasamatthanabhaavena avabuddhaa "They have been comprehended by the noble path through its capacity for knowledge."

[308] The story of Godaika is told at Dhp-a I 431-33; see BL 2:90-91. Spk explains saamayikaa cetovimutti, "temporary liberation of mind," as the mundane meditative attainments (lokiya-samaapatti), i.e., the jhaanas and formless attainments, so called because at the moments of absorption the mind is liberated from the opposing states and is resolved upon its object. He fell away from this liberation of mind on account of illness. Being disposed to chronic illness due to winds, bile, and phlegm (the "three humours" of traditional Indian medicine), he could not fulfil the states conducive to concentration. Each time he entered upon an attainment, he soon fell away from it.

[309] Sattha.m aahareyya.m. A euphemistic expression for suicide; see 22:87 (III 123,10,26), 35:87 (IV 57,6), and 54:9 (V 320,24-25). Spk: He reflected thus: "Since the destination after death of one who has fallen away from jhaana is uncertain, while one who has not fallen away is certain of rebirth in the Brahmaa world, let me use the knife." On the Buddha's own attitude towards suicide, see 35:87 (IV 60,1-5).

[310] Spk: Maara thought: "This ascetic desires to use the knife. This indicates that he is unconcerned with body and life, and such a one is capable of attaining arahantship. If I try to forbid him he will not desist, but if the Teacher forbids him he will." Therefore, pretending to be concerned for the elder's welfare, he approached the Blessed One.

[311] Spk: Jane sutaa ti jane vissuta; lit "heard among the people = famed among the people," i.e., widely famed. There is a delicious irony, in the above three verses, in the way Maara - who usually addresses the Buddha discourteously as "ascetic" - here showers him with glowing epithets.

[312] Spk: The elder, thinking, "What is the use of living?" lay down and slit his jugular vein with a knife. Painful feelings arose. He suppressed them, comprehended the pains (with insight), set up mindfulness, explored his meditation subject, and attained arahantship as a "same-header" (samasiisii; see Pp 13,25-27, commented on at Pp-a 186-87). He was a jiivitasamasiisii, one who attains the destruction of defilements and the end of life simultaneously. (Another kind of samasiisii recovers from a grave illness at the same time that he attains arahantship.)

[313] Spk: Vivattakkhandhan ti parivattakkhandha.m; "with his shoulder turned" means with twisted shoulder. He had been lying on his back when he took the knife, but because he was accustomed to lying on his right side, he had turned his head towards the right and had so remained.

[314] Appati.t.thena ca bhikkhave vi~n~naa.nena Godhiko kulaputto parinibbuto. Spk: Maara was searching for his rebirth consciousness (pa.tisandhicitta), but Godhika had passed away with rebirth-consciousness unestablished; the meaning is: because it was unestablished (appati.t.thitakaara.naa: or, with unestablished cause). Spk-pt: Appati.t.thena is an instrumental used as an indication of modality (iithambhuutalakkha.na). The meaning is: with (consciousness) not subject to arising (anuppattidhammena); for if there were an arising, consciousness would be called "established." But when the commentator says, "because it was unestablished;' what is meant is that the cause for the nonestablisnment of consciousness was precisely the cause for his parinibbaana (yadeva tassa vi~n~naa.nassa appati.t.thaanakaara.na.m tad eva parinibbaanakaara.na.m). A similar case of suicide is reported of the bhikkhu Vakkali at 22:87. When the monk is said to attain final Nibbana with conscioasness unestablished, this should not be understood to mean that after death consciousness survives in an "unestablished" condition (a thesis argued by Harvey, The Selfless Mind, pp, 208-210); for enough texts make it plain that with the passing away of the arahant consciousness too ceases and no longer exists (see, e.g., 12:51).

[315] The verse (which must have been added by the redactors) occurs at Sn 449, wltere, however, it follows the verses that correspond to vv. 504-5. In the verse Maara is spoken of as yakkha.

[316] Spk explains the seven years of pursuit as the Buddha's six years (of striving) before the enlightenment and the first year after. However, the: next sutta, which apparently follows in immediate temporal sequence, is the temptation by Maara's. daughters, which other sources clearly place right after the enlightenment (see n.322). The present sutta seems to confirm this by locating the dialogue with Maara at the foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree, in the vicinity of the Bodhi Tree. The commentaries generally assign the Buddha's stay under this tree to the fifth week after the enlightenment (see Ja I 78,9-11). Seeking to gain access (otaaraapekkho). Spk: He thought: "If I see anything improper (ananucchavika.m) in the ascetic Gotama's conduct through the body door, etc., I will reprove him." But he could not find even a dust mote (of misconduct) to be washed away. On otaara (= vivara, Spk) see 35:240 (IV 178,13-16,33), 35:243 (IV 185,11-15; 186,27-30), 47:6 (V 147,17-18, 27-28), 47:7 (V 149,7,16).

[317] Spk: Bhavalobhajappan ti bhavalobhasa'nkhaata.m ta.nha.m; "The greedy urge for existence is craving consisting in greed for existence."

[318] I read paada d with Be, Se, and Ee2: ya.m sacca.m ta.m niruupadhi.m (Eel: ya.m sabbanta.m niruupadhi.m). Nibbaana, the supreme truth (paramasacca), is often described as sabbupadhipa.tinissagga, "the relinquishing of all acquisitions," and here as niruupadhi. See n. 21.

[319] The same simile occurs in a very different context at MN I 234,7-18.

[320] Nibbejaniyaa gaathaa. Spk glosses nibbejaniyaa as ukka.n.thaniiyaa (dissatisfaction) but does not explain the derivation. It is likely the word is related to nibbidaa, though employed in a different sense; see MW, s.v. nirvid.

[321] This passage, as far as "unable to speak," is the stock description of the defeated contestant; also at MN I 132,28-30, 234,1-2, 258,28-30. Se and Eel make this paragraph the last of the preceding sutta, but I follow Be and Ee2. As the two suttas form a single narrative, the division between them is arbitrary.

[322] Their names mean craving, discontent, and lusting. Spk explains that they saw their father in a despondent mood and approached to find out the reason. The story of the Buddha's encounter with Maara's daughters is also recorded at Ja I 78-79 and Dhp-a III 195-98; see BL 3:33-34. There it is clearly set in the fifth week after the enlightenment. The BHS parallel at Mvu III 281-86 is also assigned to this period; see Jones, 3:269-74.

[323] Spk's explanation shows that there is more to the simile than meets the eye: "They capture an elephant and lead him out of the forest by sending a female decoy, who entices him by displaying her feminine wiles."

[324] On the idiom paade te sama.na paricaarema, Geiger remarks: "In courteous speech one uses paadaa, feet, for the person. The meaning is: 'We want to be at your command like slave-women'" (GermTr p. 193, n. 5). A sexual innuendo is unmistakable. Spk, strangely, does not offer any explanation here of anuttare upadhisa'nkhaye vimutto but see n.356.

[325] 325 Spk glosses sena.m as kilesasena.m "the army of defilements," and paraphrases: "Having conquered the army of the pleasant and agreeable, meditating alone, I discovered the bliss of arahantship, which is called 'the attainment of the goal, the peace of the heart' (atthassa patti.m hadayassa santi.m)." Mahaakaccaana provides a long commentary on this verse at AN V 47,3-48,4 On piyaruupa.m saataruupa.m "the pleasant and agreeable," see 12:66 (II 109-12), DN II 308-11.

[326] Both the BHS version of these verses (at Mvu III 283-84) and the Skt (cited at Ybhu.s 4:1-3; Enomoto, CSCS, pp. 25-26) have the present tense tarati in paada b, as against the aorist atari in the Paali while the present makes better sense, I translate following the Paali .

Spk: Five floods crossed (pa~ncoghati.n.no): one who has crossed the flood of defilements in the five sense doors. The Sixth: he has crossed the sixth flood of defilements, that pertaining to the mind door. Or alternatively: by the mention of five floods, the five lower fetters are meant; by the sixth, the five higher fetters.

[327] Spk: Tranquil in body (passaddhikaayo): this comes about with the tranquillizing of the in-and-out breathing by the fourth jhaana (SE."e' A:\I [] U/21-:28). In mind well liberated (suvimuttacitto): well liberated by the liberation of the fruit of arahantshi. Not generating (asa'nkharaano): not generating the three types of volitional formations (see 12:51; also n. 165). Meditating thought-free in the fourth jhaana. He does not erupt, etc.: He does not erupt (na kuppati) because of hatred, or drift (sarati) because of lust, or stiffen (na thiino because of delusion. Or alternatively: by the first term the hindrance of ill will is intended; by the second, the hindrance of sensual desire; by the third, the remaining hindrances (see 46:2).

[328] In paada a, I read acchejji with Se, an aorist of chindati, to cut. The finite verb seems to me preferable to the absolutive acchejja of Be and Eel and 2; the variant acchecchi suggested by PED may also be acceptable. This verb should be distinguished from acchejja (or acchijja, Eel) in paada d, an absolutive of acchindati, to rob, to snatch away. The Be and Eel reading of paada a may have arisen through a confusion of the two forms. I read paada b: addhaa tarissanti bahuu ca sattaa. Be, Ee2, and SS read the last word as saddhaa, but the gloss in Spk supports sattaa: addhaa a~n~ne pi bahujanaa eka.msena tarissanti. The BHT version of Mvu is too different to be of help and may be corrupt, but Jones (at 3:273, n. 4) suggests replacing raktaa with sattvaa, which would then support the reading I have adopted. Tarissanti is certainly preferable to the v.l. carissanti, found in Be, Se, and EeL

[329] The verse occurs in a different context at Vin I 43,27-28. I follow Be and Se in reading, in paada c, the active nayamaanaana.m, the prevalent reading of Vin. Eel and 2, on the basis of SS, read the passive niiyamaanaana.m/niyyamaanaana.m. BHS versions at Uv 21:8 and Mvu III 90 also have the active form, while the Prakrit at G-Dhp 267 is ambiguous.

[330] In the BHS version vv. 516-17 are ascribed to the Buddha. The concluding verse was apparently added by the redactors.


Contact:
E-mail
Copyright Statement   Webmaster's Page