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Sa'nyutta Nikaaya,
V: MahaaVagga
54 Aanaapaana Sa'nyutta

Connected Discourses on Breathing

1. Ekadhammavaggo

Book 2: Aananda

Sutta 13

Aananda (1)

Translated from the Pali by Bhikkhu Bodhi

 


 

[1][pts][ati] At Saavatthii. Then the Venerable Aananda approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:[329]

"Venerable sir, is there one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils four things? And four things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil seven things? And seven things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil two things?"

"There is, Aananda, one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils four things; and four things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil seven things; and seven things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil two things."

"But, venerable sir, what is the one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils four things; and the four things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil seven things; and the seven things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil two things?"

"Concentration by mindfulness of breathing, Aananda, is the one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils the four establishments of mindfulness. The four establishments of mindfulness, when developed and cultivated, fulfil the seven factors of enlightenment. The seven factors of enlightenment, when developed and cultivated, fulfil true knowledge and liberation.

(i. Fulfilling the four establishments of mindfulness)

"How, Aananda, is concentration by mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated so that it fulfils the four establishments of mindfulness? Here, Aananda, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down. Having folded his legs crosswise, straightened his body, and set up mindfulness in front of him, just mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out.... He trains thus: 'Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe in'; he trains thus: 'Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out.'

"Whenever, Aananda, a bhikkhu, when breathing in long, knows: 'I breathe in long' ... (as in Ii1O) ... when he trains thus: 'Tranquillizing the bodily formation, I will breathe out' - on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. For what reason? I call this a certain kind of body, Aananda, that is, [330] breathing in and breathing out. Therefore, Aananda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.

"Whenever, Aananda, a bhikkhu trains thus: 'Experiencing rapture, I will breathe in' ... when he trains thus: 'Tranquillizing the mental formation, I will breathe out' - on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. For what reason? I call this a certain kind of feeling, Aananda, that is, close attention to breathing in and breathing out. Therefore, Aananda, on that occasion the bhikkhu" dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.

"Whenever, Aananda, a bhikkhu trains thus: 'Experiencing the mind, I will breathe in' ... when he trains thus: 'Liberating the mind, I will breathe out' - on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating mind in mind, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. For what reason? I say, Aananda, that there is no development of concentration by mindfulness of breathing for one who is muddled and who lacks clear comprehension. Therefore, Aananda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating mind in mind, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.

"Whenever, Aananda, a bhikkhu trains thus: 'Contemplating impermanence, I will breathe in' ... when he trains thus: 'Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out' - on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. Having seen with wisdom what is the abandoning of covetousness and displeasure, [331] he is one who looks on closely with equanimity. Therefore, Aananda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.

"It is, Aananda, when concentration by mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated in this way that it fulfils the four establishments of mindfulness.

(ii. Fulfilling the seven factors of enlightenment)

"And how, Aananda, are the four establishments of mindfulness developed and cultivated so that they fulfil the seven factors of enlightenment?

"Whenever, Aananda, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, on that occasion unmuddled mindfulness is established in that bhikkhu.[316] Whenever, Aananda, unmuddled mindfulness has been established in a bhikkhu, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of mindfulness goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

"Dwelling thus mindfully, he discriminates that Dhamma with wisdom, examines it, makes an investigation of it. Whenever, Aananda, a bhikkhu dwelling thus mindfully discriminates that Dhamma with wisdom, examines it, makes an investigation of it, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of discrimination of states is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of discrimination of states; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of discrimination of states goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

"While he discriminates that Dhamma with wisdom, examines it, makes an investigation of it, [332] his energy is aroused without slackening. Whenever, Aananda, a bhikkhu's energy is aroused without slackening as he discriminates that Dhamma with wisdom, examines it, makes an investigation of it, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of energy is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of energy; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of energy goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

"When his energy is aroused, there arises in him spiritual rapture. Whenever, Aananda, spiritual rapture arises in a bhikkhu whose energy is aroused, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of rapture is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of rapture; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of rapture goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

"For one whose mind is uplifted by rapture the body becomes tranquil and the mind becomes tranquil. Whenever, Aananda, the body becomes tranquil and the mind becomes tranquil in a bhikkhu whose mind is uplifted by rapture, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of tranquillity is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of tranquillity; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of tranquillity goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

"For one whose body is tranquil and who is happy the mind becomes concentrated. Whenever, Aananda, the mind becomes concentrated in a bhikkhu whose body is tranquil and who is happy, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of concentration is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of concentration; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of concentration goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

"He becomes one who closely looks on with equanimity at the mind thus concentrated. Whenever, Aananda, a bhikkhu becomes one who closely looks on with equanimity at the mind thus concentrated, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of equanimity is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of equanimity; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of equanimity goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

"Whenever, Aananda, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating feelings in feelings ... mind in mind ... phenomena in phenomena, on that occasion unmuddled mindfulness is established in that bhikkhu. [333] Whenever, .Aananda, unmuddled mindfulness has been established in a bhikkhu, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of mindfulness goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

(All should be elaborated as in the case of the first establishment of mindfulness.)

"He becomes one who closely looks on with equanimity at the mind thus concentrated. Whenever, Aananda, a bhikkhu becomes one who closely looks on with equanimity at the mind thus concentrated, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of equanimity is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of equanimity; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of equanimity goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

"It is, Aananda, when the four establishments of mindfulness are developed and cultivated in this way that they fulfil the seven factors of enlightenment.

(iii. Fulfilling true knowledge and liberation)

"How, .Aananda, are the seven factors of enlightenment developed and cultivated so that they fulfil true knowledge and liberation?

"Here, .Aananda, a bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness, which is based upon seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, maturing in release. He develops the enlightenment factor of discrimination of states ... the enlightenment factor of energy ... the enlightenment factor of rapture ... the enlightenment factor of tranquillity... the enlightenment factor of concentration ... the enlightenment factor of equanimity, which is based upon seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, maturing in release.

"It is, Aananda, when the seven factors of enlightenment are developed and cultivated in this way that they fulfil true knowledge and liberation."

 


[316] The sequel as in 46:3. This passage is also included in the Anapanasati Sutta, at MN III 85,7-87,37. Section (iii), on true knowledge and liberation, is at MN III 88,1-11.

 


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