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Foist ja mutta ta yasef, and then, we shudder to think of it, ya utta speech.


See also Vitakka

Turning over in the mind, Pondering


See discussions: "Rethinking Vitakka"
Words and Thoughts
SN 2.21.1: Moggallāna describes how vitakka and vicara obstructed his ability to sustain the second jhāna
MN 111 §6-10: where various factors of jhāna including perception, wanting, and mental study remain even after vitakka and vicara have been suppressed.
MN 19: where vitakka and vicara are described as of two sorts, those concerning unskillful states which should be suppressed and those which cause no fear, but which, nevertheless, if overdone, cause bodily fatigue. The simile likens vitakka and vicara to cows that need to be restrained but once restrained can be managed by mindfulness.
DN 34 §5.9 which does not mention vitakka and vicara specifically but which describes situations of verbal thinking in a context identical to the first jhana.

Pali MO Hare Horner Punnaji Bodhi Nanamoli Rhys Davids (Mrs)Rhys Davids Thanissaro Walshe Woodward
Vicāra turning over in the mind, Pondering, thoughts, Rambling on, Meandering thoughts, re-imagining deliberative thought [AN 7.50] sustained thought discursive thought conceptual thought (with vitakka) examining, sustained thought sustained thought sustained thought sustained application [of thought] evaluation pondering


Pali Text Society
Pali English Dictionary
Edited by T. W. Rhys Davids and William Stede


Vicāra: investigation, examination, consideration, deliberation. - Defd as "vicaraṇaṃ vicāro, anusañcaraṇan ti vuttaṃ hoti" Vism 142 (see in def. under vitakka). - Hardly ever by itself...usually in close connection or direct combn with vitakka...

Some related terms:

Vicarana: Going about, circulating, moving, traveling

Vicarati: To go or move about in, to walk, to wander

Vicarita: Occupied by, haunted, frequented

Vicaraka (adj): 1. Looking after something, watching; 2. Investigating (n.) a judge

Vicarana (f): 1. Investigation, search, attention; 2. Arranging, planning, looking after; scheme

Vicarita (pp Vicareti): thought out, considered; thought

Vicareti (caus. Of  vicarati): 1. To make go round, to pass round, to distribute; 2. To think (over); 3. To investigate, examine, test; 4. To plan, consider, construct; 5. To go about (some business), to look after, administer, provide

Carana: 1. Walking about, grazing, feeding; 2. The foot; 3. Acting, behavior, good conduct, 

Caranavant: one of good conduct

Carati: [Vedic carati, quel to move, turn, turn round; Latin: colo (incolo)] to move about, to "live and move," to behave, to be. Literal: (a) to move about, to walk, travel (b) with definition of a purpose, to undertake, set out for, undergo, or simply to perform, to do; to wander about, to travel; to perform; (c) In pregnant sense: to go out for food, to graze, to pasture. Applied: behave, conduct oneself; to practise, exercise, lead a life; to act.

MO: cara = raca = wa ca = walk

This is the operant passage:

Pubbe kho āvuso Visākha vitakketvā vicāretvā pacchā vācaɱ bhindati, tasmā vitakkavicārā vacīsaºkhāro.

Pubbe kho aavuso Visaakha vitakketvaa vicaaretvaa pacchaa vaacam bhindati, tasmaa vitakkavicaaraa vaciisankhaaro.

Prior, friend Visakha, having vitakha'd and vicara'd, thereafter one breaks out in talk, therefore vitakkavicara is activity of speech.


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