Digha Nikaya


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Digha Nikaya

Sutta 6

Mahāli Suttaɱ

Mahāli

Translated from the Pali by Michael Olds
with some of the detailed lists in the ethics section picked up from DN 2, where the translation of Rhys Davids is used.

 


 

[1.][pts] I hear tell once upon a time The Lucky Man, around Vesali revisiting, Great Woods, Peaked-roof-hall.

At that time then a great number of Kosalan brahman-envoys and Magadhan brahman-envoys were dwelling in Vesali doing whatever they were supposed to be doing.

Then those Kosalan brahman-envoys and Magadhan brahman-envoys heard:

"A shaman indeed, good Gotama, Sakyan-son, renunciate of the Sakyan clan is revisiting Vesali, the Great Woods, Peaked-roof hall.

Of that Lucky Man Gotama good rumor has it thus:

'This is without doubt The Lucky Man, Arahant, consummately-self-awakened, possessed of vision and conduct, well-gone, worldly-wise, unsurpassed Dhamma-driver of persons, master of gods and men, Awake, The Lucky Man.'

He, seeing with his own eyes by his own higher-knowledge this world with it's gods, with it's Mara's, with it's Brahmas, with it's shamen and brahmins, gives the word to this generation of gods and men.

He declares Dhamma: at the start, helpful; in the middle, helpful; at the conclusion, helpful.

It is well, indeed, to get to see sucha sight — an Arahant, exemplifying perfect fullfilment of the thoroughly purified Brahma carriage."

[2.][pts] Then those Kosalan brahman-envoys and Magadhan brahman-envoys approached Great Woods, Peaked-roof-hall.

Now at that time the Ancient Nagito was the personal attendant of The Lucky Man so those Kosalan brahman-envoys and Magadhan brahman-envoys approached the Ancient Nagito.

Having approached the Ancient Nagito, they said to him:

"Where then, good Nagita,
might Gotama be at present residing?

May we have the pleasure of seeing that Lucky Man?"

"It is now untimely, friends, to see The Lucky Man —
in secluded chambers is The Lucky Man."

Then those Kosalan brahman-envoys and Magadhan brahman-envoys just there took seats to one side, saying:

"When we have had sight of that Lucky Man Gotama we will return home."

[3.][pts] Just then Otthaddho the Licchavi together with a reverential retinue of Lacchavis drew near Great Woods, Peaked-roof-hall and approached the Ancient Nagito.

Having approached the Ancient Nagito, they gave salutation and stood to one side.

Standing to one side Otthaddho the Licchavi said this to the Ancient Nagito:

"Where then, good Nagita,
might The Lucky Man, Arahant, Consummately-Self-Awakened,
be at present residing?

We would have the pleasure of seeing that Lucky Man, Arahant, Consummately-Self-Awakened."

"It is now untimely, Mahali, to see The Lucky Man —
in secluded chambers is The Lucky Man."

Otthaddho the Licchavi just there took a seat to one side, saying:

"Seen 'or I return home will be The Lucky Man, Arahant, Consummately-Self-Awakened."

[4.][pts] There then Siho the apprentice approached the Ancient Nagito and drew near.

Having drawn near, saluting the Ancient Nagita, he stood to one side.

Standing to one side, then, Siho the apprentice said this to the Ancient Nagita:

"Bhante Kassapa, these Kosalan brahman-envoys and Magadhan brahman-envoys have come here to see The Lucky Man —
Otthaddho the Licchavi together with a reverential retinue of Lacchavis too has come here to see The Lucky Man.

It would be well, bhante Kassapa, that these people gain sucha sight."

"Well then Siha,
just you announce them to the Lucky Man."

"Even so, bhante," Siha the apprentice then said in reply to the Ancient Nagita.

Then approaching The Lucky Man,
having approached the Lucky Man and saluted,
he stood to one side.

Standing to one side then,
Siha the apprentice said this to The Lucky Man:

"Bhante, these Kosalan brahman-envoys and Magadhan brahman-envoys have come here to see The Lucky Man —
Otthaddho the Licchavi together with a reverential retinue of Lacchavis too has come here to see The Lucky Man.

It would be well, bhante, that these people gain sight of the Lucky Man."

"In that case, Siha, spread out a seat in the shade of the residence."

Then "Even so, bhante" said Siha the Apprentice to The Lucky Man in reply
and he spread out a seat in the shade of the residence.

There then The Lucky Man came out of his residence and took the seat prepared in the shade of the vihara.

[5.][pts] There then those Kosalan brahman-envoys and Magadhan brahman-envoys approached The Lucky Man.

Having approached The Lucky Man they conversed together.

Having conversed together, making friendly exchanges, they took seats to one side.

And Otthaddho the Licchavi together with a reverential retinue of Lacchavis too approached and conversed together with The Lucky Man.

Having approached The Lucky Man they took seats to one side.

Seated to one side then, Otthaddho the Licchavi said this to The Lucky Man:

"Previously, bhante, a few days ago, Sunakkhatto Licchaviputto came by and approached.

Having approached he said this to me:

'From the time Mahali,
that I have been living Apprenticed to The Lucky Man,
it is not fully three rains,
and seen are devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting
but not yet heard are devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.'

Are there then, bhante
devine sounds not heard by Sunakkhatto Licchaviputto
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting
or are there not?"

"There are, Mahali,
devine sounds not heard by Sunakkhatto Licchaviputto
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting
there are not not."

[6.][pts] "Resulting from what driver,[1] bhante,
are devine sounds not being heard by Sunakkhatto Licchaviputto
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting
that are not not?"

 


 

"Here, Mahali, a beggar,
facing East,[2] develops serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

He, facing East,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing East he sees devine sights, lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali,
facing East, he has developed serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

[7.][pts] And again, Mahali, alternatively, a beggar
facing South, develops serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

He, facing South,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing South he sees devine sights, lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali,
facing South, he has developed serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

And again, Mahali, alternatively, a beggar
facing West, develops serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

He, facing West,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing West he sees devine sights, lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali,
facing West, he has developed serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

And again, Mahali, alternatively, a beggar
facing North, develops serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

He, facing North,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing North he sees devine sights, lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali,
facing North, he has developed serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

Above, below, across serenity is developed with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

He, above, below, across,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Above, below, across he sees devine sights, lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali,
above, below and across, he has developed serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 

§

 

Thus[3], Mahali, when the driver
is that a beggar facing East
develops serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
he, facing East,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing East,
he sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali, he has the driver that
facing East, he develop serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

And again, Mahali, alternatively,
when the driver
is that a beggar facing South
develops serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
he, facing South,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing South,
he sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali, he has the driver that
facing South, he develop serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

And again, Mahali, alternatively,
when the driver
is that a beggar facing West
develops serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
he, facing West,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing West,
he sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali, he has the driver that
facing West, he develop serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

And again, Mahali, alternatively,
when the driver
is that a beggar facing North
develops serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
he, facing North,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing North,
he sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali, he has the driver that
facing North, he develop serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

Above, below and across,
having developed serenity with the single purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the hearing of devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
he, above, below and across,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not hear devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 

§

 

[8.][pts] "Here, Mahali, a beggar,
facing East,
develops serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

He, facing East,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing East he hears devine sounds, lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali,
facing East, he has developed serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

[9.][pts] And again, Mahali, alternatively, a beggar
facing South, develops serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

He, facing South,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing South he hears devine sounds, lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali,
facing South, he has developed serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

And again, Mahali, alternatively, a beggar
facing West, develops serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

He, facing West,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing West he hears devine sounds, lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali,
facing West, he has developed serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

And again, Mahali, alternatively, a beggar
facing North, develops serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

He, facing North,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing North he hears devine sounds, lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali,
facing North, he has developed serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

Above, below, across serenity is developed with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

He, above, below, across,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Above, below, across he hears devine sounds, lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali,
above, below and across, he has developed serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 

§

 

Thus, Mahali, when the driver
is that a beggar facing East
develops serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
he, facing East,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing East,
he hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali, he has the driver that
facing East, he develop serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

And again, Mahali, alternatively,
when the driver
is that a beggar facing South
develops serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
he, facing South,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing South,
he hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali, he has the driver that
facing South, he develop serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

And again, Mahali, alternatively,
when the driver
is that a beggar facing West
develops serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
he, facing West,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing West,
he hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali, he has the driver that
facing West, he develop serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

And again, Mahali, alternatively,
when the driver
is that a beggar facing North
develops serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
he, facing North,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing North,
he hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali, he has the driver that
facing North, he develop serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

Above, below and across,
having developed serenity with the single purpose of
hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not the seeing of devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
he, above, below and across,
having developed serenity with that single purpose,
hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
but does not see devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 

§

 

[10.][pts] "Here, Mahali, a beggar,
facing East,
develops serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

He, facing East,
having developed serenity with that dual purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing East he sees devine sights, lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali,
facing East, he has developed serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

[11.][pts] And again, Mahali, alternatively, a beggar
facing South, develops serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

He, facing South,
having developed serenity with that dual purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing South he sees devine sights, lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali,
facing South, he has developed serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

And again, Mahali, alternatively, a beggar
facing West, develops serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

He, facing West,
having developed serenity with that dual purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing West he sees devine sights, lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali,
facing West, he has developed serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

And again, Mahali, alternatively, a beggar
facing North, develops serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

He, facing North,
having developed serenity with that dual purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing North he sees devine sights, lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali,
facing North, he has developed serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

Above, below, across serenity is developed with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

He, above, below, across,
having developed serenity with that dual purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Above, below, across he sees devine sights, lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali,
above, below and across, he has developed serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 

§

 

Thus, Mahali, when the driver
is that a beggar facing East
develops serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
he, facing East,
having developed serenity with that dual purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing East,
he sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali, he has the driver that
facing East, he develop serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

And again, Mahali, alternatively,
when the driver
is that a beggar facing South
develops serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
he, facing South,
having developed serenity with that dual purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing South,
he sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali, he has the driver that
facing South, he develop serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

And again, Mahali, alternatively,
when the driver
is that a beggar facing West
develops serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
he, facing West,
having developed serenity with that dual purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing West,
he sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali, he has the driver that
facing West, he develop serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

And again, Mahali, alternatively,
when the driver
is that a beggar facing North
develops serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
he, facing North,
having developed serenity with that dual purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

Facing North,
he sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

How come?

Because, Mahali, he has the driver that
facing North, he develop serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 


 

Above, below and across,
having developed serenity with the dual purpose of
seeing devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hearing devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
he, above, below and across,
having developed serenity with that dual purpose,
sees devine sights,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
and hears devine sounds,
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting.

 

§

 

These then Mahali, are those drivers
which result in devine sounds
lovely things, pleasure-producing, tempting,
not being heard by Sunakkhatto Licchaviputto
though they are not not."

 

§

 

[12.][pts] Mahali then asks:

"Now is it then, bhante, to drive realization of serenity-development that a beggar carries The Lucky Man's Brahma Carriage?"

"It is not, Mahali, to drive realization of serenity-development that a beggar carries our Brahma Carriage.

It is, Mahali, to drive realization of other excellent and superior things that a bhikkhu carries our Brahma Carriage."

[13.][pts] "What then, bhante, are those excellent and superior things to drive realization of which a bhikkhu carries The Lucky Man's Brahma Carriage?"

 


 

"Here Mahali, a beggar, thoroughly eliminating the three own-yokes becomes Stream-winner,[4] an unstoppable thing, destined to conclude self-awakening.[5]

This, then, Mahali, is just such an excellent and superior thing to drive the realization of which a bhikkhu carries our Brahma Carriage.

Again and deeper than that, Mahali, a beggar thoroughly eliminating the three own-yokes and tenuating[6] lust, hate and stupidity becomes Once-returner[7] — thus once returning to this world he makes an end of Pain.

This, then, Mahali, is just such an excellent and superior thing to drive the realization of which a bhikkhu carries our Brahma Carriage.

Again and deeper than that, Mahali, a beggar thoroughly eliminating the own-yokes to the lower[8] becomes without-birth,[9] there to be thoroughly unbound,[10] a thing that does not fall back from that world.

This, then, Mahali, is just such an excellent and superior thing to drive the realization of which a bhikkhu carries our Brahma Carriage.

Again and deeper than that, Mahali, a beggar,
having destroyed the corrupting influences,[11]
seeing with his own eyes
that he is without corrupting influences,
with his own higher knowledge
enters into and inhabits
freedom of heart,
freedom of mind,
in this seen thing.

This, then, Mahali, is just such an excellent and superior thing to drive the realization of which a bhikkhu carries our Brahma Carriage.

These, then, Mahali, are just such excellent and superior things to drive the realization of which a bhikkhu carries our Brahma Carriage."

 


 

[14.][pts] Mahali then asks:

"Is there, bhante, a way,
is there a path-following,
for personally experiencing such things?"

"There is such, Mahali,
there is a path-following,
for personally experiencing such things," says Gotama.

"What then, bhante, is the way,
what is the path-following,
for personally experiencing such things?" Mahali asks.

"It is this very Aristocratic Eight-dimensional Way, that is:

High View,
high principles,
high talk,
high works,
high lifestyle,
high self-control,
high memory,
high serinity.

This then Mahali, is that way
that path-following
for such personal experiencing."

 


 

[15.][pts] "At one time Mahali, I was residing in Kosambi, Ghosita's Park.

There then two wanderers,
Mandisso-the-Wanderer and Jaliyo Wood-bowl-Inhabitant, drew near me and approached.

Having approached, given salutation and exchanged polite conversation they took seats to one side.

Seated to one side then these two wanderers said this to me:

'How then friend, good Gotama, is it
that which is life is that which is body
or is it
that which is life is one thing, that which is body is another?'[12]

'As to this, friends,
listen up,
attend well with mind,
I will speak!' said I.

"Even So, friend!"

these two wanderers replied to me and I then said this to them:

[16.][pts][13] Here, friends, a Tathagata arises in the world, Arahant, consummately-self-awakened, possessed of vision and conduct, well-gone, worldly-wise, unsurpassed Dhamma-driver of persons, master of gods and men, Awake, The Lucky Man.'

He, seeing with his own eyes by his own higher-knowledge this world with it's gods, with it's Mara's, with it's Brahmas, with it's shamen and brahmins, gives the word to this generation of gods and men.

He declares Dhamma: at the start, helpful; in the middle, helpful; at the conclusion, helpful,
exemplifying perfect fullfilment of the thoroughly purified Brahma carriage.

[17.][pts] A housefather or housefather's son or someone clan-born hears that Dhamma.

He, hearing that Dhamma, gains faith in the Tathagata.

He posessed of this gained faith reflects to himself:

'Crowded, the household life,
a place of dust
of the open air is going forth
it is not easy living in a house
to reach fulfilment
to reach a purity of polish
like mother-of-pearl
in the carrying on of Brahma's carrying on.

How about I cut off my hair and beard,
don ocher rags, and
from home go forth
to homelessness!'

He then, after a time
having let go of his small pile of wealth, or
having let go of his large pile of wealth;
having let go of his small circle of relations, or
having let go of his large circle of relations,
cuts off his hair and beard,
dons ocher rags, and
from home goes forth
to homelessness.

[18.][pts] So thus being one gone forth,
taking on the training of the beggar's life,
possessed of carriage and pasture[14]
fearing sight even of any measure of fault.

Undertaking the seeker's seeker's-path
he conducts himself with skill
in his acts of body, deed, and speech —

Pure of livlihood,
of comprehensive ethical conduct,
guarded at the doors of the forces,
measured in the taking of nourishment,
recollected and self-aware,
possessed of happiness.

 

§

 

[19.][pts] And how, friends, is a beggar of comprehensive ethical culture?

Here a beggar lets go of the destruction of life,
abstains from the destruction of life,
puts down the stick,
puts down the sword,
and lives friendly and compassionate,
intent on empathy with all breathing beings.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

Letting go of taking the ungiven,
he abstains from taking the ungiven.
Taking the given, awaiting gifts, without theivery,
he lives with self become pure.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

Letting go of un-Brahma-like ways,
he lives separated from family life,
above sexual indulgence.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[20.][pts] Letting go of untrue speech,
truth-speeking,
truth-bearing,
steadfast,
reliable,
no poisoner of the world,
he abstains from untrue speech.

Letting go of hateful speech,
he abstains from hateful speech;
that which was a disturbing thing heard there,
he tells not here,
a disturbing thing heard here,
he tells not there;
having enjoyment of peace,
loving peace,
delighting in peace
he speaks peace-making words,
thus reconciling the disunited,
and supporting unity.

Letting go of harsh speech,
he abstains from harsh speech;
whatever speech is gentle,
sweet to the ear,
affectionate,
at home in the heart,
urbane,
popular with the people,
pleasant to the people,
he speaks such words as those.

Letting go of idle lip-flapping,
he abstains from idle lip-flapping;
having speach worth treasuring,
spoken at the right time,
well-reasoned,
well-defined,
on the goal,
he is a timely-speaker,
a speaker on reality,
a speaker on the goal,
a speaker on Dhamma,
a speaker on the Discipline.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[21.][pts] He abstains from from damaging seeds and crops.

He eats once a day and not at night.
He abstains from eating at improper times.

He does not watch dancing, singing, music and shows.

He abstains from using garlands,
perfumes,
cosmetics,
jewelry and accessories.

He abstains from using high and wide beds.

He abstains from accepting gold and silver.

He abstains from accepting raw grain or raw meat.

He does not accept gifts of women and young girls,
male or female slaves,
sheep and goats,
foul and pigs,
elephants,
cattle,
horses and donkeys,
fields and plots.

He abstains from acting as a messenger,
from buying and selling,
from cheating with false weights and measures,
from bribery and corruption,
deception and insincerity,
from wounding,
killing,
imprisoning,
highway robbery,
and taking food by force.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[22.][pts] Whereas some shamans and Brahmins,
while living on the food of the faithful,
continue to cultivate such crops as are propagated
from roots,
from trunks,
from limbs,
from leaves,
from seeds,
he abstains from such injury to plant life.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[23.][pts] Whereas some shamans and Brahmins,
while feeding on the food of the faithful,
continue to enjoy the use of stored possessions such as
meat and other foods,
drink,
clothing,
carriages,
beds,
and perfumes,
he abstains from from such enjoyments.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[24.][pts] Whereas some shamans and Brahmins,
while feeding on the food of the faithful,
continue to attend shows of dancing,
singing,
music and drama;
displays of oratorical skills,
street performances,
hand-music,
cymbals and drums,
fairy-shows,
acrobatic and conjuring tricks,
combats of elephants,
buffaloes,
bulls,
goats,
rams,
cocks and quail,
fighting with staves,
boxing,
wrestling,
sham-fights,
parades,
maneuvers and military reviews,
he abstains from from attending such displays.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[25.][pts] Whereas some shamans and Brahmins,
while feeding on the food of the faithful,
continue to engage in such idle pursuits as
board games with eight or ten rows of squares;
playing the same games in the mind;
hopping from square to square on diagrams drawn on the ground;
removing sticks or pieces from a heap without disturbing the heap,
or constructing a heap without causing it to collapse;
throwing dice;
hitting a short stick with a long stick;
dipping the hand in paint or flour and slapping it on the floor or wall to make the shape called out by one's mates

'Elephant! ...horse! etc.'

games with balls;
pretending to play music with toy instruments;
playing with toy ploughs,
windmills,
scales,
carriages,
bows and arrows;
turning summersaults
or playing leapfrog;
playing guessing games;
or mimicking deformities,
he abstains from from such footholds for carelessness.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[26.][pts] Whereas some shamans and Brahmins,
while feeding on the food of the faithful,
continue to use high and wide beds,
divans,
couches adorned with animal figures,
fleecy or variegated coverlets,
coverlets with hair on one or both sides,
silk coverlets with or without gem embroidery,
elephant-, horse- or chariot-rugs,
choice spreads of antelope-hide,
couches with awnings,
or with red cushions at both ends,
the shaman Gotama abstains from from using such luxurious beds.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[27.][pts] Whereas some shamans and Brahmins,
while feeding on the food of the faithful,
continue to use forms of adornment and beautification such as
massages with scented oils,
bathing in scented water,
shampooing,
and using scented powders;
using mirrors;
using rouges and eye make-up,
cosmetic ointments,
and perfumes;
wearing garlands,
bracelets and headbands;
carrying fancy walking-sticks,
drug boxes,
and bottles,
swords,
sunshades,
decorated sandals,
turbans,
gems,
whisks of the yaks-tail
and long-fringed white robes,
he abstains from from using such adornments.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[28.][pts] Whereas some shamans and Brahmins,
while feeding on the food of the faithful,
continue to talk idle talk about
kings and ministers of state,
robbers and thieves,
the horrors of war and battle;
talk of food,
drink,
clothes,
beds,
garlands
and perfumes;
talk of cities,
towns,
villages,
relationships,
men and women,
heroes and villains;
gossip at the corner,
over the back fence,
or at the well
of those alive
or of those who are departed;
talk comparing differences between this and that;
speculative talk about creation, existence or non-existence,
he abstains from from such idle talk.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[29.][pts] Whereas some shamans and Brahmins, while feeding on the food of the faithful, continue to indulge in argument and contention, using such phrases as:

"You don't understand this Dhamma, I do."
"How could someone like you know about this Dhamma?"
"You hold wrong view.
It is I who have right view."
"I am speaking to the point, you are not."
"You are putting last what ought to come first,
and first what ought to come last."
"What you've been expounding so long,
is completely disproved."
"Your challenge has been met."
"You are proved to be wrong."
"Straighten up your act."
"Get out of this one if you can."

He abstains from from such argument and contention.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[30.][pts] Whereas some shamans and Brahmins,
while feeding on the food of the faithful,
continue to do such things as
running errands and carrying messages
for such as kings,
ministers,
nobles,
Brahmins,
householders
and young men who say:
'Go here — go there!
Take this there — bring that from there!'
he abstains from from running errands and carrying messages.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[31.][pts] Whereas some shamans and Brahmins,
while feeding on the food of the faithful,
continue to use deception,
patter,
hinting,
signifying,
belittling,
and cajoling
in their never ending quest
for adding gain to gain,
he abstains from from such trickery and deceit.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[from Rhys Davids][32.][pts] Whereas some shaman and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn a living by craft and black arts such as:
palmistry,
prophesying long life and prosperity or the reverse
from marks on a child's hands, feet, or other parts of the body;
divining by means of omens and signs;
auguries drawn from thunderbolts and other celestial portents;
prognostication by interpreting dreams;
fortune-telling from marks on the body;
auguries from the marks on cloth gnawed by mice;
sacrificing to Agni (fire);
offering oblations from a spoon;
making offerings to gods of husks,
of the red powder between the grain and the husk,
of husked grain ready for boiling,
of ghee,
and of oil;
sacrificing by spewing mustard seeds and so forth out of one's mouth into the fire;
drawing blood from one's right knee as a sacrifice to the gods;
looking at the knuckles, and so forth, and,
after muttering a charm,
divining whether a man is well born or lucky or not;
determining whether the site for a proposed house or pleasance, is lucky or not;
finding a lucky site for a proposed house or pleasance;
consecrating sites;
knowledge of the charms to be used
when lodging in an earth house,
or repeating such charms;
laying demons in a cemetery;
laying ghosts;
snake charming;
the poison craft;
the scorpion craft;
the mouse craft;
the crow craft;
foretelling the number of years that a man has yet to live;
giving charms to ward off arrows;
The Animal Wheel,
he abstains from earning a living by craft or black arts.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[from Rhys Davids][33.][pts] Whereas some shaman and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn a living by craft and black arts such as:
knowledge of the signs of good and bad qualities in the following things
and of the marks in them denoting the health or luck of their owners: — to wit,
gems,
staves,
garments,
earrings,
swords,
arrows,
bows,
other weapons,
women,
men,
boys,
girls,
slaves,
slave-girls,
elephants,
horses,
buffaloes,
bulls,
oxen,
goats,
sheep,
fowls,
quails,
iguanas,
tortoises,
and other animals;
he abstains from earning a living by craft or black arts.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[from Rhys Davids][34.][pts] Whereas some shaman and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn a living by craft and black arts such as:
soothsaying, to the effect that

the chiefs will march out;
the chiefs will march back;
the home chiefs will attack,
and the enemies retreat;
the enemies chiefs will attack,
and ours will retreat;
the home chiefs will gain the victory,
and the foreign chiefs suffer defeat;
the foreign chiefs will gain the victory,
and ours will suffer defeat;
thus will there be victory on this side,
defeat on that,

he abstains from earning a living by craft or black arts.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[from Rhys Davids][35.][pts] Whereas some shaman and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn a living by craft and black arts such as:
foretelling that there will be an eclipse of the moon;
there will be an eclipse of the sun;
there will be an eclipse of a star;
there will be aberration of the sun or the moon;
the sun or the moon will return to its usual path;
here will be aberrations of the stars;
the stars will return to their usual course;
there will be a fall of meteors;
there will be a jungle fire;
there will be an earthquake;
the god will thunder;
there will be rising and setting,
clearness and dimness,
of the sun
or the moon
or the stars,
or foretelling of each of these fifteen phenomena
that they will betoken such and such a result,
he abstains from earning a living by craft or black arts.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[from Rhys Davids][36.][pts] Whereas some shaman and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn a living by craft and black arts such as:
foretelling an abundant rainfall;
foretelling a deficient rainfall;
foretelling a good harvest;
foretelling scarcity of food;
foretelling tranquility;
foretelling disturbances;
foretelling a pestilence;
foretelling a healthy season;
counting on the fingers;
counting without using the fingers;
summing up large totals
(looking at a tree and telling how many leaves are on it, etc.);
composing ballads,
poetizing,
casuistry,
sophistry...,
he abstains from earning a living by craft or black arts.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[from Rhys Davids][37.][pts] Whereas some shaman and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn a living by craft and black arts such as:
arranging a lucky day for marriages
in which the bride or bridegroom is brought home;
arranging a lucky day for marriages
in which the bride or bridegroom is sent forth;
fixing a lucky time for the conclusion of treaties of peace
(or using charms to procure harmony);
fixing a lucky time for the outbreak off hostilities
(or using charms to make discord);
fixing a lucky time for the calling in of debts
(or charms for success in throwing dice);
fixing a lucky time for the expenditure of money
[or charms to bring ill luck to an opponent throwing dice);
using charms to make people lucky;
using charms to make people unlucky;
using charms to procure abortion;
incantations to bring on dumbness;
incantations to keep a man's jaws fixed;
incantations to make a man throw up his hands;
incantations to bring on deafness;
obtaining oracular answers by means of the magic mirror;
obtaining oracular answers through a girl possessed;
obtaining oracular answers from a god;
bringing forth flames from one's mouth;
invoking Siri, the goddess of luck,
he abstains from earning a living by craft or black arts.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[from Rhys Davids][38.][pts] Whereas some shaman and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn a living by craft and black arts such as:
vowing gifts to a god if a certain benefit be granted;
paying such vows;
causing virility;
making a man impotent;
ceremonial rinsing of the mouth;
ceremonial bathing;
administering emetics and purgatives;
purging people to relieve the head
(that is by giving drugs to make people sneeze);
oiling people's ears
(either to make them grow or to heal sores on them);
satisfying people's eyes
(soothing them by dropping medicinal oils into them);
administering drugs through the nose;
applying collyrium to the eyes;
giving medical ointment for the eyes;
practicing as an oculist;
practicing as a surgeon;
practicing as a doctor for children;
administering roots and drugs;
administering medicines in rotation;
he abstains from earning a living by craft or black arts.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 


 

[39.][pts] When he, friends is thus accomplished in ethical conduct,
that beggar forsees no fear whatever resulting from this ethical self-control.

In the same way, friends,
as the anointed ruler
who has neutralized a traitor[15]
forsees no fear whatever resulting from this ingrate,
even so, when he, friends, is thus accomplished in ethical conduct,
that beggar forsees no fear whatever resulting from this ethical self-control.

And he, possessed of this aristocratic body of ethical conduct,
personally experiences the happiness of blamelessness.

Just so is his ethical conduct.

 

§

 

[40.][pts] And how, friends, is a beggar guarded at the doors of the forces?

Here, friends, a beggar,
having seen a form with the eye,
does not dwell on it's characteristics,
does not dwell on it's implications.

Because living with the eye-force unguarded,
liking and disliking,
bad, unskillful things, seep in,
he therefore sets up restraint,
guards the eye-force,
places restraint over the eye-force.

Having heard a sound with the ear,
he does not dwell on it's characteristics,
he does not dwell on it's implications.

Because living with the ear-force unguarded,
liking and disliking,
bad, unskillful things, seep in,
he therefore sets up restraint,
guards the ear-force,
places restraint over the ear-force.

Having smelled a scent with the nose,
he does not dwell on it's characteristics,
he does not dwell on it's implications.

Because living with the nose-force unguarded,
liking and disliking,
bad, unskillful things, seep in,
he therefore sets up restraint,
guards the nose-force,
places restraint over the nose-force.

Having tasted a taste with the tongue,
he does not dwell on it's characteristics,
he does not dwell on it's implications.

Because living with the tongue-force unguarded,
liking and disliking,
bad, unskillful things, seep in,
he therefore sets up restraint,
guards the tongue-force,
places restraint over the tongue-force.

Having felt a touch with the body,
he does not dwell on it's characteristics,
he does not dwell on it's implications.

Because living with the body-force unguarded,
liking and disliking,
bad, unskillful things, seep in,
he therefore sets up restraint,
guards the body-force,
places restraint over the body-force.

Having become conscious of a thing with the mind,
he does not dwell on it's characteristics,
he does not dwell on it's implications.

Because living with the mind-force unguarded
liking and disliking,
bad, unskillful things, seep in,
he therefore sets up restraint,
guards the mind-force,
places restraint over the mind-force.

 


 

Possessed of this aristocratic restraint of the faculties,
he experiences for himself the happiness of disassociation.

It is thus that a beggar guards the doors of the forces.

 

§

 

And how friends is a beggar measured in the taking of nourishment?[16]

Here friends, a beggar has but one meal,
abstaining at night,
abstaining from eating at improper times.

It is thus that a beggar is measured in the taking of nourishment.

 

§

 

[41.][pts] And how friends is a beggar recollected and self-aware?

Whether departing or returning he does it with self-awareness.

Whether looking at or looking the other way he does it with self-awareness.

Whether stretching or flexing he does it with self-awareness.

Wearing cloak, bowl and upper-robe he does it with self-awareness.

Whether eating, drinking, biting, or tasting he does it with self-awareness.

Whether passing matter or passing water he does it with self-awareness.

On the go, standing, sitting, asleep or awake, speaking or becoming silent he does it with self-awareness.

It is thus that a beggar is recollected and self-aware.

 

§

 

[42.][pts] And how friends is a beggar possessed of happiness?

Here friends, a beggar is content with enough clothing for the body to carry on,
with enough food clumps doled in the bowl for the belly to carry on.

Whithersoever he goes
he goes taking but such as this.

Just like a bird
whithersoever it flies,
takes with it only the weight of it's wings,
even so, friend,
he is content with enough clothing for the body to carry on,
with enough food clumps doled in the bowl for the belly to carry on,
and whithersoever he goes,
he goes taking but such as this.

It is thus that a beggar is possessed of happiness.

 

§

 

[43.][pts] And he, possessed of this aristocratic body of ethical conduct
possessed of this aristocratic guarding of the doors of the forces,
possessed of this aristocratic recollection and self-awareness,
possessed of this aristocratic happiness,
resorts to a secluded forest sleep-and-sitting place
at the root of a tree,
in a cave in rugged mountains,
in a cemetary,
by a forest trail,
in the open air,
on a heap of straw.

Then, after having returned from his beggars rounds,
he sits down,
sitting up straight,
legs bent across lapwise,
and puts the mind on the area around the mouth.

[44.][pts] With desire for the world let go,
he lives eliminating desire from his heart,
cleansing his heart of desire.

With anger and hate let go,
he lives with kindly feelings and affection for all living beings,
cleansing his heart of anger and hate.

With lazy ways and stupidity let go,
he lives eliminating lazy ways and stupidity,
perceiving the light,
recollected and self-aware,
cleansing his heart of lazy ways and stupidity.

With haughty pride and fear let go,
he lives with humility,
inwardly calm at heart,
cleansing his heart of boastful bragging and fear.

With doubt and backsliding let go,
he lives overcoming doubt and backsliding,
eliminating confusion as to skillful things,
cleansing his heart of doubt and backsliding.

[45.][pts] In the same way, friends, as a man,
after formerly taking out a loan and setting up a business,
and after a time that business becomes successful
and he should pay off that loan
and have a little left over
with which to support a wife.

Of this he would think thus:

"I, after formerly taking out a loan and set up a business,
and after a time that business became successful,
and I paid off that loan,
and have a little left over
with which to support a wife."

and he would feel relief because of this,
he would be happy because of this.

[46.][pts] In the same way, friends,
as a man might have fallen sick from some disease,
be in pain,
in critical condition,
unable to eat
and without strength in his body,
but after a time he were to recover,
be free of pain,
out of danger from that disease,
able to eat,
and feeling the strength return to his body.

Of this he would think thus:

"I formerly fell sick from some disease,
was in pain,
in critical condition,
unable to eat
and without strength in my body,
but after a time I recovered,
was free of pain,
out of danger from that disease,
able to eat,
and felt the strength return to my body."

and he would feel relief because of this,
he would be happy because of this.

[47.][pts] In the same way, friends,
as a man who had been thrown in prison
might be freed from bondage,
safe and secure,
with no loss of property.

Of this he would think thus:

"I formerly was thrown in prison,
but am now freed from bondage,
safe and secure,
with no loss of property."

and he would feel relief because of this,
he would be happy because of this.

[48.][pts] In the same way, friends,
as a man who had been a slave,
not his own man,
subject to another,
not free to go where he wanted
and who, after a time was emancipated,
made his own man,
not subject to another,
free to go where he wanted.

Of this he would think thus:

"I formerly was a slave,
not my own man,
subject to another,
not free to go where I wanted
but, after a time I was emancipated,
made my own man,
not subject to another,
free to go where I wanted."

and he would feel relief because of this,
he would be happy because of this.

[49.][pts] In the same way, friends,
as a wealthy merchant
traveling on the highway
through a wilderness filled with robbers,
murderers,
and kidnappers, and,
after a time
he were to emerge from that wilderness
safe and sound,
with no loss of property,
he would feel relief because of this, he would be happy because of this.

Of this he would think thus:

"I formerly was a wealthy merchant
traveling on the highway
through a wilderness filled with robbers,
murderers,
and kidnappers, and,
but after a time
I emerged from that wilderness
safe and sound.."

and he would feel relief because of this,
he would be happy because of this.

[50.][pts] Even so friends, when a beggar
has not overcome these five involvements
he regards himself as
such as is in debt,
such as is sick,
such as is in prison,
such as is enslaved,
such as is taking a difficult way.

But, friends, when he has overcome these five involvements
he regards himself as
such as is debt-free
such as is well,
such as is released from bonds,
such as is free,
such as is one on peaceful ground,
even so does a beggar regard himself,
who has overcome these five involvements.

With these five involvements overcome
he observes happiness emerging in himself,
with the beginning of happiness,
enthusiasm,
enthusiastic in mind,
the body becomes impassive,
impassive in body,
he experiences pleasure,[17]
pleased in heart
he is one who has become serene.[18]

 


 

[51.][pts] He, thus separated from sense pleasures,
separated from unskilled things,
with thinking,
with pondering,
there comes the solitude-born enthusiastic-pleasure
inhabiting The First Burning Knowledge.

He thus
soakes,
permeates,
suffuses and
saturates
his body with this solitude-born enthusiastic-pleasure
such that there is not anything which is of body
untouched by this solitude-born enthusiastic-pleasure.

In the same way, friends,
as the bath attendant or the bath attendant's skillful apprentice
whenever he wishes to make a soap-ball
puts soap-flakes into a copper bowl
and sprinkles on water
and works those soap-flakes round and round
til those soap-flakes are
moistened,
become gooey,
permeated within and without with that moisture,
but do not yet ooze any liquid.

Even so, friends, that beggar,
soakes,
permeates,
suffuses and
saturates
his body with this solitude-born enthusiastic-pleasure,
such that there is not anything which is of body
untouched by this solitude-born enthusiastic-pleasure.[19]

"Now then friends,
is it reasonable[20] that a beggar
who thus knows, thus sees,
say such a thing as this:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"He friends,
who is a beggar who thus knows thus sees,
for him it would be reasonable to say such a thing as:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"But, friends, although I am one who
thus knows thus sees,
yet I do not say:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

 


 

[52.][pts] Again, friends, deeper than that, to a beggar,
thinking, pondering calmed,
become one with an inwardly tranquill heart,
not thinking,
not pondering,
there comes the serenity-born enthusiastic-pleasure
inhabiting The Second Burning Knowledge.

He thus
soakes,
permeates,
suffuses and
saturates
his body with this serenity-born enthusiastic-pleasure
such that there is not anything which is of body
untouched by this serenity-born enthusiastic-pleasure.

In the same way, friends, as a spring-fed pond
with no inlet from the East,
with no inlet from the South,
with no inlet from the West,
with no inlet from the North,
and with no rain coming down from the heavens above,
is nevertheless
soaked,
permeated,
suffused and
saturated
with that cool water rising up
from that spring which feeds it from below.

Even so, friends, that beggar,
soakes,
permeates,
suffuses and
saturates
his body with this serenity-born enthusiastic-pleasure,
such that there is not anything which is of body
untouched by this serenity-born enthusiastic-pleasure.

"Now then friends,
is it reasonable that a beggar
who thus knows, thus sees,
say such a thing as this:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"He friends,
who is a beggar who thus knows thus sees,
for him it would be reasonable to say such a thing as:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"But, friends, although I am one who
thus knows thus sees,
yet I do not say:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

 


 

[53.][pts] Again, friends, deeper than that, to a beggar,
dispassionatly detached from enthusiasm,
living recollected and self-aware,
there comes the experience of bodily pleasure
the Aristocrats describe saying:

'Detached in mind is a pleasant-living,'

inhabiting The Third Burning Knowledge.

He thus,
soakes,
permeates,
suffuses and
saturates
his body with this enthusiasm-free-[21]pleasure,
such that there is not anything which is of body
untouched by this enthusiasm-free-pleasure.

In the same way, friends,
as in a pond overgrown with blue, red and white water lillies
or in a pond overgrown with blue and red water lillies
or in a pond overgrown with white water lillies[22]
some red water lillies,
or blue water lillies
or white water lillies,
are born in the water,
grow up in the water,
become strong in the water,
and from the tips of the tops
of their flowering heads above
to the bottom of their roots below[23]
and are soaked,
permeated,
suffused and
saturated
such that no part of those
red water lillies,
or blue water lillies,
or white water lillies,
is not saturated thereby.

Even so, friends, that beggar,
soakes,
permeates,
suffuses and
saturates
his body with this enthusiasm-free-pleasure,
such that there is not anything which is of body
untouched by this enthusiasm-free-pleasure.

"Now then friends,
is it reasonable that a beggar
who thus knows, thus sees,
say such a thing as this:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"He friends,
who is a beggar who thus knows thus sees,
for him it would be reasonable to say such a thing as:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"But, friends, although I am one who
thus knows thus sees,
yet I do not say:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

 


 

[54.][pts] Again, friends, deeper than that, to a beggar,
letting go of being pleased,
letting go of being pained,
thus with his former bodily and mental pleasure gone,
without pain but without pleasure,
there comes the utterly pure detached mind
inhabiting The Fourth Burning Knowledge.

Thus he comes to be sitting
pure-of-body-, utter-clarity-of-heart- pervaded
such that there is not anything at all
of his entire body
that is untouched by purity of body, utter clarity of heart.

In the same way, friends, as a man
comes to be seated
covered head and all with a white cloth
such that there is nothing at all
of his entire body
that is not spread over with that white cloth.

Even so friends, a bhikkhu comes to be sitting
pure-of-body-, utter-clarity-of-heart- pervaded
such that there is not anything at all
of his entire body
that is untouched by purity of body, utter clarity of heart.

"Now then friends,
is it reasonable that a beggar
who thus knows, thus sees,
say such a thing as this:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"He friends,
who is a beggar who thus knows thus sees,
for him it would be reasonable to say such a thing as:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"But, friends, although I am one who
thus knows thus sees,
yet I do not say:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

 


 

[55.][pts] Again, friends, deeper than that, a beggar,
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to knowing and seeing.

He thus knows:

'This which is my body,
formed of the four-great-elements,[24]
co-developed by mother and father,
is just heaped-up-boild-rice-and-sour-milk,
an unstable-,
subject-to-being-rubbed-away-,
beaten-down-,
broken-up-,
and-eaten-away-thing —
and yet in this is situated,
on this does my consciousness depend.'

[56.][pts] In the same way, friends,
as if there were a clear bright gem
of the first water,
with eight facets,
masterfully cut,
without flaw,
most excellent in every way,
and through it were strung a blue,
or orange
or red
or white thread.

Any man with eyes in his head that could see
could see that this is a clear bright gem
of the first water,
with eight facets,
masterfully cut,
without flaw,
most excellent in every way,
and through it is strung a blue,
or orange
or red
or white thread.

Even so, friends, a beggar,
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to knowing and seeing.

He thus knows:

'This which is my body,
formed of the four-great-elements,
co-developed by mother and father,
is just heaped-up-boild-rice-and-sour-milk,
an unstable-,
subject-to-being-rubbed-away-,
beaten-down-,
broken-up-,
and-eaten-away-thing —
and yet in this is situated,
on this does my consciousness depend.'

"Now then friends,
is it reasonable that a beggar
who thus knows, thus sees,
say such a thing as this:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"He friends,
who is a beggar who thus knows thus sees,
for him it would be reasonable to say such a thing as:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"But, friends, although I am one who
thus knows thus sees,
yet I do not say:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

 


 

[57.][pts] And again, friends, deeper than that,
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to
measuring out[25] a mind-made body.

He, from this body, divides off[26] another body,
having form,
mind-made,
with all it's limbs,
not lacking any faculty.

Saccharum.munga
Image from Wikipedia.

[58.][pts] In the same way, friends, as a man removes a reed from a clump of munja-grass —

Of this he knows:

'This is the clump of munja grass,
this is the reed,
the clump of munja grass is one thing,
the reed is another,
the reed has been drawn forth from the clump of munja grass.'

 

 

 

 

 

In the same way, friends, as a man removes a sword from it's scabbard —

Of this he knows:

'This is the sword,
this is the sheath,
the sword is one thing,
the sheath is another,
the sword has been drawn forth from the sheath.'

In the same way, friends, as a man draws out a snake from his basket[27]

Of this he knows:

'This is the snake,
this is the basket,
the snake is one thing,
the basket is another,
the snake has been drawn forth from the basket.'

Even so friends, a beggar,
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to
measuring out a mind-made body.

He, from this body, divides off another body,
having form,
mind-made,
with all it's limbs,
not lacking any faculty.

"Now then friends,
is it reasonable that a beggar
who thus knows, thus sees,
say such a thing as this:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"He friends,
who is a beggar who thus knows thus sees,
for him it would be reasonable to say such a thing as:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"But, friends, although I am one who
thus knows thus sees,
yet I do not say:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

 


 

[59.][pts] And again, friends, deeper than that, a bhikkhu,
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to
various magic powers.

He brings into being not one, but manifold forms of magic power.

Being one, he becomes many,
being many, he becomes one,
manifest here, transported beyond notice,[28]
transported through walls,
transported through fortifications unsticking,
he goes whithersoever as if in space,
he goes down into and emerges from the earth as if in water,
he goes on water without sinking as if on earth,
he goes cross-legged through space like a bird on the wing.

He this very moon and sun
beings of such great power,
greater than life
does he touch and fondle,
even in this very body he turns up in the Brahma World.

[60.][pts] In the same way, friends,
as the potter or the potter's skillful apprentice
could make any shape of vessel that he wished to
from a well prepared lump Of clay,

And again, in the same way
as the ivory-carver or the ivory-carver's skillful apprentice
could carve any kind of ivory-vessel that he wished to
from a well-prepared piece of ivory,

And again, in the same way
as the goldsmith or the goldsmith's skillful apprentice
could form any kind of gold vessel that he wished to
from a well-prepared lump of gold,

Even so, friends, a bhikkhu,
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to
various magic powers.

He brings into being not one, but manifold forms of magic power.

Being one, he becomes many,
being many, he becomes one,
manifest here, transported beyond notice,
transported through walls,
transported through fortifications unsticking,
he goes whithersoever as if in space,
he goes down into and emerges from the earth as if in water,
he goes on water without sinking as if on earth,
he goes cross-legged through space like a bird on the wing.

He this very moon and sun
beings of such great power,
greater than life,
does he touch and fondle,
even in this very body he turns up in the Brahma World.

"Now then friends,
is it reasonable that a beggar
who thus knows, thus sees,
say such a thing as this:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"He friends,
who is a beggar who thus knows thus sees,
for him it would be reasonable to say such a thing as:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"But, friends, although I am one who
thus knows thus sees,
yet I do not say:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

 


 

[61.][pts] And again, friends, deeper than that, a bhikkhu
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to
the characteristics of the devine ear —
with purified godlike hearing,
beyond that of ordinary men,
he hears both sounds:
other-worldly and man-made,
far or near.

[62.][pts] In the same way as if a man,
traveling along the highway
were to hear the sound of a big drum
or a little drum
or cymbals
or little bells,
he would be able to say:

'That is the sound of a big drum.'
'That is the sound of a little drum.'
'That is the sound of cymbals.'
'That is the sound of little bells.'

Even so, friends, a bhikkhu
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to
the characteristics of the devine ear —
with purified godlike hearing,
beyond that of ordinary men,
hears both sounds:
other-worldly and man-made,
far or near.

"Now then friends,
is it reasonable that a beggar
who thus knows, thus sees,
say such a thing as this:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"He friends,
who is a beggar who thus knows thus sees,
for him it would be reasonable to say such a thing as:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"But, friends, although I am one who
thus knows thus sees,
yet I do not say:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

 


 

[63.][pts] And again, friends, deeper than that, a beggar
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to
encompasing-knowledge of the heart:[29]

Of a lustful heart he knows:

'This is a lustful heart.'

Of a lust-free heart he knows:

'This is a lust-free heart.'

Of a hatefilled heart he knows:

'This is a hatefilled heart.'

Of a hate-free heart he knows:

'This is a hate-free heart.'

Of a clogged up heart he knows:

'This is a clogged up heart.'

Of an unclogged heart he knows:

'This is an unclogged heart.'

Of an deranged heart he knows:

'This is a deranged heart.'

Of a balanced heart he knows:

'This is a balanced heart.'

Of a constricted heart he knows:

'This is a constricted heart.'

Of an unconstricted heart he knows:

'This is an unconstricted heart.'

Of a state of heart that is less than superior he knows:

'This is a state of heart that is less than superior.'

Of a state of heart that is nothing less than superior he knows:

'This state of heart is nothing less than superior.'

Of useless heart he knows:

'This is a useless heart.'

Of a beneficial heart he knows:

'This is a beneficial heart.'

Of a heart that is not free he knows:

'This is a heart that is not free.'

Of a heart that is freed he knows:

'This is a heart that is freed.'

[64.][pts] In the same way, friends,
as a woman or man or young man,
youthful and concerned about appearances,
regarding the reflection of his own face
in a mirror or pure clean transparent bowl of water,
knows, if it has a mole that it has a mole,
knows, if it has no mole that it has no mole —

Even so friends, a beggar
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to
heart encompasing-knowledge:

Of a lustful heart he knows:

'This is a lustful heart.'

Of a lust-free heart he knows:

'This is a lust-free heart.'

Of a hatefilled heart he knows:

'This is a hatefilled heart.'

Of a hate-free heart he knows:

'This is a hate-free heart.'

Of a clogged up heart he knows:

'This is a clogged up heart.'

Of an unclogged heart he knows:

'This is an unclogged heart.'

Of an deranged heart he knows:

'This is a deranged heart.'

Of a balanced heart he knows:

'This is a balanced heart.'

Of a constricted heart he knows:

'This is a constricted heart.'

Of an unconstricted heart he knows:

'This is an unconstricted heart.'

Of a state of heart that is less than superior he knows:

'This is a state of heart that is less than superior.'

Of a state of heart that is nothing less than superior he knows:

'This state of heart is nothing less than superior.'

Of useless heart he knows:

'This is a useless heart.'

Of a beneficial heart he knows:

'This is a beneficial heart.'

Of a heart that is not free he knows:

'This is a heart that is not free.'

Of a heart that is freed he knows:

'This is a heart that is freed.'

"Now then friends,
is it reasonable that a beggar
who thus knows, thus sees,
say such a thing as this:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"He friends,
who is a beggar who thus knows thus sees,
for him it would be reasonable to say such a thing as:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"But, friends, although I am one who
thus knows thus sees,
yet I do not say:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

 


 

[65.][pts] And again, friends, deeper than that, a beggar
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to
previous-inhabitations knowledge.

He calls to mind not just one arrangement of previous inhabitation.

For example:

Just one birth,
just two births,
just three births,
just four births,
just five births,
just ten births,
just twenty births,
just thirty births,
just fourty births,
just fifty births,
one hundred births in all,
a thousand births in all,
a hundred-thousand births in all,
not just one evolution of a kappa,
not just one devolution of a kappa,
not just one evolution and devolution of a kappa.

That there:

Of such a name
of such a clan
of such color
of such food
of such experience of pleasure and pain,
of such coming to life's end.

Shifting away from that, re-appearing elsewhere.

In that habitation:

Of such a name
of such a clan
of such color
of such food
of such experience of pleasure and pain,
of such coming to life's end.

Shifting away from that reborn here."

Thus with it's makeup in detail,
he recollects not just one arrangement of previous inhabitations.

[66.][pts] In the same way, friends,
as a man were to go from his own village to another village,
from this village to another village,
and from this village were to return home,

Of this he would know:

'From my own village I then went to another village,
from that village I went to another village,
and from there I returned home.'

Even so, friends, a beggar
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to
previous-inhabitations knowledge.

He calls to mind not just one arrangement of previous inhabitation.

For example:

Just one birth,
just two births,
just three births,
just four births,
just five births,
just ten births,
just twenty births,
just thirty births,
just fourty births,
just fifty births,
one hundred births in all,
a thousand births in all,
a hundred-thousand births in all,
not just one evolution of a kappa,
not just one devolution of a kappa,
not just one evolution and devolution of a kappa.

That there:

Of such a name
of such a clan
of such color
of such food
of such experience of pleasure and pain,
of such coming to life's end.

Shifting away from that, re-appearing elsewhere.

In that habitation:

Of such a name
of such a clan
of such color
of such food
of such experience of pleasure and pain,
of such coming to life's end.

Shifting away from that reborn here."

Thus with it's makeup in detail,
he recollects not just one arrangement of previous inhabitations.

"Now then friends,
is it reasonable that a beggar
who thus knows, thus sees,
say such a thing as this:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"He friends,
who is a beggar who thus knows thus sees,
for him it would be reasonable to say such a thing as:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"But, friends, although I am one who
thus knows thus sees,
yet I do not say:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

 


 

[67.][pts] And again, friends, deeper than that, a beggar
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to
beings-shifting-round-n-round knowledge.

He sees beings with purified godlike sight
surpassing that of mankind.

He knows of beings
their shifting away,
re-appearance,
being left behind,
advancing,
their beauty,
their uglyness,
their experiencing of pleasure,
experiencing of pain,
according to their intentional deeds:

For sure these good beings were
committed to injurious bodily conduct,
committed to injurious verbal conduct,
committed to injurious mental conduct,
denegrated Aristocrats,
held low views,
were committed to behavior in accordance with low views,
for upon the break up of the body after death
they have arisen in states of woe,
pain,
punishment,
Niraya Hell.

For sure these good beings were
committed to beneficial bodily conduct,
committed to beneficial verbal conduct,
committed to beneficial mental conduct,
spoke well of Aristocrats,
were of high view,
were committed to behavior in accordance with high view,
for upon the break up of the body after death
they have arisen in worlds of heavenly pleasures.

Thus he sees beings with purified godlike sight
surpassing that of mankind.

And he knows of beings
their shifting away,
re-appearance,
being left behind,
advancing,
their beauty,
their uglyness,
their experiencing of pleasure,
experiencing of pain,
according to their intentional deeds.

[68.][pts] In the same way, friends,
as if there were an observation platform in the middle of an intersection,[30]
standing there a man with eyes could see
men as they go wandering around the avenues
just entering
just departing
just sitting in the middle of the intersection.

Of this he would know:

'These are men as they go wandering around the avenues
these are entering
these are departing
these are sitting in the middle of the intersection.'

Even so, friends a beggar
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to
beings-shifting-round-n-round knowledge.

He sees beings with purified godlike sight
surpassing that of mankind.

He knows of beings
their shifting away,
re-appearance,
being left behind,
advancing,
their beauty,
their uglyness,
their experiencing of pleasure,
experiencing of pain,
according to their intentional deeds:

For sure these good beings were
committed to injurious bodily conduct,
committed to injurious verbal conduct,
committed to injurious mental conduct,
denegrated Aristocrats,
held low views,
were committed to behavior in accordance with low views,
for upon the break up of the body after death
they have arisen in states of woe,
pain,
punishment,
Niraya Hell.

For sure these good beings were
committed to beneficial bodily conduct,
committed to beneficial verbal conduct,
committed to beneficial mental conduct,
spoke well of Aristocrats,
were of high view,
were committed to behavior in accordance with high view,
for upon the break up of the body after death
they have arisen in worlds of heavenly pleasures.

Thus he sees beings with purified godlike sight
surpassing that of mankind.

And he knows of beings
their shifting away,
re-appearance,
being left behind,
advancing,
their beauty,
their uglyness,
their experiencing of pleasure,
experiencing of pain,
according to their intentional deeds.

"Now then friends,
is it reasonable that a beggar
who thus knows, thus sees,
say such a thing as this:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"He friends,
who is a beggar who thus knows thus sees,
for him it would be reasonable to say such a thing as:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"But, friends, although I am one who
thus knows thus sees,
yet I do not say:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

 


 

[69.][pts] Even so, friends a beggar
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to
corrupting-influences-destruction-knowledge.

He, thinking:

'This is pain,'

knows the essence thereof.

He, thinking:

'This is the origin of pain,'

knows the essence thereof.

He, thinking:

'This is the eradication of pain,'

knows the essence thereof.

He, thinking:

'This is the the way to go to eradicate pain,'

knows the essence thereof.

He, thinking:

'These are the corrupting influences,'

knows the essence thereof.

He, thinking:

'This is the origin of the corrupting influences,'

knows the essence thereof.

He, thinking:

'This is the eradication of the corrupting influences,'

knows the essence thereof.

He, thinking:

'This is the way to go to eradicate the corrupting influences,'

knows the essence thereof.

Knowing this thus just so
his heart is released from the corrupting influence of sense pleasure.

Just so is the heart released from the corrupting influence of living.

Just so is the heart released from the corrupting influence of blindness.

In freedom is knowledge of being free.

And he knows:

'Behind: birth,
lived the Brahma carriage,
duty's doings done,
no further it'n-n-at'n for me!'

[70.][pts] In the same way, friends,
as in a high mountain pool of water — clear, pure, calm —
standing there, a man with eyes could see:
just there are oyster-sells,
just there is gravel and pebbles,
just there a school of fish,
just there swiming around,
just there standing still.

Of this he would know:

'This then is a high mountain pool of water' — clear, pure, calm —
and just there are oyster-shells,
just there is gravel and pebbles,
just there a school of fish,
just there swiming around,
just there standing still.

Even so, friends a beggar
settled in heart,
pure, utterly clear, sterile, without impurities,
being maliable, workable, standing still,
bears down on, bends-down his heart to
corrupting-influences-destruction-knowledge.

He, thinking:

'This is pain,'

knows the essence thereof.

He, thinking:

'This is the origin of pain,'

knows the essence thereof.

He, thinking:

'This is the eradication of pain,'

knows the essence thereof.

He, thinking:

'This is the the way to go to eradicate pain,'

knows the essence thereof.

He, thinking:

'These are the corrupting influences,'

knows the essence thereof.

He, thinking:

'This is the origin of the corrupting influences,'

knows the essence thereof.

He, thinking:

'This is the eradication of the corrupting influences,'

knows the essence thereof.

He, thinking:

'This is the way to go to eradicate the corrupting influences,'

knows the essence thereof.

Knowing this thus just so
his heart is released from the corrupting influence of sense pleasure.

Just so is the heart released from the corrupting influence of living.

Just so is the heart released from the corrupting influence of blindness.

In freedom is knowledge of being free.

And he knows:

'Behind: birth,
lived the Brahma carriage,
duty's doings done,
no further it'n-n-at'n for me!'

"Now then friends,
is it reasonable that a beggar
who thus knows, thus sees,
say such a thing as this:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"He friends,
who is a beggar who thus knows thus sees,
for him it would not be proper to say such a thing as:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

"And, friends, I am one who
thus knows thus sees,
and I do not say:

'Is it said:
"That which is life is that which is body."
or
"One thing is life another thing is body."'?"

[71.][pts] This is what The Lucky Man said.

And overjoyed at these words,
Otthaddho the Licchavi was uplifted in mind,
say I.

HERE ENDS THE MAHĀLI SUTTA

 


[1]Ko nu kho bhante hetu ko paccayo. 'Hetu' is 'driving force'. PED states that it is from 'hi', to impel. 'Hi!' or 'Hi-ya!' 'Giddy-up'. This is the word at the lowest most timeless level. 'On account of what is the result that'. 'Reason' and 'Cause' would do if heard as generally used in American English, but not if understood precisely. It isn't a 'cause' in the sense of making a thing happen or not happen. The driver can crack the whip, but it can't make the horse drink. It is a or the primary or operant factor in the making of a thing happen. It is not a or the 'reason' because it is a force, not a static condidition. The crack of the whip is the reason the horse gets moving, but that is not the 'hetu', what impells it. What impells it to move, the driver, the hetu, is the force of the fear of the touch of the whip. It is the force of Sunakkhatto Licchaviputto's intent to see sights in a single direction that is preventing him from hearing sounds. He has an 'idea' in his methodology that is a force in operation against the outcome he, in another frame of mind, wants to achieve. We would probably just say: 'Why doesn't he hear such sounds?" But if the question had been put to Gotama that way then the answer would likely have been: 'Because he is employing an incorrect method for the attaining of that result.' And to get to the details another question would need to be asked. In translating 'hetu' we need to imply 'driving-force' as in the driver of a chariot, while avoiding the idea that that force is the single thing making a certain thing happen or not happen.
The phrase also could be rendered: What is the precurser driver ... driving force ..., or
What is the requisite driver ... driving force,
Some will note I translate the term Taɱ kissa hetu? as 'How come?' ['What drives?'] This works for this phrase, but in the case under discussion it would need to be 'How comes the result (consequence, repercussion, requisite condition, condition) that' or 'how does it come about that the result is'. Ignoring the 'paccayo' we could say: "How come?" but again in those days, with Gotama, that would likely have resulted in an unenlightening answer like: 'Because he used the wrong method.' The questioner wants to know how to practice to both hear the sounds and see the sights. Likely his retinue is a group of students and he is asking this question to dispell doubts and teach them the method.
We might say: 'How does it end up that?'

[2] Puratthimāya: from 'pura' fore, PED has 'eastern', facing East;
disāya: point, direction;
dakkhiṇāya: 'to the right', PED: #3. (of that point of the compass which is characterized through "orientation" by facing the rising sun, and then lies on one's right:) Southern;
pacchimāya: PED has lots of words like hindmost, hind-, back-, last, latest, lowest, meanest — Western;
versus:
uttarāya: higher, high, superior, upper over, beyond — Northern.
The list also frequently includes:
uparimā and heṭṭhimā disā: above and below; = as in this sutta: uddham-adho + tiriyaɱ: above, below, across the 4 anudisā: the four intermediate directions, South-East, South-West, North-West, and North-East; collectively named:
The dasa disā: the 10 directions.
Unlike the sequence describing time which is always: 'past, future, present,' PED notes that the sequence for direction is not always consistent though I have never seen it not begin with the East. The flames from the Eastern wall rebound off the Western Wall, the flames from the Western Wall rebound off the Eastern wall. The Western current drives it East, the Eastern current drives it West. ...

[3] This section down to the end of this group and the similar sections in the next two groups are not included in either The PTS Pali or Rhys David's translation, though apparently existing in Rhys Davids personal version of the Pali of this sutta. BJT includes these paragraphs (with some differences that look to have resulted from 'copy and paste' errors.) Without straightening out the lines and paragraphs, seeing this in the original which is just one single run-in line, this is a massively confusing bit of text.
The inclusion of these paragraphs deliniates with a fine-grained precision the ideas under examination: "When this is done, that is the result; when he practices this way, he experiences that result; when a beggar practicing this way experiences that result, this is the driver for that result; this is the driver which results in this happening to Sunakkhatto Licchaviputto.
This done in this way is a form of hypnotic suggestion which in this case because of it's precision in following the exact sequence of thoughts the way they actually occur in the mind, would inspire great confidence in the ability of the speaker to be one who 'knows and sees'.
Without this detail there is a discontinuity that would be disturbing: the question asked is why Sunakkhatto Licchaviputto does not hear divine sounds, but we are given, as well as a response to that, the driving force resulting in hearing or not hearing divine sounds, seeing or not seeing divine sights, and both seeing divine sights and hearing divine sounds. The 'extra' details are needed to show that the answer is still really just to the original question and is not a digression.
But what patience there must have been on both sides to go through this like this!
But what a reward for doing so!
There is another similar situation in the suttas where Anuruddha is perplexed as to why he is able to see 'the light' sometimes but not 'forms' and sometimes is able to see 'forms' but not 'the light'. The mechanism is similar, but in his case involving over anxiousness or disinterest with regard to the experience of the one or the other. Gotama in this sutta speaks of having had the same experience himself.
Something else is likely to happen in the case as described here. A beggar practicing in one direction whether for the single experience of seeing sights or hearing sounds, or for the dual experience of seeing sights and hearing sounds, is going to find himself unable to do so in another direction. How come? Because his practice was in only one direction.
We can imagine this being spelled out fully for all 10 directions. ... and ... why not? Let's throw in seeing the light and seeing forms, and hearing sounds near and far, man-made or other-worldly.
Because experiencing such experiences is not the goal of the system, that's why not. To go as far as is provided in this sutta was done for the good reason that it is the only complete way to answer the question and for demonstration to Mahali and his followers of the precision of the Awakened mind. To go further would be to mis-direct. We get a sense of this issue with Mahali's follow-up question.

[4] Sotāpanno. Do you hear it? What? The sound of the Stream. I think the fact that this word means 'ear' as well as 'stream' cannot be lost on this audience.

[5] Avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo. ; No-destruction-thing destined self-awake-culmination
Avinipāta PED: ruin, destruction; a place of suffering, state of punishment;
niyato PED: restrained, bound to, constrained to, sure (as to the future), fixed (in its consequences), certain, assured, necessary;
sambodhi own- self- awake; parāyaṇ PED: going through to, ending in, aiming at, given to, attached to, having one's end or goal in; also: finding one's support in (as daṇḍa- leaning on a stick M I.88; A I.138), in following phrases prevalent: Amata- S V.217 sq.; tama- Pug 51; Nibbāna- S IV.373; V.218; brahmacariya- S I.234; Maccu- S V.217; sambodhi-;
Walsh: not liable to states of woe, firmly set on the path to enlightenment;
Rhys Davids: one who cannot be reborn in any state of woe, and is assured of attaining to the Insight (of the stages higher still).

The meaning is that one has seen the error in [1] holding views as absolute truths, [2] trusting that good deeds, ethical behavior, rights, or rituals will bring one to the end of Pain, and [3] Doubt that the Dhamma will lead one who acts in accordance with it to the end of Pain, and that Gotama realized Awakening. This is elsewhere described as having 'unshakable faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha [where 'sangha' is understood to mean those who have attained one or another or all of the four stages that begin with Stream-entry]'. The idea that this amounts to blind faith should be avoided: this is faith that has been founded on the real perception of the error of views, trust in good deeds, etc.! That, stated another way is the perception that: 'There is no own-made thing that having come to be does not come to an end.' This is often the only way the attainment of Stream-entry is described.

[6] Tanuttā. PED: diminution, reduction, vanishing, gradual disappearance. At/for this stage not total eradication.

[7] Sakadāgāmī. Sakid: once; ā to; gāma: home.

[8] Orambhāgiyānaɱ. The yokes binding one to the 'lower' worlds, not the lower yokes. The lower worlds are those also called the 'kama loka' 'pleasure worlds' and include worlds inhabited by beings in Hell, in Animal Bodies, in Ghostly forms, in Demonic Forms, the Human world, beings that reside with the Four Kings of the 4 Directions, beings that reside with the Gods of the Chamber of the Three and Thirty (Sakka's Realm = Indra's Realm, probably = Zeus's Realm, Jupiter's Realm, God's Heaven), beings that reside in Yama's Paradise, beings that reside with The gods of the Heaven of Delight (Tusita), beings that reside with The Gods of Creation (Nimmanarati), and beings that reside with The Gods of Manipulation (Paranimmitavasavatti). All these are out for this guy, not, as with Rhys Davids, just 'this world'.
One might well ask how Hell, animal birth, ghostly birth and demonic birth could be considered 'pleasure worlds'. For one faced with the idea of annihilation at death, 'being' in any form is considred a pleasure.

[9] Opapātiko. One who without experiencing a death here or birth there re-appears there 'reborn' as a youth 15 years of age. Very much like the power to disappear from here and re-appear there except that in this case he is 'reborn', has entered a new 'life.' 'There,' so I hear, being one of the Pure Abodes (Suddhavasa) and that he is a non-returner who realizes Arahantship during his lifetime there. The word used here is anāvatti-dhammo 'non-back-falling-' where 'dhamma' apparently means 'of a nature' 'a thing that' and the statement is that he is not subject to falling from there. It is usually stated that he attains Arahantship half-way through the normal lifespan there. But since life in these abodes is exclusively for non-returners, all beings there would attain Arahanship half-way through the normal lifespan there so the normal lifespan there would be ...

[10] Parinibbāyī. Pari: all-around; nibbāyī: unbound, released.

[11] Āsavā. The corrupting influence of sense pleasure, the corrupting influence of living, the corrupting influence of blindness and the corrupting influence of points of view. The last is sometimes not given and is essentially covered by the third. The eradication of the asavas given at the end of this sutta is included by reference to the description of the process in DN 2 where it has only the three. I do not recall having seen the process as it is given in DN 2 where the four are used. The term is also used in a broad way to indicate things that might cause distraction such as a tree-stump in one's path, uneven ground, a mad dog, etc. It might be better to translate it as 'disrupting influence'.

[12] Here it is: "Kin nu kho āvuso bho Gotama,||
taɱ jīvaɱ taɱ sarīraɱ udāhu aññaɱ jīvaɱ aññaɱ sarīran?" ti.

Literally: How then friend good Gotama, is it
'That-um life that-um body
or other-um life other-um body?' (end quote);
the direct question. I think this might be much clearer with the hand jestures that most likely accompanied the original question. Another more interesting hypothesis is that they were speaking with only basic knowledge of Pali or even that this is a remnant of the Pali that was in actual use. The fact that they address Gotama as 'friend' shows at least that they were unfamiliar with the etiquette of Gotama's sangha.
Subsequently in the sutta [see] it will be:
'"taɱ jīvaɱ taɱ sarīran" ti vā
"aññaɱ jīvaɱ aññaɱ sarīran" ti vā' ti.

'Is it said: "That life is that body"
or is it said:
"Life is a separate thing, the body is a separate thing?"' (end quote.)
This latter emphasizing that this is a proposition that there are only two points of view possible and that in this system neither proposition is acceptable.
As an aside it is useful to point out that this is a good example of why one needs to consult the Pali. Just reading the translation it would be highly probable that one would assume that what was being spoken of here was 'atta' and 'kaya'. More often than not 'jiva' would refer to 'life' or 'lifestyle' and 'kaya' would be used as a broader term for what was understood to be the form of an individual as opposed to 'physical body' as here. These two wanderers have this body and it's animating force in mind.

[13] From this point the text is abbreviated referencing §s 40-63; 64-75; 77-81; 83-96; and 97 of Digha Nikaya, Sutta II: Samaññaphala-sutta, changing only the conclusions of each section and the address from 'Maharaja' to 'avuso'.

[14] ācāra-gocara-sampanno Literally to have come into carriage and cow-pasure. To be possessed of good manners and associations.

[15] Nihata-paccāmitto. Neutralized-back-friends. These guys were often ruthless to the extreme going as far as to have all those executed who were near him in his ascent to the crown.

[16] This section is omitted by in the Pali and by Rhys Davids and would be omitted if following the indications of what was abbreviated and should be inserted back from DN 2 as indicated in the PTS Pali and followed by the BJT — but it should be included as indicated in the summary: § 18 above.

[17] Sukha. Sweetness. Sugar. Succor. Rhys Davids translation of this passage is especially beautiful:

'And gladness springs up within him
on his realising that,
and joy arises to him thus gladdened,
and so rejoicing
all his frame becomes at ease,
and being thus at ease
he is filled with a sense of peace,
and in that peace his heart is stayed.

[18] Samādhiyati. See above note, Rhys David's: 'stayed', presumably from the context, meaning settled down. PED: has: Passive of samādahati = sam + adhiyati, adhiyati = a dahati1 English: 'to do', to put down, set up; [but it can be 'to lite' 'to burn']: which would be something like "to have begun," "to have started," "to have set up".
The issue is: is this a description of the first appearance of samādhi, serenity, or is this a description of the state where one has set up the conditions for samādhi? Sammā Samādhi is defined as the four jhānas, but samādhi is also a word for serene states other than the four jhānas. The translation here is saying that at this point a state of samādhi has been attained, that this is, in effect, a definition of samādhi. Walshe has 'concentrated,' meaning he has also taken this as 'one who has samadhi'. Note that this is not a description of ecstasy.
This is important to resolve for one who wishes to develop Sammā Samādhi. It is saying that one is, under these conditions, already in samādhi, has already become serene, prior to entering the first jhāna. We can then even return to the idea of samādahati understanding this state to have been the 'laying of the fire', the jhānas being the 'burning' itself.

with his bowl brim-full-up

[19] This simile is one of the most perplexing passages in the suttas. That the connotation is sexual is beyond debate, but does this imply that the technique is similar to or identical with the sexual tantric method? Build up sexual sensations but do not bring it to the point of ...um... oozing moisture? This is contradicted by every instruction concerning 'kama' and even in the instructions concerning letting go of the involvements just preceding the first jhāna. That there are sexual references throughout the suttas cannot be denied, but in the other cases what is at work is a sort of mockery that relies on a phenomena discovered later by Freud wherein all human activity (especially note argument and contention) are subtle sublimations of the sexual drive. But in the case here the implication is to the nature of a practice and that is perplexing.
The compromise suggested here is that 'in the same way' as a person arouses sexual excitement within himself by conjuring erotic images, here the bhikkhu arouses peaceful enthusiasm by conjuring with thinking and pondering recollections of his former bound up state as contrasted with his later freed state ... without yet allowing his enthusiasm to 'spill' out into utterances or activities.

[20] Kalla. PED: 1. well, healthy, sound ... 2. clever, able, dexterous ... 3. ready, prepared ... 4. fit, proper, right S II.13 (pañha). - nt. kallaɱ it is proper, befitting (with inf. or inf.-substitute): vacanāya proper to say.
I have used 'reasonable' as pointing more clearly to our ears than 'propper' to the intent I see in the passage, that is, that up to the last point it would be reasonable to ask such a question, but that he himself would not do so.
Walshe, Rhys Davids and the commentaries see this as an exchange between the two Wanderers and Gotama whereas I have it as a rhetorical question answered by himself.
The Pali has the response put both ways in various versions [see Rhys Davids, n. 26,27]. Rhys Davids has it: 'yes it would be' to the end and 'no' for the last. Walshe changes the sequence throughout to 'not-reasonable'. Buddhaghosa has it as a dialog, not a rhetorical question, but indicates the same sequence of responses as I have used here with explanation that the hypothetical bhikkhu being used as the example by Gotama has got Arahantship at this point. This at least is evidence that the early Pali was as here — saying it would be 'reasonable' up to the last but not in the last case.
Another thing: the Wanderers, when addressing Gotama are made in this story which is being spoken by Gotama, to address him as 'friend good Gotama' but here, where they are presumed to be speaking by Walshe, Rhys Davids and the commentary, only 'friend' is used. Āvuso can be 'friend' or 'friends'.
I think it is a much more powerful statement when made as it appears in the Pali and as I have rendered it here. ... it is 'reasonable' to ask, but it would be wiser to wait until one's knowing and seeing was that of the Arahant where it would no longer be reasonable to ask such a question because one sees that this is not relevant to leaving behind birth, living the Brahma life, finishing one's duties, ending one's journey through the being of any sort of it at any place of atness.

[21] Nippītikena. Nis = put down, pīti = enthusiasm + ka. By way of seeing that it is own-made, intentionally done and attached to the world.

[22] The Pali gives, in stead of the colors as I have it, the names of the varieties. "Overgrown with ~" Uppaliniyaɱ vā paduminiyaɱ vā puṇḍarīkiniyaɱ. PED states that "It is usually mentioned in two varieties, viz. ratta- and seta-, i. e. red and white lotus, so at J V.37;" Elsewhere the colors are apparently used to describe various purities of recluse, so I am assuming here that the important thing here is that Gotama's audience is 'seeing' the overgrown pond and the colors, not determining variety — that this is a sort of hypnotic regression. ... as is the repetition and degree of 'soakings' and, indeed, the similies themselves are very powerful hypnotic images.

[23] See: DN 22 § 5

[24] Cātum-mahā-bhūtiko. As distinguished from cātum-mahā-dhatū, where no distinction is usually made by translators. When it is bhūtika it is a physical thing and element works well, when it is dhatū it is a characteristic and data works well.

[25] Abhinimminanāya To over-out-mete. To mete out. Measure out. Conjure up. Create with magic power.
Abhinimmināti [abhi + nimmināti, cp. BSanskrit abhinirmāti ... ] to create (by magic), produce, shape, make
Nimmināti [cp. Sanskrit nirmimīti and nirmāti, nis+mināti, mā; cp. nimināti] to measure out, fashion, build, construct, form; make by miracle, create, compose; produce, lay out, plan

How does 'mete out', a 'measure' become creating a feat of 'conjuration'? Having relaxed the notion of self with regard to that kaya there, seeing it, for example, as simply a white splotch as in the fourth jhāna, one very carefully 'divides away' (in a process similar to, and maybe identical with mitosis) in measured amounts a bit at a time gradually bringing forth a separate entity complete in all it's parts.

[26] Also Abhinimminanāya. See n. 25.

Drawing a snake from it's basket

[27] Karaṇḍā. Basket but also slough. Rhys Davids uses slough as have I in other translations of this simile, but it occurs to me that what is intended is the image of the snake charmer, drawing out his snake from it's basket. I don't think it is often that it is a man that removes a snake from it's slough. This needs to parallel the task of conjuring a mind-made body.

[28] Tiro-bhāvaɱ. Become beyond or beyond becoming. Understanding bhāva as 'living' or 'being' as some sort of being in some place of being. As I hear how this works this is a relative power. Relative to the scope of the observer, so limited to the class of 'being' that is observing. The person with this power is able to go out of this class of beings, beyond, into another and in that way becomes invisible in the original state. If the observer is also able to see beyond, he has not achieved this power relative to that observer.

[29] Ceto. What we understand to be mental states. Here in this country at this time we do not much use the idea of 'heart' to describe the mind and we have no good term for the full scope of the objects of the heart. Emotions covers part, moods covers part, states of mind describes the phenomena that is going on in the heart but uses the wrong term in 'mind'. Mind needs to be understood in a larger context as encompassing all things mental from perception through emotions. Heart is bound up in the existence of the individual and it is that which is being encompassed here.
As pointed out in The Pali Line: we have here an example of a Dhamma used in one place for one purpose — in The Satipatthana Sutta, to set up knowledge, awareness, recollection of and release from mental states — the purpose of which is detachment, and the purpose of detachment clarity — and turning up in another place for another purpose — as the power of reading other's emotions and mental states. The training of the former is the training for the latter. The experience of the latter is the reason for the former.

[30] Singhāṭake. It is not easy to see how this becomes 'square' or 'crossroads.' Apparently it evolves from 'saŋ' + Ghaṭeti = own-connection, joining, uniting, or 'saŋ' + 'Ghaṭa' = own crowd. Possibly gathering place becomes 'square'.
PED does not help, but has for:
Ghaṭeti [Denominitive from ghaṭa2, cp. gantheti] to join, to connect, to unite J I.139; frequent in anusandhiɱ ghaṭetvā adding the connection (between one rebirth and another) J I.220, 308.
Ghaṭa2 (m. and f.) [Sanskrit ghaṭā; conn. with ganthati to bind together] multitude, heap, crowd, dense mass, i. e. thicket, cluster itthi- a crowd of women J IV.316; maccha- a swarm of fish J II.227; vana- dense forest J II.385; IV.56; V.502; VI.11, 519, 564; brahma- company of brahmins J VI.99.
In other suttas this stands for the place where the four great 'dhatū' [characteristics, attributes, elements] (earth, water, firelight, wind] meet.


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