The Book of the Gradual Sayings
X. The Book of the Tens
X: The Lay-followers
The Elder Monk
Translated from the Pali by F. L. Woodward, M.A.
 THUS have I heard:
Once on a time the Exalted One addressed the monks, saying:
"Yes, lord," they replied, and the Exalted One said:
"Monks, possessed of ten qualities
an elder monk, in whatever quarter he may live,
What are the ten?
An elder monk has seen many a day pass,
has long ago gone forth,
He is virtuous,
he dwells restrained
with the restraint of the obligation,
well equipped in range of practice,
seeing grounds for fear in minutest faults,
he takes up and trains himself
in the training of the precepts.
Then again he has heard much;
he bears in mind what he has heard,
he stores up what he has heard.
lovely at the beginning,
lovely at the end (of life),
in spirit and in letter
do stress the brahma-life
in its all-round fullness
and utter purity,
such teachings are much heard by him,
borne in mind,
and well penetrated by vision.
Moreover by him both of the obligations in full
are thoroughly learned by heart
and well analyzed,
with full knowledge of the meaning,
clearly divided sutta by sutta
and in minute detail.
He is skilled in the rise and settlement of disputes.
He delights in Dhamma,
is pleasant to converse with,
he rejoices exceedingly in further Dhamma
and further discipline.
He is content with whatsoever supply
of robe and alms-food,
of seat and lodging,
of medicines and comforts in sickness
he may get.
He is charming
and perfectly composed
in his goings out
and his comings in,
and when he sits down in the house.
He wins at pleasure,
the four stages of musing
which are of the clear consciousness,
which are concerned with the happy life
in this same visible state.
By destroying the cankers
in this same visible state,
thoroughly comprehending the heart's release,
the release by insight,
and dwells therein.
With these ten qualities
an elder monk lives happily
wherever he may be.