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Sa.myutta Nikaaya:
III. Khandhaa Vagga:
23: Raadhasa.myutta

Kindred Sayings on Raadha

Suttas 1-46

Translated by Bhikkhu Bodhi

Copyright Wisdom Publications.
Reproduced with permission.


 

I. The First Maara Subchapter


 

Sutta 1

Maara

[1.1][pts][bd] At Saavatthii.

Then the Venerable Raadha approached the Blessed One,[239] paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'Maara, Maara.' In what way, venerable sir, might Maara be?"[240]

"When there is form, Raadha, there might be Maara, or the killer, or the one who is killed.[241] Therefore, Raadha, see form as Maara, see it as the killer, see it as the one who is killed. See it as a disease, as a tumour, as a dart, as misery, as real misery. Those who see it thus see rightly.

"When there is feeling ... When there is perception ... When there are volitional formations ... When there is consciousness, Raadha, there might be Maara, or the killer, or the one who is killed. Therefore, Raadha, see consciousness as Maara, see it as the killer, see it as the one who is killed. See it as a disease, as a tumour, as a dart, as misery, as real misery. Those who see it thus see rightly."

"What, venerable sir, is the purpose of seeing rightly?"

"The purpose of seeing rightly, Raadha, is revulsion."

"And what, venerable sir, is the purpose of revulsion?"

"The purpose of revulsion is dispassion."

"And what, venerable sir, is the purpose of dispassion?"

"The purpose of dispassion is liberation."

"And what, venerable sir, is the purpose of liberation?"

"The purpose of liberation is Nibbaana."[242]

"And what, venerable sir, is the purpose of Nibbaana?"

"You have gone beyond the range of questioning, Raadha.[243]

[ 985 ] You weren't able to grasp the limit to questioning. For, Raadha, the holy life is lived with Nibbaana as its ground, Nibbaana as its destination, Nibbaana as its final goal."[244]

 

§

 

Sutta 2

A Being

[2.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Raadha said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'a being, a being.' In what way, venerable sir, is one called a being?"

"One is stuck, Raadha, tightly stuck, in desire, lust, delight, and craving for form; therefore one is called a being.[244a] One is stuck, tightly stuck, in desire, lust, delight, and craving for feeling... for perception ... for volitional formations ... for consciousness; therefore one is called a being.

"Suppose, Raadha, some little boys or girls are playing with sand castles. So long as they are not devoid of lust, desire, affection, thirst, passion, and craving for those sand castles, they cherish them, play with them, treasure them,[245] and treat them possessively. But when those little boys or girls lose their lust, desire, affection, thirst, passion, and craving for those sand castles, then they scatter them with their hands and feet, demolish them, shatter them, and put them out of play.

"So too, Raadha, scatter form, demolish it, shatter it, put it out of play; practise for the destruction of craving. Scatter feeling ... Scatter perception... Scatter volitional formations ... Scatter consciousness, demolish it, shatter it, put it out of play; practise for the destruction of craving. For the destruction of craving, Raadha, is Nibbaana."

 

§

 

Sutta 3

The Conduit to Existence

[3.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Raadha said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'the conduit to existence, the conduit to existence.'[246] What, venerable sir, is the conduit to existence, and what is the cessation of the conduit to existence?"

"Raadha, the desire, lust, delight, craving, engagement and clinging, mental standpoints, adherences, and underlying tendencies regarding form:[247] this is called the conduit to existence. Their cessation is the cessation of the conduit to existence.

"The desire, lust, delight, craving, engagement and clinging, mental standpoints, adherences, and underlying tendencies regarding feeling... perception... volitional formations... consciousness: this is called the conduit to existence. Their cessation is the cessation of the conduit to existence."

 

§

 

Sutta 4

To Be Fully Understood

[4.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

"Raadha, I will teach you things that should be fully understood, full understanding, and the person who has fully understood.[218] Listen to that....

"And what, Raadha, are the things that should be fully understood? Form, Raadha, is something that should be fully understood. Feeling ... Perception ... Volitional formations ... Consciousness is something that should be fully understood. These are called the things that should be fully understood.

"And what, Raadha, is full understanding? The destruction of lust, the destruction of hatred, the destruction of delusion: this is called full understanding.[219]

"And who, Raadha, is the person that has fully understood? It should be said: the arahant, the venerable one of such a name and clan. This is called the person that has fully understood."

 

§

 

Sutta 5

Ascetics (1)

[5.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

"Raadha, there are these five aggregates subject to clinging. What five? The form aggregate subject to clinging... the [ 965 ] consciousness aggregate subject to clinging.

"Raadha, those ascetics and brahmins who do not understand as they really are the gratification, the danger, and the escape in the case of these five aggregates subject to clinging: these I do not consider to be ascetics among ascetics or brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones do not, by realizing it for themselves with direct knowledge, in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism or the goal of brahminhood.

"But, Raadha, those ascetics and brahmins who understand these things as they really are: these I consider to be ascetics among ascetics and brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones, by realizing it for themselves with direct knowledge, in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism and the goal of brahminhood."

 

§

 

Sutta 6

Ascetics (2)

[6.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

At Saavatthii [220]

"Raadha, there are these five aggregates subject to clinging. What five? The form aggregate subject to clinging... the consciousness aggregate subject to clinging.

"Raadha, those ascetics and brahmins who do not understand as they really are the origin and the passing away, the gratification, the danger, and the escape in the case of these five aggregates subject to clinging: these I do not consider to be ascetics among ascetics or brahmins among brahmins....

"But, Raadha, those ascetics and brahmins who understand these things as they really are... in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism and the goal of brahminhood."

 

§

 

Sutta 7

Stream-Enterer

[7.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

"Raadha, there are these five aggregates subject to clinging. What five? The form aggregate subject to clinging... the consciousness aggregate subject to clinging.

"When, Raadha, a noble disciple understands as they really are the origin and the passing away, the gratification, the danger, and the escape in the case of these five aggregates subject to clinging, then he is called a noble disciple who is a stream-enterer, no longer bound to the nether world, fixed in destiny, with enlightenment as his destination."

 

§

 

Sutta 8

Arahant

[8.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

... "When, Raadha, having understood as they really are the origin and the passing away, the gratification, the danger, and the escape in the case of these five aggregates subject to clinging, a bhikkhu is liberated by nonclinging,[221] then he is called a bhikkhu who is an arahant, one whose taints are destroyed, who has lived the holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached his own goal, utterly destroyed the fetters of existence, one completely liberated through final knowledge."

 

§

 

Sutta 9

Abandoning Desire (1)

[9.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

"Raadha, whatever desire there is for form, whatever lust, delight, craving -- abandon it. Thus that form will be abandoned, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that it is no more subject to future arising. So too in the case of feeling, perception, volitional formations, and consciousness."

 

§

 

Sutta 10

Abandoning Desire (2)

[10.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

"Raadha, whatever desire there is for form, whatever lust, delight, craving, whatever engagement and clinging, mental standpoints, adherences, and underlying tendencies abandon them. Thus that form will be abandoned, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that it is no more subject to future arising. So too in the case of feeling, perception, volitional formations, and consciousness."

 

§

 

Sutta 11

Maara

[11.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Raadha said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'Maara, Maara.' What now, venerable sir, is Maara?"

"Form, Raadha, is Maara. Feeling... Perception... Volitional formations ... Consciousness is Maara. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"

 

§

 

Sutta 12

Subject to Maara

[12.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Raadha said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'subject to Maara, subject to Maara.'[248] What now, venerable sir, is subject to Maara?"

"Form, Raadha, is subject to Maara. Feeling ... Perception ... Volitional formations... Consciousness is subject to Maara. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"

 

§

 

Sutta 13

Impermanent

[13.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Raadha said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'impermanent, impermanent.' What now, venerable sir; is impermanent?"

"Form, Raadha, is impermanent. Feeling ... Perception ... Volitional formations ... Consciousness is impermanent. Seeing thus .. . He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"

 

§

 

Sutta 14

Of Impermanent Nature

[14.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Raadha said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'of an impermanent nature, of an impermanent nature.' What now, venerable sir, is of an impermanent nature?"

"Form, Raadha, is of an impermanent nature. Feeling ... Perception ... Volitional formations ... Consciousness is of an impermanent nature. Seeing thus... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"

 

§

 

Sutta 15

Suffering

[15.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Raadha said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'suffering, suffering.' What now, venerable sir, is suffering?"

"Form, Raadha, is suffering, feeling is suffering, perception is suffering, volitional formations are suffering, consciousness is suffering. Seeing thus... He understands: ' ... there is no more for this state of being.'"

 

§

 

Sutta 16

Of Painful Nature

[16.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Raadha said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'of a painful nature, of a painful nature: What now, venerable sir, is of a painful nature?"

"Form, Raadha, is of a painful nature. Feeling ... Perception ... Volitional formations ... Consciousness is of a painful nature. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"

 

§

 

Sutta 17

Nonself

[17.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Raadha said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'nonself, nonself.' What now, venerable sir, is nonself?"

"Form, Raadha, is nonself, feeling is nonself, perception is nonself, volitional formations are nonself, consciousness is nonself. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"

 

§

 

Sutta 18

Of Selfless Nature

[18.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Raadha said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'of a selfless nature, of a selfless nature.' What now, venerable sir, is of a selfless nature?"

"Form, Raadha, is of a selfless nature. Feeling ... [197] Perception... Volitional formations... Consciousness is of a selfless nature. Seeing thus... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"

 

§

 

Sutta 19

Subject to Destruction

[19.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Raadha said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'subject to destruction, subject to destruction.' What now, venerable sir, is subject to destruction?"

"Form, Raadha, is subject to destruction. Feeling ... Perception . .. Volitional formations ... Consciousness is subject to destruction. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"

 

§

 

Sutta 20

Subject to Vanishing

[20.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Raadha said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'subject to vanishing, subject to vanishing.' What now, venerable sir, is subject to vanishing?"

"Form, Raadha, is subject to vanishing. Feeling... Perception... Volitional formations ... Consciousness is subject to vanishing. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"

 

§

 

Sutta 21

Subject to Arising

[21.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Raadha said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'subject to arising, subject to arising.' What now, venerable sir, is subject to arising?"

"Form, Raadha, is subject to arising. Feeling .;. Perception ... Volitional formations ... Consciousness is subject to arising. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more Jor this state of being.'"

 

§

 

Sutta 22

Subject to Cessation

[22.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Raadha said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'subject to cessation, subject to cessation.' What now, venerable sir, is subject to cessation?"

"Form, Raadha, is subject to cessation. Feeling... Perception... Volitional formations ... Consciousness is subject to cessation. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"

 


III. Request


 

Sutta 23

Maara

[23.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Raadha said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, it would be good if the Blessed One would teach me the Dhamma in brief, so that, having heard the Dhamma from the Blessed One, I might dwell alone, withdrawn, diligent, ardent, and resolute."

"Raadha, you should abandon desire, you should abandon lust, you should abandon desire and lust, for whatever is Maara. And what, Raadha, is Maara? Form is Maara. Feeling ... Perception ... Volitional formations ... Consciousness is Maara. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"

 

§

 

Suttas 24-34

Subject to Maara, Etc.

[24.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

... "Raadha, you should abandon desire, you should abandon lust, you should abandon desire and lust, for whatever is subject to Maara ... for whatever is impermanent ... for whatever is of an impermanent nature... for whatever is suffering... for whatever is of a painful nature ... for whatever is nonself ... for whatever is of a selfless nature ... for whatever is subject to destruction ... for whatever is subject to vanishing... for whatever is subject to arising ... for whatever is subject to cessation. And what, Raadha, is subject to cessation? Form is subject to cessation. Feeling ... Perception ... Volitional formations ... Consciousness is subject to cessation. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"

 


IV. Sitting Nearby


 

Sutta 35

Maara

[35.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

The Blessed One said to the Venerable Raadha as he was sitting to one side: Raadha, you should abandon desire, you should abandon lust, you should abandon desire and lust, for whatever is Maara. And what, Raadha, is Maara?"... (Complete as in Ii23.)

 

§

 

Sutta 36-46

Subject to Maara, Etc.

[36.1][pts] At Saavatthii.

(Identical with IiIi24-34, but opening as in the preceding sutta.)

 


[239] DPPN 2:730 explains that he was a brahmin of Raajagaha who had become a monk in his old age. The Buddha declared him the foremost of those who could inspire ingenuity in others (etadagga.m pa.tibhaa.nakeyyaana.m; AN I 25,15). He has two verses at Th 133-34 (= Dhp 13-14).
Spk: Whenever the Tathagata saw this elder, a subtle topic occurred to him. Thus the Blessed One taught him the Dhamma in various ways. In this Sa'nyutta, two vaggas have come down by way of questions, a third by way of request, and a fourth by way of intimate discourse (upanisinnakakathaa, lit. "sitting nearby talk").

[240] Spk: Here "Mara" is a metaphor for death and the aggregates (mara.na-maara, khandha-maara).

[241] Maaro vaa assa maaretaa vaa yo vii pana miyati. Spk glosses maaretaa with maaretabbo, but the word is clearly an agent noun with an active sense.

[242] Vimutti kho Raadha nibbaanatthaa. Spk: This "liberation of the fruit" is for the purpose of Nibbaana without clinging (phalavimutti naam'esaa anupaadaanibbaanatthaa).

[243] This paragraph is also at 48:42 (V 218,19-21) and MN I 304,20-22. Be consistently reads the verb as accayaasi (aorist of atiyaati), Se as accasaraa (aorist of atisarati). Ee's assa here and ajjhaparam below must stem from faulty manuscripts.
The last sentence is: Nibbaanogadha.m hi Raadha brahmacariya.m vussati nibbaanaparaayana.m nibbaanapariyosaana.m. Many translators take nibbaanogadha to mean "the plunge into Nibbaana" or "merging with Nibbaana," which the commentaries encourage by connecting ogadha with ogaaha, a plunge (from the verb ogaahati, to plunge into). But ogadha is actually a by-form of ogaadha, from the verb ogaadhati, which the commentaries treat as synonymous with pati.t.thahati, "to be established." They confirm this link by consistently glossing ogadha with pati.t.thaa, support; hence my rendering "ground." For the references, see CPD, s.v. ogadha, ogaadhati, ogaaha, and the use of the word gaadha, both literal and metaphorical, in I, v. 263. MW defines gaadha (from the root gaadh, to stand firmly) as a ground for standing on in water, a shallow place, a ford.

[244][244a] This reply hinges on a pun between satta as the Pali equivalent of Skt sattva, "a being," and as the past participle of sajjati (= Skt sakta), "attached."

[245] I read dhanaayanti with Be and Se, glossed dhana.m viya ma~n~nanti by Spk.

[246] I follow Se. Be reads bhavanetti-nirodho twice, Ee bhavanetti bhavanetti-nirodho. Bhavanetti, lit. "what leads to existence," is glossed bhavarajju, "rope of existence," by Spk. The expression is a synonym of bhavata.nhaa, craving for existence, and often occurs in verse.

[247] A partly similar series of terms is met at 12:15. See II, nn. 31, 32.

[248] Maaradhamma. Spk glosses with mara.nadhamma, "subject to death." In some of the suttas that follow (namely, in relation to impermanence, suffering, and nonself), I translate the suffix -dhamma as "nature" rather than "subject to."

[218] Spk glosses pari~n~neyya with samatikkamitabbil and pari~n~naa with samatikkama; see n. 41. The "person who has fully understood" (pari~n~naataavii) is a conventional expression; see n.37.

[219] Spk: By this, Nibbana is shown.

[220] Woodward, at KS 3:136, says that this sutta is the same as the preceding one, but that is not the case; this one adds samudaya~n ca atthangama~n ca.

[221] The stream-enterer (in the preceding sutta) and the arahant share the same understanding of the five aggregates. They differ in that the arahant has used this understanding to extricate all defilements, while the stream-enterer (and higher trainees) have yet to complete this task. Note too that whereas the stream-enterer is explained in terms of a noble disciple, the arahant is always defined as a bhikkhu.


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