The Integrated Pali-English Dictionary

Based on The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary by T. W. Rhys Davids and William Stede

Edited by Michael Olds

Foreword to the Pali Text Society Edition

It is somewhat hard to realize, seeing how important and valuable the work has been, that when ROBERT CAESAR CHILDERS published, in 1872, the first volume of his Pali Dictionary, he only had at his command a few pages of the canonical Pali books. Since then, owing mainly to the persistent labours of the Pali Text Society, practically the whole of these books, amounting to between ten and twelve thousand pages, have been made available to scholars. These books had no authors. They are anthologies which gradually grew up in the community. Their composition, as to the Vinaya and the four Nikayas (with the possible exception of the supplements) was complete within about a century of the Buddha's death; and the rest belong to the following century. When scholars have leisure to collect and study the data to be found in this pre-Sanskrit literature, it will necessarily throw as much light on the history of ideas and language as the study of such names and places as are mentioned in it (quite incidentally) has already thrown upon the political divisions, social customs, and economic conditions of ancient India.

Some of these latter facts I have endeavoured to collect in my "Buddhist India" ; and perhaps the most salient discovery is the quite unexpected conclusion that, for about two centuries (both before the Buddha's birth and after his death), the paramount power in India was Kosala - a kingdom stretching from Nepal on the North to the Ganges on the South, and from the Ganges on the West to the territories of the Vajjian confederacy on the East. In this, the most powerful kingdom in India; there had naturally arisen a standard vernacular differing from the local forms of speech just as standard English differs from the local (usually county) dialects. The Pali of the canonical books is based on that standard Kosala vernacular as spoken in the 6th and 7th centuries B. C. It cannot be called the "literary" form of that vernacular, for it was not written at all till long afterwards. That vernacular was the mother tongue of the Buddha. He was born in what is now Nepal, but was then a district under the suzerainty of Kosala and in one of the earliest Pali documents he is represented as calling himself a Kosalan.

When, about a thousand years afterwards, some pandits in Ceylon began to write in Pali, they wrote in a style strikingly different from that of the old texts. Part of that difference is no doubt due simply to a greater power of fluent expression unhampered by the necessity of constantly considering that the words composed had to be learnt by heart. When the Sinhalese used Pali, they were so familiar with the method of writing on palmleaves that the question of memorizing simply did not arise. It came up again later. But none of the works belonging to this period were intended to be learnt. They were intended to be read. On the other hand they were for the most part reproductions of older material that had, till then, been preserved in Sinhalese. Though the Sinhalese pandits were writing in Pali, to them, of course, a dead language, they probably did their thinking in their own mother tongue. Now they had had then, for many generations, so close and intimate an intercourse with their Dravidian neighbours that Dravidian habits of speech had crept into Sinhalese. It was inevitable that some of the peculiarities of their own tongue, and especially these Dravidanisms, should have influenced their style when they wrote in Pali. It will be for future scholars to ascertain exactly how far this influence can be traced in the idioms and in the order of the arrangement of the matter of these Ceylon Pali books of the fifth and sixth centuries A. D.

There is no evidence that the Sinhalese at that time knew Sanskrit. Some centuries afterwards a few of them learnt the elements of classical Sanskrit and very proud they were of it. They introduced the Sanskrit forms of Sinhalese words when writing "high" Sinhalese. And the authors of such works as the Dathavamsa, the Saddhammopayana, and the Mahabodhivamsa, make use of Pali words derived from Sanskrit that is, they turned into Pali form certain Sanskrit words they found either in the, or in the course of their very limited reading, and used them as Pali. It would be very desirable to have a list of such Pali words thus derived from Sanskrit. It would not be a long one.

Here we come once more to the question of memory. From the 11th cent. onwards it became a sort of fashion to write manuals in verse, or in prose and verse, on such subjects as it was deemed expedient for novices to know. Just as the first book written in Pali in Ceylon was a chain of memoriter verses strung together by very indifferent Pali verses, so at the end we have these scarcely intelligible memoriter verses meant to be learned by heart by the pupils.

According to the traditions handed down among the Sinhalese, Pali, that is, the language used in the texts, could also be called Magadhi. What exactly did they mean by that* They could not be referring to the Magadhi of the Prakrit grammarians, for the latter wrote some centuries afterwards. Could they have meant the dialect spoken in Magadha at the date when they used the phrase, say, the sixth century A. D.* That could only be if they had any exact knowledge of the different vernaculars of North India at the time. For that there is no evidence, and it is in itself very improbable. What they did mean is probably simply the language used by Asoka, the king of Magadha. For their traditions also stated that the texts had been brought to them officially by Asoka's son Mahinda; and not in writing, but in the memory of Mahinda and his companions. Now we know something of the language of Asoka. We have his edicts engraved in different parts of India, differing slightly in compliance with local varieties of speech. Disregarding these local differences, what is left may be considered the language of head-quarters where these edicts were certainly drafted. This "Magadhi" contains none of the peculiar characteristics we associate with the Magadhi dialect. It is in fact a younger form of that standard Kosalan lingua franca mentioned above.

Now it is very suggestive that we hear nothing of how the king of Magadha became also king of Kosala. Had this happened quietly, by succession, the event would have scarcely altered the relation of the languages of the two kingdoms. That of the older and larger would still have retained its supremacy. So when the Scottish dynasty succeeded to the English throne, the two languages remained distinct, but English became more and more the standard. However this may be, it has become of essential importance to have a Dictionary of a language the history of whose literature is bound up with so many delicate and interesting problems. The Pali Text Society, after long continued exertion and many cruel rebuffs and disappointments is now at last in a position to offer to scholars the first instalment of such a dictionary.

The merits and demerits of the work will be sufficiently plain even from the first fasciculus. But one or two remarks are necessary to make the position of my colleague and myself clear.

We have given throughout the Sanskrit roots corresponding to the Pali roots, and have omitted the latter. It may be objected that this is a strange method to use in a Pali dictionary, especially as the vernacular on which Pali is based had never passed through the stage of Sanskrit. That may be so; and it may not be possible, historically, that any Pali word in the canon could have been actually derived from the corresponding Sanskrit word. Nevertheless the Sanskrit form, though arisen quite independently, may throw light upon the Pali form; and as Pali roots have not yet been adequately studied in Europe, the plan adopted will probably, at least for the present, be more useful.

This work is essentially preliminary. There is a large number of words of which we do not know the derivation. There is a still larger number of which the derivation does not give the meaning, but rather the reverse. It is so in every living language. Who could guess, from the derivation, the complicated meaning of such words as "conscience" , "emotion" , "disposition" * The derivation would be as likely to mislead as to guide. We have made much progress. No one needs now to use the one English word "desire" as a translation of sixteen distinct Pali words, no one of which means precisely desire. Yet this was done in Vol. X of the Sacred Books of the East by MAX MuLLER and FAUSBoLL See Mrs. RHYS DAVIDS in J R A S., 1898, p. 58.. The same argument applies to as many concrete words as abstract ones. Here again we claim to have made much advance. But in either case, to wait for perfection would postpone the much needed dictionary to the Greek kalends. It has therefore been decided to proceed as rapidly as possible with the completion of this first edition, and to reserve the proceeds of the sale for the eventual issue of a second edition which shall come nearer to our ideals of what a Pali Dictionary should be.

We have to thank Mrs. STEDE for valuable help in copying out material noted in my interleaved copy of Childers, and in collating indexes published by the Society; Mrs. RHYS DAVIDS for revising certain articles on the technical terms of psychology and philosophy; and the following scholars for kindly placing at our disposal the material they had collected for the now abandoned scheme of an international Pali Dictionary:

Prof. STEN KONOW. Words beginning with S or H. (Published in J P T S. 1909 and 1907, revised by Prof. Dr. D. ANDERSEN). Dr. MABEL H. BODE. B, Bh and M. Prof. DUROISELLE. K. Dr. W. H. D. ROUSE. C-N.

In this connection I should wish to refer to the work of Dr. EDMOND HARDY. When he died he left a great deal of material; some of which has reached us in time to be made available. He was giving his whole time, and all his enthusiasm to the work, and had he lived the dictionary would probably have been finished before the war. His loss was really the beginning of the end of the international undertaking.

Anybody familiar with this sort of work will know what care and patience, what scholarly knowledge and judgment are involved in the collection of such material, in the sorting, the sifting and final arrangement of it, in the adding of cross references, in the consideration of etymological puzzles, in the comparison and correction of various or faulty readings, and in the verification of references given by others, or found in the indexes. For all this work the users of the Dictionary will have to thank my colleague, Dr. WILLIAM STEDE. It may be interesting to notice here that the total number of references to appear in this first edition of the new dictionary is estimated to be between one hundred and fifty and one hundred and sixty thousand. The Bavarian Academy has awarded to Dr. STEDE a personal grant of 3100 marks for his work on this Dictionary.

Chipstead, Surrey. July, 1921. T. W. RHYS DAVIDS.

---[ Page IX ]---

A List of the Chief Books consulted for Vocabulary (with Abbreviations).

-----[ 1. PALI BOOKS ]-----

-----[ 1a Canonical ]-----

Anguttara-Nikaya 5 vols. P T S. 1885 1900 (A). Buddha-Vamsa P T S. 1882 (Bu). Cariya-Pitaka P T S. 1882 (Cp.). Dhammapada P T S. 1914 (Dh). Dhamma-Sangani P T S. 1885 (Dhs). Digha-Nikaya 3 vols. P T S. (D). Iti-vuttaka P T S. 1890 (It.). Katha-Vatthu 2 vols. P T S. 1894, 95 (Kvu). Khuddaka-Patha P T S. 1915 (Kh). Majjhima-Nikaya 3 vols. P T S. 1887 1902 (M). Niddesa I Maha* 2 vols. P T S. 1916, 17 (Nd1). Niddesa II Culla* P T S. 1918 (Nd2). Patisambhidamagga 2 vols. P T S. 1905, 1907 (Ps). Peta-Vatthu P T S. 1889 (Pv). Puggala-Pannatti P T S. 1883 (Pug). Sanyutta-Nikaya 5 vols. P T S. 1884 1898 (S). Sutta-Nipata P T S. 1913 (Sn). Thera-therigatha P T S. 1883 (Th 1) and (Th 2). Udana P T S. 1885 (Ud). Vibhanga P T S. 1904 (Vbh). Vimana-Vatthu P T S. 1886 (Vv). Vinaya-Pitaka 5 vols. London 1879 83 (Vin). Apadana Pali Text Society 1925 (Ap). Dukapatthana, Pali Text Society 1906 (Dukp). Tikapatthana, 3 vols. Pali Text Society 1921-23 (Tikp).

-----[ 1b Post-Canonical ]-----

Atthasalini, P T S. 1897 (DhsA). Buddhadatta's Manuals, P T S. 1915 (Bdhd). Dathavamsa, J P T S. 1884 (Davs). Dhammapada Commentary, 4 vols. P T S. 1906-14 (DhA). Dipavamsa, London 1879 (Dpvs). Jataka, 6 vols. London 1877-96 (J). Khuddaka-Patha Commentary, P T S. 1915 (KhA). Khuddhasikkha, J.T.PaliS. 1883 (Khus). Mahavamsa, P T S. 1908 (Mhvs). Maha-Bodhi-Vamsa, P T S. 1891 (Mhbv). Milindapanha, London 1880 (Miln). Mulasikkha, J.Pali Text Society 1883 (Muls). Netti-Pakarana, P T S. 1902 (Nett). Panca-gati-dipana, J P T S. 1884 (Pgdp). Peta-Vatthu Commentary, P T S. 1894 (PvA). Puggala-Pannatti Commentary, J P T S. 1914 (Pug A). Saddhammopayana, J P T S. 1887 (Sdhp). Sumangala-Vilasini, vol. I, P T S. 1886 (DA I). Manoratha-purani Pali Text Society 1924 (AA); Samanta-pasadika Pali Text Society 1924 (Sam. Pas. or Vin A). Papanca Sudani, pt. I, Pali Text Society 1922 (MA). Sammoha-Vinodani, Pali Text Society 1923 (VbhA).

---[ Page X ]---

Sutta-Nipata Commentary, 2 vols. P T S. 1916-17 (SnA). Therigatha Commentary, P T S. 1891 (ThA). Vimana-Vatthu Commentary, P T S. 1901 (VvA). Visuddhi-Magga, 2 vols. P T S. 1920 21 (Vism). Yogavacara's Manual, Pali Text Society 1896 (Yog). Note. The system adopted in quotations of passages from Pali text is that proposed in J P T S. 1909, pp. 385-87, with this modification that Peta-vatthu (Pv) is quoted by canto and verse, and Culla-Niddesa (Nd2) by number of word in "Explanatory Matter".

-----[ 2. BUDDHIST SANSKRIT ]-----

Avadana-shataka, ed. J. S. Speyer (Bibl. Buddhica III), 2 vols., St. Petersbourg 1906. (Av. SH.). Divya-vadana, ed. Cowell and Neil, Cambridge 1886. (Divy). Jataka-mala, ed. H. Kern (Harvard Or. Ser. I), Boston 1891. (Jtm). Lalita-vistara, ed. S. Lefmann, I. Halle 1902. (Lal. V.). Maha-vastu, ed. É. Senart, 3 vols., Paris 1882-1897. (Mvst). Shiks.a-samuccaya. Ed. C. Bendall, St. Petersburg, 1902 (SHiks.). The ed. of Lalitavistara which I have used, and from which I quote, is the Calcutta ed. (1877), by Rajendralala Mitra (Bibl. Indica), and not Lefmann's.

-----[ 3. TRANSLATIONS ]-----

Buddh. Manual of Psychological Ethics (trsl. of the Dhamma-sangani) by Mrs. Rhys Davids (R. As. Soc. Trsl. Fund XII), London 1900. (Dhs trsl.). Compendium of Philosophy (trsl. of the Abhidhamm' attha-sangaha) by S. Z. Aung and Mrs. Rhys Davids, P T S. Trsl. 1910. (Cpd.). Dialogues of the Buddha, trsl. by T. W. and C. A. F. Rhys Davids, London I. 1899; II. 1910; III. 1921. (Dial.). Expositor (trsl. of the Attha-salini), by Maung Tin, P T S. Trsl. 1920, 21. Kathavatthu trsl. ("Points of Controversy), by Aung and Mrs. Rhys Davids, P T S. Trsl. 1915. (Kvu trsl.). Kindred Sayings (Sanyutta Nikaya I), by Mrs. Rhys Davids, P T S. Trsl. 1917. (K S.). Mahavamsa trsl. by W. Geiger, P T S. Trsl. 1912. Manual of a Mystic (Yoga-vacara), trs. by F. L. Woodward, P T S. Trsl. 1916. (Mystic). Neumann, K. E., Lieder der Monche und Nonnen, Berlin 1899. Psalms of the Brethren (trsl. Mrs. Rhys Davids), P T S. Trsl. 1913. Psalms of the Sistereotype (trsl. Mrs. Rhys Davids), P T S. Trsl. 1909. Questions of Milinda (trsl. T. W. Rhys Davids), S B E. vols. 35, 36. (Miln). Vinaya Texts (trsl. Rhys Davids and Oldenberg), S B E. vols. 13, 17, 20. (Vin T.). Neumann, Die Reden Gotamo Buddha's (Mittlere Sammlung), Vols. I to III2 1921. Human Types, Pali Text Society trsl. 1924 (Pug trsl.) and insert accordingly on p. xi under B 1. Path of Purity, Pali Text Society trsl. 1923, 1st pt. (Vism. Trsl.). 4. GRAMMATICAL and OTHER LITERATURE; PERIODICALS, ETC. Abhidhanappadipika, ed. W. Subhuti, Colombo1 1883. (Abhp.). Andersen, D., A Pali Reader, 2 pts; Copenhagen 1901, 1907. Aufrecht, Th., Halayudha's Abhidhana-ratna-ma'a, London 1861. Brugmann, K., Kurze vergleichende Grammatik der indogerm. Sprachen, Strassburg 1902. Childers, R. C., A Dictionary of the Pali Language, London 1874. Brahmana (Br.). Dhatupatha and Dhatumanjusa, ed. Andersen and Smith, Copenhagen 1921 (Dhtp, Dhtm). SHatapatha-Brahmana (trsl. J. Eggeling) (SHat. Br.) SBE vols.

---[ XI]---

Geiger, W., Pali Literatur und Sprache, Strassburg 1916. (Geiger, Pali Gr.). Grassmann, W., Worterbuch zum Rig Veda, Leipzig 1873. Journal of the American Oriental Society (J A O S.). Journal Asiatique, Paris (J. As.) Journal of the Pali Text Society (J P T S.). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, London (J R A S.). Kaccayana-ppakarana, ed. and trsl. Senart (J. As. 1871) (Kacc). Kern, H., Toevoegselen op 't Woordenboek van Childers; 2 pts (Verhandelingen Kon. Ak. van Wetenschappen te Amstereotypeam N. R. XVI, 5), Amstereotypeam 1916. (Toev.). Kuhn's Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung (K Z.). Mahavyutpatti, ed. Mironow (Bibl. Buddhica XIII) St. Petersbourg 1910, 11. (Mvyut). Muller, Ed., Simplified Grammar of the Pali Language, London 1884. Trenckner, V., Notes on the Milindapanho, in J P T S. 1908, 102 sq. Uhlenbeck, H., Kurzgefasstes Etym. Worterbuch d. Altindischen Sprache, Amstereotypeam 1898. Walde, A., Lateinisches Etymologisches Worterbuch, Heidelberg2 1910. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, Leipzig 1847 sq. (Z D M S.). Kirfel, W. Kosmographie der Inder, Bonn and Leipzig 1920.


-----[ 1. Titles of Books (the no. refers to section of A) ]-----

A Anguttara . . . . . . 1a Abhp Abhidhanappadipika. . . 4 Ap Apadana. . . . . . . 1a Av. SH. Avadana-shataka . . . . 2 Bdhd Buddhadatta . . . . . 1 Brethren: see Psalms. . . . . . 3 Bu Buddha-vamsa . . . . . 1a Cp Cariya-pitaka . . . . . 1a Cpd Compendium . . . . . 3 D Digha. . . . . . . . 1a Davs Datha-vamsa . . . . . 1b Dh Dhammapada . . . . . 1a Dhs Dhammasangani . . . . 1a Dhs trsl. Atthasalini . . . . . . 3 Dial. Dialogues . . . . . . 3 Divy Divya-vadana . . . . . 2 Dpvs Dipavamsa . . . . . . 1b Halayudha: see Aufrecht . . . . 4 It Itivuttaka . . . . . . 1a J Jataka . . . . . . . 1b J A O S. Journal Amer. Or. Soc. . 4 J As. Journal Asiatique. . . . 4 J P T S. Journal Pali Text Soc. . 4 J R A S. Journal Royal Asiatic Soc. 4 Jtm Jatakamala . . . . . . 2 Kacc Kaccayana . . . . . . 4 Kh Khuddakapatha . . . . 1a K S Kindred Sayings. . . . 3 Kvu Kathavatthu . . . . . 1a K Z Kuhn's Zeitschrift . . . 4 Lal. V. Lalita Vistara. . . . . 2 M Majjhima . . . . . . 1a Mhbv Mahabodhi-vamsa. . . . 1b Mhvs Mahavamsa . . . . . . 1b Miln Milinda-panha . . . . . 1b M Vastu Maha-vastu . . . . . . 2 Mvyut Mahavyutpatti. . . . . 4 Mystic: see Manual . . . . . . 3 Nd1 Mahaniddesa . . . . . 1a Nd2 Cullaniddesa . . . . . 1a Nett Netti-pakarana. . . . . 1b Pgdp Pancagati-dipana . . . . 1b Ps Patisambhida-magga. . . 1a Pug Puggala-pannatti . . . . 1a Pv Petavatthu . . . . . . 1a S Sanyutta. . . . . . . 1a S B E Sacred Books of the East. 3 Sdhp Saddhammopayana . . . 1b SHiks. SHiks.asamuccaya . . . . 2 Sistereotype: see Psalms . . . . . . 3 Sn Sutta-nipata . . . . . 1a Th 1 Theragatha. . . . . . 1a Th 2 Therigatha . . . . . . 1a Toev. Toevoegselen . . . . . 4 BR. Boehtlingk and Roth. Dhtm Dhatumanjusa . . . 4. Dhtp Dhatupatha . . . 4. Dukp = Dukapatthana . . . 1a. Patth = Patthana: see Duka* and Tika* . . . 1a. Tikp = Tikapatthana . . . 1a. VbhA = Sammoha-Vinodani . . . 1b. Vism. Trsl. = Path of Purity . . . 3.

---[ Page XII ]---

Ud Udana . . . . . . . 1a Vbh Vibhanga . . . . . . 1a Vin Vinaya . . . . . . . 1a Vism Visuddhi-magga . . . . 1b Vv Vimanavatthu . . . . . 1a Z D M G. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. . . . . . . . 4

-----[ 2. General and grammatical terms ]-----

A in combination with a Title letter (e.g. DhA) = Commentary (on Dh) abl. ablative abs. absolute(ly) abstr. abstract acc. accusative act. active add. addition adj. adjective adv. adverb Ags. Anglo-Saxon aor. aorist applied applied art. article attr. attribute Av. Avesta BB Burmese MSS bef. before BSanskrit Buddhist Sanskrit C (and Cy) Commentary (when cited in explination of a Text passage). caus. causative cert. certain coll. collective combined, combination combined, combination comp. comparative, comparison, composition cond. conditional cons. consonant corr. correct(ed) correl. correlation, correlative cp. compare cpd. compound dat. dative den. denominative der. derived, derivation des. desiderative dial. dialect(ical) different different dist. distinct, distinguished E. English e. g. for instance encl. enclitic ep. epithet esp. especially etymology etymology exc. except excl. exclamation, exclusive expl. explanation, explained f. feminine fig. figurative(ly) following following form. formation from from frequent frequently, frequentative fut. future Gall. Gallic gen. genitive ger. gerund Ger. German Goth. Gothic Gr. Greek gram. grammar, *atical grd. gerundive ibid. at the same passage id. the same id. p. identical passage i. e. that is i. g. in general imper. imperative impers. impersonal impf. imperfect Ind. Index ind. indicative indecl. indeclinable indefinite indefinite inf. infinitive instr. instrumental interr. interrogative intrs. intransitive iter. iterative Latin Latin l. c. loco citato lit. literal(ly), literary Lit. Lithuanian loc. locative m. masculine med. medium (middle) N. Name n. noun, note nom. nominative Np. Name of person Npl. Name of place nt. neuter num. numeral Obulg. Old-bulgarian Ohg. Old-high-german Oicel. Old-icelandic Oir. Old-irish onom. onomatopoetic opp. opposed, opposite ord. ordinal, ordinary orig. original(ly) Pali Pali part. particle

---[ Page XIII ]---

pass. passive perf. perfect pers. personal pl. plural pop. popular poss. possessive pot. potential pp. past participle ppr. present participle prec. preceding pred. predicative prefix prefix prep. preposition pres. present pret. preterite Prk. Prakrit prob. probably pronoun. pronoun pt. part P T S. Pali Text Society q. v. quod vide (which see) ref. reference, referred refl. reflexive rel. relation, relative sep. separate(ly) sg. singular Skt Sanskrit sq. and following SS. Singhalese MSS. ster. stereotypeotype suff. suffix sup. superlative s. v. sub voce (under the word mentioned) syn. synonym(ous) T. Text trans. transitive trsl. translated, translation t. t. technical term t. t. g. technical term in grammar v. verse var. variant, various var. lect. various reading voc. vocative Wtb. Worterbuch

-----[ 3. Typographical ]-----

*(s)quel indicates a (reconstructed or conjectured) Indogermanic root. *Sk means, that the Sanskrit word is constructed after the Pali word; or as Sanskrit form is only found in lexicographical lists. ¢-: the cap over a vowel indicates that the ¢ is the result of a syncope a + a (e. g. khudda-nukhudda), whereas a represents the proper a, either pure or contracted with a preceding a (khinasava = khina + asava). * represents the head-word either as first (*-) or second (-*) part of a compound; sometimes also an easily supplemented part of a word. > indicates an etymological relation or line of development between the words mentioned. ~ and ~ means "at similar" or "at identical, parallel passages". The meaning of all other abbreviations may easily be inferred from the context.

-----[ Key to Integrated Materials ]-----

Use: { [SOURCE]: [ENTRY] }

Entry keyword is a link to a sound-file with pronunciation of that word.

{ ed: Editorial comment }

---[ Page 1 ]---

-----[ A ]-----

A1 the prep. a shortened before double cons., as akkosati (a + krush), akkhati (a + khya), abbahati (a + brh). - Best to be classed here is the a- we call expletive. It represents a reduction of a- (mostly before liquids and nasals and with single consonant instead of double). Thus anantaka (for a-nantaka = nantaka) Vv.807; amajjapa (for a-majjapa = majjapa) J VI.328; amapaya (for amapaya = mapaya) J VI.518; apassato ( = passantassa) J VI.552.

A2 (an- before vowels) [Vedic a-, an-; Idg. *n*, gradation form to *ne (see na2); Gr. x), a)n, a)n-; Latin *en-, in-; Goth., Ohg. and Ags. un-; Oir. an-, in-] negative part. prefixed to (1) nouns and adjectives; (2) verbal forms, used like (1), whether part., ger., grd. or inf.; (3) finite verbal forms. In compounds. with words having originally two initial cons. the latter reappear in their assimilated form (e. g. appaticchavin). In meaning it equals na-, nir- and vi-. Often we find it opp. to sa-. Verbal negatives which occur in specific verb. function will be enumerated separately, while examples of negative form. of (1) and (2) are given under their positive form unless the negative involves a distinctly new concept, or if its form is likely to lead to confusion or misunderstanding. - Concerning the combining and contrasting (orig. negative) -a- (a-) in redupl. formations like bhava-¢-bhava see a4.

A3 [Vedic a-; Idg. *e (loc. of pronoun. stem, cp. ayan; orig. a deictic adv. with specific reference to the past, cp. Sk sma); Gr. e)-; also in Gr. e)kei_, Latin equidem, enim] the augment (sign of action in the past), prefixed to the root in pret., aor. and cond. tenses; often omitted in ordinary prose. See forms under each verb; cp. also ajja. Identical with this a- is the a- which functions as base of some pronoun. forms like ato, attha, asu etc. (q. v.).

A4 the sound a (a-kara) J VI.328, 552; VvA 279, 307, 311.

Ansa1 [Vedic ansa; cp. Gr. w)_mos, Latin umerus, Goth ams, Arm. us] (a) the shoulder A v. 110; Sn 609. anse karoti to put on the shoulder, to shoulder J I.9. (b.) a part (lit. side) (cp. *asa in kotthasa and explination of ansa as kotthasa at DA I.312, also v. l. mettasa for mettansa at It 22). - atit'anse in former times, formerly D II.224; Th 2, 314. mettansa sharing friendship (with) A IV.151 = It 22 = J IV.71 (in which connection Miln 402 reads ahinsa). - Disjunctive ekena ansena . . . ekena ansena on the one hand (side) . . . on the other, partly . . . partly A I.61. From this: ekansa (adj.) on the one hand (only), i. e. incomplete (opp. ubhayansa) or (as not admitting of a counterpart) definite, certain, without doubt (opp. dvidha): see ekansa. -- paccansena according to each one's share A III.38. putansena with a knapsack for provisions D I.117; A II 183; cp. DA I.288, with v. l. putosena at both passages. -kuta "shoulder prominence", the shoulder Vin III.127; DhA III.214; IV.136; VvA 121. -- vattaka a shoulder strap (mostly combined with kayabandhana; vv. ll. *vaddhaka, *bandhaka) Vin I.204 (T. *bandhaka); II.114 (ddh); IV.170 (ddh); Vv 3340 (T. *bandhana, C. v. l. *vattaka); DhA III.452.

Ansa2 [see next] point, corner, edge; freg. in combination with numerals, e. g. catur* four-cornered, cha'*, atth*, so'as* etc. (q. v.) all at Dhs 617 (cp. DhsA 317). In connection with a Vimana: ayat* with wide or protruding capitals (of its pillars) Vv 8415; as part of a carriage-pole Vv 642 ( = kubbara-phale patitthita hetthima-ansa VvA 265).

Ansi (f.) [cp. Vedic a.sri, a.sra, a.sani; Gr. a)/kros pointed, a)/kris, also o)cu/s sharp: Latin acer sharp. Further connections in Walde Latin Wtb. under acer] a corner, edge ( = ansa2) Vv 782 ( = ansa-bhaga VvA 303).

Ansu [cp. Sanskrit (Halayudha) a ray of light] a thread Vin III.224. -malin, sun 1.

Akata (adj.) [a + kata] not made, not artificial, natural; *yusa natural juice Vin I.206

Akampiyatta (nt.) [abstr. from akampiya, grd. of a + kampati] the condition of not being shaken, stableness Miln 354.

Akalu (cp. agalu) an ointment J IV.440 (akalun candanan ca, v. l. BB aggalu*; C. expls as kal¢kalun ca rattacandanan ca, thus implying a blacking or dark ointment); VI.144 (*candana-vilitta; v. l. BB aggalu*); Miln 338 (*tagara-talisaka-lohita-candana).

Akaca (adj.) [a + kaca] pure, flawless, clear D II.244; Sn 476; J V.203.

Akacin (adj.) = akaca Vv 601. Kern (Toevoegselen s. v.) proposes reading akkacin ( = Sanskrit arka-arcin shining as the sun), but VvA 253 expls by niddosa, and there is no v. l. to warrant a misreading.

Akasiya (adj. -n.) [a + kasika*] "not from the Kasi-country" (*); official name of certain tax-gatherers in the king's service J VI.212 (akasiya-sankhata raja-purisa C.).

Akiccakara (adj.) [a + kicca + kara] 1. not doing one's duty, doing what ought not to be done A II.67; Dh 292; Miln 66; DA I.296. -- 2. ineffective (of medicine) Miln 151.

Akiriya (adj.) [a + kiriya] not practical, unwise, foolish J III.530 (*rupa = akattabba-rupa C.); Miln 250.

Akilasu (adj.) [a + kilasu] not lazy, diligent, active, untiring S I.47; V.162; J I.109; Miln 382.

Akissava at S I.149 is probably faulty reading for akincana.

Akutobhaya (adj.) see ku*.

Akuppa (adj.) [a + kuppa, grd. of kup, cp. BSanskrit akopya M Vastu III.200] not to be shaken, immovable; sure, steadfast, safe Vin I.11 (akuppa me ceto-vimutti) = S II.239; Vin II.69; IV.214; D III.273; M I.205, 298; S II.171; A III.119, 198; Miln 361.

Akuppata (f.) [abstr. from last] "state of not being shaken", surety, safety; Ep. of Nibbana Th 1, 364.

Akka [cp. Sanskrit arka] N. of a plant: Calotropis Gigantea, swallow-wort M I.429 (*assa jiya bowstrings made from that plant). -nala a kind of dress material Vin I.306 (vv. ll. agga* and akkha*). -vata a kind of gate to a plantation, a movable fence made of the akka plant Vin II.154 (cp. akkha-vata).

Akkanta [pp. of akkamati] stepped upon, mounted on A I.8; J I.71; Miln 152; DhA I.200.

Akkandati [a + kandati, krand] to lament, wail, cry S IV.206.

Akkamana (nt.) [cp. BSanskrit akramana Jtm 3158] going near, approaching, stepping upon, walking to J I.62.

Akkamati [a + kamati, kram] to tread upon, to approach, attack J I.7, 279; ThA 9; -- to rise Vin III. 38. -- ger. akkamma Cp. III.72. --pp. akkanta (q. v.).

Akkuttha (adj. n.) [pp. of akkosati] 1. (adj.) being reviled, scolded, railed at Sn 366 ( = dasahi akkosavatthuhi abhisatto SnA 364); J VI.187. -- 2. (nt.) reviling, scolding, swearing at; in combination akkuttha-vandita Sn 702 ( = akkosa-vandana SnA 492) Th 2, 388 (explination ThA 256 as above).

Akkula (adj.) [ = akula] confused, perplexed, agitated, frightened Ud 5 (akkulopakkula and akkulapakkulika). See akula.

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Akkosa [a + krush = krunc, see kunca and konca2; to sound, root kr*, see note on gala] shouting at, abuse, insult, reproach, reviling Sn 623; Miln 8 (+ paribhasa); SnA 492; ThA 256; PvA 243; DhA II.61. -vatthu always as dasa a*-vatthuni 10 bases of abuse, 10 expressions of cursing J I.191; SnA 364, 467; DhA I.212; IV.2.

Akkosaka (adj.) [from last] one who abuses, scolds or reviles, + paribhasaka A II.58; III.252; IV.156; V.317; PvA 251.

Akkosati [to krus see akkosa] to scold, swear at, abuse, revile J I.191; II.416; III.27; DhA I.211; II.44. Often combined with paribhasati, e. g. Vin II.296; DhA IV.2; PvA 10. - aor. akkocchi Dh 3; J III.212 ( = akkosi DhA I.43. Der. wrongly from krudh by Kacc. VI.417; cp. Franke, Einh. Pali-gramm. 37, and Geiger, Pali Gr. * 164). -pp. akkuttha (q. v.).

Akkha1 [Vedic; Av.; Gr. a)/cwn a(/maca chariot with one axle); Latin axis; Ohg. etc. ahsa, E. axle, to root of Latin ago, Sanskrit aj] the axle of a wheel D II.96; S V.6; A I.112; J I.109, 192; V.155 (akkhassa phalakam yatha; C.: suvannaphalakam viya, i. e. shiny, like the polished surface of an axle); Miln 27 (+ isa + cakka), 277 (atibharena sakatassa akkho bhijjati: the axle of the cart breaks when the load is too heavy); PvA 277. --akkham abbhanjati to lubricate the axle S IV.177; Miln 367. -chinna one whose axle is broken; with broken axle S I.57; Miln 67. -bhagga with a broken axle J V.433. -bhanjana the breaking of the axle DhA I.375; PvA 277.

Akkha2 [Vedic, prob. to and Latin oculus, "that which has eyes" i. e. a die; cp. also Latin alea game at dice (from* asclea*)] a die D I.6 (but explained at DA I.86 as ball-game: gu'aki'a); S I.149 = A V.171 = Sn 659 (appamatto ayan kali yo akkhesu dhanaparajayo); J I.379 (kut* a false player, sharper, cheat) anakkha one who is not a gambler J V.116 (C.: ajutakara). Cp. also accha3. -dassa (cp. Sanskrit ak.sadarshaka) one who looks at (i. e. examines) the dice, an umpire, a judge Vin III.47; Miln 114, 327, 343 (dhamma-nagare). -dhutta one who has the vice of gambling D II.348; III.183; M III.170; Sn 106 (+ itthidhutta and suradhutta). -vata fence round an arena for wrestling J IV.81. (* read akka-).

Akkha3 (adj.) (-*) [to akkhi] having eyes, with eyes PvA 39 (BB. rattakkha with eyes red from weeping, gloss on assumukha). Prob. akkhana is connected with akkha.

Akkhaka [akkha1 + ka] the collar-bone Vin IV.213 (adhakkhakam); Y.216.

Akkhana [a + khana, BSanskrit ak.sana AvSH I.291 = 332] wrong time, bad luck, misadventure, misfortune. There are 9 enumd at D III.263; the usual set consists of 8; thus D III.287; VvA 193; Sdhp 4 sq. See also khana. -vedhin (adj. n.) a skilled archer, one who shoots on the moment, i. e. without losing time, explained as one who shoots without missing (the target) or as quickly as lightning (akkhana = vijju). In var. combinations.; mostly as durepatin a. A I.284 (+ mahato kayassa padaleta); II.170 sq. (id.), 202; IV.423, 425; J II.91 (explained as either "aviradhita-vedhi" or "akkhanam vuccati vijju": one who takes and shoots his arrows as fast as lightning), III.322; IV.494 (C. explinations aviraddha-vedhin vijju-alokena vijjhana-samattha p. 497). In other combination at J I.58 (akkhanavedhin + valavedhin); V.129 (the 4 kinds of archers: a., valavedhin, saddavedhin and saravedhin). In BSanskrit we find ak.sunnavedha (a Sanskritised Pali form, cp. Mathura k.suna = Sanskrit k.sana) at Divy 58, 100, 442 (always with durevedha), where MSS. however read ak .suna*; also at Lal. Vist. 178. See Divy Index, where translation is given as "an act of throwing the spear so as to graze the mark" (Schiefner gives "Streifschuss"). - Note. The explanations are not satisfactory. We should expect either an etymology bearing on the meaning "hitting the centre of the target" (i. e. its "eye") (cp. E. bull's eye), in which case a direct relation to akkha = akkhi eye would not seem improbable (cp. formation ikkhana) or an etymology like "hitting without mishap", in which case the expression would be derived directly from ak khana (see prec.) with the omission of the negative an-; akkhana in the meaning of "lightning" (J II.91 C.) is not supported by literary evidence.

Akkhata (adj.) [pp. of a + k.san, cp. parikkhata1] unhurt, without fault Mhvs 19, 56 (C. niddosa). - acc. akkhatam (adv.) in safety, unhurt. Only in one phrase Vv 8452 (paccagamum Pataliputtam akkhatam) and Pv IV.111 (nessami tam Pataliputtam akkhatam); see VvA 351 and PvA 272.

Akkhaya (adj.) [a + khaya,] not decaying, in akkhayapatibhana, of unfailing skill in exposition Miln 3, 21.

Akkhara (adj.) [Vedic ak.sara] constant, durable, lasting D III.86. As tt. for one of 4 branches of Vedic learning (D I.88) it is Phonetics which probably included Grammar, and is explained by sikkha (DA I.247 = SnA 477) pl. nt. akkharani sounds, tones, words. citt'akkhara of a discourse (suttanta) having variety and beauty of words or sounds (opposed to beauty of thought) A I.72 = III.107 = S II.267. Akkharani are the sauce, flavour (vyanjana) of poetry S I.38. To know the context of the a* the words of the texts, is characteristic of an Arahant Dh 352 (C. is ambiguous DhA IV.70). Later: akkharam a syllable or sound PvA 280 (called sadda in next line); akkharani an inscription J II.90; IV.7 (likhitani written), 489; VI.390, 407. In Grammar: a letter Kacc. 1. -cintaka a grammarian or versifier KhA 17; SnA 16, 23, 321. cp. 466; PvA 120. -pabheda in phrase sakkharappabheda phonology and etymology D I.88 (akkharappabhedo ti sikkha ca nirutti ca SnA 447 = DA i.247) = A III.223 = Sn p. 105. -pinda "word-ball", i. e. sequence of words or sounds DhA IV.70 ( = akkharanam sannipato Dh 352).

Akkharika (f.) a game (recognising syllables written in the air or on one's back). D I.7; Vin II.10; III.180. So explained at DA I.86. It may be translated "letter game"; but all Indian letters of that date were syllables.

Akkhata (adj.) [pp. of akkhati] announced, proclaimed, told, shown A I.34 (dur*); II.195; IV.285, 322; V.265, 283; Sn 172, 276, 595, 718.

Akkhatar one who relates, a speaker, preacher, story-teller S I.11, 191; III.66; Sn 167.

Akkhati [a + khya, Idg. *sequ; cp. Sanskrit akhyati, Latin inquam, Gr. e)nne/pw, Goth. saihvan, Ger. sehen etc. See also akkhi and cakkhu] to declare, announce, tell Sn 87, 172; imper. akkhahi Sn 988, 1085; aor. akkhasi Sn 251, 504, 1131 ( = acikkhi etc. Nd2 465); fut. akkhissati Pv IV.163; cond. akkhissan Sn 997; J VI.523. - Pass. akkhayati to be proclaimed, in phrase aggam a. to be deemed chief or superior, to be first, to excel Miln 118, 182 (also in BSanskrit agram akhyayate M Vastu III.390); ger. akkheyya to be pronounced S I.11; It 53. -pp. akkhata (q. v.). - Intensive or Frequentative is acikkhati.

Akkhana (nt.) [Sanskrit akhyana] telling stories, recitation; tale, legend D I.6 ( = DA I.84: Bharata-Ramayanadi); III.183; M I.503; III.167; Sdhp. 237. - preaching, teaching Nd1 91 (dhamm*). The 5th Veda J V.450. (vedam akkhanapancamam; C: itihasapancamam vedacatukkam). - The spelling akhyana also occurs (q. v.).

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Akkhayika (adj.) relating, narrating J III.535; lokakkhayika katha talk about nature-lore D I.8; Miln 316.

Akkhayin (adj.) telling, relating, announcing S II.35; III.7; J III.105.

Akkhi (nt.) [to *oks, an enlarged form of *oqu, cp. Sanskrit ik.sate, k.sana, pratika, anika; Gr. o)/sse, w)/y (*ku/klwy), o)fqalmo/s, pro/swpon; Latin oculus, Ags. eowan ( = E eye and wind-ow); Goth. augo. See also cakkhu and cp. akkha2 and ikkhanika] the eye M I.383 (ubbhatehi akkhihi); Sn 197, 608; J I.223, 279; V.77; VI.336; Pv II.926 (akkhini paggharanti: shed tears, cp. PvA 123); VvA 65 (*ini bhamanti, my eyes swim) cp. akkhini me dhumayanti DhA I.475; DhA II.26; III.196 (*ini ummiletva opening the eyes); Sdhp 103, 380. - In combination with sa- as sacchi and sakkhi (q. v.). As adj. (-*) akkha3 (q.v.). -anjana eye ointment, collyrium DhA III.354. -kupa the socket of the eye J IV.407. -ganda eye-protuberance, i. e. eye-brow (*) J VI.504 (for pamukha T.). -gutha secretion from the eye PvA 198. -guthaka id. Sn 197 ( = dvihi akkhicchiddehi apanita-ttaca-mamsasadiso a*-guthako SnA 248). -chidda the eye-hole SnA 248. -dala the eye-lid DA I.194; ThA 259; DhsA 378. -pata "fall of the eye", i. e. a look, in mand* of soft looks (adj.) PvA 57. -pura an eye-full, in akkhipuram assum (assu*) an eye full of tears J VI.191. -mala dirt from the eye Pv III.53 ( = *gutha C.). -roga eye disease DhA I.9.

Akkhika1 (-*) (adj.) having eyes, with eyes Th 1,960 (anjan* with eyes anointed); DhA IV.98 (addh* with half an eye, i. e. stealthily); Sdhp 286 (tamb* red-eyed). -an* having no eyes DhA I.11.

Akkhika2 (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit] the mesh of a net J I.208. -haraka one who takes up a mesh (*) M I.383 (corresponds with andaharaka).

Akkhitta1 see khitta.

Akkhitta2 (adj.) [BSk ak.sipta Divy 363, pp. of a + k.sip] hit, struck, thrown J III.255 ( = akaddhita C.).

Akkhin (adj.) = akkhika J III.190 (mand* softeyed); Vv 323 (tamb* red-eyed); DhA I.11.

Akkhobbha (adj.) [a + k.subh, see khobha] not to be shaken, imperturbable Miln 21.

Akkhobhana (adj) = akkhobbha J V.322 ( = khobhetun na sakkha C.).

Akkhohini (f.) [ = akkhobhini] one of the highest numerals (1 followed by 42 ciphers, Childers) J V.319; VI.395.

Akhandaphulla see khanda.

Akhata (adj.) not dug: see khata.

Akhetta barren-soil: see khetta. - In cpd. *nnu the negative belongs to the whole: not knowing a good field (for alms) J IV.371.

Agati see I.58, 89. - kut* a house with a peaked roof, or with gables S II.103. 263; III.156; IV.186; V.43; A I.230; III.10, 364; IV.231; V.21. -kotth* storehouse, granary D I.134 (cp. DA I.295); S I.89. -tin* a house covered with grass S IV.185; A I.101. -bhus* threshing shed, barn A I.241. -santh* a council hall D I.91; II.147; S IV.182; V.453; A II.207; IV.179 sq. -sunn* an uninhabited shed; solitude S V.89, 157, 310 sq., 329 sq.; A I.241 (v. l. for bhusa-gara); III.353; IV.139, 392, 437; V.88, 109, 323 sq.

Agaraka (nt.) [from agara] a small house, a cottage M I.450; J VI.81.

Agarika (adj.) 1. having a house, in eka*, dva* etc. D I.166 = A I.295 = II.206. - 2. a householder, layman Vin I.17. f. agarika a housewife Vin I.272. See also agarika.

Agarin (adj.) [from agara] one who has or inhabits a house, a householder Sn 376, Th I,1009; J III.234. - f. agarini a housewife Vv 527 ( = gehassammi VvA 225); Pv III.43 (id. PvA 194).

Agariya = agarika, a layman M I.504 (*bhuta). - Usually in negative anagariya (f.) the homeless state ( = anagaram) as opp. to agara (q. v.) in formula agarasma anagariyam pabbajita (gone out from the house into the homeless state) Vin I.15; M I.16; II.55, 75; A I.49; D III.30 sq., 145 sq.; Sn 274, 1003; Pv II.1316; DA I.112.

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Agga1 (adj. n.) [Vedic agra; cp. Av. agro first; Lith. agrs early] 1. (adj;) (a.) of time: the first, foremost Dpvs IV.13 (sangaham first collection). See compounds - (b.) of space: the highest, topmost, J I.52 (*sakha). - (c.) of quality: illustricus, excellent, the best, highest, chief Vin IV.232 (agga-m-agga) most excellent, D II.4: S I.29 (a. sattassa SamBuddha); A II.17 = Pv IV.347 (lokassa Buddho aggo [A: aggam] pavuccati); It 88, 89; Sn 875 (suddhi); PvA 5. Often combined. with settha (best), e. g. D II.15; S III.83, 264. - 2. (nt.) top, point. (a.) lit.: the top or tip (nearly always -*); as ar* point of an awl Sn 625, 631; Dh 401; kus* tip of a blade of grass Dh 70; Sdhp 349; tin* id PvA 241; dum* top of a tree J II.155; dhaj* of a banner S I.219; pabbat* of a mountain Sdhp 352; sakh* of a branch PvA 157; etc. - (b.) fig. the best part, the ideal, excellence, prominence, first place, often to be trsl. as adj. the highest, best of all etc. S II.29 (aggena aggassa patti hoti: only the best attain to the highest); Mhvs 7, 26. Usually as -*; e. g. dum* the best of trees, an excellent tree Vv 3541 (cp. VvA 161); dhan* plenty D III.164; madhur* S I.41, 161, 237; bhav* the best existence S III.83; rup* extraordinary beauty J I.291; labh* highest gain J III.127; sambodhi-y-agga highest wisdom Sn 693 ( = sabbannuta-nanan SnA 489; the best part or quality of anything, in enumn of the five "excellencies" of first-fruits (panca aggani, after which the N. Pancaggadayaka), viz. khettaggan ras* kotth* kumbhi* bhojan* SnA 270. sukh* perfect bliss Sdhp 243. Thus frequent in phrase aggam akkhayati to deserve or receive the highest praise, to be the most excellent D I.124; S III.156, 264; A II.17 (Tathagato); It 87 (id.); Nd2 517 D (appamado); Miln 183. - 3. Cases as adv.: aggena (instr.) in the beginning, beginning from, from (as prep.), by (id.) Vin II.167. (aggena ganhati to take from, to subtract, to find the difference; Kern Toev. s. v. unnecessarily changes aggena into agghena), 257 (yadaggena at the moment when or from, following by tad eva "then"; cp. agge), 294 (bhikkh* from alms); Vbh 423 (vass* by the number of years). aggato (abl.) in the beginning Sn 217 (+ majjhato, sesato). aggato kata taken by its worth, valued, esteemed Th 2, 386, 394. agge (loc) 1. at the top A II.201 (opp. mule at the root); J IV.156 (id.); Sn 233 (phusit* with flowers at the top: supupphitaggasakha KhA 192); J II.153 (ukkh*); III.126 (kup*). - 2 (as prep.) from. After, since, usually in phrases yad* (following by tad*) from what time, since what date D I.152; II.206; and ajja-t-agge from this day, after today D I.85; M I.528; A V.300; Sn p. 25 (cp. BSanskrit adyagrena Av. SH II.13); at the end: bhattagge after a meal Vin II.212. -anguli the main finger, i. e. index finger J VI.404. -asana main seat DA I.267. -upatthaka chief personal attendant D II.6. -karika first taste, sample Vin III.80. -kulika of an esteemed clan Pv III.55 ( = setth* PvA 199). -nna recognized as primitive primeval, D III.225 (porana +), A II.27 sq.; IV.246, Kvu 341. -danta one who is most excellently self-restrained (of the Buddha) Th I.354. -dana a splendid gift Vin III.39. -dvara main door J I.114. -nakha tip of the nail Vin IV.221. -nagara the first or most splendid of cities Vin I.229. -nikkhitta highly praised or famed Miln 343. -nikkhittaka an original depository of the Faith Dpvs IV.5. -pakatimant of the highest character J V.351 ( = aggasabhava). -patta having attained perfection D III.48 sq. -pasada the highest grace A II.34; It 87. -pinda the best oblation or alms I.141; M I. 28; II.204. -pindika receiving the best oblations J VI.140. -puggala the best of men (of the Buddha) Sn 684; DhA II.39; Sdhp. 92, 558. -purohita chief or prime ministereotypeJ VI.391. -phala the highest or supreme fruit (i. e. Arahantship) J I.148; Pv IV.188; PvA 230. -bija having eggs from above (opp. mula*), i. e. propagated by slips or cuttings D I.5; DA I.81. -magga (adj.) having reached the top of the path, i. e. Arahantship ThA 20. -mahesi the king's chief wife, queen-consort J I.262; III.187, 393; V.88; DhA I.199; PvA 76. -raja the chief king J VI.391; Miln 27. -vara most meritorious, best Dpvs VI.68. -vada the original doctrine ( = theravada) Dpvs IV.13. -vadin one who proclaims the highest good (of the Buddha) Th 1, 1142.

Agga2 (nt.) (only -*) [a contracted form of agara] a (small) house, housing, accomodation; shelter, hut; hall. dan* a house of donation, i. e. a public or private house where alms are given J III.470; IV.379, 403; VI.487; PvA 121; Miln 2. salak.r a hut where food is distributed to the bhikkhus by tickets, a food office J I.123, VvA 75.

Aggata (f.) [abstr. of agga] pre-eminence, prominence, superiority Kvu 556 (*m gata); Dpvs IV.1 (gunaggatam gata). - (adj.) mahaggata of great value or superiority D I.80; III.224.

Aggatta (nt.) [abstr. of agga = Sanskrit agratvan] the state or condition of being the first, pre-eminence PvA 9, 89.

Aggavant (adj.) occupying the first place, of great eminence A I.70, 243.

Aggalu see agalu.

Agga'a and Agga'a (f.) (also occasionally with l.) [cp. Sanskrit argala and argala to *areg to protect, ward off, secure etc., as in Ags. reced house; *aleg in Sanskrit rak.sati to protect, Gr. a)le/cw id., Ags. ealh temple. Cp. also *areq in Gr. a)rke/w = Latin arceo, Orcus, Ohg rigil bolt.] a contrivance to fasten anything for security or obstruction: 1. a bolt or cross-bar Vin I.290; D I.89 (*m akoteti to knock upon the cross-bar; a. = kavata DA I.252); A IV.359 (id.); S. IV.290; A I.101 = 137 = IV.231. (phusit* with fastened bolts, securely shut Th 1,385 (id.); Vin IV.47; J. V.293 (*m uppi'eti to lift up the cross-bar. - 2. a strip of cloth for strengthening a dress etc., a gusset Vin I.290 (+ tunna), 392 (Bdhgh on MV VIII.21, 1); J I.8 (+ tunna) VI.71 (*m datva); Vin IV.121. -dana putting in a gusset J I.8. -phalaka the post or board, in which the cross-bar is fixed (cp. *vatti) M III.95. -vatti = *phalaka Vin II.120, 148. -suci bolting pin M I.126.

Aggi [Vedic agni = Latin ignis. Besides the contracted form aggi we find the diaeretic forms gini (q. v.) and aggini (see below)] fire. - 1. fire, flames, sparks; conflagration, Vin II.120 (fire in bathroom); M I.487 (anaharo nibbuto f. gone out for lack of fuel); S IV.185, 399 (sa-upadano jalati provided with fuel blazes); Sn 62; Dh 70 ( = asaniaggi DhA III.71); J I.216 (sparks), 294 (pyre); II.102; III.55; IV.139; VvA 20 (aggimhi tapanam + udake temanam). - The var. phases of lighting and extinguishing the fire are given at A IV.45: aggim ujjaleti (kindle, make burn), ajjhupekkhati (look after, keep up), nibbapeti (extinguish, put out), nikkhipati (put down, lay). Other phrases are e. g. aggim jaleti (kindle) J II.44; ganhati (make or take) J I.494 (cp. below b); deti (set light to) J I.294; nibbapeti (put out) It 93; Sdhp 552. aggi nibkhayati the f. goes out S II.85; M I.487; J I.212 (udake through water); Miln 304. aggi nibbuto the f. is extinguished (cp. *nibbana) J I.61; Miln 304. aggina dahati to burn by means of fire, to set fire to A I.136, 199; PvA 20. udar* the fire supposed to regulate digestion PvA 33; cp. Dial. II.208, note 2; kapp*utthan* the universal conflagration J III.185; dav* a wood or jungle fire J I.212; na'* the burning of a reed J VI.100; padip* fire of a lamp Miln 47. 2. the sacrificial fire: In one or two of the passages in the older texts this use of Aggi is ambiguous. It may possibly be intended to denote the personal Agni, the fire-god. But the commentators do not think so, and the Jataka commentary, when it means Agni, has the phrase Aggi Bhagava the Lord Agni, e. g. at J I.285, 494; II.44. The ancient ceremony of kindling a holy fire on the day the child is born and keeping it up throughout his life, is also referred to by that commentary e. g. J I.285; II.43. Aggim paricarati (cp. *paricariya) to serve the sacred fire Vin I.31 (jatila

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aggi paricaritukama); A V.263, 266; Th 2, 143 ( = aggihuttam paric* ThA 136); Dh 107; J I.494; DhA II.232. aggim juhati (cp. *homa, *hutta) to sacrifice (in)to the fire A II.207; often combined. with aggihuttam paricarati, e. g. S I.166; Sn p. 79. aggim namati and santappeti to worship the fire A V.235. aggissa (gen.) paricariko J YI.207 (cp. below *paricarika); aggissa adhanam A IV.41. - 3. (ethical, always -*) the fire of burning, consuming, feverish sensations. Freq. in standard set of 3 fires, viz. rag*, dos*, moh*, or the fires of lust, anger and bewilderment. The number three may possibly have been chosen with reference to the three sacrificial fires of Vedic ritual. At S IV.19; A IV.41 sq. there are 7 fires, the 4 last of which are ahuneyy*, gahapat*, dakkhineyy*, katth*. But this trinity of cardinal sins lies at the basis of Buddhist ethics, and the fire simile was more probably suggested by the number. D III.217; It 92, Vbh 368. In late books are found others: ind* the fire of the senses PvA 56; dukkh* the glow of suffering ib. 60; bhavadukkh* of the misery of becomings Sdhp. 552; vippatisar* burning remorse PvA 60; sok.r burning grief ib. 41. Note. The form aggini occurs only at Sn 668 and 670 in the meaning of "pyre", and in combination. with sama "like", viz. aggini-samam jalitam 668 ( = samantato jali tam aggim Sn A 480); aggini-samasu 670 ( = aggisamasu Sn A 481). The form aggini in phrase niccaggini can either be referred to gini (q. v.) or has to be taken as nom. of aggini (in adj. function with i metri causa; otherwise as adj. agginim), meaning looking constantly after the fire, i. e. careful, observant, alert. -agara (agya-gara) a heated room or hut with a fire Vin I.24; IV.109; D I.101, 102 (as v. l. BB for agara); M I.501; A V.234, 250. -khandha a great mass of fire, a huge fire, fire-brand S II.85; A IV. 128; Th 2, 351 (*samakama); J IV.139; VI.330; Ps I.125; Dpvs VI.37; Miln 304. -gata having become (like) fire Miln 302. -ja fire-born J V.404 (C; text aggijata). -ttha fire-place J V.155. -tthana fire-place Vin II.120 (jantaghare, in bathroom). -daddha consumed by fire Dh 136; Pv I.74. -daha (maha*) a holocaust A I.178. -nikasin like fire J III.320 (suriya). -nibbana the extinction of fire J I.212. -pajjota fire-light A II.140 (one of the 4 lights, viz. canda*, suriya*, a*, panna*). -paricarana (-tthana) the place where the (sacrificial) fire is attended to DhA I.199. -paricariya fire-worship DhA II.232; Sn A 291 (pari*) 456. -paricarika one who worship the fire a v.263 (brahmana). -sala a heated hall or refectory Vin I.25, 49 = II.210; I.139; II.154. -sikha the crest of the fire, the flame, in simile *upama, like a flaming fire Sn 703; Dh 308 = It 43, 90 (ayogu'a). -hutta (nt.) the sacrificial fire (see above 2), Vin I.33, 36 = J I.83; Vin I.246 = Sn 568 (*mukha-yanna); S I.166; Dh 392; Sn 249, p. 79; J IV.211; VI.525; ThA 136 ( = aggi); DhA IV.151 (*m brahmano namati). -huttaka (nt.) fire-offering J VI.522 ( = aggi-juhana C.). -hotta = *hutta SnA 456 (v. l. BB *hutta). -homa fire-oblation (or perhaps sacrificing to Agni) D I.9 ( = aggi-juhana DA I.93).

Aggika (adj.) [aggi + ka] one who worships the fire Vin I.71 (jatilaka); D II.339 sq. (jatila); S I.166 (brahmana).

Aggha [see agghati] 1. price, value, worth, Miln 244; Mhvs 26, 22; 30, 76; VvA 77. - mahaggha (adj.) of great value J IV.138; V.414; VI.209; Pv II.118. See also maha-raha. appaggha (adj.) of little value J. IV.139; V.414. - anaggha (nt.) pricelessness, J V.484; cattari anagghani the four priceless things, viz. setacchatta, nisidanapallanka, adharaka, padapithika DhA III.120, 186. (adj.) priceless, invaluable J V.414; Mhvs 26, 25; DhA IV.216. - agghena (instr.) for the price of Vin II.52, cp. Bdhgh on p. 311, 312. - 2. an oblation made to a guest D II.240; J IV.396 = 476. -karaka a valuator J I.124. -pada valuableness J V.473 (*lakkhanam nama mantam).

Agghaka (adj.) = aggha; worth, having the value of (-*) Mhvs 30, 77. an* priceless Mhvs 30, 72.

Agghati (intr.) [Sanskrit arghati, argh = arh (see arhati), cp. Gr. a)lfh/ reward, a)lfa/nw to deserve] to be worth, to have the value of (acc.), to deserve J I.112 (satasahassan; addhamasakam); VI.174, 367 (padarajam); DhA III.35 (manin na-gghama); Mhvs 32, 28. Freq. in stock phrase kalam na-gghati (na-gghanti) so'asim not to be worth the 16th part of (cp. kala) Vin II.156; S I.233; Dh 70; Vv 207 ( = na-nubhoti VvA 104), 437; J V.284. - Causative agghapeti to value, to appraise, to have a price put on (acc.) J I.124; IV.137, 278; Miln 192; Mhvs 27, 23. Cp. agghapanaka and agghapaniya.

Agghanaka (adj.) (-*) [from *agghana, abstr. to agghati] having the value of, equal to, worth Vin IV.226; J I.61 (satasahass*), 112; DA I.80 (kahapan*); DhA III.120 (cuddasakoti*); Mhvs 26, 22; 34, 87. - f. *ika J I.178 (satasahass*).

Agghaniya (adj.) [in function and form grd. of agghati] priceless, invaluable, beyond the reach of money Miln 192.

Agghapanaka [from agghapana to agghapeti, Causative of agghati] a valuator, appraiser J I.124, 125; V.276 (*ika).

Agghapaniya (adj.) [grd. of agghapeti, see agghati] that which is to be valued, in *kamma the business of a valuator J IV.137.

Agghika (nt.) (-*) [ = agghiya] an oblation, decoration or salutation in the form of garlands, flowers etc., therefore meaning "string, garland" (cp. Sinhalese aga "festoon work") Mhvs 19, 38 (pupph*) 34, 73 (ratan*) 34, 76 (dhaj*); Davs I.39 (pupphamay*); V.51 (kusum*).

Agghiya (adj. -n.) [grd. form from agghati] 1. (adj.) valuable, precious, worth J VI.265 (mani); DhA II.41 (ratan* of jewel's worth); Mhvs 30, 92. - 2. (nt.) a respectful oblation J V.324 = VI.516; Dpvs VI.65; VII.4.

Agha1 (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit agha, of uncertain etymology] evil, grief, pain, suffering, misfortune S I 22; M I.500 (roga ganda salla agha); A II.128 (id.); J V.100; Th 2, 491; Sdhp 51. - adj. painful, bringing pain J VI.507 (agha-m-miga = aghakara m. C.). -bhuta a source of pain S III.189 (+ agha and salla).

Agha2 (m. nt.) [the etymology suggested by Morris J.Pali Text Society 1889, 200 (with reference to M I.500, which belongs under agha1) is untenable (to Sanskrit kha, as a-kha = agha, cp. Jain Prk. khaha). Neither does the pop. etymology of Bdhgh. offer any clue ( = a + gha from ghan that which does not strike or aghattaniya is not strikeable DhsA 326, cp. Dhs. trsl. 194 and J IV.154 aghe thita = appatighe akase thita the air which does not offer any resistance). On the other hand the primary meaning is darkness, as seen from the phrase lokantarika agha asanvuta andhakara D II.12; S V.454, and BSanskrit aghasanvrta M Vastu I.240, adj. dark M Vastu I.41; II.162; Lal Vist 552] the sky, orig. the dark sky, dark space, the abyss of space D II.12; S V.45; Vv 161 (aghasi gama, loc. = vehasan gama VvA 78); J IV.154; Dhs 638 (+ aghagata); Vbh 84 (id.). -gata going through or being in the sky or atmosphere Dhs 638, 722; Vbh 84. -gamin moving through the atmosphere or space i. e. a planet S I.67 = Miln 242 (adicco settho aghagaminam).

Aghata at Th 1, 321 may be read as agha-gata or (preferably) with v. l. as aggha-gatam, or (with Neumann) as aggham agghatanam. See also Mrs. Rh. D, Psalms of the Brethren, p. 191.

Aghammiga [to agha1*] a sort of wild animal J VI.247 ( = aghavaha miga) 507 ( = aghakara). Cp. BSanskrit agharika Divy 475.

Aghavin (adj.) [to agha1] suffering pain, being in misery Sn 694 ( = dukkhita SnA 489).

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Anka1 = anga, sign, mark, brand Miln 79; *karana branding J IV.366, 375. See also anketi.

Anka2 [Vedic anka hook, bent etc., anc, cp. ankura and ankusa. Gr. a)gkw/n elbow, a)/gkura = anchor; Latin uncus nail; Ohg. angul = E. angle] (a.) a hook J V.322 = VI.218 (v. l. BB anga). - (b.) the lap (i. e. the bent position) or the hollow above the hips where infants are carried by Hindoo mothers or nurses (ankena vahati) Vin II.114; D II.19 (anke pariharati to hold on one's lap or carry on one's hips), 20 (nisidapeti seat on one's lap); M II.97 (ankena vahitva); Th 1, 299; J I.262 (anke nisinna); II.127, 236; VI.513; DhA I.170 (ankena vahitva) PvA 17 (nisidapeti).

Ankita [pp. of anketi] marked, branded J I.231 (cakkankita Satthu pada); II.185 (*kannaka with perforated ears).

Ankura [cp. Sanskrit ankura, to anka a bend = a tendril etc.] a shoot, a sprout (lit. or fig.) J II.105; VI.331 (Buddh *a nascent Buddha), 486; Dhs 617 (*vanna); Miln 50, 251 269; Sdhp 273; Mhvs 15, 43.

Ankusa [Vedic ankusha; to anc, see anka2] a hook, a pole with a hook, used (1) for plucking fruit off trees, a crook J I.9 (*pacchi hook and basket); V.89 = VI.520 (pacchikhanitti*), 529 ( = phalanam ganhanattham ankusan). (2) to drive an elephant, a goad (cp patoda and tutta) Vin II.196 (+ kasa); J VI.489; ThA 173 (ovadam ankusan katva, fig. guide); Sdhp 147 (dand*). - (3) N. of a certain method of inference in Logic (naya), consisting in inferring certain mental states of a general character from respective traits where they are to be found Nett 2, 4, 127; Nett A 208; - acc* beyond the reach of the goad D II.266 (naga). See also ankusaka. -gayha (the art) how to grasp and handle an eleph. driver's hook M II.94 (sippa). -gaha an eleph.-driver Dh 326.

Ankusaka [see anka2, cp. ankusa] 1. a crook for plucking fruit J III.22. - 2. an eleph.-driver's hook J III.431. -yattha a crooked stick, alpenstock, staff (of an ascetic) J II.68 (+ pacchi).

Anketi [Denominitive from anka1] to mark out, brand J I.451 lakkhanena); II.399. -pp. ankita, q. v.

Ankola [dial. for ankura] a species of tree Alangium Hexapetalum J VI.535. Cp. next.

Ankolaka = ankola J IV.440; V.420.

Anga (nt.) [Vedic anga, anc cp. Latin angulus = angle, corner etc., ungulus finger-ring = Sanskrit anguliya. See also anka, anguttha and angula] (1) (lit.) a constituent part of the body, a limb, member; also of objects: part, member (see cpd. ---sambhara); uttam-anga the reproductive organ J V.197; also as "head" at ThA 209. Usually in compounds (see below, esp. -paccanga), as sabbanga-kalyani perfect in all limbs Pv III.35 ( = sobhana-sabbanga-paccangi PvA 189) and in redupln. anga-m-angani limb by limb, with all limbs (see also below anga + paccanga) Vin III.119; Vv 382 (*ehi naccamana); Pv II.1210, 13, 18 (sunakho te khadati). - (2) (fig.) a constituent part of a whole or system or collection, e. g. uposath* the vows of the fast J I.50; bhavanga the constituents or the condition of becoming (see bhava and cp. Cpd.265 sq.); bojjhanga (q. v.). Esp. with numerals: cattari angani 4 constituents A II.79 (viz. sila, samadhi, panna. vimutti and rupa, vedana, sanna, bhava), atthangika (q. v.) magga the Path with its eight constituents or the eightfold Path (KhA 85: atth- angani assa ti) navanga Buddha-sasana see nava. - (3) a constituent part as characteristic, prominent or distinguishing, a mark, attribute, sign, quality D I.113 sq., 117 (imina p* angena by this quality, or: in this respect, cp. below 4; DA I.281 expls tena kara nena). In a special sense striking (abnormal) sign or mark on the body D I.9, from which a prophesy is made (: hattha-padadisu yena kenaci evarupena angena samannagato dighayu . . hoti ti . . angasatthan = chiromantics DA I.92). Thus in combination. with samannagata and sampanna always meaning endowed with "good", superior, remarkable "qualities", e. g. J I.3 (sabbanga-sampanna nagaram a city possessing all marks of perfection); II.207. In enumn. with var. numerals: tihi angehi s. A I.115; cattari sotapannassa a- D III.227 = A IV.405 sq.; pancanga-vippahino (i. e. giving up the 5 hindrances, see nivarana) and pancanga-samannagato (i. e. endowed with the 5 good qualities, viz. the sila-kkhandha, see kkhandha II.A d) S I.99 = A I.161; V.15, 29. Similarly the 5 attributes of a brahmin (viz. sujata of pure birth, ajjhayaka a student of the Vedas, abhirupa handsome, silava of good conduct, pandita clever) D I.119, 120. Eight qualities of a king D I.137. Ten qualities of an Arahant (cp. dasa1 B 2) S III.83; Kh IV.10 = KhA 88; cp. M I.446 (dasah- angehi samannagato ranno assajaniyo). - (4) (modally) part, share, interest, concern; ajjhattikam angam my own part or interest (opp. bahiram the interest in the outside world). A I.16 sq. = S V.101 sq.; It 9. ranno angam an asset or profit for the king M I.446. Thus adv. tadanga (see also ta* I.a) as a matter of fact, in this respect, for sure, certainly and tadangena by these means, through this, therefore M I.492; A IV.411; Sdhp 455, 456; imina p* angena for that reason M II.168. - In compounds. with verbs angi* (angi*): angigata having limbs or ports, divided DA I.313; cp. samangi (-bhuta). -jata "the distinguishing member", i. e. sign of male or female (see above 3); membrum virile and muliebre Vin I.191 (of cows); III.20, 37, 205; J II.359; Miln 124. -paccanga one limb or the other, limbs great and small M I.81; J VI-20, used (a) collectively: the condition of perfect limbs, or adj. with perfect limbs, having all limbs Pv II.1212 ( = paripunna-sabbanga-paccangavati PvA 158); SnA 383; DhA I.390; ThA 288; Sdhp 83 fig. rathassa angapaccangan M I.395; sabbanga-paccangani all limbs Miln 148. - (b) distributively (cp. similar redupl. formations like chidda-vachidda, settha-nu-setthi, khandakhanda, cunnavicunna) limb after limb, one limb after the other (like angamangani above 1), piecemeal M I.133 (*e daseyya), 366; J I.20; IV.324 (chinditva). -paccangata the condition or state of perfect limbs, i. e. a perfect body VvA 134 (suvisuddh*). -paccangin having all limbs (perfect) D I.34 (sabbanga-peccangi); PvA 189. -raga painting or rouging the body Vin II.107 (+ mukha*). -latthi sprout, offshoot ThA 226. -vata gout Vin I.205. -vijja the art of prognosticating from marks on the body, chiromantics, palmistry etc. (cp. above 3) D I.9 (see expl. at DA I.93); J I.290 (*aya cheka clever in fortune-telling); *a-nubhava the power of knowing the art of signs on the body J II.200; V.284; *pathaka one who in versed in palmistry etc. J II.21, 250; V.458. -vekalla bodily deformity DhA II.26. -sattha the science of prognosticating from certain bodily marks DA I.92. -sambhara the combination of parts Miln 28 = S I.135; Miln 41. -hetuka a species of wild birds, living in forests J VI.538.

Angana1 (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit angana and *na; to anga*] an open space, a clearing, Vin II.218; J I.109 ( = manussanan sancarana-tthane anavate bhumibhage C.); II.243, 290, 357; Davs I.27. - cetiy* an open space before a Chaitya Miln 366, DA I.191, 197; VvA 254. raj* the empty space before the king's palace, the royal square J I.124, 152; II.2; DhA II.45. -tthana a clearing (in a wood or park) J I.249, 421. -pariyanta the end or border of a clearing J II.200.

Angana2 [prob. to anj, thus a variant of anjana, q. v.]; a speck or freckle (on the face) A V.92, 94 sq. (+ raja). Usually in negative anangana (adj.) free from fleck or blemish, clear, (of the mind) (opp. sa-ngana Sn 279); D I.76; M I.24 sq.; 100 (+ raja); A II.211; Sn 517 (+ vigata

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raja = angananan abhava malanan ca vigama . . . SnA 427), 622 = Dh 125 ( = nikkilesa DhA III.34); Dh 236, 351; Pug 60; Nett 87.

Angada [cp. Sanskrit angada; prob. anga + da that which is given to the limbs] a bracelet J V.9, 410 (citt*, adj. with manifold bracelets).

Angadin (adj.) [to angada] wearing a bracelet J V.9.

Angara (m. nt.) [Vedic angara] charcoal, burning coal, embers A III.97, 380, 407; J I.73; III.54, 55; V.488; Sn 668; Sdhp 32. kul* the charcoal of the family, a squanderer S IV.324 (see under kula). -kataha a pot for holding burning coal, a charcoal pan DA I.261. -kapalla an earthenware pan for ashes DhA I.260; Dhs A 333; VvA 142. -kammakara a charcoal burner J VI.209. -kasu a charcoal pit M I.74, 365; Th 2, 491; J I.233; Sn 396; ThA 288; DhA I.442; Sdhp 208. -pacchi a basket for ashes DhA IV.191. -pabbata the mountain of live embers, the glowing mount (in Niraya) A I.141; Miln 303; PvA 221 (*aropana); Sdhp 208. -mamsa roast meat Mhvs 10, 16. -masi ashes DhA III.309. -rasi a heap of burning coal J III.55.

Angaraka [Angaraka] (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit angaraka] like charcoal, of red colour, N. of the planet Mars DA I.95; cp. J I.73.

Angarika a charcoal-burner J VI.206 ( = angara-kammakara p. 209).

Angarin (adj.) [to angara] (burning) like coal, of brightred colour, crimson Th 1, 527 = J I.87 (duma trees in full bloom).

Angika (-*) (adj.) [from anga] consisting of parts, - fold; only in compounds. with num. like atth*, duv* (see dve), catur*, panc* etc., q. v.

Angin (adj.) limbed, having limbs or parts, - fold, see catur* and pacc* (under anga-paccangin). - f. angini having sprouts or shoots (of a tree) Th 2, 297 ( = ThA 226).

Anguttha [cp. Sanskrit angus.tha, see etymology under anga] 1. the thumb Vin III.34; Miln 123; PvA 198. - 2. the great toe J II.92; Mhvs 35, 43. -pada thumb-mark A IV.127 = S III.154. -sineha love drawn from the thumb, i. e. extraordinary love Pv III.52, cp. PvA 198.

Angutthaka = anguttha J IV.378; V.281; pad* the great toe S V.270.

Angula [Vedic angula, lit. "limblet" see anga for etymology] 1. a finger or toe M I.395 (vank- angulan karoti to bend the fingers, v. l. angulin); A III.6 (id.); J V 70 (gon* adj. with ox toes, explained. by C. as with toes like an ox's tail; vv. ll. *anguttha and *anguli). - 2. a finger as measure, i. e. a finger-breadth, an inch Vin II.294, 306 (dvangula 2 inches wide); Mhvs 19, 11 (atth*); DhA III.127 (ek.r). -atthi (* cp. anga-latthi) fingers (or toes) and bones DA I.93. -anguli fingers and toes DhA III.214. -antarika the interstices between the fingers Vin III.39; Miln 180; DhA III.214.

Angulika (nt.) [ = anguli] a finger J III.13 (panc*); V.204 (vatt* = pava'* ankurasadisa vattanguli p. 207). See also pancangulika.

Anguli and Anguli (thus always in compounds) (f.) [Vedic anguli and *i; see anga] a finger A IV.127; Sn 610; J III.416; IV.474; V.215 (vatt* with rounded fingers); Miln 395; DhA II.59; IV.210; SnA 229. -patodaka nudging with the fingers Vin III.84 = IV.110; D I.91 = A IV.343. -pada finger-mark A IV.127 = S III.154. -potha snapping or cracking the fingers J V.67. -muddika a signet ring Vin II.106; J IV.498; V.439, 467. -sanghattana* = potha DA I.256.

Anguleyyaka (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit anguliyaka that which belongs to the finger, Mhg. vingerl^in = ring; E. bracelet, Fr. bras; thimble thumb etc.] an ornament for the finger, a finger-ring J II.444 ( = nikkha).

Acankama (avj.) [a + cankama] not fit for walking, not level or even Th 1, 1174 (magga).

Acittaka (adj.) [a + citta2 + ka] 1. without thought or intention, unconscious, unintentional DhA II.42. - 2. without heart or feeling, instr. acittakena (adv.) heartlessly J IV.58 (C. for acetasa).

Acittikata (adj.) [a + citta2 + kata; cp. cittikara] not well thought of Miln 229.

Acira see cira and cp. nacira.

Acela (adj. -n.) [a + cela] one who is not clothed, esp. t. t. for an anti-Buddhist naked ascetic D I.161, 165; III.6, 12, 17 sq.; S I.78; J V.75.

Acelaka = acela D I.166; III.40; A I.295; II.206; III.384 (*savaka); J III.246; VI.229; Pug 55; DhA III.489.

Acc- 1. a + c*, e. g. accuta = a + cuta. - 2. Assimilation group of (a) ati + vowel; (b) c + cons. e. g. acci = arci.

Accaga [ati + aga] 3rd sg. pret. of ati-gacchati (q. v. for similar forms) he overcame, should or could overcome Sn 1040 (explained. wrongly as pp. = atikkanta at Nd2 10 and as atita at DhA IV.494); Dh 414.

Accankusa (adj.) [ati + ankusa] beyond the reach of the goad D II.266 (naga).

Accatari see atitarati.

Accati [Vedic arcati, rc, orig. meaning to be clear and to sing i. e. to sound clear, cp. arci] to praise, honour, celebrate Davs V.66 (accayittha, pret.) - pp accita, q. v.

Accanta (adj. - and adv. *-) [ati + anta, lit. "up to the end"] 1. uninterrupted, continuous, perpetual J I.223; Miln 413; VvA 71; PvA 73, 125, 266; Sdhp 288. 2. final, absolute, complete; adv. thoroughly S I.130 (*m hataputta- mhi); III.13 = A I.291 sq.; V.326 sq. (*nittha, *yogakkhemin); Kvu 586 (*niyamata final assurance; cp. Kvu trsl. 340). - 3. (*-) exceedingly, extremely, very much A I.145 (*sukhumala, extremely delicate), Miln 26 (id.); Sn 794 (*suddhi = param ttha-accantasuddhi SnA 528); Th 1, 692 (*ruci); Dh 162 (*dussilya = ekanta* DhA III.153).

Accaya [from acceti, ati + i, going on or beyond; cp. Sanskrit atyaya] (1) (temporal) lapse, passing; passing away, end, death. Usually as instr. accayena after the lapse of, at the end or death of, after Vin I.25; D II.127 (rattiya a.), 154 (mam* when I shall be dead); M I.438 (temas* after 3 months); S I.69; Snp. 102 (catunnam masanam), p. 110 (rattiya); J I.253 (ekaha-dvih*), 291 (katipah* after a few days); PvA 47 (katipah*), 82 (dasamas*), 145 (vassasatanam). - (2) (modal) passing or getting over, overcoming, conquering, only in phrase dur-accaya difficult to overcome, of kamapanka Sn 945 ( = dur-atikkamaniya SnA 568), of sanga Sn 948: tanha Dh 336; sota It 95. - (3) (fig.) going beyond (the norm), transgression, offence Vin I.133 (thull* a grave offence), 167 (id.); II.110, 170; esp. in following phrases: accayo mam accagama a fault has overcome me, i. e. has been committed by me (in confession formula) D I.85 ( = abhibhavitva pavatto has overwhelmed me DA I.236); A I.54; M I.438 (id.); accayan accayato passati to recognise a breach of the regulation as such Vin I.315; A I.103; II.146 sq.; *m deseti to confess the transgression S I.239; *m accayato patiganhati to accept (the confession of) the fault, i. e. to pardon the transgression, in confession formula at D I.85 = (Vin II.192; M I.438 etc.). In the

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same sense accaya-patiggahana pardon, absolution J V.380; accayena desanam patiganhati J I.379; accayan khamati to forgive Miln 420.

Accasara (adj.) [a form. from aor. accasari (ati + sr), influenced in meaning by analogy of ati + a + sara (smr). Not with Morris (J.Pali Text Society 1889, 200) a corruption of accaya + sara (smr), thus meaning "mindful of a fault"] 1. going beyond the limits (of proper behaviour), too self-sure, overbearing, arrogant, proud S I.239 (v. l. accayasara caused by prolepsis of following accaya); J IV.6 (+ atisara); DhA IV.230 ( = expecting too much). - 2. going beyond the limits (of understanding), beyond grasp, transcendental (of panha a question) M I.304; S V.218 (v. l. SS for BB reading ajjhapara). Cp. accasarin.

Accasara (f.) [abstr. to accasara] overbearing, pride, selfsurity Vbh 358 (+ maya). Note. In id. p. at Pug 23 we read acchadana instead of accasara.

Accasari [from ati + sr] aor 3. sg. of atisarati to go beyond the limit, to go astray J V.70.

Accasarin (adj.) = accasara 1., aspiring too high Sn 8 sq. (yo na-ccasari, opp. to na paccasari; explained. at SnA 21 by yo na-tidhavi, opp. na ohiyyi).

Accahasi [from ati + hr] aor 3 sg. of atiharati to bring over, to bring, to take J III.484 ( = ativiya ahari C.).

Acca-bhikkhana (*-) [ati + abhikkhana] too often J V.233 (*sansagga; C. expls. ativiya abhinha).

Accaraddha (adj. adv.) [ati + araddha] exerting oneself very or too much, with great exertion Vin I.182; Th 1, 638; SnA 21.

Accayata (adj.) [ati + ayata] too long A III.375.

Accayika (adj.) [from accaya] out of time, viz. 1. irregular, extraordinary J VI.549, 553. - 2. urgent, pressing M I.149 (karaniyan business) II.112; J I.338; V.17 *m (nt.) hurry DhA I.18. See also acceka.

Accavadati [ati + avadati; or is it = ajjhavadati = adhi + avadati*] to speak more or better, to surpass in talk or speech; to talk somebody down, to persuade, entice Vin IV.224, 263; S II.204 sq.; J V.433 (v. l. BB ajjharati), 434 (v. l. BB aghacarati for ajjhacarati = ajjhavadati*).

Accasanna (adj.) [ati + asanna] very near, too near PvA 42 (na a. n'a-tidura neither too near nor too far, at an easy distance).

Acca-hita (adj.) [ati + ahita] very cruel, very unfriendly, terrible J IV.46 = V.146 ( = ati ahita C.) = VI.306 (id.).

Acci and (in verse) acci (f.) [Vedic arci m. and arcis nt. and f. to rc, cp. accati] a ray of light, a beam, flame S IV.290 (spelt acchi), 399; A IV.103; V.9; Sn 1074 (vuccati jalasikha Nd2 11); J V.213; Miln 40; ThA 154 (dip-); Sdhp 250.

Accika (f.) [from acci] a flame M I.74; S II.99.

Accita [pp. of accati] honoured, praised, esteemed J VI.180.

Accimant (adj.) [from acci, cp. Vedic arcimant and arcis.mant] flaming, glowing, fiery; brilliant Th 1, 527; J V.266; VI.248; Vv 388.

Acci-bandha (adj.) [ = accibaddha*] at Vin I.287 is explained. by Bdhgh as caturassa-kedara-baddha ("divided into short pieces" Vin Texts II.207), i. e. with squares of irrigated fields. The vv. ll. are acca* and acchi*, and we should prefer the conjecture acchi-baddha "in the shape of cubes or dice", i. e. with square fields.

Accuggacchati [ati + uggacchati] to rise out (of), ger. accuggamma D II.38; A V.152 (in simile of lotus).

Accuggata (adj.) [ati + uggata] 1. very high or lofty Miln 346 (giri); VvA 197; DhA II.65. - 2. too high, i. e. too shrill or loud J VI.133 (sadda), 516 (fig. = atikuddha very angry C.).

Accunha (adj.) [ati + unha] very hot, too hot Sn 966; Nd1 487; DhA II.85, 87 (v. l. for abbhunha). See also ati-unha.

Accuta (adj.) [a + cuta] immoveable; everlasting, eternal; nt. *m Ep. of Nibbana (see also cuta) A IV.295, 327; Sn 204, 1086 ( = nicca etc. Nd2 12); Dh 225 ( = sassata DhA III.321); Sdhp 47.

Accupatthapeti at J V.124 is to be read with v.l. as apaccupatthapeti (does not indulge in or care for).

Accupati at J IV.250 read accuppati, aor. 3rd sg. of accuppatati to fall in between (lit. on to), to interfere (with two people quarelling). C. expls. atigantva uppati. There is no need for Kern's corr. acchupati (Toev. s. v.).

Accussanna (adj.) [ati + ussanna] too full, too thick Vin II.151.

Acceka = accayika, special; *civara a spccial robe Vin III.261; cp. Vin Texts I.293.

Acceti [ati + eti from i] 1. to pass (of time), to go by, to elapse Th 1, 145 (accayanti ahoratta). - 2. to overcome, to get over Miln 36 (dukkham). - Causative acceti to make go on (loc.), to put on J VI.17 (sulasmim; C. avuneti), but at this passage prob. to be read appeti (q. v.).

Accoga'ha (adj.) [ati + oga'ha] too abundant, too plentiful (of riches), lit. plunged into A IV.282, 287, 323 sq.

Accodaka (nt.) [ati + udaka] too much water (opp. anodaka no water) DhA I.52.

Accodara (nt.) [ati + udara] too much eating, greediness, lit. too much of a belly J IV.279 (C. ati-udara).

Accha1 (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit accha, dial., to rc (see accati), thus "shining"; cp. Sanskrit bald, bare and Vedic rkvan bright. Monier-Williams however takes it as a + cha from chad, thus "not covered, not shaded"] clear, transparent Vin I.206 (*kanjika); D I.76 (mani = tanucchavi DA I.221), 80 (udakapatta), 84 (udaka-rahada); M I.100; S II.281 (*patta); III.105 (id.); A I.9; J II.100 (udaka); Vv 7910 (vari); DA I.113 (yagu). -odaka having clear water, with clear water (of lotus ponds) Vv 4411; 815; f. *odika Vv 412 = 602.

Accha2 [Vedic = Gr. a)/rktos, Latin ursus, Cymr. arth] a bear Vin I.200; A III.101; J V.197, 406, 416; Miln 23, 149. At J VI.507 accha figures as N. of an animal, but is in explination. taken in the sense of accha4 (accha nama aghammiga C.). Note. Another peculiar form of accha is Pali ikka (q. v.).

Accha3 = akkha2 (a die) see acci-bandha.

Accha4 (adj.) [Ved.] hurtful, painful, bad DhA IV.163 (*ruja).

Acchaka = accha2, a bear J V.71.

Acchati [Vedic asyati and aste, as; cp. Gr. h_(stai] 1. to sit, to sit still Vin I.289; A II.15; It 120 (in set carati titthati a. sayati, where otherwise nisinna stands for acchati); Vv 741 ( = nisidati VvA 298); PvA 4. - 2. to stay, remain, to leave alone Th 1, 936; J IV.306. - 3. to be, behave, live Vin II.195; D I.102; S I.212; Vv 112; Pv III.31 ( = nisidati vasati PvA 188); Miln 88; DhA I.424. In this sense often pleonastic for finite verb, thus aggim karitva a. ( = aggim karoti) D I.102; aggim paricaranto a. ( = aggim paricarati) DA I.270; tantam pasarento a. ( = tantam pasareti) DhA I.424. - Pot. acche It 110; aor. acchi Vin IV.308; DhA I.424.

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Acchanna (adj.) [pp. of acchadeti] covered with, clothed in, fig. steeped in (c. loe.) J JII.323 (lohite a. = nimugga C.). At D I.91 nacchanna is for na channa (see channa2) = not fair, not suitable or proper (patirupa).

Acchambhin (adj.) [a + chambhin] not frightened, undismayed, fearless Sn 42 (reading achambhin; Nd2 13 expls. abhiru anutrasi etc.); J VI.322 ( = nikkampa C.). See chambhin.

Acchara1 (f.) [etymology uncertain, but certainly dialectical; Trenckner connects it with acchurita (Notes 76); Childers compares Sanskrit ak.sara (see akkhara); there may be a connection with akkhana in akkhana-vedhin (cp. BSanskrit acchata Divy 555), or possibly a relation to a + tsar, thus meaning "stealthily", although the primary meaning is "snapping, a quick sound"] the snapping of the fingers, the bringing together of the finger-tips: 1. (lit.) accharam paharati to snap the fingers J II.447; III.191; IV.124, 126; V.314; VI.366; DhA I.38, 424. - As measure: as much as one may hold with the finger-tips, a pinch J V.385; DhA II.273 (*gahanamattam); cp. ekacchara-matta DhA II.274. - 2. (fig.) a finger's snap, i. e. a short moment, in ek.racchara-kkhane in one moment Miln 102, and in def. of acchariya (q. v.) at DA I.43; VvA 329. -sanghata the snapping of the fingers as signifying a short duration of time, a moment, *matta momentary, only for one moment (cp. BSanskrit acchatasanghata Divy 142) A I.10, 34, 38; IV.396; Th 1, 405; 2, 67 (explained. at ThA 76 as ghatikamattam pi khanam angulipothanamattam pi kalam). -sadda the sound of the snapping of a finger J III.127.

Acchara2 (f.) [Vedic apsaras = apa, water + sarati, orig; water nymph] a celestial nymph M I.253 (pl. accharayo) II.64; Th 2, 374 ( = devacchara ThA 252); J V.152 sq. (Alambusa a.) Vv 55 ( = devakanna VvA 37); Vv 172; 1811 etc.; DhA III.8, 19; PvA 46 (dev*); Miln 169; Sdhp 298.

Accharika (nt. or f.*) [from acchara2] in *m vadeti to make heavenly music (lit. the sounds of an acchara or heavenly nymph) A IV.265.

Acchariya (adj.-nt.) [cp. Sanskrit ashcarya since Upanishads of uncertain etymology - The conventional etymology of Pali grammarians connects it with acchara1 (which is prob. correct and thus reduces Sanskrit ashcarya to a Sanskritisation of acchariya) viz. Dhammapala: anabhinha-ppavattitaya accharapaharana-yoggam that which happens without a moment's notice, at the snap of a finger; i. e. causally unconnected (cp. Goth. silda-leiks in similar meaning) VvA 329; and Buddhaghosa: acchara-yoggan ti acchariyam accharam paharitum yuttan ti attho DA I.43] wonderful, surprising, strange, marvellous D II.155; M I.79; III.118, 125, 144 (an*); S IV.371; A I.181; Miln 28, 253; DhA III.171; PvA 121; VvA 71 (an*). As nt. often in exclamations: how wonderful! what a marvel! J I.223, 279; IV.138; VI.94 (a. vata bho); DhA IV.51 (aho a.); VvA 103 (aho ti acchariyatthena nipato). Thus frequent combined. with abbhutam = how wonderful and strange, marvellous, beyond comprehension, e. g. D I.2, 60, 206, 210; II.8; and in phrase acchariya abbhuta dhamma strange and wonderful things, i. e. wonderful signs, portents marvels, M III.118, 125; A IV.198; Miln 8; also as adj. in phrase acchariyaabbhuta-(citta-)jata with their hearts full of wonder and surprise DhA IV.52; PvA 6, 50. - See also acchera and accheraka.

Acchadana (nt.) [from acchadeti] covering, clothing Th 1, 698; Miln 279. - fig. protection, sheltering J I.307.

Acchadana (f.) [ = prec.] covering, hiding, concealment Pug 19, 23. - Note. In id. p. at Vbh 358 we read accasara for acchadana. Is the latter merely a gloss*

Acchadeti [a + chadeti1, Causative of chad, cp. BSanskrit acchadayati jivitena to keep alive Av. SH, I.300; Divy 136, 137] to cover, to clothe, to put on D I.63 = It 75; J I.254; III.189; IV.318; Pug 57; Pv I.105 (ger. acchadayitvana); DA I.181 ( = paridahitva); PvA 49, 50. - fig. to envelop, to fill J VI.581 (abbham rajo acchadesi dust filled the air). -pp. acchanna (q. v.).

Acchi at S IV.290 is faulty spelling for acci (q. v.).

Acchijja (v. l. accheja) destroying (*) S I.127. Is the reading warranted* Cp. acchecchi.

Acchidda see chidda.

Acchindati [a + chindati, lit. to break for oneself] to remove forcibly, to take away, rob, plunder Vin IV.247 (sayan a. to appropriate); J II.422; III.179; IV.343; Miln 20; Sdhp 122. - ger. acchinditva J II.422; DhA I.349; PvA 241 (sayan); and acchetva M I.434. Causative II. acchindapeti to induce a person to theft Vin IV.224, 247.

Acchinna (adj.) [a + chinna, pp. of acchindati] removed, taken away, stolen, robbed Vin IV.278, 303; J II.78; IV.45; V.212.

Acchiva [*Sanskrit aks.iba and aks.iba] a certain species of tree (Hypanthera Moringa) J VI.535.

Acchupeti [a + chupeti, Causative of chupati] to procure or provide a hold, to insert, to put on or in Vin I.290 (agga'am) II.112.

Acchecchi [Sanskrit acchaitsit] 3rd sg. aor. of chindati "he has cut out or broken, has destroyed" (see also chindati 3), in combination. with tanham M I.122; S I.12, 23, 127 (so read for acchejja); IV.105, 207. It 47; A III.246, 445; DhA IV.70 (gloss acchindi, for acchidda pret. of Dh 351). The v. l. at all passages is acchejji, which is to be accounted for on graphological grounds, chandj being substituted in MSS. Kern (Toevoegselen s. v.) mistakes the form and tries to explain acchejji as adj. = ati-ejin (eja), acchecchi = ati-icchin (iccha). The syntactical construction however clearly points to an aor.

Acchejja = a + chejja not to be destroyed, indestructible, see chindati.

Acchedana (nt.) [abstr. to acchindati] robbing, plundering J VI.544.

Acchera (adj.) = acchariya wonderful, marvellous S I.181; Vv 8413 (comp. accheratara); Pv III.51 (*rupa = acchariyasabhava PvA 197); Sdhp 244, 398.

Accheraka (adj.) = acchera (acchariya) J I.279; Bu I.9 (patihiram).

Aja [Vedic aja from aj (Latin ago to drive), cp. ajina] a hegoat, a ram D I.6, 127; A II.207; J I.241; III.278 sq.; V.241; Pug 56; PvA 80. -e'aka [Sanskrit ajaidaka] goats and sheep D I.5, 141; A II.42 sq., 209; J I.166; VI.110; Pug 58. As pl. *a S I.76; It 36; J IV.363. -pada goat-footed M I.134. aja-pada refers to a stick cloven like a goat's hoof; so also at Vism 161. -pala goatherd, in *nigrodharukkha (Npl.) "goatherds' Nigrodha-tree" Vin I.2 sq. Dpvs I.29 (cp. M Vastu III.302). -palika a woman goatherd Vin III.38. -lakkhana "goat-sign", i. e. prophesying from signs on a goat etc. D I.9 (explained. DA I.94 as "evarupanam ajanam mansan khaditabbam evarupanam na khaditabban ti"). -landika (pl.) goats' dung, in phrase na'imatta a. a cup full of goats' dung (which is put down a bad ministereotypes throat as punishment) J I.419; DhA II.70; PvA 282. -vata "goats' habit", a practice of certain ascetics (to live after the fashion of goats) J IV.318.

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Ajaka a goat, pl. goats Vin II.154. - f. ajika J III.278 and ajiya J V.241.

Ajagara [aja + gara = gala from *gel to devour, thus "goateater"] a large snake (rock-snake*), Boa Constrictor J VI.507; Miln 23, 303, 364, 406; DhA III.60. Also as ajakara at J III.484 (cp. Trenckner, Notes p. 64).

Ajacca (adj.) [a + jacca] of low birth J III.19; VI.100.

Ajajjara see jajjara.

Ajaddhuka and Ajaddhumara see jaddhu.

Ajamoja [Sanskrit ajamoda, cp. Sanskrit ajaji] cummin-seed VvA 186.

Aja (f.) a she-goat J III.125; IV.251.

Ajanana (*-) (nt.) [a + janana] not knowing, ignorance (of) J V.199 (*bhava); VI.177 (*kala).

Ajina (nt.) [Vedic ajina, to aja, orig. goats' skin] the hide of the black antelope, worn as a garment by ascetics D I.167; Sn 1027; J I.12, 53; IV.387; V.407. kharajina a rough skin (as garment) M I.343; S IV.118; A II.207; Sn 249 ( = kharani a*-cammani SnA 291). dantajina* ivory (q. v.). -khipa a cloak made of a network of strips of a black antelope's hide D I.167; S I.117; A I.240, 295; II.206; Vin I.306; III.34; J VI.569. -paveni a cloth of the size of a couch made from pieces of ant. skin sewn together Vin I.192; D I.7 ( = ajina-cammehi mancappamanena sibbitva kata paveni DA I.87); A I.181. -sati a garment of skins ( = ajina-camma-sati DhA IV.156) Dh 394 = J I.481 = III.85.

Ajini aor 3rd sg. jayati, q. v.

Ajiya = ajika (see ajaka).

Ajira (nt.). [Vedic ajira to aj, cp. Gr. a)gro/s, Latin ager, Goth. akrs = Ger. Acker, = E. acre] a court, a yard Mhvs 35, 3.

Ajiraka (nt.) [a + jiraka] indigestion J I.404; II.181, 291; III.213, 225.

Ajeyya1 and Ajjeyya (adj.) [a + jeyya, grd. of jayati, q. v.] (a) not to be taken by force Kh VIII.8 (cp. KhA 223). (b) not to be overpowered, invincible Sn 288; J V.509.

Ajeyya2 (adj.) [a + jeyya, grd. of jiyati, q. v.] not decaying, not growing old, permanent J VI.323.

Ajja and Ajja (adv.) [Vedic adya and adya, a + dya, a* being base of demonstr. pronoun. (see a3) and dya an old loc. of dyaus (see diva), thus "on this day"] to-day, now Sn 75, 153, 158, 970, 998; Dh 326; J I.279; III.425 (read bahutam ajja; not with Kern, Toev. s. v. as "food"); Pv I.117 ( = idani PvA 59); PvA 6, 23; Mhvs 15, 64. Freq. in phrase ajjatagge ( = ajjato + agge(*) or ajja-tagge, see agga3) from this day onward, henceforth Vin I.18; D I.85; DA I.235. -kalam (adv.) this morning J VI.180; -divasa the present day Mhvs 32, 23.

Ajjatana (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit adyatana] referring to the day, today's, present, modern (opp. porana) Th 1, 552; Dh 227; J II.409. - dat. ajjatanaya for today Vin I.17; PvA 171 and passim.

Ajjata (f.) [abstr. from ajja] the present time, in ajjatan ca this very day S I.83 (v. l. ajjeva).

Ajjati [Vedic arjati, rj, a variant of arh, see arahati] to get, procure, obtain J III.263 (*). pp. ajjita (q. v.).

Ajjava (adj.-n.) [cp. Sanskrit arjava, to rju, see uju] straight, upright (usually combined. with maddava gentle, soft) D III.213; A I.94; II.113; III.248; Sn 250 (+ maddava), 292 (id.); J III.274; Dhs 1339; Vbh 359 (an*); SnA 292 ( = ujubhava), 317 (id.).

Ajjavata (f.) [from prec.] straight forwardness, rectitude, uprightness Dhs 1339. (+ ajimhata and avankata).

Ajjita [pp. of ajjati] obtained Sdhp 98.

Ajjuka [*Sanskrit arjaka] N. of a plant, Ocimum Gratissimum Vin IV.35; DA I.81 (all MSS. have ajjaka).

Ajjukanna [*Sanskrit arjakarna] N. of a tree Pentaptera Tomentosa J VI.535 (nn).

Ajjunho (adv.) [haplology from ajja-junho; see junha] this moonlight night Vin I.25; IV.80.

Ajjuna [Vedic arjuna, to raj; cp. Gr. a)rgo/s white, a)/rguros silver, Latin argentum] the tree Pentaptera Arjuna J VI.535; DhA I.105 (*rukkha).

Ajjh- Assimilation group of adhi + vowel.

Ajjhaga [adhi + aga 3rd sg. pret. of adhigacchati (q. v. for similar forms) he came to, got to, found, obtained, experienced S I.12 (vimanam); Sn 225 (explained. at KhA 180 by vindi patilabhi), 956 (ratim; explained. at Nd1 457 by adhigacchi); It 69 (jatimaranam); Dh 154 (tanhanam khayan); Vv 327 (visesan attained distinction; explained. at VvA 135 by adhigata); 5021 (amatam santim; explained. VvA 215 by v. l. SS adhiganchi, T. adhigacchati).

Ajjhatta (adj. -n.) [cp. Sanskrit adhyatma, cp. atta], that which is personal, subjective, arises from within (in contrast to anything outside, objective or impersonal); as adv. and *interior, personal, inwardly (opp. bahiddha bahira etc. outward, outwardly); Cp. ajjhattika and see Dhs. trsl. 272. D I.37 (subjective, inward, of the peace of the 2nd jhana), 70 = A II.210; V.206 (inward happiness. a. sukkham = niyakajjhattam attano santane ti attho DA I.183 cp. DhsA 169, 338, 361); S I.70, 169; II..27 (katham kathi hoti is in inward doubt), 40 (sukham dukkham); III.180 (id.); IV.1 sg. (ayatanani), 139, 196; V.74 (thitam cittam ajjhattam susanthitam suvimuttam a mind firm, inwardly well planted, quite set free), 110, 143, 263, 297, 390; A I.40 (rupasanni), 272 (kamacchanda etc.); II.158. (sukhadukkham), 211; III.86 (cetosamatha), 92 (vupasantacitta); IV.32 (sankhittam), 57 (itthindriyam), 299 (cittam), 305 (rupasanni), 360 (cetosamatha), 437 (vupasantacitta); V 79 sq., 335 sq. (sati); It 39 (cetosamatha inward peace), 80, 82, 94; J I.045 (chatajjhatta with hungry insides); V.338 (id.); Ps I.76 (cakkhu etc.); Dhs 161 ( = attano jatam DhsA 169), 204, 1044; Pug 59; Vbh 1 sq. (khandha), 228 (sati), 327 (panna), 342 (aru*pasanni). - adv. *m inwardly, personally (in contrast-pair ajjhattam va bahiddha va; see also cpd. *bahiddha) A I.284; II.171; IV.305; V.61; Sn 917 ( = upajjhayassa va a acariyassa va te guna assu ti Nd1 350). -arammana a subjective object of thought Dhs 1047. -cintin thought occupied with internal things Sn 174, 388. -bahiddha inside and outside, personal-external, mutual, interacting S II.252 sq.; III.47; IV.382; Nd2 15; Dhs 1049 etc. (see also bahiddha). -rata with inward joy D II.107 = S V.263 = Dh 362 = Ud 64 (+ samahita); Th 1, 981; A IV.312; DhA IV.90 ( = gocar- ajjhatta-sankhataya kammatthana-bhavanaya rata). -rupa one's own or inner form Vin III.113 (opp. bahiddha-rupa and ajjh*-bah* r.). -sannojana an inner fetter, inward bond A I.63 sq.; Pug 22; Vbh 361. -santi inner peace Sn 837 ( = ajjhattanam ragadinam santibhava SnA 545; cp. Nd1 185). -samutthana originating from within J I.207 (of hiri; opp. bahiddha*).

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Ajjhattika (adj.) [ajjhatta + ika], personal, inward (cp. Dhs trsl. 207 and Nd1 346: ajjhattikam vuccati cittam); opp. bahira outward (q. v.). See also ayatana. - M I.62; S I.73 (*a rakkha na bahira); IV.7 sq. (ayatanani); V.101 (anga); A I.16 (anga); II.164 (dhatuyo); III.400 (ayatanani); V.52 (id.); It 114 (id.), 9 (anga); Kh IV. ( = KhA 82); J IV.402 (bahira-vatthum ayacitva ajjhattikassa namam ganhati); Dhs 673, 751; Vbh 13, 67, 82 sq., 119, 131, 392 sq.

Ajjhapara S V.218: substitute v. l. accasara (q. v.).

Ajjhappatta (and Ajjhapatta) [adhi + a + *prapta] 1. having reached, approached, coming near to J II.450; VI.566 (p; C. attano santikam patta). - 2. having fallen upon, attacked J II.59; V.198 (p; C. sampatta) - 3. attained, found, got Sn 1134 ( = adhigacchi Nd2); J III.296 (p. C. sampatta); V.158 (ajjhapatta; C. sampatta).

Ajjhabhavi 3rd sg. aor. of adhibhavati to conquer, overpower, overcome S I.240 (prohib. ma vo kodho ajjhabhavi); J II.336. Cp. ajjhabhu and ajjhobhavati.

Ajjhabhasi 3rd sg. aor. of adhibhaseti to address S IV.117 (gathahi); Kh V. = Sn p. 46 (gathaya); PvA 56, 90.

Ajjhabhu (3rd sg. aor. of adhibhavati (q. v.) to overcome, conquer It 76 (dujjayan a. he conquered him who is hard to conquer; v. l. ajjhabhi for ajjhabhavi). Cp. ajjhabhavi.

Ajjhayana (nt.) [adhi + i] study (learning by heart) of the Vedas Miln 225. See also ajjhena.

Ajjhavodahi 3rd sg. aor. of ajjhodahati [Sanskrit adhyavadhati] to put down J V.365 ( = odahi, thapesi C.). Kern, Toev. s. v. proposes reading ajjhavadahi ( = Sanskrit avadhat).

Ajjhagare (adv.) [adhi + agare, loc. of agara] at home, in one's own house A I.132 = It 109; A II.70.

Ajjhacarati [adhi (or ati*) + a + car] 1. to conduct oneself according to Vin II.301; M I.523; Miln 266. - 2. to flirt with (perhaps to embrace) J IV.231 (annam-annam). pp. ajjhacinna. See also accavadati and aticarati.

Ajjhacara [to adhi (ati*) + a + car] 1. minor conduct (conduct of a bhikkhu as to those minor rules not included in the Parajika's or Sanghadisesa's) Vin I.63 (see note in Vin. Texts, I.184. - 2. flirtation Vin III.128 (in the Old Cy as explination of avabhasati). - 3. sexual intercourse J I.396; V.327 (*cara v. l. for ajjhavara); Miln 127 (an*).

Ajjhacinna [pp. of ajjhacarati] habitually done Vin II.80 sq., 301.

Ajjhajiva [adhi (ati*) + a + jiv] too rigorous or strenuous a livelihood M II.245 (+ adhipatimokkha).

Ajjhapajjati [adhi + a + pad] to commit an offence, to incur, to become guilty of (acc.) Vin IV.237. pp. ajjhapanna (q. v.).

Ajjhapatti (f.) [abstr. to ajjhapajjati] incurring guilt Dhs 299 (an*).

Ajjhapana1 (nt.) [from Causative II. of ajjheti] teaching of the sacred writ, instruction Miln 225.

Ajjhapana2 (nt.) [a + jhapana from ks.a] burning, conflagration J VI.311.

Ajjhapanna [pp. of adhi + apajjati] become guilty of offence D I.245; III.43; S II.270; A IV.277, 280; V.178, 181. an* guiltless, innocent Vin I.103; D III.46; S II.194, 269; A V.181; Miln 401. For all passages except A IV.277, 280, cp. ajjhopanna.

Ajjhapi'ita [adhi + a + pi'ita] harassed, overpowered, tormented PvA 180 (khuppipasaya by hunger and thirst).

Ajjhabhava [cp. Sanskrit adhyabhava] excessive power, predominance J II.357.

Ajjhabhavati [adhi + a + bhu, in meaning of abhi + bhu] to predominate J II.357.

Ajjhayaka [cp. Sanskrit adhyayaka, cp. ajjhayana] (a brahmin) engaged in learning the Veda (mantajjhayaka J VI.209; SnA 192), a scholar of the brahmanic texts, a studious, learned person D I.88, 120; III.94; A I.163; III.223; Sn 140 (*kula: thus for ajjhayakula Fsb.); Th 1, 1171; J I.3; VI.201, 498; DA I.247.

Ajjharuha (and *ruha) (adj.) [to adhi + a + ruh] growing up over, overwhelming A III.63 sq. = S V.96; J III.399.

Ajjharu'ha (adj.) [pp. of adhi + a + ruh] grown up or high over J III.399.

Ajjharuhati [adhi + arohati cp. atyarohati] to rise into the air, to climb over, spread over S I.221 = Nett 173 ( = ajjhottharati SA; cp. Mrs. Rh. D. Kindred Sayings I.285).

Ajjhavadati see accavadati.

Ajjhavara [from adhi + a + var] surrounding; waiting on, service, retinue J V.322, 324, 326, 327 (explained at all passages by parisa). Should we read ajjhacara* Cp. ajjhacara.

Ajjhavasatar [n. ag. to ajjhavasati] one who inhabits D I.63 (agaram).

Ajjhavasati [adhi + a + vas] to inhabit (agaram a house; i. e. to be settled or live the settled life of a householder) D II.16; M I.353; Vin IV.224; J I.50; Pug 57; Miln 348. -pp. ajjhavuttha (q. v.).

Ajjhavuttha [cp. Sanskrit adhyus.ita; pp. of ajjhavasati] inhabited, occupied (of a house) Vin II.210; J I.145; II.333; PvA 24 (*ghara); fig. (not) occupied by SnA 566 ( = anosita).

Ajjhasaya [from adhi + a + shri, orig. hanging on, leaning on, BSanskrit however adhyashaya Divy 586] intention, desire, wish, disposition, bent D II.224 (adj.: intent on, practising); J I.88, 90; II.352; V.382; DhsA 314, 334; PvA 88, 116, 133 (adj. dan* intent on giving alms), 168; Sdhp 219, 518. Freq. in phrase ajjhasaya-nurupa according to his wish, as he wanted PvA 61, 106, 128.

Ajjhasayata (f.) [abstr. to ajjhasaya] desire, longing PvA 127 (u'ar* great desire for c. loc.).

Ajjhasita [pp. of adhi + a + shri] intent on, bent on Miln 361 (jhan*). Cp. ajjhosita and nissita.

Ajjhittha [pp. of ajjhesati] requested, asked, invited Vin I.113 (an* unbidden); D II.289 (Buddhaghosa and text read ajjhitta); Sn p. 218 ( = ajjhesita Nd2 16); J VI.292 ( = anatta C.); DhA IV.100 (v. l. abhijjhittha). See also an*.

Ajjhupagacchati [adhi + upa + gam] to come to, to reach, obtain; to consent to, agree, submit Th 2, 474 ( = sampaticchati ThA 285); J II.403; Miln 300; pp. ajjhupagata (q. v.).

Ajjhupagata [pp. of ajjhupagacchati] come to, obtained, reached A V.87, cp. 210; V.187 sq.

Ajjhupagamana (nt.) [adhi + upa + gam] consent, agreement, justification Vin II.97, 104.

Ajjhupaharati [adhi + upa + hr; cp. upaharati] to take (food) to oneself J II.293 (aor. ajjhupahari = ajjhohari C.).

Ajjhupekkhati [adhi + upa + iks.; cp. BSanskrit adhyupek.sati] 1. to look on A I.257; Miln 275. - 2. to look

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on intently or with care, to oversee, to take care of A IV.45 (katth-aggi, has to be looked after); PvA 149 (sisan colam va). - 3. to look on indifferently to be indifferent, to neglect Vin II.78 = III.162, cp. J I.147; M I.155; II.223; A III.194, 435; J V.229; DhA IV.125.

Ajjhupekkhana (nt.) and *a (f.) [abstr. from ajjhupekkhati] care, diligence, attention Ps I.16; II.119; Vbh 230 sq.; DhA IV.3.

Ajjhupekkhitar [n. ag. to ajjhupekkhati] one who looks on (carefully), one who takes care or controls, an overseer, caretaker S V.69 (sadhukam), 324 (id.), 331 sq.; Vbh 227.

Ajjhupeti [cp. Sanskrit abhyupeti; adhi + upa + i] to go to meet, to receive J IV.440.

Ajjheti [Sanskrit adhyayati, Denominitive from adhyaya] to be anxious about, to fret, worry Sn 948 (socati +); explained at Nd1 433 by nijjhayati, at SnA 568 by abhijjhati (gloss BB gijjhati).

Ajjhena (nt.) [Sanskrit adhyayana, see also ajjhayana] study (esp. of the Vedas) M III.1; J II.327 (as v. l. to be preferred to ajjhesana); III.114 ( = japa); V.10 (pl. = vede); VI.201 = 207; Vbh 353; SnA 314 (mant-). -kujja (*kuta v. l.*) a hypocrite, a pharisee Sn 242; cp. SnA 286.

Ajjhesati (adhi + is.; cp. BSanskrit adhye.sate Divy 160] to request, ask, bid DhA IV.18; aor. ajjhesi Vin II.200; pp. ajjhittha and ajjhesita (q. v.), with which cp. pariyittha and *esita.

Ajjhesana (f.) [see ajjhesati] request, entreaty Vin I.6 = D II.38 = S I.138; J II.327 (better v. l. ajjhena).

Ajjhesita [pp. of ajjhesati; cp. ajjhittha] requested, asked, bidden Nd2 16 ( = ajjhittha).

Ajjhokasa [adhi + okasa] the open air, only in loc. ajjhokase in the open Vin I.15; S I.212; DhA IV.100.

Ajjhoga'ha [pp. of ajjhogahati] plunged into, immersed; having entered M I.457; S I.201; Miln 348.

Ajjhogahati (and *gaheti) [Sanskrit *abhyavagahate; adhi ( = abhi) + ava + gah] to plunge into, to enter, to go into D I.101 (vanam), 222 (samuddam); M I.359, 536; A III.75, 368; IV.356; V.133; Vin III.18; J I.7; Nd1 152 (ogahati +); Miln 87 (samuddam); 300 (vanam). -pp. ajjhoga'ha (q. v.). Cp. pariyogahati.

Ajjhothapeti [adhi + ava + thapeti, Causative of stha] to bring to PvA 148 (gamam), where we should read *tthapeti.

Ajjhotthata [pp. of ajjhottharati] spread over; covered, filled; overcome, crushed, overpowered J I.363 (ajjhottata), 410; V.91 ( = adhipanna); DhA I.278; PvA 55; Davs V.5.

Ajjhottharati [adhi + ava + str] to cover over, spread out, spread over, cover; to submerge, flood Vin I.111; J I.61, 72, 73; Miln 296, 336; Dh I.264; Pass. *tthariyati to be overrun with (instr.), to be smothered, to be flooded A III.92 = Pug 67; aor. ajjhotthari VvA 48 (gamapadeso: was flooded). pp. ajjhotthata (q. v.).

Ajjhopanna (*) only found in one stock phrase, viz. gathita (q. v.) mucchita ajjhopanna with reference to selfishness, greed, bonds of craving. The reading ajjhopanna is the lectio difficilior, but the accredited reading ajjhosana seems to be clearer and to harmonize better with the cognate ajjhosita and ajjhosana (n.) in the same context. The confusion between the two is old-standing and hard to be accounted for. Trenckner under v. l. to M I.162 on p. 543 gives ajjhopanna as BB ( = adhi-opanna). The MSS. of Nd2 clearly show ajjhopanna as inferior reading, which may well be attributable to the very frequent SS sub stitution of p for s (see Nd2 Introd. XIX.). Besides this mixture of vv. ll. with s and p there is another confusion between the vv. ll. ajjhapanna and ajjhopanna which adds to the complication of the case. However since the evidence of a better reading between these two preponderates for ajjhopanna we may consider the o as established, and, with a little more clearness to be desired, may in the end decide for ajjhosana (q. v.), which in this case would have been liable to change through analogy with ajjhapanna, from which it took the a and p. Cp. also ajjhosita. The following is a synopsis of readings as preferred or confused by the Ed. of the var. texts. - 1. ajjhopanna as T. reading: M I.162, 173, 369; A I.74; II.28; III.68, 242; Md 75, 76; DA I.59; as v. l.: D I.245. 2. ajjhosana as v. l.: A I.74 (C. expls. ajjhosaya gilitva thita); Nd2 under nissita and passim; Ud 75, 76 (ajjhosanna); DA I.59 (id.). - 3. ajjhapanna as T. reading: D I.245; III.43, 46; S. II.194, 270: IV.332 (ajjhapanna); A V.178, 181; Nd2 under nissita; Miln 401; as v. l.: M I.162; A III.242; Ud 75, 76.

Ajjhobhavati [adhi + ava + bhu, Sanskrit abhi*] to overcome, overpower, destroy J II.80 (aor. ajjhobhavi = adhibhavi C.).

Ajjhomaddati [adhi + ava + mrd] to crush down A IV.191, 193.

Ajjhomucchita [pp. adhi + ava + murch, cp. adhimuccita] stiffened out (in a swoon), lying in a faint (*) A III.57 sq. (v. l. ajjhomuncïta or *muccita better: sarire attached to her body, clinging to her b.).

Ajjholambati [adhi + ava + lamb] to hang or hold on to (acc.), to cling to S III 137; M III.164 = Nett 179, cp. Sdhp 284 and 296.

Ajjhosa = ajjhosaya, in verse only as ajjhosa titthati to cleave or cling to S IV.73; Th 1, 98, 794.

Ajjhosati [adhi + ava + sayati, sa, to bind, pp. sita: see ajjhosita] to be bound to, to be attached, bent on; to desire, cleave to, indulge in. Fut. ajjhosissati (does it belong here*) M I.328 (c. acc. pathavim, better as ajjhesati). grd. ajjhositabha M I.109 (+ abhin and itabba, v. l. *etabba); DhsA 5 (id.); ger. ajjhosaya (q. v.) pp. ajjhosita (q. v.).

Ajjhosana (nt.) cleaving to (earthly joys), attachment, D II.58 sq.; III.289; M I.498 (+ abhin and ana); S III.187; A I.66; II.11 (ditthi*, kama* + tanha). In combination. with (iccha) and muccha at Nd2 under chanda and nissita and tanha (see also ajjhopanna), and at Dhs 1059 of labha, (the explination. at DhsA 363, 370, from as to eat, is popular etymology) Nett 23 sq. (of tanha).

Ajjhosaya [ger. of ajjhosati, cp. BSanskrit adhyavasaya tis.thati Divy 37, 534] being tied to, hanging on, attached to, only in phrase a. titthati (+ abhinandati, same in Divy) M I.266; S. IV.36 sq.; 60, 71 sq.; Miln 69. See also ajjhosa.

Ajjhosita [cp. Sanskrit adhyavasita, from adhi + ava + sa; but sita is liable to confusion with sita = Sanskrit shrita, also through likeness of meaning with esita; see ajjhasita and ajjhesita] hanging on, cleaving to, being bent on, (c. loc.) S II.94 (+ mamayita); A II.25 (dittha suta muta +); Nd1 75, 106, 163 = Nd2 under nissita; Th 2, 470 (asare = tanhavasena abhinivittha ThA 284); Pv IV.84 (mayham ghare = tanhabhinivisena abhinivittha PvA 267; v. l. BB ajjhesita, SS ajjhasita). -an* S IV.213; V.319; Nd1 411; Miln 74 (pabbajita).

Ajjhohata [pp. of ajjhoharati] having swallowed Sdhp 610 (balisan maccho viya: like a fish the fishhook).

Ajjhoharana (nt.) = ajjhohara 1. A V.324; J VI.213.

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Ajjhoharaniya (adj.) [grd. of ajjhoharati] something fit to eat, eatable, for eating J VI.258; DhA I.284.

Ajjhoharati [Sanskrit abhyavaharati; adhi ( = abhi) + ava + hr] to swallow, eat, take as food M I.245; J I.460; II.293; VI.205, 213; Miln 366; PvA 283 (aor.) -pp. ajjhohata (q.v.).

Ajjhohara [Sanskrit abhyavahara] 1. taking food, swallowing, eating and drinking Vin IV.233; Miln 176, 366. - 2. N. of a fabulous fish (swallower"; cp. timingala) J V.462.

Ancati J I.417, read anchati (see next).

Anchati [in meaning = akaddhati, which latter is also the Sanskrit gloss (akar.sayati) to the Jain Prk. amchavei = anQhati: see Morris, J. Pali T. S. 1893, 60] to pull, drag, pull along, to turn on a lathe D II.291 (bhamakaro digham a., where K has note: anjanto ti pi acchanto ti pi patho) = M I.56 (vv. ll. p. 532 acch* and anj*); Th 1, 750 (ancami T., v.l. annami). Anchati should also be read at J I 417 for udakam ancanti (in explination. of udancani pulling the water up from a well, q. v.), where it corresponds to udakam akkaddhati in the same sentence.

Anja (adv.) [orig. imper. of anjati1; cp. Sanskrit anjasa (instr.) quickly, Goth. anaks suddenly, lit. with a pull or jerk] pull on! go on! gee up! J I.192.

Anjati1 [ = Sanskrit rnjati, rjyati to stretch, pull along, draw out, erect; cp. Sanskrit rju straight, caus. irajyati; Gr. o)re/gw; Latin rego, rectus = erect. See also Pali uju, anchati, ajjita, ananja-anejja]. See anja, anjaya, anjali, anjasa.

Anjati2 and Anjeti [ = Sanskrit anjayati, Causative of anakti to smear etc.; cp. Sanskrit anji ointment, ajya butter; Latin unguo to anoint, unguentum ointment; Ohg. ancho = Ger. Anke butter] to smear, anoint, paint S II.281; J IV.219 (akkhini anjetva, v. l. BB ancitva). Causative II. anjapeti DhA I.21. pp. anjita (q. v.).

Anjana (nt.) [from anjati2] ointment, esp. a collyrium for the eyes, made of antimony, adj. anointed, smeary; glossy, black (cp. kanha II. and kala1 note). - 1. Vin I.203 (five kinds viz. ka'*, ras*, sot*, geruka, kapalla); D I.7, 12; DA I.98 (khar*); 284; DhA III.354 (akkhi* eye-salve). - 2. glossy, jet-black J I.194; II.369; V.416. The reading anjana at A IV.468 is wrong, it should be corrected into thanamajjanamattam. See also pacc*. In meaning collyrium box at Th 2, 413 ( = anjana-na'i ThA 267); DhA II.25. -akkhiha with anointed eyes Th 1, 960. -upapisana perfume to mix with ointment Vin I.203; II.112. -cunna aromatic powder DhsA 13. -na'i an ointment tube, collyrium box ThA 267. -rukkha N. of a tree ("black" tree) J I.331. -vanna of the colour of collyrium, i. e. shiny, glossy, dark, black D II.18 (lomani); J I.138 (kesa), 194; II.369; PvA 258 (vana).

Anjani (f.) [from anjana] a box for ointment, a collyrium pot Vin I.203, 204; II.135; IV.168; M II.65 = Th 1, 773.

Anjanisalaka (f.) a stick to put the ointment on with Vin I.203; II.135; J III.419.

Anjaya (adj.) [from anjati1] straight J III.12 (vv. ll. ajjava and and ajjava better*) explained by C. as ujuka, akutila. See also ajjava. Should we assume misreading for anjasa*

Anjali [cp. Sanskrit anjali, from anjati1] extending, stretching forth, gesture of lifting up the hands as a token of reverence (cp. E. to "tender" one's respect), putting the ten fingers together and raising them to the head (VvA 7: dasanakha-samodhana-samujjalam anjalim paggayha). Only in stock phrases (a.) anjalim panameti to bend forth the outstretched hands Vin II.188; D I.118; Sn 352; Sn p. 79. (b.) *m pagganhati to perform the a. salutation J I.54; DhA IV.212; VvA 7, 312 (sirasmim on one's head); PvA 93. (c.) *m karoti id. PvA 178; cp. katanjali (adj.) with raised hands Sn 1023; J I.17; PvA 50, and anjalikata id. Pv II.1220. Cp. panjali -kamma respectful salutation, as above A I.123; II.180; IV.130; Vv 788, 8316; DhA I.32. -karaniya (adj.) that is worthy of being thus honoured D III.5; A II.34; III.36; IV.13 sq.; It 88.

Anjalika (f.) [ = anjali] the raising of the hands as a sign of respectful salutation Vv 15 (explained at VvA 24 as dasanakha-samodhana samujjalam anjalim sirasi pagganhanti guna-visitthanam apacayanam akasim).

Anjasa [Sanskrit anjasa (*). Cp. arjava = Pali ajjava, see anjati1 and anjaya] straight, straightforward (of a road) D I.235; J I.5; Th 2, 99; Vv 5020 (cp. VvA 215); VvA 84 ( = akutila); Mhvs 25, 5; Miln 217; Sdhp 328, 595. Cp. panjasa.

Anjita [Sanskrit ankta and anjayita, pp. of anjeti] smeared, anointed J I.77 (su-anjitani akkhini); IV.421 (anjit-akkha).

Anna (pronoun.) [Vedic anya, with compar. suff. ya; Goth. anpar; Ohg. andar; formation with n analagous to those with l in Gr. a)/llos (a)/ljos), Latin alius (cp. alter), Goth. aljis Ags. elles = E. else. From demonstr. base *eno, see na1 and cp. a3] another etc. - A. By itself: 1. other, not the same, different, another, somebody else (opp. oneself) Vin III.144 (annena, scil. maggena, gacchati to take a different route); Sn 459, 789, 904; Dh 158 (opp. attanam), 165; J I.151 (opp. attano); II.333 (annam vyakaroti give a different answer). - 2. another one, a second; nt. else, further Sn 1052 ( = uttarim nt. Nd2 17); else J I.294. annam kinci (indefinite) anything else J I.151. yo anno every other, whoever else J I.256. - 3. anne (pl.) (the) others, the rest Sn 189, 663, 911; Dh 43, 252, 355; J I.254. - B. del. in correlation: 1. copulative. anna . . anna the one . . the other (. . the third etc.); this, that and the other; some . . some Vin I.15; Miln 40; etc. 2. reciprocative anno annam, annamannam, annonnam one another, each other, mutually, reciprocally (in ordinary construction and declension of a noun or adj. in sg.; cp. Gr. a)llh/lwn, allh/lous in pl.). (a.) anno annam Dh 165. (b.) annamanna (cp. BSanskrit anyamanya M Vastu II.436), as pronoun.: n'alam annamannassa sukhaya va dukkhaya va D I.56 = S III 211. n'annamannassa dukkham iccheyya do not wish evil to each other Sn 148. dandehi annamannam upakkamanti (approach each other) M I.86 = Nd2 199. *m agaravo viharati A III.247. dve jana *m ghatayimsu (slew each other) J I.254. annamannam hasanti J V.111; *m musale hantva J V.267. *m danda-bhigatena PvA 58; or adj.: annamannam veram bandhimsu (established mutual enmity) J II.353; *m piyasanvasan vasimsu J II.153; annamannam accayan desetva (their mutual mistake) DhA I.57; or adv. dve pi annamannam patibaddha citta ahesum (in love with each other) J III.188; or *-: annamanna-paccaya mutually dependent, interrelated Ps II.49, 58. (c.) annonna (*-) J V.251 (*nissita); Davs V.45 (*bhinna). - 3. disjunctive anna . . anna one . . the other, this one . . . that one, different, different from annam jivam . . annam sariram one is the soul . . the other is the body, i. e. the soul is different from the body D I.157; M I.430; A V.193; anna va sanna bhavissati anno atta D I.187. Thus also in phrase annena annam opposite, the contrary, differently, contradictory (lit. other from that which is other) Vin II.85 (paticarati make counter-charges); D I.57 (vyakasi gave the opposite or contradictory reply); Miln 171 (annam kayiramanam annena sambharati). ananna (1) not another, i. e. the same, self-same, identical M I.256 ( = ayan). - (2) not anotber, i. e. alone, by oneself, oneself only Sn 65 (*posin; opp. param) = Nd 4, cp. Nd2 36. - (3) not another, i. e. no more, only, alone Sn p. 106 (dve va gatiyo bhavanti ananna: and no other or no more, only two). See also under compounds -adisa different J VI.212, *ta difference PvA 243. -khantika acquiescing in different views, following another

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faith (see khantika) D I.187; M I.487. -titthiya an adherent of another sect, a non-Buddhist.; D III.115; M I.494, 512; P II.21, 32 sq., 119; III.116 sq.; IV.51, 228; V.6, 27 sq.; A I.65, 240; II.176; IV.35 sq.; Vin I.60; J I.93; II.415. -ditthika having different views (combined. with anna-khantika) D I.187; M I.487. -neyya (an*) not to be guided by somebody else, i. e. independent in one's views, having attained the right knowledge by oneself (opp. para*) Sn 55, 213, 364. -mano (an*) (adj.) not setting one's heart upon others Vv 115 (see VvA 58). -vada holding other views, an* (adj.) Dpvs IV.24. -vadaka one who gives a different account of things, one who distorts a matter, a prevaricator Vin IV.36. -vihita being occupied with something else, distracted, absent-minded Vin IV.269; DhA III.352, 381; *ta distraction, absentmindedness DhA I.181. -sarana (an*) not betaking oneself to others for refuge, i. e. of independent, sure knowledge S III.42 = V.154. -sita dependent or relying on others Sn 825.

Annatama (pronoun. adj.) [anna + superl. suff. tama; see also annatara] one out of many, the one or the other of, a certain, any Mhvs 38, 14.

Annatara (pronoun. adj.) [Sanskrit anyatara, anna + compar. suff. tara, cp. Latin alter, Goth. anpar etc.] one of a certain number, a certain, somebody, some; often used (like eka) as indefinite article "a". Very frequent, e. g. Sn 35, 210; It 103; Dh 137, 157; J I.221, 253; II.132 etc. devannatara a certain god, i. e. any kind of god S IV.180 = A IV.461.

Annattha (adv.) [from anna = annatra, adv. of place, cp. kattha, ettha] somewhere or anywhere else, elsewhere (either place where or whereto) J I.291; II.154; DhsA 163; DhA I.212; III.351; PvA 45; Mhvs 4, 37; 22, 14.

Annatra (adv.) [anya + tra, see also annattha] elsewhere, somewhere else J V.252; Pv IV.162. In compounds. also = anna*, e. g. annatra-yoga (adj.) following another discipline D I.187; M I.487. - As prep. c. abl. (and instr.) but, besides, except, e. g. a. imina tapo- pakkamena D I.168; kim karaniyam a. dhammacariyaya S I.101; ko nu annatram-ariyehi who else but the Nobles Sn 886 ( = thapetva sanna-mattena SnA 555). -kim annatra what but, i. e. what else is the cause but, or: this is due to; but for D I.90 (vusitava-mani k. a. avusitatta); S I.29 (k. k. a. adassana except from blindness); Sn 206 (id.).

Annathatta (nt.) [annatha + tta] 1. change, alteration S III.37; IV.40; A I.153; III.66; Kvu 227 ( = jara C, cp. Kvu trsl. 55 n. 2); Miln 209. - 2. difference J I.147; It 11. - 3. erroneous supposition, mistake Vin II.2; S III.91; IV.329. - 4. fickleness, change of mind, doubt, wavering, M I.448, 457 (+ domanassa); J I.33 (cittam); PvA 195 (cittassa).

Annatha (adv.) [anna + tha] in a different manner, otherwise, differently S I.24; Sn 588, 757; DhsA 163; PvA 125, 133. anannatha without mistake Vv 4418; anannatha (nt.) certainty, truth Ps II.104 ( = tatha). -bhava (1) a different existence A II.10; It 9 = 94; Sn 729, 740, 752; (2) a state of difference; i. e. change, alteration, unstableness D I.36; S II.274; III.8, 16, 42; Vbh 379. -bhavin based on difference S III.225 sq.; IV.23 sq., 66 sq.; an* free from difference Vin I.36.

Annadatthu (adv.) [lit. annad atthu let there be anything else, i. e. be it what it will, there is nothing else, all, everything, surely] part. of affirmation = surely, all-round, absolutely (ekamsa-vacane nipato DA I.111) only, at any rate D I.91; II.284; Sn 828 (na h- annadatth- atthi pasansa-labha, explained. SnA 541 as na hi ettha pasansa-labhato anno attho atthi, cp. also Nd1 168); Miln 133; VvA 58; PvA 97, 114. -dasa sure-seeing, seeing everything, all pervading D I.18; III.135, 185; A II.24; III.202; IV.89, 105; It 15.

Annada (adv.) [anna + da, cp. kada, tada, yada] at another time, else, once S IV.285; J V.12; DhA IV.125.

Anna (f.) [Sanskrit ajna, = a + jna, cp. ajanati] knowledge, recognition, perfect knowledge, philosophic insight, knowledge par excellence, viz. Arahantship, saving knowledge, gnosis (cp. on term Compend. 176 n. 3 and Psalms of Brethren introd. XXXIII.) M I.445; S I.4 (sammad*), 24 (annaya nibbuta); II.221; V.69, 129 (ditth-eva dhamme), 133, 237; A III.82, 143, 192; V.108; It 39 sq., 53, 104; Dh 75, 96; Kh VII.11; Miln 334. - annam vyakaroti to manifest ones Arahantship (by a discourse or by mere exclamation) Vin I.183; S II.51 sq., 120; IV.139; V.222; J I.140; II.333. See also arahatta. -atthika desirous of higher knowledge Pv IV.114. -aradhana the attainment of full insight M I.479. -indriya the faculty of perfect knowledge or of knowledge made perfect D III.219; S V.204; It 53; Pug 2; Dhs 362, 505, 552; Nett 15, 54, 60. -citta the thought of gnosis, the intention of gaining Arahantship S II.267; A III.437. -pativedha comprehension of insight Vin II.238. -vimokkha deliverance by the highest insight Sn 1105, 1107 (Nd2 19: vuccati arahatta-vimokkho).

Annana (nt.) [a + nana] ignorance; see nana 3 e.

Annanaka (nt.) [Demin. of annana] ignorance Vin IV.144.

Annanin (adj.) [a + nanin] ignorant, not knowing DhA III.106.

Annata1 [pp. of ajanati, q. v.] known, recognised Sn 699. an* what is not known, in phrase anannata-nnassami- t- indriya the faculty of him (who believes): "I shall know what is not known (yet)" D III.219; S V.204; It 53; Pug 2; Dhs 296 (cp. Dhs trsl. 86); Nett 15, 54, 60, 191. -manin one who prides himself in having perfect knowledge, one who imagines to be in possession of right insight A III.175 sq.; Th 1, 953.

Annata2 [a + nata] unknown, see nata.

Annataka1 [a + nataka, cp. Sanskrit ajnati] he who is not a kinsman DhA I.222.

Annataka2 (adj.) [Demin. of annata2] unknown, unrecognisable, only in phrase *vesena in unknown form, in disguise J I.14; III.116; V.102.

Annatar [n. ag. to ajanati] one who knows, a knower of D II.286; M I.169; S I.106 (Dhammassa); Kvu 561.

Annatavin (adj. -n.) [from ajanati] one who has complete insight DhsA 291. -indriya (*tav- indr.) the faculty of one whose knowledge is made perfect Dhs 555 (cp. Dhs trsl. 150) and same loci as under annindriya (see anna).

Annatukama (adj.) [a + jnatum + kama] desirous of gaining right knowledge A III.192. See ajanati.

Annaya [ger. of ajanati, q. v. for detail] reeognising, knowing, in the conviction of S I.24; A III.41; Dh 275, 411.

Annonna see anna B 2 c.

Anhamana [Sanskrit ashnana, ppr. med. of ashnati, ash to eat] eating, taking food; enjoying: only SS at Sn 240; all MSS at 239 have asamana. SnA 284 expls. by aharayamana.

Atata [BSanskrit atata (e. g. Divy 67), prob. to at roam about. On this notion cp. description of roaming about in Niraya at Nd1 405 bottom] N. of a certain purgatory or Niraya A V.173 = Sn p. 126.

Atanaka (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit atana, to at] roaming about, wild J V.105 (*gavi).

Atani (f.) a support a stand inserted under the leg of a bedstead Vin IV.168; Sam. Pas. on Pac. 14 (quoted Min.

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Pat. 86 and Vin IV.357); DhA I.234; J II.387, 425, 484 supports of a seat. Morris J. Pali T. S. 1884, 69 compares Marathi adani a three-legged stand. See also Vin Texts II.53.

Atala (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit atta and attalaka stronghold] solid, firm, strong, only in phrase ataliyo upahana strong sandals M II.155 (vv. ll. pataliye and agaliyo) = S I.226 (vv. ll. ataliyo and ataliko). At the latter passage Bdhgh. expls. ganangan-upahana, Mrs. Rh. D. (Kindred Sayings I.291) translations. "buskined shoes".

Atavi (f.) [Sanskrit atavi: Non-Aryan, prob. Dravidian] 1. forest, woods J I.306; II.117; III.220; DhA I.13; PvA 277. 2. inhabitant of the forest, man of the woods, wild tribe J VI.55 ( = atavicora C.). -rakkhika guardian of the forest J II.335. -sankhepa at A I.178 = III.66 is prob. faulty reading for v. l. *sankopa "inroad of savage tribes".

Atta1 [cp. see attaka] a platform to be used as a watchtower Vin I.140; DA I.209.

Atta2 [cp. Sanskrit artha, see also attha 5 b] lawsuit, case, cause Vin IV.224; J II.2, 75; IV.129 (*m vinicchinati to judge a cause), 150 (*m tireti to see a suit through); VI.336.

Atta3 [Sanskrit arta, pp. of ardati, rd to dissolve, afflict etc.; cp. Sanskrit ardra ( = Pali adda and alla); Gr. a)/rdw to moisten, a)/rda dirt. See also attiyati and attita] distressed, tormented, afflicted; molested, plagued, hurt Sn 694 (+ vyasanagata; SnA 489 atura); Th 2, 439 ( = attita ThA 270), 441 ( = pi'ita ThA 271); J IV.293 ( = atura C.); Vv 809 ( = attita upadduta VvA 311). Often -*: inatta oppressed by debt M I.463; Miln 32; chat* tormented by hunger VvA 76; vedan* afflicted by pain Vin II.61; III.100; J I.293; sucik.r (read for sucikattha) pained by stitch Pv III.23. -ssara cry of distress Vin III.105; S II.255; J I.265; II.117; Miln 357; PvA 285.

Attaka [Demin. of atta1] a platform to be used as a watchhouse on piles, or in a tree Vin I.173; II.416; III.322, 372; DA I.209.

Attana at Vin II.106 is obscure, should it not rather be read with Bdhgh as atthana* (cp. Bdhgh on p. 315).

Attala [from atta] a watch-tower, a room at the top of a house, or above a gate (kotthaka) Th 1, 863; J III.160; V.373; Miln 1, 330; DhA III.488.

Attalaka [Sanskrit attalaka] = attala; J II.94, 220, 224; VI.390, 433; Miln 66, 81.

Attita (and occasionally addita, e. g. Pv II.62; Th 2, 77, 89; Th 1, 406) [Sanskrit ardita, pp. of ardayati, Causative of ardati, see atta3] pained, distressed, grieved, terrified Th 1, 157; J II.436; IV.85 (v. l. addhita); V.84; VvA 311; ThA 270; Mhvs 1, 25; 6, 21; Dpvs I.66; II.23; XIII.9; Sdhp 205. See remarks of Morris J. Pali T. S. 1886, 104, and 1887. 47.

Attiyati and Attiyati [Denominitive from atta3, q. v.] to be in trouble or anxiety, to be worried, to be incommodated, usually combined. with harayati, e. g. D I.213 (+ jigucchati); S I.131; M I.423; Pv I.102 ( = atta dukkhita PvA 48), frequent in ppr. attiyamana harayamana (+ jigucchamana) Vin II.292; J I.66, 292; It 43; Nd2 566; Ps I.159. Spelling sometimes addiyami, e. g. Th 2, 140. -pp. attita and addita.

Attiyana (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit ardana, to attiyati] fright, terror, amazement DhA II.179.

Attha1 [Vedic as.tau, old dual, Idg. *octou, pointing to a system of counting by tetrads (see also nava); Av. a.sta, Gr. o)ktw/, Latin octo, Goth. ahtau = Ohg. ahto, Ger. acht, E. eight] num. card, eight, decl. like pl. of adj. in-a. A. The number in objective significance, based on natural phenomena: see compounds *angula, *nakha, *pada, *pada. B. The number in subjective significance. - (1) As mark of respectability and honour, based on the idea of the double square: (a) in meaning "a couple" attha matakukkute attha jiva-k. gahetva (with 8 dead and 8 live cocks; eight instead of 2 because gift intended for a king) DhA I.213. sanghassa a salakabhattam dapesi VvA 75 = DhA III.104. a. pindapatani adadam Vv 348. a. vattha-yugani (a double pair as offering) PvA 232, a thera PvA 32. - The highest respectability is expressed by 8 X 8 = 64, and in this sense is frequent applied to gifts, where the giver gives a higher potency of a pair (23). Thus a "royal" gift goes under the name of sabb-atthakam danam (8 elephants, 8 horses, 8 slaves etc.) where each of 8 constituents is presented in 8 exemplars DhA II.45, 46, 71. In the same sense atth- attha kahapana (as gift) DhA II.41; atth-atthaka dibbakanna Vv 673 ( = catusatthi VvA 290); atthatthaka Dpvs VI.56. Quite conspicuous is the meaning of a "couple" in the phrase satt-attha 7 or 8 = a couple, e. g. sattattha divasa, a weck or so J I.86; J II.101; VvA 264 (sanvacchara years). - (b.) used as definite measure of quantity and distance, where it also implies the respectability of the gift, 8 being the lowest unit of items that may be given decently. Thus frequent as attha kahapana J I.483; IV.138; VvA 76; Miln 291. - In distances: a. karisa DhA II.80; IV.217; PvA 258; a. usabha J IV.142. (c.) in combination. with 100 and 1000 it assumes the meaning of "a great many", hundreds, thousands. Thus attha satam 800, Sn 227. As denotation of wealt (cp. below under 18 and 80): a-*sata-sahassa-vibhava DhA IV.7. But atthasata at S IV.232 means 108 (3 X 36), probably also at J V.377. - attha sahassan 8000 J V.39 (naga). The same meaning applies to 80 as well as to its use as unit in combination. with any other decimal (18, 28, 38 etc.): (a) 80 (asiti) a great many. Here belong the 80 smaller signs of a Mahapurisa (see anuvyanjana), besides the 32 main signs (see dvattimsa) VvA 213 etc. Freq. as measure of riches, e. g. 80 waggon loads Pv II.75; asiti-kotivibhava DhA III.129; PvA 196; asiti hatth- ubbedho rasi (of gold) VvA 66, etc. See further references under asiti. - (b) The following are examples of 8 with other decimals: 18 atthadasa (only M III.239: manopavicara) and attharasa (this the later form) VvA 213 (avenika-Buddhadhamma: Bhagavant's qualities); as measure J VI.432 (18 hands high, of a fence); of a great mass or multitue: attharasa kotiyo or *koti, 18 kotis J I.92 (of gold), 227; IV.378 (*dhana, riches); DhA II.43 (of people); Miln 20 (id.); a. akkhohini-sankhasena J VI.395. a. vatthu Vin II.204. - 28 atthavisati nakkhattani Nd1 382; patisallanaguna Miln 140. - 38 atthatimsa Miln 359 (rajaparisa). - 48 atthacattarisan vassani Sn 289. - 68 atthasatthi Th 1, 1217 *sita savitakka, where id. p. at S I.187 however reads atha satthi-tasita vitakka); J I.64 (turiya-satasahassani) 98 atthanavuti (cp. 98 the age of Eli, 1 Sam. IV.15) Sn 311 (roga, a higher set than the original 3 diseases, cp. navuti). (2) As number of symmetry or of an intrinsic, harmonious, symmetrical set, attha denotes, like dasa (q. v.) a comprehensive unity. See esp. the compounds for this application. *amsa and *angika. Closely related to nos. 2 and 4 attha is in the geometrical progression of 2. 4. 8. 16. 32. where each subsequent number shows a higher symmetry or involves a greater importance (cp. 8 X 8 under 1 a) - J V.409 (a. mangalena samannagata, of Indra's chariot: with the 8 lucky signs); VvA 193 (atthahi akkhanehi Vajjitam manussabhavam: the 8 unlucky signs). In progression: J IV.3 (attha petiyo, following after 4, then following by 8, 16, 32); PvA 75 (a. kapparukkha at each point of the compass, 32 in all). Further: 8 expressions of bad language DhA IV.3. -ansa with eight edges, octagonal, octahedral, implying perfect or divine symmetry (see above B. 2), of a diamond D I.76 = M III.121 (mani veluriyo a.); Miln 282 (maniratanam subham jatimantam a.) of the pillars of a heavenly palace (Vimana) J VI.127 = 173 = Vv 782 (a. sukata thambha); Vv 8415 (ayatamsa = ayata hutva attha-so'asadvattimsadi-amsavanto VvA 339). Of a ball of string Pv

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IV.328 (gulaparimandala, cp. PvA 254). Of geometrical figures in general Dhs 617. -anga (of) eight parts, eightfold, consisting of eight ingredients or constituents (see also next and above B 2 on significance of attha in this connection), in compounds. with *upeta characterised by the eight parts (i. e. the observance of the first eight of the commandments or vows, see sila and cp. anga 2), of uposatha, the fast-day A I.215; Sn 402 (Sn A 378 expls. ekam pi divasan apariccajanto atthangupetam uposatham upavassa); cp. atthanguposathin (adj.) Mhvs 36, 84. In BSanskrit always in phrase as.tanga-samanvagata upavasa, e. g. Divy 398; Sp. Av. SH I.338, 399; also vrata Av. SH I.170. In the same sense atthangupeta patihariyapakkha (q. v.) Sn 402, where Vv 156 has *susamagata (explained. at VvA 72 by panatipata veramani-adihi atthah- angehi samannagata). *samannagata endowed with the eight qualities (see anga 3), of raja, a king D I.137 sq., of brahmassara, the supreme or most excellent voice (of the Buddha) D II.211; J I.95; VvA 217. Also in Buddh. Sanskrit as.tangopeta svara of the voice of the Buddha, e. g. Sp. Av. SH I.149. -angika having eight constituents, being made up of eight (intrinsic) parts, embracing eight items (see above B 2); of the uposatha (as in prec. atthang- uposatha) Sn 401; of the "Eightfold Noble Path" (ariyo a. maggo). (Also in BSanskrit as as.tangika marga, e. g. Lal. Vist. 540, cp. as.tangamargadeshika of the Buddha, Divy 124, 265); D I.156, 157, 165; M I.118; It 18; Sn 1130 (magga uttama); Dh 191, 273; Th 2, 158, 171; Kh IV.; Vin I.10; Nd2 485; DA I.313; DhA III.402. -angula eight finger-breadths thick, eight inches thick, i. e. very thick, of double thickness J II.91 (in contrast to caturangula); Mhvs 29, 11 (with sattangula). -addha (v. l. addhattha) half of eight, i. e. four (*pada) J VI.354, see also addha1. -nakha having eight nails or claws J VI.354 (: ekekasmim pade dvinnam dvinnam khuranam vasena C.). -nava eight or nine DhA III.179. -pada 1. a chequered board for gambling or playing drafts etc., lit. having eight squares, i. e. on each side (DA I.85: ekekaya pantiya attha attha padani assa ti), cp. dasapada D I.6. - 2. eightfold, folded or plaited in eight, cross-plaited (of hair) Th 1, 772 (atthapada-kata kesa); J II.5 (*tthapana = cross-plaiting). -padaka a small square (1/8), i. e. a patch Vin I.297; II.150. -pada an octopod, a kind of (fabulous) spider (or deer*) J V.377; VI.538; cp. Sanskrit as.tapada = sharabha a fabulous eight-legged animal. -mangala having eight anspicious signs J V.409 (explained. here to mean a horse with white hair on the face, tail, mane, and breast, and above each of the four hoofs). -vanka with eight facets, lit. eight-crooked, i. e. polished on eight sides, of a jewel J VI.388. -vidha eightfold Dhs 219.

Attha2 see attha.

Atthaka (adj.) [Sanskrit as.taka] - 1. eightfold Vin I.196 = Ud 59 (*vaggikani); VvA 75 = DhA III.104 (*bhatta). - 2. *a (f.) the eight day of the lunar month (cp. atthami), in phrase rattisu antar-atthakasu in the nights between the eighths, i. e. the 8th day before and after the full moon Vin I.31, 288 (see Vin Texst I.130n); M I.79; A I.136; Miln 396; J I.390. - 3. *m (nt.) an octad Vv 672 (atth* eight octads = 64); VvA 289, 290. On sabbatthaka see attha B 1 a. See also antara.

Atthama (num. ord.) [Sanskrit as.tama, see attha1] the eighth Sn 107, 230 (cp. KhA 187), 437. - f. *i the eighth day of the lunar half month (cp. atthaka) A I.144; Sn 402; Vv 166 (in all three pass. as pakkhassa catuddasi pancadasi ca atthami); A I.142; Sn 570 (ito atthami, scil. divase, loc.).

Atthamaka = atthama the eighth. - 1. lit. Miln 291 (att* self-eighth). - 2. as tt. the eighth of eight persons who strive after the highest perfection, reckoned from the first or Arahant. Hence the eighth is he who stands on the lowest step of the Path and is called a sotapanna (q. v.) Kvu 243-251 (cp. Kvu trsl. 146 sq.); Nett 19, 49, 50; Ps II.193 (+ sotapanna).

Atthana (nt.) [a + tthana] stand, post; name of the rubbing-post which, well cut and with incised rows of squares, was let into the ground of a bathing-place, serving as a rubber to people bathing Vin II.105, 106 (read atthane with BB; cp. Vin II.315).

Atthi*1 [ = attha (attha) in compounds. with karandbhu, as frequent in Sanskrit and Pali with i for a, like citti-kata (for citta*), angi-bhuta (for anga*); cp. the frequent combination. (with similar meaning) manasi-kata (besides manasa-k.), also upadhikaroti and others. This combination. is restricted to the pp and der. (*kata and *katva). Other explinations. by Morris J. Pali T. S. 1886, 107; Windisch, M. and B. 100], in combination. with katva: to make something one's attha, i. e. object, to find out the essence or profitableness or value of anything, to recognise the nature of, to realise, understand, know. Nearly always in stock phrase atthikatva manasikatva D II.204; M I.325, 445; S I.112 sq. = 189, 220; V.76; A II.116; III.163; J I.189; V.151 (: attano atthikabhavam katva atthiko hutva sakkaccam suneyya C.); Ud 80 (: adhikicca, ayan no attho adhigantabbo evam sallakkhetva taya desanaya atthika hutva C.); Sdhp 220 (*katvana).

Atthi2 (nt.) [Sanskrit asthi = Av. asti, Gr. o)/steon, o)/strakon, a)stra/galos; Latin os (*oss); also Gr. o)/zos branch Goth. asts] 1. a bone A I.50; IV.129; Sn 194 (*naharu bones and tendons); Dh 149, 150; J I.70; III.26, 184; VI.448 (*vedhin); DhA III.109 (300 bones of the human body, as also at Sushruta III.5); KhA 49; PvA 68 (*camma-naharu), 215 (gosis*); Sdhp 46, 103. - 2. the stone of a fruit J II.104. -kankala [Sanskrit *kankala] a skeleton M I.364; cp. *sankhalika. -kadali a special kind of the plantain tree (Musa Sapientum) J V.406. -kalyana beauty of bones DhA I.387. -camma bones and skin J II.339; DhA III.43; PvA 68 -taca id. J II.295. -maya made of bone Vin II.115. -minja marrow A IV.129; DhA I.181; III.361; KhA 52. -yaka (T. atthiyaka) bones and liver S I.206. -sankhalika [B. Sanskrit *shakala Sp. Av. SH I.274 sq., see also atthika*] a chain of bones, i. e. a skeleton DhA III.479; PvA 152. -sanghata conjunction of bones, i. e. skeleton Vism 21; DhA II.28; PvA 206. -sancaya a heap of bones It 17 = Bdhd 87. -sanna the idea of bones (cp. atthika*) Th 1, 18. -santhana a skeleton Sdhp 101.

Atthika1 (nt.) [from atthi] 1. = atthi 1 a bone M III.92; J I.265, 428; VI.404; PvA 41. - 2 = atthi 2 kernel, stone DhA II.53 (tal*); Mhvs 15, 42. -sankhalika a chain of bones, a skeleton A III.324 see also under katatthika. -sanna the idea of a skeleton S V.129 sq.; A II.17; Dhs 264.

Atthika2 at PvA 180 (sucik.r) to be read attita (q. v.) for attika.

Atthita1 see thita.

Atthita2 [a + thita] undertaken, arrived at, looked after, considered J II.247 ( = adhitthita C.).

Atthita3 see atthika.

Atthilla at Vin II.266 is explained. by Bdhgh on p. 327 by gojanghattika, perhaps more likely = Sanskrit as.thila a round pebble or stone.

Addha1 (and addha) [etymology uncertain, Sanskrit ardha] one half, half; usually in compounds. (see below), like diyaddha 1 1/2 (*sata 150) PvA 155 (see as to meaning Stede, Peta Vatthu p. 107). Note. addha is never used by itself, for "half" in absolute position upaddha (q. v.) is always used. -akkhika with furtive glance ("half an eye") DhA IV.98. -attha half of eight, i. e. four (cp. atthaddha) S II.222 (*ratana); J VI.354 (*pada quadruped; v. l. for atthaddha). -a'haka 1/2 an a'haka (measure) DhA III.367. -uddha [cp.

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Maharas.tri form cauttha = Sanskrit caturtha] three and a half J I.82; IV.180; V.417, 420; DhA I.87; Mhvs 12, 53. -ocitaka half plucked off J I.120. -karisa (-matta) half a k. in extent VvA 64 (cp. attha-karisa). -kahapana 1/2 kahapana A V.83. -kasika (or *ya) worth half a thousand kasiyas (i. e. of Benares monetary standard) Vin I.281 (kambala, a woollen garment of that value; cp. Vin Texts II.195); II.150 (bimbohanani, pillows; so read for addhakayikani in T.); J V.447 (a*-kasiganika for a-*kasiya* a courtezan who charges that price, in phrase a*-k.r-ganika viya na bahunnam piya manapa). -kumbha a half (-filled) pitcher Sn 721. -kusi (tt. of tailoring) a short intermediate cross-seam Vin I.287. -kosa half a room, a small room J VI.81 ( = a* kosantara C.). -gavuta half a league J VI 55. -cu'a (*vaha vihi) 1/2 a measure (of rice) Miln 102, perhaps misread for addha'ha (a'ha = a'haka, cp. A III.52), a half a'ha of rice. -tiya the third (unit) less half, i. e. two and a half VvA 66 (masa); J I.49, 206, 255 (*sata 250). Cp. next. -teyya = *tiya 2 1/2 Vin IV.117; J II.129 (*sata); DA I.173 (v. l. BB for *tiya); DhA I.95 (*sata), 279; PvA 20 (*sahassa). -telasa [cp. BSanskrit ardhatrayodasha] twelve and a half Vin I 243, 247; D II.6 (*bhikkhusatani, cp. tayo B 1 b); DhA III.369. -dandaka a short stick M I.87 = A I.47; II.122 = Nd2 604 = Miln 197. -duka see *ruka. -na'ika (-matta) half a na'i-measure full J VI.366. -pallanka half a divan Vin II.280. -bhaga half a share, one half Vv 136 ( = upaddhabhaga VvA 61); Pv I.115. -mandala semi-circle, semi circular sewing Vin I.287. -mana half a mana measure J I.468 (m. = atthannam na'inam namam C.). -masa half a month, a half month, a fortnight Vin III.254 (unak.r); A V.85; J III.218; VvA 66. Freq. in acc. as adv. for a fortnight, e. g. Vin IV.117; VvA 67; PvA 55. -masaka half a bean (as weight or measure of value, see masaka) J I.111. -masika halfmonthly Pug 55. -mundaka shaven over half the head (sign of loss of freedom) Mhvs 6, 42. -yoga a certain kind of house (usually with pasada) Vin I.58 = 96, 107, 139, 239, 284; II.146. Acc. to Vin T. I.174 "a gold coloured Bengal house" (Bdhgh), an interpretation which is not correct: we have to read supanna vankageha "like a Garu'a bird's crooked wing", i. e. where the roof is bent on one side. -yojana half a yojana (in distance) J V.410; DA I.35 (in explination. of addhana-magga); DhA I.147; II.74. -ratta midnight A III.40Q (*am adv. at m.); Vv 8116 (*rattayam adv. = addharattiyam VvA 315); J I.264 (samaye); IV.159 (id.). -ratti = *ratta VvA 255, 315 ( = majjhimayama-samaya); PvA 155. -ruka (v. l. *duka) a certain fashion of wearing the hair Vin II.134; Bdhgh explination. on p. 319: adhadukan ti udare lomaraji-thapanam "leaving a stripe of hair on the stomach". -vivata (dvara) half open J V.293.

Addha2 (adj.) [Sanskrit adhya from rddha pp. of rdh, rdhnote and rdhyate (see ijjhati) to thrive cp. Gr. a)/lqomai thrive, Latin alo to nourish. Cp. also Vedic ida refreshment and Pali iddhi power. See also a'hiya] rich, opulent, wealthy, well-to-do; usually in combination. with mahaddhana and mahabhoga of great wealth and resources (following by pahuta-jataruparajata pahuta vittupakarana etc.). Thus at D I.115, 134, 137; III.163; Pug 52; DhA I.3; VvA 322; PvA 3, 78 etc. In other combination. Vv 314 (*kula); Nd2 615 (Sakka = addho mahaddhano dhanava); DA I.281 ( = issara); DhA II.37 (*kula); Sdhp 270 (satasakh*), 312 (gun*), 540 sq. (id.), 561.

Addhaka (adj.) wealthy, rich, influential J IV.495; Pv II.82 ( = mahavibhava PvA 107).

Addhata (f.) [abstr. to addha] riches, wealth, opulence Sdhp 316.

Ana [Sanskrit rna; see etymology under ina, of which ana is a doublet. See also ananya] debt, only in negative anana (adj.) free from debt Vin I.6 = S I.137, 234 = D II.39; Th 2, 364 (i. e. without a new birth); A II.69; J V.481; ThA 245.

Anu (adj.) [Sanskrit anu; as to etymology see Walde Latin Wtb. under ulna. See also ani] small, minute, atomic, subtle (opp. thula, q. v.) D I.223; S I.136; V.96 (*bija); Sn 299 (anuto anum gradually); J III.12 ( = appamattaka); IV.203; Dhs 230, 617 ( = kisa); ThA 173; Miln 361. Note anu is frequent spelt anu, thus usually in cpd. *matta. -thula (anumthula) fine and coarse, small and large Dh 31 ( = mahantan ca khuddakan ca DhA I.282), 409 = Sn 633; J IV.192; DhA IV.184. -matta of small size, atomic, least Sn 431; Vbh 244, 247 (cp. M III.134; A II.22); Dpvs IV.20. The spelling is anumatta at D I.63 = It 118; Dh 284; DA I.181; Sdhp 347. -sahagata accompanied by a minimum of, i. e. residuum Kvu 81, cp. Kvu trsl. 66 n. 3.

Anuka (adj.) = anu Sn 146, KhA 246.

Anda (nt.) [Etym. unknown. Cp. Sanskrit anda] 1. an egg Vin III.3; S II.258; M I.104; A IV.125 sq. - 2. (pl.) the testicles Vin III.106. - 3. (in camm*) a water-bag J I.249 (see Morris J. Pali T. S. 1884, 69). -kosa shell of eggs Vin III.3 = M I.104; A IV.126, 176. -cheda(ka) one who castrates, a gelder J IV.364, 366. -ja 1. born from eggs S III.241 (of snakes); M I.73; J II.53 = V.85; Miln 267. - 2. a bird J. V.189. -bharin bearing his testicles S II.258 = Vin III.100. -sambhava the product of an egg, i. e. a bird Th 1, 599. -haraka one who takes or exstirpates the testicles M I.383.

Andaka1 (nt.) = anda, egg DhA I.60; III.137 (sakun*).

Andaka2 (adj.) [Sanskrit* prob. an inorganic form; the diaeresis of candaka into c* andaka seems very plausible. As to meaning cp. DhsA 396 and see Dhs trsl. 349, also Morris J. Pali T. S. 1893, 6, who, not satisfactorily, tries to establish a relation to ard, as in attaQ] only used of vaca, speech: harsh, rough, insolent M I.286; A V.265, 283, 293 (gloss kantaka); J III.260; Dhs 1343, cp. DhsA 396.

Anna (food, cereal). See passages under aparanna and pubbanna.

Annava (nt.) [Sanskrit arna and arnava to r, rnoti to move, Idg. *er to be in quick motion, cp. Gr. o)/rnumi; Latin orior; Goth. rinnan = E. run; Ohg. runs, river, flow.] 1. a great flood ( = ogha), the sea or ocean (often as mah*, cp. BSanskrit maharnava, e. g. Jtm 3175) M I.134; S I.214; IV.157 (maha udak.r); Sn 173 (fig. for sansara see SnA 214), 183, 184; J I.119 (*kucchi), 227 (id.); V.159 (mah*); Mhvs 5, 60; 19, 16 (mah*). - 2. a stream, river J III. 521; V.255.

Anha [Sanskrit ahna, day, see ahan] day, only as -* in apar*, pubb*, majjh*, say*, q. v.

Atakkaka (adj.) [a + takka2] not mixed with buttermilk J YI.21.

Ataccha (nt.) [a + taccha2] falsehood, untruth D I.3; J VI.207.

Ati (indecl.) [sk. ati = Gr. e)/ti moreover, yet, and; Latin et and, Goth. ip; also connected with Gr. ata/r but, Latin at but ( = over, outside) Goth. appan] adv. and prep. of direction (forward motion), in primary meaning "on, and further", then "up to and beyond". I. in abstr. position adverbially (only as ttg.): in excess, extremely, very (cp. II.3) J VI.133 (ati uggata C. = accuggata T.), 307 (ati ahitam C. = accahitam T.). II. as prefix, meaning. - 1. on to, up to, towards, until); as far as: accanta up to the end; aticchati to go further, pass on; atipata "falling on to"; attack slaying; atimapeti to put damage on to, i. e. to destroy. - 2. over, beyond, past, by, trans-; with verbs: (a.) trs. atikkamati to pass beyond, surpass; atimannati to put one's "manas" over, to despise; atirocati to surpass in splendour. (b.) intr. atikkanta passed by; atikkama traversing; aticca transgressing; atita past, gone beyond. - Also with

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verbal derivations: accaya lapse, also sin, transgression ("going over"); atireka remainder, left over; atisaya overflow, abundance; atisara stepping over, sin. - 3. exceedingly, in a high or excessive degree either very (much) or too (much); in nominal compounds. (a), rarely also in verbal compounds. see (b). - (a) with nouns and adj.: *asanna too near; *uttama the very highest; *udaka too much water; *khippa too soon; *dana excessive alms giving; *daruna very cruel; *digha extremely long; *dura too near; deva a super-god *pago too early; *balha too much; *bhara a too heavy load; *manapa very lovely; *manohara very charming; *mahant too great; *vikala very inconvenient; *vela a very long time; *sambadha too tight, etc. etc. (b.) with verb: atibhunjati to eat excessively. III. A peculiar use of ati is its' function in reduplication-compounds, expressing "and, adding further, and so on, even more, etc." like that of the other comparing or contrasting prefixes a (a), anu, ava, pati, vi (e. g. khanda-khanda, settha-nusetthi, chidda-vacchidda, angapaccanga, cunnavicunna). In this function it is however restricted to comparatively few expressions and has not by far the wide range of a (q. v.), the only phrases being the following viz. cakka-ticakkam manca-timan cam bandhati to heap carts upon carts, couches upon couches (in order to see a procession) Vin IV.360 (Bdhgh); J II.331; IV.81; DhA IV.61. -deva-tideva god upon god, god and more than a god (see atideva); mana-timana all kinds of conceit; vanka-tivanka crooked all over J I.160. - IV. Semantically ati is closely related to abhi, so that in consequence of dialectical variation we frequently find ati in Pali, where the corresponds expression in later Sanskrit shows abhi. See e. g. the following cases for comparison: accunha ati-jata, *pi'ita *bruheti, *vassati, *vayati, *vetheti. Note The contracted (assimilation-) form of ati before vowels is acc- (q. v.). See also for adv. use atiriva, ativiya, ativa.

Ati-ambila (adj.) [ati + ambila] too sour DhA II.85.

Ati-arahant [ati + arahant] a super-Arahant, one who surpasses even other Arahants Miln 277.

Ati-issara (adj.) very powerful(*) J V.441 (*bhesajja, medicin).

Ati-unha (adj.) too hot PvA 37 (*atapa glow). See also accunha (which is the usual form).

Ati-uttama (adj.) by far the best or highest VvA 80.

Ati-udaka too much water, excess of water DhA I.52.

Ati-ussura (adj.) only in loc. *Q (adv.) too soon after sunrise, too early VvA 65 (laddhabhattata eating too early).

Ati-eti [ati + i] to go past or beyond, see ger. aticca and pp. atita.

Atikata (pp.) more than done to, i. e. retaliated; paid back in an excessive degree A I.62.

Atikaddhati [ati + kaddhati] to pull too hard, to labour, trouble, drudge Vin III.17.

Atikanha (adj.) [ati + kanha] too black Vin IV.7.

Atikaruna (adj.) [ati + karuna] very pitiful, extremely miserable J I.202; IV.142; VI.53.

Atikassa (ger.) [from atikassati ati + krs.; Sanskrit atikrs.ya] pulling (right) through J V.173 (rajjum, a rope, through the nostrils; v. l. BB. anti*).

Atikala [ati + kala] in instr. atikalena adv. in very good time very early Vin I.70 (+ atidiva).

Atikkanta [pp. of atikamati] passed beyond, passed by, gone by, elapsed; passed over, passing beyond, surpassing J II.128 (tini sanvaccharani); DhA III.133 (tayo vaye pas sed beyond the 3 ages of life); PvA 55 (mase *e after the lapse of a month), 74 (kati divasa *a how many days have passed). -manusaka superhuman It 100; Pug 60; cp. BSanskrit atikranta-manus.yaka M Vastu III.321.

Atikkantika (f.) [Der. abstr. from prec.] transgressing, overstepping the bounds (of good behaviour), lawlessness Miln 122.

Atikkama [Sanskrit atikrama] going over or further, passing beyond, traversing; fig. overcoming of, overstepping, failing against, transgression Dh 191; Dhs 299; PvA 154 (katipayayojan*), 159 (*carana sinful mode of life); Miln 158 (dur* hard to overcome); Sdhp 64.

Atikkamanaka (adj.) [atikkamana + ka] exceeding J I.153.

Atikkamati [ati + kamati] (1) to go beyond, to pass over, to cross, to pass by. (2) to overcome, to conquer, to surpass, to be superior to. - J IV.141; Dh 221 (Pot. *eyya, overcome); PvA 67 (maggena: passes by). grd. atikkamaniya to be overcome D II.13 (an*); SnA 568 (dur*). ger. atikkamma D II.12 (surpassing); It 51 (maradheyyam, passing over), cp. vv. ll. under adhigayha; and atikkamitva going beyond, overcoming, transcending (J IV.139 (samuddam); Pug 17; J I.162 (rattham having left). Often to be trsl. as adv. "beyond", e. g. pare beyond others PvA 15; Vasabhagamam beyond the village of V. PvA 168. -pp. atikkanta (q. v.).

Atikkameti [Causative of atikkamati] to make pass, to cause to pass over J I.151.

Atikkhippam (adv.) [ati + khippa] too soon Vin II.284.

Atikhana (nt.) [ati + khana(na)] too much digging J II.296.

Atikhata (nt.) = prec. J II.296.

Atikhina (adj.) [ati + khina] in capa-tikhina broken bow (*) Dh 156 (explained. at DhA III.132 as capato atikhina capa vinimmutta).

Atiga (-*) (adj.) [ati + ga] going over, overcoming, surmounting, getting over Sn 250 (sanga*); Dh 370 (id.); Sn 795 (sima*, cp. Nd1 99), 1096 (ogha*); Nd1 100 ( = atikkanta); Nd2 180 (id.).

Atigacchati [ati + gacchati] to go over, i. e. to overcome, surmount, conquer, get the better of, only in pret. (aor.) 3rd sg. accaga (q. v. and see gacchati 3) Sn 1040; Dh 414 and accagama (see gacchati 2) Vin II.192; D I.85; S II.205; DA I.236 ( = abhibhavitva pavatta). Also 3rd pl. accagum It 93, 95.

Atiga'eti [ati + ga'eti, Causative of galati, cp. Sanskrit vi-galayati] to destroy, make perish, waste away J VI.211 ( = atigalayati vinaseti C. p. 215). Perhaps reading should be atiga'heti (see atiga'hita.

Atiga'ha (adj.) [ati + ga'ha 1] very tight or close, intensive J I.62. Cp. atiga'hita.

Atiga'hita [pp. of atiga'heti, Denominitive from atiga'ha; cp. Sanskrit atigahate to overcome] oppressed, harmed, overcome, defeated, destroyed J V.401 ( = atipi'ita C.).

Atighora (adj.) [ati + ghora] very terrible or fierce Sdhp 285.

Aticarana (nt.) [from aticarati] transgression PvA 159.

Aticarati [ati + carati] 1. to go about, to roam about Pv II.1215; PvA 57. - 2. to transgress, to commit adultery J I.496. Cp. next.

Aticaritar [n. ag. of. aticarati] one who transgresses, esp. a woman who commits adultery A II.61 (all MSS. read aticaritva); IV.66 (T. aticaritta).

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Aticariya (f.) [ati + cariya] transgression, sin, adultery D III.190.

Aticara [from aticarati] transgression Vv 158 ( = aticca cara VvA 72).

Aticarin (adj. n.) [from aticarati] transgressing, sinning, esp. as f. aticarini an adulteress S II.259; IV.242; D III.190; A III.261; Pv II.1214; PvA 151 (v. l. BB), 152; VvA 110.

Aticitra (adj.) [ati + citra] very splendid, brilliant, quite exceptional Miln 28.

Aticca (grd.) [ger. of ati + eti, ati + i] 1. passing beyond, traversing, overcoming, surmounting Sn 519, 529, 531. Used adverbially = beyond, in access, more than usual, exceedingly Sn 373, 804 ( = vassasatam atikkamitva Nd1 120). - 2. failing, transgressing, sinning, esp. committing adultery J V,424; VvA 72,

Aticchati [*Sanskrit ati-rcchati, ati + r, cp. annava] to go on, only occurring in imper. aticchatha (bhante) "please go on, Sir", asking a bhikkhu to seek alms elsewhere, thus refusing a gift in a civil way. [The interpretation given by Trenckner, as quoted by Childers, is from ati + 'is. "go and beg further on". (Tr. Notes 65) but this would entail a meaning like "desire in excess", since is. does not convey the notion of movement] J III.462; DhA IV.98 (T. aticcha, vv. ll. *atha); VvA 101; Miln 8. - Causative aticchapeti to make go on, to ask to go further J III.462. Cp. icchata.

Aticchatta [ati + chatta] a "super"-sunshade, a sunshade of extraordinary size and colours DhsA 2.

Atitata (adj.) [ati + jata, perhaps ati in sense of abhi, cp. abhijata] well-born, well behaved, gentlemanly It 14 (opp. avajata).

Atitarati [ati + tarati] to pass over, cross, go beyond aor. accatari S IV.157 = It 57 (*ari).

Atituccha (adj.) [ati + tuccha] very, or quite empty Sdhp 430.

Atitutthi (f.) [ati + tutthi] extreme joy J I.207.

Atitula (adj.) [ati + tula] beyond compare, incomparable Th 1, 831 = Sn 561 ( = tulam atito nirupamo ti attho SnA 455).

Atitta (adj.) [a + titta] dissatisfied, unsatisfied J I.440; Dh 48.

Atittha (nt.) [a + tittha] "that which is not a fordingplace". i. e. not the right way, manner or time; as *wrongly in the wrong way J I.343; IV.379; VI.241; DhA III.347; DA I.38.

Atithi [Sanskrit atithi of at = at, see atati; orig. the wanderer, cp. Vedic atithin wandering] a guest, stranger, newcomer D I.117 ( = agantuka-navaka pahunaka DA I.288); A II.68; III.45, 260; J IV.31, 274; V.388; Kh VIII.7 ( = n- atthi assa thiti yamhi va tamhi va divase agacchati ti atithi KhA 222); VvA 24 ( = agantuka).

Atidana (nt.) [ati + dana] too generous giving, an excessive gift of alms Miln 277; PvA 129, 130.

Atidaruna (adj.) [Sanskrit atidaruna, ati + daruna] very cruel, extremely fierce Pv III.73.

Atiditthi (f.) [ati + ditthi] higher doctrine, super knowledge (*) Vin I.63 = II.4 (+ adhisila; should we read adhi-ditthi*)

Atidiva (adv.) [ati + diva] late in the day, in the afternoon Vin I.70 (+ atikalena); S I.200; A III.117.

Atidisati [ati + disati] to give further explanation, to explain in detail Miln 304.

Atidigha (adj.) [ati + digha] too long, extremely long J IV. 165; Pv II.102; VvA 103 (opp. atirassa).

Atidukkha [ati + dukkha] great evil, exceedingly painful excessive suffering PvA 65; Sdhp 95. In atidukkhavaca PvA 15 ati belongs to the whole cpd., i. e. of very hurtful speech.

Atidura (adj.) [ati + dura] very or too far Vin I.46; J II.154; Pv II.965 = DhA III.220 (vv. ll. suvidure); PvA 42 (opp. accasanna).

Atideva [ati + deva] a super god, god above gods, usually Ep. of the Buddha S I.141; Th 1, 489; Nd2 307 (cp. adhi*); Miln 277. atidevadeva id. Miln 203, 209. deva-tideva god over the gods (of the Buddha) Nd2 307 a.

Atidhamati [ati + dhamati] to beat a drum too hard J I.283; pp. atidhanta ibid.

Atidhatata [ati + dhata + ta] oversatiation J II.193.

Atidhavati [ati + dhavati 1] to run past, to outstrip or get ahead of S III.103; IV.230; M III.19; It 43; Miln 136; SnA 21.

Atidhonacarin [ati + dhonacarin] indulging too much in the use of the "dhonas", i. e. the four requisites of the bhikkhu, or transgressing the proper use or normal application of the requisites (explination. at DhA III.344, cp. dhona) Dh 240 = Nett 129.

Atinameti [BSanskrit atinamayati, e. g. Divy 82, 443; ati + nameti] to pass time A I.206; Miln 345.

Atinigganhati [ati + nigganhati] to rebuke too much J VI.417.

Atinicaka (adj.) [ati + nicaka] too low, only in phrase cakkava'am atisambadham Brahmaloko atinicako the World is too narrow and Heaven too low (to comprehend the merit of a person, as sign of exceeding merit) DhA I.310; III.310 = VvA 68.

Atineti [ati + neti] to bring up to, to fetch, to provide with Vin II.180 (udakam).

Atipandita (adj. [ati + pandita] too clever DhA IV.38.

Atipanditata (f.) [abstr. of atipandita] too much cleverness DhA II.29.

Atipadana (nt.) [ati + pa + dana] too much alms-giving Pv II.943 ( = atidana PvA 130).

Atipapanca [ati + p.] too great a delay, excessive tarrying J I.64; II.93.

Atipariccaga [ati + pariccaga] excess in liberality DhA III.11.

Atipassati [ati + passati; cp. Sanskrit anupashyati] to look for, catch sight of, discover M III.132 (nagam).

Atipata [ati + pat] attack, only in phrase pana-tipata destruction of life, slaying, killing, murder D I.4 (panatipata veramani, refraining from killing, the first of the dasasila or decalogue); DA I.69 ( = panavadha, panaghata); Sn 242; Kh II. cp. KhA 26; PvA 28, 33 etc.

Atipatin (adj. -n.) one who attacks or destroys Sn 248; J VI.449 (in war nagakkhandh* = hatthikkhande khaggena chinditva C.); PvA 27 (pan*).

Atipateti [Denominitive from atipata] to destroy S V.453; Dh 246 (v. l. for atimapeti, q. v.). Cp. paripateti.

Atipinita (adj.) [ati + pinita] too much beloved, too dear, too lovely DhA V.70.

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Atipi'ita [ati + pi'ita, cp. Sanskrit abhipidita] pressed against, oppressed, harassed, vexed J V.401 ( = atiga'hita).

Atippago (adv.) [cp. Sanskrit atiprage] too early, usually elliptical = it is too early (with inf. caritum etc.) D I.178; M I.84; A IV.35.

Atibaddha [pp. of atibandhati; cp. Sanskrit anubaddha] tied to, coupled J I.192 = Vin IV.5.

Atibandhati [ati + bandhati; cp. Sanskrit anubandhati] to tie close to, to harness on, to couple J I.191 sq. -pp. atibaddha q. v.

Atibahala (adj.) [ati + bahala] very thick J VI.365.

Atiba'ha (adj.) [ati + ba'ha] very great or strong PvA 178; nt. adv. *m too much D I.93, 95; M I.253.

Atibaheti [ati + baheti, Causative to brh1; cp. Sanskrit abrhati] to drive away, to pull out J IV.366 ( = abbaheti).

AtiBrahma [ati + Brahma] a greater Brahma, a super-god Miln 277; DhA II.60 (Brahmuna a. greater than B.).

Atibruheti [ati + bruheti, brh2, but by C. taken incorrectly to bru; cp. Sanskrit abhi-brnhayati] to shout out, roar, cry J V.361 ( = mahasaddam nicchareti).

Atibhagini-putta [ati + bh.-p.] a very dear nephew J I.223.

Atibhara [ati + bhara] too heavy a load Miln 277 (*ena sakatassa akkho bhijjati).

Atibharita (adj.) [ati + bharita] too heavily weighed, overloaded Vtn IV.47.

Atibhariya (adj.) too serious DhA I.70.

Atibhunjati [ati + bhunjati] to eat too much, to overeat Miln 153.

Atibhutta (nt.) [ati + bhutta] overeating Miln 135.

Atibhoti [ati + bhavati, cp. Sanskrit atibhavati and abhibhavati] to excel, overcome, to get the better of, to deceive J I.163 ( = ajjhottharati vanceti C.).

Atimannati [Sanskrit atimanyate; ati + man] to despise, slighten, neglect Sn 148 ( = KhA 247 atikkamitva mannati); Dh 365, 366; J II.347; Pv I.76 (*issan, v. l. *asim = atikkamitva avamannim PvA 37); PvA 36; Sdhp 609.

Atimannana (f.) [abstr. to prec., cp. atimana] arrogance, contempt, neglect Miln 122.

Atimanapa (adj.) [ati + manapa] very lovely PvA 77 (+ abhirupa).

Atimanorama (adj.) [ati + manorama] very charming J I.60.

Atimanohara (adj.) [ati + manohara] very charming PvA 46.

Atimanda(ka) (adj.) [ati + manda] too slow, too weak Sdhp 204, 273, 488.

Atimamayati [ati + mamayati, cp. Sanskrit atimamayate in different meaning = envy] to favour too much, to spoil or fondle J II.316.

Atimahant (adj.) [ati + mahant] very or too great J I.221; PvA 75.

Atimana [Sanskrit atimana, ati + mana] high opinion (of oneself), pride, arrogance, conceit, M I.363; Sn 853 (see explination. at Nd1 233), 942, 968; J VI.235; Nd1 490; Miln 289. Cp. atimannana.

Atimanin (adj.) [from atimana] D II.45 (thaddha +); Sn 143 (an*) 244; KhA 236.

Atimapeti [ati + mapeti, Causative of mi, minate, orig. meaning "to do damage to"] to injure, destroy, kill; only in the stock phrase panam atimapeti (with v. l. atipateti) to destroy life, to kill D I.52 (v. l. *pateti) = DA I.159 (: panam hanati pi parehi hanapeti either to kill or incite others to murder); M I.404, 516; S IV.343; A III.205 (correct T. reading atimateti; v. l. pateti); Dh 246 (v. l. *pateti) = DhA III.356 (: parassa jivitindriyam upacchindati).

Atimukhara (adj.) [ati + mukhara] very talkative, a chatterbox J I.418; DhA II.70. atimukharata (f. abstr.) ibid.

Atimuttaka [Sanskrit atimuktaka] N. of a plant, Gaertnera Racemosa Vin II.256 = M I.32; Miln 338.

Atimuduka (adj.) [ati + muduka] very soft, mild or feeble J I.262.

Atiyakkha (ati + yakkha] a sorcerer, wizard, fortuneteller J VI.502 (C.: bhuta-vijja ikkhanika).

Atiyacaka (adj.) [ati + yacaka] one who asks too much Vin III.147.

Atiyacana (f.) [ati + yacana] asking or begging too much Vin III.147.

Atirattim (adv.) [ati + ratti; cp. atidiva] late in the night, at midnight J I.436 (opp. atipabhate).

Atirassa (adj.) [ati + rassa] too short (opp. atidigha) Vin IV.7; J VI.457; VvA 103.

Atiraja [ati + raja] a higher king, the greatest king, more than a king DhA II.60; Miln 277.

Atiriccati [ati + riccati, see ritta] to be left over, to remain Sdhp 23, 126.

Atiritta (adj.) [pp. of ati + rlc, see ritta] left over, only as negative an* applied to food, i. e. food which is not the leavings of a meal, fresh food Vin I.213 sq, 238; II.301; IV.82 sq., 85.

Atiriva (ati-r-iva) see ativiya.

Atireka (adj.) [Sanskrit atireka, ati + ric, rinakti; see ritta] surplus, too much; exceeding, excessive, in a high degree; extra Vin I.255; J I.72 (*padasata), 109; 441 (in higher positions); Miln 216; DhsA 2; DhA II.98. -civara an extra robe Vin I.289. -pada exceeding the worth of a pada, more than a pada, Vin III.47.

Atirekata (f.) [abstr. to prec.] excessiveness, surplus, excess Kvu 607.

Atirocati [ati + ruc] to shine magnificently (trs.) to outshine, to surpass in splendour D II.208; Dh 59; Pv II.958; Miln 336 (+ virocati); DhA I.446 ( = atikkamitva virocati); III.219; PvA 139 ( = ativiya virocati).

Ativankin (adj.) [ati + vankin] very crooked J I.160 (vanka-tivankin crooked all over; cp. ati III.).

Ativannati [ati + vannati] to surpass, excel D II.267.

Ativatta [pp. of ativattati: Sanskrit ativrtta] passed beyond, surpassed, overcome (act. and pass.), conquered Sn 1133 (bhava*); Nd2 21 ( = atikkanta, vitivatta); J V.84 (bhaya*); Miln 146, 154.

Ativattati [ati + vrt, Sanskrit ativartate] to pass, pass over, go beyond; to overcome, get over; conquer Vin II.237 (samuddo velam n-); S II.92 (sansaram); IV.158 (id.) It 9 (sansaram) = A II.10 = Nd2 172a; Th 1, 412; J I.58, 280; IV.134; VI.113, 114; PvA 276. -pp. ativatta (q. v.).

Ativattar1 [Sanskrit *ativaktr, n. ag. to ati-vacati; cp. ativakya] one who insults or offends J V.266 (isinam ativattaro = dharusavacahi atikkamitva vattaro C.).

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Ativattar2 [Sanskrit *ativartr, n. ag. to ati-vattati] one who overcomes or is to be overcome Sn 785 (svativatta = durativatta duttara duppatara Nd1 76).

Ativasa (adj.) [ati + vasa from vas] being under somebody's rule, dependent upon (c. gen.) Dh 74 ( = vase vattati DhA II.79).

Ativassati [ati + vassati, cp. Sanskrit abhivar.sati] to rain down on, upon or into Th 1, 447 = Vin II.240.

Ativakya (nt.) [ati + vac, cp. Sanskrit ativada, from ati + vad] abuse, blame, reproach Dh 320, 321 ( = attha-anariyavohara-vasena pavattam vitikkama-vacanam DhA IV.3); J VI.508.

Ativata [ati + vata] too much wind, a wind which is too strong, a gale, storm Miln 277.

Ativayati [ati + vayati] to fill (excessively) with an odour or perfume, to satiate, permeate, pervade Miln 333 (+ vayati; cp. abhivayati ibid 385).

Ativaha [from ati + vah, cp. Sanskrit ativahati and abhivaha] carrying, carrying over; a conveyance; one who conveys, i. e. a conductor, guide Th 1, 616 (said of sila, good character); J V.433. - Cp. ativahika.

Ativahika [from ativaha] one who belongs to a conveyance, one who conveys or guides, a conductor (of a caravan) J V.471, 472 (*purisa).

Ativikala (adj.) [ati + vikala] at a very inconvenient time, much too late D I 108 ( = sutthu vikala DA I.277).

Ativijjhati [Sanskrit atividhyati, ati + vyadh] to pierce, to enter into (fig.), to see through, only in phrase pannaya ativijjha (ger.) passati to recognise in all details M I.480; S V.226; A II.178.

Ativiya (adv.) [Sanskrit ativa] = ati + iva, orig. "much-like" like an excess = excessive-ly. There are three forms of this expression, viz. (1) ati + iva in contraction ativa (q. v.); - (2) ati + iva with epenthetic r: atiriva D II.264 (v. l. SS. ativa); Sn 679, 680, 683; SnA 486; (3) ati + viya (the doublet of iva) = ativiya J I.61, 263; DhA II.71 (a. upakara of great service); PvA 22, 56, 139.

Ativisa (f.) [Sanskrit ativis.a] N. of a plant Vin I.201; IV.35.

Ativissattha (adj.) [ati + vissattha] too abundant, in *vakya one who talks too much, a chatterbox J V.204.

Ativissasika (adj.) [ati + vissasika] very, or too confidential J I.86.

Ativissuta (adj.) [ati + vissuta] very famous, renowned Sdhp 473.

Ativetheti [ati + ves.t, cp. Sanskrit abhives.tate] to wrap over, to cover, to enclose; to press, oppress, stifle Vin II.101; J V.452 (-ativiya vetheti pi'eti C.).

Ativela (adj.) [ati + vela] excessive (of time); nt. adv. *m a very long time; excessively D I.19 ( = atikalam aticiran ti attho DA I.113); M I.122; Sn 973 (see explination. at Nd1 504); J III.103 = Nd1 504.

Atilina (adj.) [ati + lina] too much attached to worldly matters S V.263.

Atilukha (adj.) [ati + lukha] too wretched, very miserable Sdhp 409.

Atiloma (adj.) [ati + loma] too hairy, having too much hair J VI.457 (opp. aloma).

Atisancara (*cara*) [ati + sancara] wandering about too much Miln 277.

Atisanha (adj.) [ati + sanha] too subtle DhA III.326.

Atisanta (adj.) [ati + santa1] extremely peaceful Sdhp 496.

Atisambadha (adj.) [ati + sambadha] too tight, crowded or narrow DhA I.310; III.310 = VvA 68; cp. atinicaka. f. abstr. atisambadhata the state of being too narrow J I.7.

Atisaya [cp. Sanskrit atishaya, from ati + shi] superiority, distinction, excellence, abundance VvA 135 ( = visesa); PvA 86; Davs II.62.

Atisayati [ati + shi] to surpass, excel; ger. atisayitva Miln 336 (+ atikkamitva).

Atisara (adj.) [from atisarati; cp. accasara] transgressing, sinning J IV.6; cp. atisara.

Atisarati [ati + sr] to go too far, to go beyond the limit, to overstep, transgress, aor. accasari (q. v.) Sn 8 sq. (opp. paccasari; C. atidhavi); J V.70 and atisari J IV.6. ger. atisitva (for *atisaritva) D I.222; S IV.94; A I.145; V.226, 256; Sn 908 ( = Nd1 324 atikkamitva etc.).

Atisayam (adv.) [ati + sayam] very late, late in the evening J V.94.

Atisara [from ati + sr, see atisarati. Cp. Sanskrit atisara in different meaning but BSanskrit atisara (sa-tisara) in the same meaning) going too far, overstepping the limit, trespassing, false step, slip, danger Vin I.55 (sa-tisara), 326 (id.); S I.74; M III.237; Sn 889 (atisaram ditthiyo = ditthi-gatani Nd1 297; going beyond the proper limits of the right faith), J V.221 (dhamm*), 379; DhA I.182; DhsA 28. See also atisara.

Atisithila (adj.) [ati + sithila] very loose, shaky or weak A III.375.

Atisita (adj.) [ati + sita] too cold DhA II.85.

Atisitala (adj.) [ati + sitala] very cold J III.55.

Atihattha (adj.) [ati + hattha] very pleased Sdhp 323.

Atiharati [ati + hr] to carry over, to bring over, bring, draw over Vin II.209; IV.264; S I.89; J I.292; V.347. Causative atiharapeti to cause to bring over, bring in, reap, collect, harvest Vin II.181; III.18; Miln 66; DhA IV.77. See also atihita.

Atihita [ati + hr, pp. of atiharati, hita unusual for hata, perhaps through analogy with Sanskrit abhi + dha] brought over (from the field into the house), harvested, borne home Th 1, 381 (vihi).

Atihina (adj.) [ati + hina] very poor or destitute A IV.282, 287; 323 (opp. accoga'ha).

Atihi'eti [ati + hid] to despise J IV.331 ( = atimannati C.).

Atita (adj.-n.) [Sanskrit atita, ati + ita, pp. of i. Cp. accaya and ati eti] 1. (temporal) past, gone by (cp. accaya 1) (a) adj. atitam addhanam in the time which is past S III.86; A IV.219; V.32. - Pv II.1212 (atitanam, scil. attabhavauam, pariyanto na dissati); khana-tita with the right moment past Dh 315 = Sn 333; atitayobbana he who is past youth or whose youth is past Sn 110. - (b) nt. the past: atite (loc.) once upon a time J I.98 etc. atitam ahari he told (a tale of) the past, i. e. a Jataka J I.213, 218, 221 etc. - S I.5 (atitam na-nusocati); A III.400 (a. eko anto); Sn 851, 1112. In this sense very frequently combined. with or opposed to anagata the future and paccuppanna the present, e. g. atita-nagate in past and future S II.58; Sn 373; J VI.364. Or all three in stereotype combination. atit--anagata-paccuppanna (this the usual order) D III.100, 135; S II.26, 110, 252; III.19, 47, 187; IV.4 sq.; 151 sq.; A I.264 sq., 284; II.171, 202; III.151; V.33; It 53; Nd2 22; but also occasionally atita paccuppanna anagata,

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e. g. PvA 100. - 2. (modal) passed out of, having overcome or surmounted, gone over, free from (cp. accaya 2) S I.97 (maranam an* not free from death), 121 (sabbavera-bhaya*); A II.21; III.346 (sabbasanyojana*); Sn 373 (kappa*), 598 (khaya*, of the moon = unabhavam atita Sn A 463); Th 1, 413 (c. abl.) - 3. (id.) overstepping, having transgressed or neglected (cp. accaya 3) Dh 176 (dhammam). -amsa the past ( = atita kotthase, atikkantabhavesu ti attho ThA 233) D II.222; III.275; Th 2, 314. -arammana state of mind arising out of the past Dhs 1041.

Atiradassin (adj.-n.) [a + tira + dassin] not seeing the shore J I.46; VI.440; also as atiradassani (f.) J V.75 (nava). Cp. D I 222.

Ativa (indecl.) [ati + iva, see also ativiya] very much, exceedingly J II.413; Mhvs 33, 2 etc.

Ato (adv.) [Sanskrit ata*] hence, now, therefore S I.15; M I.498; Miln 87; J V.398 ( = tato C.).

Atona [etymology*) a class of jugglers or acrobats(*) Miln 191.

Atta1 [a + d + ta; that is, pp. of adadati with the base form reduced to d. Idg *d-to; cp. Sanskrit atta] that which has been taken up, assumed. atta-danda, he who has taken a stick in hand, a violent person, S I.236; IV.117; Sn 630, 935; Dh 406. Attanjaha, rejecting what had been assumed, Sn 790. Attam pahaya Sn 800. The opp. is niratta, that which has not been assumed, has been thrown off, rejected. The Arahant has neither atta nor niratta (Sn 787, 858, 919), neither assumption nor rejection, he keeps an open mind on all speculative theories. See Nd I.82, 90, 107, 352; II.271; SnA 523; DhA IV.180 for the traditional exegesis. As legal t. t. attadanam adiyati is to take upon oneself the conduct, before the Chapter, of a legal point already raised. Vin II.247 (quoted V.91).

Atta2 see attan.

Atta3 [Sanskrit akta, pp. of anjati] see upatta.

Attan (m.) and atta (the latter is the form used in compounds.) [Vedic atman, not to Gr. a)\nemos = Latin animus, but to Gr. a)tmo/s steam, Ohg. atum breath, Ags. aepm]. - I. Inflection. (1) of attan- (n. stem); the following cases are the most frequent: acc. attanam D I.13, 185; S I.24; Sn 132, 451. - gen. dat. attano Sn 334, 592 etc., also as abl. A III.337 (attano ca parato ca as regards himself and others). - instr. abl. attana S I.24; Sn 132, 451; DhA II.75; PvA 15, 214 etc. On use of attana see below III.1 C. - loc. attani S V.177; A I.149 (attani metri causa); II.52 (anattani); III.181; M I.138; Sn 666, 756, 784; Vbh 376 (an*). - (2) of atta- (a-stem) we find the following cases: acc. attam Dh 379. - instr. attena S IV.54. - abl. attato S I.188; Ps I.143; II.48; Vbh 336. Meanings. 1. The soul as postulated in the animistic theories held in N India in the 6th and 7th cent. B. C. It is described in the Upanishads as a small creature, in shape like a man, dwelling in ordinary times in the heart. It escapes from the body in sleep or trance; when it returns to the body life and motion reappear. It escapes from the body at death, then continues to carry on an everlasting life of its own. For numerous other details see Rh. D. Theory of Soul in the Upanishads J R A S 1899. Bt. India 251-255. Buddhism repudiated all such theories, thus differing from other religions. Sixteen such theories about the soul D I.31. Seven other theories D I.34. Three others D I.186/7. A "soul" according to general belief was some thing permanent, unchangeable, not affected by sorrow S IV.54 = Kvu 67; Vin I.14; M I.138. See also M I.233; III.265, 271; S II.17, 109; III.135; A I.284; II.164, 171; V.188; S IV.400. Cp. atuman, tuma, puggala, jiva, satta, pana and nama-rupa. 2. Oneself, himself, yourself. Nom. atta, very rare. S I.71, 169; III.120; A I.57, 149 (you yourself know whether that is true or false. Cp. Manu VIII.84. Here atta comes very near to the European idea of conscience. But conscience as a unity or entity is not accepted by Buddhism) Sn 284; Dh 166, 380; Miln 54 (the image, outward appearance, of oneself). Acc. attanam S I.44 (would not give for himself, as a slave) A I.89; Sn 709. Acc. attam Dh 379. Abl. attato as oneself S I.188; Ps I.143; II.48; Vbh 336. Loc. attani A I.149; III.181; Sn 666, 784. Instr. attana S I.57 = Dh 66; S I.75; II.68; A I.53; III.211; IV.405; Dh 165. On one's own account, spontaneously S IV.307; V.354; A I.297; II.99, 218; III.81; J I.156; PvA 15, 20. In composition with numerals attadutiya himself and one other D II.147; *catuttha with himself as fourth M I.393; A III.36; *pancama Dpvs VIII.2; *sattama J I.233; *atthama VvA 149 (as atta-natthama Vv 3413), and *atthamaka Miln 291. anatta (n. and predicative adj.) not a soul, without a soul. Most frequent in combination. with dukkha and anicca - (1) as noun: S III.141 (*anupassin); IV.49; V.345 (*sannin); A II.52 = Ps II.80 (anattani anatta; opp. to anattani atta, the opinion of the micchaditthigata satta); Dh 279; Ps II.37, 45 sq. (*anupassana), 106 (yam aniccan ca dukkhan ca tam anatta); DhA III. 406 (*lakkhana). - (2) as adj. (pred.): S IV.152 sq.; S IV.166; S IV.130 sq., 148 sq.; Vin I.13 = S III.66 = Nd2 680 Q 1; S III.20 sq.; 178 sq., 196 sq.; sabbe dhamma anatta Vin V.86; S III.133; IV.28, 401. -attha one's own profit or interest Sn 75; Nd2 23; J IV.56, 96; otherwise as atta-d-attha, e. g. Sn 284. -atthiya looking after one's own needs Th 1, 1097. -a-dhipaka mastereotypeof oneself, self-mastereotyped A I.150. -adhipateyya selfdependence, self-reliance, independence A I.147. -a-dhina independent D I.72. -a-nuditthi speculation about souls S III.185; IV.148; A III.447; Sn 1119; Ps I.143; Vbh 368; MilnQ 146. -a-nuyogin one who concentrates his attention on himself Dh 209; DhA III.275. -a-nuvada blaming oneself A II.121; Vbh 376. -unna self-humiliation Vbh 353 (+ att-avanna). -uddesa relation to oneself Vin III.149 ( = attano atthaya), also *ika ibid. 144. -kata self-made S I.134 (opp. para*). -kama love of self A II.21; adj. a lover of "soul", one who cares for his own soul S I.75. -kara individual self, fixed individuality, oneself (cp. ahamkara) D I.53 (opp. para*); A III 337 (id.) DA I.160; as nt. at J V.401 in the sense of service (self-doing", slavery) (attakarani karonti bhattusu). -kilamatha self-mortification D III.113; S IV.330; V.421; M III.230. -garahin self-censuring Sn 778. -gutta selfguarded Dh 379. -gutti watchfulness as regards one's self, self-care A II.72. -ghanna self-destruction Dh 164. -ja proceeding from oneself Dh 161 (papa). -nu knowing oneself A IV.113, cp. D III.252. -(n)tapa self-mortifying, self-vexing D III.232 = A II.205 (opp. paran*); M I.341, 411; II.159; Pug 55, 56. -danda see atta1. -danta selfrestrained, self-controlled Dh 104, 322. -ditthi speculation concerning the nature of the soul Nd1 107; SnA 523, 527. -dipa relying on oneself, independent, founded on oneself (+ attasarana, opp. anna*) D II.100 = III.42; S V.154; Sn 501 ( = attano gune eva attano dipam katva SnA 416). -paccakkha only in instr. *ena by or with his own presence, i. e. himself J V.119. -paccakkhika eye-witness J V.119. -paccatthika hostile to oneself Vin II.94, 96. -patilabha acquisition of a personality D I.195 (tayo: o'arika, manomaya, arupa). -paritapana self-chastisement, mortification D III.232 = A II.205; M I.341; PvA 18, 30. -paritta charm (protection) for oneself Vin II.110. -paribhava disrespect for one's own person Vbh 353. -bhava one's own nature (1) person, personality, individuality, living creature; form, appearance [cp. Dhs trsl. LXXI and BSanskrit atmabhava body Divy 70, 73 (*pratilambha), 230; Sp. Av. SH I.162 (pratilambha), 167, 171] Vin II.238 (living beings, forms); S V.442 (bodily appearance); A I.279 (o'arika a substantial creature); II.17 (creature); DhA II.64, 69 (appearance); SnA 132 (personality). - (2) life, rebirth A I.134 sq.; III.412;

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DhA II.68; PvA 8, 15, 166 (atita *a former lives). *m pavatteti to lead a life, to live PvA 29, 181. Thus in cpd. patilabha assumption of an existence, becoming reborn as an individual Vin II.185; III.105; D III.231; M III.46; S II.255, 272, 283; III.144; A II.159, 188; III.122 sq. - (3) character, quality of heart Sn 388 ( = citta SnA 374); J I.61. -rupa "of the form of self", self-like only in instr. *ena as adv. by oneself, on one's own account, for the sake of oneself S IV.97; A II.120. -vadha self-destruction S II.241; A II.73. -vada theory of (a persistent) soul D III.230; M I.66; D II.58; S II.3, 245 sq.; III.103, 165, 203; IV.1 sq., 43 sq., 153 sq.; Ps I.156 sq.; Vbh 136, 375. For var. points of an "attavadic" doctrine see Index to Sanyutta Nikaya. -vyabadha personal harm or distress self-suffering, one's own disastereotype(opp. para*) M I 369; S IV.339 = A I.157; A II.179. -vetana supporting oneself, earning one's own living Sn 24. -sancetana self-perception, self-consciousness (opp. para*) D III.231; A II.159. -sambhava originating from one's self S I.70; A IV.312; Dh 161 (papa); Th 1, 260. -sambhuta arisen from oneself Sn 272. -sammapanidhi thorough pursuit or development of one's personality A II.32; Sn 260, cp. KhA 132. -sarana see *dipa. -sukha happiness of oneself, self-success Dpvs I.66, cp. II.11. -hita personal welfare one's own good (opp. para*) D III.233; A II.95 sq. -hetu for one's own sake, out of self-consideration Sn 122; Dh 328.

Attaniya (adj.) [from atta] belonging to the soul, having a soul, of the nature of soul, soul-like; usually nt. anything of the nature of soul M I.138 = Kvu 67; M I.297; II.263; S III.78 (yam kho anattaniyam whatever has no soul), 127; IV.54 = Nd2 680 F; S IV.82 = III.33 = Nd2 680 Q 3; S IV.168; V.6; Nd2 680 D. Cp. Dhs trsl. XXXV ff.

Attamana [atta1 + mano, having an up raised mind. Bdhgh's explination. is saka-mano DA I.255 = atta + mano. He applies the same explination. to attamanata (at Dhs 9, see Dhs trsl. 12) = attano manata mentality of one's self] delighted, pleased, enraptured D I.3, 90 (an*); II.14; A III.337, 343; IV.344; Sn 45 = Dh 328 ( = upatthita-satt DhA IV.29); Sn 995; Nd2 24 ( = tuttha-mano hattha-mano etc.); Vv 14; Pug 33 (an*); Miln 18; DA I.52; DhA I.89 (an*-dhatuka displeased); PvA 23, 132; VvA 21 (where Dhpala gives two explinations, either tutthamano or sakamano).

Attamanata (f.) [abstr. to prec.] satisfaction, joy, pleasure, transport of mind M I.114; A I.276; IV.62; Pug 18 (an*); Dhs 9, 86, 418 (an*); PvA 132; VvA 67 (an*).

Attana (adj.) [a + tana] without shelter or protection J I.229; Miln 148, 325; ThA 285.

Attha1 (also attha, esp. in combinations mentioned under 3) (m. and nt.) [Vedic artha from r, arti and rnoti to reach, attain or to proceed (to or from), thus originally result (or cause), profit, attainment. Cp. semantically Fr. chose, Latin causa] 1. interest, advantage, gain; (moral) good, blessing, welfare; profit, prosperity, well-being M I.111 (atthassa ninnetar, of the Buddha, bringer of good); S IV.94 (id.); S I.34 (attano a. one's own welfare), 55 (id.) 86, 102, 126 = A II.46 (atthassa patti); S I.162 (attano ca parassa ca); II.222 (id.); IV.347 (*m bhanjati destroy the good or welfare, always with musavadena by lying, cp. attha-bhanjanaka); A I.61 (*m anubhoti to fare well, to have a (good) result); III.364 (samparayika a. profit in the future life); A V.223 sq. (anattho ca attho ca detriment and profit); It 44 (v. l. atta better); Sn 37, 58 ( = Nd2 26, where the six kinds of advantages are enumerated as att* par* ubhay*, i. e. advantage, resulting for oneself, for others, for both; ditthadhammik* samparayik* param* gain for this life, for a future life, and highest gain of all, i. e. Arahantship); Sn 331 (ko attho supitena what good is it to sleep = na hiQ sakka supantena koci attho papunitum SnA 338; cp. ko attho supinena te Pv II.61); PvA 30 (attham sadheti does good, results in good, 69 (samparayikena atthena). - dat. atthaya for the good, for the benefit of (gen.); to advantage, often combined. with hitaya sukhaya, e. g. D III.211 sq.; It 79. - Kh VIII.1 (to my benefit); Pv I.43 ( = upakaraya PvA 18), II.129 (to great advantage). See also below 6. Sometimes in a more concrete meaning = riches, wealth, e. g. J I.256 ( = vaddhim C.); III.394 (id.); Pv IV.14 ( = dhanam PvA 219). - Often as -*: att*, one's own wellfare, usually combined. with par* and ubhay* (see above) S II.29; V.121; A I.158, 216; III.63 sq.; IV.134; Sn 75 (att-attha, v. l. attha Nd2), 284 (atta-d-attha); uttam* the highest gain, the very best thing Dh 386 ( = arahatta DhA IV.142); Sn 324 ( = arahatta SnA 332); param* id. Nd2 26; sad* one's own weal D II.141; M I.4; S II.29; V.145; A I.144; sattha (adj.) connected with advantage, beneficial, profitable (of the Dhamma; or should we take it as "with the meaning, in spirit"* see sattha) D I.62; S V.352; A II.147; III.152; Nd2 316. - 2. need, want (c. instr.), use (for = instr.) S I.37 (*jata when need has arisen, in need); J I.254; III.126, 281; IV.1; DhA I.398 (n- atthi eteh- attho I have no use for them); VvA 250; PvA 24 (yavadattha, adj. as much as is needed, sufficient = anappaka). - 3. sense, meaning, import (of a word), denotation, signification. In this application attha is always spelt attha in compounds atth-uppatti and attha-katha (see below). On term see also Cpd.4. - S III.93 (attham vibhajati explain the sense); A I.23 (id.), 60 (nit* primary meaning, literal meaning; neyy* secondary or inferred meaning); II.189 (*m acikkhati to interpret); Sn 126 (*m pucchita asked the (correct) sense, the lit. meaning), 251 (*m akkhati); Th 1, 374; attho paramo the highest sense, the ultimate sense or intrinsic meaning It 98, cp. Cpd.6, 81, 223; Miln 28 (paramatthato in the absolute sense); Miln 18 (atthato according to its meaning, opp. vyanjanato by letter, orthographically); DhA II.82; III.175; KhA 81 (pad* meaning of a word); SnA 91 (id.); PvA 15 (*m vadati to explain, interpret), 16, 19 (hitatthadhammata "fitness of the best sense", i. e. practical application), 71. Very frequent in Commentary style at the conclusion of an explained passage as ti attho "this is the meaning", thus it is meant, this is the sense, e. g. DA I.65; DhA IV.140, 141; PvA 33, etc. -4. Contrasted with dhamma in the combination. attho ca dhammo ca it (attha) refers to the (primary, natural) meaning of the word, while dhamma relates to the (interpreted) meaning of the text, to its bearing on the norm and conduct; or one might say they represent the theoretical and practical side of the text (Pali) to be discussed, the "letter" and the "spirit". Thus at A I.69; V.222, 254; Sn 326 ( = bhasitatthan ca Palidhamman ca SnA 333); It 84 (duttho attham na janati dhammam na passati: he realises neither the meaning nor the importance); Dh 363 ( = bhasitatthan c- eva desanadhamman ca); J II.353; VI.368; Nd2 386 (meaning and proper nature); Pv III.96 (but explained. by PvA 211 as hita = benefit, good, thus referring it to above 1). For the same use see compounds *dhamma, *patisambhida, esp. in adv. use (see under 6) Sn 430 (yen- atthena for which purpose), 508 (kena atthena v. l. BB for T attana), J I.411 (attham va karanam va reason and cause); DhA II.95 (+ karana(; PvA 11 (ayan h- ettha attho this is the reason why). - 5. (in very wide application, covering the same ground as Latin res and Fr. chose): (a) matter, affair, thing, often untranslatable and simply to be given as "this" or "that" S II.36 (ekena-padena sabbo attho vutto the whole matter is said with one word); J I.151 (tam attham the matter); II.160 (imam a. this); VI.289 (tam attham pakasento); PvA 6 (tam attham pucchi asked it), 11 (visajjeti explains it), 29 (vuttam attham what had been said), 82 (id.). - (b) affair, cause, case (cp. atta2 and Latin causa) Dh 256, 331; Miln 47 (kassa attham dharesi whose cause do you support, with whom do you agree*). See also alamattha. - 6. Adv. use of oblique cases in the sense of a prep.: (a) dat. atthaya for the

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sake of, in order to, for J I.254 dhan- atthaya for wealth, kim* what for, why*), 279; II.133; III.54; DhA II.82; PvA 55, 75, 78. - (b) acc. attham on account of, in order to, often instead of an infinitive or with another inf. substitute J I.279 (kim*); III.53 (id.); I.253; II.128; Dpvs VI.79; DhA I.397; PvA 32 (dassan* in order to see), 78, 167, etc. - (c) abl. attha J III.518 (pitu attha = atthaya C.). - (d) loc. atthe instead of, for VvA 10; PvA 33; etc. anattha (m. and nt.) 1. unprofitable situation or condition, mischief, harm, misery, misfortune S I.103; II.196 (anatthaya sanvattati); A IV.96 (*m adhipajjati) It 84 (*janano doso ill-will brings discomfort); J I.63, 196; Pug 37; Dhs 1060, 1231; Sdhp 87; DA I.52 (anatthajanano kodho, cp. It 83 and Nd2 420 Q2); DhA II.73; PvA 13, 61, 114, 199. - 2. ( = attha 3) incorrect sense, false meaning, as adj. senseless (and therefore unprofitable, no good, irrelevant) A V.222, 254 (adhammo ca); Dh 100 ( = aniyyanad*ipaka DhA II.208); Sn 126 (explained. at SnA 180 as ahitam). -akkhayin showing what is profitable D III.187. -attha riches J VI.290 ( = atthabhutam attham C.). -antara difference between the (two) meanings Miln 158. At Th 1, 374, Oldenberg's reading, but the v. l. (also C. reading) atthandhara is much better = he who knows the (correct) meaning, esp. as it corresponds with dhamma-dhara (q. v.). -abhisamaya grasp of the proficient S I.87 (see abhisamaya). -uddhara synopsis or abstract of contents ("matter") of the Vinaya Dpvs V.37. -upaparikkha investigation of meaning, (+ dhamma-savanna) M III.175; A III.381 sq.; IV.221; V.126. -uppatti (atth*) sense, meaning, explanation, interpretation J I.89; DA I.242; KhA 216; VvA 197, 203 (cp. Palito) PvA 2, 6, 78; etc. -kama (adj.) (a) well-wishing, a well-wisher, friend, one who is interested in the welfare of others (cp. Sanskrit arthakama, e. g. Bhagavadgita II.5: gurun arthakaman) S I.140, 197, 201 sq.; A III.143; D III.164 (bahuno janassa a., + hitakamo); J I.241; Pv IV.351; Pv A 25; SnA 287 (an*). (b) one who is interested in his own gain or good, either in good or bad sense ( = greedy) S I.44; PvA 112. -katha (attha*) exposition of the sense, explanation, commentary J V.38, 170; PvA 1, 71, etc. frequent in N. of Com. -kara beneficial, useful Vin III.149; Miln 321. -karana the business of trying a case, holding court, giving judgment (v. l. atta*) D II.20; S I.74 (judgment hall*). -kavi a didactic poet (see kavi) A II.230. -kamin = *kama, well-wishing Sn 986 (devata atthakamini). -karana (abl.) for the sake of gain D III.186. -kusala clever in finding out what is good or profitable Sn 143 ( = atthacheka KhA 236). -cara doing good, busy in the interest of others, obliging S I.23 (naranam = "working out man's salvation"). -caraka (adj.) one who devotes himself to being useful to others, doing good, one who renders service to others, e. g. an attendant, messenger, agent etc. D I.107 ( = hitakaraka DA I.276); J II.87; III.326; IV.230; VI.369. -cariya useful conduct or behaviour D III.152, 190, 232; A II.32, 248; IV.219, 364. -nu one who knows what is useful or who knows the (plain or correct) meaning of something (+ dhammannu) D III.252; A III.148; IV.113 sq. -dassin intent upon the (moral) good Sn 385 ( = hita-nupassin SnA 373). -dassimant one who examines a cause (cp. Sanskrit arthadarshika) J VI.286 (but explained. by C. as "sanha-sukhuma-panna" of deep insight, one who has a fine and minute knowledge). -desana interpretation, exegesis Miln 21 (dhamm*). -dhamma "reason and morality", see above n0. 3. *anusasaka one who advises regarding the meaning and application of the Law, a professor of moral philosophy J II.105; DhA II.71. -pada a profitable saying, a word of good sense, text, motto A II.189; III.356; Dh 100. -patisambhida knowledge of the meaning (of words) combined. with dhamma* of the text or spirit (see above n0. 3) Ps I.132; II.150; Vbh 293 sq. -patisanvedin experiencing good D III.241 (+ dhamma*); A I.151; III.21. -baddha expecting some good from (c. loc.) Sn 382. -bhanjanaka breaking the welfare of, hurting DhA III.356 (paresan of others, by means of telling lies, musavadena). -majjha of beautiful waist J V.170 ( = sumajjha C.; reading must be faulty, there is hardly any connection with attha; v. l. atta). -rasa sweetness (or substance, essence) of meaning (+ dhamma*, vimutti*) Nd2 466; Ps II.88, 89. -vasa "dependence on the sense", reasonableness, reason, consequence, cause D II.285; M I.464; II.120; III.150; S II.202; III.93; IV.303; V.224; A I.61, 77, 98; II.240; III.72, 169, 237; Dh 289 ( = karana DhA III.435); It 89; Sn 297; Ud 14. -vasika sensible It 89; Miln 406. -vasin bent on (one's) aim or purpose Th 1, 539. -vadin one who speaks good, i. e. whose words are doing good or who speaks only useful speech, always in combination. with kala* bhuta* dhamma* D I.4; III.175; A I.204; II.22, 209; Pug 58; DA I.76 (explained. as "one who speaks for the sake of reaping blessings here and hereafter"). -sanvannana explanation, exegesis PvA 1. -sanhita connected with good, bringing good, profitable, useful, salutary D I.189; S II.223; IV.330; V.417; A III.196 sq., 244; Sn 722 ( = hitena sanhitam SnA 500); Pug 58. -sandassana determination of meaning, definition Ps I.105. -siddhi profit, advantage, benefit J I.402; PvA 63.

Attha2 (nt.) [Vedic asta, of uncertain etymology] home, primarily as place of rest and shelter, but in Pali phraseology abstracted from the "going home", i. e. setting of the sun, as disappearance, going out of existence, annihilation, extinction. Only in acc. and as *- in foll phrases: atthangacchati to disappear, to go out of existence, to vanish Dh 226 ( = vinasan n'atthibhavam gacchati DhA III.324), 384 ( = parikkhayan gacchati); pp. atthangata gone home, gone to rest, gone, disappeared; of the sun ( = set): J I.175 (atthangate suriye at sunset); PvA 55 (id.) 216 (anatthangate s. before sunset) fig. Sn 472 (atthagata). 475 (id.); 1075 ( = niruddha ucchinna vinattha anupadi-sesaya nibbana-dhatuya nibbuta); It 58; Dhs 1038; Vbh 195. -atthagatatta (nt. abstr.) disappearance SnA 409. -atthangama (atthagama passim) annihilation, disappearance; opposed to samudaya (coming into existence) and synonymous with nirodha (destruction) D I.34, 37, 183; S IV.327; A III.326; Ps II.4, 6, 39; Pug 52; Dhs 165, 265, 501, 579; Vbh 105. -atthagamana (nt.) setting (of the sun) J I.101 (suriyass' atthagamana at sunset) DA I.95 ( = ogamana). - attha-gamin, in phrase uday- atthagamin leading to birth and death (of panna): see udaya. -attham paleti = atthangacchati (fig.) Sn 1074 ( = atthangameti nirujjhati Nd2 28). - Also atthamita (pp. of i) set (of the sun) in phrase anatthamite suriye before sunset (with anatthangamite as v. l. at both pass.) DhA I.86; III.127. - Cp. also abbhattha.

Attha3 pres. 2nd pl. of atthi (q. v.).

Atthata [pp. of attharati] spread, covered, spread over with (-*) Vin I.265; IV.287; V.172 (also *an); A III.50; PvA 141.

Atthatta (nt.) [abstr. from attha1] reason, cause; only in abl. atthatta according to the sense, by reason of, on account of PvA 189 (-*).

Atthara [from attharati] a rug (for horses, elephants etc.) D I.7.

Attharaka [ = atthara] a covering J I.9; DA I.87. - f. *ika a layer J I.9; V.280.

Attharana (nt.) [from attharati] a covering, carpet, cover, rug Vin II.291; A II.56; III.53; Mhvs 3, 20; 15, 40; 25, 102; ThA 22.

Attharati [a + str] to spread, to cover, to spread out; stretch, lay out Vin I.254; V.172; J I.199; V.113; VI.428; Dh I.272. -pp. atthata (q. v.). - Causative attharapeti to caused to be spread J V.110; Mhvs 3, 20; 29, 7; 34, 69.

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Atthavant (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit arthavant] full of benefit S I.30; Th 1, 740; Miln 172.

Atthara [cp. Sanskrit astara, from attharati] spreading out Vin V.172 (see kathina). attharaka same ibid.; Vin II.87 (covering).

Atthi [Sanskrit asti, 1st sg. asmi; Gr. ei)mi/-e)sti/; Latin sum-est; Goth. im-ist; Ags. eom-is E. am-is] to be, to exist. Pres. Ind. 1st sg. asmi Sn 1120, 1143; J I.151; III.55, and amhi M I.429; Sn 694; J II.153; Pv I.102; II.82. 2nd sg. asi Sn 420; J II.160 (-si); III.278; Vv 324; PvA 4. - 3rd sg. atthi Sn 377, 672, 884; J I.278. Often used for 3rd pl. ( = santi), e. g. J I.280; II.2; III.55. - 1st pl. asma [Sanskrit sma*] Sn 594, 595; asmase Sn 595, and amha Sn 570; J II.128. 2nd pl. attha J II.128; PvA 39, 74 (agat- attha you have come). 3rd pl. santi Sn 1077; Nd2 637 ( = sanvijjanti atthi upalabbhanti); J II.353; PvA 7, 22 - Imper. atthu Sn 340; J I.59; III.26. - Pot. 1st sg. siya [Sanskrit syam] Pv II.88, and assan [Cond. used as Pot.] Sn 1120; Pv I.125 ( = bhaveyyam PvA 64). - 2nd sg. siya [Sanskrit sya*] Pv II.87. - 3rd sg. siya [Sanskrit syat] D II.154; Sn 325, 1092; Nd2 105 ( = janeyya, nibbatteyya); J I.262; PvA 13, and assa D I.135, 196; II.154; A V.194; Sn 49, 143; Dh 124, 260; Pv II.324; 924. - 1st pl. assu PvA 27. 3rd pl. assu [cp. Sanskrit syu*] Sn 532; Dh 74; Pv IV.136 ( = bhaveyyum PvA 231). - Aor. 1st sg. asim [Sanskrit asan] Sn 284; Pv I.21 ( = ahosim PvA 10); II.34 ( = ahosim PvA 83). - 3rd sg. asi [Sanskrit asit] Sn 994. - 3rd asum [cp. Sanskrit Perf. asu*] Pv II.321, 133 (ti pi patho for su). Ppr. *sat only in loc. sati (as loc. abs.) Dh 146; J I.150, 263, santa Sn 105; Nd2 635; J I.150 (loc. evam sante in this case); III.26, and samana (q. v.) J I.266; IV.138. -bhava state of being, existence, being J I.222, 290; II.415; DhA II.5; IV.217 (atthibhava va n'atthibhava va whether there is or not).

Atthika (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit arthika] 1. (to attha1) profitable, good, proper. In this meaning the MSS show a variance of spelling either atthika or atthika or atthita; in all cases atthika should be preferred D I.55 (*vada); M II.212 (atthita); A III.219 sq. (idan atthikam this is suitable, of good avail; T atthitam, vv. ll. as above); Sn 1058 (atthita; Nd2 20 also atthita, which at this pass. shows a confusion between attha and a-thita); J V.151 (in def. of atthikatva q. v.); Pug 69, 70 (T atthika, atthita SS; explained. by Pug A V.4 by kalyanaya). - 2. (to attha1 2) desirous of (-*), wanting, seeking for, in need of (c. instr.) A II.199 (uday* desirous of increase); Sn 333, 460, 487 (punn*), 987 (dhan* greedy for wealth); J I.263 (rajj* coveting a kingdom); V.19; Pv II.228 (bhojan* in need of food); IV.11 (karan*), 121 (khidd* for play), 163 (punn*); PvA 95 (sasena a. wanting a rabbit), 120; DA I.70 (atthika those who like to). -an'atthika one who does not care for, or is not satisfied with (c. instr.) J V.460; PvA 20; of no good Th 1, 956 ("of little zeal" Mrs. Rh. D.). -bhava (a) usefulness, profitableness Pug A V.4. (b) state of need, distress PvA 120.

Atthikavant (adj.) [atthika + vant] one who wants something, one who is on a certain errand D I.90 (atthikam assa atthi ti DA I.255).

Atthita (f.) [f. abstr. from atthi cp. atthibhava] state of being, existence, being, reality M I.486; S II.17 (*an c* eva n'atthitan ca to be and not to be); III.135; J V.110 (kassaci atthitam va n'atthitam va janahi see if there is anybody or not); DhsA 394. - Often in abl. atthitaya by reason of, on account of, this being so DhA III.344 (idamatthitaya under this condition) PvA 94, 97, 143.

Atthin (adj.) (-*) [Vedic arthin] desirous, wanting anything; see mant*, vad*.

Atthiya (adj.) (-*) [ = atthika] having a purpose or end S III.189 (kim* for what purpose*); A V.1 sq. (id.), 311 sq.; Th 1, 1097 (att* having one's purpose in oneself), 1274; Sn 354 (yad atthiyam on account of what).

Atra (adv.) [Sanskrit atra] here; atra atra here and there J I.414 = IV.5 (in explination. of atriccha).

Atraja (adj.) [Sanskrit *atma-ja, corrupted form for attaja (see atta) through analogy with Sanskrit atra "here". This form occurs only in J and similar sources, i. e. popular lore] born from oneself, one's own, applied to sons, of which there are 4 kinds enumerated, viz. atraja khettaja, dinnaka, antevasika p. Nd2 448. - J I.135; III.103 = Nd1 504; J III.181; V.465; VI.20; Mhvs 4, 12; 13, 4; 36, 57.

Atriccha (adj.) [the popular etymology suggested at JA IV.4 is atra atra icchamana desiring here and there; but see atriccha] very covetous, greedy, wanting too much J I.414 = IV.4; III.206.

Atriccha (f.) [Sanskrit *atrptya, a + trpt + ya, influenced by Desid. titrpsati, so that atriccha phonetically rather corresponds to a form *a.-trpsya (cch = psy, cp. Pali chata Sanskrit psata). For the simple Sanskrit trpti see titti (from tappati2). According to Kern, but phonetically hardly justifiable it is Sanskrit aticcha = ati + iccha "too much desire", with r in dissolution of geminated tt, like atraja for attaja. See also atriccha adj. and cp. J.Pali Text Society 1884, 69] great desire, greed, excessive longing, insatiability J IV.5, 327.

Atricchata (f.) [see atriccha] excessive lust J. III.222.

Atha (indecl.) [Sanskrit atha, cp. atho] copulative and adversative part. 1. after positive clauses, in enumerations, in the beginning and continuation of a story: and, and also, or; and then, now D II.2; III.152, 199 (atha-param etad avoca); M I.435; Sn 1006, 1007, 1017; Sn p. 126 (atha-param etad avoca: and further, something else); Dh 69, 119, 377; J II.158; Pv II.64; PvA 3, 8 (atha na and not), 70. - 2. after negative clauses: but M I.430; Sn 990, 1047; Dh 85, 136, 387; PvA 68. Often combined. with other part., e. g. atha kho (pos. and negative) now, and then; but, rather, moreover Vin I.1; D I.141, 167, 174; A V.195; PvA 79, 221, 251. na-atha kho na neither-nor PvA 28. atha kho pana and yet D I.139. atha ca pana on the other hand J I.279. atha va or (after prec. ca), nor (after prec. na) Sn 134; Dh 140, 271; Pv I.41; II.14. atha va pi Sn 917, 921.

Athabbana [Vedic atharvan; as regards etymology see Walde, Latin Wtb. under ater] (1) the Atharva Veda DA I.247 = SnA 447 (*veda). - (2) one who is familiar with the (magic formulas of the) Atharvaveda J VI.490 (sa-thabbana = sahatthivejja, with the elephant-healer or doctor). See also athabbana.

Atho (indecl.) [Sanskrit atho, atha + u] copulative and adversative part.: and, also, and further, likewise, nay S I.106; Sn 43, 155, 647; Dh 151, 234, 423; J I.83; II.185; IV.495; It 106; Kh VIII.7; Pv IV.315; PvA 251 (atho ti nipatamattam avadharan-atthe va). Also combined. with other part., like atho pi Sn 222, 537, 985; Pv II.320; KhA 166.

Ada (adj.) (-*) [to ad, see adeti, cp. *ga, *tha, *da etc.] eating S IV.195 (kittha-da eating corn); J II.439 (vanta-da = vantakhadaka C.).

Adaka (adj.) = ada J V.91 (purisa-daka man-eater).

Adana (nt.) [from adeti] eating, food J V.374 (v.l. modana).

Adasaka (adj.) see dasa.

Adasa [prob. = adamsa, from dasati to bite, cp. datha tooth; lit meaning "toothless" or "not biting"] a kind of bird J IV.466.

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Adittha [a + dittha, ger. of *dassati] not seeing, without seeing J IV.192 (T. adattha, v. l. BB na dittha, C. adisva); V.219.

Adinna (pp.) [a + dinna] that which is not given, frequent in phrase adinn' adana (BSanskrit adattadana Divy 302) seizing or grasping that which is not given to one, i. e. stealing, is the 2nd of the ten qualifications of bad character or sila (dasa-sila see sila II.). Vin I.83 (*a veramani); D I.4 ( = parassa haranam theyyam corika ti vuttam hoti DA I.71); III.68 sq., 82, 92, 181 sq.; M I.361; It 63; Kh II., cp. KhA 26. - adinnadayin he who takes what is not given, a thief; stealing, thieving (cp. BSK. adattadayika Divy 301, 418) Vin I.85; D I.138; Sdhp 78.

Adu (or adu) (indecl.) [perhaps identical with adum, nt. of pronoun. asu] part. of affirmation: even, yea, nay; always in emphatic exclamations Vv 622 ( = udahu VvA 258; v. l. SS. adu) = Pv IV.317 (adu) = DhA I.31 (T. adu, v. l. adu); Vv 631 (v. l. adu); J V.330 (T. adu, C. adu; explained. on p. 331 fantastically as adun ca adun ca kammam karohi ti). See also adu.

Adum nt. of pronoun. asu.

Adusaka (adj.) [a + dusaka] innocent J V.143 ( = nirapa radha C.); VI.84, 552. f. adusika Sn 312.

Adusiya = adusaka J V.220 ( = anaparadha C.).

Adeti [Sanskrit adayati, Causative of atti, ad to eat, 1st sg. admi = Gr. e)/dw, Latin edo; Goth. itan = Ohg. ezzan = E. eat] to eat. Pres. ind. ademi etc. J V.31, 92, 197, 496; VI.106. pot. adeyya J V.107, 392, 493.

Adda1 [cp. Sanskrit ardraka] ginger J I.244 (*singivera).

Adda2 and Adda 3rd sg. aor. of *dassati; see *dassati 2. a.

Adda3 (adj.) [Sanskrit ardra, from rdati or ardati to melt, cp. Gr. a)/rdw to moisten, a)\rda dirt; see also alla] wet, moist, slippery J IV.353; VI.309; Miln 346. -a-valepana "smeared with moisture", i. e. shiny, glittering S IV.187 (kutagara); M I.86 = Nd2 1996 (upakariyo). See also addha2. The reading alla-valepana occurs at Nd2 40 ( = S iv. 187), and is perhaps to be preferred. The meaning is better to be given as "newly plastereotyped."

Addakkhi 3rd sg. aor. of *dassati; see *dassati 1 b.

Addasa 3rd sg. aor. of *dassati; see *dassati 2 a.

Adda and Addayana at Vbh 371 in def. of anadariya is either faulty writing, or dial. form or pop. etymology for ada and adayana; see adariya.

Addayate [v. denom. from adda] to be or get wet, fig. to be attached to J IV.351. See also alliyati.

Addi [Sanskrit ardri] a mountain Davs II.13.

Addita (pp.) [see attita which is the more correct spelling] afflicted, smarted, oppressed J I.21; II.407; III.261; IV.295; V.53, 268; Th 1, 406; Mhvs 1, 25; PvA 260; Sdhp 37, 281.

Addha1 (num.) [ = addha, q. v.] one half, half (*-) D I.166 (*masika); A II.160 (*masa); J I.59 (*yojana); III. 189 (*masa).

Addha2 (adj.) [ = adda3, Sanskrit ardra] soiled, wet; fig. attached to, intoxicated with (cp. sineha) M II.223 (na anaddhabhutam attanam dukkhena addhabhaveti he dirties the impure self with ill); S III.1 (addhabhuto kayo impure body); J VI.548 (*nakha with dirty nails, C. putinakha).

Addhan (in compounds addha*) [Vedic adhvan, orig. meaning "stretch, length", both of space and time. - Cases: nom. addha, gen. dat. addhuno, instr. addhuna, acc. addhanam, loc. addhani; pl. addha. See also addhana] 1. (of space) a path, road, also journey (see compounds and derivations); only in one stereotype phrase J IV.384 = V.137 (pathaddhuno pannarase va cando, gen. for loc. *addhani, on his course, in his orbit; explained. at IV.384 by akasa-patha-sankhatassa addhuno majjhe thito and at V.137 by pathaddhagato addha-pathe gaganamajjhe thito); Pv III.31 (pathaddhani pannarase va cando; loc. same meaning as prec., explained. at PvA 188 by attano pathabhute addhani gaganatala-magge). This phrase (pathaddhan) however is explained. by Kern (Toev. s. v. pathaddu) as "gone half-way", i. e. on full-moon-day. He rejects the explination. of C. - 2. (of time) a stretch of time, an interval of time, a period, also a lifetime (see compounds); only in two standard applications viz. (a) as mode of time (past, present and future) in tayo addha three divisions of time (atita, anagata, paccuppanna) D III.216; It 53, 70. (b) in phrase digham addhanam (acc.) a very long time A II.1, 10 (digham addhanam sansaram); Sn 740 (digham addhana sansara); Dh 207 (digham addhana socati); J I.137. gen. dighassa addhuno PvA 148 (gatatta because a long time has elapsed), instr. dighena addhuna S I.78; A II.118; PvA 28. -ayu duration of life A II.66 (digham *m a long lifetime. -gata one who has gone the road or traversed the space or span of life, an old man [cp. BSanskrit adhvagata M Vastu II.150], always combined. with vayo anuppatto, sometimes in stereotype formula with jinna and mahallaka Vin II.188; D I.48 (cp. DA I.143); M I.82; Sn pp. 50, 92; PvA 149. -gu [Vedic adhvaga] a wayfarer, traveller, journeyman Th 255 = S I.212 (but the latter has panthagu, v. l. addhagu); J III.95 (v. l. patthagu = panthagu); Dh 302.

Addha (adv.) [Vedic addha, cp. Av. azda certainty] part. of affirmation and emphasis: certainly, for sure, really, truly D I.143; J I.19 (a. aham Buddho bhavissami) 66 (a. tvam Buddho bhavissasi), 203, 279; III.340; V.307, 410 (C. explination. differs) Sn 47, 1057; Nd2 30 = Ps II.21 (ekamsa-vacanam nissansaya-vacanam etc.) addha hi J IV. 399; Pv IV.15 2.

Addhaneyya (adj.) = adhaniya 2, lasting J V.507 (an*).

Addhaniya (adj.) [from addhan] 1. belonging to the road, fit for travelling (of the travelling season) Th 1, 529. 2. belonging to a (long) time, lasting a long period, lasting, enduring D III.211; J I.393 (an*) VI.71. See also addhaneyya.

Addhariya [Vedic adhvaryu from adhvara sacrifice] a sacrificing priest, N. of a class of Brahmins D I.237 (brahmana).

Addhana (nt.) [orig. the acc. of addhan, taken as nt. from phrase digham addhanam. It occurs only in acc. which may always be taken as acc. of addhan; thus the assumption of a special form addhana would be superfluous, were it not for later forms like addhane (loc.) Miln 126; PvA 75 v. l. BB, and for compounds] same meaning as addhan, but as simplex only used with reference to time (i. e. a long time, cp. VvA 117 addhanam = ciram). Usually in phrase atitam (anagatam etc.) addhanam in the past (future etc.), e. g. D I.200; S I.140; A V.32; Miln 126 (anagatamaddhane for *am); PvA 75 (v. l. addhane). digham addhanam Pv I.105. Also in phrase addhanam apadeti to make out the length of time or period, i. e. to live out one's lifetime S IV.110; J II.293 ( = jivitaddhanam apadi ayum vindi C). -daratha exhaustion from travelling DA I.287. -magga a (proper) road for journeying, a long road between two towns, high road D I.1, 73, 79; M I.276 (kantar*); DA I.35 (interpreted as "addhayojanam gacchissami ti bhunjitabban ti adi vacanato addha-yojanam pi addhana maggo hoti", thus taken to addha "half", from counting by 1/2 miles); VvA 40, 292. Cp. also antaramagga. -parissama "fatigue of the road", i. e. fatigue from travelling VvA 305. -vemattata difference of time or period Miln 285 (+ ayuvemattata).

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Addhika [from addhan] a wanderer, wayfarer, traveller DA I.298 ( = pathavin), 270; PvA 78, 127 (*jana people travelling). Often combined. with kapana beggar, tramp, as kapanaddhika (pl.) tramps and travellers (in which connection also as *iddhika, q. v.), e. g. J I.6 (v. l. *iddhika 262; DhA II.26.

Addhita at Pv II.62 is to be corrected to attita (sic v. l. BB).

Addhin (adj.) (-*) [from addhan] belonging to the road or travelling, one who is on the road, a traveller, in gataddhin one who has performed his journey ( = addhagata) Dh 90.

Addhuva see dhuva.

Adrubhaka see dubbha.

Advejjhata see dvejjhata.

Adha* in compounds like adhagga see under adho.

Adhamma see dhamma.

Adhama (adj.) [Vedic adhama = Latin infimus, superl. of adho, q. v.] the lowest (lit. and fig.), the vilest, worst Sn 246 (nara-dhama), 135 (vasala-dhama); Dh 78 (purisa*); J III.151 (miga*); V.394 (uttama-dhama), 437 (id.), 397; Sdhp 387.

Adhara (adj.) [Vedic adhara, compar. of adho] the lower J III.26 (adharottha the l. lip).

Adhi [Vedic adhi; base of demonstr. pronoun. a* + suffix-dhi, corresponding in form to Gr. e)/n-qa "on this" = here, cp. o(/qi where, in meaning equal to adv. of direction Gr. de/ (toward) = Ohg. zuo, E. to]. A. Prep. and prefix of direction and place: (a) as direction denoting a movement towards a definite end or goal = up to, over, toward, to, on (see C 1 a). - (b) as place where (prep. c. loc. or abs.) = on top of, above, over, in; in addition to. Often simply deictic "here" (e. g.) ajjhatta = adhi + atman "this self here" (see C 1 b). B. adhi is frequent as modification prefix, i. e. in loose compounds. with n. or v. and as first part of a double prefix cpd. , like ajjha* (adhi + a), adhippa* (adhi + pra), but never occurs as a fixed base, i. e. as 2nd part of a prefix cpd., like a in pacca* (prati + a), parya*(pari + a) or ava in paryava* (pari + ava) or ud in abhyud* (abhi + ud), samud* (sam + ud). As such (i. e. modification) it is usually intensifying, meaning "over above, in addition, quite, par excellence, super"-(adhideva a super-god, cp. ati-deva), but very often has lost this power and become meaningless (like E. up in "shut up, fill up, join up etc), esp. in double prefix-compounds (ajjhavasati "to dwell here-in" = avasati "to dwell in, to inhabit") (see C 2). - In the explinations of Pali Commentators adhi is often (sometimes far-fetchedly) interpreted by abhibhu "overpowering" see e. g. C. on adhitthati and adhitthita; and by virtue of this intens. meaning we find a close relationship between the prefixes ati, adhi and abhi, all interchanging dialectically so that Pali adhi often represents Sanskrit ati or abhi; thus adhi > ati in adhikusala, *kodhita, *jeguccha, *Brahma; adhi > abhi in adhippatthita, *patcti, *ppaya, *ppeta, *badheti, *bhu, *vaha. Cp. also ati IV. C. The main applications of adhi are the following: 1. primary meaning (in verbs and verb derivations): either direction in which or place where, depending on the meaning of the verb determinate, either lit. or fig. - (a) where to: adhiyita (adhi + ita) "gone on to or into" = studied; ajjhesita (adhi + esita) "wished for"; *kata "put to" i. e. commissioned; *kara commission; *gacchati "to go on to and reach it" = obtain; *gama attainment; *ganhati to overtake = surpass, *peta (adhi + pra + ita) "gone in to" = meant, understood; *paya sense meaning, intention; *bhasati to speak to = address; *mutta intent upon; *vacana "saying in addition" = attribute, metaphor, cp. Fr. sur-nom; *vasana assent, *vaseti to dwell in, give in = consent. - (b) where: *titthati (*tthati) to stand by = look after, perform; *tthana place where; *vasati to inhabit; *sayana "lying in", inhabiting. - 2. secondary meaning (as emphatic modification): (a) with nouns or adjectives: adhi-jeguccha very detestable; *matta "in an extreme measure", *pa supreme lord; *pacca lordship; *panna higher, additional wisdom; *vara the very best; *sila thorough character or morality. - (b) with verbs (in double prefix-compounds); adhi + ava: ajjhogaheti plunge into; ajjhothapeti to bring down to (its destination); *otthata covered completely; *oharati to swallow right down. adhi + a: ajjhappatta having reached (the end); ajjhapi'ita quite overwhelmed; *avuttha inhabited; *aruhati grown up over; *asaya desire, wish (cp. Ger. n. Anliegen and v. daranliegen). adhi + upa: ajjhupagacchati to reach, obtain; *upeti to receive; *upekkhati "to look all along over" = to superintend adhi + pra: adhippattheti to long for, to desire. Note. The contracted (assimilation-)form of adhi before vowels is ajjh- (q. v.).

Adhika (adj.) [from adhi; cp. Sanskrit adhika] exceeding, extraordinary, superior, Pug 35; VvA 80 ( = anadhivara, visittha); DA I.141, 222; Dpvs V.32 (an*); DhA III.238; KhA 193 ( = anuttara); Sdhp 337, 447. - compar. adhikatara DhA II.7; III.176; nt. *m as adv. extraordinarily PvA 86 ( = adhimattam). In combination. with numerals adhika has the meaning of "in addition, with an additional, plus" (cp. adi + adika, with which it is evidently confounded, adhika being constructed in the same way as adika, i. e. preceding the noun-determination), e. g. catunahuta-dhikani dve yojana-sahassani 2000 + 94 ( = 294 000) J I.25; sattamasa-dhikani sattavassani 7 years and 7 months J V.319; pannasa-dhikani panca vassa-satani 500 + 50 ( = 550) PvA 152. See also sa-dhika.

Adhikata (adj.) [adhi + kata; cp. Sanskrit adhikrta] 1. commissioned with, an overseer, Pv II.927 (dane adhikata = thapita PvA 124). - 2. caused by Miln 67 (kamma*). 3. affected by something, i. e. confused, puzzled, in doubt Miln 144 (+ vimatijata).

Adhikarana (nt.) [adhi + karana] 1. attendance, supervision, management of affairs, administration PvA 209. 2. relation, reference, reason, cause, consequence D II.59 (-*: in consequence of); S II.41; V.19. Esp. acc. *m as adv. (-*) in consequence of, for the sake of, because of, from M I.410 (rupa-dhikaranam); S IV.339 (raga*); Miln 281 (mudda* for the sake of the royal seal, orig. in attendance on the r. s.). Kima-dhikaranam why, on account of what J IV.4 ( = kimkaranam) yatva-dhikaranam (yato + adhi*) by reason of what, since, because (used as conj.) D I.70 = A I.113 = II.16 = D III.225. - 3. case, question, cause, subject of discussion, dispute. There are 4 sorts of a. enumerated at var. passages, viz. vivada* anuvada* apatta* kicca* "questions of dispute, of censure, of misconduct, of duties" Vin II.88; III.164; IV.126, 238; M II.247. Often reference: Vin II.74; S IV.63 = V.346 (dhamma* a question of the Dh.); A I.53 (case), 79; II.239 (vupasanta); V.71, 72; Pug 20, 55; DhA IV.2 (*ssa uppamassa vupasama), adhikaranam karoti to raise a dispute M I.122 *m vupasameti to settle a question or difficulty Vin II.261. -karaka one who causes dispute discussions or dissent Vin IV.230 (f. *ika); A III.252. -samatha the settlings of questions that have arisen. There are seven rules for settling cases enumerated at D III.254; M II.247; A I.99; IV.144.

Adhikaranika [from adhikarana] one who has to do with the settling of disputes or questions, a judge A V.164, 167.

Adhikarani (f.) [to adhikarana 1, orig. meaning "serving, that which serves, i. e. instrument"] a smith's anvil J III.285; Davs III.16 sq.; DhsA 263.

Adhikara [cp. Sanskrit adhikara] attendance, service, administration, supervision, management, help Vin I.55; J I.56;

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VI.251; Miln 60, 115, 165; PvA 124 (dana*; cp. Pv II.927); DhA II.41.

Adhikarika (adj.) (-*) [to adhikara] serving as, referring to Vin III.274 (Bdhgh).

Adhikuttana (f.) [adhi + kottana or kottana] an executioner's block Th 2, 58; cp. ThA 65 (v. l. kuddana, should prob. be read kottana); ThA 287.

Adhikusala (adj.) [adhi + kusala] in *a dhamma "items of higher righteousness" D III.145.

Adhikodhita (adj.) [adhi + kodhita] very angry J V.117.

Adhigacchati [adhi + gacchati] to get to, to come into possession of, to acquire, attain, find; fig. to understand D I.229 (vivesan) M I.140 (anvesan n- a-dhigacchanti do not find); S I.22 (Nibbanam); II.278 (id.); A I.162 (id.); Dh 187, 365; It 82 (santim); Th 2, 51; Pug 30, 31; Pv I.74 (nibbutim = labhati PvA 37); III.710 (amatam padam). opt. adhigaccheyya D I.224 (kusalam dhammam); M I.114 (madhu-pindikam); Dh 61 and adhigacche Dh 368. ger. *gantva D I.224; J I.45 (anisanse); and *gamma Pv I.119 ( = vinditva patilabhitva PvA 60). grd. *gantabba It 104 (nibbana). cond. *gacchissan Sn 446. 1st aor. 3 sg. ajjhaga Sn 225 ( = vindi patilabhi KhA 180); Dh 154; Vv 327; 3 pl. ajjhagu J I.256 (vyasanam) and ajjhagamum S I.12. 2nd aor. 3 sg. adhigacchi Nd1 457. pp. adhigata (q. v.).

Adhiganhati [adhi + ganhati] to surpass, excel S I.87 = DA I.32; D III.146; S IV.275; A III.33; It 19. Ger. adhigayha Pv II.962 = DhA III.219 (v. l. BB at both pass. atikkamma); and adhiggahetva It 20. -pp. adhiggahita (q. v.).

Adhigata [pp. of adhigacchati] got into possession of, conquered, attained, found J I.374; VvA 135.

Adhigatavant (adj.-n.) [from adhigata] one who has found or obtained VvA 296 (Nibbanam).

Adhigama [from adhigacchati] attainment, acquisition; also fig. knowledge, information, study (the latter mainly in Miln) D III.255; S II.139; A II.148; IV.22, 332; V.194; J I.406; Nett 91; Miln 133, 215, 358, 362, 388; PvA 207.

Adhigameti [adhi + gameti, Causative of gacchati] to make obtain, to procure PvA 30.

Adhiggahita [pp. of adhiganhati] excelled, surpassed; overpowered, taken by (instr.), possessed J III.427 ( = anuggahita C.); V.102; VI.525 = 574; It 103; Miln 188, 189; Sdhp 98.

Adhicinna only at S III.12, where v. l. is avicinna, which is to be preferred. See vicinna.

Adhicitta (nt.) [adhi + citta] "higher thought", meditation, contemplation, nsually in combination. with adhisila and adhipanna Vin I.70; D III.219; M I.451; A I.254, 256; Nd1 39 = Nd2 689 (*sikkha); Dh 185 ( = attha-samapattisankhata adhika-citta DhA III.238).

Adhiceto (adj.) [adhi + ceto] lofty-minded, entranced Th 1, 68 = Ud 43 = Vin IV.54 = DhA III.384.

Adhicca1 [ger. of adhi + eti, see adhiyati] learning, studying, learning by heart J III.218, 327 = IV.301; IV.184 (vede = adhiyitva C.), 477 (sajjhayitva C.); VI.213; Miln 164.

Adhicca2 (*-) [Sanskrit *adhrtya, a + *dhicca, ger. of dhr, cp. dhara, dharana 3, dhareti 4] unsupported, uncaused, fortuitous, without cause or reason; in following phrases: *apattika guilty without intention M I.443; *uppatti spontaneous origin DhsA 238; *laddha obtained without being asked for, unexpectedly Vv 8422 = J V.171 = VI.315 (explained. at J V.171 by ahetuna, at VI.316 by aka ranena) *samuppanna arisen without a cause, spontaneous, unconditioned D I.28 = Ud 69; D III.33, 138; S II.22-23 (sukhadukkham); A III.440 (id.); Ps I.155; DA I.118 ( = akarana*).

Adhicca3 (adj.) [ = adhicca 2 in adj. function, influenced by, homonym abhabba] without a cause (for assumption), unreasonable, unlikely S V.457.

Adhijeguccha (nt.) [adhi + jeguccha] intense scrupulous regard (for others) D I.174, 176.

Adhitthaka (adj.) (-*) [from adhitthati] bent on, given to, addicted to J V.427 (sura*).

Adhitthati (adhitthahati) [Sanskrit adhitis.thati, adhi + stha] 1. to stand on J III.278 (ger. *aya); DhA IV.183 (ger. *hitva); fig. to insist on Th 1, 1131 (aor. *ahi). - 2. to concentrate or fix one's attention on (c. acc.), to direct one's thoughts to, to make up one's mind, to wish Vin I.115 (inf. *thatum), 297 (id.), 125 (grd. *thatabba) J I.80 (aor. *ahi); III.278; IV.134 (v. l. ati* C. expls. abhibhavitva titthati); DhA I.34; IV.201 (ger. *hitva); PvA 23 (aor. *thasi) 171 (id.), 75 (ger. *hitva). On adhittheyya see Cpd.209, n. 2; 219, n. 1. - 3. to undertake, practice, perform, look after, to celebrate S II.17; A I.115 sq.; J I.50; PvA 209 (ger. *thaya). -pp. adhitthita (q. v.).

Adhitthana (nt.) [from adhi + stha] 1. decision, resolution, self-determination, will (cp. on this meaning Cpd.62) D III.229 (where 4 are enumerated, viz. panna*, sacca* caga* upasama*); J I.23; V.174; Ps I.108; II.171 sq., 207; DhsA 166 (cp. Dhs. trsl. 44). - 2. mentioned in bad sense with abhinivesa and anusaya, obstinacy, prejudice and bias M I.136; III.31, 240; S II.17; III.10, 135, 194. - As adj. (-*) applying oneself to, bent on A III.363. - 3. looking after, management, direction, power Miln 309 (devanam); PvA 141 (so read for adhitatthana). [aditthana as PvA 89, used as explanatory for avasa, should perhaps be read adhitthana in the sense of fixed, permanent, abode].

Adhitthayaka (adj.) (-*) superintending, watching, looking after, in kamma* Mhvs 5, 175; 30, 98; kammanta* DhA I.393.

Adhitthita (adj.) [pp. of adhitthati] 1. standing on (c. loc.), esp. with the idea of standing above, towering over Vv 6330 (hemarathe a. = sakalam thanam abhibhavitva thita VvA 269). - (a) looked after, managed, undertaken, governed Vin I.57; S V.278 (sv-a-dhitthita); PvA 141 (kammanta). - (b) undertaking, bent on (c. acc.) Sn 820 (ekacariyam).

Adhideva [adhi + deva] a superior or supreme god, above the gods M II.132; A IV.304; Sn 1148; Nd2 307b, 422 a. Cp. atideva.

Adhipa [Sanskrit adhipa, abbrev. of adhipati] ruler, lord, mastereotypeJ II.369; III.324; V.393; Pv II.86 (jan* king); Davs III.52; VvA 314.

Adhipaka (adj.) (-*) [from prec.] mastereotypeng, ruling or governed, influenced by (cp. adhipati) A I.150 (atta* loka* dhamma*).

Adhipajjati [adhi + pajjati] to come to, reach, attain A IV.96 (anattham); pp. adhipanna.

Adhipanna (f.) [adhi + panna] higher wisdom or knowledge, insight (cp. jhana and panna); usually in combination. with adhicitta and adhisila Vin I.70; D I.174; III.219 (*sikkha); A I.240; II.92 sq., 239; III.106 sq., 327; IV.360; Nd1 39 (id.); Ps I.20, 25 sq., 45 sq., 169; II.11, 244; Pug 61.

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Adhipatati [adhi + patati] to fly past, vanish J IV.111 ( = ativiya patati sigham atikkamati C.). - Causative adhipateti (q. v.) in different meaning. Cp. also adhipata.

Adhipatana (nt.) [from adhipatati] attack, pressing ThA 271.

Adhipati (n.-adj.) [adhi + pati, cp. adhipa] 1. ruler, mastereotypeJ IV.223; Vv 811; Miln 388; DhA I.36 ( = settha). 2. ruling over, governing, predominant; ruled or governed by Vbh 216 sq. (chandam adhipatim katva making energy predominant); DhsA 125, 126 (atta* autonomous, loka* heteronomous, influenced by society). See also Dhs. trsl. 20 and Cpd.60.

Adhipateyya (nt.) A I.147; III 33 = S IV.275 is probably misreading for adhipateyya.

Adhipatthita [pp. adhi + pattheti, cp. Sanskrit abhi + arthayati] desired, wished, begged for D I.120.

Adhipanna [cp. Sanskrit abhipanna, adhi + pad] gone into, affected with, seized by (-*), a victim of (c. loc.) S I.72, Th 2, 345 (kamesu); Sn 1123 (tanha* = tanha-nugata Nd2 32); Dh 288; J III.38, 369; IV.396; V.91, 379 ( = dosena ajjhotthata); VI.27.

Adhipatimokkha (nt.) [adhi + patimokkha] the higher, moral, code Vin V.1 (patim* +); M II.245 (+ ajjhajiva).

Adhipata1 [adhipateti] splitting, breaking, only in phrase muddha* head-splitting Sn 988 sq., 1004, 1025 (v. l. Nd2 *vipata).

Adhipata2 [from adhipatati = Sanskrit atipatati, to fly past, flit] a moth Sn 964. Expld. at Nd1 484 as "adhipatika ti ta uppatitva khadanti tamkarana a. vuccanti"; Ud 72 (explained. by C. as salabha).

Adhipatika (f.) [from adhipata2] a moth, a mosquito Nd1 484 (see adhipata2).

Adhipateti [Causative from adhipatati, cp. Sanskrit abhipatayati and Pali atipateti] to break, split J IV.337 ( = chindati). At Ud 8 prob. to be read adhibadheti (v. l. avibadeti. T. adhipateti).

Adhippagharati [adhi + ppa + gharati] to flow, to trickle ThA 284.

Adhippaga 3 sg. aor. of adhippagacchati to go to J V.59.

Adhippaya [adhi + ppa + i; Sanskrit abhipraya] 1. intention, wish desire S I.124; V.108; A II.81; III.363 (bhoga*); V.65; J I.79, 83; Sdhp 62. As adj. (-*) desiring PvA 226 (hass* in play = khiddatthika). - 2. sense, meaning, conclusion, inference (cp. adhigama) Miln 148; PvA 8, 16, 48, 131 (the moral of a story). -adhippayena (instr.) in the way of, like PvA 215 (ki' for fun).

Adhippayosa [adhi + payosa] distinction, difference, peculiarity, special meaning M I 46; S III.66; IV.208; A I.267; IV.158; V.48 sq.

Adhippeta [Sanskrit abhipreta, adhi + ppa + i, lit. gone into, gone for; cp. adhippaya] 1. desired, approved of, agreeable D I.120; II.236; VvA 312, 315. - 2. meant, understood, intended as J III.263; PvA 9, 80, 120, 164.

Adhippetatta (nt.) [abstr. from adhippeta] the fact of being meant or understood as, in abl. *a with reference to, as is to be understood of VvA 13; PvA 52.

Adhibadheti [adhi + badheti, cp. Sanskrit abhibadhayati] to vex, oppress, gore (to death) Ud 8 (T. adhipateti, v. l. avibadeti).

AdhiBrahma [adhi + Brahma, cp. atiBrahma] a superior Brahma, higher than Brahma M II.132.

Adhibhavati [adhi + bhavati, cp. Sanskrit and Pali abhibhavati] to overcome, overpower, surpass S IV.185 sq. (cp. adhibhu); A V.248, 282 (*bhoti); J II.336; V.30. - aor. adhibhavi J II.80. 3. pl. adhibhamsu S IV.185. See also ajjhabhavi and ajjhabhu pp. adhibhuta (q. v.).

Adhibhasati [adhi + bhasati] to address, to speak to; aor. ajjhabhasi Vin II.195; S I.103; IV.117; Sn p. 87; PvA 56, 90.

Adhibhu (adj.) (-*) [from adhi + bhu, cp. adhibhavati and Sanskrit adhibhu] overpowering, having power over; mastereotype conqueror, lord S IV.186 (anadhibhu not mastereotypeng. For adhibhuta the v. l. abhi* is to be preferred as more usual in this connection, see abhibhu); Sn 684 (miga*; v. l. abhi*).

Adhibhuta [cp. adhibhu and adhibhuta] overpowered S IV.186.

Adhimatta (adj.) [adhi + matta of ma] extreme, exceeding, extraordinary; nt. adv. *m extremely M I.152, 243; S IV. 160; A II.150; IV.241; J I.92; Pug 15; Miln 146, 189, 274, 290; Pv II.36 ( = adhikataram PvA 86); DhA II.85; cp. PvA 281.

Adhimattata (nt.) [abstr. from prec.] preponderance A II.150; DhsA 334 (cp. Dhs. trsl. 200).

Adhimana (n.-adj.) [adhi + mano] (n.) attention, direction of mind, concentration Sn 692 (adhimanasa bhavatha). (adj.) directing one's mind upon, intent (on) J IV.433 ( = pasannacitta); V.29 (an*; v. l. *mana).

Adhimana [adhi + mana] undue estimate of oneself M II.252; A V.162 sq.

Adhimanika (adj.) [from adhimana] having undue confidence in oneself, conceited A V.162, 169, 317; DhA III.111.

Adhimuccati [Pass. of adhi + muc] 1. to be drawn to, feel attached to or inclined towards, to indulge in (c. loc.) S III.225; IV.185; A IV.24, 145 sq., 460; V.17; Pug 63. 2. to become settled, to make up one's mind as to (with loc.), to become clear about Vin I.209 (aor. *mucci); D I.106; S I.116 (pot. *mucceyya); It 43; DA I.275. 3. to take courage, to have faith Sn 559; Miln 234; DA I.214, 316; J IV.272; V.103; DhA I.196; III.258; IV.170. 4. of a spirit, to possess, to enter into a body, with loc. of the body. A late idiom for the older anvavisati. J IV.172; V.103, 429; DhA I.196; III.258; IV.170. pp. adhimuccita and adhimutta. - Causative adhimoceti to incline to (trs.); to direct upon (with loc.) S V.409 (cittam devesu a.).

Adhimuccana (nt.) [from adhi + muc] making up one's mind, confidence DhsA 133, 190.

Adhimuccita and Adhimucchita (pp.) [either adhi + muc or murch; it would seem more probable to connect it with the former (cp. adhimuccati) and consider all vv. ll. *mucchita as spurious; but in view of the credit of several passages we have to assume a regular analogy-form *mucchita, cp. mucchati and see also J.Pali Text Society 1886, 109] drawn towards, attached to, infatuated, indulging in (with loc.) M II.223 (an*); S I.113; Th 1, 732 (v. l. *muccita), 923 (cch), 1175; J II.437 (cch); III.242; V.255 (kamesu *mucchita, v. l. *muccita). Cp. ajjhomucchita.

Adhimuccitar [n. ag. of adhimuccati] one who determines for something, easily trusting, giving credence A III.165 (v. l. *mucchita).

Adhimutta (adj.) [pp. of adhimuccati, cp. BSanskrit adhimukta. Av. SH I.8, 112; Divy 49, 302 etc.] intent upon (-* or with loc. or acc.), applying oneself to, keen on, inclined to, given to Vin I.183; A V.34, 38; Dh 226; Sn 1071, 1149 (*citta); Nd2 33; J I.370 (dan*) Pug 26; PvA 134 (dan*).

Adhimutti (f.) [adhi + mutti] resolve, intention, disposition D I.174; A V.36; Ps I.124; Miln 161, 169; Vbh 340, 341; DA I.44, 103; Sdhp 378.

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Adhimuttika (adj.) [ = adhimutta] inclined to, attached to, bent on S II.154, 158; It 70; Vbh 339 sq. + ta (f.) inclination D I.2.

Adhimokkha [from adhi + muc] firm resolve, determination, decision M III.25 sq.; Vbh 165 sq., 425; DhsA 145, 264. See Dhs. trsl. 5; Cpd.17, 40, 95.

Adhiyita see adhiyati.

Adhiroha [from adhi + ruh] ascent, ascending; in dur* hard to ascend Miln 322.

Adhivacana (nt.) [adhi + vacana] designation, term, attribute, metaphor, metaphorical expression D II.62; M I.113, 144, 460; A II.70, 124; III.310; IV.89, 285, 340; It 15, 114; Sn p. 218; J I.117; Nd2 34 = Dhs 1306 ( = nama sankha pannatti etc.); Vbh 6; PvA 63. See on term Dhs. trsl. 340. -patha "process of synonymous nomenclature" (Mrs. Rh. D.) D II.68; S III.71; Dhs 1306; DhsA 51.

Adhivattati [adhi + vattati] to come on, proceed, issue, result S I.101; A II.32.

Adhivattha (adj.) [pp. of adhivasati] inhabiting, living in (c. loc.) Vin I.28; S I.197; J I.223; II.385; III.327; PvA 17. The form adhivuttha occurs at J VI.370.

Adhivara (adj.) [adhi + vara] superb, excellent, surpassing Vv 163 (an* unsurpassed, unrivalled; VvA 80 = adhika, visittha).

Adhivasa [from adhi + vas] endurance, forbearance, holding out; only as adj. in dur* difficult to hold out Th 1, 111.

Adhivasaka (and *ika) (adj.) [from adhivasa] willing, agreeable, enduring, patient Vin IV.130; M I.10, 526; A II.118; III.163; V.132; J III.369 (an*); IV.11, 77.

Adhivasana (nt.) [from adhi + vas] 1 assent A III.31; DhA I.33. - 2. forbearance, endurance M I.10; J II.237; III.263; IV.307; V.174.

Adhivasanata (f.) [abstr. from adhivasana] patience, endurance, Dhs 1342; Vbh 360 (an*).

Adhivaseti [Causative of adhivasati, cp. BSanskrit adhivasayati in meaning of 3] 1. to wait for (c. acc.) J I.254; II.352; III.277. - 2. to have patience, bear, endure (c. acc.) D II.128, 157; J I.46; III.281 (pahare); IV.279, 407; V.51, 200; VvA 336, 337. - 3. to consent, agree, give in Vin I.17; D I.109 (cp. DA I.277); S IV.76; DhA I.33; PvA 17, 20, 75 and frequent passim. - Causative adhivasapeti to cause to wait J I.254.

Adhivaha [from adhi + vah; cp. Sanskrit abhivahati] a carrier, bearer, adj. bringing S IV.70 (dukkha*); A I.6; Th 1, 494.

Adhivahana (nt.-adj.) [from adhi + vah] carrying, bringing, bearing Sn 79; f. *i Th 1, 519.

Adhivimuttatta (nt.) = adhivimokkhatta and adhimutti, i. e. propensity, the fact of being inclined or given to J V.254 (T. kamadhivimuttita, v. l. *muttata).

Adhivimokkhatta (nt.) = adhimokkha; being inclined to DhsA 261.

Adhivutti (f.) [adhi + vutti, from adhi + vac, cp. Sanskrit abhivadati] expression, saying, opinion; only in tt. adhivuttipada (v. l. adhimutti-p. at all passages) D I.13 (explained. by adhivacana-pada DA I.103); M II.228; A V.36.

Adhivuttha see adhivattha.

Adhisayana (nt.-adj.) [from adhiseti] lying on or in, inhabiting PvA 80 (mancam).

Adhisayita [pp. of adhiseti] sat on, addled (of eggs) Vin III.3; S III.153.

Adhisila (nt.) [adhi + sila] higher morality, usually in threefold set of adhicitta-sikkha, adhipanna* adhisïla* Vin I.70; D I.174; III.219; A III.133; IV.25; DhA I.334; PvA 207. See also adhicitta, sikkha and sila.

Adhiseti [adhi + seti] to lie on, sit on, live in, to follow, pursue Dh 41; Sn 671 ( = gacchati C.) -pp. adhisayita.

Adhina (adj.) (-*) [cp. Sanskrit adhina] subject, dependent D I.72 (atta* and para*); J IV.112; DA I.217; also written adhina J V.350. See also under para.

Adhiyati and adhiyati [Med. of adhi + i, 1st sg. adhiye taken as base in Pali] to study, lit. to approach (cp. adhigacchati); to learn by heart (the Vedas and other Sacred Books) Vin I.270; S I.202 (dhammapadani); J IV.184 (adhiyitva), 496 (adhiyamana); VI.458; DhA III.446 (adhiyassu). - ger. adhiyitva J IV.75; adhiyanam J V.450 ( = sajjhayitva C.) and adhicca: see adhicca 2; pp. adhiyita D I.96.

Adhuna (adv.) [Vedic adhuna] just now, quite recently D II.208; Vin II.185 (kalakata); Miln 155; Davs II.94. -agata a new comer M I.457; J II.105. -a-bhisitta newly or just anointed D II.227. -uppanna just arisen D II.208, 221.

Adhura (nt.) [a + dhura, see dhura 2] irresponsibility, indifference to oblihations J IV.241.

Adho (adv.) [Vedic adha*; compar. adhara* = Latin inferus, Goth. undar, E. under, Ind. *n*dher-; superl. adhama* = Latin infimus] below, usually combined. or contrasted with uddham "above" and tiriyam "across", describing the 3 dimensions. - uddham and adho above and below, marking zenith and nadir. Thus with uddham and the 4 bearings (disa) and intermediate points (anudisa) at S I.122; III.124; A IV.167; with uddham and tiriyam at Sn 150, 537, 1055, 1068. Expld. at KhA 248 by hettha and in detail (dogmatically and speculatively) at Nd2 155. For further reference see uddham. The compounds. form of adho before vowels is adh*. -akkhaka beneath the collar-bone Vin IV.213. -agga with the points downward (of the upper row of teeth) J v.156 (+ uddh* explained. by uparima-danta C.). -kata turned down, or upside down J I.20; VI.298. -gata gone by, past. Adv. *m since (cp. uddham adv. later or after) J VI.187 (ito masan adhogatam since one month ago). -gala (so read for T. udho) down the throat PvA 104. -mukha head forward, face downward, bent over, upturned Vin II.78; M I.132, 234: Vv 161 ( = hettha mukha VvA 78). -bhaga the lower part (of the body) M I.473; DhA I.148. -virecana action of a purgative (opp. uddha* of an emetic) D I.12; DA I.98 ( = adho dosanam niharanam); DhsA 404. -sakham (+ uddhamulam) branches down (and roots up, i. e. uprooted) DhA I.75. -sira (adj.) head downward J IV.194. -siram (adv.) with bowed head (cp. avamsiram) J VI.298 ( = siram adhokatva hetthamukho C.). -sisa (adj.) head first, headlong J I.233; v.472 (*ka).

An- form of the negative prefix a-before vowels. For negatives beginning with an* see the positive.

Ana- negative prefix, contained in anappameyya, (Th 1, 1089), anamatagga and anabhava. See Vinaya Texts II.113.

Anajjhittha (adj.) [an + ajjhittha] uncalled, unbidden, unasked Vin I.113; Pv I.123 (T. anabbhita, v. l. anijjhittha; J III.165 has anavhata; Th 2, 129 ayacita; PvA 64 expls. by anavhata).

Anati [An, Vedic aniti and anati] to breathe KhA I.124 (in def. of bala); DA I.244 (read ananti for ananti). Cp. pana.

Anabhava [ana + bhava] the utter cessation of becoming. In the oldest Pali only in adj. form anabhavam kata or gata. This again found only in a string of four adjectives together expressing the most utter destruction. They are used at Vin III.3 of bad qualities, at S II.63 of certain wrong opinions, at M I.487; S IV.62 = v.527 of the khandas, at M I.331 of the Mental Intoxications (asavas), at A IV.73 of certain tastes, of a bad kamma A I.135, of evil passions A I.137, 184, 218; II.214 of pride A II.41,

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of craving A II.249, of the bonds A IV.8. In the supplement to the Digha (D III.326) and in the Iti-vuttaka (p. 115) a later idiom, anabhavam gameti, cause to perish, is used of evil thoughts. Bdhgh (quoted Vin III.267) reports as v. l. anubhava. Cp. Nd I.90; and Nd2 under pahina.

Anabbhita (adj.) [an + abbhita] not restored, not to be restored Vin IV.242; Pv I.123 (where reading prob. faulty and due to a gloss; the id. p. at Th 2, 129 has ayacita and at J III.165 anavhata; PvA 64 expls. by anavhata, v. l. anabbhita).

Anabhunnatata (f.) [an + abbhunnata + ta] the state of not being erect, i. e. hanging down J v.156.

Anabhijjha (f.) [an + abhijjha] absence of covetousness or desire D III.229, 269; Dhs 32, 35, 277.

Anabhijjhalu (adj.) [an + abhijjhalu] not greedy or covetous D III.82; Pug 40.

Anabhijjhita (adj.) [an + abhijjhita] not desired Sn 40 (cp. Nd2 38); Vv 474 ( = na abhikankhita VvA 201).

Anabhin and ati etc. see abhi* etc.

Anabhirata (adj.) [an + abhirata] not taking delight in J I.61 (nacca-disu).

Anabhirati (f.) [an + abhirati] not delighting in, dissatisfaction, discontent D I.17 (+ paritassana); III.289; J III. 395; DA I.111.

Anabhiraddha (adj.) [an + abhiraddha] in anger Vin IV.236.

Anabhiraddhi (f.) [an + abhiraddhi] anger, wrath D I.3 ( = kopass-etam adhivacanam DA I.52).

Anabhisambhunamana (adj.) [ppr. med. of an + abhisambhunati] not obtaining, unable to get or keep up D I.101 ( = asampapunanto avisahamano va DA I.268).

Anamatagga (adj.) [ana ( = a negative) + mata (from man) + agga (pl.). So Dhammapala (avidit-agga ThA 289); Nanakitti in tika on DhsA 11; Trenckner, Notes 64; Oldenberg, Vin. Texts II.114. Childers takes it as an + amata + agga, and Jacobi (Erzahl. 33 and 89) and Pischel (Gram. * 251) as a + namat (from nam) + agga. It is Sanskritized at Divy 197 by anavaragra, doubtless by some mistake. Weber, Ind. Str. III.150 suggests an + amrta, which does not suit the context at all]. Ep. of Sa*sara "whose beginning and end are alike unthinkable", i. e., without beginning or end. Found in two passages of the Canon: S II.178, 187 sq. = III.149, 151 = v.226, 441 (quoted Kvu 29, called Anamatagga-pariyaya at DhA II.268) and Th 2, 495, 6. Later references are Nd2 664; PvA 166; DhA I.11; II.13, 32; Sdhp 505. [Cp. anamata and amatagga, and cp. the English idiom "world without end". The meaning can best be seen, not from the derivation (which is uncertain), but from the examples quoted above from the Sa*yutta. According to the Yoga, on the contrary (see e. g., Woods, Yoga-system of Patanjali, 119), it is a possible, and indeed a necessary quality of the Yogi, to understand the beginning and end of Sa*sara].

Anamha (adj.) [according to Morris J.Pali Text Society 1884, 70 = ana-mha "unlaughing" with ana = an (cp. anabhava and anamatagga) and mha from smi, cp. vimhayati = Sanskrit vismayati] being in constereotypeation or distress, crying J III. 223 (*kale = arodana-kale C.).

Anaya [a + naya] misfortune, distress Miln 277, usually combined. with vyasana (as also in BSk, e. g. Jtm 215) Vin II.199; S IV.159; A v.156; Miln 292; VvA 327; Sdhp 362.

Anariya (adj.) [an + ariya, see also anariya] not Aiyan, ignoble, low Vin I.10; D III.232 (*vohara, 3 sets of 4; the same at Vin v.125); Sn 664, 782 (*dhamma); Pug 13. - See ariya.

Anala (adj.) [an + ala] 1. not sufficient, not enough; unable, impossible, unmanageable M I.455; J II.326 = IV. 471. - 2. dissatisfied, insatiate J v.63 ( = atitta C.). 3. *m kata dissatisfied, satiated, S I.15 (kamesu).

Anavaya (adj.) [derivation doubtful. See Trenckner Pali Misc. 65] not lacking, complete in (loc.), fulfilling D I.88 ( = anuna paripura-karin DA I.248); A III.152 ( = samatta paripunna AA quoted by Tr. on Miln 10).

Anavosita (adj.) [an + avosita; or ana + avosita = avusita*] unfulfilled, undone Th 1, 101.

Anasana (nt.) [an + asana, cp. Sanskrit an-ashana] not eating, fasting, hunger D III.75 and in same context at Sn 311 ( = khuda SnA 324).

Anasitvana [ger. of an + ashati] without eating, fasting J IV.371.

Anasuyyam [Sanskrit anasuyan, ppr. of an + asuyati] not grumbling J III.27 (v. l. for anusuyyam T.).

Anasuropa [an + asuropa] absence of abruptness Dhs 1341.

Anasuyaka (adj.) [Sanskrit anasuyaka, cp. usuya] not grumbling, not envious J II.192.

Anassaka (adj.) either an-assaka or a-nassaka (q. v.).

Anassana (nt.) [a + nassana, nash; cp. Sanskrit nashana] imperishableness, freedom from waste J IV.168.

Anassavin (adj.) [an + assavin; cp. assava + asava] not intoxicated, not enjoying or finding pleasure in Sn 853 (satiyesu a. = satavatthusa kamagunesu tanhasanthavavirahita SnA 549).

Anassasika (adj.) [an + assasa + ika; cp. Sanskrit ashvasana and BSanskrit anashvasika Divy 207] not consoling, discouraging, not comforting M I.514; S II.191.

Anassum 1st sq, pret. of anusuyati ( = Sanskrit anvashruvam) I have heard M I.393.

Anagata (adj.) [an + agata] not come yet, i. e. future. On usual combination. with atita: see this. D III.100 sq., 134 sq., 220, 275; M III.188 sq.; S I.5; II.283; A III.100 sq., 400; Sn 318, 373, 851; It 53; J IV.159; VI.364; Dhs 1039, 1416.

Anagamana (nt.) [an + agamana] not coming, not returning J I 203, 264.

Anagamita (f.) [anagamin + ta] the state or condition of an Anagamin S v.129, 181, 285; A III.82; v.108, 300 sq.; Sn p. 140 = A III.143; It 1 sq., 39, 40.

Anagamin (adj.-n.) [an + agamin] one who does not return, a Never-Returner, as tt. designating one who has attained the 3rd stage out of four in the breaking of the bonds (Sanyojanas) which keep a man back from Arahantship. So near is the Anagamin to the goal, that after death he will be reborn in one of the highest heaven and there obtain Arahantship, never returning to rebirth as a man. But in the oldest passages referring to these 4 stages, the description of the third does not use the word anagamin (D I.156; II.92; III.107; M II.146) and anagamin does not mean the breaking of bonds, but the cultivation of certain specified good mental habits (S III.168, the anatta doctrine; S v.200-2, the five Indriyas; A I.64, 120, cultivation of good qualities, II 160; v.86, 171 = S 149). We have only two cases in the canon of any living persons being called anagamin. Those are at S v.177 and 178. The word there means one who has broken the lower five of the ten bonds, and the individuals named are laymen. At D II.92 nine others, of

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whom eight are laymen, are declared after their death to have reached the third stage (as above) during life, but they are not called anagamins. At It 96 there are only 3 stages, the worldling, the Anagamin, and the Arahant; and the Sanyojanas are not referred to. It is probable that already in the Nikaya period the older, wider meaning was falling into disuse. The Abhidhamma books seem to refer only to the Sanyojana explanation; the commentaries, so far as we know them, ignore any other. See Ps II.194; Kv. Tr. 74; Dhs. Tr. 302 n; Cp. 69. -phala fruition of the state of an Anagamin; always in combination. sotapatti* sakadagami* anagami* arahatta* Vin I.293; II.240; IV.29; D I.229; II.227, 255; S III.168; v.411; A I.23, 44; III.272 sq.; IV.204, 276, 372 sq. -magga the path of one who does not return (in rebirths) Nd2 569b.

Anagara and Anagariya see [an + aghata] freedom from anger or ill-will Vin II.249.

Anacara [an + acara] misconduct, immorality J II.133; III. 276; adj. anacarin Pug 57.

Anajaniya (adj.) [an + ajaniya] of inferior race, not of good blood M I.367.

Anadara [an + adara] (a) (m) disrespect PvA 257. - (b.) (adj.) disrespectful Sn 247 ( = adaravirahita SnA 290).

Anadarata (f.) [abstr. from anadara] want of consideration, in explination. of dovacassata at Dhs 1325 = Vbh 359 = Pug 30 (where reading is anadariyata).

Anadariya (nt.) [from anadara] disregard, disrespect Vin I.176; IV.113 (where explained. in extenso); Dhs 1325 = dug 20 = Vbh 359.

Anada [ger. of an + adiyati] without taking up or on to oneself Vin IV.120 ( = anadiyitva C.).

Anadana (adj.) [an + adana] free from attachment (opp. sadana) A II.10 = It 9 = 109 = Nd2 172a; Sn 620, 741, 1094; Nd2 41 (where as nt. = tanha); Dh 352 ( = khandhadisu niggahana DhA IV.70), 396, 406, 421.

Anaditva [ger. of an + adiyati] not taking up, not heeding J IV.352 (v. l. for T. anadiyitva).

Anadiyitva [ger. of an + adiyati, Sanskrit anadaya] without assuming or taking up, not heeding Vin IV.120; J IV.352; DhA I.41. See also adiyati.

Ananu- represents the metrically lengthened from of ananu (an + anu), as found e. g. in the following compounds: *tappam (ppr.) not regretting J v.492; *puttha questioned Sn 782 ( = apucchita SnA 521); *yayin not following or not defiled by evil Sn 1071 (explained. at Nd2 42 by both avedhamana (*) avigacchamana and by arajjamana adussamana); *loma not fit or suitable D II.273 (v. l. anu*).

Anapathagata (adj.) [an + apatha + gata] not fallen into the way of (the hunter), escaped him M I.174.

Anapada (adj.) [an + apada] unmarried (of a woman) J IV.178 (apada = apadana C.; annehi akata-pariggaha).

Anapuccha see apucchati.

Anabadha (adj.) [an + abadha] safe and sound VvA 351.

Anamata (adj.) [an + amata the a being due to metrical lengthening] not affected by death, immortal J II.56 ( = asusana-tthana C.); DhA II.99.

Anamanta (*-) [an + amanta] without asking or being asked; in *kata unasked, unpermitted, uninvited J VI.226; *cara living uninvited Vin v.132; A III.259.

Anamaya (adj.) [an + amaya] free from illness, not decaying, healthy Vv 1510 ( = aroga VvA 74), 177.

Anamasita (adj.) [an + amasita, pp. of amassati] not touched, virgin- VvA 113 (*khetta).

Anamassa (adj.) [grd. of an + amassati, Sanskrit amashya] not to be touched J II 360 (C. anamasitabba).

Anayatana (nt.) [an + ayatana] nonexertion, not exerting oneself, sluggishness, indolence J v.121 (*sila = dussila C.).

Anayasa (adj.) [an + aya + sa, or should we read anayasa*] void of means, unlucky, unfortunate Vv 845 ( = n'atthi ettha ayo sukhan ti anayasan VvA 335).

Anayasa (adj.) [an + ayasa] free from trouble or sorrow, peaceful Th 1, 1008.

Anarambha [an + arambha] that which is without moil and toil Sn 745 ( = nibbana SnA 507).

Anaradhaka (adj.) [an + aradhaka] one who fails, unsuccessful Vin I.70.

Anariya (adj.) [doublet of anariya] not Aryan, ignoble, Sn 815 (v. l. SS. anariya).

Analamba (adj.) [an + alamba] without support (from above), unsuspended, not held Sn 173 (+ appatittha; explained. at SnA 214 by hettha patittha-bhavena upari alambhavena ca gambhira).

Analaya [an + alaya] aversion, doing away with Vin I.10 (tanhaya).

Ana'hiya and Ana'hika (adj.) [an + alhiya, Sanskrit adhya, see also addhaQ] not rich, poor, miserable, destitute, usually combined. with da'idda M I.450; II.178 (v. l. BB. ana'iya); A III.352 sq. (vv. ll. BB. ana'hika), 384; J v.96.

Anavata (*-) [an + avata] not shut; in *dvarata (f.) not closing the door again*t another, accessibility, open-handedness D III.191.

Anavattin (adj.-n.) [an + avattin] one who does not return, almost syn. with anagamin in phrase anavatti-dhamma, one who is not destined to shift or return from one birth to another, D I.156 (cp. DA I.313); III.132; Pug 16 sq., 62.

Anavasuram (adv.) [an + ava + sura = suriya, with ava lengthened to ava in verse] as long as the sun does not set, before sun-down J v.56 ( = anatthangata-suriyam C.) cp. Sanskrit utsura.

Anavasa (adj.-n.) [an + avasa] uninhabited, an uninhabited place Vin II.22, 33; J II.77.

Anavikata etc. see avikata.

Anavila (adj.) [an + avila] undisturbed, unstained, clean, pure D I.84 ( = nikkaddama DA I.226); III.269, 270; Sn 637 ( = nikkilesa SnA 469 = DhA IV.192); Th 2, 369 (avilacitta +); Dh 82, 413; ThA 251; Sdhp 479.

Anavuttha (adj.) [an + avuttha, pp. of avasati] not dwelt in D .II50.

Anasaka (adj.) [an + asaka] fasting, not taking food S IV.118. f. *a [cp. Sanskrit anashaka nt.] fasting, abstaining from food Dh 141 ( = bhatta-patikkhepa DhA III.77).

Anasakatta (nt.) [abstr. of anasaka] fasting Sn 249 ( = abhojana SnA 292).

Anasava (adj.) [an + asava] free from the 4 intoxications (see asava) Vin II.148 = 164; D III.112; Sn 1105, 1133; Dh 94, 126, 386; Nd2 44; It 75; Pug 27, Dhs 1101, 1451; Vbh 426; Th 1, 100; Pv II.615; VvA 9. See asava and cp. nirasava.

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Anasasana (adj.) [an + asasana] not longing after anything Sn 369 (SnA 365 however reads anasayana and has anasasana as v. l. Cp. also vv. ll. to asasana. Expld by kanci rupa-di-dhammam na-simsati SnA 365.

Anahara (adj.) [an + ahara] being without food M I.487; Sn 985.

Anikkaddhana (f.) [a + nikkaddhana] not throwing out or expelling J III.22.

Anikkasava (adj.) [a + nikkasava, cp. nikasava] not free from impurity, impure, stained Dh 9 = Th 1, 969 = J II.198 = v.50; DhA I.82 ( = raga-dihi kasavehi sakasava).

Anikhata (adj.) [a + nikhata, pp. of nikhanati] not dug into, not dug down, not deep J VI.109 (*kula; C. agambhira).

Anigha see nigha1 and igha.

Aniccha (f.) [an + iccha] dispassion S v.6; adj. *a without desires, not desiring Sn 707.

Aninjana (nt.) [an + injana] immobility, steadfastness Ps I.15.

Aninjita (adj.) [an + injita] immoveable, undisturbed, unshaken Th 1, 386.

Anitthangata see nittha2.

Anitthita see nitthita.

Anitthi (f.) [an + itthi] a woman lacking the characteristics of womanhood, a woman ceasing to be a woman, "nonwoman" J II.126 (compd with anadi a river without water; interpreted by ucchitth-itthi).

Anindi- [the compounds. form of ninda] in *'ocana (with) faultless eyes J VI.265.

Anindita (adj.) [a + nindita] blameless, faultless J IV.106 (*angin of blameless body or limbs).

Anibbisan [ppr. of nibbisati, q. v.] not finding Th 1, 78 = Dh 153 ( = tam nanam avindanto DhA III.128).

Animisa (adj.) [Ved., cp. nimisati] not winking, waking, watchful Davs v.26 (nayana).

Aniyata (adj.) [a + niyata] not settled, uncertain, doubtful Vin I.112; II.287; D III.217.

Aniyamita (adj.) [pp. of a + niyameti] indefinite (as tt. g.) VvA 231.

Anila [from an, cp. Sanskrit aniti to breathe, cp. Gr. a)/nemos wind; Latin animus breath, soul, mind] wind J IV.119 (*patha air, sky); Miln 181; VvA 237; Sdhp 594.

Anirakata (adj.) [a + nirakata] see nirankaroti.

Anissara (adj.) [an + issara] without a personal ereator Th 1, 713.

Anissukin (adj.) [an + issukin, see also an-ussukin] not hard, not greedy, generous D III.47 (+ amaccharin; v. l. anussukin); SnA 569 (see under nitthurin).

Anika (nt.) [Ved. anika face, front, army to Idg. *og* (see), cp. Gr. o)/mma eye, Latin oculus, see also Sanskrit pratika and Pali akkhi] army, array, troops (orig. "front", i. e. of the battle-array) Vin IV.107 (where explained. in detail); Sn 623 (bala* strong in arms, with strong array i. e. of khanti, which precedes; cp. SnA 467). -agga a splendid army Sn 421 ( = balakaya senamukha SnA 384). -ttha a sentinel, royal guard D III.64, 148; J v.100; VI.15 ("men on horseback", horseguard); Miln 234, 264. -dassana troop-inspection D I.6 (anika* at DA I.85, q. v. interpretation); Vin IV.107 (senabyuha +).

Anigha see nigha1 and cp. igha.

Aniti (f.) [an + iti] safety, soundness, sound condition, health A IV.238; Miln 323 (abl. *ito).

Anitika (adj.) [from aniti] free from injury or harm, healthy, secure Vin II.79 = 124 (+ anupaddava); III.162; S IV.371; Sn 1137 (iti vuccanti kilesa etc. Nd2 48); Miln 304.

Anitiha (adj.) [an + itiha, the latter a cpd. der. from iti + ha = saying so and so, cp. itihasa and itihitiham] not such and such, not based on hearsay (itiha), not guesswork or (mere) talk A II.26; Th 1, 331 (cp. M I.520); Sn 1053 ( = Nd2 49, 151); J I.456; Nett 166 (cp. It 28).

Anu1 (indecl.) [Vedic anu, Av. anu; Gr. a)/nw to a)/na along, up; Av. ana, Goth. ana, Ohg. ana, Ags. on, Ger. an, Latin an (in anhelare etc.)] prep. and prefix - A. As prep. anu is only found occasionally, and here its old (vedic) function with acc. is superseded by the loc. Traces of use w. acc. may be seen in expressions of time like anu pancaham by 5 days, i. e. after (every) 5 days (cp. ved. anu dyun day by day); a. vassan for one year or yearly; a. sanvaccharam id. - (b) More frequent w. loc. ( = alongside, with, by) a. tire by the bank S IV.177; pathe by the way J v.302; pariveniyam in every cell Vin I.80; magge along the road J v.201; vate with the wind J II.382. B. As prefix: (a) General character. anu is frequent as modifying (directional) element with well-defined meaning ("along"), as such also as 1st component of prefix-compounds, e. g. anu + a (anva*), anu + pra (anuppa*), + pari, + vi, + san. - As base, i. e. 2nd part of a prefix-cpd. it is rare and only found in combination sam-anu*. The prefix san is its nearest relation as modifying prefix The opp. of anu is pati and both are often found in one cpd. (cp. *loma, *vata). (b) Meanings. I. With verbs of motion: "along towards". - (a) the motion viewed from the front backward = after, behind; esp. with verbs denoting to go, follow etc. E. g. *aya going after, connexion; *agacch* follow, *kkamati follow, *dhavati run after, *patta received, *parivattati move about after, *bandhati run after, *bala rear-guard, *bhasati speak after, repeat, *vada speaking after, blame, *vicarati roam about *viloketi look round after (survey), *sancarati proceed around etc. - (b) the motion viewed from the back forward = for, towards an aim, on to, over to, forward. Esp. in double prefix-compounds (esp. with *ppa*), e. g. anu-adisati design for, dedicate *kankhin longing for, *cintana care for, *titthati look after, *padinna given over to, *pavecchati hand over, *pavittha entered into, *pasankamati go up to, *rodati cry for, *socati mourn for. - II. Witb verbs denoting a state or condition: (a) literal: along, at, to, combined with. Often resembling E. be- or Ger. be-, also Latin ad- and con-. Thus often transitiving or simply emphatic. E. g. *kampa com-passion, *kinna be-set, *ganhati take pity on, *gayati be-singen, *jagghati laugh at, belaugh, *ddaya pity with, *masati touch at, *yunjati order along, *yoga devotion to, *rakkhati be-guard, *litta be-smeared or an-ointed, *vitakheti reflect over, *sara con-sequential; etc. - (b) applied: according to, in conformity with. E. g. *kula being to will, *chavika befitting, *nata permitted, al-lowed, *mati con- sent, a-greement, *madati ap-preciate, *rupa = con-form, *vattin acting according to, *ssavana by hearsay, *sasati ad-vise, com-mand etc. - III. (a) (fig.) following after = second to, secondary, supplementary, inferior, minor, after, smaller; e. g. *dhamma lesser morality, *pabbaja discipleship, *pavattaka ruling after, *bhaga after-share, *majjha mediocre, *yagin assisting in sacrifice, *vyanjana smaller marks, etc.; cp. pati in same sense. - (b) distributive (cp. A. a.) each, every, one by one, (one after one): *disa in each direction, *pancaham every 5 days, *pubba one after the other. - IV. As one of the contrasting (-comparative) prefixes (see remarks on ati and cp. a3) anu often occurs in reduplicative compounds after the style of khudda-nukhuddaka "small and still smaller", i. e. all sorts of

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small items or whatever is small or insignificant. More frequent combinations. are the following: (q. v. under each heading) pada-nupadam, pubba-nupubbaka, ponkha-nuponkham, Buddha-nuBuddha, vada-nuvada, settha-nusetthi. - V. As regards dialectical differences in meanings of prefixes, anu is frequent found in Pali where the Sanskrit variant presents apa (for ava), abhi or ava. For Pali anu = Sanskrit (Ved.) apa see anuddhasta; = Sanskrit abhi see anu-gijjhati, *bruheti, *sandahati; = Sanskrit ava see anu-kantati, *kassati2, *kinna, *gahati, *bujjhati *bodha, *lokin, *vajja. Note (a) anu in compounds. is always contracted to *a-nu*, never elided like adhi = *dhi or abhi = *bhi. The rigid character of this rule accounts for forms isolated out of this sort of epds. (like maha-nubhava), like anupubbikatha (from *pubbanupubba*), anubhava etc. We find anu also in combination. with an- under the influence of metre. - (b) the assimilation (contracted) form of anu before vowels is anv*.

Anu2 (adj.) subtile; frequent spelling for anu, e. g. D I.223 Sdhp 271, 346 (anum thulam). See anu.

Anukankhin (adj.) [from anu + kanks.] striving after, longing for J v.499 (piya*).

Anukantati [anu + kantati2] to cut Dh 311 (hattham = phaleti DhA III.484).

Anukampaka and *ika (adj.) [from anukampati] kind of heart, merciful, compassionate, full of pity (-* or c. loc.) D III.187; S I.105 (loka*), 197; v.157; A IV.265 sq.; It 66 (sabba-bhuta*); Pv I.33 ( = karunika PvA 16), 53 ( = atthakama, hitesin PvA 25), 88; II.14 ( = anugganhataka PvA 69), 27; ThA 174; PvA 196 (sattha sattesu a.).

Anukampati [anu + kampati] to have pity on, to commiserate, to pity, to sympathise with (c. acc.) S I.82, 206; v.189. Imper. anukampa Pv II.16 ( = anuddayan karohi PvA 70) and anukampassu Pv III.28 ( = anugganha PvA 181). Med. ppr. anukampamana Sn 37 ( = anupekkhamana anugayhamana Nd2 50); PvA 35 (tam), 62 (pitaram), 104. -pp. anukampita (q. v.).

Anukampana (nt.) [from last] compassion, pity PvA 16, 88.

Anukampa (f.) [abstr. from anukampati] compassion, pity, mercy D I.204; M I.161; II.113; S I.206; II.274 (loka*); IV.323; v.259 sq.; A I.64, 92; II.159; III.49; IV.139; Pug 35. - Often in abl. anukampaya out of pity, for the sake of D III.211 (loka* out of compassion for all mankind, + atthaya hitaya); J III.280; PvA 47, 147.

Anukampita (adj.) [pp. of anukampati] compassioned, gratified, remembered, having done a good deed (of mercy) Pv III.230.

Anukampin (adj.) [cp. anukampaka] compassionate, anxious for, commiserating. Only in following phrases: hita* full of solicitude for the welfare of S v.86; Sn 693; Pv III.76. sabbapana-bhuta-hita* id. S IV.314; A II.210; III.92; IV.249; Pug 57, 68. sabba-bhuta* S I.25, 110; A II.9; It 102.

Anukaroti [anu + kr] to imitate, "to do after" A I.212; J I.491; II.162; DhA IV.197. - ppr. anukabbam Vin II.201 (mama-*). - Med. anukubbati S I.19 = J IV.65. See also anukubba. On anvakasi see anukassati 2.

Anukassati [anu + kassati, krs.] 1. [Sanskrit anukar.sati] to draw after, to repeat, recite, quote D II.255 (silokam). - 2. [Sanskrit ava-kar.sati] to draw or take of, to remove, throw down, Th 1, 869 (aor. anvakasi = khipi, chaddesi C.).

Anukama (adj.) [anu + kama] responding to love, loving in return J II.157.

Anukara [cp. anukaroti] imitation Dpvs v.39.

Anukarin (adj.) imitating Davs v.32.

Anukinna [pp. of anu + kirati] strewn with, beset with, dotted all over Pv IV.121 (bhamara-gana*).

Anukubba (adj.) (-*) [ = Sanskrit anukurvat, ppr. of anukaroti] "doing correspondingly" giving back, retaliating J II.205 (kicca*).

Anukubbati see anukaroti.

Anukula frequent spelling for anukula.

Anukulaka (adj.) = anukula Sdhp 242 (iccha* according to wish).

Anukula (adj.) [anu + kula, opp. patikula] favourable, agreeable, suitable, pleasant VvA 280; spelt anukula at Sdhp 297, 312. -bhava complaisance, willingness VvA 71. -yanna a propitiative sacrifice D I.144 (explained. at DA I.302 as anukula* = sacrifice for the propagation of the clan).

Anukkanthati [an + ukkanthati] not to be sorry or not to lack anything, in ppr. *anto J v.10; and pp. *ita without regret or in plenty PvA 13.

Anukkanthana (nt.) [an + ukkanthana] having no lack anything, being contented or happy J VI.4.

Anukkama [to anukkamati] 1. order, turn, succession, going along; only in instr. anukkamena gradually, in due course or succession J I.157, 262, 290; VvA 157; PvA 5, 14, 35 etc. - 2. that which keeps an animal in (regular) step, i. e. a bridle M I.446; Sn 622 (sandanam saha*).

Anukkamati [anu + kram] 1. to follow, go along (a path = acc.) A v.195; It 80 (maggam). - 2. to advance (not with Morris J P T S. 1886, 111 as "abandon") S I.24, Th 1, 194.

Anukkhipati [anu + khipati] to throw out Cp. XI.6 (vattam).

Anukkhepa [anu + khepa, see anukkhipati] compensation Vin I.285.

Anukhanati [anu + khanati] to dig after or further J v.233.

Anukhuddaka (adj.) [anu + khuddaka] in cpd. khudda* whatever there is of minor things, all less important items Vin II.287 = D II.154 = Miln 142; Miln 144.

Anuga (-*) (adj.-suff.) [from anu + gam] following or followed by, going after, undergoing, being in or under, standing under the influence of Sn 332 (vasa* in the power of), 791 (eja* = abhibhuta Sn 527), 1095 (Mara vasa* = abhibhuyya viharanti Nd2 507); It 91 (eja*); J III.224 (vasa* = vasavattin C.); Mhvs 7, 3.

Anugacchati [anu + gacchati] to go after, to follow, to go or fall into (w. acc.) KhA 223; PvA 141 (*gacchanto); aor. *gamasi Vin I.16, and anvaga Mhvs 7, 10; 3rd pl. anvagu Sn 586 (vasan = vasan gata SnA 461). Pass. anugammati, ppr. anugammamana accompanied or followed by, surrounded, adorned with J I.53; v.370. pp. anugata (q. v.).

Anugata (adj.) [pp. of anugacchati] gone after, accompanied by, come to; following; fig. fallen or gone into, affected with (-*), being a victim of, suffering M I.16; D III.85, 173 (parisa); A II.185 (sota*, v. l. anudhata); J II.292 (samudda*); v.369; Nd2 32 (tanha*); PvA 102 (namam mayham a. has been given to me), 133 (kammaphala*).

Anugati (f.) (-*) [from anu + gam] following, being in the train of, falling under, adherence to, dependence on S I.104 (vas* being in the power). Usually in cpd. dittha-nugati a sign (lit. belonging to) of speculation Vin II.108; S II.203; Pug 33; DhA IV.39.

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Anugama [from anu + gam] following after, only as adj. in dur* difficult to be followed J IV.65.

Anugamika (adj.) going along with, following, accompanying; resulting from, consequential on Kh VIII.8 (nidhi, a treasure acc. a man to the next world); J IV.280 (*nidhi); Miln 159 (parisa); PvA 132, 253 (danam nama *am nidanan ti).

Anugamin (adj.) [from anugacchati] following, attending on; an attendant, follower SnA 453 ( = anuyutta).

Anugayati [anu + gayati] to sing after or to, recite (a magic formula or hymn) praise, celebrate D I.104, 238; Sn 1131 (anugayissan); Miln 120.

Anugahati [anu + gahati] to plunge into, to enter (acc.) Sdhp 611.

Anugijjhati [anu + gijjhati] to be greedy after, to covet Sn 769 (cp. Nd1 12); J III.207; IV.4 ( = giddha gathita hutva alliyanti C.). pp. *giddha (q. v.). Cp. abhigijjhati.

Anugiddha [pp. of anugijjhati] greedy after, hankering after, desiring, coveting Sn 86 (ana-nu*), 144, 952; Th 1, 580.

Anugganha (adj.) [cp. anuggaha] compassionate, ready to help PvA 42 *sila.

Anugganhataka (adj.) [ = anugganha] compassionate, commiserating, helping PvA 69 ( = anukampaka).

Anugganhana (nt.) anuggaha1 DhsA 403.

Anu(g)ganhati [anu + ganhati] to have pity on, to feel sorry for, to help, give protection D I.53 (vacam; cp. DA I.160: sarato aganhanto); J II.74; Nd2 50 (ppr. med. *gayhamana = anukampamana); Pug 36; PvA 181 (imper. anugganha = anukampassu). pp. anuggahita (q. v.).

Anuggaha1 [anu + grah] "taking up", compassion, love for, kindness, assistance, help, favour, benefit S II.11; III.109; IV.104; v.162; A I.92, 114; II.145; IV.167; v.70; It 12, 98; J I.151; v.150; Pug 25; PvA 145; ThA 104.

Anuggaha2 (adj.) [an + uggaha] not taking up Sn 912 ( = na ganhati Nd1 330).

Anuggahita (and *ita) [pp. of anugganhati] commiserated, made happy, satisfied M I.457; S II.274; III.91; IV.263; A III.172; J III.428.

Anuggahaka (adj.) [from anuggaha] helping, assisting S III.5; V.162; Miln 354 (nt. = help).

Anugghateti [an + ugghateti] not to unfasten or open (a door) Miln 371 (kavatam).

Anugghata [an + ugghata] not shaking, a steady walk J VI.253.

Anugghatin (adj.) [from last] not shaking, not jerking, J VI.252; Vv 53 (read *i for i); VvA 36.

Anughayati [anu + ghayati1] to smell, snuff, sniff up Miln 343 (gandham).

Anucankamati [anu + cankamati] to follow (along) after, to go after D I.235; M I.227; Th 1, 481, 1044; Causative *apeti M I.253, cp. Lal. Vist. 147, 3; M Vastu I.350.

Anucankamana (nt.) [from anucankamati] sidewalk J I.7.

Anucarati [anu + cariti] to move along, to follow; to practice; pp. anucinna and anucarita (q. v.)

Anucarita (-*) [pp. of anucarati] connected with, accompanied by, pervaded with D I.16, 21 (vimamsa* = anuvicarita DA I.106); M I.68 (id.); Miln 226.

Anucinna (pp.) [pp. of anucarati] 1. pursuing, following out, practising, doing; having attained or practised Vin II.203 = It 86 (pamadam); J I 20 (v.126); Th 1, 236; 2, 206; Dpvs IV.9. - 2. adorned with, accompanied by, connected with J IV.286.

Anucintana (nt.) [from anucinteti] thinking, upon, intention, care for PvA 164.

Anucinteti [anu + cinteti] to think upon, to meditate, consider S I.203 (v. l. for anuvicinteti).

Anuccangin see anujjangin.

Anucchavika (and *ya) (adj.) [anu + chavi + ka] "according to one's skin", befitting, suitable, proper, pleasing, fit for, J I.58, 62, 126, 218; II.5; IV.137, 138; Miln 358; DhA I.203, 390; II.55, 56; VvA 68, 78; PvA 13, 26 ( = kappiya), 66, 81, 286. anucchaviya at Vin II.7 (an*); III.120 (id. + ananulomika); Miln 13.

Anucchittha (adj.) [see ucchittha] (food) that is not thrown away or left over; untouched, clean (food) J III.257; DhA II.3 (vv. ll. anuccittha).

Anujagghati [anu + jagghati] to laugh at, deride, mock D I.91; DA I.258 (cp. sanjagghati ibid 256).

Anujavati [anu + javati] to run after, to hasten after, to follow J VI.452 ( = anubandhati).

Anujata (adj.) [anu + jata] "born after" i. e. after the image of, resembling, taking after; esp. said of a son (putta), resembling his father, a worthy son It 64 (atijata +, opp. avajata); Th 1, 827 (fig. following the example of), 1279; J VI.380; DhA I.129; Davs II.66.

Anujanati [anu + janati] 1. to give permission, grant, allow Vin IV.225; A II.197; Pv IV.167; PvA 55, 79, 142. - 2. to advise, prescribe Vin I.83; II.301: Sn 982. grd. anunneyya that which is allowed A II.197; pp. anunnata (q. v.) Causative anujanapeti J I.156.

Anujivati [anu + jivati] to live after, i. e. like (acc.), to live for or on, subsist by J IV.271 ( = upajivati, tassa-nubhavena jivitam laddham (C.). -pp. anujivata (q. v.).

Anujivita (nt.) [pp. of anujivati] living (after), living, livelihood, subsistence, life Sn 836 ( = jivitam SnA 545).

Anujivin (adj.-n.) [from anujivati] living upon, another, dependent; a follower, a dependant A I.152; III.44; J III.485; Davs v.43.

Anujju (adj.) [an + ujju] not straight, crooked, bent, in compounds *angin (anujjangin) with (evenly) bent limbs, i. e. with perfect limbs, graceful f. *i Ep. of a beautiful woman J v.40 ( = kancana-sannibha-sarira C.); VI.500 (T. anuccangi, C. anindita agarahitangi); *gamin going crooked i. e. snake J IV.330; *bhuta not upright (fig. of citta) J v.293.

Anujjuka = anujju J III.318.

Anujjhana (nt.) [anu + jhana] meditation, reflection, introspection Miln 352 (*bahula).

Anunnata (adj.) [pp. of anujanati] permitted, allowed; sanctioned, given leave, ordained D I.88; J I.92; II.353, 416; Pv I.123 (na a. = ananunnata at id. p. Th 2, 129; explained. at PvA 64 by ananumata); Pug 28; DA I.247, 248, 267; PvA 12, 81.

Anunnatatta (nt.) [abstr. to anunnata] being permitted, permission J II.353.

Anutthaka (adj.) [from an + utthahati] not rising, not rousing oneself, inactive, lazy Th 1, 1033.

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Anutthahati [anu + thahati = *thati, see *titthati] to carry out, look after, practise do J v.121. -pp. anutthita (q. v.).

Anutthahana (adj.) [ppr. of an + utthahati] one who does not rouse himself, not getting up, inactive Dh 280 ( = anutthahanto avayamanto DhA III.409).

Anutthatar [n. ag. to an + utthahati] one without energy or zeal Sn 96 (niddasilin sabhasilin +) SnA 169 ( = viriya-tejavirahita).

Anutthana (nt.) [an + utthana] "the not getting up", inactivity, want of energy Dh 241 (sarira-patijagganam akaronto DhA III.347).

Anutthita [pp. of anutthati = anutitthati] practising, effecting or effected, come to, experienced, done D II.103; S IV. 200; A III.290 sq.; IV.300; J II.61; Miln 198; PvA 132 (cp. anugata).

Anutthubhati [formally Sanskrit anus.tobhati, but in meaning = *anus.tivati; anu + tthubhati, the etymology of which see under nitthubhati] to lick up with one's saliva DA I.138.

Anutthurin v. l. at SnA 569, see nitthurin.

Anudasati [anu + dasati] to bite J VI.192.

Anudahati [anu + dahati] to burn over again, burn thoroughly, fig. to destroy, consume J II.330; VI.423. Pass. *dayhati J v.426. - Also spelt *dahati, e. g. at S IV. 190 = v.53; Th 2, 488.

Anudahana (nt.) [from anudahati] conflagration, burning up, consumption J v.271; ThA 287 (d).

Anunnata (adj.) [unnata] not raised, not elated, not haughty, humble Sn 702 (care = uddhaccam na-pajjeyya SnA 492).

Anutappati [anu + tappati1; Sanskrit anutapyate, Pass. of anutapati] to be sorry for, to regret, repent, feel remorse J I.113; IV.358; v.492 (ppr. an-anutappam); Dh 67, 314; Pv II.942; DhA II.40. grd. anutappa to be regretted A I.22, 77; III.294, and anutapiya A III.46 (an*).

Anutapa [from anu + tapa] anguish, remorse, conscience Vv 405 ( = vippatisara VvA 180); DhsA 384.

Anutapin (adj.) [from anutapa] repenting, regretting Th 2, 57, 190; Vv 21; VvA 115.

Anutapiya grd. of anutappati, q. v.

Anuta'eti [anu + ta'eti] to beat J II.280.

Anutitthati [anu + titthati see also anutthahati] to look after, to manage, carry on J v.113 ( = anugacchati); PvA 78.

Anutire (adv.) [anu + tire, loc. of tira] along side or near the bank (of a river) Sn 18 ( = tira-samipe SnA 28). Cp. anu A b.

Anuttara (adj.) [an + uttara] "nothing higher", without a superior, incomparable, second to none, unsurpassed, excellent, preeminent Sn 234 ( = adhikassa kassaci abhavato KhA 193), 1003; Dh 23, 55 ( = asadisa appatibhaga DhA I.423); Pv IV.35 2 (dhamma); Dhs 1294; DA I.129; PvA 1, 5, 6, 18, etc.

Anuttariya (nt.) [abstr. from anuttara] preeminence, superiority, excellency; highest ideal, greatest good. They are mentioned as sets of 3 (viz. dassana*, patipada*, vimutti*) at D III.219, or of 6 (viz. dassana*, savana*, labha*, sikkha*, paricariya*, anussata*) at D III.250, 281; A I.22; III.284, 325 sq., 452; Ps I.5. Cp. M I.235; A v.37. See also anuttariya.

Anuttana (adj.) [an + uttana] not (lying) open, not exposed; fig. unexplained, unclear J VI.247.

Anutthuna (f.) [from anutthunati] wailing, crying, lamenting Nd1 167 ( = vacapalapa vippalapa etc.).

Anutthunati [anu + thunati (thunati); anu + stan] to wail, moan, deplore, lament, bewail D III.86; Sn 827 (cp. Nd1 167); Dh 156; J III.115; v.346, 479; DhA III.133; PvA 60 (wrongly applied for ghayati, of the fire of conscience).

Anutrasin (adj.) [an + utrasin] not terrified, at ease Th 1, 864.

Anuthera [anu + thera] an inferior Thera, one who comes next to the elder Vin II.212 (thera-nuthera Th. and next in age).

Anudadati [anu + dadati] to concede, grant, admit, fut. anudassati Miln 276, 375.

Anudayati (to sympathise with) see under anudda.

Anudassita [pp. of anudasseti] manifested Miln 119.

Anudahati see anudahati.

Anudittha [pp. of anudisati] pointed out, appointed, dedicated, nt. consecration, dedication J v.393 (anudittha = asukassa nama dassati ti C.); Pv I.107 ( = uddittha PvA 50).

Anuditthi (f.) [anu + ditthi] an "after-view", sceptical view, speculation, heresy D I.12; M II.228; S III.45 sq.; Th 1, 754; Miln 325; DA I.103. atta-nuditthi (q. v.) a soul-speculation.

Anudisati [anu + disati] to point out, direct, bid, address PvA 99 (aor. anudesi + anvesi). -pp. anudittha (q. v.).

Anudisa (f.) [anu + disa] an intermediate point of ihe compass, often collectively for the usual 4 intermediate points D I.222; S I.122; III.124.

Anudipeti [anu + dipeti] to explain Miln 227 (dhamma-dhammam).

Anuduta [anu + duta] a person sent with another, a travelling companion Vin II.19, 295; DhA II.76, 78.

Anudeva see anvadeva.

Anuddayata (f.) [abstr. to anuddaya] sympathy with (-*) compassion, kindness, favour, usually as par* kindness to or sympathy with other people S II.218; v.169 (T. anudayata); A III.184; It 72; Vbh 356.

Anuddaya (and anudaya) (f.) [anu + daya] compassion, pity, mercy, care Vin II.196; S I.204; II.199; IV.323; A II.176; III.189; Pug 35 (anukampa); J I.147, 186, 214; PvA 70, 88, 181 ( = anukampa). In compounds anudaya* e. g. *sampanna full of mercy J I.151, 262; PvA 66.

Anudda (f.) [contracted form of anuddaya] = anuddaya Dhs 1056, where also the other abstr. formations anuddayana and anuddayitattam "care, forbearance and consideration"; DhsA 362 (anudayati ti anudda).

Anuddhamseti [anu + dhamseti] to spoil, corrupt, degrade Vin IV.148 (explination. here in slightly different meaning = codeti va codapeti va to reprove, scold, bring down); It 42. Usually in stereotype phrase rago cittam a. lust degrades the heart Vin III.111; M I.26; S I.186; A I.266; II.126; III. 393 sq. -pp. anuddhasta (q. v.).

Anuddhata (adj.) [an + uddhata] not puffed up, not proud, unconceited calm, subdued Sn 850 ( = uddhacca-virahita SnA 549, cp. anunnata); It 30; Dh 363 ( = nibbutacitta DhA IV.93); Vv 648; Pug 59.

Anuddharin (adj.) [an + uddharin] not proud Sn 952 ( = anussukin SnA 569) see nitthurin.

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Anuddhasta (adj.) [anu + dhasta, pp. of anuddhamseti, cp. Sanskrit apadhvasta] spoilt, corrupt, degraded M I.462 (citta); A II.126 (id.).

Anudhamma [anu + dhamma] 1. in compounds. with dhamma as dhamma-nudhamma to be judged as a redupl. cpd. after the manner of compounds mentioned under anu IV. and meaning "the Law in all its parts, the dhamma and what belongs to it, the Law in its fullness". For instances see dhamma C. IV. Freq. in phrase dh*-a-nudh*-patipanna "one who mastereotype the completeness of the Dh.", e. g. S II.18; III.163; It 81; Ps II.189. - 2. conformity or accordance with the Law, lawfulness, relation, essence, consistency, truth; in phrase Dhammassa (c*) anudhammam vyakaroti to explain the truth of the Dh. Vin I.234; D I.161; M I.368, 482; S II.33; III.6; IV.51; V.7. See further M III.30; Sn 963 (cp. Nd1 481 for exegesis). Also in cpd. *carin living according to the Dhamma, living in truth S II.81, 108; A II.8; Dh 20 (cp. DhA I.158); Vv 317; Sn 69 (see Nd2 51).

Anudhammata (f.) [abstr. to anudhamma) lawfulness, conformity to the Dhamma A II.46; Ps I.35, 36.

Anudhareti [anu + dhareti] to hold up DA I.61 (chattam), cp. J 1.53, dhariyamana.

Anudhavati [anu + dhavati] to run after, to chase, follow, persecute, pursue M I.474; S I.9; Dh 85; Th 1, 1174; Miln 253, 372.

Anudhavin (adj.-n.) [from anudhavati] one who runs after S I.9, 117.

Anunadi (-tire) along the bank of the river S IV.177 should be read anu naditire ( = anu prep. c. loc.; see under anu A).

Anunamati [anu + namati] to incline, bend (intrs.), give way Miln 372 (of a bow).

Anunaya [from anuneti] "leading along", friendliness, courtesy, falling in with, fawning D III.254 (*sanyojana); A IV.7 sq. (id.) M I.191; Dhs 1059; Vbh 145; Nett 79; combined. w. opp. patigha (repugnance) at Miln 44, 122, 322.

Anunayana (nt.) [from anuneti] fawning DhsA 362.

Anunasika (adj.) [anu + nasa + ika] nasal; as tt. g. the sound m; in *lopa apocope of the nasal m VvA 114, 253, 275, 333.

Anunita (adj.) [pp. of anuneti] led, induced S IV.71; Sn 781.

Anunetar [n. ag. from anuneti] one who reconciles or conciliates Ps II.194 (neta vineta anuneta).

Anuneti [anu + neti] to conciliate, appease, win over, flatter S I.232 (ppr. anunayamana); pp. anunita (q. v.).

Anupa see anupa.

Anupakampati [anu + pakampati] to shake, move, to be unsteady Th 1, 191 = Ud 41.

Anupakkama [an + upakkama] not attacking, instr. *ena not by attack (from external enemies) Vin II.195.

Anupakkuttha (adj.) [an + upak.r] blameless, irreproachahle D I.113; Vin IV.160; Sn p. 115; DA I.281.

Anupakkhandati [anu + pa + khandati] to push oneself forward, to encroach on D I.122 ( = anupavisati DA I.290); ger. anupakhajja pushing oneself in, intruding Vin II.88 ( = antopavisati), 213; IV.43 ( = anupavisati); M I.151, 469; S III.113; Vism 18.

Anupakhajjati [den. from anupakhajja, ger. of anupakkhandati] to encroach, intrude Vin V.163.

Anupagacchati [anu + pa + gacchati] to go or return into (c. acc.) D I.55 (anupeti +).

Anupaghata [an + upaghata] not hurting Dh 185 (anupa* metri causa; explained. by anupahananan c-eva anupaghatanan ca DhA III.238).

Anupacita (adj.) [anu + pa + cita, pp. of anupacinati] heaped up, accumulated ThA 56.

Anupacinati [an + upacinati] not to observe or notice J V.339 ( = anoloketi C.; v. l. anapavinati).

Anupajagghati [anu + pa + jagghati] to laugh at, to deride, mock over A I.198 (v. l. anusan*).

Anupajjati [anu + pad] to follow, accompany J IV.304. pp. anupanna (q. v.).

Anupancaham (adv.) [anu + panca + aham] every five days PvA 139 (+ anudasaham).

Anupannatti (f.) [anu + pannatti] a supplementary regulation or order Vin II.286; V.2 sq.

Anupatipati (f.) [anu + patipati] succession; as adv. in order, successively DA I.277 (katha = anupubbikatha); DhA III.340 (anupatipatiya = anupubbena); Vism 244.

Anupatthita (adj.) [anu + pa + thita] setting out after, following, attacking J V.452.

Anupatati [anu + patati] 1. to follow, go after, J VI.555 anupatiyasi Subj.). - 2. to fall upon, to befall, attack Vin III.106 = M I.364; S I.23 (read *patanti for *patatanti) = Dh 221 (dukkha); Th 1, 41 = 1167 (of lightning). pp. anupatita (q. v.). Cp. also anupata and anupatin.

Anupatita [pp. of anupatati] "befallen", affected with, oppressed by (-*) S II.173 (dukkha*); III.69 (id.); Sn 334 (pamada*).

Anupatitatta (nt.) [abstr. of anupatita] the fact of being attacked by, being a victim of (-*) SnA 339.

Anupatta (anuppatta) [pp. of anupapunati; cp. Sanskrit anuprapta] (having) attained, received, got to (c. acc), reached D I.87-111; II 2; It 38; Sn 027, 635; Dh 386, 403; Pv IV.166; PvA 59 (dukkham), 242. In phrase addhagata vayo-anuppatta having reached old age, e. g. Vin II.188; D I.48; Sn pp. 50, 92; PvA 149.

Anupatti (anuppatti) (f.) [anu + patti] attainment, accomplishment, wish, desire (fulfilled), ideal S I.46, 52.

Anupathe at J V.302 should be read as anu pathe by the way at the wayside; anu to be taken as prep. c. loc. (see anu A). C. explinations. as janghamagga-mahamagganam antare.

Anupada [cp. Sanskrit anupadam adv., anu + pada] 1. the "afterfoot", i. e. second foot a verse, also a mode of reciting, where the second foot is recited without the first one Vin IV.15 (cp. 355); Miln 340 (anupadena anupadam katheti). - 2. (adj.) (following) on foot, at every, step, continuous, repeated, in *dhamma-vipassana uninterrupted contemplation M III.25; *vannana word-by-word explanation DhsA 168. As nt. adv. *m close behind, immediately after (c. gen.) J II.230 (tassa-nupadam agamasi); VI.422. Esp. frequent in combination. pada-nupadam (adv.) foot after foot, i. e. in the footsteps, immediately behind J III. 504; VI.555; DhA I.69; II.38.

Anupadatar (anuppadatar) [n. ag. of anupadeti] one who gives, or one who sets forth, effects, designs D I.4 (cp. DA I.74); A II.209.

Anupadana (anuppadana) (nt.) [anu + pa + dana, cp. anupadeti] giving, administereotypeng, furnishing, the giving of (-*) D I.12 (cp. DA I.98; both read anuppadana); J III.205; Miln 315.

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Anupadinna (anuppadinna) [pp. of anupadeti] given, handed over, furnished, dedicated Pv I.512.

Anupadeti (anuppadeti) [anu + pa + dadati] to give out, give as a present, hand over; to design, set forth, undertake S III.131 (Pot. anuppadajjum); M I.416 (Pot. anupadajjeyya. see dadati I.3); Miln 210 (*deti). fut. *dassati (see dadati I.1); D III.92; S IV.303 (v. l. SS for T. anusarissati); A III.43; Sn 983. ger. *datva SnA 35. inf. *datum A I.117. pp. *dinna (q. v.).

Anupaddava (adj.) [an + upaddava] free from danger, uninjured, safe Vin II.79 = 124 (+ anitika); III.162; Dh 338; DhA IV.48; PvA 250 (explination. for siva).

Anupadhareti [an + upadhar*] to disregard, to heed not, to neglect DhA IV.197; VvA 260.

Anupadhika (adj.) [an + upadhi + ka] free from attachment (see upadhi) Vin I 36 (anupadhika); D. III 112 (anupadhika opp. to sa-upadhika); Sn 1057 (anupadhika T., but Nd2 anupadhika. with u for u metri causa).

Anupanna, [pp. of anupajjati] gone into, reached, attained Sn 764 (maradheyya*).

Anupabandhati (anuppa*) [anu + pa + bandhati] to follow immediately, to be incessant, to keep on (without stopping), to continue Miln 132. - Causative *apeti ibid.

Anupabandhanata (anuppa*) (f.) [abstr. to prec.] nonstopping, not ceasing Miln 132.

Anupabandhana (anuppa*) (f.) [abstr. from anupabandhati] continuance, incessance, Pug 18 = Vbh 357 (in exegesis of upanaha).

Anupabbajja (f.) [anu + pabbajja, cp. BSanskrit anupravrajati Divy 61] giving up worldly life in imitation of another S V.67 = It 107.

Anupaya (adj.) [an + upaya] unattached, "aloof" S I.181 (akankha apiha +).

Anuparigacchati [anu + pari + gacchati] to walk round and round, to go round about (c. acc.) Vin III.119; S I.75 (ger. *gamma); Sn 447 (aor. *pariyaga = parito parito agamasi Sn A 393); J IV.267.

Anuparidhavati [anu + pari + dhavati] to run up and down or to move round and round (cp. anuparivattati) S. III.150 (khilan).

Anupariyati [auu + pari + yati] to go round about, to go about, to wander or travel all over (c. acc.) Vin II.111; S I.102, 124; Th 1, 1235 (*pariyeti), 1250 (id. to search); Pv III.34 ( = anuvicarati); Miln 38; PvA 92 (*yayitva, ger.) 217.

Anupariyaya (adj) [adjectivised ger. of anupariyati] going round, encircling, in *patha the path leading or going round the city D II.83 = S IV 194 = A V.195; A IV.107.

Anuparivattati [anu + pari + vrt] to go or move round, viz. 1. to deal with, be engaged in, perform, worship Vin III.307 (adiccam); D I.240; PvA 97. - 2. to meet Miln 204 (Devadatto ca Bodhisatto ca ekato anuparivattanti). - 3. to move round and round, move on and on, keep on rolling (c. acc.), evolve S. III.150 (anuparidhavati +) Miln 253 (anudhavati + kayan).

Anuparivatti (f.) (-*) [anu + parivatti] dealing with, occupation, connection with S III.16.

Anuparivareti [anu + pari + vareti] to surround, stand by, attend on (c. acc.) Vin I.338; M I.153; DhA 1.55.

Anupariveniyam [anu + pariveniyam = loc. of pariveni] should be written anu pariveniyam ("in every cell, cell by cell"), anu here functioning as prep. c. loc. (see anu A) Vin I.80, 106.

Anuparisakkati [anu + pari + sakkati] to move round, to be occupied with, take an interest in (c. acc.) S IV.312 (v.l. *vattati).

Anuparisakkana (nt.) [from anuparisakkati] dealing with, interest in S IV.312 (v.l. *vattana).

Anupariharati [anu + pari + harati] to surround, enfold, embrace M I.306.

Anupalitta (adj.) [an + upalitta] unsmeared, unstained, free from taint M I.319, 386 (in verse); as *upalitta in verse of Sn and Dh: Sn 211 ( = lepanam abhava SnA 261), 392, 468, 790, 845; Dh 353.

Anupavajja (adj.) [grd. of an + upavadati] blameless, without fault, Miln 391.

Anupavattaka (anuppa*) (adj.) to anupavatteti] one who succeeds (another) King or Ruler in the ruling of an empire (cakkam) Miln 342, 362; SnA 454. See also anuvattaka.

Anupavatteti (anuppa*) [anu + pa + vatteti, from vrt] to keep moving on after, to continue rolling, with cakkam to wield supreme power after, i.e. in succession or imitation of a predecessor S I.191; Miln 362. See also anuvatteti.

Anupavada [an + upavada] not blaming or finding fault, abstaining from grumbling or abuse Dh 185 (anupa* in metre; explained at DhA III.238 as anupavadanan c'eva anupavadapanan ca "not scolding as well as not inciting others to grumbling"); adj. *vadaka Pug 60, and *vadin M I.360.

Anupavittha (anuppa*) [pp. of anupavisati] entered, gone or got into, fallen into (c. acc.) Miln 270, 318 sq., 409 (coming for shelter); PvA 97, 152 (Ganganadim a. nadi: flowing into the G.).

Anupavitthata (f.) [abstr. to anupavittha] the fact of having entered Miln 257.

Anupavisati [anu + pa + visati] to go into, to enter Dh I.290; VvA 42 ( = ogahati). -pp. *pavittha (q.v.) Causative *paveseti (q.v.).

Anupavecchati (anuppa*) [see under pavecchati] to give, give over to, offer up, present, supply Vin I.221 (*pavacchati); D I.74 ( = pavesati DA I.218); II.78; M I.446; III.133; A II.64; III.26 (v.l. *vacch*); J V.394; Sn 208 (v.l. *vacch*); SnA 256 ( = anupavesati); PvA 28.

Anupaveseti [anu + pa + vis, cp. BSanskrit anupraveshayati Divy 238] to make enter, to give over, to supply SnA 256 ( = *pavecchati).

Anupasankamati1 [anu + pa + sankamati] to go along up to (c. acc.) PvA 179.

Anupasankamati2 [an + upasank.r] not to go to. not to approach DhA II.30 (+ apayirupasati).

Anupasanthapana (f.) [an + upasanthapana] not stopping, incessance, continuance Pug 18 (but id. p. at Vbh 357 has anusansandana instead); cp. anupabandhana.

Anupassaka (adj.) [from anupassati] observing, viewing, contemplating Th 1, 420.

Anupassati [anu + passati] to look at, contemplate, observe Sn 477; Ps I.57, 187; Sn A 505.

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Anupassana (f.) [abstr. of anupassati, cf. Sanskrit anudarshana] looking at, viewing, contemplating, consideration, realisation S V.178 sq., Sn p. 140; Ps I.10, 20, 96; II.37, 41 sq., 67 sq.; Vbh 194. See [pp. of anupapeti] having been lead to or made to reach, attained, found Miln 252.

Anupapunati (anuppa*) [anu + papunati] to reach, attain, get to, find S I.105; ger. anuppatvana Pv II.924 ( = *papunitva PvA 123). -pp. anupatta (q. v.). - Causative anupapeti (q. v.).

Anupapeti [Causative of anupapunati] to make reach or attain, to lead to, to give or make find J VI.88; Cp. XI. 4 (aor. anupapayi); Miln 276. -pp. anupapita (q. v.).

Anupaya [an + upaya] wrong means J I.256; Sdhp 405.

Anupayasa see upayasa.

Anupalaka (adj.) [anu + palaka] guarding, preserving Sdhp 474.

Anupalana (nt.) [from anupaleti] maintenance, guarding, keeping Dpvs III.2.

Anupaleti [anu + paleti] to safeguard, warrant, maintain Miln 160 (santatim).

Anupahana (adj.) [an + upahana] without shoes J VI.552.

Anupiya (anuppiya) (adj) [anu + piya] flattering, plessant, nt. pleasantness, flattery, in *bhanin one who flatters I) III.185; J II.390; V.360; and *bhanitar id. Vbh 352.

Anupi'am at PvA 161 is to be read anuppi'an (q. v.).

Anupucchati [anu + pucchati] to ask or inquire after (c. acc.) Sn 432, 1113. -pp. anuputtha (q. v.).

Anuputtha [pp. of anupucchati] asked Sn 782 ( = pucchita SnA 521).

Anupubba (adj.) [anu + pubba] following in one's turn, successive, gradual, by and by, regular Vin II.237 (mahasamuddo a*-ninno etc.); D I.184; Sn 511; J V.155 (regularly formed, of uru). Cases adverbially: anupubbena (instr.) by and by, in course of time, later, gradually Vin I.83; Dh 239 ( = anupatipatiya DhA III.340); Pug 41, 64; J II.2, 105; III.127; Miln 22; PvA 19. anupubbaso (abl. cp. Sanskrit anupurvasha*) in regular order Sn 1000. In compounds. both anupubba* and anupubbi* (q. v.). -karana gradual performance, graded practice M I.446. -nirodha successive passing away, fading away in regular succession, i. e. in due course. The nine stages of this process are the same as those mentioned under *vihara, and are enumerated as such at D III.266, 290; A IV.409, 456; Ps I.35. -vihara a state of gradually ascending stages, by means of which the highest aim of meditation and trance is attained, viz. complete cessation of all consciousness. These are 9 stages, consisting of the 4 jhanas, the 4 ayatanani and as the crowning phrase "sanna-vedayitanirodha" (see jhana1). enumerated as such in var. places, esp. at the following: D II.156; III.265, 290; A IV.410; Nd2 under jhana; Ps I.5; Miln 176. -sikkha regular instruction or study (dhammavinaye) M I.479; III.1 (+ *kiriya *patipada).

Anupubbaka (adj.) = anupubba, in cpd. pubba-nupubbaka all in succession or in turn, one by one (on nature of this kind of cpd. see anu B IV.) Vin I.20 (*anam kulanam putta the sons of each clan, one by one).

Anupubbata (nt.) [from anupubba] acting in turn, gradation, succession Vv 6414 ( = anukula kiriya i. e. as it pleases VvA 280) cp. anupubbata.

Anupubbi-katha (f.) [anupubba + katha, formation like dhammi-katha] a gradual instruction, graduated sermon, regulated exposition of the ever higher values of four subjects (dana-katha, sila*, sagga*, magga*) i. e. charity, righteousness, the heavens, and the Path. Bdhgh. explains the term as anupubbikatha nama dana-nantaram silam sila-nantaro saggo sagga-nantaro maggo ti etesan dipana-katha" (DA I.277). Vin I.15, 18; II.156, 192; D I.110; II.41; M I.379; J I.8; VvA 66, 197, 208; DA I.308; DhA I.6; Miln 228. - The spelling is frequently anupubbikatha (as to lengthening of anu see anu Note (a)), e. g. at D I.110; II.41; M I.379; J I.8; Miln 228.

Anupekkhati [anu + pekkhati] 1. to concentrate oneself on, to look carefully A III.23. - 2. to consider, to show consideration for, Nd2 50 (ppr. *amana = anukampamana). - Causative anupekkheti to cause some one to consider carefully Vin II.73.

Anupekkhanata (f.) [abstr. from anupekkhana, see anupekkhati] concentration (of thought) Dhs 8, 85, 284, 372.

Anupeti [anu + pa + i] to go into D I.55 (+ anupagacchati) S III.207; DA I.165.

Anupeseti [anu + pa + is.] to send forth after Miln 36.

Anuposathikam see anvaddhamasan.

Anuposiya (adj.) [grd. of anu + pus.] to be nourished or fostereotyped Sdhp 318.

Anuppa* in all combinations. of anu + ppa see under headings anupa*.

Anuppadajjum (S III.131) see anupadeti.

Anuppanna (*uppada, *uppadeti) see uppanna etc.

Anuppi'a (adj.) [an + uppi'a] not molested, not oppressed (by robbers etc.) not ruined, free from harm J III.443; V.378; VvA 351; PvA 161.

Anupharana (nt.) [anu + pharana] flashing through, pervading Miln 148.

Anuphusiyati [anu + phusiyati, cp. Sanskrit prus.ayati, Causative of prus.] to sprinkle, moisten, make wet J V.242 (himam; C. pateyya).

Anubajjhati at PvA 56 is faulty reading for anubandhati (q. v.).

Anubaddha [pp. of anubandhati] following, standing behind (pitthito) D I.1, 226.

Anubandha [anu + bandh] bondage M III.170; It 91.

Anubandhati [anu + bandhati] to follow, run after, pursue J I.195; II.230; VI.452 ( = anujavati); PvA 56 (substitute

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for anubajjhanti!), 103, 155. aor. *bandhi J II.154, 353; III.504; PvA 260 ( = anvagacchi). ger. *bandhitva J I.254. grd. *bandhitabba M I.106. -pp. anubaddha (q. v.).

Anubandhana (nt.) [from anubandhati] that which connects or follows, connection, consequence J VI.526 (*dukkha).

Anubala (nt.) [anu + bala] rear-guard, retinue, suite, in *m bhavati to accompany or follow somebody Miln 125.

Anubujjhati [anu + bujjhati, Med. of budh, cp. Sanskrit avabudhyate] to remember, recollect J III.387 (with avabujjhati in prec. verse).

Anubujjhana (nt.) [from anubujjhati] awakening, recognition Ps I.18 (bujjhana +).

AnuBuddha [pp. of anu + bodhati] 1. awakened (act. and pass.), recognised, conceived, seen, known D II.123 (*a ime dhamma); S I.137 (dhammo vimalen- a-nubuddho) II.203; IV.188; A II.1; III.14; IV.105; SnA 431. In phrase Buddha-nuBuddha (as to nature of cpd. see anu B IV.) either "fully awakened (enlightened)" or "wakened by the wake" (Mrs. Rh. D.) Th 1, 679 = 1246. - 2. a lesser Buddha, inferior than the Buddha DA I.40. Cp. Buddha-nuBuddha.

Anubodha [anu + budh] awakening; perception, recognition, understanding S I.126 (*) = A V.46 (anubodhim as aor. of anubodhati*); Pug 21; Miln 233. Freq. in compounds. ananubodha (adj.) not understanding, not knowing the truth S II.92; III.261; V.431; A II.1; IV.105; Dhs 390, 1061; VvA 321 ( = anavabodha) and duranubodha (adj.) hard to understand, difficult to know D I.12, 22; S I.136.

Anubodhati [anu + budh] to wake up, to realise, perceive, understand; aor. anubodhim A V.46 (*) = S I.126 (anubodham). - Causative *bodheti to awaken, fig. to make see to instruct J VI.139 (*ayamana) -pp. anuBuddha (q. v.).

Anubodhana (nt.) [from anubodhati] awakening, understanding, recognition Ps I.18 (bodhana +).

Anubbajati [anu + vraj] to go along, wander, follow, tread (a path) J IV.399 (maggam = pabbajati C.).

Anubbata (adj.) [Vedic anuvrata, anu + vata] subject to the will of another, obedient, faithful, devoted J III.521; VI.557.

Anubbillavitatta see ubbill*.

Anubyanjana see anuvyanjana.

Anubruhita [pp. of anubruheti] strengthened with (-*), full of Ps I.167.

Anubruheti [bruheti] to do very much or often, to practice, frequent, to be fond of (c. acc.), fostereotypeS I.178 (anubruhaye); M III.187 (id., so read for manu*), Th 2, 163 (*ehi); Cp. III.12 (sanvegam anubruhayim aor.); J III.191 (sunnagaram). Often in phrase vivekam anubruheti to devote oneself to detachment or solitude, e.g. J I.9 (inf. *bruhetum); III.31 (*bruhessami), Dh 75 (*bruhaye = *bruheyya vaddheyya DhA II.103). -pp. anubruhita (q.v.) Cp. also bruhana.

Anubhanana (f.) [anu + bhanana] talking to, admonition, scolding Vin II.88 (anuvadana +).

Anubhavati and Anubhoti [anu + bhavati] to come to or by, to undergo, suffer (feel), get, undertake, partake in, experience D I.129; II.12 (*bhonti); M II.204; A I.61 (attham *bhoti to have a good result); J VI.97 (*bhoma); Pv I.1011 (*bhomi vipakam); PvA 52 (*issati = vedissati); Sdhf 290. Esp. frequent with dukkham to suffer pain, e.g. PvA I.1110 (*bhonti); PvA 43, 68, 79 etc. (cp. anubhavana). - ppr. med. *bhavamana J I.50; aor. *bhavi PvA 75 (sampattim); ger. *bhavitva J IV.1; PvA 4 (sam pattim), 67 (dukkham), 73 (sampattim); grd. *bhaviyana (in order to receive) Pv II.85 ( = anubhavitva PvA 109). Pass. anubhuyati and *bhaviyati to be undergone or being experienced; ppr. *bhuyamana PvA 8, 159 (maya a. = anubhuta), 214 (attana by him) and *bhaviyamana PvA 33 (dukkham). -pp. anubhuta (q.v.).

Anubhavana (nt.) [from anubhavati] experiencing, suffering; sensation or physical sensibility (cf. Cpd.229, 2321) Nett 28 (ittha-nitth-a-nubhavana-lakkhana vedana "feeling is characterised by the experiencing of what is pleasant and unpleasant"); Miln 60 (vedayita-lakkhana vedana anubhavana-lakkhana ca); PvA 152 (kamma-vipaka*). Esp. in combination. with dukkha* suffering painful sensations, e.g. at J IV.3; Miln 181; DhA IV.75; PvA 52.

Anubhaga [anu + bhaga] a secondary or inferior part, (after-)share, what is left over Vin II.167.

Anubhayati [anu + bhayati] to be afraid of J VI.302 (kissa nv- a-nubhayissan, so read for kissa-nu*).

Anubhava [from anubhavati] orig. meaning "experience, concomitance" and found only in compounds as -*, in meaning "experiencing the sensation of or belonging to, experience of, accordance with", e.g. maha* sensation of greatness, raja-* s. belonging to a king, what is in accordance with kingship, i. e. majesty. Through preponderance of expressions of distinction there arises the meaning of anubhava as "power, majesty, greatness, splendour etc." and as such it was separated from the 1st component and taken as anubhava with a instead of a, since the compositional character had obliterated the character of the a. As such (anubhava abs.) found only in later language. - (1) anubhava (-*): mahanubhava (of) great majesty, eminence, power S I.146 sq.; II.274; IV.323; Sn p. 93; Pv II.112; PvA 76. deva* of divine power or majesty D II.12; devata* id. J I.168; dibba* id. PvA 71, 110. raja* kingly splendour, pomp D I.49; J IV 247; PvA 279 etc. -anubhavena (instr. -*) in accordance with, by means of J II.200 (angavijja*); PvA 53 (iddh*), 77 (kamma*), 148 (id.), 162 (raja*), 184 (dana*), 186 (punna*). yatha-nubhavam (adv.) in accordance with (me), as much as (1 can); after ability, according to power S I.31; Vv 15 ( = yathabalam VvA 25). - (2) anubhava majesty power, magnificence, glory, splendour J V.10, 456; Pv II.811; VvA 14; PvA 43, 122, 272. See also anu*.

Anubhavata (f.) [ = anubhava + ta] majesty, power S I.156 (maha-*).

Anubhasati [anu + bhasati] to speak after, to repeat D I.104; Miln 345; DA I.273.

Anubhuta [pp. of anubhavati] (having or being) experienced, suffered, enjoyed PvA II.1218. nt. suffering, experience J I.254; Miln 78, 80.

Anubhuyamanatta (nt.) [abstr. from ppr. Pass. of anubhavati] the fact of having to undergo, experiencing PvA 103.

Anuma (-dassika) see anoma*.

Anumagge at J V.201 should be read anu magge along the road, by the way; anu here used as prep. c. loc. (see anu A b).

Anumajjati [anu + majjati] 1. to strike along, to stroke, to touch DA I.276 ( = anumasati). - 2. to beat, thresh, fig. to thresh out J VI.548; Miln 90. - Pass. anumajjiyati Miln 275 (cp. p. 428).

Anumajjana (nt.) [abstr. from anumajjati] threshing out, pounding up (Dhs. trsl. 11), always used with reference to the term vicara (q.v.) Miln 62; DhsA 114; DA I.63, 122.

Anumajjha (adj.) [anu + majjha] mediocre, without going to extremes J IV.192; V.387.

Anumannati [anu + mannati] to assent, approve, give leave Th 1, 72. -pp. anumata (q.v.).

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Anumata [pp. of anumannati] approved of, given consent to, finding approval, given leave D I.99 ( = anunnata DA I.267); J V.399 ( = muta); Miln 185, 212, 231, 275; PvA 64 ( = annunnata).

Anumati (f.) [from anumannati] consent, permission, agreement, assent, approval Vin II.294, 301, 306; D. I.137, 143; Dpvs IV.47, Cf. V.18; DA I.297; VvA 17, PvA 114.

Anumatta see anu*.

Anumasati [anu + masati] to touch D I.106 ( = anumajjati DA I.276).

Anumana [from anu + man] inference Miln 330 (naya +), 372, 413; Sdhp 74.

Anumitta [anu + mitta] a secondary friend, a follower. acquaintance J V.77.

Anuminati [cf. Sanskrit anumati, anu + minati from mi, Sanskrit minoti, with confusion of roots ma andmi] to observe, draw an inference M I.97; PvA 227 (*anto + nayan nento). See also anumiyati.

Anumiyati [Sanskrit anumiyate, Pass. of anu + ma, measure, in sense of Med.] to observe, conclude or infer from S III.36. Cp. anuminati.

Anumodaka (adj.) [from anumodati] one who enjoys, one who is glad of or thankful for (c. acc.) Vin V.172; PvA 122; Sdhf 512.

Anumodati [anu + modati] to find satisfaction in (acc.), to rejoice in, be thankful for (c. acc.), appreciate, benefit from, to be pleased, to enjoy Vin II.212 (bhattagge a. to say grace after a meal); S II.54; A III.50 (*modaniya); IV.411; Dh 177 (ppr. *modamana); It 78; Pv II.919 (danam *modamana = enjoying, gladly receiving); 1,54 (anumodare = are pleased; pitisomanassajata honti PvA 27); J II.112; PvA 19, 46, 81, 201) imper. modahi); Sdhp. 501 sq. -pp. anumodita (q.v.).

Anumodana (nt.) [from anumodati] "according to taste", i.e. satisfaction, thanks, esp. after a meal or after receiving gifts = to say grace or benediction, blessing, thanksgiving. In latter sense with dadati (give thanks for = loc.), karoti ( = Latin gratias agere) or vacati (say or tell thanks): *m datva PvA 89; *m katva J I.91; DhA III.170, 172; VvA 118; PvA 17, 47; *m vatva VvA 40 (paniyadane for the gift of water), 295, 306 etc. *m karoti also "to do a favour" PvA 275. Cp. further DhA I.198 (*gatha verses expressing thanks, benediction); II.97 (Sattharam *m yacimsu asked his blessing); PvA 23 (*attham in order to thank), 26 (id.), 121, 141 (katabhatta*), 142; Sdhp 213, 218, 516.

Anumodita [pp. of anumodati] enjoyed, rejoiced in PvA 77.

Anummatta (adj.) [an + ummatta] not out of mind, sane, of sound mind Miln 122; Sdhp 205.

Anuyanta at A V.22 is doubtful reading (v.l. anuyutta). The meaning is either "inferior to, dependent on, a subject of, a vassal" or "attending on". The explanation may compare Sanskrit anuyatam attendance [anu + ya, cp. anuyayin] or Sanskrit yantr ruler [yam], in which latter case anu-yantr would be "an inferior ruler" and Pali yanta would represent the n. a.g. yanta as a-stem. The v. l. is perhaps preferable as long as other passages with anuyanta are not found (see anuyutta 2). [MO: see SN 5.45.145]; 'are subject to']

Anuyagin (adj) [from anu + yaj] offering after the example of another D I.142.

Anuyata [pp. of anuyati] gone through or after, followed, pursued S II.105 (magga); A V.236; It 29; Miln 217.

Anuyati (and anuyayati) [anu + ya] 1. to go after, to follow J VI.49 (fut. *yissati), 499 (yayan tam anuyayati = anugacchati C). - 2. to go along by, to go over, to visit Miln 391 (*yayati). -pp. anuyata (q. v.). See also anusanyayati.

Anuyayin (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit anuyayin, anu + ya] going after, following, subject to (gen.) Sn 1017 (ana-nuyayin); J VI.309; Miln 284.

Anuyunjana (f.) (and *yunjana nt.) [abstr. from anuyunjati] application or devotion to (-*) Miln 178; VvA 346 (anuyujjanam wrong spelling*)

Anuyunjati [anu + yunjati] 1. to practice, give oneself up to (acc.), attend, pursue S I.25, 122 (*yunjan "in loving self-devotion" Mrs. Rh. D.); III.154; IV.104, 175; Dh 26 (pamadam = pavatteti DhA I.257), 247 (surameraya-panam = sevati bahulikaroti DhA III.356); PvA 61 (kammatthaQam). - 2. to ask a question, to call to account, take to task Vin II.79; Vv 335; ppr. Pass. *yunjiyamana PvA 192. -pp. anuyutta (q. v.). - Causative anuyojeti "to put to", to address, admonish, exhort DhA IV.20.

Anuyutta [pp. of anuyunjati] 1. applying oneself to, dealing with, practising, given to, intent upon D I.166, 167; III. 232 = A II.205 (attaparitapan- a-nuyogam a.); S III.153; IV.104; Sn 663 (lobhagune), 814 (methunam = samayutta SnA 536), 972 (jhan*); Pug 55; PvA 163 (jagariya*), 206. - 2. following, attending on; an attendant, inferior, vassal, in expression khattiya or raja anuyutta a prince royal or a smaller king (see khattiya 3 b) A V.22 (v l. for T. anuyanta, q. v.); Sn 553 ( = anugamin, sevaka SnA 453).

Anuyoga [Sanskrit anuyoga, from anu + yuj] 1. application, devotion to (-*), execution, practice of (-*); often combined. with anuyutta in phrase *anuyogam anuyutta = practising, e. g. Vin I.190 (mandan- a-nuyogam anuyutta); D III.113 (attakilamath- a-nuyogam a.); A II.205 (attaparitapan- a-nuyogam a.). - As adj. (-*) doing, given to, practising (cp. anuyutta). D I.5; III.107; M I.385; S I.182; III.239; IV.330; V.320; A I.14; III.249; IV.460 sq.; V. 17 sq., 205; J I.90 (padhan- a-nuyogakiccam); Vv 8438 (dhamma*); Miln 348; DA I. 78, 104. - 2. invitation, appeal, question (cp. anuyunjati 2) Miln 10 (acariyassa *m datva).

Anuyogavant (adj.) [anuyoga + vant] applying oneself to, full of application or zeal, devoted PvA 207.

Anuyogin (adj.) [from anuyoga] applying oneself to, devoted to (-*) Dh 209 (atta* given to oneself, self-concentrated).

Anurakkhaka (adj.) [from anurakkhati, cp. *rakkhin] preserving, keeping up J IV.192 (vamsa*); VI.1 (id.).

Anurakkhana (nt.) and *a (f.) [abstr. from anurakkhati] guarding, protection, preservation D III.225 sq.; A II.16 sq.; J I.133; Pug 12; Dpvs IV.24 (adj.); VvA 32 (citta*); Sdhp 449.

Anurakkhati [anu + rakkhati] to guard, watch over (acc.), preserve, protect, shield Sn 149; Dh 327; J I.46; Pug 12. - ppr. med.* rakkhamana(ka) as adj. Sdhp 621.

Anurakkha (f.) [ = anurakkhana] guarding, protection, preservation S IV.323 (anuddaya a. anukampa).

Anurakkhin (adj.) [from anurakkhati] guarding, preserving, keeping J V.24.

Anurakkhiya (adj.) [f. anurakkhati] in dur* difficult to guard Vin III.149.

Anuranjita [pp. of anu + ranjeti, Causative of ranj] illumined, brighterted, beautified Bu I.45 (byamapabha* by the shine of the halo); VvA 4 (sanjhatapa* for sanjhapabha*).

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Anuratta (adj.) pp. of anu + ranj] attached or devoted to, fond of, faithful Th 2, 446 (bhattaram); J I.297; Miln 146.

Anuravati [anu + ravati] to resound, to sound after, linger (of sound) Miln 63.

Anuravana (f.) [abstr. from anuravati] lingering of the sound, resounding Miln 63.

Anuraho (adv.) [anu + raho] in secret, face-to-face, private M I.27.

Anurujjhati [Sanskrit anurudhyate, Pass. of anu + rudh] to conform oneself to, have a regard for, approve, to be pleased A IV.158; Dhs A 362. -pp. Anuruddha (q. v.).

Anuruddha [pp. of anurujjhati] enggaged in, devoted to; compliant or complied with, pleased S IV.71, (ananuruddha).

Anurupa (adj.) [anu + rupa] suitable, adequate, seeming, fit, worthy; adapted to, corresponding, conform with (-*) J I.91; VI.366 (tad*); PvA 61 (ajjhasaya* according to his wish), 128 (id.) 78, 122, 130, 155; etc. Cp. also patirupa in same meaning.

Anurodati [anu + rodati] to cry after, cry for J III.166 = Pv I.127 (darako candam a.).

Anurodha [from anu + rudh] compliance, consideration satisfaction (opp. virodha) S I.111; IV.210; Sn 362; Dhs 1059; Vbh 145; DhsA 362.

Anulapana (f.) [anu + lapana, lap] scolding, blame, accusation Vin II.88 (spelt anullapana; combined. with anuvadana and anubhanana).

Anulitta (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit anulipta, pp. of anulimpati] anointed, besmeared J I.266; PvA 211.

Anulimpati [anu + limpati] to anoint, besmear, Miln 394 (*limpitabba). Causative *limpeti in same meaning Miln 169, and *lepeti Milm 169 (grd. *lepaniya to be treated with ointment). -pp. anulitta (q. v.).

Anulimpana (nt.) [from anulimpati] anointing Miln 353, 394.

Anulepa [from anu + lip] anointing Miln 152.

Anulokin (adj.) [from anu + loketi, cp. Sanskrit and Pali avalokin and anuviloketi] looking (up) at, seeing (-*) M I.147 (sisa*).

Anuloma (adj.) [Sanskrit anu + loma] "with the hair or grain", i. e. in natural order, suitable, fit, adapted to, adaptable, straight forward D II.273 (ananuloma, q. v.) S IV.401; Ps II.67, 70; DhA II.208. - nt. direct order, state of fitting in, adaptation Miln 148. -nana insight of adaptation (cp. Cpd.66, 68) DhA II.208. -patiloma in regular order and reversed, forward and backward (Ep. of paticcasamuppada, also in BSanskrit) Vin I.1; A IV.448.

Anulomika (and *ya) (adj.) [from anuloma] suitable, fit, agreeable; in proper order, adapted to (-*) Vin II.7 (an*); III.120 (an* = ananucchaviya); IV.239; A I.106; III.116 sq.; It 103 (samannassa*); Sn 385 (pabbajita*); KhA 243 (ananulomiya); DhsA 25; Sdhp 65.

Anulometi [v. denom. from anuloma] to conform to, to be in accordance with Miln 372.

Anu'aratta (nt.) [abstr. from an + u'ara] smallness, littleness, insignificance VvA 24.

Anuvajja (adj.) [grd. of anu + vadati, cp. anuvada and Sanskrit avavadya] to be blamed, censurable, worthy of reproach Sn p. 78 (an* = anuvadavimutta SnA 396).

Anuvattaka (adj.) [from anuvatteti] 1. = anupavattaka (q. v.) Th 1, 1014 (cakka*). - 2. following, siding with (-*) Vin IV.218 (ukkhitta-nuvattika f.).

Anuvattati [Sanskrit anuvartati, anu + vattati] 1. to follow, imitate, follow one's example (c. acc.), to be obedient D II.244; Vin II.309 (Bdhgh.); IV.218; J I.125, 300; DA I.288; PvA 19. - 2. to practice, execute Pv IV. 712. - Causative *vatteti (q. v.).

Anuvattana (nt.) [abstr. from anuvattati] complying with, conformity with (-*), compliance, observance, obedience J I.367 (dhamma*); V.78.

Anuvattin (adj.) [from anuvattati] following, acting according to or in conformity with (-*), obedient J II.348 (f. *ini); III.319 (id.); Dh 86 (dhamma*); Vv 155 (vasa* = anukulabhavena vattana sila VvA 71); DhA II.161.

Anuvatteti [anu + vatteti] = anupavatteti (q. v.) Th 1, 826 (dhammacakkam: "after his example turn the wheel" Mrs. Rh. D.).

Anuvadati [Sanskrit ava*; anu + vadati] to blame, censure, reproach Vin II.80, 88. - grd. anuvajja (q. v.).

Anuvadana (f.) [from anuvadati] blaming, blame, censure Vin II.88 (anuvada +).

Anuvasati [anu + vasati] to live with somebody, to dwell, inhabit J II.421. Causative *vaseti to pass, spend (time) J VI.296. -pp. *vuttha (q. v.).

Anuvassan (adv.) [anu + vassa] for one rainy season; every rainy season or year, i. e. annually C. on Th 1, 24.

Anuvassika (adj.) [from anuvassan] one who has (just) passed one rainy season Th 1, 24 ("scarce have the rains gone by" Mrs. Rh. D.; see trsl. p. 29 n. 2).

Anuvaceti [anu + Causative of vac] to say after, to repeat (words), to recite or make recite after or again D I.104 ( = tehi annesan vacitam anuvacenti DA I.273); Miln 345. Cp. anubhaseti.

Anuvata1 [anu + va to blow] a forward wind, the wind that blows from behind, a favourable wind; *m adv. with the wind, in the direction of the wind (opp. pativatam). A I.226 (*pativatam); Sdhp 425 (pativata*). In anuvate (anu + vate) at J II.382 "with the wind, facing the w., in front of the wind" anu is to be taken as prep. c. loc. and to be separated from vate (see anu A b.).

Anuvata2 [anu + va to weave (*) in analogy to vata from va to blow] only in connection with the making of the bhikkhus' garments (civara) "weaving on, supplementary weaving, or along the seam", i. e. hem, seam, binding Vin I.254, 297; II.177; IV.121 (aggala +); PvA 73 (anuvate appabhonte since the binding was insufficient).

Anuvada [from anuvadati, cp. Sanskrit anuvada in meaning of "repetition"] 1. blaming, censure, admonition Vin II.5, 32; A II.121 (atta*, para*); Vbh 376. - 2. in combination. vada-nuvada: talk and lesser or additional talk, i. e. "small talk" (see anu B IV.) D I.161; M I.368. -adhikarana a question or case of censure Vin II.88 sq.; III.164 (one of the 4 adhikaranani, q. v.).

Anuvasana (nt.) [from anuvaseti] an oily enema, an injection Miln 353.

Anuvaseti [anu + vaseti, Causative of vasa3 odour, perfume] to treat with fragrant oil, i. e. to make an injection or give an enema of salubrious oil Miln 169; grd. *vasaniya ibid.; pp. *vasita Miln 214.

Anuvikkhitta (adj.) [anu + vi + khitta, pp. of anu + vikkhipati] dispersed over S V.277 sq. (+ anuvisata).

Anuviganeti [anu + vi + ganeti] to take care of, regard, heed, consider Th 1, 109.

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Anuvicarati [anu + vi + carati] to wander about, stroll roam through, explore D I.235; J II.128; III.188; PvA 189 ( = anupariyati). - Causative *vicareti to think over (lit. to make one's mind wander over), to meditate, ponder (cp. anuvicinteti); always combined. with anuvitakketi (q. v.) A I.264 (cetasa), III.178 (dhammam cetasa a.). -pp. anuvicarita (q. v.).

Anuvicarita [pp. of anuvicareti] reflected, pondered over, thought out S III.203 (manasa); DA I.106 ( = anucarita).

Anuvicara [anu + vicara, cf. anuvicareti] meditation, reflexion, thought Dhs 85 ( = vicara).

Anuvicinaka [from anu + vicinati] one who examines, an examiner Miln 365.

Anuvicinteti [anu + vi + cinteti] to think or ponder over, to meditate D II.203; S I 203 (yoniso *cintaya, imper. "marshall thy thoughts in ordered governance" Mrs. Rh. D.; v. l. anucintaya); Th 1, 747; Dh 364; It 82 (dhammam *ayan); J III.396; IV.227; V.223 (dhammam *cintayanto).

Anuvicca [ger. of anuvijjati, for the regular from anuvijja prob. through influence of anu + i (anu-v-icca for anvicca), cf. anveti and adhicca; and see anuvijjati] having known or found out, knowing well or thoroughly, testing, finding out M I.301, 361 (v. l. *vijja); A II.3, 84; V.88; Dh 229 ( = janitva DhA III.329); Sn 530 ( = anuviditva SnA 431); J I.459 ( = janitva C.); III.426; Pug. 49. -kara a thorough investigation, examination, test Vin I.236 (here spelt anuvijja) = M I.379 ( = *viditva C.) = A IV.185.

Anuvijjaka [from anuvijja, ger. of anuvijjati] one who finds out, an examiner Vin V.161.

Anuvijjati [anu + vid, with fusion of Vedic vetti to know, and Pass. of vindati to find ( = vidyate)] to know thoroughly, to find out, to trace, to come to know; inf. *vijjitim J III.506; ger. *viditva Sn A 431, also *vijja and vicca (see both under anuvicca); grd. ananuvejja not to be known, unfathomable, unknowable M I.140 (Tathagato ananuvejjo). - Causative anuvijjapeti to make some one find out J V.162. -pp. anuvidita (q. v.).

Anuvijjhati [anu + vyadh] 1. to pierce or be pierced, to be struck or hurt with (instr.) J VI.439 - 2. to be affected with, to fall into, to incur DhA III.380 (aparadham). -pp. anuviddha (q. v.).

Anuvitakketi [anu + vi + takketi] to reflect, think, ponder over, usually combined with anuvicareti D I.119; III.242; S V.67 = It 107 (anussarati +); A III.383.

Anuvidita [pp. of anuvijjati] found out, recognised; one who has found out or knows well Sn 528, 530 ( = anuBuddha Sn A 431). Same in B.Sanskrit, e.g. M Vastu III.398.

Anuviddha (adj.) [pp. of anuvijjhati] pierced, intertwined or set with (-*) VvA 278.

Anuvidhiyati [cf. Sanskrit anuvidhiyate and adj. anuvidhayin; Pass. of anu + vi + dha, cf. vidahati] to act in conformity with, to follow (instruction) M II.105 = Th 1, 875; S IV.199; J II.98; III.357.

Anuvidhiyana (f.) [abstr. from anuvidhiyati] acting according to, conformity with M I.43.

Anuviloketi [anu + vi + loketi; B.Sanskrit anuvilokayati] to look round at, look over, survey, mustereotypeM I.339; Sn p. 140; J I.53; Miln 7 (lakam), 21 (parisan), 230.

Anuvivatta [anu + vivatta] an "after-evolution", devolution; as part of a bhikkhu-s dress: a sub-vivatta (q. v.) Vin I.287 (vivatta +).

Anuvisata (anu + visata, pp. of anu + vi + sr] spread over S V.277 sq.; J IV.102.

Anuvuttha [pp. of anuvasati, cf. Sanskrit anus.ita] living with, staying, dwelling J II.42 (cira*); V.445 (id.).

Anuvejja (adj.) in an* see anuvijjati.

Anuvyanjana and anubyanjana (e. g. Vin IV.15; J I.12) (nt.) [anu + vyanjana] accompanying (i. e. secondary) attribute, minor or inferior characteristic, supplementary or additional sign or mark (cf. mahapurisa-lakkhana) Vin I.65 (abl. anuvyanjanaso "in detail"); M III.126; S IV.168; A IV.279 (abl.); V.73 sq.; Pug 24, 58; Miln 339; VvA 315; DhsA 400. -gahin taking up or occupying oneself with details, taken up with lesser or inferior marks D I.70 (cf. MVastu III.52); III.225; S IV.104; A I.113; II.16, 152 sq.; Dhs 1345 (cf. Dhs trsl. 351).

Anusanyayati [anu + san + yayati] to traverse; to go up to, surround, visit (acc.) M I.209 (Bhagavantam *itva), J IV.214 (v.l. anuyayitva). See also anuyati and anusannati.

Anusanvacchara (adj.) [anu + sanv*] yearly DhA I.388 (nakkhattam). Usually nt. *m as adv. yearly, every year J I.68; V.99. On use of anu in this combination. see anu A a.

Anusancarati [anu + san + carati] to walk along, to go round about, to visit M I.279; S V.53, 301; J I.202; III.502; PvA 279 (nagaram). -pp. anusancarita (q. v.).

Anusancarita [pp. of anusancarati] frequented, visited, resorted to Miln 387.

Anusanceteti [anu + san + ceteti] to set ones mind on, concentrate, think over, meditate Pug 12.

Anusannati [either anu + san + jna (janati) or (preferably) = anusanyati as short form of anusanyayati, like anuyati > anuyayati of anu + san + ya, cf. Sanskrit anusanyati in same meaning] to go to, to visit, inspect, control; ppr. med. *sannayamana Vin III.43 (kammante); inf. *sannatum A I.68. (janapade).

Anusata [Sanskrit anusrta, pp. of anu + sr] sprinkled with (-*), bestrewn, scattered Vv 53 (paduma* magga = vippakinna VvA 36).

Anusatthar [n. ag. to anu + sas, cf. Sanskrit anushasitr and Pali satthar] instructor, adviser J IV.178 (acariya +). Cp. anusasaka.

Anusatthi (f.) [Sanskrit anushasti, anu + shas, cp. anusasana] admonition, rule, instruction J I.241; Miln 98, 172, 186 (dhamma*), 225, 227, 347.

Anusandati [Vedic anusyandati, anu + syad] to stream along after, to follow, to be connected with. Thus to be read at Miln 63 for anusandahati (anuravati +; of sound), while at A IV.47 the reading is to be corrected to anusandahati.

Anusandahati [anu + san + dha, cf. Vedic abhi + san + dha] to direct upon, to apply to A IV.47 sq. (cittam samapattiya; so to be read with v. l. for anusandati); Miln 63 (but here prob. to be read as anusandati, q.v.).

Anusandhanata (f.) [ = anusandhi] application, adjusting Dhs 8 (cittassa).

Anusandhi (f.) [from anu + san + dha] connection, (logical) conclusion, application DA I.122 (where 3 kinds are enumerated, viz. puccha*, ajjhasaya*, yatha*); Nett 14 (pucchato; Hard., in Index "complete cessation"*!). Esp. frequent in (Jataka) phrase anusandhim ghateti "to form the connection", to draw the conclusion, to show the application of the story or point out its maxim J I.106; 308; DhA II.40, 47; etc.

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Anusampavankata (f.) [anu + san + pavankata; is reading correct*] disputing, quarrelling(*) Vin II.88 (under anuvada-dhikarana).

Anusaya [anu + shi, seti Sanskrit anushaya has a different meaning] (see Kvu trsl. 234 n. 2 and Cpd.172 n. 2). Bent, bias, proclivity, the persistance of a dormant or latent disposition, predisposition, tendency. Always in bad sense. In the oldest texts the word usually occurs absolutely, without mention of the cause or direction of the bias. So Sn. 14 = 369, 545; M. III.31; S. III.130, IV.33, V.28 236; A. I.44; II.157; III.74, 246, 443. Or in the triplet obstinacy, prejudice and bias (adhitthana-bhinivesa-nusaya) S. II.17; III.10, 135, 161; A. V.III. Occasionally a source of the bias is mentioned. Thus pride at S. I.188; II.252 ff., 275; III.80, 103, 169, 253; IV.41, 197; A I.132, IV.70 doubt at M. I.486 - ignorance lust and hatred at S IV.205, M III.285. At D III.254, 282; S V.60; and A IV.9. we have a list of seven anusaya's, the above five and delusion and craving for rebirth. Hence-forward these lists govern the connotation of the word; but it would be wrong to put that connotation back into the earlier passages. Later references are Ps I.26, 70 ff., 123, 130, 195; II.36, 84, 94, 158; Pug 21; Vbh 340, 383, 356; Kvu 405 ff. Dpvs I.42.

Anusayita [pp. of anuseti, anu + shi] dormant, only in combination. digharatta* latent so long Th 1, 768; Sn 355, 649. Cp. anusaya and anusayin.

Anusayin (adj.) [from anusaya] D II.283 (me digharatta*), "for me, so long obsessed (with doubts)". The reading is uncertain.

Anusarati [anu + sr] to follow, conform oneself to S IV. 303 (phalam anusarissati BB, but balam anupadassati SS perhaps to be preferred). - Causative anusareti to bring together with, to send up to or against Miln 36 (annamannam a. anupeseti).

Anusavati at S II.54 (asava na a.; v. l. anusayanti) and IV. 188 (akusala dhamma na a.; v. l. anusenti) should preferably be read anusayati: see anuseti 2.

Anusahagata (adj.) having a residuum, accompanied by a minimum of . . S III.130; Kvu 81, see anu*.

Anusayika (adj.) [from anusaya] attached to one, i. e. inherent, chronic (of disease) M II.70 (abadha, v. l. BB anussayika); DhA I.431 (roga).

Anusara [from anu + sr] "going along with", following, conformity. Only in obl. eases (-*) anusarena (instr.) in consequence of, in accordance with, according to J I.8; PvA 187 (tad), 227; and anusarato (abl.) id. Sdhp 91.

Anusarin (-*) (adj.) [from anu + sarati] following, striving after, acting in accordance with, living up to or after. Freq. in formula dhamma-nusarin saddha-nusarin living in conformity with the Norm and the Faith D III.254; M I.142, 479; S III.225; V.200 sq.; A I.74; IV.10; Pug 15. - Cp. also S I.15 (bhavasota*); IV.128 (id.); J VI.444 (panditassa* = veyyavaccakara C.); Sdhp 528 (attha*).

Anusareti see anusarati.

Anusasaka [from anusasati] adviser, instructor, counsellor J II.105; Miln 186, 217, 264. Cp. anusatthar.

Anusasati [Vedic anushasati, anu + sas] 1. to advise, admonish, instruct in or give advice upon (c. acc.) to exhort to Vin I.83; D I.135; II.154; Dh 77, 159 (annam); J VI.368; cp. I.103; Pv II.68; PvA 148. - grd. anusasiya Vin I.59; and *sasitabba DhA III.99. - Pass *sasiyati Vin II.200; Miln 186. - 2. to rule, govern (acc.) administereotypeto (dat.) S I.236 = Sn 1002 (pathavim dhammenam-anusasati, of a Cakkavattin); J II.2; VI.517 (rajjassa = rajjam C., i. e. take care of) DA I.246 (read *sasantena); PvA 161 (rajjam). -pp. anusittha (q. v.); cp. anusatthar, anusatthi and ovadati.

Anusasana (nt.) [Vedic anushasana, from anu + shas] advice, instruction, admonition D III.107; A I.292 (*patihariya, cp. anusasani); Miln 359.

Anusasani (f.) [from anusasati, cp. anusasana] instruction, teaching, commandment, order S V.108; A II.147; III.87; V.24 sq., 49, 338; J V.113; Th 2, 172, 180; Pv III.76; ThA 162; VvA 19, 80, 81. -patihariya (anusasani*) the miracle of teaching, the wonder worked by the commandments (of the Buddha) Vin II.200; D I.212, 214; III.220; A I.170; V.327; J III.323; Ps II.227 sq.

Anusikkhati [Vedic anushik.sati; anu + Desid. of shak] to learn of somebody (gen.); to follow one's example, to imitate Vin II.201 (ppr. med. *amana); S I.235; A IV. 282, 286, 323; Sn 294 (vattam, cp. RV III.59, 2: vratena shik.sati), 934; J I.89; II.98; III.315; V.334; VI.62; Th 1, 963; Miln 61. - Caus anusikkhapeti to teach [ = Sanskrit anushik.sayati] Miln 352.

Anusikkhin (adj.) [from anusikhati] studying, learning M I. 100; Dh 226 (ahoratta* = diva ca rattin ca tisso sikkha sikkhamana DhA III.324).

Anusittha (Vedic anushis.ta, pp. of anusasati] instructed, admonished, advised; ordered, commanded M II.96; J I.226; Pv II.811; Miln 284, 349.

Anusibbati [anu + sibbati, siv to sew] to interweave Vin III.336 (introd. to Sam. Pas.).

Anusunati [anu + shru] to hear; pret. anassum [Sanskrit anvashruvam] I heard M I.333.

Anusumbhati [anu + sumbhati (sobhati); shubh or (Vedic) shumbh] to adorn, embellish, prepare J VI.76.

Anusuyyam [cp. Sanskrit anasuyam] reading at J III.27, see anasuyyam.

Anusuyyaka (adj.) [an + usuyyaka] not envious, not jealous Sn 325 ( = usuyyavigamena a. SnA 332); J II.192 (v. l. anussuyyaka); V.112.

Anusetthi [anu + setthi] 1. an under-setthi (banker, merchant) J V.384 (see anu B III. a.). - 2. in redupl. cpd. settha-nusetthi (see anu B IV) "bankers and lesser bankers", i. e. all kinds of well-to-do families J VI.331.

Anuseti [anu + seti. cp. Sanskrit anushayate or* shete, from shi] to "lie down with", i. e. (1) trs. to dwell on, harp on (an idea) S II.65; III.36; IV.208. - 2. (of the idea) to obsess, to fill the mind persistently, to lie dormant and be continually cropping up. M I.40, 108, 433; S II.54 (so read with SS for anusavanti) IV.188; A I.283; III.246; Pug 32, 48. -pp. anusayita (q. v.).

Anusocati [anu + socati] to mourn for, to bewail Sn 851 (atitam na a.; cp. Nd1 222); Pv I.127; II.68; PvA 95.

Anusocana (nt.) [abstr. from anusocati] bewailing, mourning PvA 65.

Anusota* [anu + sota, in *m as adv. or acc. to explination. under anu A a.] in anusotam (adv.) along the stream or current, down-stream A II.12; J I.70 (opp. patisotam against the stream); PvA 169 (Gangaya a. agacchanto). -gamin "one who follows the stream", i. e. giving way to ones inclinations, following ones will A II.5, 6 (opp. pati*); Sn. 319 ( = sotam anugacchanto Sn A 330); Pug 62.

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Anussati (f.) [Sanskrit anusmrti, from anu + smr, cp. sati] remembrance, recollection, thinking of, mindfulness. A late list of subjects to be kept in mind comprises six anussati-tthanani, viz. Buddha-, Dhamma-, Sangha-, sila-, caga-, devata-, i. e. proper attention to the Buddha, the Doctrines, the Church, to morality, charity, the gods. Thus at D III.250, 280 (cp. A I.211); A III.284, 312 sq., 452; V.329 sq.; Ps I.28. Expanded to 10 subjects (the above plus anapana-sati, marana-sati, kayagata-sati, upasama-nussati) at A I.30, 42 (cp. Lal. Vist 34). For other references see D I.81; S V.67 = It 107 (anussarana at latter pass.); A III.284, 325, 452. Ps I.48, 95, 186; Pug 25, 60; Dhs 14, 23, 1350 (anussati here to be corr. to asati, see Dhs. trsl. 351); Sdhp. 225, 231, 482. See also anuttariya (anussat-a-nuttariya).

Anussada (adj.) [an + ussada without haughtiness Sn 624 (vv. ll. anusaddha and anussuda; Sn A 467 explination. by tanha ussada-bhava) = Dh 400 (which pass. has anussuta; v.l. K.B. anussada; DhA IV.165 expls. with tanha-ussava-bhava, vv. ll. *ussada*); It 97 (vv. ll. anussata and anussara).

Anussarana (nt.) [abstr. to anussarati] remembrance, memory, recollection It 107 ( = anussati at id. p. S V.67); PvA 25, 29.

Anussarati [Vedic anusmarati, anu + smr] to remember, recollect, have memory of (acc.), bear in mind; be aware of D II.8, 53, 54 (jatito etc.); S III.86 sq. (pubbe nivasan); V.67 (dhammam a. anuvitakketi), 303 (kappasahassan); A I.25, 164 (pubbe nivasan), 207 (Tathagatam, Dhammam etc.); III.285 (id.), 323 (nivasan), 418; V.34, 38, 132, 199, 336 (kalyanamitte); It 82 (dhammam), 98 (pubbe nivasan); J I.167; II.111; Dh 364; Pv I.59; Pug 60; Sdhp 580, 587; DA I.257; KhA 213; DhA II.84; IV.95; PvA 29, 53, 69, 79, 107. -pp. anussarita (see anussaritar). - Caus anussarapeti to remind someone, to call to mind J II.147.

Anussaritar [n. ag. to anussarita, pp. of anussarati] one who recollects or remembers S V.197, 225 (saritar +); A V.25, 28.

Anussava [anu + sava from shru, cp. Vedic shravas nt.] hearsay, report, tradition M I.520; II.211; S II.115; IV.138; A I.26; J I.158 (with reference to part. kira = annussav'atthe nipato; so also at VvA 322, cf. anussavana); II.396, 430 (id.); IV.441; instr. *ena from hearsay, by report A II.191 (cf. itihitiham).

Anussavana (nt.) [anu + savana from shru] = anussava PvA 103 (kira-saddo anussavane, from hearsay).

Anussavika (adj.) [from anussava] "belonging to hearsay", traditional; one who is familiar with tradition or who learns from hearsay M I.520; II.211. Cp. anussutika.

Anussavaka [from anussaveti] one who proclaims or announces, a speaker (of a kammavaca) Vin I.74.

Anussavana (nt.) and *a (f.) [from anussaveti] a proclamation Vin I.317, 340; V.170, 186, 202 sq.

Anussavita [pp. of anussaveti] proclaimed, announced Vin I.103.

Anussaveti [anu + saveti, Causative of shru, cp. B.Sanskrit anushravayati "to proclaim aloud the guilt of a criminal" AvSH. I.102; II.182] to cause to be heard or sound; to proclaim, utter, speak out Vin I.103 (*ssaviyamana ppr. Pass.); II.48 (saddam a.). -pp. anussavita.

Anussuka (adj.) [an + ussuka] free from greed Dh 199; cf. anussukin v. l. D III.47, also anissukin and apalasin.

Anussukita [an + ussuk.r] VvA 74 and anussukin Pug 23 = anussuka.

Anussuta1 (adj.) [an + ussuta, ud + sr] free from lust Dh 400 ( = ussava-vena anussuta C.). See also anussada.

Anussuta2 [anu + suta, pp. of shru] heard of; only in cpd. ananussuta unheard of S II.9; Pug 14.

Anussutika (adj.) [from anu + shru, cp. anussavika] according to tradition or report, one who goes by or learns from hearsay DA I.106, 107.

Anussuyyaka see anusuyyaka.

Anuhasati [anu + hasati] to laugh at, to ridicule DA I.256.

Anuhirati [for *hariyati, anu + hr] to be held up over, ppr. anuhiramana D II.15 (vv. ll. v. l. anubhiram*; glosses B. K. anudhariyam*, cp. Trenckner, Notes 79).

Anuna (adj.) [Vedic anuna, an + una] not lacking, entire, complete, without deficiency J VI 273; Dpvs V.52; Miln 226; DA I.248 (+ paripura, explained by anavaya).

Anunaka = anuna Dpvs IV.34.

Anunata (f.) [abstr. from anuna] completeness Cp. III.611.

Anupa (adj.) [Vedic anupa, anu + ap: see apa, orig. alongside of water] watery, moist; watery land , lowland J. IV.358 (anopa T; anupa C. p. 359), 381 (*khetta); Miln 129 (*khetta).

Anupaghata [metrically for anupa*] not killing, not murdering. Dh 185 ( = anupahananan c-eva anupaghatanan ca DhA III.238).

Anupadhika for anu* in metre Sn 1057, see upadhi.

Anupanahin (adj.) [an + upanahin, with u metri causa] not bearing ill-will, not angry with J IV.463.

Anupama at It 122 is metric reading for anupama (see upama).

Anupalitta (adj.) [an + upalitta, with u in metre] free from taint, unstained, unsmeared Sn 211, 392, 468, 790, 845; Dh 353; cf. Nd1 90 and DhA IV.72.

Anupavada [an + upavada, with metrically lengthened u] not grumbling, not finding fault Dh 185 ( = anupavadanan c- eva anupavadapanan ca DhA III.238).

Anuhata (adj.) [pp. of an + uhannati, ud + han] not rooted out, not removed or destroyed Th 1, 223 = Nd2 974; Dh 338 ( = asamucchinna DhA IV.48).

Aneka (adj.) (usually *-) [an + eka] not one, i. e. many, various; countlcss, numberless It 99 (sanvattakappa countless aeons); Sn 688 (*sakha); Dh 153 (*jatisara); J IV.2; VI.366. -pariyayena (instr.) in many ways Vin I.16; Sn p. 15. -rupa various, manifold Sn 1049, 1079, 1082; Nd2 54 ( = anekavidha). -vidha manifold Nd2 54; DA I.103. -vihita various, manifold D I.12, 13, 178; It 98; Pug 55; DA I.103 ( = anekavidha).

Anekamsa (f.) [an + ekamsa] doubt Nd2 1.

Anekamsikata (f.) [abstr. from anekamsa + kata] uncertainty, doubtfulness Miln 93.

Aneka (adj.) [an + eja] free from desires or lust D II.157; Sn 920, 1043, 1101, 1112; It 91 (opp. eja-nuga Nd1 353 = Nd2 55; Dh 414 ( = tanhaya abhavena DhA IV. 194), 422; Pv IV.135 (nittanha PvA 230).

Anedha (adj.) [an + edha] without fuel J IV.26 ( = anindhana).

Ane'a (adj.) [an + e'a = ena, see ne'a and cp. BSanskrit eda (muka); Vedic anena] faultless, pure; only in following compounds: *gala free from the dripping or oozing of impurity (thus

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explained. at DA I.282, viz. elagalana-virahita), but more likely in lit. meaning "having a pure or clear throat" or, of vaca speech: "clearly enunciated" (thus Mrs. Rh. D. at Kindred Sayings I.241) Vin I.197 = D I.114 = S I.189; A II.51, 97; III.114, 195. Cp. also M Vastu III. 322. - *muga same as prec. "having a clear throat", i. e. not dumb, fig. clever, skilled D III.265; Sn 70 ( = alalamukha SnA 124), cp. Nd2 259.

Ane'aka (adj.) [cp. BSanskrit anedaka, e. g. Av. SH. I.187, 243; M Vastu I.339; III.322] = ane'a, pure, clear M II.5; J VI.529.

Anesana (f.) [an + esana] impropriety S II.194; J II.86; IV.381; Miln 343, 401; DA I.169; DhA IV.34; Sdhp 392, 427.

Ano- is a frequent form of compounds. an-ava, see ava.

Anoka (nt.) [an + oka] houselessness, a houseless state, fig freedom from worldliness or attachment to life, singleness S V.24 = A V.232 = Dh 87 (oka anokam agamma). adj. homeless, free from attachment S I.176; Dh 87 ( = analaya DhA II.162); Sn 966 (adj.; explained at Nd1 487 by abhisankhara-sahagatassa vinnanassa okasan na karoti, and at SnA 573 by abhisankhara-vinnan- adinam anokasabhuta). sarin living in a houseless state, fig. being free from worldly attachment S III.10 = Nd1 197; Sn 628 ( = analaya-carin SnA 468); Ud 32; Dh 404 (v. l. anokka*); DhA IV.174 ( = analaya-carin); Miln 386.

Anogha in anogha-tinna see ogha.

Anojaka = anoja Vv 354 ( = VvA 161, where classed with yodhika bandhujivaka).

Anojagghati at D I.91 is v. l. for anujagghati.

Anoja (f.) [*Sanskrit anuja] a kind of shrub or tree with red flowers J VI.536 (korandaka +); usually in cpd. anojapuppha the a. flower, used for wreaths etc. J I.9 (*dama, a garland of a flowers); VI.227 (id.); DhA II.116 (*cangotaka).

Anottappa (nt.) [an + ottappa] recklessness, hardness D III.212; It 34 (ahirika +); Pug 20; Dhs 365. Cp. anottapin.

Anottapin and Anottappin (adj.) [from anottappa] not afraid of sin, bold, reckless, shameless D III.252, 282 (pp; ahirika); Sn 133 (p; ahirika +); It 27, 115 (anatapin anottappin, vv. ll. anottapin); Pug 20, 24.

Anodaka (adj.) [an + udaka] without water, dry J I.307; DhA I.52; Sdhp 443.

Anodissaka (adj.) [an + odissa + ka] unrestricted, without exception, general, universal; only in cpd. *vasena universally, thoroughly (with reference to metta) J I.81; II 146; VvA 97 (in general; opp. odissaka-vasena). See also Mrs. Rh. D. Psalms of the Brethren p. 5 n. 1.

Anonamati [an + onamati] not to bend, to be inflexible, in following expressions: anonamaka (nt.) not stooping DhA II.136; auonamanto (ppr.) not bending D II.17 = III. 143; anonami-danda (for anonamiya*) an inflexible stick Miln 238 (anonami* T, but anonami* vv. ll., see Miln 427).

Anopa see anupa.

Anoma (adj.) (only *-) [an + oma] not inferior, superior, perfect, supreme, in following compounds -guna supreme virtue DA I.288. -dassika of superior beauty Vv 207, VvA 103 (both as v. l.; T. anuma*); Vv 437. -dassin one who has supreme knowledge; of unexcelled wisdom (Name of a Buddha) J I.228. -nama of perfect name S I.33 ("by name the Peerless" Mrs. Rh. D.), 235; Sn 153, 177 (cp. SnA 200). -nikkama of perfect energy Vv 6427 ( = paripunna-viriyataya a. VvA 284). -panna of lofty or supreme wisdom (Ep. of the Buddha) Sn 343, 352 ( = mahapanna SnA 347); Th 2, 522 ( = paripunna-panna ThA 296), DhA I.31. -vanna of excellent colour Sn 686 J VI.202. -viriya of supreme exertion or energy Sn 353.

Anomajjati [anu + ava + majjati, mrj] to rub along over, to stroke, only in phrase gattani panina a. to rub over one's limbs with the hand M I.80, 509; S V.216.

Anorapara (adj.) [an + ora + para] having (a shore) neither on this side nor beyond Miln 319.

Anoramati [an + ava + ram] not to stop, to continue J III.487; DhA III.9 (ger. *itva continually).

Anovassa (nt.) [an + ovassa; cp. Sanskrit anavavar.sana] absence of rain, drought J V.317 (v. l. BB for anvavassa T.; q. v.).

Anovassaka (adj.) [an + ovassaka] sheltered from the rain, dry Vin II.211; IV.272; J I.172; II.50; III.73; DhA II. 263; ThA 188.

Anosita (adj.) [an + ava + sita, pp. of sa] not inhabited (by), not accessible (to) Sn 937 ( = anajjhositam Nd1 441; jaradihi anajjhavuttham thanam SnA 566).

Anta1 [Vedic anta; Goth. andeis = Ohg. anti = E. end; cp. also Latin antiae forehead (: E. antler), and the prep. anti opposite, antika near = Latin ante; Gr. a)nti/ and a)/nta opposite; Goth., Ags. and; Ger. ant-; orig. the opposite (i. e. what stands against or faces the starting-point)]. 1. end, finish, goal S IV.368 (of Nibbana); Sn 467; J II.159. antam karoti to make an end (of) Sn 283, 512; Dh 275, cp. antakara, *kiriya. - loc. ante at the end of, immediately after J I.203 (vijay*). - 2. limit, border, edge Vin I.47; Dh 305 (van*); J III.188. - 3. side: see ekamantam (on one side, aside). - 4. opposite side, opposite, counterpart; pl. parts, contrasts, extremes; thus also used as "constituent, principle" (in tayo and cattaro anta; or does it belong to anta2 2. in this meaning* Cp. ekantam extremely, under anta2): dve anta (two extremes) Vin I.10; S II.17; III.135. ubho anta (both sides) Vin I.10; S II.17; J I.8; Nd1 109. eko, dutiyo anto (contrasts) Nd1 52. As tayo anta or principles(*), viz. sakkaya, s.-samudaya, s.-nirodha D III.216, cp. A III. 401; as cattaro, viz. the 3 mentioned plus s.-nirodhagamini-patipada at S III.157. Interpreted by Morris as "goal" (J P T S. 1894, 70). - Often pleonastically, to be explained as a "pars pro toto" figure, like kammanta (q. v.) the end of the work, i. e. the whole work (cp. E. sea-side, country-side); vananta the border of the wood = the woods Dh 305; Pv II.310 (explained by vana PvA 86; same use in BSanskrit, vana-nta e. g. at Jtm VI.21; cp. also grama-nta Av. SH. I.210); suttanta (q. v.), etc. Cp. akasanta J VI.89 and the pleonastic use of patha. -ananta (n.) no end, infinitude; (adj.) endless, corresponds either to Sanskrit anta or antya, see anta2. -a-nanta end and no end, or finite and endless, D I.22; DA I.115. -a-nantika (holding views of, or talking about) finiteness and infinitude D I.22 (see explination. at DA I.115); S III.214, 258 sq.; Ps I.155. -kara putting an end to, (n.) a deliverer, saviour; usually in phrase dukkhass-a. (of the Buddha) M I.48, 531; A II.2; III.400 sq.; Th 1, 195; It 18; Sn 32, 337, 539; Pug 71. In other combination. A II.163 (vijjay-); Sn 1148 (panhan-). -kiriya putting an end to, ending, relief, extirpation; always used with reference to dukkha S IV.93; lt 89; Sn 454, 725; DhA IV.45. -gata = antagu Nd2 436 (+ kotigata). -gahika (f.), viz. ditthi, is an attribute of micchaditthi, i. e. heretical doctrine. The meaning of anta in this combination. is not quite clear: either "holding (wrong) principles (goals, Morris)", viz. the 3 as specified above 4 under tayo anta (thus Morris J P T S. 1884, 70), or "taking extreme sides, i. e. extremist", or "wrong, opposite ( = antya, see anta2)" (thus Kern, Toev. s. v.) Vin I.172; D III.45, 48 (an*); S I.154; A I.154; II.240; III.130; Ps I.151 sq. -gu one

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who has gone to the end, one who has gone through or overcome (dukkha) A IV.254, 258, 262; Sn 401 ( = vattadukkhassa antagata); 539. -ruddhi at J VI.8 is doubtful reading (antaruci*). -vatti rimmed circumference J III.159. -sannin being conscious of an end (of the world) D I.22, cp. DA I 115.

Anta2 (adj.) [Vedic antya] 1. having an end, belonging to the end; only in negative ananta endless, infinite, boundless (opp. antavant); which may be taken as equal to anta1 (corresponds with Sanskrit anta (adj.) or antya; also in doublet ananca, see akas-a-nanca and vinnan-a-nanca); D I.23, 34 = D III.224, 262 sq.; Sn 468 (*panna); Dh 179, 180 (*gocara having an unlimited range of mental vision, cp. DhA III.197); J I.178. - 2. extreme, last, worst J II.440 (C. hina, lamaka); see also anta1 4. - acc. as adv. in ekantam extremely, very much, "utterly" Dh 228 etc. See eka.

Anta3 (nt.) [Vedic antra, contr. from antara inner = Latin interus, Gr. e)/ntera intestines] the lower intestine, bowels, mesentery It 89; J I.66, 260 (*vaddhi-mamsa etc.); Vism 258; DhA I.80. -ganthi twisting of the bowels, lit. "a knot in the intestines" Vin I.275 (*abadha). -guna [see guna2 = gula1] the intestinal tract, the bowels S II.270; A IV.132; Kh III. = Miln 26; Vism 42; KhA 57. -mukha the anus J IV.402. -vatti = *guna Vism 258.

Antaka [Vedic antaka] being at the end, or making an end, Ep. of Death or Mara Vin I.21; S I.72; Th 2, 59 (explained by ThA 65 as lamaka va Mara, thus taken = anta2); Dh 48 ( = marana-sankhato antako DhA II.366), 288 ( = marana DhA III.434).

Antamaso (adv.) [orig. abl. of antama, *Sanskrit antamashah; cp. BSanskrit antashah as same formation from anta, in same meaning ("even") Av. SH. I.314; Divy 161] even Vin III. 260; IV.123; D I.168; M III.127; A V.195; J II.129; DA I.170; SnA 35; VvA 155.

Antara (adj.) [Vedic antara, cp. Gr. e)/ntera = Sanskrit antra (see anta3), Latin interus from prep. inter. See also ante and anto]. Primary meanings are "inside" and "in between"; as adj. "inner"; in prep. use and in compounds "inside, in between". Further development of meaning is with a view of contrasting the (two) sides of the inside relation, i. e. having a space between, different from; thus nt. antaram difference. I. (Adj.-n) 1. (a) inner, having or being inside It 83 (tayo antara mala three inward stains); esp. as -* in compounds amis* with greed inside, greedy, selfish Vin I.303; dos* with anger inside, i. e. angry Vin II.249; D III.237; M I.123; PvA 78 (so read for des*). Abl. antarato from within It 83. (b) in between, distant; dvadasa yojan* antaram thanam PvA 139 139. - 2. In noun-function (nt.): (a). spatial: the inside (of) Vv 361 (pitantara a yellow cloak or inside garment = pitavanna uttariya VvA 116); Davs I.10 (dip- antara-vasin living on the island); DhA I.358 (kanna-chidd* the inside of the ear; VvA 50 (kacch* inner room or apartment). Therefore also "space in between", break J V.352 ( = chidda C.), and obstacle, hindrance, i. g. what stands in between: see compounds and antara-dhayati (for antaram dhayati). - (b). temporal: an interval of time, hence time in general, and also a specified time, i. e. occasion. As interval in Buddhantaram the time between the death of one Buddha and the appearance of another, PvA 10, 14, 21, 47, 191 etc. As time: It 121 (etasmim antare in that time or at this occasion); Pv I.1011 (digham antaram = digham kalam PvA 52); PvA 5 (etasmim antare at this time, just then). As occasion: J V.287; Pug 55 (e'aka-m-antaram occasion of getting rain). S I.20, quoted DA I.34, (man ca tan ca kim antaram what is there between me and you*) C. expls. kim karana. Mrs. Rh. D. in translation. p. 256 "of me it is and thee (this talk) - now why is this"; J VI.8 (assa antaram na passimsu they did not see a different in him). - 3. Phrases: antaram karoti (a) to keep away from or at a distance (trs. and intrs.), to hold aloof, lit. "to make a space in between" M III.14; J. IV.2 (*katva leaving behind); Pug A 231 (umMaram a. katva staying away from a threshold); also adverbially: dasa yojanani a. katva at a distance of 10 y. PvA 139. - (b.) to remove, destroy J VI.56 (v. l. BB. antarayam karoti). II. In prep. use (*-) with acc. (direction) or loc. (rest): inside (of), in the midst of, between, during (cp. III. use of cases). (a.) w. acc.: antaragharam pavittha gone into the house Miln 11. - (b.) w. loc.: antaraghare nisidanti (inside the house) Vin II.213; *dipake in the centre of the island J I.240; *dvare in the door J V.231; *magge on the road (cp. antaramagge) PvA 109; *bhatte in phrase ekasmim yeva a. during one meal J I 19 = DhA I.249; *bhattasmim id. DhA IV.12; *vithiyan in the middle of the road PvA 96. *satthisu between the thighs Vin II.161 (has antara satthinam) = J I.218. III. Adverbial use of cases, instr. antarena in between D I.56; S IV.59, 73; J I.393; PvA 13 (kal* in a little while, na kalantarena ib. 19). Often in combination. antarantarena (c. gen.) right in between (lit. in between the space of) DhA I.63, 358. - loc. antare in, inside of, in between (-* or c. gen. KhA 81 (sutt* in the Sutta); DhA III.416 (mama a.); PvA 56, 63 (rukkh*). Also as antarantare right inside, right in the middle of (c. gen.) KhA 57; DhA I.59 (vanasandassa a.). - abl. antara (see also sep. article of antara) in combination. antarantara from time to time, occasionally; successively time after time Sn p. 107; DhA II.86; IV.191; PvA 272. IV. anantara (adj.) having or leaving nothing in between i. e. immediately following, incessant, next, adjoining J IV.139; Miln 382 (solQ; DhA I.397; PvA 63 (tadantaram immediately hereafter), 92 (immed. preceding), 97 (next in caste). See also abbhantara. -atita gone past in the meantime J II.243. -kappa an intermediary kappa (q. v.) D I 54. -karana a cause of impediment, hindrance, obstacle Pug A 231 -cakka "the intermediate round", i. e. in astrology all that belongs to the intermediate points of the compass Miln 178. -cara one who goes in between or inside, i. e. a robber S IV.173. -bahira (adj.) inside and outside J I.125. -bhogika one who has power (wealth, influence) inside the kings dominion or under the king, a subordinate chieftain (cp. antara-rattha) Vin III.47. -rattha an intermediate kingdom, rulership of a subordinate prince J V.135. -vasa an interregnum Dpvs V.80. -vasaka "inner or intermediate garment", one of the 3 robes of a Buddhist bhikkhu (viz. the sanghati, uttarasanga and a.) Vin I.94, 289; II.272. Cf. next. -sataka an inner or lower garment [cp. Sanskrit antariya id.], under garment, i. e. the one between the outer one and the body VvA 166 (q. v.).

Antaramsa [B.Sanskrit antara-msa; antara + amsa] "in between the shoulders", i. e. the chest J V.173 = VI.171 (phrase lohitakkho vihat- antaramso).

Antaratthaka (adj.) [antara + atthaka] only in phrases rattisu antaratthakasu and antaratthake hima-patasamaye (in which antara functions as prep. c. loc., according to antara II. b.) i. e. in the nights (and in the time of the falling of snow) between the eighths (i. e. the eighth day before and after the full moon: see atthaka2). First phrase at Vin I.31, 288; III 31; second at M I.79 (cp. p. 536 where Trenckner divides anta-ratthaka); A I.136 (in nom.); J I.390; Miln 396.

Antaradhana (nt.) [from antaradhayati] disappearance A I.58 (sadDhammassa); II.147; III.176 sq.; Miln 133; Dhs 645, 738, 871. Cp. *dhayana.

Antaradhayati [antara + dhayati] to disappear Sn 449 (*dhayatha 3rd sg. med.); Vv 8128 (id.); J I.119 = DhA I.248; DhA IV.191 (ppr. *dhayamana and aor. dhayi) PvA 152, 217, (*dhayi), 245; VvA 48. - ppr. antarahita (q. v.). - Causative antaradhapeti to cause to disappear, to destroy J I.147; II.415; PvA 123.

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Antaradhayana (nt.) [from antaradhayati] disappearance DhA IV.191. (v. l. *adhana).

Antarayati [cp. denom. from antara] to go or step in between, ger. antaritva ( = antarayitva) J I.218.

Antarahita (adj.) [pp. of antaradhayati] 1. disappeared, gone, left D I.222. M I.487. Miln 18. PvA 245. - 2 in phrase anantarahitaya bhumiya (loc) on the bare soil (lit. on the ground with nothing put in between it and the person lying down, i. e. on an uncovered or unobstructed ground) Vin I.47; II.209; M II.57.

Antara (adv.) [abl. or adv. formation from antara; Vedic antara.] prep. (c. gen. acc. or loc.), prefix (*-) and adv. "in between" (of space and time), midway, inside; during, meanwhile, between. On interpretation of term see DA I.34 sq. - (1). (prep.) c. acc. (of the two points compared as termini; cp. B.Sanskrit antara ca Divy 94 etc.) D I.1 (antara ca Rajagaham antara ca Na'andam between R. and N.). - c. gen. and loc. Vin II.161 (satthinam between the thighs, where id. p. at J I.218 has antara-satthisu); A II.245 (satthinam. but v. l. satthimhi). - (2) (adv.) meanwhile Sn 291, 694; It 85; Dh 237. - occasionally Miln 251. - (3). (prefix) see compounds -katha "in between talk, talk for pastime, chance conversation, D II.1, 8, 9; S I.79; IV.281; A III.167; Sn p. 115; DA I.49 and frequent passim. -gacchati to come in between, to prevent J VI.295. -parinibbayin an Anagamin who passes away in the middle of his term of life in some particular heaven D III.237; A I.233; Pug 16. -magge (loc.) on the road, on the way J I.253; Miln 16; DhA II.21; III.337; PvA 151, 258, 269, 273 (cp. antara*). -marana premature death DhA I.409; PvA 136. -muttaka one who is released in the meantime Vin II.167.

Antarapana (nt.) [antara + pana "in between the shopping or trading"] place where the trading goes on, bazaar J I.55; VI.52; Miln 1, 330; DhA I.181.

Antaraya1 [antara + aya from i, lit. "coming in between"] obstacle, hindrance, impediment to (-*); prevention, bar; danger, accident to (-). There are 10 dangers (to or from) enumerated at Vin I.112, 169 etc., viz. raja*, cora*, aggi*, udaka*, manussa*, amanussa*, va'a*, sirimsapa*, jivita*, brahmacariya*. In B.Sanskrit 7 at Divy 544, viz. raja-caura-manus.y-amanus.ya-vyad-agny-udakam. - D I.3, 25, 26; A III.243, 306; IV.320; Sn 691, 692; Dh 286 ( = jivit* DhA III.431); J I.62, 128; KhA 181; DhA II 52; VvA 1 = PvA 1 (hat* removing the obstacles) -antarayam karoti to keep away from, hinder, hold back, prevent, destroy Vin I.15; J VI.171; Vism 120; PvA 20. -kara one who causes impediments or bars the way, an obstructor D I.227; S I.34; A I.161; Pv IV.322.

Antaraya2 (adv.) [dat. of antara or formation from antara + ger. of i*) in the meantime Sn 1120 (cp Nd2 58) = antara Sn A 603.

Antarayika (adj.) [from antaraya] causing an obstacle, forming an impediment Vin I.94 = II.272; M I.130; S II.226; ThA 288.

Antarayikin (adj.-n.) [cp. antarayika] one who meets with an obstacle, finding difficulties Vin IV.280 (an* = asati antaraye).

Antara'a (nt.) [Sk antarala] interior, interval Davs I.52; III.53 (nabh*).

Antarika (adj.) [from antara] "being in between", i. e. 1. intermediate, next, following: see an*. - 2. distant, lying in between PvA 173 (aneka-yojan* thana). See also f. antarika. - 3. inside: see antarika. -anantarika with no interval, succeeding, immediately following, next Vin II.165, 212 (an*); IV.234.

Antarika (f.) [abstr. from antarika] "what lies in between or near", i. e. - 1. the inside of Vin IV.272 (bhajan*). 2. the neighbourhood, region of (-*), sphere, compass Vin III.39 (ur*, angul*); J I.265 (yakkhassa sim* inside the y* sphere of influence). - 3. interval, interstice Vin II.116 (sutt* in lace); A I.124 (vijj* the interval of lightning).

Antalikkha (nt.) [Vedic = (ks.i), lit. situated in between sky and earth] the atmosphere or air D II.15; A III.239; IV.199; Sn 222, 688; Dh 127 = Miln 150 = PvA 104; Pv I.31 ( = vehayasa-sannita a. PvA 14); KhA 166. -ga going through the air A I.215. -cara walking through the air Vin I.21; D I.17; S I.111; J V.267; DA I.110.

Antavant (adj.) [anta1 + *vant] having an end, finite D I.22, 31, 187; Ps I.151 sq.; 157; Dhs 1099, 1117, 1175; Miln 145. -anantavant endless, infinite A V.193 (loka). See also loka.

Anti (indecl.) [Vedic anti = Lat ante, Gr. a)nti/, Goth. and; Ags. and-, Ger. ant-, ent-] adv. and prep. c. gen.: opposite, near J V.399 (tav- antim agata, read as tav- anti-m-agata; C. santikam), 400, 404; VI.565 (samikass- anti = antike C.). - Cp. antika.

Antika (adj.-n.) -1. [der from anti] near KhA 217; nt. neighbourhood Kh VIII.1. (odak.r); J VI.565 (antike loc. = anti near). - 2. [der from anta = Sanskrit antya] being at the end, final, finished, over S I.130 (purisa etad-antika, v. l. SS antiya: men are (to me) at the end for that, i. e. men do not exist any more for me, for the purpose of begetting sons.

Antima (adj.) [Cp. superl. of anta] last, final (used almost exclusively with reference to the last and final reincarnation; thus in combination. with deha and sarira, the last body) D II.15; Dh 351; It 50 (antimam deham dhareti), 53 (id.); Vv 512; Sn 478 (sariram antimam dhareti) 502; Miln 122, 148; VvA 106 (sarir- antima-dharin); Sdhp 278. -dehadhara one who wears his last body It 101 (dhara T, *dhara v. l.); VvA 163. -dharin = prec. S I.14, 53 (+ khinasava); II.278; It 32, 40; Sn 471. -vatthu "the last thing", i. e. the extreme, final or worst (sin) Vin I. 121, 135, 167, 320. -sarira the last body; (adj.) having ones last rebirth S I.210 (Buddho a*-sariro); A II.37; Sn 624; Dh 352, 400; DhA IV.166 ( = kotiyam thito attabhavo).

Ante* (prefix) [Sanskrit anta*, with change of -a* to -e, instead of the usual -o, prob. through interpreting it as loc. of anta] near, inside, within; only in following compounds: *pura (nt.) "inner town", the king's palace, esp. its inner apartments, i. e. harem [Sanskrit anta*pura, cp. also Pali antopura] Vin I.75, 269; A V.81; J II.125; IV.472; Miln 1; PvA 23, 81, 280; *purika harem woman DhsA 403; *vasika one who lives in, i. e. lodges or lives with his mastereotypeor teacher, a pupil Vin I.60; III.25; S I.180; IV.136; J I. 166; II.278; III.83, 463; PvA 12; VvA 138; *vasin = *vasika Vin III.66; D I.1, 45, 74, 78, 88, 108, 157; M III.116; DA I.36.

Anto (indecl.) [Sanskrit anta*; Av antar* Latin inter, Oir. etar between, Ohg. untar; Idg. *entar, compar. of *en (in) = inner, inside] prep. inside, either c. acc. denoting direction = into, or c. loc. denoting place where = in. As prefix (*-) in, within, inside, inner (see compounds) (1.) prep. c. acc. anto nivesanam gata gone into the house J I.158; anto jalam pavisati go into the net DhA III.175; anto gamam pavisati to go into the village DhA II.273; anto nagaram pavisati DhA II.89; PvA 47. - (2) c. loc. anto gabbhe J II.182; game DhA II.52; gehe DhA II.84; nadiyam J VI.278; nivesane J II.323; vasse in the rainy season J IV.242; vimanasmim Pv I.101; sattahe inside of a week PvA 55.

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-kotisanthara "house of the Golden Pavement" J IV.113. -gadha (*gata* Kern Toev.) in phrase *hetu, by inner reason or by reason of its intensity PvA 10; VvA 12. -jana "the inside people", i. e. people belonging to the house, the family ( = Latin familia) D III.61 (opp. to servants); A I.152; J VI.301; DA I.300. -jala the inside of the net, the net DhA IV.41. -jalikata "in-netted", gone into the net D I.45; DA I.127. -nijjhana inner conflagration PvA 18. -nimugga altogether immersed D I.75; A III.26. -parisoka inner grief Ps I.38. -pura = antepura J I.262. -mano "turning ones mind inside", thoughtful, melancholy Vin III.19. -bhavika being inside Miln 95. -rukkhata being among trees J I.7. -vasati to inhabit, live within S IV.136. -va'anjanaka (parijana) indoorpeople J V.118. -vassa the rainy season (lit. the interval of the r. s.) VvA 66. -vihara the inside of the V. DhA I.50 (*a-bhimukhi turning towards etc.), -samorodha barricading within Dhs 1157 (so read for anta*, cp. Dhs. trsl. 311). -soka inner grief Ps I.38.

Andu [cp. Sanskrit andu, andu and anduka] a chain, fetter Vin I.108 = III.249 (tin*); D I.245; J I.21 (*ghara prisonhouse); DhA IV.54 (*bandhana).

Andha (adj.) [Vedic andha, Latin andabata (see Walde, Latin Wtb. s. v.), other etymology doubtful] 1. (lit.) blind, blinded, blindfolded J I.216 (dhum*); Pv IV.148; PvA 3. - dark, dull, blinding M III.151 (-andham adv. dulled); Sn 669 (Ep. of timisa, like Vedic andham tama*); DhA II.49 (*vana dark forest). - 2. (fig.) mentally blinded, dull of mind, foolish, not seeing D I.191 (+ acakkhuka), 239 (*veni, reading and meaning uncertain); A I.128; Th 2, 394 ( = bala ThA 258). See compounds *karana, *kara, *bala, *bhuta. -akula blinded, foolish Vv 849 ( = pannacakkhuno abhavena VvA 337). -karana blinding, making blind, causing bewilderment (fig.), confusing It 82 (+ acakkhukarana); Miln 113 (panha, + gambhira). -kara blindness (lit. and fig), darkness, dullness, bewilderment Vin I.16; D II.12; A I.56; II.54; III.233; J III.188; Th 1, 1034; Dh 146; Sn 763; Vv 214 ( = avijj* VvA 106); Pug 30; Dhs 617; DA I.228; VvA 51, 53, 116, 161; PvA 6; Sdhp 14, 280. -tamo deep darkness (lit. and fig.) S V.443; It 84 (v. l.; T. andham tamam); J VI.247. -bala blinded by folly, foolish, dull of mind, silly J I.246, 262; VI.337; DhA II.43, 89; III.179; VvA 67; PvA 4, 264. -bhuta blinded (fig.), mentally blind, not knowing, ignorant S IV.21; A II.72; J VI.139 (spelled *buta); Dh 59, 174 ( = panna-cakkhuno abhavena DhA III.175). -vesa "blind form", disguise J III.418. -vane dark-woods

Andhaka [from andha] "blind fly", i. e. dark or yellow fly or gad-fly Sn 20 ( = kana-makkhikanam adhivacanam SnA 33).

Anna (nt.) [Vedic anna, orig. pp. of adati to eat] "eating", food, esp. boiled rice, but includes all that is eaten as food, viz. odana, kummasa, sattu, maccha, mamsa (rice, gruel, flour, fish, meat) Nd1 372 = 495. Anna is spelt anna in combinations apar- anna and pubb- anna. Under dhanna (Nd2 314) are distinguished 2 kinds, viz. raw, natural cereals (pubb- annam: sali, vihi, yava, godhuma, kangu, varaka, kudrusaka) and boiled, prepared food (apar- annam: supeyya curry). SnA 378 (on Sn 403) expls. anna by yagubhatta-di. - D I.7; A I.107, 132; II.70, 85, 203; Sn 82, 240, 403, 924; J III.190; Pug 51; Sdhp 106, 214. -apa food and water Sdhp 100. -da giving food Sn 297. -pana food and water, eating and drinking, to eat and to drink Sn 485, 487; Pv I.52, 82; KhA 207, 209; PvA 7, 8, 30, 31, 43.

Annaya in dur* see anvaya.

Anvakasi 3rd sg. aor. of anukassati 2: drew out, removed, threw down Th 1, 869 ( = khipi, chaddesi C.).

Anvakkhara (adj.) [anu + akkhara] "according to the syllable", syll. after syll., also a mode of reciting by syllables Vin IV.15, cp. 355. Cp. anupadam.

Anvaga 3rd sg. aor. of anugacchati Mhvs 7, 10. Also in assim. form annaga J V.258.

Anvagu 3rd pl. aor. of anugacchati S I.39; Sn 586.

Anvaddhamasan (adv.) [anu + addha + masa] every fortnight, twice a month M II.8; Vin IV.315 ( = anuposathikam); DhA I.162; II.25.

Anvattha (adj.) [anu + attha] according to the sense, answering to the matter, having scnse ThA 6 (*sannabhava).

Anvadeva (adv.) [anva-d-eva with euphonic d.; like sammad-eva corresponding to Sanskrit anvag-eva] behind, after, later D I.172; M III.172; S V.1 (spelt anudeva); A I.11; V. 214; It 34.

Anvaya (n.-adj.) [Vedic anvaya in different meaning; from anu + i, see anveti and anvaya] 1. (n.) conformity, accordance D II. 83 = III.100; M I.69 (dhamm* logical conclusion of); S II.58; D III.226 (anvaye nanam); Pv II.113 (tassa kammassa anvaya, v. l. BB anvaya and anvaya; accordingly, according to = paccaya PvA 147); PvA 228 (anvayato, adv. in accordance). - 2. (adj.) following, having the same course, behaving according to, consequential, in conformity with (-*) D I.46 (tad*); M I.238 (kayo citt* acting in conformity to the mind, obeying the mind); Sn 254 (an* inconsistent); It 79 (tass*). - dur* spelt durannaya conforming with difficulty, hard to manage or to find out Dh 92 (gati = na sakka pannapetum DhA II.173); Sn 243, 251 ( = duvinnapaya SnA 287 dunneyya ibid. 293).

Anvayata (f.) [abstr. to anvaya] conformity, accordance M I.500 (kay* giving in to the body).

Anvaham (adv.) [anu + aha] every day, daily Davs IV.8.

Anvagacchati [anu + a + gacchati] 1. to go along after, to follow, run after, pursue; aor. anvagacchi Pv. IV.56 ( = anubandhi PvA 260). - 2. to come back again J I.454 (ger. *gantvana). -pp. anvagata (q. v.).

Anvagata [pp. of anvagacchati] having pursued, attained; endowed with Th 1, 63; J IV.385; V.4.

Anvadisati [anu + a + disati] to advise, dedicate, assign; imper. *disahi Pv II.26 ( = uddissa dehi PvA 80); III.28 ( = adisa PvA 181).

Anvadhika (adj.) [derivation uncertain] a tailoring term. Only at Vin I.297. Rendered (Vinaya Texts II.232) by "half and half" ; that is a patchwork, half of new material, half of old. Bdhgh's note (see the text, p. 392) adds that the new material must be cut up.

Anvamaddati [anu + a + maddati] to squeeze, wring J III. 481 (galakam anvamaddi wrung his neck; vv. ll. anvanumatti and anvavamaddi; C. givam maddi).

Anvaya [ger. of anveti; cp. anvaya] undergoing, experiencing, attaining; as prep. (c. acc.) in consequence of, through, after D I.13 (atappam by means of self-sacrifice), 97 (sanvasan as a result of their cohabitation); J I.56 (buddhim), 127 (piyasanvasan), 148 (gabbhaparipakam). Often in phrase vuddhim anvaya growing up, e. g. J I.278; III. 126; DhA II.87.

Anvayika (adj.-n.) [from anvaya] following; one who follows, a companion D III.169; Nd2 59; J III.348.

Anvarohati [anu + a + rohati] to go up to, visit, ascend J IV.465 (aor. anvaruhi).

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Anvavassa at J V.317 should be read with v. l. BB as anovassa absence of rain.

Anvavittha [pp. of anvavisati] possessed (by evil spirits) S I.114.

Anvavisati [anu + a + visati] to go into, to take possession of, to visit M I.326; S I.67; Miln 156. -pp. anvavittha (q. v.). Cp. adhimuccati.

Anvasatta [pp. of anu + a + sanj, cp. anusatta = Sanskrit anusakta] clung on to, befallen by (instr.), attached to A IV.356 (v. l. anvahata), cp. Ud 35 (anvasanna q. v.). See also following

Anvasattata (f.) [abstr. from anvasatta] being attacked by, falling a prey to (instr.), attachment to DhA I.287 (in same context as anvasatta A IV.356 and anvasanna Ud 35).

Anvasanna [pp. of anu + a + sad] endowed with, possessed of, attacked by, Ud 35 (doubtfull; v. l. ajjhapanna), = A IV.356 which has anvasatta.

Anvassavati [anu + a + savati, sru] to stream into, to attack, befall D I.70; A III.99; Pug 20, 58.

Anvahata [pp. of anu + a + han] struck, beaten; perplexed Dh 39 (*cetasa).

Anvahindati [anu + a + hindati] to wander to (acc.) A IV.374, 376 [BSanskrit same, e. g. Divy 68 etc.].

Anveti [cp. anu + eti, from i] to follow, approach, go with Sn 1103 ( = anugacchati anvayiko hoti Nd2 59); Dh 1 ( = kayikam . . . dukkham anugacchati DhA I.24), 2, 71, 124; perhaps at Pv II.620 (with v. l. BB at PvA 99) for anvesi (see anvesati; explained. by anudesi = was anxious for, helped, instructed).

Anvesa [from next] seeking, searching, investigation, M I.140 (*m n- a-dhigacchanti do not find).

Anvesati [anu + esati] to look, for search, seek S I.112 (ppr. anvesan = pariyesamana C.); Cp III.117 (ppr. anvesanto). - aor. anvesi [Sanskrit from icchati] Pv II.620 (* perhaps better with v. l. PvA 99 as anventi of anveti).

Anvesin [anu-esin] (adj.) striving after, seeking, wishing for Sn 965 (kusala*).

Anha [Vedic ahan] see pubbanha, majjhanha, sayanha. Cp. aha.

Apa* [Vedic apa; Idg. *apo = Gr. a)po/, Av. apa, Latin ab from *ap (cp. aperio); Goth. af, Ger. Qb, Ags. E. of. A compar. form from apa is apara "futher away"] Well defined directional prefix, meaning "away from, off". Usually as base-prefix (except with a), and very seldom in compounds. with other modifying prefixes (like sam, abhi etc.). 1. apa = Vedic apa (Idg. *apo): apeti to go away = Gr. a)/peimi, Latin abeo, Goth. afiddja; apeta gone away, rid; *kaddhati to draw away, remove; *kamati walk away; *gacchati go away; *nidhati put away ( = a)potiqhmi, abdo); *nudati push away; *neti lead away; *vattati turn away ( = averto); *sakkati step aside; *harati take away. 2. apa = Vedic ava (Idg. *aue; see ava for details). There exists a widespread confusion between the two preps. apa and ava, favoured both by semantic (apa = away, ava = down, cp. E. off) and phonetic affinity (p softened to b, esp. in BB Mss., and then to v, as b > v is frequent, e. g. bya* > vya* etc.). Thus we find in Pali apa where Vedic and later literary Sanskrit have ava in the following instances: apakanti, *kassati, *kirati, *gata, *cara, *jhayati, *thata, *dana, *dhareti, *nata, *nameti, *nita, *lekhana, *loketi, *vadati.

Apakaddhati [apa + kaddhati, cp. Sanskrit apa-kar.sati] to draw away, take off, remove D I.180; III.127; DhA II.86. Causative apakaddhapeti J I.342; IV.415; Miln 34. - Cp. apakassati; and see pakattheti.

Apakata [pp. of apakaroti] put off, done away, in ajivik a-pakata being without a living M I.463 (the usual phrase being *apagata); Miln 279 (id.). At It 89 the reading of same phrase is ajivika pakata (v. l. a* vakata).

Apakatannu (adj.) [a + pa + katannu] ungrateful Vin II.199.

Apakantati [apa + kantati, Sanskrit ava + krntati] to cut off Th 2, 217 (gale = givam chindati ThA 178; Kern, Toev. corrects to kabale a.).

Apakaroti [apa + karoti, cp. Sanskrit apakaroti and apakrta in same meaning] to throw away, put off; hurt, offend, slight; possibly in reading T. apakirituna at Th 2, 447 (q. v.). -pp. apakata (q. v.). Cp. apakara.

Apakassati [Sanskrit apa- and ava-kar.sati, cp. apakaddhati] to throw away, remove Sn 281 (v.l. BB and SnA ava*; explained. by niddhamati and nikkaddhati SnA 311). -ger. apakassa Sn II.198 = Miln 389. See also apakasati.

Apakara and *ka [cf. Sanskrit apakara and apakaroti] injury, mischief; one who injures or offends DhA III.63; Sdhp 283.

Apakasati at Vin II.204 is to be read as apakassati and interpreted as "draw away, distract, bring about a split or dissension (of the Sangha)". The v. l. on p. 325 justifies the correction (apakassati) as well as Bdhgh's explination. "parisan akaddhanti". - Cp. A III.145 and see avapakasati. The reading at the id. p. at A V.74 is avakassati (combined. w. vavakassati, where Vin II.204 has avapakasati), which is much to be preferred (see vavakassati).

Apakirituna at Th 2, 447 T (reading of C. is abhi*) is explained ThA 271 to mean apakiritva chaddetva throwing away, slighting, offending. The correct etym = Sanskrit avakirati (ava + kr2 to strew, cast out) in sense "to cast off, reject", to which also belongs kirata in meaning "cast off" i. e. man of a so-called low tribe. See also avakirati 2.

Apakkamati [cp. Sanskrit apakramati, apa + kram] to go away, depart, go to one side J III.27; Sdhp 294. - aor. apakkami Pv IV.75; ger. apakkamitva PvA 43, 124, and apakkamma Pv II.928.

Apagacchati [apa + gam] to go away, turn aside DhA I.401 (*gantva). -pp. apagata (q. v.).

Apagata [pp. of apagacchati] 1. gone, gone away from (c. abl.), removed; deceased, departed It 112; PvA 39, 63 ( = peta), 64 ( = gata). - 2. (*-) frequent as prefix, meaning without, lit. having lost, removed from; free from Vin II.129 (*gabbha having lost her foetus, having a miscarriage); J I.61 (*vattha without clothes); PvA 38 (*soka free from grief), 47 (*lajja not shy), 219 (*vinnana without feeling). - Cp. apakata.

Apagabbha (adj.) [a + pa + gabbha] not entering another womb, i. e. not destined to another rebirth Vin III.3.

Apagama [Sanskrit apagama] going away, disappearance Sdhp 508.

Apanga (apanga) [Sanskrit apanga] the outer corner of the eye J III.419 (asita-pangin black-eyed); IV.219 (bahi*). Spelt avanga at Vin II.267, where the phrase avangam karoti, i. e. explained. by Bdhgh. ibid p. 327 as "avangadese adhomukham lekham karonti". According to Kern, Toev. 20, Bdhgh's explination is not quite correct, since avanga stands here in the meaning of "a coloured mark upon the body" (cp. PW. apanga).

Apacaya [from apa + ci] falling off, diminution (opp. acaya gathering, heaping up), unmaking, esp. loss (of wordliness), decrease (of possibility of rebirth Vin II.2 = III.21 = IV.213; cp. J III.342; S II.95 (kayassa acayo pi apacayo pi); A IV.280 = Vin II.259 (opp. acaya); J III.342 (sekho *ena na tappati); Vbh 106, 319, 326, 330.

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-gamin going towards decrease, "making for the undoing of rebirth" (Dhs trsl. 82) A V.243, 277; Dhs 277, 339, 505, 1014; Vbh 12, 16 sq.; Nett 87 (cp. Kvu 156).

Apacayati [from apa-ci, cp. cinati and cayati, with different meaning in Sanskrit; better explained. perhaps as denom. from *apacaya in meaning of apacayana, cp. apacita] to honour, respect, pay reverence D I.91 (pujeti +); J III.82. Pot. apace (for apaceyya, may be taken to apacinati 2) A IV.245; ThA 72 (here to apacinati 1). -pp. apacita (q. v.).

Apacayana (nt.) [abstr. from apa + cay, which is itself a der. from ci, cinati] honouring, honour, worship, reverence J I.220; V.326; DA I.256 (*kamma); VvA 24 (*m karoti = anjalikam karoti); PvA 104 (*kara, adj.), 128 (+ paricariya).

Apacayika (adj.) [from *apacaya, cp. B.Sanskrit apacayaka MVastu I.198; Divy 293] honouring, respecting J IV.94 (vaddha*, cp. vaddha-pacayin); Pv II.7 8 (jettha*); IV.324 (id.). In B.Sanskrit the corresponds phrase is jyes.tha-pacayaka.

Apacayin (adj.) [from *apacaya; cp. apacayika] honouring, paying homage, revering Sn 325 (vaddha* = vaddhanam apaciti karanena SnA 332) = Dh 109; J I.47, 132, 201; II.299; V.325; Miln 206; Sdhp 549.

Apacara [from apa + car, cp. Sanskrit apa and abhi-carati] falling off, fault, wrong doing J VI.375.

Apacita [pp. of apacayati or apacinati] honoured, worshipped, esteemed Th 1, 186; J II.169; IV.75; Vv 510 ( = pujita VvA 39); 3511 (cp. VvA 164); Miln 21.

Apaciti (f.) [Vedic apaciti in different meaning, viz. expiation] honour, respect, esteem, reverence Th 1, 589; J I.220; II.435; III.82; IV.308; VI.88; Miln 180, 234 (*m karoti), 377 (pujana +); SnA 332 (*karana). Cp. apacayana.

Apacinati [apa + cinati] 1. [in meaning of Sanskrit apaciyate cp. Pali upaciyyati Pass. of upacinati] to get rid of, do away with, (cp. apacaya), diminish, make less S III.89 (opp. acinati); Th 1, 807; J IV.172 (apacineth- eva kamani = viddhamseyyatha C.). Here belong prob. aor. 3rd pl. apaciyimsu (to be read for upaccimsu) at J VI. 187 (akkhini a. "the eyes gave out") and Pot. pres. apace ThA 72 (on v.40). - 2. [ = apacayati] to honour, esteem; observe, guard Vin I.264 (apacinayamana civaram (*) v. l apacitiyamana; trsl. guarding his claim is, Vin Texts); M I.324 (see detail under apavinati) Th 1, 186 (grd. apacineyya to be honoured); J V.339 (anapacinanto for T. anupacinanto, v. l. anapavinati). -pp. apacita (q.v.).

Apacca [Vedic apatya nt.; der. from apa] offspring, child D I.90 (bandhupada* cp. mundaka), 103 (id.); S I.69 (an*) Sn 991; DA I.254.

Apaccakkha (adj.) [a + pati + akkha] unseen; in instr. f. apaccakkhaya as adv. without being seen, not by direct evidence Miln 46 sq.

Apacchapurima (adj.) [a + paccha + purima] "neither after nor before", i. e. at the same time, simultaneous J III.295.

Apajaha (adj.) [a + pajaha] not giving up, greedy, miserly A III.76 (v. l. apanuta; C. expls. (a)vaddhinissita manatthaddha).

Apajita (nt.) [pp. of apa + ji] defeat Dh. 105.

Apajjhayati [apa + jhayati1; cp. Sanskrit abhi-dhyayati] to muse, meditate, ponder, consider M I.334 (nijjhayati +); III.14 (id.).

Apannaka (adj.) = apanna, ignorant Dpvs VI.29.

Apatthapeti [Causative from apa-titthati, cp. Sanskrit apa + stha to stand aloof] to put aside, leave out, neglect J IV.308; V.236.

Apannaka (adj.) [a + pannaka; see pannaka; Weber Ind. Str. III.150 and Kuhn, Beitr. p. 53 take it as *a-prashna-ka] certain, true, absolute M I.401, 411; A V.85, 294, 296; J I.104 (where explained as ekamsika aviruddha niyyanika).

Apannnakata (f.) [abstr. of apannaka] certainty, absoluteness S IV.351 sq.

Apatacchika only in kharapatacch* (q. v.) a kind of torture.

Apattha1 (adj.) [Sanskrit apasta, pp. of apa + as2] thrown away Dh 149 ( = chaddita DhA III.112).

Apattha2 2nd pl. pret. of papunati (q. v.).

Apatthata = avatthata covered Th 1, 759.

Apatthita and Apatthiya see pattheti.

Apadana (nt.) 1. [ = Sanskrit apadana] removing, breaking off, D III.88. - 2. [ = Sanskrit avadana cp. ovada] advice, admonition, instruction, morals Vin II.4 (an* not taking advice), 7 (id.) M I.96; A V.337 sq. (saddha*) Th 1, 47. - 3. legend, life history. In the title Mahapadana suttanta it refers to the 7 Buddhas. In the title Apadanam, that is "the stories" , it refers almost exclusively to Arahants. The other, (older), connotation seems to have afterwards died out. See Dialogues II.3. - Cp. also pariyapadana.

Apadisa [fr apa + dish] reference, testimony, witness DhA II.39.

Apadisati [apa + disati] to call to witness, to refer to, to quote Vin III.159; J I.215; III.234; IV.203; Miln 270; DhA II.39; Nett 93.

Apadesa [cp. Sanskrit apadesha] 1. reason, cause, argument M I.287 (an*). - 2. statement, designation PvA 8. - 3. pretext J III.60; IV.13; PvA 154. Thus also apadesaka J VI.179.

Apadhareti [Causative of apa + dhr, cp. Sanskrit ava-dharayati, but also BSanskrit apadharayati Divy 231] to observe, request, ask ThA 16.

Apanata [pp. of apanamati] "bent away", drawn aside, in stereotype combination. abhinata + apanata ("strained forth and strained aside" Mrs Rh. D. Kindred S. p. 39) M I.386; S I.28.

Apanamati [semantically doubtful] to go away Sn 1102 (apanamissati, v. l. apalam* and apagam*; explained at Nd2 60 by vajissati pakkhamissati etc. -pp. apanata (q. v.) Causative apanameti.

Apanameti [Causative from apanamati] 1. to take away, remove M I.96 = A I.198 (katham bahiddha a. carry outside); Kh VIII.4 ( = annam thanam gameti KhA 220). - 2. [ = Sanskrit ava-namati] to bend down, lower, put down Vin II.208 (chattam); S I.226 (id.); J II.287 (id., v. l. apanetva); D I.126 (hattham, for salute).

Apanidahati (and apanidheti) [apa + ni + dha, cp. Vedic apadha hiding-place; Sanskrit apadadhati = Gr. a)poti(qhmi = Latin abdo "do away"] to hide, conceal Vin IV.123 (*dheti, *dheyya, *dhessati); PvA 215 (*dhaya ger.). -pp. apanihita. - Causative apanidhapeti to induce somebody to conceal Vin IV.123.

Apanihita [pp. of apanidahati] concealed, in abstr. *ttam (nt.) hiding, concealing, theft PvA 216.

Apanita [Sanskrit apanita, pp. of apa + ni, see apaneti and cp. also onita = apanita] taken away or off. removed, dispelled PvA 39.

Apanudati and Apanudeti [apa + nud, cp. Vedic apanudati and Causative Sanskrit apanodayati] to push or drive away, remove, dispel; pres. apanudeti Miln 38. aor. apanudi Pv I.86 ( = apanesi PvA 41); II.314 ( = avahari aggahesi PvA 86); Davs I.8. ger. apanujja D II.223. See also der. apanudana.

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Apanudana and Apanudana (nt.) [Sanskrit apanodana, from apanudati] taking or driving away, removal Vin II.148 = J I.94 (dukkha*); Sn 252 (id.); PvA 114 (id.).

Apanuditar [n. ag. from apanudati, Sanskrit apanoditr] remover, dispeller D III.148.

Apaneti [apa + ni] to lead away, take or put away, remove J I.62, 138; II.4, 155 (aor. apanayi) III.26; Miln 188, 259, 413; PvA 41, 74, 198 ( = harati) Sdhp 63. Pass. apaniyati S I.176. -pp. apanita (q. v.).

Apapibati [apa + pibati] to drink from something J II.126 (aor. apapasi).

Apabbuhati and Apabyuhati [apa + vi + uh] to push off, remove, scrape away A III.187 (apaviyuhitva, vv. ll. *bbuhitva); J I.265 (pamsum). - Causative *byuhapeti to make remove or brush J IV.349 (pamsum).

Apabyama see apavyama.

Apamara [Sanskrit apasmara] epilepsy Vin I.93. Cp. apasmara.

Apamarika (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit apasmarin] epileptic Vin IV.8, 10, 11.

Apayati [Sanskrit apayati, apa + ya] to go away J VI.183 (apayati metri causa; explained. by C. as apagacchati palayati). - Causative apayapeti [Sanskrit apayapayati] to make go, drive away, dismiss M III.176; S II.119.

Apayana (nt.) [Sanskrit apayana, from apayati] going away, retreat D I.9 (opp. upa*); DA I.95.

Apara (adj.) [Vedic apara, der. from apa with compar. suffix -ra = Idg. *aporos "further away, second"; cp. Gr. a)pwte/rw farther, Latin aprilis the second month (after March, i. e. April). Goth. afar = after] another, i. e. additional, following, next, second (with pronoun. inflexion, i. e. nom. pl. apare) D III.190 (*paja another, i. e. future generation); Sn 791, 1089 (n-); J I.59 (aparam divasan on some day following); III.51 (apare tayo sahaya "other friends three", i. e. three friends, cp. similarly Fr. nous autres Franc*ais); IV.3 (dipa); PvA 81 (*divase on another day), 226; with other part. like aparo pi D III 128. - nt. aparam what follows i. e. future state, consequence; future Vin I.35 (na-param nothing more); Sn 1092 (much the same as punabbhava, cp. Nd2 61). Cases adverbially; aparam (acc.) further, besides, also J I.256; III.278; often with other part. like atha-param and further, moreover Sn 974; and puna c- aparam It 100; Miln 418 (so read for puna ca param) and passim; aparam pi Vism 9. - aparena in future D III.201. - Repeated (reduplicative formation) apara-param (local) to and fro J I.265, 278; PvA 198; (temporal) again and again, off and on J II.377; Miln 132 VvA 271; PvA 176 ( = punappunam). -anta (aparanta) = aparam, with anta in same function as in compounds vananta (see anta1 5): (a.) further away, westward J v.471; Miln 292 (janapada). (b.) future D I.30 (*kappika, cp. DA I.118); M II.228 (*a-nuditthi - thought of the future); S III.46 (id.). -a-pariya (from apara-para) ever-following, successive, continuous, everlasting; used with reference to kamma J V.106; Miln 108. -bhaga the future, lit. a later part of time, only in loc. aparabhage at a future date, later on J I.34, 262; IV.1; VvA 66.

Aparajju (adv.) [Sanskrit apare-dyus] on the following day Vin II.167; S I.186; Miln 48.

Aparajjhati [Sanskrit aparadhyate, apa + radh] to sin or offend against (c. loc.) Vin II.78 = III.161; J V.68; VI.367; Miln 189; PvA 263. -pp. aparaddha and aparadhita (q. v.).

Aparanna (nt.) [apara + anna = anna] "the other kind of cereal", prepared or cooked cereals, pulse etc. Opp. to pubbanna the unprepared or raw corn ( = amakadhanna Vin IV.265; Vin III.151 (pubb* +); IV.265, 267; A IV. 108, 112 (tila-mugga-masa*; opp. sali-yavaka etc.); Nd2 314 (aparannam nama supeyyam); J V.406 (*ja = harenuka, pea); Miln 106 (pubbanna*). See also dhanna and harita.

Aparaddha [pp. of aparajjhati] missed (c. acc.), gone wrong, failed, sinned (against = loc.) D I.91, 103, 180; S I.103 (suddhimaggam); Th 1, 78; Sn 891 (suddhim = viraddha khalita Nd1 300); PvA 195.

Aparapaccaya (adj.) [a + para + paccaya] not dependent or relying on others Vin I.12 (vesarajja-ppatta +); D I.110 (id.); M II 41; M I.491; S III.83; DA I.278 ( = na-ssa paro paccayo).

Aparajita (adj.) [Vedic aparajita; a + parajita] unconquered Sn 269; J I.71, 165.

Aparadha [from apa + radh] sin, fault, offence, guilt J I.264 (nir*); III.394; IV.495; VvA 69; PvA 87, 116.

Aparadhika (adj.) [from aparadha, cp. Sanskrit aparadhin] guilty, offending, criminal J II.117 (vaja*); Miln 149 (issara*), 189 (aparadhikata).

Aparadhita [pp. of aparadheti, Causative of apa + radh; cp. aparaddha] transgressed, sinned, failing J V.26 (so read for aparadh- ito).

Aparayin (adj.) [a + parayin, cp. parayana] having no support J III.386 (f. *i; C. appatittha appatisarana).

Apalapin see apalasin [Sanskrit apalapin "denying, concealing" different].

Apala'eti [apa + la'eti] to draw over to Vin I.85.

Apalayin (adj.) [a + palayin] not running away, steadfast, brave, fearless Nd2 13 (abhiru anutrasin apalayin as explination. of acchambhin and vira); J IV.296; V.4 (where C. gives variant "apalapini ti pi patho", which latter has v. l. apalasini and is explained. by C. as palapa-rahite anavajjasarire p. 5). See also apalasin.

Apalasin (adj.) [apa'asin; but spelling altogether uncertain. There seems to exist a confusion between the forms apalayin, apalapin and apalasin, owing to frequent miswriting of s, y, p in MSS. (cp. Nd2 introd. p. XIX.). We should be inclined to give apalasin, as the lectio difficilior, the prefix. The explination. at Pug 22 as "yassa puggalassa ayan pa'aso pahino ayan vuccati puggalo apa'asi" does not help us to clear up the etymology nor the vv. ll.] either "not neglectful, pure, clean" ( = apalapin from palasa chaff, cp. apalayin at J V.4), or "not selfish, not hard, generous" (as inferred from combination. with amakkhin and amaccharin), or "brave, fearless, energetic" ( = apalayin) D III.47, cp. Pug 22. See palasin.

ApaliBuddha and Apalibodha [a + paliBuddha, pp. of pari + brh, see palibujjhati] unobstructed, unhindered, free J III. 381 (*bodha); Miln 388; DhA III.198.

Apalekhana (nt.) [apa + lekhana from likh in meaning of lih, corresponding to Sanskrit ava-lehana] licking off, in cpd. hattha-palekhana "hand-licking" (i. e. licking one's hand after a meal, the practice of certain ascetics) M 177 (with v. l. hattha-valekhana M I.535; Trenckner compares BSanskrit hastapralehaka Lal. Vist. 312 and hasta-valehaka ibid. 323), 412; Pug 55 (explained. at Pug A 231 as hatthe pindamhe nitthite jivhaya hattham apalekhati).

Apalekhati [apa + lekhati in meaning of Sanskrit avalihati] to lick off Pug A 231 (hattham).

Apalepa Jin "so -palepa patito jaragharo" at Th 2, 270 is to be read as "so palepa*". Morris's interpret. J.Pali Text Society 1886, 126 therefore superfluous.

Apalokana (nt.) [from apaloketi] permission, leave, in *kamma proposal of a resolution, obtaining leave (see kamma I.3) Vin II.89; IV.152.

Apalokita [pp. of apaloketi; Sanskrit avalokita] 1. asked permission, consulted S III.5. - 2. (nt.) permission, consent, M I.337 (Naga-palokitam apalokesi). - 3. (nt.) an Ep. of Nibbana S IV.370.

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Apalokin (adj.) [Sanskrit avalokin] "looking before oneself", looking at, cautious Miln 398.

Apaloketi [BSanskrit ava-lokayati] 1. to look ahead, to look before, to be cautious, to look after M I.557 (v. l. for apacinati, where J V.339 C. has avaloketi); Miln 398. 2. to look up to, to obtain permission from (acc.), to get leave, to give notice of Vin III.10, 11; IV.226 (anapaloketva = anapuccha), 267 (+ apucchitva); M I.337; S III.95 (bhikkhusangham anapaloketva without informing the Sangha); J VI.298 (vajanam); DhA I.67. -pp. apalokita (q. v.). See also apalokana and *lokin.

Apavagga [Sanskrit apavarga] completion, end, final delivery, Nibbana; in phrase sagga-pavagga Davs II.62; III.75.

Apavattati [apa + vrt, cp. Latin averto] to turn away or aside, to go away J IV.347 (v. l. apasakkati).

Apavadati [apa + vadati] to reproach, reprove, reject, despise D I.122 ( = patikkhipati DA I.290); S V.118 (+ patikkosati).

Apavahati [apa + vahati] to carry or drive away; Causative apavaheti to remove, give up Miln 324 (kaddamam).

Apavittha at Pv III 82 is to be read apaviddha (q. v.).

Apavinati is probably misreading for apacinati (see apac* 2). As v. l. at J V.339 (anapavinanto) for T. anupacinanto (explained. by avaloketi C.). Other vv. ll. are anuvi* and apavi*; meaning "not paying attention". The positive form we find as apavinati "to take care of, to pay attention to" (c. acc.) at M I.324, where Trenckner unwarrantedly assumes a special root ven (see Notes p. 781), but the vv. ll. to this passage (see M. I.557) with apavinati and apacinati confirm the reading apacinati, as does the gloss apaloketi.

Apaviddha [pp. of apavijjhati, Vedic apa + vyadh] thrown away, rejected, discarded, removed S I.202; III.143; Sn 200 (susanasmim = chaddita SnA 250); Th 1, 635 = Dh 292 ( = chaddita DhA III.452); Pv III.82 (susanasmim; so read for T. apavittha); J I.255; III.426; YI.90 ( = chaddita C.). Sdhp 366.

Apaviyuhati see appabbuhati.

Apavinati see apavinati ( = apacinati).

Apavyama [apa + vyama] disrespect, neglect, in phrase apayvamato (apaby*) karoti to treat disrespectfully, to insult, defile S I.226 (v. l. abyamato; C. expls. apabyamato karitva abyamato katva); Kvu 472 (vv. ll. asabyakato, abyato, apabyato; Kvu trsl. 270 n. 1 remarks: "B. trsl.: abyasakato. The Burmese scholar U. Pandi, suggests we should read apabyakato, by which he understands blasphemously"; it is here combined. with nitthubhati, as at DhA II.36); DhA II.36 ("want of forbearance" Ed.; doubtful reading; vv. ll. appabyayakamma and apasama). For further detail see apasavya.

Apasakkati [apa + sakkati] to go away, to go aside J IV.347 (v. l. for apavattati); VvA 101; PvA 265 (aor. *sakki = apakkami).

Apasavya (adj.) [apa + savya] right (i. e. not left), contrary Ud 50 (T. has nitthubhitva abyamato karitva; vv. ll. are apabhyamato, abhyamato and C. apasabyamato), where C. expls. apasabyamato karitva by apasabyam katva, "which latter corresponds in form but not in meaning to Sanskrit apasavyam karoti to go on the right side" (Morris J P T S. 1886, 127). - See apavyama.

Apasada [from apa + sad] putting down, blame, disparagement M III.230.

Apasadita [pp. of apasadeti] blamed, reproached, disparaged S II.219; SnA 541.

Apasadeti [Causative of apa + sad] 1. to refuse, decline Vin IV.213, 263; J V.417 ( = uyyojeti). - 2. to depreciate, blame, disparage Vin III.101; M III.230 (opp. ussadeti); DA I.160. -pp. apasadita (q. v.).

Apasmara [Sanskrit apasmara, lit. want of memory, apa + smr] epilepsy, convulsion, fit J IV.84. Cp. apamara.

Apassanto etc. see passati.

Apassaya [cp. Sanskrit apashraya, from apasseti] 1. support, rest ThA 258. - 2. bed, bolstereotype mattress, in kantak.r a mattress of thorns, a bolstereotypefilled with thorns (as cushion for asceties) M I.78; J I 493; III.235. -sa-ppassaya with a head rest J IV.299. -pithaka a chair with a head-rest J III.235.

Apassayika (adj.) [from apassaya; cp. Sanskrit apashrayin -*] reclining on, in kantaka* one who lies on a bed of thorns (see kantaka) M I.78; J IV.299 (v. l, kandikesayika); Pug 55.

Apassita [pp. of apasseti] 1. leaning against J II.69 (talamulam = nissaya thita C.). - 2. depending on, trusting in (c. acc. or loc.) Vv 101 (para-garam = nissita VvA 101); J IV.25 (balamhi = balanissita). See also avassita.

Apasseti [Sanskrit apashrayati, apa + a + sri] to lean against, have a support in (acc.), to depend on. - 1. (lit.) lean against Vin II.175 (bhitti apassetabbo the wall to be used as a head-rest). - 2. (fig.) mostly in ger. apassaya dependent upon, depending on, trusting in (loc. or acc. or -*) Vin III.38; J I.214; PvA 189. -pp. apassita (q. v.). - See also avasseti.

Apassena (nt.) [from apasseti] a rest, support, dependence M III.127 (*ka); D III.224 (cattari apassenani); as adj. catura-passena one who has the fourfold support viz. sankhay- ekam patisevati, adhivaseti, parivajjeti, vinodeti A V.30. -phalaka (cp. Morris J.Pali Text Society 1884, 71) a bolstereotypelab, head-rest Vin I.48; II.175, 209.

Apahattar [n. ag. to apaharati] one who takes away or removes, destroyer M I 447 = Kvu 528.

Apahara [Sanskrit apahara, from apaharati] taking away, stealing, robbing J II.34.

Apaharana (nt.) = apahara Miln 195.

Apaharati [apa + hr] to take away, remove, captivate, rob J III.315 (aor. apaharayim); Miln 413; DA I.38.

Apakatata (f.) [a + pakata + ta] unfitness Miln 232 (v. l. apakatatta perhaps better).

Apakatika (adj.) [a + pakata + ika] not in proper or natural shape, out of order, disturbed DhA II.7. Cp. appakara.

Apacina (adj.) [Vedic apacina; cp. apaca* and apaka, westereotype; to Latin opacus, orig. turned away (from the east or the sun) i. e. opposite, dark] westereotypey, backward, below S III.84; It 120 (apacinam used as adv. and taking here the place of adho in combination. with uddham tiriyam; the reading is a conjecture of Windisch's, the vv. ll. are apacinam; apacini, apaci and apaminam, C. expls. by hettha).

Apatuka (adj.) [a + patu + ka (*), acc. to Morris J.Pali Text Society 1893, 7 der. from apatu not sharp, blunt, uncouth. This is hardly correct. See patur] not open, sly, insidious Th 1, 940 (as v. l. for T. avatuka, trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. as "unscrupulous", by Neumann as "ohne Redlichkeit"). Context suggests a meaning similar to the preceding nekatika, i. e. fraudulent. See also next.

Apatubha (adj.) [a + patu + bha (*), at the only passage changed by Morris J. Pali T. S. 1893, 7 to apatuka but

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without reason] = apatuka, i. e. sly, fraudulent J IV.184 (in context with nekatika; C. expls. apatubhava dhanuppada-virahita, in which latter virahita does not fit in; the pass. seems corrupt).

Apada (*) [apa + a + da] giving away in marriage J IV. 179 (in explination. of anapada unmarried; reading should prob. be apada = pariggaha).

Apadaka (adj.) [a + pada + ka] not having feet, footless, creeping, Ep. of snakes and fishes Vin II.110 = J II.146 (where see explination.). Spelt apada(ka) at It 87 (v. l. apada).

Apana (nt.) breathing out, respiration (so Ch.; no reference in Pali Canon*) On Prana and Apana see G. W. Brown in J. Am. Or. Soc. 39, 1919 pp. 104-112. See anapana.

Apanakatta (nt.) [a + panaka + ttam] "waterless state", living without drinking water J V.243.

Apapaka (adj.) [a + papaka] guiltless, innocent f. *ika Vv 314; 326.

Apapata (adj.) [apa + a + pata] falling down into (c. acc.) J IV.234 (aggim).

Apapurana (nt.) [from apapurati] a key (to a door) Vin I.80; III.119; M III.127. See also avapurana.

Apapurati and Apapunati [Sanskrit apavrnoti, apa + a + vr, but Vedic only apa-vrnoti corresponding to Latin aperio = *apa-*erio. On form see Trenckner, Notes 63] to open (a door) Vin I.5 (apapur- etam Amatassa dvaram: imper.; where id. p. S I.137 has avapur*, T., but v. l. apapur*); Vv 6427 (apapuranto Amatassa dvaram, explained. at VvA 284 by vivaranto); It 80 (apavunanti A. dv. as T. conj., with v. l. apanu*anti, apapurenti and apapuranti). -pp. aparuta (q. v.). - Pass. apapuriyati [cp. BSanskrit apavuriyati M Vastu II.158] to be opened M III.184 (v. l. ava*); J I.63 (ava*); Th 2, 494 (apapunitva). See also avapurati.

Apabhata [pp. of apa + a + bhr cp. Vedic apa-bharati, but Latin aufero to ava*] taken away, stolen J III.54.

Apaya [Sanskrit apaya, from apa + i, cp. apeti] "going away" viz. - 1. separation, loss Dh 211 (piya* = viyoga DhA III.276). - 2. loss (of property) D III.181, 182; A II. 166; IV.283; J III.387 (atth*). - 3. leakage, out flow (of water) D I.74; A II.166; IV.287. - 4. lapse, falling away (in conduct) D I.100. - 5. a transient state of loss and woe after death. Four such states are specified purgatory (niraya), rebirth as an animal, or as a ghost, or as a Titan (Asura). Analogous expressions are vinipata and duggati. All combined at D I.82; III.111; A I.55; It 12, 73; Nd2 under kaya; and frequent elsewhere. - apayaduggativinipata as attr. of sansara S II.92, 232; IV.158, 313; V.342; opp. to khina-paya-duggati-vinipata of an Arahant A IV.405; V.182 sq. - See also following pass.: M III.25 (anapaya); Sn 231; Th 2, 63; J IV.299; Pug 51; VvA 118 (opp. sugati); PvA 103; Sdhp 43, 75 and cp. niraya, duggati, vinipata. -gamin going to ruin or leading to a state of suffering DhA III.175; cp. *gamaniya id. Ps. I.94, *gamaniyata J IV.499. -mukha "facing ruin", leading to destruction ( = vinasa-mukha DA I.268), usually as nt. "cause of ruin" D I.101 (cattari apaya mukhani); III.181, 182 (cha bhoganam a* -mukhani, i. e. causes of the loss of one's possessions); A II.166; IV.283, 287. -samudda the ocean of distress DhA III 432. -sahaya a spendthrift companion D III.185.

Apayika (adj.) [also as apayika (q. v.); from apaya] belonging to the apayas or states of misery D I.103; III.6, 9, 12; It 42; PvA 60 (dukkha).

Apayin (adj.) [from apaya] going away J I.163 (addharattav-apayin = addharatte apayin C.). -an* not going away, i. e. constantly following (chaya anapayini, the shadow) Dh 2; Th 1, 1041; Miln 72.

Apara (nt.) [a + para] 1. the near bank of a river J III.230 (+ atinnam, C. paratiram atinnam). - 2. (fig.) not the further shore (of life), the world here, i.e. (opp. param = Nibbana) Sn 1129, 1130; Nd2 62; Dh 385 (explained. as bahirani cha ayatanani DhA IV.141). See para and cp. avara.

Aparaneyya (adj.) [grd. of paraneti + a*] that which cannot be achieved, unattainable J VI.36 ( = apapetabba).

Aparuta [Sanskrit apavrta, pp. of apapurati] open (of a door) Vin I.7 = M I.169 (aparuta tesan Amatassa dvara); D I.136 ( = vivata-dvara DA I.297); J I.264 (*dvara).

Apalamba ["a Vedic term for the hinder part of a carriage" Morris J P T S. 1886, 128; the "Vedic" unidentified] a mechanism to stop a chariot, a safe guard "to prevent warriors from falling out" (C.) S I.33 (Mrs Rh. D. trsl. "leaning board"); J VI.252 (v. l. upa*; Kern trsl. "remhout", i. e. brake).

Apahata [pp. of apa + hr] driven off or back, refuted, refused Sn 826 (*smim = apasadite vade SnA 541).

Api (indecl.) [Sanskrit api and pi; Idg. *epi *pi *opi; cp. Gr. e)/pi on to, o)/pi (o)/piqen behind, o)pi/ssa back = close at one's heels); Latin ob. in certain functions; Goth. iftuma. The assimilated form before vowels is app- ( = Sanskrit apy-). See further details under pi.] both prep. and conj., orig. meaning "close by", then as prep. "towards, to, on to, on" and as adv. "later, and, moreover". - 1 (prep. and prefix) (a) prep. c. loc.: api ratte later on in the night (q. v.) - (b) prefix: apidhana putting on to; api'ahati bind on to, apihita ( = Gr. e)piqeto/s, epithet) put on to, (q. v.). - 2. (conj. and part.). (a) in affirmative sentences meaning primarily "moreover, further, and then, even": - (a) (single) prothetic: api dibbesu kamesu even in heavenly joys Dh 187; ko disva na pasideyya api kanha-bhijatiko even an unfortunate-born Sn 563 api yojanani gacchama, even for leagues we go Pv IV.107 ( = anekani yojanani pi g. PvA 270. Epithetic (more frequent in the form pi): muhuttam api even a little while Dh 106, 107; aham api datthukamo I also wish to see Sn 685. Out of prothetic use ( = even = even if) develops the conditional meaning of "if", as in api sakkunemu (and then we may = if we may) J V.24 (c. = api nama sakkuneyyama; see further under b app-eva nama). - api-api in correlation corresponds to Latin et-et Sk ca-ca, meaning both . . . and, and . . . as well as, and is esp. frequent in combination. app' ekacce . . . app' ekacce (and) some . . . and others, i. e. some . . . others [not with Kern Toev. s. v. to appa!], e. g. at D I.118; Th 2, 216; VvA 208, etc. -app' ekada "morever once" = sometimes Vin IV.178; S I.162; IV.111; J I.67; DhA III.303, etc. - (b) (in combination with other emphatic or executive particles) api ca further, and also, moreover D I.96; Miln 25, 47. -api ca kho moreover, and yet, still, all the same It 89 (+ pana v. l.); Miln 20, 239. -api ca kho pana all the same, never mind, nevertheless J I.253. -api ssu so much so Vin II.76. -app' eva nama (with pot.) (either) surely, indeed, yes, I reckon, (or) I presume, it is likely that, perhaps Vin I.16 (surely); II.85 (id.); cp. pi D I.205 (sve pi upasankameyyama tomorrow I shall surely come along), 226 (siya thus shall it be); M I.460 = It 89 (moreover, indeed); J I.168 (surely) Vin II.262 (perhaps) J V.421 (id., piyavacam labheyyama). - (b) in interrog.-dubit. sentences as part. of interrog. (w. indic. or pot.) corresponding to Latin nonne, i e. awaiting an affirmative answer ("not, not then"): api Yasan kulaputtam passeyya do you not see . . . Vin I.16; api samana balivadde addasa have you not then seen . . . S I.115; api kinci labhamase shall we then not get anything* J III.26; api me pitaram passatha do you then not see my father* PvA 38. - Also combined. with other interr. part. e. g. api nu J. II.415.

Apitika (adj.) [a + pitika] fatherless J V.251.

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Apithiyati [for apidhiyati; api + dha] Pass. of apidahati to be obstructed, covered, barred, obscured J II.158. See also pithiyati.

Apidahati [api + dha, cp. Gr. e)piti(qhmi] to put on (see api 1 b), to cover up, obstruct, J V.60 (inf. apidhetum). pp. apihita, Pass. apithiyati, Der. apidhana (q. v.).

Apidhana (nt.) [Vedic apidhana in same meaning] cover, lid Vin I.203, 204; II.122. See apidahati.

Apiratte [read api ratte, see api 1 a] later in the night J VI.560.

Apilapana (nt.) [from api + lap] counting up, repetition [Kern, Toev, s.v. gives der. from a + plavana] Nett 15, 28, 54; Miln 37.

Apilapanata (f.) in the pass. at Dhs 14 = Nd2 628 is evidently meant to be taken as a + pilapana + ta (from pilavati, plu), but whether the der. and interpret. of Dhs A is correct, we are unable to say. On general principles it looks like popular etymology Mrs. Rh. D. translates (p. 16) "opposite of superficiality" (lit "not floating"); see her detailed note Dhs trsl. 16.

Apilapeti [api + lap] "to talk close by", i. e. to count up, recite, or: talk idly, boast of Miln 37 (sapatheyyam).

Api'andha (adj.) at Vv 361 should be read as api'addha ( = Sanskrit apinaddha) pp. of api'andhati (api'andhati) "adorned with", or (with v. l. SS) as api'andhana; VvA 167 expls. by analankata, mistaking the a of api for a negation.

Api'andhana (nt.) [from api'andhati, also in shorter (and more usual) form pi'andhana, q. v.] that which is tied on, i.e. band, ornament, apparel, parure Vv 6410, 6418 (explained. inacurately at VvA 279 by; a-karo nipatamattam, pilandhanam = abharanam); J VI.472 (c. pilandhitum pi ayuttam*).

Api'ahati and Api'andhati [Sanskrit apinahyati, on n: ' see note on gala, and cp. guna: gu'a, venu: velu etc. On ndh for yh see avanandhati] to tie on, fasten, bind together; to adorn oneself with (acc.) J V.400 (ger. api'ayha = pi'andhitva C.) - Cp. api'andhana and pp apiladdha.

Apiha (adj.) [apihalu* a + piha, uncertain origin, see next. Morris J.PaliI.S. 1886 takes it as a + sprha] "unhankering" (Mrs Rh. D.) S I 181 (+ akankha; v. l. BB asita).

Apihalu (adj.) [a + pihalu, analysed by Fausboll Sn. Gloss. p. 229 as a-sprhayalu, but Bdhgh evidently different (see below)] not hankering, free from craving, not greedy S I.187 = Th 1, 1218 (akuhako nipako apihalu); Sn 852 (+ amaccharin, explained. at SnA 549 as apihana-silo, patthanatanhaya rahito ti vuttam hoti, thus perhaps taking it as a + pi ( = api) + hana (from dha, cp. pidahati and pihita); cp. also Nd2 227).

Apihita [pp. of apidahati] covered J IV.4.

Apuccandata (f.) [a + puti + anda + ta] "not being a rotten egg," i. e. normal state, healthy birth, soundness M I.357.

Apuccha (adj.) [a + puccha] "not a question", i. e. not to be asked Miln 316.

Apekkha (adj.) [ = apekkha] waiting for, looking for S I.122 (otara*).

Apekkhati 1. [Sanskrit apik.sate, apa + iks.] to desire, long for, look for, expect Sn 435 (kame n-a-pekkhate cittam), 773 (ppr. apekkhamana); J IV.226 (id.); Dhs A 365. anapekkhamana paying no attention to (acc.) Sn 59; J V.359. 2. [Sanskrit avik.sate, ava + iks.; see avekk.rati] to consider, refer to, look at, ger. apekkhitva (cp. Sanskrit aviks.ya) with reference to VvA 13. -pp. apekkhita (q. v.).

Apekkhavant (adj.) [from apekkha] full of longing or desire, longing, craving Vin IV.214; S III.16; Th 1, 558; J V.453 ( = satanha); Sn A 76.

Apekkha and Apekha (f.) [Sanskrit apeks.a, from apa + iks.. The spelling is either kkh or kh, they are both used promiscuously, a tendency towards kh prevailing, as in upekha, sekha] attention, regard, affection for (loc.); desire, longing for (c. loc.) S I.77; III.132; V.409 (mata-pitusu); Vin IV.214; Sn 38 ( = vuccati tanha etc. Nd2 65; = tanha sineha SnA 76); J I.9, 141; Th 1, 558; Dh 345 (puttesu daresu ca = tanha DhA IV.56); Dhs 1059, 1136 ( = alayakarana-vasena apekkhati ti apekkha Dhs A 365, cp. Dhs trsl. 279). Freq. as adj. (-*or in combination. with sa* and an*), viz. Vin III.90 (visuddha*); S I.122 (otara*); sa* A III.258, 433; IV.60 sq.; an* without consideration, regardless, indifferent S V.164; A III.252, 347, 434; Sn 200 (anapekkha honti natayo); J I.9. Cp. anapekkhin and apekkhavant; also B.Sanskrit avek.sata.

Apekkhita [pp. of apekkhati] taken care of, looked after, considered J VI.142, 149 ( = olokita C.).

Apekkhin (adj.) [Sanskrit, but B.Sanskrit, e.g. Jtm 215; from apa + iks.] considering, regarding, expecting, looking for; usually negative an* indifferent (against) = loc.) S I.16, 77; II.281; III.19, 87; Sn 166 (kamesu), 823 (id.), 857; Dh 346. Cp. apekkhavant.

Apeta (adj.) [pp. of apeti] gone away; (med.) freed of, rid of, deprived of (instr., abl. or *-) Dh 9 (damasaccena); PvA 35 (dukkhato); usually *- in sense of "without, -less", e. g. apeta-kaddama free from mud, stainless Dh 95; *vattha without dress J V.16; *vinnana without feeling, senseless Dh 41; Th 2, 468; *vinnanattam senselessness, lack of feeling PvA 63.

Apetatta (nt.) [abstr. to apeta] absence (of) PvA 92.

Apeti [apa + i, cp. Gr. a)/peimi, Latin abeo, Goth. af-iddja] to go away, to disappear D I.180 (upeti pi apeti pi); J I.292; Sn 1143 ( = n- apagacchanti na vijahanti Nd2 66). -pp. apeta (q. v.).

Apetteyyata (f.) [a + petteyyata, abstr. from *paitrya fatherly] in combination. with amatteyyata irreverence against father and mother D III.70 (cp. Dh 332 and DhA IV.34).

Apeyya (adj.) [a + peyya, grd. of pa] not to be drunk, not drinkable J VI.205 (sagara).

Apesiya (nt.) [* of uncertain origin] a means of barring a door Vin II.154 (Bdhgh. explinations on p. 321: apesi ti dighadarumhi khanuke pavesetva kandaka-sakhahi vinandhitva katam dvara-tthakanakam).

Apesiyamana (adj.) [ppr. from a + peseti (q. v.)] not being in service Vin II.177.

App' in app- ekacce etc. see api.

Appa (adj.) [Vedic alpa, cp. Gr. a)lapa/zw (lapa/zw) to empty (to make little), a)lapadno/s weak; Lith. alpnas weak, alpst.s to faint] small, little, insignificant, often in the sense of "very little = (next to) nothing" (so in most compounds); thus explained. at VvA 334 as equivalent to a negative part. (see appodaka) D I.61 (opp. mahant, DA I.170 = parittaka); Sn 713, 775, 805, 896 ( = appaka, omaka, thoka, lamaka, jatukka, parittaka Nd1 306); Dh 174; J I.262; Pug 39. - nt. appam a little, a small portion, a trifle; pl. appani small things, trifles A II.26 = It 102; A II.138; Dh 20 ( = thokam eka-vagga-dvi-vagga-mattam pi DhA I.158), 224 (*smim yacito asked for little), 259. -aggha of little value (opp. mahaggha priceless) J I.9; Pug 33; DhA IV.184. -assada [BSanskrit alpa-svada, cp. Divy 224 = Dh 186; alpa + a + svad] of little taste or enjoyment, affording little pleasure (always used of kama) Vin II.25 = M I.130 = A III.97 = Nd2 71; Sn 61; Dh

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186 ( = supina-sadisataya paritta-sukha DhA III 240); Th 2, 358 ( = ThA 244); J II.313; Vism 124. -atanka little (or no) illness, freedom from illness, good health ( = appabadha with which often combined.) [BSanskrit alpatanka and alpatankata] D I.204 (+ appabadha); III.166; A III.65, 103; Miln 14. -abadha same as appatanka (q. v.) D I.204; III.166, 237; M II.125; A I.25; II.88; III.30, 65 sq., 103, 153; Pv IV.144; *abadhata id. [cp. BSanskrit alpabadhata good health] A I.38. -ayuka short lived D I.18; PvA 103, also as *ayukin Vv 416. -ahara taking little or no food, fasting M II.5; Sn 165 ( = ekasana-bhojitaya ca parimita-bhojitaya ca SnA 207), also as *aharata M I.245; II.5. -odaka having little or no water, dry Sn 777 (macche va appodake khinasote = parittodake Nd1 50); Vv 843 (+ appabhakkha; explained. at VvA 334 as "appa-saddo h- ettha abhavattho appiccho appanigghoso ti adisu viya"); J I.70; DhA IV.12. -kasira in instr. *kasirena with little or no difficulty D I.251; S V.51; Th 1, 16. -kicca having few duties, free from obligations, free from care Sn 144 ( = appam kiccam assa ti KhA 241). -gandha not smelling or having a bad smell Miln 252 (opp. sugandha). -ttha "standing in little"; i. e. connected with little trouble D I.143; A I.169. -thamaka having little or no strength, weak S IV.206. -dassa having little knowledge or wisdom Sn 1134 (see Nd2 69; explained. by paritta-panna SnA 605). -nigghosa with little sound, quiet, still, soundless (cp. VvA 334, as quoted above under *odaka) A V.15 (+ appasadda); Sn 338; Nd1 377; Miln 371. -panna, of little wisdom J II.166; III.223, 263. -punna of little merit M II.5. -punnata having little merit, unworthiness Pv IV.107. -phalata bringing little fruit PvA 139. -bhakkha having little or nothing to eat Vv 843. -bhoga having little wealth, i. e. poor, indigent Sn 114 ( = sannicitanam ca bhoganam ayamukhassa ca abhavato SnA 173). -mannati to consider as small, to underrate: see separately. -matta little, slight, mean, (usually as *ka; not to be confounded with appamatta2) A III.275; J I.242; also meaning "contented with little" (of the bhikkhu) It 103 = A II.27; f. *a trifle, smallness, insignificance D I.91; DA I.55. -mattaka small, insignificant, trifling, nt. a trifle (cp. *matta) Vin 1, 213; II.177 (*vissajjaka the distributor of little things, cp. A III.275 and Vin IV.38, 155); D I.3 ( = appamatta etassa ti appamattakam DA I.55); J I.167; III.12 ( = anu); PvA 262. -middha "little slothful", i. e. diligent, alert Miln 412. -rajakkha having little or no obtuseness D II.37; M I.169; Sdhp 519. -ssaka having little of one's own, possessing little A I.261; II.203. -sattha having few or no companious, lonely, alone Dh 123. -sadda free from noise, quiet M II.2, 23, 30; A V.15; Sn 925 ( = appanigghosa Nd1 377); Pug 35; Miln 371. -siddhika bringing little success or welfare, dangerous J IV.4 ( = mandasiddhi vinasabahula C.); VI.34 (samuddo a. bahu-antarayiko). -ssuta possessing small knowledge, ignorant, uneducated D I.93 (opp. bahussuta); III.252, 282; S IV.242; It 59; Dh 152; Pug 20, 62; Dhs 1327. -harita having little or no grass S I.169; Sn p. 15 ( = paritta-harita-tina SnA 154).

Appaka (adj.) [appa + ka] little, small, trifling; pl. few. nt. *m adv. a little D II.4; A V.232 sq., 253 sq.; Sn 909 (opp. bahu); Dh 85 (appaka = thoka na bahu DhA II. 160); Pv I.102 ( = paritta PvA 48); II.939; Pug 62; PvA 6, 60 ( = paritta). f. appika J I.228. - instr. appakena by little, i. e. easily DA I.256. -anappaka not little, i. e. much, considerable, great; pl. many S IV.46; Dh 144; Pv I.117 ( = bahu PvA 58); PvA 24, 25 (read anappake pi for T. *appakeci; so also KhA 208).

Appakara (adj.) [a + pakara] not of natural form, of bad appearance, ugly, deformed J V.69 ( = sarirappakara-rahita dussanthana C.). Cp. apakatika.

Appakinna [appa + kinna, although in formation also = a + pakinna] little or not crowded, not overheaped A V.15 (C. anakinna).

Appagabbha (adj.) [a + pagabbha] unobtrusive, free from boldness, modest S II.198 = Miln 389, Sn 144, 852 (cp. Nd1 228 and KhA 232); Dh 245.

Appaccaya [a + paccaya] 1. (n.) discontent, dissatisfaction, dejection, sulkiness D I.3 ( = appatita honti tena atuttha asomanassita ti appacayo; domanass- etam adhivacanam DA I.52); III.159; M I.442; A I.79, 124, 187; II.203; III.181 sq.; IV.168, 193; J II.277; Sn p. 92 (kapa + dosa + appacaya); Vv 8331 ( = domanassan VvA 343); SnA 423 ( = appatitam domanassan). - 2. (adj.) unconditioned Dhs 1084, 1437.

Appati* [a + pati*] see in general under pati*.

Appatikarika (adj.) [a + patikarika] "not providing against", i. e. not making good, not making amends for, destructive J V.418 (spelling here and in C. appati*).

Appatikopeti [a + patikopeti] not to disturb, shake or break (fig.) J V.173 (uposatham).

Appatikkhippa (adj.) [a + patikkhippa, grd. of patikkhipati] not to be refused J II.370.

Appatigandhika and *iya (adj.) [a + pati + gandha + ika] not smelling disagreeable, i. e. with beautiful smell, scented, odorous J V.405 (*ika, but C. *iya; explained. by sugandhena udakena samannagata); VI.518; Pv II.120; III.226.

Appatigha (adj.) [a + patigha] (a) not forming an obstacle, not injuring, unobstructive Sn 42 (see explained. at Nd2 239; SnA 88 expls. "katthaci satte va sankhare va bhayena na patihannati ti a."). - (b) psychol. t. t. applied. to rupa: not reacting or impinging (opp. sappatigha) D III.217; Dhs 660, 756, 1090, 1443.

Appaticchavi (adj.) at Pv II.113 is faulty reading for sampatitacchavi (v. l.).

Appatibhaga (adj) [a + patibhaga] not having a counterpart, unequalled, incomparable DhA I.423 ( = anuttara).

Appatibhana (adj.) [a + patibhana] not answering back, bewildered, cowed down Vin III.162; A III.57; *m karoti to intimidate, bewilder J V.238, 369.

Appatima (adj.) [a + patima from prep. pati but cp. Vedic apratimana from prati + ma] matchless, incomparable, invaluable Th 1, 614; Miln 239.

Appativattiya (adj.) [a + pati + vattiya = vrtya, grd. or vrt] (a) not to be rolled back Sn 554 (of dhammacakka, may however be taken in meaning of b.). - (b) irresistable J II.245 (sihanada). Note. The spelling with t is only found as v. l. at J II.245; otherwise as t.

Appativana (nt.) [a + pativana, for *vrana, the guna-form of vr, cp. Sanskrit prativarana] non-obstruction, not hindering, not opposing or contradicting A I.50; III.41; V.93 sq.; adj. J I.326.

Appativanita (f.) [abstr. from (ap)pativana] not being hindered, non-obstruction, free effort; only in phrase "asantutthita ca kusalesu dhammesu appativanita ca padhanasmim" (discontent with good states and the not shrinking back in the struggle Dhs trsl. 358) A I.50, 95 = D III.214 = Dhs 1367.

Appativani (f.) [almost identical w. appativanita, only used in different phrase] non-hindrance, non-restriction, free action, impulsive effort; only in stock phrase chando vayamo ussaho usso'hi appativani S II.132; V.440; A II.93, 195; III.307 sq.; IV.320; Nd2 under chanda C. [cp. similarly Divy 654].

Appativaniya (adj.) [grd. of a + pati + vr; cp. BSanskrit aprativani* Divy 655; M Vastu III.343] not to be obstructed, irresistible S I.212 (applied. to Nibbana; Mrs. Rh. D. Kindred S. p. 274 translations. "that source from whence there is no turning back"), Th 2, 55.

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Appatividdha (adj.) [a + pati + viddha] "not shot through" i. e. unhurt J VI.446.

Appativibhatta (*bhogin) (adj.) [a + pati + vibhatta] (not eating) without sharing with others (with omission of another negative: see Trenckner, Miln p. 429, where also Bdhgh's explination.) A III289; Miln 373; cp. Miln trsl. II.292.

Appativekkhiya [ger. of a + pati + avekkhati] not observing or noticing J IV.4 ( = apaccavekkhitva anavekkhitva C.).

Appatisankha (f.) [a + patisankha] want of judgment Pug 21 = Dhs 1346.

Appatisandhika (and *iya) (adj.) [a + patisandhi + ka (ya)] 1. what cannot be put together again, unmendable, irreparable (*iya) Pv I.129 ( = puna pakatiko na hoti PvA 66) = J III.167 ( = patipakatiko katum na sakka C.). 2. incapable of reunion, not subject to reunion, i. e. to rebirth J V.100 (*bhava).

Appatisama (adj.) [a + pati = sama; cp. BSanskrit apratisama M Vastu I.104] not having it's equal, incomparable J I.94 (Baddha-siri).

Appatissavata (f.) [a + patissavata] want of deference Pug 20 = Dhs 1325.

Appanihita (adj.) [a + panihita] aimless, not bent on anything, free from desire, usually as nt. aimlessness, combined. w. animittam Vin III.92, 93 = IV.25; Dhs 351, 508, 556. See on term Cpd.67; Dhs trsl. 93, 143 and cp. panihita.

Appatittha (adj.) [a + patittha] 1. not standing still S I.1. - 2. without a footing or ground to stand on, bottomless Sn 173.

Appatissa (and appatissa) (adj.) [a + pati + shru] not docile, rebellious, always in combination. with agarava A II.20; III.7 sq., 14 sq., 247, 439. Appatissa-vasa an unruly state, anarchy J II.352. See also patissa.

Appatita (adj.) [a + patita, of prati + i, Sanskrit pratita] dissatisfied, displeased, disappointed (cp. appaccaya) J V.103 (at this passage preferably to be read with v. l. as appatika = without husband, C. expls. assamika), 155 (cp. C. on p. 156); DA I.52; SnA 423.

Appaduttha (adj.) [a + paduttha] not corrupt, faultless, of good behaviour Sn 662 ( = padosa-bhavena a. SnA 478); Dh 137 ( = niraparadha DhA III.70).

Appadhamsa (adj.) [ = appadhamsiya, Sanskrit apradhvamsya] not to be destroyed J IV.344 (v. l. duppadhamsa).

Appadhamsika (and *iya) (adj.) [grd. of a + padhamseti] not to be violated or destroyed, inconquerable, indestructible D III.175 (*ika, v. l. *iya); J III.159 (*iya); VvA 208 (*iya); PvA 117 (*iya). Cp. appadhamsa.

Appadhamsita (adj.) [pp. of a + padhamseti] not violated, unhurt, not offended Vin IV.229.

Appana (f.) [cp. Sanskrit arpana, abstr. from appeti = arpayati from of r, to fix, turn, direct one's mind; see appeti] application (of mind), ecstasy,fixing of thought on an object, conception (as psychol. t. t.) J II.61 (*patta); Miln 62 (of vitakka); Dhs 7, 21, 298; Vism 144 (*samadhi); DhsA 55, 142 (def. by Bdhg. as "ekaggam cittam arammane appeti"), 214 (*jhana). See on term Cpd.pp. 56 sq., 68, 129, 215; Dhs trsl. XXVIII, 10, 53, 82, 347.

Appabhoti (Appahoti) see pahoti.

Appamannati [appa + mannati] to think little of, to underrate, despise Dh 121 ( = avajanati DhA III.16; v. l. avapamannati).

Appamanna (f.) [a + pamanna, abstr. from pamana = Sanskrit *pramanya] boundlessness, infinitude, as psych. t. t. applied. in later books to the four varieties of philanthropy, viz. metta karuma mudita upekkha i. e. love, pity, sympathy, desinterestedness, and as such enumerated at D III.223 (q. v. for detailed reference as to var. passages); Ps I.84; Vbh 272 sq.; DhsA 195. By itself at Sn 507 ( = mettajjhanasankhata a. SnA 417). See for further explination. Dhs trsl. p. 66 and metta.

Appamatta1 (adj.) [appa + matta] see appa.

Appamatta2 (adj.) [a + pamatta, pp. of pamadati] not negligent, i. e. diligent, careful, heedful, vigilant, alert, zealous M I.391-92; S I.4; Sn 223 (cp. KhA 169), 507, 779 (cp. Nd1 59); Dh 22 (cp. DhA I.229); Th 2, 338 = upatthitasati Th A 239).

Appamada [a + pamada] thoughtfulness, carefulness, conscientiousness, watchfulness, vigilance, earnestness, zeal D I.13 (: a. vuccati satiya avippavaso DA I.104); III.30, 104 sq., 112, 244, 248, 272; M I.477 (*phala); S I.25, 86, 158, 214; II.29, 132; IV.78 (*viharin), 97, 125, 252 sq.; V.30 sq. (*sampada), 41 sq., 91, 135, 240, 250, 308, 350; A I.16, 50. (*adhigata); III.330, 364, 449; IV.28 (*garavata) 120 (*m garu-karoti); V.21, 126 (kusalesu dhammesu); Sn 184, 264, 334 ( = sati-avippavasa-sankhata a. SnA 339); It 16 (*m pasansanti punnakiriyasu pandita), 74 (*viharin); Dh 57 (*viharin, cp. DhA I.434); 327 (*rata = satiya avippavase abhirata DhA IV.26); Davs II. 35; KhA 142.

Appamana (frequent spelled appamana) (adj.) [a + pamana] 1. "without measure", immeasurable, endless, boundless, unlimited, unrestricted all-permeating S IV.186 (*cetaso); A II.73; V.63; Sn 507 (mettam cittam bhavayan appamanam = anavasesa-pharanena SnA 417; cp. appamanna); It 21 (metta), 78; J II.61; Ps II.126 sq.; Vbh 16, 24, 49, 62, 326 sq.; Dhs 182, 1021, 1024, 1405; DhsA 45, 196 (*gocara, cp. anantagocara). See also on term Dhs trsl. 60. - 2. "without difference", irrelevant, in general (in commentary style) J I.165; II.323.

Appameyya (adj.) [a + pameyya = Sanskrit aprameya, grd. of a + pra + ma] immeasurable, infinite, boundless M I.386; S V.400; A I.266; Th 1, 1089 (an*); Pug 35; Miln 331; Sdhp 338.

Appavatta (f.) [a + pavatta] the state of not going on, the stop (to all that), the non-continuance (of all that) Th 1, 767; Miln 326.

Appasada see pasada.

Appassada see appa.

Appahina (adj.) [a + pahina, pp. of pahayati] not given up, not renounced M I.386; It 56, 57; Nd2 70 D1; Pug 12, 18.

Appanaka (adj.) [a + pana + ka] breathless, i. e. (1) holding one's breath in a form of ecstatic meditation (jhana) M I.243; J I.67 [cp. BSanskrit asphanaka Lal. V.314, 324; M Vastu II.124; should the Pali form be taken as *a + pranaka*]. (2) not holding anything breathing, i. e. inanimate, lifeless, not containing life Sn p. 15 (of water).

Appika (f.) of appaka.

Appiccha (adj.) [appa + iccha from is., cp. iccha] desiring little or nothing, easily satisfied, unassuming, contented, unpretentious S I.63, 65; A III.432; IV.2, 218 sq., 229; V.124 sq., 130, 154, 167; Sn 628, 707; Dh 404; Pv IV.73; Pug 70.

Appicchata (f.) [abstr. from prec.] contentment, being satisfied with little, unostentatiousness Vin III.21; D III.115; M I.13; S II 202, 208 sq.; A I.12, 16 sq.; III.219 sq., 448; IV.218, 280 (opp. mahicchata); Miln 242; SnA 494 (catubbidha, viz. paccaya-dhutanga-pariyatti-adhigama-vasena); PvA 73. As one of the 5 dhutanga-dhamma at Vism 81.

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Appita (adj.) [pp. of appeti, cp. BSanskrit arpita, e. g. prityarpitam caks.u* Jtm 3169] 1. fixed, applied, concentrated (mind) Miln 415 (manasa) Sdhp 233 (citta). - 2. brought to, put to, fixed on J VI.78 (maranamukhe); visappita (an arrow to which) poison (is) applied, so read for visap(p)ita at J V.36 and Vism 303.

Appiya and Appiyata see piya etc.

Appekada (adv.) see api 2 ax.

Appeti [Vedic arpayati, Causative of r, rnoti and rcchati (cp. icchati2), Idg. *ar (to insert or put together, cp. also *er under annava) to which belong Sanskrit ara spoke of a wheel; Gr. a)rari/skw to put together, a(/rma chariot, a)/rqron limb, a)reth/ virtue; Latin arma = E. arms (i. e. weapon), artus fixed, tight, also limb, ars = art. For further connections see annava] 1. (*er) to move forward, rush on, run into (of river) Vin II.238; Miln 70. - 2. (*ar) to fit in, fix, apply, insert, put on to (lit. and fig.) Vin II.136, 137; J III.34 (nimba-sulasmim to impale, C. avunati); VI.17 (T. sulasmim acceti, vv. ll. abbeti = appeti and upeti, C. avunati); Miln 62 (darum sandhismim); VvA 110 (sannanam). Cp. Trenckner, Notes 64 n. 19, who defends reading abbeti at T. passages.

Appesakkha (adj.) [acc. to Childers = Sanskrit *alpa + isha + akhya, the latter from a + khya "being called lord of little"; Trenckner on Miln 65 (see p. 422) says: "appesakkha and mahesakkha are traditionally explained. appaparivara and mahaparivara, the former, I suppose, from appe and sakkha (Sanskrit sakhya), the latter an imitation of it". Thus the etymology would be "having little association or friendship" and resemble the term appasattha. The BSanskrit forms are alpeshakhya and maheshakhya, e. g. at Av. SH II. 153; Divy 243] of little power, weak, impotent S II.229; Miln 65; Sdhp 89.

Appoti [the contracted form of apnoti, usually papunati, from ap] to attain, reach, get Vism 350 (in etymology of apo).

Appodaka see appa.

Appossukka (adj.) [appa + ussuka, Sanskrit alpotsuka, e. g. Lal. V. 509; Divy 41, 57, 86, 159. It is not necessary to assume a hypothetic form of *autsukya as der. from ussuka] unconcerned, living at ease, careless, "not bothering", keeping still, inactive Vin II.188; M III.175, 176; S I 202 (in stock phrase appossukka tunhibhuta sankasaya "living at ease, given to silence, resigned" Mrs. Rh. D. Dhs trsl. 258, see also J.Pali Text Society 1909, 22); II. 177 (id.); IV.178 (id.); Th 2, 457 ( = nirussukka ThA 282); Sn 43 ( = abyavata anapekkha Nd2 72); Dh 330 ( = niralaya DhA IV.31); J I.197; IV.71; Miln 371 (a. titthati to keep still); DA I.264.

Appossukkata (f.) [abstr. from prec.] inaction, reluctance, carelessness, indifference Vin I.5; D II.36; Miln 232; DhA II.15.

Apphuta (and apphuta) [Sanskrit *a-sphrta for a-spharita pp. of sphar, cp. phurati; phuta and also phusati] untouched, unpervaded, not penetrated. D I.74 = M I.276 (pitisukhena).

Apphota (f.) [from appoteti to blossom] N. of a kind of Jasmine J VI.336.

Apphotita [pp. of apphoteti] having snapped one's fingers or clapped one's hands J II.311 (*kale).

Apphoteti [a + photeti, sphut] to snap the fingers or clap the hands (as sign of pleasure) Miln 13, 20. pp. apphotita.

Aphusa [Sanskrit *asprshya, a + grd. of phusati to touch] not to be touched Miln 157 (trsl. unchangeable by other circumstances; Tr. on p. 425 remarks "aphusani kiriyani seems wrong, at any rate it is unintelligible to me").

Aphegguka (adj.) [a + pheggu + ka] not weak, i. e strong J III.318.

Abaddha [a + baddha] not tied, unbound, unfettered Sn 39 (v. l. and Nd2 abandha; explained- by rajju-bandhan- adisu yena kenaci abaddha SnA 83).

Abandha (n.-adj.) [a + bandha] not tied to, not a follower or victim of It 56 (marassa; v. l. abaddha).

Abandhana (adj.) [a + bandhana] without fetters or bonds, unfettered, untrammelled Sn 948, cp. Nd1 433.

Ababa [of uncertain origin, prob. onomatopoetic]. N. of a cert. Purgatory, enumerated with many other similar names at A V.173 = Sn p. 126 (cp. atata, abbuda and also Av. SH I.4, 10 and see for further explination. of term SnA 476 sq.

Abala (adj.) [a + bala] not strong, weak, feeble Sn 1120 ( = dubbala, appabala, appathama Nd2 73); Dh 29 (*assa a weak horse = dubbalassa DhA I.262; opp. sighassa a quick horse).

Abbaje T. reading at A II.39, evidently interpreted by ed. as a + vraje, pot. of a + vraj to go to, come to (cp. pabbajati), but is preferably with v. l. SS to be read andaje (corresponding with vihangama in prec. line).

Abbana (adj.) [a + vana, Sanskrit avrana] without wounds Dh 124.

Abbata (n.-adj.) [a + vata, Sanskrit avrata] (a) (nt.) that which is not "vata" i. e. moral obligation, breaking of the moral obligation Sn 839 (asilata +); Nd1 188 (v. l. SS abhabbata; explained. again as a-vatta). SnA 545 ( = dhutangavatam vina. - (b) (adj.) one who offends against the moral obligation, lawless Dh 264 ( = silavatena ca dhutavatena ca virahita DhA III.391; vv. ll. k. adhuta and abhuta; B. abbhuta, C. abbuta).

Abbaya in uday* at Miln 393 stands for avyaya.

Abbahati (and abbuhati) [the first more frequent for pres., the second often in aor. forms; Sanskrit abrhati, a + brh1, pp. brdha (see abbu'ha)] to draw off, pull out (a sting or dart); imper. pres. abbaha Th 1, 404; J II.95 (v. l. BB appuha = abbuha; C. expls. by uddharatha). - aor. abbahi J V.198 (v. l. BB abbuhi), abbahi (metri causa) J III.390 (v. l. BB dhabbu'i = abbu'hi) = Pv I.86 (which reads T. abbu'ha, but PvA 41 expls. nihari) = DhA I.30 (vv. ll. sabbahi, sabbamhi; gloss K. B abbu'ham) = Vv 839 (T. abbu'hi; v. l. BB abbu'ham, SS avyahi; VvA 327 expls. as uddhari), and abbuhi A III.55 (v. l. abbahi, C. abbahi ti nihari), see also vv. ll. under abbahi. - ger. abbuyha Sn 939 ( = abbuhitva uddharitva Nd1 419; v.l. SS abbuyhitva; SnA 567 reads avyuyha and expls. by uddharitva); S I.121 (tanham); III.26 (id.; but spelt abbhuyha). -pp. abbu'ha (q. v.). - Causative abbaheti [Sanskrit abarhayati] to pull out, drag out J IV.364 (sattham abbahayanti; v. l. abbha*); DhA II.249 (asim). ger. abbahitva ( = *hetva) Vin II 201 (bhisa-mu'alam) with v. l. BB aggahetva, SS abbuhitva, cp. Vin I.214 (vv. ll. aggahitva and abbahitva). pp. abbu'hita (q. v.).

Abbahana (nt.) [abstr. from abbahati] pulling out (of a sting) DhA III.404 (sic. T.; v. l. abbuhana; Fausboll adahana; glosses C. atthangata and atthangika, K. nibbapana). See also abbu'hana and abbhahana.

Abbuda (nt.) [etymology unknown, orig. meaning "swelling", the Sanskrit form arbuda seems to be a trsl. of Pali abbuda] 1. the foetus in the 1st and 2nd months after conception, the 2nd of the five prenatal stages of development, viz. kalala, abbuda, pesi, ghana, pasakha Nd1 120; Miln 40; Vism 236. - 2. a tumour, canker, sore Vin III.294, 307 (only in Samantapasadika; both times as sasanassa a). - 3. a very high numeral, applied. exclusively to the denotation of a vast period of suffering in Purgatory; in this sense used as adj. of Niraya (abbudo nirayo the "vast-period"

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hell, cp. nirabbuda). S I.149 = A II.3 (chattimsati panca ca abbudani); S I.152 = A V.173 = Sn p. 126 (cp. SnA 476: abbudo nama koci pacceka-nirayo n- atthi, Avicimhi yeva abbuda-gananaya paccanokaso pana abbudo nirayo ti vutto; see also Kindred Sayings p. 190); J III.360 (satam ninnahuta-sahassanam ekam abbudam). - 4. a term used for "hell" in the riddle S I.43 (kimsu lokasmim abhudam "who are they who make a hell on earth" Mrs. Rh. D. The answer is "thieves"; so we can scarcely take it in meaning of 2 or 3. The C. has vinasa-karanam.

Abbu'hati (*) and Abbuhati see abbahati.

Abbu'hana (nt.) [from abbahati = abbuhati (abbu'hati)] the pulling out (of a sting), in phrase tanha-sallassa abbu'hanam as one of the 12 achievements of a Mahesi Nd1 343 = Nd2 503 (eds. of Nd1 have abbuhana, v. l. SS abbussana; ed. of Nd2 abbu'hana, v. l. SS abbahana, BB abbuhana). Cp. abbahana.

Abbu'ha (adj.) [Sanskrit abrdha, pp. of a + brh1, see abbahati] drawn out, pulled (of a sting or dart), fig. removed, destroyed. Most frequent in combination. *salla with the sting removed, having the sting (of craving thirst, tanha) pulled out D II.283 (v. l. SS asammu'ha); Sn 593, 779 ( = abbu'hita-salla Nd1 59; raga-di-sallanam abbu'hatta a. SnA 518); J III.390 = Vv 8310 = Pv I.87 = DhA I.30. - In other connection: M I.139 = A III.84 (*esika = tanha pahina; see esika); Th 1, 321; KhA 153 (*soka).

Abbu'hatta (nt.) [abstr. of abbu'ha] pulling out, removal, destroying SnA 518.

Abbu'hita (and abbuhitta at J III.541) [pp. of abbaheti Causative of abbahati] pulled out, removed, destroyed Nd1 59 (abbu'hita-sallo + uddhata* etc. for abbu'ha); J III.541 (uncertain reading; v. l. BB appahita, SS abyuhita; C. expls. pupphakam thapitam appaggharakam katam; should we explain as a + vi + uh and read abyuhita*).

Abbeti [Trenckner, Notes 64 n. 19] at J III.34 and VI.17 is probably a mistake in MSS for appeti.

Abbokinna [ = abbhokinna, abhi + ava + kinna, cp. abhikinna] 1.filled M I.387 (paripunna +); DhA IV.182 (panca jati-satani a.). - 2. [seems to be misunderstood for abbocchinna, a + vi + ava + chinna] uninterrupted, constant, as *m adv. in combination. with satatam samitam A IV.13 = 145; Kvu 401 (v. l. abbhokinna), cp. also Kvu trsl. 231 n. 1 (abbokinna undiluted*); Vbh 320. - 3. doubtful spelling at Vin III.271 (Bdhgh on Paraj. III.1, 3).

Abbocchinna see abbokinna 2 and abbhochinna.

Abboharika (adj.) [a + vi + ava + harika of voharati] not of legal or conventional status, i. e. - (a) negligible, not to be decided Vin III.91, 112 (see also Kvu trsl. 361 n. 4). - (b) uncommon, extraordinary J III.309 (v. l. BB abbho); V.271, 286 (Kern: ineffective).

Abbha (nt.) [Vedic abhra nt. and later Sanskrit abhra m. "dark cloud"; Idg. *m*bhro, cp. Gr. a)fro\s scum, froth, Latin imber rain; also Sanskrit ambha water, Gr. o)/mbros rain, Oir ambu water]. A (dense and dark) cloud, a cloudy mass A II.53 = Vin II.295 = Miln 273 in list of to things that obscure moon- and sunshine, viz. abbham mahika (mahiya A) dhumarajo (megho Miln), Rahu. This list is referred to at SnA 487 and VvA 134. S I.101 (*sama pabbata a mountain like a thunder-cloud); J VI.581 (abbham rajo acchadesi); Pv IV.39 (nil* = nila-megha PvA 251). As f. abbha at Dhs 617 and DhsA 317 (used in sense of adj. "dull"; DhsA expls. by valahaka); perhaps also in abbhamatta. -kuta the point or summit of a storm-cloud Th 1, 1064; J VI.249, 250; Vv 11 ( = valahaka-sikhara VvA 12). -ghana a mass of clouds, a thick cloud It 64; Sn 348 (cp. SnA 348). -patala a mass of clouds DhsA 239. -mutta free from clouds Sn 687 (also as abbhamutta Dh 382). -sanvilapa thundering S IV.289.

Abbhakkhati [abhi + a + khya, cp. Sanskrit akhyati] to speak against to accuse, slander D I.161 = A I.161 (an-abbhakkhatu-kama); IV.182 (id.); J IV.377. Cp. Intens. abbhacikkhati.

Abbhakkhana (nt.) [from abbhakkhati] accusation, slander, calumny D III.248, 250; M I.130; III.207; A III.290 sq.; Dh 139 (cp. DhA III.70).

Abbhacchadita [pp. of abhi + a + chadeti] covered (with) Th 1, 1068.

Abbhanjati [abhi + anj] to anoint; to oil, to lubricate M I.343 (sappi-telena); S IV.177; Pug 56; DhA III.311 = VvA 68 (sata-paka-telena). Causative abbhanjeti same J I.438 (telena *etva); V.376 (sata-paka-telena *ayimsu); Causative II. abbhanjapeti to cause to anoint J III.372.

Abbhanjana (nt.) [from abbhanjati] anointing, lubricating, oiling; unction, unguent Vin I.205; III.79; Miln 367 (akkhassa a.); Vism 264; VvA 295.

Abbhatika (adj.) [a + bhata + ika, bhr] brought (to), procured, got, J VI.291.

Abbhatikkanta [pp. of abhi + ati + kram, cp. atikkanta] one who has thoroughly, left behind J V.376.

Abbhatita [pp. of abhi + ati + i, cp. atita and atikkanta] emphatic of atita in all meanings, viz. 1 passed, gone by S II.183 (+ atikkanta); nt. *m what is gone or over, the past J III.169. - 2. passed away, dead M I.465; S IV.398; Th 1, 242, 1035. - 3. transgressed, overstepped, neglected J III.541 (sanyama).

Abbhattha (nt.) [abhi + attha2 in acc. abhi + attham, abhi in function of "towards" = homeward, as under abhi I.1 a; cp. Vedic abhi sadhastham to the seat R. V. IX. 21. 3] = attha2, only in phrase abbhattham gacchati "to go towards home", i. e. setting; fig. to disappear, vanish, M I.115, 119; III.25; A IV.32; Miln 305; pp. abhhattangata "set", gone, disappeared Dhs 1038 (atthangata +); Kvu 576.

Abbhatthata (f.) [abstr. from abbhatta] "going towards setting", disappearance, death J V.469.

Abbhanumodati [abhi + anu + modati] to be much pleased at to show great appreciation of Vin I.196; D I.143, 190; S IV.224; Miln 29, 210; DhA IV.102 (v. l. *anu*).

Abbhanumodana (nt.) (and *a f.) [from abbhanumodati] being pleased, satisfaction, thanksgiving DA I.227; VvA 52 (*anu*); Sdhp 218.

Abbhantara (adj.) [abhi + antara; abhi here in directive function = towards the inside, in there, with-in, cp. abhi I.1 a] = antara, i. e. internal, inner, being within or between; nt. *m the inner part, interior, interval (also as *-) Vin I.111 (satt* with interval of seven); A IV.16 (opp. bahira); Dh 394 (id.); Th 1, 757 (*a-passaya lying inside); J III.395 (*amba the inside of the Mango); Miln 30 (*e vayo jivo), 262, 281 (bahir-abbhantara dhana); DhA II.74 (adj. c. gen. being among; v. l. abbhantare). Cases used adverbially: instr. abbhantarena in the meantime, in between DhA II.59. loc. abbhantare in the midst of, inside of, within (c. gen. or -*) J I.262 (ranno), 280 (tuyham); DhA II.64 (v. l. antare), 92 (sattavass*); PvA 48 ( = anto).

Abbhantarika (adj.-n.) [from abbhantara, cp. Sanskrit abhyantara in same meaning] intimate friend, confidant, "chum" J I.86 (+ ativissasika), 337 ("insider", opp. bahiraka).

Abbhantarima (adj.) [superl. formation from abbhantara in contrasting function] internal, inner (opp. bahirima) Vin III.149; J V.38.

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Abbhakutika (adj.) [a + bhakuti + ka; Sanskrit bhrakuti frown] not frowning, genial Vin III.181 (but here spelt bhakutikabhakutika); D I.116, cp. DA I.287; DhA IV.8 (as v. l.; T. has abbhokutika).

Abbhagata [abhi + a + gata] having arrived or come; (m.) a guest, stranger Vv 15 ( = abhi-agata, agantuka VvA 24).

Abbhagamana (nt.) [abhi + a + gamana; cp. Sanskrit abhyagama] coming arrival, approach Vin IV.221.

Abbhaghata [abhi + aghata] slaughtering-place Vin III.151 (+ aghata).

Abbhacikkhati [Intens. of abbhakkhati] to accuse, slander, calumniate D I.161; III.248, 250; M I.130, 368, 482; III.207; A I.161.

Abbhana (nt.) [abhi + ayana of a + ya (i)] coming back, rehabilitation of a bhikkhu who has undergone a penance for an expiable offence Vin I.49 (*a-raha), 53 (id.), 143, 327; II.33, 40, 162; A I.99. - Cp. abbheti.

Abbhamatta (adj.) [abbha + matta (*) according to the Pali Com.; but more likely = Vedic abhva huge, enormous, monstrous, with a metri causa. On abhva (a + bhu what is contradictory to anything that is) cp. abbhuta and abbhum, and see Walde, Latin Wtb. under dubius] monstrous, dreadful, enormous, "of the size of a large cloud" (thus C. on S I.205 and J III.309) S I.205 = Th 1, 652 (v. l. abbha* and abbhamutta) = J III.309 (v. l. *mutta).

Abbhahata [abhi + a + hata, pp. of han] struck, attacked, afflicted S I.40 (maccuna); Th 1, 448; Sn 581; J VI.26, 440; Vism 31, 232; DA I.140, 147; DhA IV.25.

Abbhahana (nt.) [either = abbahana or avahana] in udaka* the pulling up or drawing up of water Vin II.318 (Bdhgh. on Cullavagga V.16, 2, corresponding to udaka-vahana on p. 122).

Abbhita [pp. of abbheti] 1. come back, rehabilitated, reinstated Vin III.186 = IV.242 (an*). - 2. uncertain reading at Pv I.123 in sense of "called" (an* uncalled), where id. p. at J III.165 reads anavhata and at Th 2, 129 ayacita.

Abbhu [a + bhu most likely = Vedic abhva and Pali abbhum, see also abbhamatta] unprofitableness, idleness, nonsense J V.295 ( = abhuti avaddhi C.).

Abbhum (interj.) [Vedic abhvam, nt. of abhva, see explained. under abbhamatta. Not quite correct Morris J P T S. 1889, 201: abbhum = a + bhuk; cp also abbhuta] alas! terrible, dreadful, awful (excl. of fright and shock) Vin II. 115 (Bdhgh. expls. as "utrasa-vacanam-etam"); M I.448. See also abbhu and abbhuta.

Abbhukkirana (nt.) [abhi + ud + kr] drawing out, pulling, in danda-sattha* drawing a stick or sword Nd2 5764 (cp. abbhokkirana). Or is it abbhuttirana (cp. uttinna outlet).

Abbhukkirati [abhi + ud + kirati] to sprinkle over, to rinse (with water) D II.172 (cakkaratanam; neither with Morris J P T S. 1886, 131 "give up", nor with trsl. of J II.311 "roll along"); J V.390; PvA 75. Cp. abbhokkirati.

Abbhuggacchati [abhi + ud + gacchati] to go forth, go out, rise into D I.112, 127; A III.252 (kitti-saddo a.); Pug 36. ger. *gantva J I 88 (akasan), 202; DhA IV.198. aor. *ganchi M I.126 (kittisaddo); J I.93. -pp. abbhuggata.

Abbhuggata [pp. of abbhuggacchati] gone forth, gone out, risen D I.88 (kitti-saddo a., cp. DhA I.146: sadevakam lokam ajjhottharitva uggato), 107 (saddo); Sn p. 103 (kittisaddo).

Abbhuggamana (nt.-adj.) [from abbhuggacchati] going out over, rising over (c. acc.) PvA 65 (candam nabham abbhuggamanam; so read for T. abbhuggamanam).

Abbhujjalana (nt.) [abhi + ud + jalana, from jval] breathing out fire, i. e. carrying fire in one's month (by means of a charm) D I.11 ( = mantena mukhato aggi-jala-niharanam DA I.97).

Abbhutthati (*tthahati) [abhi + ud + stha] to get up to, proceed to, D I.105 (cankamam).

Abbhunnata [pp. of abbhunnamati] standing up, held up, erect J V.156 (in abbhunnatata state of being erect. stiffness), 197 (*unnata; v. l. abbhantara, is reading correct*).

Abbhunha (adj.) [ahhi + unha] (a) very hot DhA II.87 (v. l. accunha). (b) quite hot, still warm (of milk) DhA II.67.

Abbhuta1 (adj. nt.) [*Sanskrit adbhuta which appears to be constructed from the Pali and offers like its companion *ashcarya (acchariya abbhuta see below) serious difficulties as to etymology The most probable solution is that Pali abbhuta is a secondary adj.-formation from abbhum which in itself is nt. of abbha = Vedic abhva (see etymology under abbhamatta and cp. abbhu, abbhum and J.Pali Text Society 1889, 201). In meaning abbhuta is identical with Vedic abhva contrary to what usually happens, i. e. striking, abnormal, gruesome, horrible etc.; and that its significance as a + bhu ("unreal*") is felt in the background is also evident from the traditional etymology of the Pali Commentators (see below). See also acchariya] terrifying, astonishing; strange, exceptional, puzzling, extraordinary, marvellous, supernormal. Described as a term of surprise and constereotypeation (vimhay- avahass- adhivacanam DA I.43 and VvA 329) and explained. as "something that is not" or "has not been before", viz. abhutam ThA 233; abhuta-pubbataya abbhutam VvA 191, 329; abhuta-pubbam DA I.43. - 1. (adj.) wonderful, marvellous etc. Sn 681 (kim *m, combined. with lomahamsana); J IV.355 (id.); Th 2, 316 (abbhutam vata vacam bhasasi = acchariyam ThA 233); Vv 449 (*dassaneyya); Sdhp 345, 496. - 2. (nt.) the wonderful, a wonder, marvel S IV.371, also in *dhamma (see Cpd.). Very frequent in combination. with acchariyam and a part. of exclamation, viz, acchariyam bho abbhutam bho wonderful indeed and beyond comprehension, strange and stupefying D I.206; acch. vata bho abbh. vata bho D I.60; acch. bhante abbh. A II.50; aho acch. aho abbh. J I.88; acch. vata abbh. vata Vv 8316. - Thus also in phrase acchariya abbhuta dhamma wonderful and extraordinary signs or things M III.118, 125; A II.130; IV.198; Miln 8; and in acchariya-abbhutacitta-jata dumbfounded and surprised J I.88; DhA IV.52; PvA 6, 50. -dhamma mystereotypeous phenomenon, something wonderful, supernormal; designation of one of the nine angas or divisions of the Buddhist Scriptures (see nava B 2) Vin III.8; M I.133; A II.103; III.86, 177; Pug 43; Miln 344; PvA 2, etc.

Abbhuta2 (nt.) [ = abbhuta1 in the sense of invoking strange powers in gambling, thus being under direct spell of the "unknown"] a bet, a wager, only in phrase abbhutam karoti (sahassena) to make a bet or to bet (a thousand, i. e. kahapana's or pieces of money) Vin III.138; IV.5; J I.191; V.427; VI.192; PvA 151; and in phrase pancahi sahassehi abbhutam hotu J VI.193.

Abbhudaharati [abhi + ud + a + harati] to bring towards, to fetch, to begin or introduce (a conversation) M II.132.

Abbhudireti [abhi + ud + ireti] to raise the voice, to utter Th 2, 402; DA I.61; Sdhp 514.

Abbhudeti [abhi + ud + eti] to go out over, to rise A II.50, 51 (opp. attham eti, of the sun). - ppr. abbhuddayan Vv 6417 ( = abhi-uggacchanto VvA 280; abbhusayan ti pi patho).

Abbhuddhunati [abhi + ud + dhunati] to shake very much Vv 649 ( = adhikam uddhunati VvA 278).

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Abbhunnadita [pp. of abhi + ud + nadati] resounding, resonant Th 1, 1065).

Abbhunnamati [abhi, + ud + namati] to, spring up, burst forth D II.164. -pp. abbhunnata (and *unnata), q. v. Causative abbhunnameti to stiffen, straighten out, hold up, erect D I.120 (kayam one's body); A II.245 (id.); D I.126 (patodalatthim; opp. apanameti to bend down).

Abbhuyyata [pp. of abbhuyyati] marched against, attacked Vin I.342; M II.124.

Abbhuyyati [abhi + up + yati of ya] to go against, to go against, to march (an army) against, to attack S I.82 (aor *uyyasi). -pp. abbhuyyata (q. v.).

Abbhusuyaka (adj.) [abhi + usuya + ka] zealous, showing zeal, endeavouring in (-*) Pgdp 101.

Abbhussakati and *usukkati [abhi + ud + s.vas.k, see sakkati] to go out over, rise above (acc.), ascend, frequent in phrase adicco nabham abbhussakkamano M I.317 = S III.156 = It 20. - See also S I.65; V.44; A I.242 (same simile); V.22 (id.).

Abbhussahanata (f.) [abstr. from abhi + *utsahana, cp. ussaha] instigation, incitement Vin II.88.

Abbhusseti [abhi + ud + seti of shi] to rise; v. l. at Vv 6417 according to VvA 280: abbhuddayan (see abbhudeti) abbhussayan ti pi patho.

Abbheti [abhi + a + i] to rehabilitate a bhikkhu who has been suspended for breach of rules Vin II.7 (abbhento), 33 (abbheyya); III.112 (abbheti), 186 = IV.242 (abbhetabba) -pp. abbhita (q. v.). See also abbhana.

Abbhokasa [abhi + avakasa] the open air, an open and unsheltered space D I.63 ( = alagganatthena a. viya DA I.180), 71 ( = acchanna DA I.210), 89; M III.132; A II.210; III.92; IV.437, V.65; Sn p. 139 (*e nissinna sitting in the open) J I.29, 215; Pug 57.

Abbhokasika (adj.) [from abbhokasa] belonging to the open air, one who lives in the open, the practice of certain ascetics. D I.167; M I.282; A III.220; Vin V.131, 193; J IV.8 (+ nesajjika); Pug 69; Miln 20, 342. (One of the 13 Dhutamgas). See also Nd1 188; Nd2 587. -anga the practice or system of the "campers-out" Nd1 558 (so read for abbhokasi-kankha, cp. Nd1 188).

Abbhokinna [pp. of abbhokirati] see abbokinna.

Abbhokirati [abhi + ava + kirati] to sprinkle over, to cover, bedeck Vv 59 ( = abhi-okirati abhippakirati), 3511 (v. l. abbhuk.r). Cp. abbhukkirati and abbhokkirana pp. abbhokinna see under abbokinna.

Abbhokutika spelling at DhA IV.8 for abbhakutika.

Abbhokkirana (nt.) [from abbhokirati] in natanam a. "turnings of dancers" DA I.84 in explanation. of sobha-nagarakam of D I.6.

Abbhocchinna (besides abbocch*, q.v. under abbokinna2) [a + vi + ava + chinna] not cut off, uninterrupted, continuous J I.470 (v. l. abbo); VI.254, 373; Cp. I.63; Miln 72; Vism 362 (bb), 391 (bb).

Abbhoharika see abbo.

Aby* see avy*.

Abhabba (adj.) [a + bhavya. The Sanskrit abhavya has a different meaning] impossible, not likely, unable D III.13 sq., 19, 26 sq., 133; It 106, 117; Sn 231 (see KhA 189); Dh 32; J I 116; Pug 13. -tthana a (moral) impossibility of which there are 9 enumerated among things that are not likely to be found in an Arahant's character: see D III.133 and 235 (where the five first only are given as a set).

Abhabbata (f.) [abstr. from abhabba] an impossibility, unlikelihood Sn 232, cp. KhA 191.

Abhaya (adj.) [a + bhaya] free from fear or danger, fearless, safe Dh 258. - nt. abhayan confidence, safety Dh 317, cp. DhA III.491. For further refs. see bhaya.

Abhi- [prefix, Vedic abhi, which represents both Idg -m -bhi, as in Gr. a)mfi/ around, Latin ambi, amb round about, Oir. imb, Gall. ambi, Ohg. umbi, Ags. ymb, cp. also Vedic (Pali) abhita- on both sides; and Idg. -obhi, as in Latin ob towards, against (cp. obsess, obstruct), Goth. bi, Ohg. Ags. bi = E. be-. I. Meaning. - 1. The primary meaning of abhi is that of taking possession and mastereotypeng, as contained in E. coming by and over-coming, thus literally having the function of (a) facing and aggressing = towards, against, on to, at (see II. 1, a); and (b) mastereotypeng = over, along over, out over, on top of (see II. 1, b). 2. Out of this is developed the fig. meaning of increasing, i. e., an intensifying of the action implied in the verb (see III. 1). Next to san- it is the most frequent modification preflx in the meaning of "very much, greatly" as the first part of a double-prefix cpd. (see III. 2), and therefore often seemingly superfluous, i. e., weakened in meaning, where the second part already denotes intensity as in abhi-vi-ji (side by side with vi-ji), abhi-a-kkha (side by side with a-kkha), abhi-anu-mud (side by side with anu-mud). In these latter cases abhi shows a purely deictic character corresponding to Ger. her-bei-kommen (for bei-kommen), E. fill up (for fill); e. g., abbhatikkanta ( = ati - C.), abbhatita ("vorbei gegangen"), abbhantara ("with-in", b-innen or "in here"), abbhudaharati, abhipureti ("fill up"), etc. (see also II. 1, c). II. Lit. Meaning. - 1. As single prefix: (a) against, to, on to, at-, viz., abbhatthangata gone towards home, abhighata striking at, -jjha think at, -mana thinking on, -mukha facing, turned towards, -yati at-tack, -ruhati ascend, -lasa long for, -vadati ad-dress, -sapati ac-curse, -hata hit at. (b) out, over, all around: abbhudeti go out over, -kamati exceed, -jati off-spring, -janati know all over, -bhavati overcome, -vaddhati increase, -vuttha poured out or over, -sandeti make over-flow, -sincati sprinkle over. (c) abhi has the function of transitivising intrs. verbs after the manner of E. be- (con-) and Ger. er-, thus resembling in meaning a simple Causative formation, like the following: abhigajjati thunder on, -janati "er-kennen" -jayati be-get, -tthaneti = -gajjati, -nadati "er tonen", -nandati approve of (cp. anerkennen), -passati con-template, -ramati indulge in, -ropeti honour, -vuddha increased, -saddahati believe in. - 2. As base in compounds. (2nd part of cpd.) abhi occurs only in combination. sam-abhi (which is, however, of late occurrence and a peeuliarity of later texts, and is still more frequent in BSanskrit: see under sam-). III. Fig. Meaning (intensifying). - 1. A single prefix: abhikinna strewn all over, -jalati shine forth, -jighacchati be very hungry, -tatta much exhausted, -tapa very hot, -toseti pleuse greatly, -nava quite fresh, -nipuna very clever, -nila of a deep black, -manapa very pleasant, -mangaly very lucky, -yobbana full youth, -rati great liking, -ratta deep red, -ruci intense satisfaction, -rupa very handsome ( = adhika-rupa C.), -samBuddha wide and fully-awake, cp. abbhuddhunati to shake greatly ( = adhikamuddh- C.). - As 1st part of a prep.-cpd. (as modification-prefix) in following combinations: abhi-ud (abbhud-) -ati, -anu, -ava, -a, -ni, -ppa, -vi, -san. See all these s. v. and note that the contraction (assimilation before vowel) form of abhi is abbh-. - On its relation to pari, see pari-, to ava see ava-. IV. Dialectical Variation. - There are dial. variations in the use and meanings of abhi. Vedic abhi besides corresponding to abhi in Pali is represented also by ati-, adhi- and anu-, since all are similar in meaning, and psychologically easily fused and confused (cp. meanings: abhi = on to, towards; ati = up to and beyond; adhi = up to, towards, over; anu = along towards). For all the

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following verbs we find in Pali one or other of these three prefixes. So ati in -jati, -pi'ita, -bruheti, -vassati, -vayati, -vetheti; also as vv. ll. with abhi-kirati, -pavassati, -roceti, cp. atikkanta-abhi- (Sanskrit abhikranta); adhi in -patthita, -pateti, -ppaya, -ppeta, -badheti, -bhu, -vaha (vice versa Pali abhi-ropeti compared with Sanskrit adhiropayati); anu in -gijjhati, -bruheti, -sandahati.

Abhikankhati [abhi + kankhati] to desire after, long for, wish for S I.140, 198 (Nibbanam); J II.428; IV.10, 241; VvA 38, 283; ThA 244. -pp. abhikankhita. Cp. BSanskrit abhikank.sati, e. g. Jtm. p. 221.

Abhikankhanata (f.) [abhi + kankhana + ta] wishing, longing, desire DA I.242.

Abhikankhita [pp. of abhikankhati] desired, wished, longed for VvA 201 ( = abhijjhita).

Abhikankhin (adj.) cp. wishing for, desirous (of -*) Th 2, 360 (sitibhava*).

Abhikinna [pp. of abhikirati] 1. strewn over with (-*), adorned, covered filled Pv II.112 (puppha*). - 2. overwhelmed, overcome, crushed by (-*) It 89 (dukkh*; vv. ll. dukkha-tinna and otinna) = A I.147 (which reads dukkhotinna). See also avatinna.

Abhikirati - 1. [Sanskrit abhikirati] to sprinkle or cover over: see abhikinna 1. - 2. [Sanskrit avakirati, cp. apakirituna] to overwhelm, destroy, put out, throw away, crush S I.54; Th 1, 598; 2, 447 (ger. *kirituna, reading of C. for T. apa*, explained. by chaddetva); Dh 25 (*kirati metri causa; dipam abhikirati = viddhamseti vikirati DhA I.255; v. l. atikirati); J IV.121 (*kirati; dipam = viddhamseti C.); VI.541 (nandiyo m* abhikirare = abhikiranti abhikkamanti C.); DhA I.255 (inf. *kiritum). -pp. abhikinna see abhikinna 2.

Abhiki'ati [abhi + ki'ati] to play (a game), to sport Miln 359 (ki'am).

Abhikujita [abhi + kujita, pp. of kuj] resounding (with the song of birds) Pv II.123 (cakkavaka*; so read for kujita). Cp. abhinikujita.

Abhikkanta (adj.-n.) [pp. of abhikkamati, in sense of Sanskrit and also Pali atikkanta] (a) (adj.) lit. gone forward, gone out, gone beyond. According to the traditional explination. preserved by Bdhgh. and Dhp (see e. g. DA I.227 = KhA 114 = VvA 52) it is used in 4 applications: abhikkantasaddo khaya (+ pabbaniya KhA) sundar--a-bhirupa-abbhanumodanesu dissati. These are: 1. (lit.) gone away, passed, gone out, departed (+ nikkhanta, meaning khaya "wane"), in phrase abhikkantaya rattiya at the waning of the night Vin I.26; D II.220; M I.142. 2. excellent, supreme ( = sundara) Sn 1118 (*dassavin having the most exellent knowledge = aggadassavin etc. Nd2 76); usually in compar *tara (+ panitatara) D I.62, 74, 216; A II.101; III.350 sq.; V.140, 207 sq.; DA I.171 ( = atimanapatara). 3. pleasing, superb, extremely wonderful, as exclamation *m repeated with bho (bhante), showing appreciation ( = abbha-numodana) D I.85, 110, 234; Sn p. 15, 24, etc. frequent 4. surpassing, beautiful (always with *vanna = abhirupa) Vin I.26; D II.220; M I.142; Pv II.110 = Vv 91 ( = atimanapa abhirupa PvA 71); KhA 115 ( = abhirupachavin). - (b) (nt.) abhikkantam (combined. with and opp. to patikkantam) going forward (and backward), approach (and receding) D I.70 ( = gamana + nivattana DA I.183); Vin III.181; A II.104, 106 sq.; VvA 6.

Abhikkama going forward, approach, going out Pv IV.12 (opp. patikkama going back); DhA III.124 (*patikkama).

Abhikkamati [Vedic abhikramati, abhi + kamati] to go forward, to proceed, approach D I.50 ( = abhimukho kamati, gacchati, pavisati DA I.151); II.147, 256 (abhikka mum aor.); DhA III.124 (evam *itabbam evam patikkamitabbam thus to approach and thus to withdraw). -pp. abhikkanta (q. v.).

Abhikkhana1 (nt.) [from abhikkhanati] digging up of the ground M I.143.

Abhikkhana2 (nt.) [abhi + *ikkhana from iks., cp. Sanskrit of which the eontracted form is Pali abhinha] only as acc. adv. *m constantly, repeated, often Vv 2412 ( = abhinham VvA 116); Pv II.84 ( = abhinham bahuso PvA 107); Pug 31; DhA II.91.

Abhikkhanati [abhi + khanati] to dig up M I.142.

Abhikkhipati [abhi + khipati] to throw Davs III.60; cp. abhinikkhipati ibid. 12.

Abhigajjati [abhi + gajjati from garj, sound-root, cp. Pali gaggara] (a) to roar, shout, thunder, to shout or roar at (c. acc.) Sn 831 (shouting or railing = gajjanto uggajjanto Nd1 172); ger. abhigajjiya thundering Cp. III.108. (b) hum, chatter, twitter (of birds); see abhigajjin.

Abhigajjin (adj.) [from abhigajjati] warbling, singing, chattering Th 1, 1108, 1136.

Abhigamaniya (adj.) [grd. of abhigacchati] to be approached, accessible PvA 9.

Abhigijjhati [abhi + gijjhati] 1. to be greedy for, to crave for, show delight in (c. loc.) Sn 1039 (kamesu, cp. Nd2 77). - 2. to envy (acc.) S I.15 (annam-annam).

Abhigita [pp. of abhigayati, cp. gita] 1. sung for. Only in one phrase, gathabhigitam, that which is gained by singing or chanting verses (Ger. "ersungen") S I.173 = Sn 81 = Miln 228. See SnA 151. - 2. resounding with, filled with song (of birds) J VI.272 ( = abhiruda).

Abhighata [Sanskrit abhighata, abhi + ghata] (a) striking, slaying, killing PvA 58 (danda*), 283 (sakkhara*). (b) impact, contact DhsA 312 (rupa* etc.).

Abhicetasika (adj.) [abhi + ceto + ika] dependent on the clearest consciousness. On the spelling see abhic* (of jhana) M I.33, 356; III.11; S II.278; A II.23; V.132. (Spelt. abhi* at M I.33; A III.114; Vin V.136). See Dial. III.108.

Abhiceteti [abhi + ceteti] to intend, devise, have in mind J IV.310 (manasa papam).

Abhicchanna (adj.) [abhi + channa] covered with, bedecked or adorned with (-*) J II.48 (hema-jala*, v. l. abhisanchanna), 370 (id.); Sn 772 ( = ucchanna avuta etc. Nd1 24, cp. Nd2 365).

Abhicchita (adj.) [abhi + icchita, cp. Sanskrit abhipsita] desired J VI.445 (so read for abhijjhita).

Abhijacca (adj.) [Sanskrit abhijatya; abhi + jacca] of noble birth J V.120.

Abhijaneti occasional spelling for abhijaneti.

Abhijappati [abhi + jappati] to wish for, strive after, pray for S I.143 (read asma-bhijappanti and cp. Kindred Sayings p. 180) = J III.359 ( = namati pattheti piheti C.); *n 923, 1046 (+ asimsati thometi; Nd2 79 = jappati and same under icchati). Cp. in meaning abhigijjhati.

Abhijappana (nt.) [doubtful whether to jappati or to japati to mumble, to which belongs jappana in kanma* DA I.97] in hattha* casting a spell to make the victim throw up or wring his hands D I.11; DA I.97.

Abhijappa (f.) [abstr. from abhijappati, cp. jappa] praying for, wishing, desire, longing Dhs 1059 = Nd2 tanha II.; Dhs 1136.

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Abhijappin (adj.) [from abhijappati] praying for, desiring A III.353 (kama-labha*).

Abhijalati [abhi + jalati] to shine forth, ppr. *anto resplendent PvA 189.

Abhijavati [abhi + javati] to be eager, active Sn 668.

Abhijata (adj.) [abi + jata] of noble birth, well-born, S I.69; Vv 293; Miln 359 (*kulakulina belonging to a family of high or noble birth).

Abhijati (f.) [abhi + jati] 1. Species. Only as t. t. in use by certain non-Buddhist teachers. They divided mankind into six species, each named after a colour D I.53, 54; A III.383 ff. (quoted DA I.162) gives details of each species. Two of them, the black and the white, are interpreted in a Buddhist sense at D III.250, M II.222, and Netti 158. This interpretation (but not the theory of the six species) has been widely adopted by subsequent Hindu writers. - 2. Rebirth, descent, Miln 226.

Abhijatika (adj.) [from abhijati] belonging to ones birth or race, born of, being by birth; only in cpd. kanha-bhijatika of dark birth, that is, low in the social scale D III.251 = A III.348; Sn 563 = Th 1, 833; cp. J P T S. 1893, 11; in sense of "evil disposed or of bad character" at J V.87 ( = ka'aka-sabhava C.).

Abhijatita (f.) [abstr. from abhijati] the fact of being born, descendency VvA 216.

Abhijana (nt. or m*) [Sanskrit abhijnana] recognition, remembrance, recollection Miln 78. See also abhinna.

Abhijanati [abhi + jna, cp. janati and abhinna] to know by experience, to know fully or thoroughly, to recognise, know of (c. acc.), to be conscious or aware of D I.143; S II.58, 105, 219, 278; III.59, 91; IV.50, 324, 399; V.52, 176, 282, 299; Sn 1117 (ditthim Gotamassa na a.); J IV.142; Pv II.710 = II.103 (n-abhijanami bhuttam va pitam); Sdhp 550; etc. - Pot. abhijaneyya Nd2 78a, and abhijanna Sn 917, 1059 ( = janeyyasi SnA 592); aor. abhannasi Sn p. 16. - ppr. abhijanam S IV.19, 89; Sn 788 ( = *jananto C.), 1114 ( = *jananto Nd2 78b) abhijanitva DhA IV.233; abhinnaya S IV.16; V.392; Sn 534 (sabbadhammam), 743 (jatikkhayan), 1115, 1148; It 91 (dhammam); Dh 166 (atta-d-attham); frequent in phrase sayan abhinnaya from personal knowledge or self-experience It 97 (v.l. abhinna); Dh 353; and abhinna [short form, like ada for adaya, cp. upada] in phrase sayan abhinna D I.31 (+ sacchi-katva); S II.217; It 97 (v.l. for *abhinnaya), in abhinna-vosita perfected by highest knowledge S I.167 = 175 = Dh 423 ("mastereotypeof supernormal lore" Mrs Rh. D. in kindred S. p. 208; cp. also DhA IV.233); It 47 = 61 = 81, and perhaps also in phrase sabbam abhinnaparinneyya S IV.29. - grd. abhinneyya S IV.29; Sn 558 (*m abhinnatam known is the knowable); Nd2 s.v.; DhA IV.233. -pp. abhinnata (q. v.).

Abhijayati [abhi + jayati, Pass. of jan, but in sense of a Causative = janeti] to beget, produce, effect, attain, in phrase akanham asukkam Nibbanam a. D III.251; A III.384 sq. At Sn 214 abhijayati means "to behave, to be", cp. SnA 265 (abhijayati = bhavati).

Abhijigimsati [abhi + jigimsati] to wish to overcome, to covet J VI.193 ( = jinitum icchati C). Burmese scribes spell *jigisati; Th 1, 743 ("cheat"* Mrs Rh. D.; "vernichten" Neumann). See also abhijeti, and nijigimsanata.

Abhijighacchati [abhi + jighacchati] to be very hungry PvA 271.

Abhijivanika (adj.) [abhi + jivana + ika] belonging to one's livehood, forming one's living Vin I.187 (sippa).

Abhijihana (f.) [abhi + jihana of jeh to open ones mouth] strenuousness, exertion, strong endeavour J VI.373 (viriyakarana C.).

Abhijeti [abhi + jayati] to win, acquire, conquer J VI.273 (abhi* metri causa).

Abhijoteti [abhi + joteti] to make clear, explain, illuminate J V.339.

Abhijjanaka (adj.) [a + bhijjana + ka, from bhijja, grd. of bhid] not to be broken, not to be moved or changed, uninfluenced J II.170; DhA III.189.

Abhijjamana (adj.) [ppr. passive of a + bhid, see bhindati] that which is not being broken up or divided. In the stock description of the varieties of the lower Iddhi the phrase udake pi abhijjamane gacchati is doubtful. The principal passages are D I.78, 212; III.112, 281; M I.34, 494; II.18; A I.170, 255; III.17; V.199; S II 121; V.264. In about half of these passages the reading is abhijjamano. The various rcadings show that the MSS also are equally divided on this point. Bdgh. (Vism 396) reads *mane, and explains it, relying on Ps II.208, as that sort of water in which a man does not sink. Pv III.11 has the same idiom. Dhammapala's note on that (PvA 169) is corrupt. At D I.78 the Colombo ed. 1904, reads abhejjamane and tr. "not dividing (the water)" ; at D I.212 it reads abhijjamano and tr. "not sinking (in the water)" .

Abhijjha (f.) [from abhi + dhya (jhayati1), cp. Sanskrit abhidhyana], covetousness, in meaning almost identical with lobha (cp. Dhs. trsl. 22) D I.70, 71 (*aya cittam parisodheti he cleanses his heart from coveting; abhijjhaya = abl.; cp. DA I.211 = abhijjhato); M I.347 (id.); D III.49, 71 sq., 172, 230, 269; S IV.73, 104, 188, 322 (adj. vigat-a-bhijjha), 343 (*ayavipaka); A I.280; III.92; V.251 sq.; It 118; Nd1 98 (as one of the 4 kaya-gantha, q. v.); Nd2 tanha II.1; Pug 20, 59; Dhs 1136 (*kayagantha); Vbh 195, 244 (vigat-a-bhijjha), 362, 364, 391; Nett 13; DhA I.23; PvA 103, 282; Sdhp 56, 69. - Often combined with *domanassa covetousness and discontent, e. g. at D III.58, 77, 141, 221, 276; M I.340; III.2; A I.39, 296; II.16, 152; IV.300 sq., 457 sq.; V.348, 351; Vbh 105, 193 sq. -anabhijjha absence of covetousness Dhs 35, 62. - See also anupassin, gantha, domanassa, sila.

Abhijjhatar see abhijjhitar.

Abhijjhati [cp. abhidyati, abhi + jhayati1; see also abhijjhayati] to wish for (acc.), long for, covet S V.74 (so read for abhijjhati); ger. abhijjhaya J VI.174 ( = patthetva C.). -pp. abhijjhita.

Abhijjhayati [Sanskrit abhidhyayati, abhi + jhayati1; see also abhijjhati] to wish for, covet (c. acc.). Sn 301 (aor. abhijjhayimsu = abhipatthayamana jhayimsu Sn A 320).

Abhijjhalu (and *u) (adj.) [cp. jhayin from jhayati1; abhijjhalu with *alu for *agu which in its turn is for ayin. The B.Sanskrit form is abhidyalu, e. g. Divy 301, a curious reconstruction] covetous D I.139; III.82; * II.168; III.93; A I.298; II.30, 59, 220 (an* + avyapannacitto sammaditthiko at conclusion of sila); V.92 sq., 163, 286 sq.; It 90, 91; Pug 39, 40.

Abhijjhitta v. l. at DhA IV.101 for ajjhittha.

Abhijjhita [pp. of abhijjhati] coveted, J. VI.445; usually negative an* not coveted, Vin I.287; Sn 40 ( = anabhipatthita Sn A 85; cp. Nd2 38); Vv 474 ( = na abhikankhita VvA 201).

Abhijjhitar [n. ag. from abhijjhita in med. function] one who covets M I.287 (T. abhijjhatar, v. l. *itar) = A V.265 (T. *itar, v. l. *atar).

Abhinna (adj.) (usually -*) [Sanskrit abhijna] knowing, possessed of knowledge, esp. higher or supernormal knowledge (abhinna), intelligent; thus in chalabhinna one

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who possesses the 6 abhinnas Vin III.88; dandh* of sluggish intellect D III.106; A II.149; V.63 (opp. khipp*); mah* of great insight S II.139. - Compar. abhinnatara S V.159 (read bhiyyo *bhinnataro).

Abhinnata (f.) [from abhinna] in cpd. maha* state or condition of great intelligence or supernormal knowledge S IV.263; V.175, 298 sq.

Abhinna1 (f.) [from abhi + jna, see janati]. Rare in the older texts. It appears in two contexts. Firstly, certain conditions are said to conduce (inter alia) to serenity, to special knowledge (abhinna), to special wisdom, and to Nibbana. These conditions precedent are the Path (S V.421 = Vin I.10 = S IV.331), the Path + best knowledge and full emancipation (A V.238), the Four Applications of Mindfulness (S V.179) and the Four Steps to Iddhi (S. V.255). The contrary is three times stated; wrong-doing, priestly superstitions, and vain speculation do not conduce to abhinna and the rest (D III.131; A III.325 sq. and V.216). Secondly, we find a list of what might now be called psychic powers. It gives us 1, Iddhi (cp. levitation); 2, the Heavenly Ear (cp. clairaudience); 3, knowing others' thoughts (cp. thought-reading); 4, recollecting one's previous births; 5, knowing other people's rebirths; 6, certainty of emancipation already attained (cp. final assurance). This list occurs only at D III.281 as a list of abhinnas. It stands there in a sort of index of principal subjects appended at the end of the Digha, and belongs therefore to the very close of the Nikaya period. But it is based on older material. Descriptions of each of the six, not called abhinna's, and interspersed by expository sentences or paragraphs, are found at D I.89 sq. (trsl. Dial. I.89 sq.); M I.34 (see Buddhist Suttas, 210 sq.); A I.255, 258 = III.17, 280 = IV.421. At S I.191; Vin II.16; Pug 14, we have the adj. cha'abhinna ("endowed with the 6 Apperceptions"). At S II.216 we have five, and at S V.282, 290 six abhinna's mentioned in glosses to the text. And at S II.217, 222 a bhikkhu claims the 6 powers. See also M II.11; III.96. It is from these passages that the list at D III. has been made up, and called abhinna's.

Afterwards the use of the word becomes stereotypeotyped. In the Old Commentaries (in the Canon), in the later ones (of the 5th cent. A.D.), and in medieval and modern Pali, abhinna, nine times out ten, means just the powers given in this list. Here and there we find glimpses of the older, wider meaning of special, supernormal power of apperception and knowledge to be acquired by long training in life aud thought. See Nd1 108, 328 (explination. of nana); Nd2 s. v. and N0. 466; Ps I.35; II.156, 189; Vbh 228, 334; Pug 14; Nett 19, 20; Miln 342; Vism 373; Mhvs XIX.20; DA I.175; DhA II.49; IV.30; Sdhp 228, 470, 482. See also the discussion in the Cpd.60 sp., 224 sq. For the phrase saya* abhinna sacchi-katva and abhinna-vosita see abhijanati. The late phrase yath- abhinna- means "as you please, according to liking, as you like" , J V.365 ( = yathadhippaya* yatharuci* C.). For abhinna in the use of an adj. (*abhinna) see abhinna.

Abhinna2 ger. of abhijanati.

Abhinnata [pp. of abhijanati] 1. known, recognised Sn 588 (abhinneyyam *m). - 2. (well)-known, distinguished D I.89 (*kolanna = pakata-kulaja DA I.252), 235; Sn p. 115.

Abhinneyya grd. of abhijanati.

Abhithana (nt.) [abhi + thana, cp. abhititthati; lit. that which stands out above others] a great or deadly crime. Only at Sn 231 = Kh VI.10 (quoted Kvu 109). Six are there mentioned, and are explained (KhA 189) as "matricide, parricide, killing an Arahant, causing schisms, wounding a Buddha, following other teachers". For other relations and suggestions see Dhs trsl. 267. - See also anantarika.

Abhinham (adv.) [contracted form of abhikkhanam] repeatedly, continuous, often M I.442 (*apattika a habitual offender), 446 (*karana continuous practice); Sn 335 (*sanvasa continuous living together); J I.190; Pug 32; DhA II.239; VvA 116 ( = abhikkhana), 207, 332; PvA 107 ( = abhikkhanam). Cp. abhinhaso.

Abhinhaso (adv.) [adv. case from abhinha; cp. bahuso = Sanskrit bahusha*] always, ever S I.194; Th 1, 25; Sn 559, 560, 998.

Abhitakketi [abhi + takketi] to search for Davs V.4.

Abhitatta [pp. of abhi +tapati] scorched (by heat), dried up, exhausted, in phrases unha* Vin II.220; Miln 97, and ghamma* S II.110, 118; Sn 1014; J II.223; VvA 40; PvA 114.

Abhitapa [abhi + tapa] extreme heat, glow; adj. very hot Vin III.83 (sisa* sunstroke); M I.507 (maha* very hot); Miln 67 (mahabhitapatara much hotter); Pv IV.18 (maha*, of niraya).

Abhita'ita [abhi + ta'ita from ta'eti] hammered to pieces, beaten, struck Vism 231 (muggara*).

Abhititthati [abhi + titthati] to stand out supreme, to excel, surpass D II.261; J VI.474 (abhitthaya = abhibhavitva C.).

Abhitunna (tunna) [not as Morris, J.Pali Text Society 1886, 135, suggested from abhi + tud, but acc. to Kern, Toev. p. 4 from abhi + turv. (Cp. turati and tarati2 and Ved. turvati). Thus the correct spelling is *tunna = Sanskrit abhiturna. The latter occurs as v. l. under the disguise of (sok-)a-hitunda for *abhitunna at M. Vastu III.2]. Overwhelmed, overcome, overpowered S II.20; Ps I.129 (dukkha*), 164; J I.407; 509 (*tunna); II.399, 401; III.23 (soka*); IV.330; V.268; Sdhp 281.

Abhito (indecl.) adv. case from prep. abhi etymology]. - 1. round about, on both sides J VI.535 ( = ubhayapassesu C.), 539. - 2. near, in the presence of Vv 641 ( = samipe VvA 275).

Abhitoseti [abhi + toseti] to please thoroughly, to satisfy, gratify Sn 709 ( = ativa toseti Sn A 496).

Abhitthaneti [abhi + thaneti] to roar, to thunder J I.330, 332 = Cp. III.107.

Abhittharati [abhi + tarati2, evidently wrong for abhittarati] to make haste Dh 116 ( = turitaturitam sighasigham karoti DhA III.4).

Abhitthavati [abhi + thavati] to praise J I.89; III.531; Davs III.23; DhA I.77; PvA 22; cp. abhitthunati.

Abhitthavana (nt.) [from prec.] praise Th A 74.

Abhitthunati [abhi + thunati; cp. abhitthavati] to praise J I.17 (aor abhitthunimsu); cp. thunati 2. -pp. *tthuta DhA I.88.

Abhida1 (adj.) as attr. of sun and moon at M II.34, 35 is doubtful in reading and meaning; vv. ll. abhidosa and abhidesa, Neumann trsl. "unbeschrankt". The context seems to require a meaning like "full, powerful" or unbroken, unrestricted (abhijja or abhita "fearless"*") or does abhida represent Vedic abhidyu heavenly*

Abhida2 Only in the difficult old verse D II.107 ( = S V.263 = A IV.312 = Nd 64 = Nett 60 = Divy 203). Aorist 3rd sg. from bhindati he broke.

Abhidassana (nt.) [abhi + dassana] sight, appearance, show J VI.193.

Abhideyya in sabba* at PvA 78 is with v. l. BB to be read sabbapatheyyam.

Abhidosa (*-) the evening before, last night; *kalakata M I.170 = J I.81; *gata gone last night J VI.386 ( = hiyyo pathama-yame C.).

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Abhidosika belonging to last night (of gruel) Vin III.15; Miln 291. See abhi*.

Abhiddavati [abhi + dru, cp. dava2] to rush on, to assail Mhvs 6, 5; Davs III.47.

Abhidhamati [abhi + dhamati, cp. Sanskrit abhi* and api-dhamati] blow on or at A I.257.

Abhidhamma [abhi + dhamma] the "special Dhamma," i. e., 1. theory of the doctrine, the doctrine classified, the doctrine pure and simple (without any admixture of literary grace or of personalities, or of anecdotes, or of arguments ad personam), Vin I.64, 68; IV.144; IV.344. Coupled with abhivinaya, D III.267; M I.272. - 2. (only in the Chronicles and Commentaries) name of the Third Pitaka, the third group of the canonical books. Dpvs V.37; PvA 140. See the detailed discussion at DA I.15, 18 sq. [As the word abhidhamma standing alone is not found in Sn or S or A, and only once or twice in the Dialogues, it probably came into use only towards the end of the period in which the 4 great Nikayas grew up.] -katha discourse on philosophical or psychological matters, M I.214, 218; A III.106, 392. See dhammakatha.

Abhidhammika see abhidhammika.

Abhidhara (adj.) [abhi + dhara] firm, bold, in *mana firmminded Dh p. 81 (acc. to Morris J.Pali Text Society 1886, 135; not verified).

Abhidhayin (adj.) [abhi + dhayin from dha]" putting on", designing, calling, meaning Pgdp 98.

Abhidhareti [abhi + dhareti] to hold aloft J I.34 = Bu IV.1.

Abhidhavati [abhi + dhavati] to run towards, to rush about, rush on, hasten Vin II.195; S I.209; J II.217; III.83; DhA IV.23.

Abhidhavin (adj.) from abhidhavati] "pouring in", rushing on, running J VI.559.

Abhinata [pp. of abhi + namati] bent, (strained, fig. bent on pleasure M I.386 (+ apanata); S I.28 (id.; Mrs. Rh. D. "strained forth", cp. Kindred S I.39). See also apanata.

Abhinadati [abhi + nadati] to resound, to be full of noise J VI.531. Cp. abhinadita.

Abhinandati [abhi + nandati] to rejoice at, find pleasure in (acc.), approve of, be pleased or delighted with (acc.) D I.46 (bhasitam), 55 (id.), 158, 223; M I.109, 458; S I.32 (annam), 57, 14, (cakkhum, rupe etc.); A IV.411; Th 1, 606; Dh 75, 219; Sn 1054, 1057, 1111; Nd2 82; Miln 25; DA I.160; DhA III.194 (aor. abhinandi, opp. patikkosi) VvA 65 (vacanam). -pp. abhinandita (q. v.). Often in combination. with abhivadati (q. v.).

Abhinandana (nt.) and *a (f.) [from abhinandati, cp. nandana], pleasure, delight, enjoyment D I.244; M I.498; J IV.397.

Abhinandita [pp. of abhinandati] only in an* not enjoyed, not (being) an object of pleasure S IV.213 = It 38; S V. 319.

Abhinandin (adj.) [from abhinandati, cp. nandin] rejoicing at, finding pleasure in (loc. or -*), enjoying A II.54 (piyarupa); esp. frequent in phrase (tanha) tatratatr-a-bhinandini finding its pleasure in this or that [cp. B.Sanskrit tatra-tatr-a-bhinandini M Vastu III.332] Vin I.10; S V.421; Ps II.147; Nett 72, etc.

Abhinamati [abhi + namati] to bend. -pp. abhinata (q.v.).

Abhinaya [abhi + naya] a dramatic representation VvA 209 (sakha*).

Abhinava (adj.) [abhi + nava] quite young, new or fresh Vin III.337; J II.143 (devaputta), 435 (so read for accunha in explination of paccaggha; v.v. ll. abbhunha and abhinha); ThA 201 (*yobbana = abhiyobbana); PvA 40 (*santhana), 87 ( = paccaggha) 155.

Abhinadita [pp. of abhinadeti, Causative of abhi + nad; see nadati] resounding with (-*), filled with the noise (or song) of (birds) J VI.530 ( = abhinadanto C.); PvA 157 ( = abhiruda).

Abhinikujita (adj.) [abhi + nikujita] resounding with, full of the noise of (birds) J V.232 (of the barking of a dog), 304 (of the cuckoo); so read for *kunjita T.). Cp. abhikujita.

Abhinikkhamati [abhi + nikkhamati] to go forth from (abl.), go out, issue Dhs A 91; esp. fig. to leave the household life, to retire from the world Sn 64 ( = geha abhinikkhamitva kasaya-vattho hutva Sn A 117).

Abhinikkhamana (nt.) [abhi + nikkhamana] departure, going away, esp. the going out into monastic life, retirement, renunciation. Usually as maha* the great renunciation J I.61; PvA 19.

Abhinikkhipati [abhi + nikkhipati] to lay down, put down Davs III.12, 60.

Abhinigganhana (f.) [abstr. from abhinigganhati] holding back Vin III.121 (+ abhinippi'ana).

Abhinigganhati [abhi + nigganhati] to hold back, restrain, prevent, prohibit; always in combination. with abhinippi'eti M I.120; A V.230. - Cp. abhinigganhana.

Abhinindriya [vv. ll. at all passages for ahinindriya] doubtful meaning. The other is explained by Bdhgh at DA I.120 as paripunn*; and at 222 as avikal-indriya not defective, perfect sense-organ. He must have read ahin*. Abhi-n-indriya could only be explained as "with supersenseorgans", i. e. with organs of supernormal thought or perception, thus coming near in meaning to *abhinnindriya; We should read ahin* throughout D I.34, 77, 186, 195. II.13; M II.18; III.121; Nd2 under puccha6 (only ahin*).

Abhininnameti [abhi + ninnameti cp. BSanskrit abhinirnamayati Lal. V. 439] to bend towards, to turn or direct to D I.76 (cittam nana-dassanaya); M I.234; S I.123; IV.178; Pug 60.

Abhinipajjati [abhi + nipajjati] to lie down on Vin IV.273 (+ abhinisidati); A IV.188 (in = acc. + abhinisidati); Pug 67 (id.).

Abhinipatati [abhi + nipatati] to rush on (to) J II.8.

Abhinipata (-matta) destroying, hurting (*) at Vbh 321 is explained. by apatha-matta [cp. Divy 125 shastra-bhinipata splitting open or cutting with a knife].

Abhinipatana (nt.) [from abhi-ni-pateti in danda-sattha* attacking with stick or knife Nd2 5. Q4.

Abhinipatin (adj.) [abhi + nipatin] falling on io (-*) J II.7.

Abhinipuna (adj.) [abhi + nipuna] very thorough, very clever D III.167.

Abhinippajjati [abhi + nippajjati] to be produced, accrue, get, come (to) M I.86 (bhoga abhinipphajjanti: sic) = Nd2 99 (has n'a-bhinippajjanti). - Cp. abhinipphadeti.

Abhinippata at J VI.36 is to be read abhinippanna (so v. l. BB.).

Abhinippatta at Dhs 1035, 1036 is to be read abhinibbatta.

Abhinippanna (and *nipphanna) [abhi + nippanna, pp. of *nippajjati] produced, effected, accomplished D II.223 (siloka); J VI.36 (so read for abhinippata); Miln 8 (pph.).

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Abhinippi'ana (f.) [abstr. to abhinippi'eti, cp. nippi'ana] pressing, squeezing, taking hold of Vin III.121 (+ abhinigganhana).

Abhinippi'eti [abhi + nippi'eti] to squeeze, crush, subdue Vism 399; often in combination. with abhinigganhati M I. 120; A V.230.

Abhinipphatti (f.) [abhi + nipphatti] production, effecting D II.283 (v. l. *nibbatti).

Abhinipphadeti [abhi + nipphadeti] to bring into existence, produce, effect, work, perform D I.78 (bhajana-vikatim); Vin II.183 (iddhim); S V.156, 255; Miln 39.

Abhinibbatta [abhi + nibbatta, pp. of abhinibbattati] reproduced, reborn A IV.40, 401; Nd2 256 (nibbatta abhi* patubhuta); Dhs 1035, 1036 (so read for* nippatta); VvA 9 (punn-a-nubhava* by the power of merit).

Abhinibbattati [abhi + nibbattati] to become, to be reproduced, to result Pug 51. -pp. abhinibbatta. - Cp. B.Sanskrit wrongly abhinivartate].

Abhinibbatti (f.) [abhi + nibbatti] becoming, birth, rebirth, D I.229; II.283 (v. l. for abhinipphatti) S II.65 (punabbhava*), 101 (id.); IV.14, 215; A V.121; PvA 35.

Abhinibbatteti [abhi + nibbatteti, caus. of *nibbattati] to produce, cause, cause to become S III.152; A V.47; Nd2 under janeti.

Abhinibbijjati [either Med. from nibbindati of vid for *nirvidyate (see nibbindati B), or secondary formation from ger. nibbijja. Reading however not beyond all doubt] to be disgusted with, to avoid, shun, turn away from Sn 281 (T. abhinibbijjayatha, v. l. BB* nibbijjiyatha and *nibbajjiyatha, SnA expls. by vivajjeyyatha ma bhajeyyatha; v. l. BB. abhinippajjiya) = A IV.172 (T. abhinibbajjayatha, vv. ll. *nibbajjeyyatha and *nibbijjayatha); ger. abhinibbijja Th 2, 84.

Abhinibbijjhati [abhi + nibbijjhati] to break quite through (of the chick coming through the shell of the egg) Vin III.3; M I.104 = S III.153 (read* nibbijjheyyun for nibbijjeyyun - Cp. Buddh. Suttas 233, 234.

Abhinibbida (f.) [abhi + nibbida; confused with abhinibbhida] disgust with the world, taedium Nett 61 (taken as abhinibbhida, according to explination. as "padalana-pannatti avijj*anda-kosanam"), 98 (so MSS, but C. abhinibbidha).

Abhinibbuta (adj.) [abhi + nibbuta] perfectly cooled, calmed, serene, esp. in two phrases, viz. dittha dhamm' a-bhinibbuta A I.142 = M III.187; Sn 1087; Nd2 83, and abhinibbutatta of cooled mind Sn 343 ( = aparidayhamana-citta SnA 347), 456, 469, 783. Also at Sdhp. 35.

Abhinibbhida (f.) [this the better, although not correct spelling; there exists a confusion with abhinibbida, therefore spelling also abhinibbidha (Vin III.4, C. on Nett 98). To abhinibbijjhati, cp. B.Sanskrit abhinirbheda M Vastu I.272, which is wrongly referred to bhid instead of vyadh.] the successful breaking through (like the chick through the shell of the egg), coming into (proper) life Vin III.4; M I.104; 357; Nett 98 (C. reading). See also abhinibbida.

Abhinimantanata (f.) [abstr. to abhinimanteti] speaking to, adressing, invitation M I.331.

Abhinimanteti [abhi + nimanteti] to invite to (c. instr.), to offer to D I.61 (asanena).

Abhinimmadana (nt.) [abhi + nimmadana] crushing, subduing, levelling out M III.132; A IV.189 sq.

Abhinimmita [abhi + nimmita, pp. of abhinimminati] created (by magic) Vv 161 (panca ratha sata; cp. VvA 79).

Abhinimminati [abhi + nimminati, cp. BSanskrit abhinirmati Jtm 32; abhinirminoti Divy 251; abhinirmimite Divy 166] to create (by magic), produce, shape, make S III.152 (rupam); A I.279 (o'arikam attabhavam); Nd2 under puccha6 (rupam manomayan); VvA 16 (mahantam hatthi-raja-vannam). -pp. abhinimmita (q. v.).

Abhiniropana (nt.) and a (f.) [from abhiniropeti] fixing one's mind upon, application of the mind Ps I.16, 21, 30, 69, 75, 90; Vbh 87; Dhs 7, 21, 298 (cp. Dhs trsl. II.19). See also abhiropana.

Abhiniropeti [abhi + niropeti] to implant, fix into (one's mind), inculcate Nett 33.

Abhinivajjeti [abhi + nivajjeti] to avoid, get rid of D III. 113; M I.119, 364, 402; S V.119, 295, 318; A III.169 sq.; It 81.

Abhinivassati [abhi + ni + vassati from vrs.] lit. to pour out in abundance, fig. to produce in plenty. Cp I.103 (kalyane good deeds).

Abhinivittha (adj.) [abhi + nivittha, pp. of abhi-nivisati] "settled in", attached to, clinging on Nd2 152 (gahita paramattha a.); PvA 267 ( = ajjhasita Pv IV.84).

Abhinivisati [abhi + nivisati] to cling to, adhere to, be attached to Nd1 308, 309 (paramasati +). -pp. abhinivittha; cp. also abhinivesa.

Abhinivesa [abhi + nivesa, see nivesa2 and cp. nivesana] "settling in", i. e. wishing for, tendency towards (-*), inclination, adherence; as adj. liking, loving, being given or inclined to D III.230; M I.136, 251; S II.17; III.10, 13, 135, 161, 186 (sanyojana* IV.50; A III.363 (pathavi*, adj.); Nd2 227 (gaha paramasa +); Pug 22; Vbh 145; Dhs 381, 1003, 1099; Nett 28; PvA 252 (miccha*), 267 (tanha*); Sdhp 71. - Often combined. with adhitthana e. g. S II.17; Nd2 176, and in phrase idan-sacc- a-bhinivesa adherence to one's dogmas, as one of the 4 Ties: see kayagantha and cp. Cpd.171 n. 5.

Abhinisidati [abhi + nisidati] to sit down by or on (acc.), always combined. with abhinipajjati Vin III.29; IV.273; A V.188; Pug 67.

Abhinissata (pp.) [abhi + nissata] escaped Th 1, 1089.

Abhinihata (pp.) [abhi + nihata] oppressed. crushed, slain J IV.4.

Abhinita (pp.) [pp. of abhi-neti] led to, brought to, obliged by (-*) M I.463 = Miln 32 (raja and cora*); M I.282; S III.93; Th 1, 350 = 435 (vataroga* "foredone with cramping pains" Mrs. Rk. D.); Pug 29; Miln 362.

Abhinila (adj.) [abhi + nila] very black, deep black, only with reference to the eyes, in phrase *netta with deep-black eyes D II.18; III.144, 167 sq. [cp. Sp. Av. SH I.367 and 370 abhinila-padma-netra]; Th 2, 257 (netta ahesum abbinila-m-ayata).

Abhinihanati [abhi + nis + han, cp. Sanskrit nirhanti] to drive away, put away, destroy, remove, avoid M I.119 (in phrase anim a. abhiniharati abhinivajjeti).

Abhiniharati [abhi + niharati] 1. to take out, throw out M I.119 (see abhinihanati). - 2. to direct to, to apply to (orig. to isolate* Is reading correct*) in phrase nanadassanaya cittam abhiniharati abhininnameti D I.76 ( = tanninnam tapponam karoti DA I.220, 224; v. l. abhini*) Cp. the latter phrase also in BSanskrit as abhijna-bhinirhara Av. SH II.3 (see reference and note Index p. 221); and the pp. abhinirhrta (rddhi*) in Divy 48, 49 to obtain* Ind.), 264 (take to burial), 542.

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Abhinihara [abhi + nihara, to abhiniharati; cp. BSanskrit sarir- a-bhinirhara taking (the body) out to burial, lit. meaning, see note on abhiniharati] being bent on ("downward force" Dhs trsl. 242), i. e. taking oneself out to, way of acting, (proper) behaviour, endeavour, resolve, aspiration S III.267 sq. (*kusala); A II.189; III.311; IV.34 (*kusala); J I.14 (Buddhabhavaya a. resolve to become a Buddha), 15 (Buddhattaya); Ps I.61 sq.; II.121; Nett 26; Miln 216; DhA I.392; II.82 (kata*).

Abhipattika (adj.) [from abhipatti] one who has attained, attaining (-*), getting possession of S I.200 (devakanna*).

Abhipatthita (pp.) [from abhipattheti] hoped, wished, longed for Miln 383; SnA 85.

Abhipattheti [abhi + pattheti] to hope for, long for, wish for Kh VIII.10; SnA 320; DhA I.30. -pp. abhipatthita (q. v.).

Abhipassati [abhi + passati] to have regard for, look for, strive after A I.147 (Nibbanam); III.75; Sn 896 (khema*), 1070 (rattamaha*) Nd1 308; Nd2 428; J VI.370.

Abhipateti [abhi + pateti] to make fall, to bring to fall, to throw J II.91 (kandam).

Abhiparuta (adj.) [abhi + paruta, pp. of abhiparupati] dressed Miln 222.

Abhipaleti [abhi + paleti] to protect Vv 8421, cp. VvA 341.

Abhipi'ita (pp.) [from abhipi'eti] crushed, squeezed Sdhp 278, 279.

Abhipi'eti [abhi + pi'eti] to crush, squeeze Miln 166. pp. abhipi'ita (q. v.).

Abhipucchati [abhi + pucchati] Sanskrit abhiprcchati] to ask J IV.18.

Abhipureti [abhi + pureti] to fill (up) Miln 238; Davs III. 60 (pamsuhi).

Abhippakinna [pp. of abhippakirati] completely strewn (with) J I.62.

Abhippakirati [abhi + pakirati] to strew over, to cover (completely) D II.137 (pupphani Tathagatassa sariram okiranti ajjhokiranti a.); VvA 38 (for abbhokirati Vv 59). pp. abhippakinna (q. v.).

Abhippamodati [abhi + pamodati] to rejoice (intrs.); to please, satisfy (trs, c. acc.) M I.425; S V.312, 330; A V.112; J III 530; Ps I.95, 176, 190.

Abhippalambati [abhi + palambati] to hang down M III. 164 (olambati ajjholambati a.).

Abhippavassati [abhi + pavassati] to shed rain upon, to pour down; intrs. to rain, to pour, fall. Usually in phrase mahamegho abhippavassati a great cloud bursts Miln 8, 13, 36, 304; PvA 132 (v. l. ati*); intrs. Miln 18 (pupphani *imsu poured down). -pp. abhippavuttha.

Abhippavuttha (pp.) [from abhippavassati] having rained, poured, fallen; trs. S V.51 (bandhanani meghena *ani) = A V.127; intrs. M II.117 (mahamegho *o there has been a cloudburst).

Abhippasanna (adj.) [pp. of abhippasidati, cp. BSanskrit abhiprasanna] finding one's peace in (c. loc.), trusting in, having faith in, believing in, devoted to (loc.) Vin III.43; D I.211 (Bhagavati) S I.134; IV.319; V.225, 378; A III. 237, 270, 326 sq.; Sn p. 104 (brahmanesu); PvA 54 (sasand), 142 (id.). Cp. vippasanna in same meaning.

Abhippasada [abhi + pasada, cp. BSanskrit abhiprasada Av. SH 12 (cittasyu*) and vippasada] faith, belief, reliance, trust Dhs 12 ("sense of assurance" trsl., + saddha), 25, 96, 288; PvA 223.

Abhippasadeti [Causative of abhippasidati, cp. BSanskrit abhiprasadayati Divy 68, 85, pp. abhiprasadita-mana* Jtm 213, 220] to establish one's faith in (loc.), to be reconciled with, to propitiate Th 1, 1173 = Vv 212 (manam arahantamhi = cittam pasadeti VvA 105).

Abhippasareti [abhi + pasareti, cp. BSanskrit abhiprasarayati Divy 389] to stretch out Vin I.179 (pade).

Abhippasidati [abhi + pasidati] to have faith in D I.211 (fut. *issati). -pp. abhippasanna; Causative abhippasadeti.

Abhippaharana (nt.) [abhi + paharana] attacking, fighting, as adj. f. *ani fighting, Ep. of Marassa sena, the army of M. Sn 439 (kanhassa* the fighting army of k. = samana-brahmananam nippothani antarayakari SnA 390).

Abhibyapeti [abhi + vyapeti, cp. Sanskrit vyapnoti, vi + ap] to pervade Miln 251.

Abhibhakkhayati [abhi + bhakkhayati] to eat (of animals) Vin II.201 (bhinko pankam a.).

Abhibhava [from abhibhavati] defeat, humiliation SnA 436.

Abhibhavati [abhi + bhavati] to overcome, mastereotype be lord over, vanquish, conquer S I.18, 32, 121 (maranam); IV. 71 (ragadose), 117 (kodham), 246, 249 (samikam); J I.56, 280; PvA 94 ( = baliyati, vaddhati). - fut. abhihessati see abhihareti 4. - ger. abhibhuyya Vin I.294; Dh 328; It 41 (Maram sasenam); Sn 45, 72 (*carin), 1097, Nd2 85 ( = abhibhavitva ajjhottharitva, pariyadiyitva); and abhibhavitva PvA 113 ( = pasayha), 136. - grd. abhibhavaniya to be overcome PvA 57. - Pass. ppr. abhibhuyamana being overcome (by) PvA 80, 103. -pp. abhibhuta (q. v.).

Abhibhavana (nt.) [from abhibhavati] overcoming, vanquishing, mastereotypeng S II.210 (v. l. BB abhipatthana).

Abhibhavaniyata (f.) [abstr. from abhibhavaniya, grd. of abhibhavati] as an* invincibility PvA 117.

Abhibhayatana (nt.) [abhibhu + ayatana] position of a mastereotypeor lord, station of mastereotype. The traditional account of these gives 8 stations or stages of mastereotype over the senses (see Dial. II.118; Exp. I.252), detailed identically at all the following passages, viz. D II.110; III.260 (and 287); M II.13; A I.40; IV.305, 348; V.61. Mentioned only at S IV.77 (6 stations); Ps I.5; Nd2 466 (as an accomplishment of the Bhagavant); Dhs 247.

Abhibhasana (nt.) [abhi + bhasana from bhas] enlightenment or delight ("light and delight" trsl.) Th 1, 613 ( = tosana C.).

Abhibhu (n.-adj.) [Vedic abhibhu, from abhi + bhu, cp. abhibhavati] overcoming, conquering, vanquishing, having power over, a Lord or Mastereotypeof (-*) D III.29; S II. 284; Sn 211 (sabba*), 545 (Mara*, cp. Marasena-pamaddana 561), 642. - Often in phrase abhibhu anabhibhuta annadatthudasa vasavattin, i. e. unvanquished Lord of all D I 18; III.135 = Nd2 276; A II.24; IV.94; It 122; cp. DA I.111 ( = abhibhavitva thito jetthako- ham asmiti).

Abhibhuta [pp. of abhibhavati] overpowered, overwhelmed, vanquished D I.121; S I.137 (jati-jara*); II.228 (labhasakkara-silokena); A I.202 (papakehi dhammehi); J I.189; PvA 14, 41 ( = pareta), 60 ( = upagata), 68, 77, 80 ( = pareta). Often negative an* unconquered, e. g. Sn 934; Nd1 400; and see phrase under abhibhu.

Abhimangala (adj.) [abhi + mangala] (very) fortunate, lucky, anspicious, in *sammata (of Visakha) "benedicted", blessed Vin III.187 = DhA I.409. Opp. avamangala.

Abhimandita (pp. -*) [abhi + mandita] adorned, embellished, beautified Miln 361; Sdhp 17.

Abhimata (adj.) [BSanskrit abhimata, e. g. Jtm 211; pp. of abhimanyate] desired, wished for; agreeable, pleasant C. on Th 1, 91.

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Abhimatthati (*eti) and *mantheti [abhi + math or manth, cp. nimmatheti] 1. to cleave, cut; to crush, destroy M I.243 (sikharena muddhanam *mantheti); S I.127; Dh 161 (v. l. *nth*); J IV.457 (matthako sikharena *matthiyamano); DhA III.152 ( = kantati viddhamseti). - 2. to rub, to produce by friction (esp. fire, aggim; cp. Vedic agnim nirmanthati) M I.240.

Abhimaddati [Sanskrit abhimardati and *mrdnati; abhi + mrd] to crush S I.102; A I.198; Sdhp 288.

Abhimana (adj.) [abhi + mano, BSanskrit abhimana, e. g. M Vastu III.259] having one's mind turned on, thinking of or on (c. acc.) Th 1, 1122; J VI.451.

Abhimanapa (adj.) [abhi + manapa] very pleasing VvA 53 (where id. p. at PvA 71 has atimanapa).

Abhimantheti see abhimatthati.

Abhimara [cp. Sanskrit abhimara slaughter] a bandit, bravo, robber J II.199; DA I.152.

Abhimukha (adj.) [abhi + mukha] facing, turned towards, approaching J II.3 (*a ahesum met each other). Usually -* turned to, going to, inclined towards D I.50 (purattha*); J I.203 (devaloka*), 223 (varana-rukkha*); II.3 (nagara*), 416 (Jetavana*); DhA I.170 (tad*); II.89 (nagara*); PvA 3 (kama*, opp. vimukha), 74 (uyyana*). - nt. *m adv. to, towards J I.263 (matta-varane); PvA 4 (aghatana*, may here be taken as pred. adj.); DhA III.310 (uttara*).

Abhiyacati [abhi + yacati] to ask, beg, entreat Sn 1101, cp. Nd2 86.

Abhiyati [Vedic abhiyati in same meaning; abhi _ ya] to go against (in a hostile manner, to attack (c. acc.) S I.216 (aor. abhiyamsu, v. l. SS abhijiyimsu); DhA III.310 (aor. abhiyasi as v. l. for T. reading payasi; the id. p. VvA 68 reads payasi with v. l. upayasi).

Abhiyujjhati [abhi + yujjhati from yudh] to contend, quarrel with J I.342.

Abhiyunjati [abhi + yuj] to accuse, charge; intrs. fall to one's share Vin III.50; IV.304.

Abhiyoga [cp. abhiyunjati] practice, observance Davs IV.7.

Abhiyogin (adj.) [from abhiyoga] applying oneself to, practised, skilled (an augur, sooth sayer) D III.168.

Abhiyobbana (nt.) [abhi + yobbana] much youthfulness, early or tender youth Th 2, 258 ( = abhinavayobbanakala ThA 211).

Abhirakkhati [abhi + rakkhati] to guard, protect J VI.589 ( = paleti C.). Cp. parirakkhati.

Abhirakkha (f.) [from abhirakkhati] protection, guard J I.204 ( = arakkha 203).

Abhirata (adj.) (-*) [pp. of abhiramati] found of, indulging in, finding delight in A IV.224 (nekkhamma*); V.175 (id.), Sn 86 (nibbana*), 275 (vihesa*), 276 (kalaha*); J V.382 (dana*); PvA 54 (punnakamma*), 61 (satibhavana*), 105 (dana-dipunna*).

Abhiratatta (nt.) [abstr. from abhirata] the fact of being fond of, delighting in (-*) J V.254 (kama*).

Abhirati (f.) [from abhi + ram] delight or pleasure in (loc. or -*) S I.185; IV.260; A V.122; Dh 88. -an* displeasure, discontent, distaste Vin II.110; D I.17 (+ paritassana); S I.185; V.132; A III.259; IV.50; V.72 sq., 122; J III.395; DA I.111; PvA 187.

Abhiratta (adj.) [abhi + ratta] very red J V.156; fig. very much excited or affected with (-*) Sn 891 (sanditthiragena a.).

Abhiraddha (adj.) [pp. of abhi + radh] propitiated, satisfied A IV.185 (+ attamana).

Abhiraddhi (f.) [from abhiraddha] only in negative an* displeasure, dislike, discontent A I.79; DA I.52 ( = kopass- etam adhivacanam).

Abhiramati [abhi + ram] to sport, enjoy oneself, find pleasure in or with (c. loc.), to indulge in love Sn 718, 1085; J I.192; III.189, 393; DhA I.119; PvA 3, 61, 145. - ppr. act. abhiranto only as nt. *m in adv. phrase yatha-bhirantam after one's liking, as much as he pleases, after one's heart's content Vin I.34; M I.170; Sn 53. ppr. med. abhiramamana J III.188, PvA 162. -pp. abhirata (q. v.). - 2nd Causative abhiramapeti (q. v.).

Abhiramana (nt.) [from abhiramati] sporting, dallying, amusing oneself PvA 16.

Abhiramapana (nt.) [from abhiramapeti, Caus2 of abhiramati] causing pleasure to (acc.), being a source of pleasure, making happy M III.132 (gamante).

Abhiramapeti [Causative II. from abhiramati] 1. to induce to sport, to cause one to take pleasure J III.393. - 2. to delight, amuse, divert J I.61. - Cp. abhiramapana.

Abhiravati [abhi + ravati] to shout ont Bu II.90 = J I.18 (V.99)

Abhiradhita [pp. of abhiradheti] having succeeded in, fallen to one's share, attained Th 1, 259.

Abhiradhin (adj.) (-*) [from abhiradheti] pleasing, giving pleasure, satisfaction J IV.274 (mitta* = aradhento tosento C.).

Abhiradheti [abhi + radheti] to please, satisfy, make happy J I.421; DA I.52. - aor. (pret.) abhiradhayi Vv 315 ( = abhiradhesi VvA 130); Vv 6423 (gloss for abhirocayi VvA 282); J I.421; III.386 ( = paritosesi C.). -pp. abhiradhita.

Abhiruci (f.) [Sanskrit abhiruci, from abhi + ruc] delight, longing, pleasure, satisfaction PvA 168 ( = ajjhasaya).

Abhirucita (adj.) [pp. from abhi + ruc] pleasing, agreeable, liked J I.402; DhA I.45.

Abhiruda (adj. -*) [Sanskrit abhiruta] resounding with (the cries of animals, esp. the song of birds), full of the sound of (birds) Th 1, 1062 (kunjara*), 1113 (mayura-konca*); J IV.466 (adasakunta*); V.304 (mayura-konca*); VI.172 (id., = upagita C.), 272 (sakunta*; = abhigita C.), 483 (mayura-konca*), 539; Pv II.123 (hamsa-konca*; = abhinadita PvA 157). - The form abhiruta occurs at Th 1, 49.

Abhirupa (adj.) [abhi + rupa] of perfect form, (very), handsome, beautiful, lovely Sn 410 ( = dassaniya- angapaccanga SnA 383); J I.207; Pug 52; DA I.281 ( = annehi manussehi adhikarupa); VvA 53; PvA 61 ( = abhikkanta). Occurs in the idiomatic phrase denoting the characteristics of true beauty abhirupa dassaniya pasadika (+ paramaya vanna-pokkharataya samannagata), e. g. Vin I.268; D I.47, 114, 120; S II.279; A II.86, 203; Nd2 659; Pug 66; DhA I.281 (compar.); PvA 46.

Abhiru'ha [pp. of abhiruhati] mounted, gone up to, ascended J V.217; DhA I.103.

Abhiruhati (abhiruhati) [abhi + ruh] to ascend, mount, climb; to go on or in to (c. acc.) Dh 321; Th 1, 271; J I.259; II.388; III.220; IV.138 (navam); VI.272 (peculiar aor. *rucchi with abhi metri causa; = abhiruhi C.); DA I.253. - ger. abhiruyha J III.189; PvA 75, 152 (as v. l.; T. has *ruyhitva), 271 (navam), and abhiruhitva J I.50 (pabbatam) II.128.

Abhiruhana (nt.) [BSanskrit *ruhana, e. g. M Vastu II.289] climbing, ascending, climb Miln 356.

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Abhiroceti [abhi + roceti, Causative of ruc] 1. to like, to find delight in (acc.), to desire, long for J III.192; V.222 ( = roceti); Vv 6423 (vatam abhirocayi = abhirocesi ruccitva puresi ti attho; abhiradhayi ti pi patho; sadhesi nipphadesi ti attho VvA 282). - 2. to please, satisfy, entertain, gladden Vv 6424 (but VvA 292: abhibhavitva vijjotati, thus to no. 3). - 3. v. l. for atiroceti (to surpass in splendour) at Vv 8112, cp. also no. 2.

Abhiropana (nt.) [from abhiropeti] concentration of mind, attention (seems restricted to Ps II. only) Ps II.82 (v. l. abhiniropana), 84, 93, 115 (buddhi*), 142 (*viraga), 145 (*vimutti), 216 (*abhisamaya). See also abhiniropana.

Abhiropeti [abhi + ropeti, cp. Sanskrit adhiropayati, Causative of ruh] to fix one's mind on, to pay attention, to show reverence, to honour Vv 377 (aor. *ropayi = ropesi VvA 169), 3710 (id.; = pujam karesi VvA 172), 604 ( = pujesi VvA 253); Davs V.19.

Abhilakkhita (adj.) [Sanskrit abhilaks.ita in different meaning; pp. of abhi + laks.] fixed, designed, inaugurated, marked by auspices J IV.1; DA I.18.

Abhilakkhitatta (nt.) [abstr. from abhilakkhita] having signs or marks, being characterised, characteristics DhsA 62.

Abhilanghati [abhi + langhati] to ascend, rise, travel or pass over (of the moon traversing the sky) J III.364; VI.221.

Abhilambati [abhi + lambati] to hang down over (c. acc.) M III.164 = Nett 179 (+ ajjholambati); J V.70 (papatam), 269 (Vetaranim). -pp. abhilambita (q. v.).

Abhilambita (adj.) [pp. of abhilambati] hanging down J V.407 (niladuma*).

Abhilapa [from abhi + lap] talk, phrasing, expression Sn 49 (vaca-bhilapa making phrases, talking, idle or objectionable speech = tiracchanakatha Nd2 561); It 89 (* reading abhilapayam uncertain, vv. ll. abhipayam abhipapayam, abhisapayam, abhisapayam, atisappayam. The corresponds passage S III.93 reads abhisapayan: curse, and C. on It 89 expls. abhilapo ti akkoso, see Brethren 376 n. 1); Dhs 1306 = Nd2 34 (as exegesis or paraphrase of adhivacana, combined. with vyanjana and trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. as "a distinctive mark of discourse"); DA I.20, 23, 281; DhsA 51.

Abhilasa [Sanskrit, abhi + las.] desire, wish, longing PvA 154.

Abhilekheti [Causative of abhi + likh] to cause to be inscribed Davs V.67 (caritta-lekham *lekhayi).

Abhilepana (nt.) [abhi + lepana] "smearing over", stain, pollution Sn 1032, 1033 = Nett 10, 11 (see Nd2 88 = laggana "sticking to", bandhana, upakkilesa).

Abhivagga [abhi + vagga] great mass (*), superior force (*), only in phrase *ena omaddati to crush with sup. force or overpower M I.87 = Nd2 1996.

Abhivancana (nt.) [abhi + vanc] deceit, fraud Davs III.64.

Abhivatta [pp. of abhivassati, see also abhivuttha] rained upon Dh 335 (gloss *vuttha; cp. DhA IV.45); Miln 176, 197, 286. - Note. Andersen Pali R. prefers reading abhivaddha at Dh 335 "the abounding Birana grass").

Abhivaddhati [Vedic abhivardhati, abhi + vrdh] 1. to increase (intrs.) D I.113, 195 (opp. hayati); M II.225; A III.46 (bhoga a.); Dh 24; Miln 374; PvA 8, 133; Sdhp 288, 523. - 2. to grow over or beyond, to outg ow J III.399 (vanaspatim). -pp. abhivuddha and *vuddha (q.v.).

Abhivaddhana (adj.-nt.) [from abhivaddhati] increasing (trs.), augmenting; f. *i Sdhp 68.

Abhivaddhi (f.) [cp. Sanskrit abhivrddhi, from abhi + vrdh] increase, growth Miln 94. - See also abhivuddhi.

Abhivannita [pp. of abhivanneti] praised Dpvs I.4.

Abhivanneti [abhi + vanneti] to praise Sdhp 588 (*ayi). pp. abhivannita.

Abhivadati [abhi + vadati] 1. to speak out, declare, promise J I.83 = Vin I.36; J VI.220. - 2. to speak (kindly) to, to welcome, salute, greet. In this sense always combined. with abhinandati, e. g. at M I.109, 266, 458; S III.14; IV.36 sq.; Miln 69. - Causative abhivadeti.

Abhivandati [abhi + vandati] to salute respectfully, to honour, greet; grd. *vandaniya Miln 227.

Abhivassaka (adj.) [from abhivassati] raining, fig. shedding, pouring ont, yielding VvA 38 (puppha*).

Abhivassati [abhi + vassati from vrs.] to rain, shed rain, pour; fig. rain down, pour out, shed D III.160 (abhivassan metri causa); A III.34; Th 1, 985; J I.18 (V.100; puppha a. stream down); cp. III.106; Miln 132, 411. pp. abhivatta and abhivuttha (q. v.). - Causative II. abhivassapeti to cause (the sky to) rain Miln 132.

Abhivassin (adj.) = abhivassaka It 64, 65 (sabbattha*).

Abhivadana (nt.) [from abhivadeti] respectful greeting, salutation, giving welcome, showing respect or devotion A II.180; IV.130, 276; J I.81, 82, 218; Dh 109 (*silin of devout character, cp. DhA II.239); VvA 24; Sdhp 549 (*sila).

Abhivadeti [Causative of abhivadati] to salute, greet, welcome, honour Vin II.208 sq.; D I.61; A III.223; IV.173; Vv 15 (abhivadayim aor. = abhivadanam karesim vandim VvA 24); Miln 162. Often in combination with padakkhinam karoti in sense of to bid goodbye, to say adieu, farewell, e. g. D I.89, 125, 225; Sn 1010. - Causative II. abhivadapeti to cause some one to salute, to make welcome Vin II.208 (*etabba).

Abhivayati [abhi + vayati; cp. Sanskrit abhivati] to blow through, to pervade Miln 385.

Abhivareti [abhi + vareti, Causative of vr] to hold back, refuse, deny J V.325 ( = nivareti C.).

Abhivaheti [abhi + vaheti, Causative of vah] to remove, to put away Bu X.5.

Abhivijayati (and vijinati) [abhi + vijayati] to overpower, to conquer. Of *jayati the ger. *jiya at D I.89, 134; II.16. Of *jinati the pres. 3rd pl. *jinanti at Miln 39; the ger. *jinitva at M I.253; Pug 66.

Abhivinnapeti [abhi + vinnapeti] to turn somebody's mind on (c. acc.), to induce somebody (dat.) to (acc.) Vin III.18 (puranadutiyikaya methunam dhammam abhivinnapesi).

Abhivitarati [abhi + vitarati] "to go down to", i. e. give in, to pay heed, observe Vin I.134 and in stereotype explination. of sancicca at Vin II.91; III.73, 112; IV.290.

Abhivinaya [abhi + vinaya] higher discipline, the refinements of discipline or Vinaya; combined. with abhidhamma, e. g. D III.267; M I.472; also with vinaya Vin V.1 sg.

Abhivindati [abhi + vindati] to find, get, obtain Sn 460 ( = labhati adhigacchati SnA 405).

Abhivisittha (adj.) [abhi + visittha] most excellent, very distinguished DA I.99, 313.

Abhivissajjati [abhi + vissajjati] to send out, send forth, deal out, give D III.160.

Abhivissattha [abhi + vissattha, pp. of abhivissasati, Sanskrit abhivishvasta] confided in, taken into confidence M II.52 (v. l. *visattha).

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Abhivuttha [pp. of abhivassati, see also abhivatta] poured out or over, shed out (of water or rain) Th 1, 1065; Dh 335 (gloss); PvA 29.

Abhivuddha [pp. of abhivaddhati, see also *vuddha] increased, enriched PvA 150.

Abhivuddha [pp. of abhivaddhati, see also *vuddha] grown up Miln 361.

Abhivuddhi (f.) [Sanskrit abhivrddhi, see also abhivaddhi] increase, growth, prosperity Miln 34.

Abhivetheti: Kern's (Toev. s. v.) proposed reading at J V.452 for ati*, which however does not agree with C. explination. on p. 454.

Abhivedeti [abhi + Causative of vid] 1. to make known, to communicate Davs V.2, 11. - 2. to know J VI.175 ( = janati C.).

Abhivihacca [ger. of abhi + vihanati] having destroyed, removed or expelled; only in one simile of the sun driving darkness away at M I.317 = S III.156; V.44 = It 20.

Abhivyapeti see abhibyapeti.

Abhisanvisati [abhi + sanvisati]. Only in abhisanvisseyyagattam (or-bhastam or-santum) Th 2, 466 a compound of doubtful derivation and meaning. Mrs. Rh. D., following Dhammapala (p. 283) "a bag of skin with carrion filled" .

Abhisansati [Vedic abhishamsati, abhi + shams] to execrate, revile, lay a curse on J V.174 (*sansittha 3rd sg. pret. med. = paribhasi C.) - aor. abhisasi J VI.187, 505, 522 ( = akkosi C.), 563 (id.). -pp. abhisattha. Cp. also abhisimsati.

Abhisansana (f.) [* abhisansati] is doubtful reading at Vv 6410; meaning "neighing" (of horses) VvA 272, 279.

Abhisankhata (adj.) [abhi + sankhata, pp. of abhisankharoti] prepared, fixed, made up, arranged, done M I.350; A II.43; V.343; J I.50; Nd1 186 (kappita +); PvA 7, 8.

Abhisankharoti (and *khareti in Pot.) [abhi + sankharoti] to prepare, do, perform, work, get up Vin I.16 (iddh- a-bhisankharam *khareyya); D I.184 (id.); S II.40; III.87, 92; IV.132, 290; V.449; A I.201; Sn 984 (ger. *itva: having got up this curse, cp. SnA 582); PvA 56 (iddh- a-bhisankharam), 172 (id.), 212 (id.). -pp. abhisankhata (q. v.).

Abhisankhara [abhi + sankhara] 1. putting forth, performance, doing, working, practice: only in two combinations., viz. (a) gamiya* (or gamika*) a heathenish practice Vin I.233; A IV.180, and (b) iddha* ( = idd*i*) working of supernormal powers Vin I.16; D I.106; S III.92; IV.289; V.270; Sn p. 107; PvA 56, 172, 212. - 2. preparation, store, accumulation (of kamma, merit or demerit), substratum, state (see for detail sankhara) S III.58 (an*); Nd1 334, 442; Nd2 s. v.; Vbh 135 (punna* etc.), 340; DhsA 357 (*vinnana "storing intellect" Dhs trsl. 262).

Abhisankharika (adj.) [from abhisankhara] what belongs to or is done by the sankharas; accumulated by or accumulating merit, having special (meritorious) effect (or specially prepared*) Vin II.77 = III.160; Sdhp 309 (sa *paccaya).

Abhisankhipati [abhi + sankhipati] to throw together, heap together, concentrate Vbh 1 sq., 82 sq., 216 sq., 400; Miln 46.

Abhisanga [from abhi + sanj, cp. abhisajjati and Sanskrit abhisanga] Q sticking to, cleaving to, adherence to J V.6; Nett 110, 112; DhsA 129 (*hetukam dukkham) 249 (*rasa).

Abhisangin (adj.) [from abhisanga] cleaving to (-*) Sdhp 566.

Abhisajjati [abhi + sanj; cp. abhisanga] to be in ill temper, to be angry, to curse, imprecate (in meaning of abhisanga 2) D I.91 ( = kodha-vasena laggati DA I.257); III.159; J III.120 (+ kuppati); IV.22 (abhisajji kuppi vyapajji, cp. BSanskrit abhi.sajyate kupyati vyapadyate. Av. SH I.286); V.175 ( = kopeti C.); Dh 408 (abhisaje Pot. = kujjhapana-vasena laggapeyya DhA IV.182); Pug 30, 36. See also abhisajjana and abhisajjana.

Abhisajjana (nt.-adj.) [abstr. from abhisajjati in meaning of abhisanga 2] only as adv. f. *ni Ep. of vaca scolding, abusing, cursing A V.265 (para*). Cp. next.

Abhisajjana (f.) [abstr. from abhisajjati, cp. abhisajjana] at Sn 49 evidently means "scolding, cursing, being in bad temper" (cp. abhisajjati), as its combination. with vac- a-bhilapa indicates, but is explained. both by Nd2 and Bdhgh. as "sticking to, cleaving, craving, desire" ( = tanha), after the meaning of abhisanga. See Nd2 89 and 107; SnA 98 (sineha-vasena), cp. also the compromise-explination by Bdhgh. of abhisajjati as kodha-vasena laggati (DA I.257).

Abhisancinati (and *cayati) [abhi + sancinati] to accumulate, collect (merit) Vv 476 (Pot. *sanceyyam = *sancineyyam VvA 202).

Abhisancetayita [pp. of abhisanceteti] raised into consciousness, thought out, intended, planned M I.350; S II. 65; IV.132; A V.343.

Abhisanceteti [abhi + sanceteti or *cinteti] to bring to consciousness, think out, devise, plan S II.82. -pp. abhisancetayita (q. v.).

Abhisanna (f.). Only in the compound abhi-sanna-nirodha D I.179, 184. The prefix abhi qualifies, not sanna, but the whole compound, which means "trance" . It is an expression used, not by Buddhists, but by certain wanderers. See sanna-vedayita-nirodha.

Abhisannuhati [abhi + sannuhati, i. e. san-ni-uhati] to heap up, concentrate Vbh 1, 2, 82 sq.; 216 sq., 400; Miln 46. Cp. abhisankhipati.

Abhisata [pp. of abhisarati, abhi + sr to flow] 1. (med.) streamed forth, come together J VI.56 ( = sannipatita C.). 2. (pass.) approached, visited Vin I.268.

Abhisatta [pp. of abhisapati, cp. Sanskrit abhishapta, from abhi + shap] cursed, accursed, railed at, reviled J III.460; V.71; SnA 364 ( = akkuttha); VvA 335.

Abhisattha [pp. of abhisansati] cursed, accursed Th 1, 118 "old age falls on her as if it had been cursed upon her" (that is, laid upon her by a curse). Morris J P T S. 1886, 145 gives the commentator's equivalents, "commanded, worked by a charm". This is a curious idiom. Any European would say that the woman herself, not the old age, was accursed. But the whole verse is a riddle and Kern's translation (Toev. s. v.) "hurried up" seems to us impossible.

Abhisaddahati [abhi + saddahati, cp. Sanskrit abhishraddadhati, e. g. Divy 17, 337] to have faith in, believe in (c. acc.), believe S V.226; Th 1, 785; Pv IV.113, 125 (*saddaheyya = patineyya PvA 226); Nett 11; Miln 258; PvA 26; Davs III.58.

Abhisantapeti [ahhi + santapeti, Causative of santapati] to burn out, scorch, destroy M I.121.

Abhisanda [abhi + sanda of syad, cp. BSanskrit abhisyanda, e. g. M Vastu II.276] outflow, overflow, yield, issue, result; only in following phrases: cattaro punn- a-bhisanda kusal- a-bhisanda (yields in merit) S V.391 sq.; A II.54 sq.; III.51, 337; VI.245, and kamm- a-bhisanda result of kamma Miln 276. - Cp. abhisandana.

Abhisandana (nt.) [ = abhisanda] result, outcome, consequence Ps I.17 (sukhassa).

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Abhisandahati [abhi + sandahati of san + dha] to put together, to make ready Th 1, 151; ger. abhisandhaya in sense of a prep. = on account of, because of J II.386 ( = paticca C.).

Abhisandeti [abhi + sandeti, Causative of syad] to make overflow, to make full, fill, pervade D I.73, 74.

Abhisanna (adj.) [pp. of abhisandati = abhi + syand, cp. Sanskrit abhisanna] overflowing, filled with (-*), full Vin I. 279 (*kaya a body full of humours, cp. II.119 and Miln 134); J I.17 (V.88; pitiya); Miln 112 (duggandha*).

Abhisapati [abhi + sapati, of shap] to execrate, curse, accurse Vin IV.276; J IV.389; V.87; DhA I.42. -pp. abhisatta.

Abhisapana (nt.) [from abhisapati] cursing, curse PvA 144 (so read for abhisampanna).

Abhisamaya [abhi + samaya, from sam + i, cp. abhisameti and sameti; BSanskrit abhisamaya, e. g. Divy 200, 654] "coming by completely", insight into, comprehension, realization, clear understanding, grasp, penetration. See on term Kvu trsl. 381 sq. - Esp. in full phrases: attha* grasp of what is proficient S I.87 = A III.49 = It 17, cp. A II.46; ariyasaccanam a. full understanding of the 4 noble truths S V.415, 440, 441 [cp. Divy 654: anabhisamitanam caturnam aryasatyanam a.]; Sn 758 (sacca* = sacc- a-vabodha SnA 509); Miln 214 (catusacc*); Sdhp 467 (catusacc*), 525 (saccanam); dhamm- a-bhisamaya full grasp of the Dhamma, quasi conversion [cp. dharm- a-bhisamaya Divy 200] S II.134; Miln 20, 350; VvA 219; PvA 9 etc. frequent; samma-man- a-bhisamaya full understanding of false pride in stereotype phrase" acchecchi (for acchejji) tanham, vivattayi sannojanam sammamana-bhisamaya antam akasi dukkhassa" at S IV.205, 207, 399; A III.246, 444; It 47; cp. mana* S I.188 = Th 2, 20 (tato mana-bhisamaya upasanto carissasi, trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. in K. S. 239 "hath the mind mastereotyped vain imaginings, then mayst thou go thy ways calm and serene"); Sn 342 (explained. by manassa abhisamayo khayo vayo pahanam SnA 344). Also in following passages: S II.5 (pannaya), 104 (id.), 133 sq. (Abhisamaya Sanyutta); Sn 737 (phassa*, explained. ad sensum but not at verbum by phassa-nirodha SnA 509); Ps II.215; Pug 41; Vv 1610 ( = saccapativedha VvA 85); DA I.32; DhA I.109; VvA 73 (bhavana*), 84 (sacchikiriya*); Dpvs I.31. -anabhisamaya not grasping correctly, insufficient understanding, taken up wrongly S III.260; Pug 21; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162 (Mrs. Rh. D. translations. "lack of coordination").

Abhisamagacchati [abhi + sam + agacchati, cp. in meaning adhigacchati] to come to (understand) completely, to grasp fully, to mastereotypeKhA 236 (for abhisamecca Sn 143).

Abhisamacarika (adj.) [abhi + samacarika, to samacara] belonging to the practice of the lesser ethics; to be practiced; belonging to or what is the least to be expected of good conduct, proper. Of sikkha Vin V.181; A II.243 sq.; of dhamma M I.469; A III.14 sq.; 422.

Abhisamikkhati (and *ekkhati), [abhi + sam + iks, cp. samikkhati] to behold, see, regard, notice J. IV.19 (2nd sg. med. *samekkhase = olokesi C.). - ger. *samikkha and *samekkha [B.Sanskrit *samiks.ya, e.g. Jtm. p. 28, 30 etc.] J V.340 (*samikkha, v. l. sancikkha = passitva C.); 393, 394 ( = disva C.).

Abhisameta [pp. of abhisameti, from abhi + sam + i, taken as caus. formation, against the regular form SanskritPali samita and B.Sanskrit abhisamita] completely grasped or realised, understood, mastereotyped S V.128 (dhamma a.), 440 (anabhisametani cattari ariyasaccani, cp. Divy 654 anabhisamitani c.a.); A IV.384 (appattam asacchikatam +).

Abhisametavin (adj.) [possess. adj. -formation, equalling a n. ag. form., pp. abhisameta] commanding full understanding or penetration, possessing complete insight (of the truth) Vin III.189; S II.133; V.458 sq.

Abhisameti [abhi + sameti, sam + i; in inflexion base is taken partly as ordinary and partly as causative, e. g. aor. *samimsu and *samesum, pp. sameta: Sanskrit samita. Cp. B.Sanskrit abhisamayati, either caus. or denom. formation, Divy 617: caturaryasatyani a.] to come by, to attain, to realise, grasp, understand (cp. adhigacchati) Miln 214 (catusacca-bhisamayan abhisameti). Freg. in combination. abhisambujjhati, abhisameti; abhisambujjhitva abhisametva, e. g. S II.25; III.139; Kvu 321. - fut. *samessati S V.441. - aor. *samimsu Miln 350; *samesum S V.415. - ger. *samecca (for *icca under influence of *sametva as caus. form.; Trenckner's explination. Notes 564 is unnecessary and hardly justifiable) S V.438 (an* by not thoroughly understanding); A V.50 (samm-attha* through complete realisation of what is proficient); Sn 143 ( = abhisamagantva KhA 236); and *sametva S II.25; III.139. -pp. abhisameta (q.v.).

Abhisampanna at PvA 144 is wrong reading for v. l. abhisapana (curse).

Abhisamparaya [abhi + samparaya] future lot, fate, state after death, future condition of rebirth; usually in following phrases: ka gati ko abhisamparayo (as hendiadys) "what fate in the world-to-come" , D II.91; Vin I.293; S IV.59, 63; V.346, 356, 369; DhA I.221. - evam-gatika evan abhisamparaya (adj.) "leading to such and such a revirn, such and such a future state" D I.16, 24, 32, 33 etc. ( = evam-vidha paraloka ti DA I.108). -abhisamparayam (acc. as adv.) in future, after death A I.48; II.197; III.347; IV.104; Pv III.510 ( = punabbhave PvA 200). - ditthe c-eva dhamme abhisamparayan ca "in this world and in the world to come" A II.61; Pug 38; Miln 162; PvA 195 etc. (see also dittha). - Used absolutely at PvA 122 ( = fate).

Abhisambujjhati [abhi + sambujjhati] to become wideawake, to awake to the highest knowledge, to gain the highest wisdom (sammasambodhim) D III.135; It 121. aor. *sambujjhi S V.433; PvA 19. In combination. abhisambujjhati abhisameti, e. g. S. II.25; III.139. - ppr. med. *sambudhana; pp. *samBuddha - Causative *sambodheti to make awake, to awaken, to enlighten; pp. *bodhita.

Abhisambujjhana (nt.) = abhisambodhi J I.59.

AbhisamBuddha [pp. of abhisambujjhati] (a) (pass.) realised, perfectly understood D III.273; S IV.331; It 121. an* not understood M I.71, 92, 114, 163, 240. - (b) (med.) one who has come to the realisation of the highest wisdom, fully-awakened, attained Buddhahood, realising, enlightened (in or as to = acc.) Vin I.1; D II.4; M I.6 (sammasambodhim); S I.68, 138, 139 and passim PvA 94, 99.

AbhisamBuddhatta (nt.) [abstr. from abhisamBuddha] thorough realisation, perfect understanding S V.433.

Abhisambudhana (adj.) [formation of a ppr. med. from pp. abhsam + budh instead of abhisam + bujjh*] awaking, realising, knowing, understanding Dh 46 ( = bujjhanto jananto ti attho DhA I.337).

Abhisambodhi (f.) [abhi + sambodhi] the highest enlightenment J I.14 (parama*). Cp. abhisambujjhana and (samma-) sambodhi.

Abhisambodhita (adj.) [pp. of abhisambodheti, Causative of abhi + sambujjhati] awakened to the highest wisdom PvA 137 (Bhagava).

Abhisambhava [from abhisambhavati] only in dur* hard to overcome or get over, hard to obtain or reach, troublesome S V.454; A V.202; Sn 429, 701; J V.269, VI.139, 439.

Abhisambhavati (*bhoti) [abhi + sambhavati] "to come up to", i. e. to be able to (get or stand or overcome); to attain, reach, to bear A IV.241; Th 1, 436; Nd1 471,

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485; J III.140; V.150, 417; VI.292, 293, 507 (fut. med. *sambhossan = sahissami adhivasessami C.); Ps II.193. ger. *bhutva Th 1, 1057 and *bhavitva Sn 52 (cp. Nd2 85). - aor. *bhosi D II.232. - grd. *bhavaniya D II.210; Ps II.193. - See also abhisambhunati.

Abhisambhunati [considered to be a bastard form of abhisambhavati, but probably of different origin and etymology; also in Bh. Sanskrit frequent] to be able (to get or reach); only in negative ppr. anabhisambhunanto unable D I.101 ( = asampapunanto avisahamano va DA I.268); Nd1 77, 312.

Abhisambhu (adj.) [from abhi + sam + bhu] getting, attaining (*) D II.255 (lomahamsa*).

Abhisambhuta [pp. of abhisambhavati] attained, got Sdhp 556.

Abhisammati [abhi + sam, Sanskrit abhishamyati] to cease, stop; trs. (Causative) to allay, pacify, still J VI.420 (pp. abhisammanto for *shammento Reading uncertain).

Abhisara [from abhi + sarati, of sr to go] retinue J V.373.

Abhisallekhika (adj) [abhi + sallekha + ika] austereotype, stereotype, only in f. *a (scil. katha) A III.117 sq.; IV.352, 357; V.67.

Abhisavati (better -ssavati*) [abhi + savati, of sru] to flow towards or into J VI.359 (najjo Gangam a.).

Abhisasi aor. of abhisansati (q. v.).

Abhisadheti [abhi + sadheti] to carry out, arrange; to get; procure, attain J VI.180; Miln 264.

Abhisapa [abhisapati] a curse, anathema S III.93 = It 89 (which latter reads abhilapa and It A expls. by akkosa: see vv. ll. under abhilapa and cp. Brethren 376 n. 1.); Th 1,1118.

Abhisariya (f.) [Sanskrit abhisarika, from abhi + sr] a woman who goes to meet her lover J III.139.

Abhisareti [abhi + sareti, Causative of abhisarati] to approach, to persecute J VI.377.

Abhisimsati [ = abhisansati, abhi + shams. As to Sanskrit shams > Pali sims cp. asimsati, as to meaning cp. nature of prayer as a solemn rite to the "infernals", cp. im-precare], to utter a solemn wish, Vv 8118 (aor. *sisi. v. l. *sisi. VvA 316 expls. by icchi sampaticchi).

Abhisincati [abhi + sinQ-ati from sic to sprinkle; see also asincati and ava*, Vedic only a*] to sprinkle over, fig. to anoint (King), to consecrate A I.107 (Khattiy- a-bhisekena) J I.399 (fig. *itva ger. II.409 (id.); VI.161 (id.); Nd1 298; Miln 336 (amatena lokam abhisinci Bhagava); PvA 144 (read abhisinci cimillikan ca . . .) - Pass. abhisincati Miln 359. -pp. abhisitta. - Causative abhiseceti.

Abhisitta [pp. of abhisincati, Sanskrit *sikta] 1. sprinkled over, anointed Sn 889 (manasa, cp. N1 298); Miln 336 (amatena lokam Q.).- 2. consecrated (King), inaugurated (more frequent in this conn. is avasitta), Vin III.44; A I.107 (Khattiyo Khattiyehi Khattiy- a-bhisekena a.); II.87 (v.l. for avasitta, also an*).

Abhiseka [from abhi + sic, cp. Sanskrit abhis.eka] anointing, consecration, inauguration (as king) A I.107 (cp. abhisitta); II.87 read abhisek- -anabhisitto; J II.104, 352; DhA I.350; PvA 74. Cp. abhisekika.

Abhisecana (nt.) = abhiseka, viz. (a) ablution, washing off Th 2, 239 and 245 (udaka*). - (b) consecration J II.353.

Abhiseceti [caus. of abhisincati] to cause to be sprinkled or inaugurated J V.26. (imper. abhisecayassu).

Abhisevana (f.) [abhi + sevana from sev] pursuit, indulgence in (-*) Sdhp 210 (papakamma*).

Abhissara (adj.) [abhi + issara] only negative an* in formula atano loko anabhissaro "without a Lord or protector" M II.68 (v.l. *abhisaro); Ps I.126 (v.l. id.).

Abhihamsati [abhi + hamsati from hrs.] 1. (trs.) to gladden, please, satisfy S IV.190 (abhihatthum); A V.350 (id.). 2. (intr.) to find delight in (c. acc.), to enjoy S V.74 (rupam manapam); A IV.419 sq. (T. reads *himsamana jhanam v.l. *hisamana).

Abhihata [pp. of abhiharati] brought, offered, presented, fetched D I.166 = Pug 55 ( = puretaram gahetva ahatam bhikkham Pug A 231); DhA II.79.

Abhihatthum [ger. of abhiharati]. Only in praise abhihatthum pavareti, to offer having fetched up. M. I.224; A V.350, 352; S IV.190, V.53, 300. See note in Vinaya Texts II.440.

Abhihata [pp. of abhihanati] hit, struck PvA 55.

Abhihanati (and *hanti) [abhi + han] 1. to strike, hit PvA 258. - 2. to overpower, kill, destroy J V.174 (inf. *hantu for T. hantum). -pp. abhihata (q. v.).

Abhiharati [abhi + harati, cp. Sanskrit abhyaharati and Vedic aharati and abharati] - 1. to bring (to), to offer, fetch D III.170; J I.54, 157; III.537; IV.421; DA I.272. - 2. to curse, revile, abuse [cp. Sanskrit anuvyaharati and abhivya*] A I.198. - Pass. abhihariyati VvA 172 (for abhiharati of Vv 3710; corresponds with abhata VvA 172). -pp. abhihata (q.v.). - Causative abhihareti 1. to cause to be brought, to gain, to acquire D II.188 = 192 = 195 Th 1, 637; J IV.421 (abhiharayan with gloss abhibharayim). - 2. to betake oneself to, to visit, take to, go to Sn 414 (Pandavam *haresi = aruhi Sn A 383), 708 (vanantam abhiharaye = vanam gaccheyya SnA 495); Th 2, 146 (aor. *harayim; uyyanam = upanesi ThA 138). - 3. to put on (mail), only in fut. abhihessati J IV.92 (kavacam; C. expls. wrongly by *hanissati bhindissati so evidently taking it as abhibhavissati). - 4. At J VI.27 kim yobbanena cinnena yam jara abhihessati the latter is fut. of abhibhavati (for *bhavissati) as indicated by gloss abhibhuyyati.

Abhihara [from abhiharati] bringing, offering, gift S I.82; Sn 710; J I.81 (asana-).

Abhihimsati spurious reading at A IV.419 for *hamsati (q.v.).

Abhihimsana (and *m) [for abhihesana cp. Pali hesa = Sanskrit hres.a, and hesitam] neighing Vv 6410 = VvA 279 (gloss abhihesana). See in detail under abhisansana.

Abhihita S I.50. Read abhigita with SS. So also for abhihita on p. 51. "So enchanted was I by the Buddha's rune" . The godlet ascribes a magic potency to the couplet.

Abhihesana see abhihimsana.

Abhihessati see abhihareti 3 and 4.

Abhita (adj.) [a + bhita] fearless J VI.193. See also abhida 1.

Abhiruka (adj.) [a + bhiru + ka] fearless DA I.250.

Abhumma (adj.) [a + bhumma] groundless, unfounded, unsubstantial, J V.178; VI.495.

Abhuta (adj.) [a + bhuta] not real, false, not true, usually as nt. *m falsehood, lie, deceit Sn 387; It 37; instr. abhutena falsely D I.161. -vadin one who speaks falsely or tells lies Sn 661 = Dh 306 = It 42; explained. as "ariy- upavada-vasena alika -vadin" SnA 478; as "tucchena param abhacikkhanto" DhA III.477.

Abhejja (adj.) [grd. of a + bhid, cp. Sanskrit abhedya] not to be split or divided, not to be drawn away or caused to be dissented, inalienable Sn 255 (mitto abhejjo parehi); J I.263 (varasura . . .) III.318 (*rupa of strong character =

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abhijja-hadaya); Pug 30 ( = acchejja Pug A 212); Miln 160 (*parisa); Sdhp 312 (+ appadusiya); Pgdp 97 (*parivara).

Amacca [Vedic amatya (only in meaning "companion"), adj. formation from ama an adverbial loc.-gen. of pronoun. 1st person, Sanskrit aham = Idg. *emo (cp. Sanskrit m-ama), meaning "(those) of me or with me", i. e. those who are in my house] 1. friend, companion, fellow-worker, helper, esp. one who gives his advice, a bosom-friend It 73; J VI. 512 (sahajata amacca); Pv II.620 (a *- paricarika welladvising friends as company or around him). Freq. in combination. with mitta as mitt- a-macca, friends and colleagues D III.189-90; S 190 = A II.67; PvA 29; or with nati (nati-salohita intimate friends and near-relations), mitta-macca natisalohita Vin II.126; Sn p. 104 ( = mitta ca kammakara ca SnA 447); mitta va amacca va nati va salohita va A I.222; PvA 28; amacca nati-sangha ca A I.152. 2. Especially a king's intimate friend, king's favourite, confidant J I.262; PvA 73 (*kula), 74 (amacca ca purohito ca), 81 (sabba-kammika amacca), 93; and his special adviser or privy councillor, as such distinguished from the official ministereotype (purohita, mahamatta, parisajja); usually combined. with parisajja (pl.) viz. D I.136 ( = piya-sahayaka DA I.297, but cp. the following explination. of parisajja as "sesa anatti-kara"); Vin I.348; D III.64 (amacca parisajja ganakamahamatta); A I.142 (catunnam Maharajanam a. parisajja). See on the question of ministereotype in general Fick, Sociale Gliederung p. 93, 164 and Banerjea, Public Administration in Ancient India pp. 106-120.

Amajja [etymology*] a bud J V.416 ( = makula C.).

Amajjapayaka [a + majja + payaka, cp. Sanskrit amadyapa] one who abstains from intoxicants, a teetotaler J II.192.

Amata1 (nt.) [a + mata = mrta pp. of mr, Vedic amrta = Gr. a)-m(b)rot-oanda)mbrosi/a = Latin im-mort-a(lis] 1. The drink of the gods, ambrosia, water of immortality, (cp. BSanskrit "rain of Ambrosia" Jtm 221). - 2. A general conception of a state of durability and non-change, a state of security i. e. where there is not any more rebirth or re-death. So Bdhgh at KhA 180 (on Sn 225) "na jayati na jiyati na miyati ti amatan ti vuccati", or at DhA I.228 "ajatatta na jiyyati na miyyati tasma amatan ti vuccati". - Vin I.7 = M I.169 (aparuta tesan amatassa dvara); Vin I.39; D II.39, 217, 241; S I.32 ( = ragadosamoha-khayo), 193; III.2 (*ena abhisitta "sprinkled with A."); IV.94 (*assa data), 370; V.402 (*assa patti); A I.45 sq.; III.451; IV.455; V.226 sq., 256 sq. (*assa data); J I.4 (V.25); IV.378, 386; V.456 (*maha-nibbana); Sn 204, 225, 228 ( = nibbana KhA 185); Th 1, 310 ( = agada antidote); It 46 = 62 (as dhatu), 80 (*assa dvara); Dh 114, 374 ( = amata-maha-nibbana DhA IV.110); Miln 258 (*dhura savanupaga), 319 (agado amatam and nibbanam amatam), 336 (amatena lokam abhisinci Bhagava), 346 (dhamm- a-matam); DA I.217 (*nibbana); DhA I.87 (*m payeti); Davs II.34; V.31; Sdhp 1, 209, 530, 571. -ogadha diving into the ambrosia (of Nibbana) S V. 41, 54, 181, 220, 232; A III.79, 304; IV.46 sq., 317, 387; V.105 sq.; Sn 635; Th 1, 179, 748; Dh 411 ( = amatam nibbanam ogahetva DhA IV.186); Vv 5020. -osadha the medicine of Ambrosia, ambrosial medicine Miln 247. -gamin going or leading to the ambrosia (of Nibbana) S I.123; IV.370; V.8; A III.329; Th 2, 222. -dasa one who sees Amata or Nibbana Th 1, 336. -dundubhi the drum of the Immortal (Nibbana) M I.171 = Vin I.8 (has *dudrabhi). -dvara the door to Nibbana M I.353; S I. 137 = Vin I.5; S II.43, 45, 58, 80; A V.346. -dhatu the element of Ambrosia or Nibbana A III.356. -patta having attained to Ambrosia A IV.455. -pada the region or place of Ambrosia S I.212 ("Bourne Ambrosial" translation. p. 274); II.280; Dh 21 ( = amatassa adhigama-vupayo vuttam hoti DhA I.228). -phala ambrosial fruit S I.173 = Sn 80. -magga the path to Ambrosia DhA I.94.

Amata2 (adj.) [see amata1] belonging to Amrta = ambrosial Sn 452 = S I.189 (amata vaca = amata-sadisa sadubhavena SnA 399: "ambrosial"), 960 (gacchato amatam disan = nibbanam, tam hi amatan ti tatha niddisitabbato disa ca ti SnA 572). Perhaps also at It 46 = 62 (amatam dhatum = ambrosial state or Amrta as dhatu).

Amatabbaka (*) at VvA 111, acc. to Hardy (Index) "a precious stone of dark blue colour".

Amattannu (adj.) [a + matta + *nu = Sanskrit amatrajna] not knowing any bounds (in the taking of food), intemperate, immoderate It 23 (bhojanamhi); Dh 7 (id.); Pug 21.

Amattannuta (f.) [abstr. to prec.] immoderation (in food) D III.213; It 23 (bhojane); Pug 21; Dhs 1346 (bhojane); DhsA 402.

Amatteyyata (f.) [from matteyyata] irreverence towards one's mother D III.70, 71.

Amanussa [a + manussa] a being which is not human, a fairy demon, ghost, god, spirit, yakkha Vin I.277; D I. 116; S I.91, J I.99; Dhs 617; Miln 207; DhsA 319; DhA I.13 (*pariggahita haunted); PvA 216. - Cp. amanusa.

Amanussika (adj.) [from amanussa] belonging to or caused by a spirit Vin I.202, 203 (*a-badha being possessed by a demon).

Amama (adj.) [a + mama, gen. of aham, pronoun. 1st person, lit. "not (saying: this is) of me"] not egotistical, unselfish Sn 220 (+ subbata), 777; J IV.372 (+ nirasaya); VI.259 ( = mamayana-tanha-rahita C.); Pv IV.134 ( = mamamkaravirahita PvA 230); Mhvs 1, 66, combined. with nirasa (free from longing), at Sn 469 = 494; Ud 32; J IV.303; VI.259.

Amara (adj.) [a + mara from mr] not mortal, not subject to death Th 1, 276; Sn 249 ( = amara-bhava-patthanataya pavatta-kaya-kilesa SnA 291); J V.80 ( = amarana-sabhava), 218; Davs V.62.

Amaratta (nt.) [abstr. from amara] immortality J V.223 ( = devatta C.).

Amara (*) a kind of slippery fish, an eel (*) Only in expression amara-vikkhepika eel-wobbler, one who practices eel-wriggling, from *vikkhepa "oscillation like the a. fish". In English idiom "a man who sits on the fence" D I.24; M I.521; Ps I.155. The explination. given by Bdhgh at DA I.115 is "amara nama maccha-jati, sa ummujjana-nimmujjan-adi vasena . . gahetum na Sakkoti" etc. This meaning is not beyond doubt, but Kern's explination. Toev. 71 does not help to clear it up.

Amala (adj.) [a + mala] without stain or fault J V.4; Sdhp 246, 591, 596.

Amassuka (adj.) [a + massu + ka] beardless J II.185.

Amajata (adj.) [ama + jata; ama adv. "at home", Vedic ama, see under amacca] born in the house, of a slave J I.226 (dasa, so read for amajata, an old mistake, explained. by C. forcibly as "ama aham vo dasi ti"!). See also amaya.

Amatika (adj.) [a + matika from mata] without a mother, motherless J V.251.

Amanusa (adj.) [Vedic, usually of demons, but also of gods; a + manusa, cp. amanussa] non- or superhuman, unhuman, demonic, peculiar to a non-human (Peta or Yakkha) Pv II.1220 (kama); IV.157 (as n.); IV.36 (gandha, of Petas). - f. *i Dh 373 (rati = dibba rati DhA IV.110); Pv III.79 (ratti, love).

Amamaka (adj.) [a + mama + ka, cp. amama] "not of me" i. e. not belonging to my party, not siding with me DhA I.66.

Amaya (adj.) [a + maya] not deceiving, open, honest Sn 941 (see Nd1 422: maya vuccati vancanika cariya). Cp. next.

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Amayavin (adj.) [a + mayavin, cp. amaya] without guile, not deceiving, honest D III.47 (asatha +), 55 (id.), 237; DhA I.69 (asathena a.).

Amitabha (adj.) [a + mita (pp. of ma) + a + bha] of boundless or immeasurable splendour Sdhp 255.

Amitta [Vedic amitra; a + mitta] one who is not friend, an enemy D III.185; It 83; Sn 561 ( = paccatthika SnA 455); Dh 66, 207; J VI.274 (*tapana harassing the enemies).

Amilatata (f.) [a + milata + ta] the condition of not being withered J V.156.

Amu* base of demonstr. pronoun. "that", see asu.

Amucchita (adj.) [a + mucchita] not infatuated (lit. not stupified or bewildered), not greedy; only in phrase agathita amucchita anajjhapanna (or anajjhopanna) D III.46; M I.369; S II.194. See ajjhopanna.

Amutta (adj.) [a + mutta] not released, not free from (c. abl.) It 93 (marabandhana).

Amutra (adv.) [pronoun. base amu + tra] in that place, there; in another state of existence D I.4, 14, 184; It 99.

Amu'ha-vinaya "acquittal on the ground of restored sanity" (Childers) Vin I.325 (IX.6, 2); II.81 (IV.5), 99 (IV.14, 27); IV.207, 351; M II.248.

Amoha (adj.) [a + moha, cp. Sanskrit amogha] not dull. As n. absence of stupidity or delusion D III.214; Pug 25. The form amogha occurs at J VI.26 in the meaning of "efficacious, auspicious" (said of ratya nights).

Amba [Derivation unknown. Not found in pre-Buddhist literature. The Sanskrit is amra. Probably non-Aryan], the Mango tree, Mangifera Indica D I.46, 53, 235; J II.105, 160; Vv 7910; Pug 45; Miln 46; PvA 153, 187. -atthi the kernel or stone of the m. fruit DhA III.207, 208. -arama a garden of mangoes, mango grove Vv 795; VvA 305. -kanjika mango gruel Vv 3337 ( = ambilakanjika VvA 147). -pakka a (ripe) mango fruit J II.104, 394; DhA III.207. -panta a border of mango trees VvA 198. -panaka a drink made from mangoes DhA III.207. -pindi a bunch of mangoes J III.53; DhA III.207. -pesika the peel, rind, of the m. fruit Vin II.109. -potaka a mango sprout DhA III.206 sq. -phala a m. fruit PvA 273, 274. -rukkha a m. tree DhA III.207; VvA 198. -vana a m. grove or wood D II.126; J I.139; VvA 305. -sincaka one who waters the mangoes, a tender or keeper of mangoes Vv 797.

Ambaka1 (adj.) [ = ambaka*] "womanish" (*), inferior, silly, stupid, of narrow intellect. Occurs only with reference to a woman, in combination. with bala A III.349 (v. l. amma*) = V.139 (where spelt ambhaka with v. l. appaka* and gloss andhaka); V.150 (spelt ambhaka perhaps in different meaning). -maddari see next.

Ambaka2 [demin. of amba] a little mango, only in *maddari a kind of bird [etymology uncertain] A I.188.

Ambaka (f.) [Sanskrit ambika demin. of ambi mother, wife, see Pali amma and cp. also Sanskrit ambalika f.] mother, good wife, used as a general endearing term for a woman Vin I.232 = D II.97 (here in play of words with Ambapali explained. by Bdhgh at Vin I.385 as ambaka ti itthiyika).

Ambara1 (nt.) [Vedic ambara circumference, horizon] the sky, Davs I.38; IV.51; V.32. - Note. At J V.390 we have to read muraja-alambara, and not mura-jala-ambara.

Ambara2 (m.-nt.) [etymology = ambara1 (*) or more likely a distortion of kambala; for the latter speaks the combination. rattambara = ratta-kambala. - The word would thus be due to an erroneous syllable division rattak-ambala ( = ambara) instead of ratta-kambala] some sort of cloth and an (upper) garment made of it (cp. kambala) Vv 537 (ratt* = uttariya VvA 236).

Ambala at J II.246 (*kotthaka-asana-sala) for ambara1 (*) or for ambaka2 (*), or should we read kambala**.

Ambataka the hog-plum, Spondias Mangifera (a kind of mango) Vin II.17 (*vana); DA I.271 (*rukkha).

Ambila (adj.) [Sanskrit amla = Latin amarus] sour, acid; one of the 6 rasas or tastes, viz. a., lavana, tittaka, katuka, kasaya, madhura (see under rasa): thus at Miln 56. Another enumeration at Nd2 540 and Dhs 629. - J I.242 (*anambila), 505 (lon*); II.394 (lon*); DA I.270 (*yagu sour gruel); DhA II.85 (ati-ambila, with accunha and atisita).

Ambu (nt.) [Vedic ambu and ambhas = Gr. o)/mbros, Latin imber rain; cp. also Sanskrit abhra rain-cloud and Gr. a)fro/s scum: see Pali abbha] water J V.6; Nd1 202 (a. vuccati udakam); Davs II.16. - Cp. ambha. -carin "living in the water", a fish Sn 62 ( = maccha Nd2 91). -sevala a water-plant Th 1, 113.

Ambuja (m. and nt.) [ambu + ja of jan] "water-born", i. e. 1. (m.) a fish S I.52. - 2. (nt.) a lotus Sn 845 ( = paduma Nd1 202); Davs V.46; Sdhp 360.

Ambuda [ambu + da from da] "water-giver", a cloud Davs V.32; Sdhp 270, 275.

Ambha and Ambho (nt.) [see ambu] water, sea Davs IV.54.

Ambhaka see ambaka.

Ambho (indecl.) [from ham + bho, see bho, orig. "hallo you there"] part. of exclamation, employed: 1. to draw attention = look here, hey! hallo! Vin III.73 ( = alapan- a-dhivacana); J II.3; PvA 62. - 2. to mark reproach and anger = you silly, you rascal D I.194; It 114; J I.174 (v. l. amho), 254; Miln 48.

Amma (indecl.) [voc. of amma] endearing term, used (1) by children in addressing their mother = mammy, mother dear D I.93; J II.133; IV.1, 281 (amma tata utthetha daddy, mammy, get up!); DhA II.87; PvA 73, 74. (2) in general when addressing a woman familiarly = good woman, my (good) lady, dear, thus to a woman J I.292; PvA 63; DhA II.44; to a girl PvA 6; to a daughter DhA II.48; III.172. - Cp. ambaka.

Ammana (nt.) [of uncertain etymology; Sanskrit armana is Sanskritised Pali. See on form and meaning Childers s. v. and Kern, Toev. p. 72] 1. a trough J V.297; VI.381 (bhatt*). 2. a certain measure of capacity J I.62; II.436 (tandul*). As *ka at J II.117 (v. l. ampanaka); DA I.84.

Amma (f.) [onomat. from child language; Sanskrit amba, cp. Gr. a)mma/s mother, Oisl. amma "granny", Ohg. amma "mammy", nurse; also Latin amita father's sistereotypeand amare to love] mother J III.392 (gen. ammaya). - Voc. amma (see sep.).

Amha and Amhan (nt.) [Sanskrit ashman, see also asama2] a stone Sn 443 (instr. amhana, but SnA 392 reads asmana = pasanena). -maya made of stone, hard Dh 161 ( = pasana* DhA III.151).

Amha, Amhi see atthi.

Amha (f.) [etymology uncertain; Morris J.Pali Text Society 1889, 201 too vague] a cow (*) A I.229. The C. says nothing.

Amhakam, Amhe see aham.

Amho = ambho J I.174 (v. l.).

Aya1 see ayo.

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Aya2 (from i, go) 1. income, in aya-potthaka receipt book J I.2. - 2. inlet (for water, aya-mukha) D I.74; A II. 166, IV.287.

Ayam (pronoun.) [Sanskrit ayan etc., pronoun. base Idg. *i (cp. Sanskrit iha), f. *i. Cp. Gr. i)n, min; Latin is (f. ea, nt. id); Goth is, nt. ita; Ohg. er ( = he), nt. ez ( = it); Lith. jis (he), f. ji (she).] demonstr. pronoun. "this, he"; f. ayan; nt. idan and imam "this, it" etc. This pronoun. combines in its inflection two stems, viz. as* (ayan in nom. m. and f.) and im* (id* in nom. nt.). I. Forms. A. (sg.) nom. m. ayan Sn 235; J I.168, 279; f. ayan [Sanskrit iyam] Kh VII.12; J II.128, 133; nt. idan Sn 224; J III.53; and imam Miln 46. acc. m. imam J II.160; f. imam [Sanskrit imam] Sn 545, 1002; J I.280. gen. dat. m. imassa J I.222, 279 and assa Sn 234, 1100; Kh VII.12 (dat.); J II.158; f. imissa J I.179 and assa [Sanskrit asya*] J I.290; DhA III.172. instr. m. nt. imina J I.279; PvA 80 and (peculiarly or perhaps for amuna) amina Sn 137; f. imaya [Sanskrit anaya] J I.267. The instr. anena [Sanskrit anena] is not proved in Pali. abl. asma Sn 185; Dh 220; and imasma (not proved). loc. m. nt. imasmim Kh III.; J II. 159 and asmim Sn 634; Dh 242; f. imissa PvA 79 (or imissan*) and imayam (no reference). - B. (pl.) nom. m. ime J I.221; Pv I.83; f. ima [Sanskrit ima*] Sn 897 and imayo Sn 1122; nt. imani [ = Sanskrit] Vin I.84. acc. m. ime [Sanskrit iman] J I.266; II.416; f. ima [Sanskrit ima*] Sn 429; J II.160. gen. imesan J II.160 and esan [Sanskrit] M II.86, and esanam M II.154; III.259; f. also asan J I.302 ( = etasan C.) and imasan. instr. m. nt imehi J VI.364; f. imahi. loc. m. nt. imesu [Sanskrit es.u] J I.307. II. Meanings (1) ayan refers to what is immediately in front of the speaker (the subject in question) or before his eyes or in his present time and situation, thus often to be translated. by "before our eyes", "the present", "this here", "just this" (and not the other) (opp. para), viz. atthi imasmim kaye "in this our visible body" Kh III.; yath- a-yam padipo "like this lamp here" Sn 235; ayan dakkhina dinna "the gift which is just given before our eyes" Kh VII.12; ime pada imam sisan ayan kayo Pv I.83; asmim loke paramhi ca "in this world and the other" Sn 634, asma loka param lokam katham pecca na socati Sn 185; cp. also Dh 220, 410; J I.168; III.53. - (2) It refers to what immediately precedes the present of the speaker, or to what has just been mentioned in the sentence; viz. yam kinci vittam . . . idam pi Buddhe ratanam "whatever . . . that" Sn 224; ime divase these days (just gone) J II.416; cp. also Vin I.84; Sn 429; J II.128, 160. - (3) It refers to what immediately follows either in time or in thought or in connection: dve ime anta "these are the two extremes, viz." Vin I.10; ayan eva ariyo maggo "this then is the way" ibid.; cp. J I.280. (4) With a touch of (often sarcastic) characterisation it establishes a closer personal relation between the speaker and the object in question and is to be translated. by "like that, such (like), that there, yonder, yon", e. g. imassa vanarindassa "of that fellow, the monkey" J I.279; cp. J I. 222, 307; II 160 (imesan sattanam "creatures like us"). So also repeated as ayan ca ayan ca "this and this", "so and so" J II.3; idan c- idan ca "such and such a thing" J II.5. - (5) In combination with a pronoun. rel. it expresses either a generalisation (whoever, whatever) or a specialisation ( = that is to say, what there is of, i. e. Ger. und zwar), e. g. ya-yam tanha Vin I.10; yo ca ayan . . . yo ca ayan "I mean this . . . and I mean" ibid.; ye kec- ime Sn 381; yadidan "i. e." Miln 25; yatha-y-idan "in order that" (w. pot.) Sn 1092. See also seyyathidam. - (6) The gen. of all genders functions in general as a possessive pronoun. of the 3rd = his, her, its (lit. of him etc.) and thus resembles the use of tassa, e. g. asava- ssa na vijjanti "his are no intoxications" Sn 1100; silam assa bhindapessami "I shall cause her character to be defamed" J I.290; assa bhariya "his wife" J II.158 etc. frequent

Ayana (nt.) [Vedic ayana, from i] (a) "going", road. - (b) going to, goal S V.167 (ekayano maggo leading to one goal, a direct way), 185 (id.); DA I.313; Davs IV.40. See also eka*.

Ayasa (nt.) [a + yasa, cp. Sanskrit ayasha*] ill repute, disgrace Miln 139, 272; Davs I.8.

Ayira (and Ayyira) (n.-adj.) [Vedic arya, Metathesis for ariya as diaeretic form of arya, of which the contracted (assimilation) form is ayya. See also ariya] (n.) ariyan, nobleman, gentleman (opp. servant); (adj.) ariyan, wellborn, belonging to the ruling race, noble, aristocratic, gentlemanly J V.257; Vv 396. - f. ayira lady, mistress (of a servant) J II.349 (v. l. oyyaka); voc. ayire my lady J V.138 ( = ayye C.).

Ayiraka = ayira; cp. ariyaka and ayyaka; D III.190 (v. l. BB yy); J II.313.

Ayo and Aya (nt.) [Sanskrit aya* nt. iron and ore, Idg. *ajes-, cp. Av. ayah, Latin aes, Goth. aiz, Ohg. er ( = Ger. Erz.), Ags. ar ( = E. ore).] iron. The nom. ayo found only in set of 5 metals forming an alloy of gold (jatarupa), viz. ayo, loha (copper), tipu (tin), sisa (lead), sajjha (silver) A III.16 = S V.92; of obl. cases only the instr. ayasa occurs Dh 240 ( = ayato DhA III.344); Pv I.1013 (patikujjita, of Niraya). - Iron is the material used kat)e)coxh/n in the outfit and construction of Purgatory or Niraya (see niraya and Avici and cp. Vism 56 sq.). - In compounds. both ayo and aya* occur as bases. I. ayo: -kapala an iron pot A IV.70 (v. l. *guhala); Nd2 304 III. D 2 (of Niraya). -kuta an iron hammer PvA 284. -khila an iron stake S V.444; M III.183 = Nd2 304 III. C; SnA 479. -gu'a an iron ball S V.283; Dh 308; It 43 = 90; Th 2, 489; DA I.84. -ghana an iron club Ud 93; VvA 20. -ghara an iron house J IV.492. -patala an iron roof or ceiling (of Niraya) PvA 52. -pakara an iron fence Pv I.1013 = Nd2 304 III. D 1. -maya made of iron Sn 669 (kuta); J IV.492 (nava); Pv I.1014 (bhumi of N.); PvA 43, 52. -muggara an iron club PvA 55. -sanku an iron spike S IV.168; Sn 667. II. aya*: -kapala = ayo DhA I.148 (v. l. ayo). -kara a worker in iron Miln 331. -kuta = ayo J I.108; DhA II.69 (v. l.). -nangala an iron plough DhA I.223; III.67. -pattaka an iron plate or sheet (cp. loha*) J V.359. -pathavi an iron floor (of Avici) DhA I.148. -sanghataka an iron (door) post DhA IV.104. -sula an iron stake Sn 667; DhA I.148.

Ayojjha (adj.) [Sanskrit ayodhya] not to be conquered or subdued M II.24.

Ayya (n.-adj.) [contracted form for the diaeretic ariya (q. v. for etymology). See also ayira] (a) (n.) gentleman, sire, lord, mastereotypeJ III.167 = PvA 65; DhA I.8 (ayya pl. the worthy gentlemen, the worthies), 13 (amhakam ayyo our worthy Sir); II.95. - (b) (adj.) worthy, gentlemanly, honourable Vin II.191; DhA II.94 sq. - The voc. is used as a polite form of address (cp. Ger. "Sie" and E. address "Esq.") like E. Sir, milord or simply "you" with the implication of a pluralis majestatis; thus voc. proper ayya J I.221, 279, 308; pl. nom. as voc. ayya in addressing several J II.128, 415; nom. sg. as voc. (for all genders and numbers) ayyo Vin II.215; J III.126, 127. - f. ayya lady, mistress M II.96 ( = mother of a prince); DhA I.398; voc. ayye my lady J V.138. -putta lit. son of an Ariyan, i. e. an aristocratic (young) man gentleman (cp. in meaning kulaputta); thus (a) son of my mastereotype(lit.) said by a servant J III.167; (b) lord, mastereotype "governor" J I.62 (by a servant); DA I.257 ( = sami, opp. dasi-putta); PvA 145 (by a wife to her husband); DhA II.110; (c) prince (see W.Z.K.M. XII., 1898, 75 sq. and Epigraphia Indica III.137 sq.) J VI.146.

Ayyaka [demin. of ayya] grandfather, (so also BSanskrit, e. g. M Vastu II.426; III.264) J III.155; IV.146; VI.196; Pv I.84; Miln 284. ayyaka-payyaka grandfather and great grandfather,

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forefathers, ancestors J I.2; PvA 107 ( = pitamaha). - f. ayyaka grandmother, granny Vin II.169; S I.97; J II.349 (here used for "lady", as v. l. BB); and ayyika Th 2, 159; Vism 379.

Ara [Vedic ara from r, rnoti; see etymology under appeti and cp. more esp. Latin artus limb, Gr. a(/rma chariot, also Pali annava] the spoke of a wheel D II.17 (sahass- a-ra adj. with thousand spokes), cp. Miln 285; J IV.209; VI.261; Miln 238; DhA II.142; VvA 106 (in allegorical etymology of arahant = sansara-cakkassa aranam hatatta "breaker of the spokes of the wheel of transmigration") = PvA 7 (has sansara-vattassa); VvA 277.

Arakkhiya (adj.) [a + rakkhiya, grd. of rakkhati] not to be guarded, viz. (1) impossible to watch (said of women folk) J II.326 (a. nama itthiyo); III.90 (matugamo nama a.). - (2) unnecessary to be guarded Vin II.194 (Tathagata).

Arakkheyya (adj.) [in form = arakkhiya] only in nt. "that which does not need to be guarded against", what one does not need to heed, superfluous to beware of A IV.82 (cattari Tathagatassa a* ani). - 3 arakkheyyani are enumerated at D III.217 (but as arakkh*, which is also given by Childers).

Araghatta [Sanskrit araghattaka (so Halayudha, see Aufrecht p. 138), dialect.] a wheel for raising water from a well Bdgh. on cakkavattaka at CV V.16, 2 (Vin II.318). So read for T. arahatta-ghati-yanta acc to Morris, J.Pali Text Society 1885, 30; cp. also Vin. Texts III.112. - The 2rd part of the cpd. is doubtful; Morris and Aufrecht compare the modern Hindi form arhat or rahat "a well-wheel".

Araja (adj.) [a + raja] free from dust or impurity S IV.218 (of the wind); Vv 536 ( = apagata-raja VvA 236).

Aranna (nt.) [Vedic aranya; from arana, remote, + ya. In the Rig V. aranya still means remoteness (opp. to ama, at home). In the Ath V. it has come to mean wilderness or forest. Connected with arad and are, remote, far from]. forest D I.71; M I.16; III.104; S I.4, 7, 29, 181, 203 (maha); A I.60 (*vanapatthani); II.252; III.135, 138; Sn 39, 53, 119; Dh 99, 329, 330; It 90; Vv 567; Ps I.176. [The commentators, give a wider meaning to the word. Thus the O. C. (Vin III.46, quoted Vism 72 and SnA 83) says every place, except a village and the approach thereto, is aranna. See also Vin III.51; DA I.209; PvA 73; VvA 249; J I.149, 215; II.138; V.70]. -ayatana a forest haunt Vin II.201; S II.269; J I.173; VvA 301; PvA 54, 78, 141. -kutika a hut in the forest, a forest lodge S I.61; III.116; IV.116, 380; DhA IV.31 (as v. l.; T. has *kuti). -gata gone into the forest (as loneliness) M I.323; A III.353; V.109 sq., 207, 323 sq. -thana a place in the forest J I.253. -vasa a dwelling in the forest, a hermitage J I.90. -vihara living in (the) loneliness (of the forest) A III.343 sq.

Arannaka (and arannaka) (adj.) [aranna + ka] belonging to solitude or to the forest, living in the forest, fond of solitude, living as hermits (bhikkhu) M I.214 (a*), 469; III.89; S II.187, 202 (v. l. a*), 208 sq.; 281; A III.343, 391; IV.291, 344, 435; V.10. See also arannaka.

Arannakatta (nt.) [abstr. from arannaka] the habit of one who lives in the forest, indulgence in solitude and sequestration, a hermit's practice, seclusion S II.202, 208 sq. See also arannakatta.

Arana1 (adj.-n.) [Vedic arana from *ara vr, which as abl. ara is used as adv. far from, cp. Pali araka. Orig. meaning "removed from, remote, far". See also aranna]. (adj.) living in solitude, far from the madding crowd M III.237 (*vibhanga-sutta); S I.44, 45; J I.340 (tittha**).

Arana2 (nt.) [a + rana] quietude, peace Nett 55 (+ tana), 176 (or as adj. = peaceful) ThA 134 (+ sarana); Vbh 19 sq. (opp. sarana). See sarana2. -viharin (or arana-viharin) [to be most likely taken as arana*, abl. of arana in function of araka, i. e. adv. far from, away; the spelling arana would refer it to arana2. As regards meaning the Pali Commentators explination. it as opp. of rana fight, battle, i. e. peacefullness, friendliness and see in it a syn. of metta. Thus Dhammapala at PvA 230 expls. it as "metta-viharin", and in this meaning it is found frequent in BSanskrit e. g. Divy 401; Av. SH II.131 (q. v. for further reference under note 3); M Vastu I.165; II.292. Cp. also the epithet of the Buddhas rananjaha] one who lives in seclusion, an anchoret, hermit; hence a harmless, peaceful person A I.24; Th 2, 358, 360; Pv IV.133 ( = PvA 230); ThA 244. Cp. Dhs trsl. 336.

Arani and *i (f.) [Vedic arani and arani from r] wood for kindling fire by attrition, only in following compounds: *potaka small firewood, all that is needed for producing fire, chiefly drill sticks Miln 53; *sahita (nt.) same Vin II.217; J I. 212 (i); V.46 (i); DhA II.246; *mathana rubbing of firewood J VI.209. - Note. The reading at PvA 211 araniyehi devehi sadisa-vanna is surely a misreading (v. l. BB ariyehi).

Arati (f.) [a + rati] dislike, discontent, aversion Sn 270, 436, 642, 938; Dh 418 ( = ukkanthitattam DhA IV.225); Th 2, 339 ( = ukkanthi ThA 239); Sdhp 476.

Aravinda [ara + vinda (*) Halayudha gives as Sanskrit aravinda nt.] a lotus, Nymphaea Nelumbo Davs V.62.

Araha (adj.) (-*) [Vedic arha of arh] 1. worthy of, deserving, entitled to, worth Dh 195 (puja*); Pv II.86 (dakkhina*); VvA 23 (danda* deserving punishment). Freq. in cpd. maha-raha [Sanskrit maha-rgha] worth much, of great value, costly, dear J I.50, 58; III.83, etc. (see mahant). - 2. fit for, apt for, suitable PvA 26 (paribhoga* fit for eating).

Arahati [Vedic arhati, etymology uncertain but cp. agghati] to be worthy of, to deserve, to merit ( = Latin debeo) Sn 431, 552 (raja arahasi bhavitum); J I.262; Dh 9, 10, 230; Pv III.66. - ppr. arahant (q. v.). Cp. also adj. araha.

Arahatta1 (nt.) [abstr. formation from arahat*, 2nd base of arahant in compounds.: see arahant IV.2] the state or condition of an Arahant, i. e. perfection in the Buddhist sense = Nibbana (S IV.151) final and absolute emancipation, Arahantship, the attainment of the last and highest stage of the Path (see magga and anagamin). This is not restricted by age or sex or calling. There is one instance in the Canon of a child having attained Arahantship at the age of 7. One or two others occur in the Comy ThA 64 (Sela); PvA 53 (Sankicca). Many women Arahants are mentioned by name in the oldest texts. About 400 men Arahants are known. Most of them were bhikkhus, but A III.451 gives the names of more than a score lay Arahants (cp. D II.93 = S V.360, and the references in Dial. III.5 n4). Arahattam is defined at S IV.252 as raga-kkhaya, dosa*, moha*. Descriptions of this state are to be found in the formulae expressing the feelings of an Arahant (see arahant II.). Vin II.254; D III.10, 11, 255; A III.34, 421, 430; V.209; Pug 73; Nett 15, 82; DA I.180, 188, 191; DhA II 95; IV.193; PvA 14. - Phrases: arahattam sacchikaroti to experience Arahantship Vin II.74; D I.229; arahattam papunati to attain or reach Arahantship (usually in aor. papuni) J II.229 ThA 64; DhA II.49 (saha patisambhidahi) 93 (id.); PvA 53, 54, 61, 233 and frequent elsewhere; cp. arahattaya patipanna D III.255; A I.120; IV.292 sq., 372 sq. -gahana attainment of Arahantship DhA I.8. -patta (and patti) one who has attained Ar. S I.196; V.273; A II.157; III.376; IV.235. -phala the fruit of Ar. Vin I.39, 41, 293; III.93; D III.227, 277; S III.168; V.44; A I.23, 45; III.272; IV.276; Dhs 1017; Vbh 326. -magga the Path of Ar. S I.78; A III.391; DA I.224. -vimokkha the emancipation of Ar. Nd2 19.

Arahatta2 in *ghati see araghatta.

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Arahant (adj.-n.) [Vedic arhant, ppr. of arhati (see arahati), meaning deserving, worthy]. Before Buddhism used as honorific title of high officials like the English "His Worship" ; at the rise of Buddhism applied popularly to all ascetics (Dial. III.3-6). Adopted by the Buddhists as t. t. for one who has attained the Summum Bonum of religious aspiration (Nibbana). I. Cases nom. sg. araham Vin I.9; D I.49; M I.245, 280; S I.169; see also formula C. under II., and araha Vin I.8, 25, 26; II.110, 161; D III.255; It 95; Kh IV.; gen. arahato S IV.175; Sn 590; instr. arahata S III.168; DA I.43; acc. arahantam D III.10; Dh 420; Sn 644; Loc. arahantamhi Vv 212. - nom. pl. arahanto Vin I.19; IV.112; S I.78, 235; II.220; IV.123; gen. arahatam Vin III.1; S I.214; Sn 186; It 112; Pv I.1112. Other cases are of rare occurrence. II. Formulae. Arahantship finds its expression in frequent occurring formulae, of which the standard ones are the following: A. khina jati vusitam brahmacariyam katam karaniyam na-param itthattaya "destroyed is (re-) birth, lived is a chaste life, (of a student) done is what had to be done, after this present life there is no beyond". Vin I.14, 35, 183; D I.84, 177, 203; M I.139; II.39; S I. 140; II.51, 82, 95, 120, 245; III.21, 45, 55, 68, 71, 90, 94, 195, 223; IV.2, 20, 35, 45, 86, 107, 151, 383; V.72, 90, 144, 222; A I.165; II.211; III.93; IV.88, 179, 302; V.155, 162; Sn p. 16; Pug 61, etc. - B. eko vupakattho appamatto atapi pahitatto "alone, secluded, earnest, zealous, mastereotypeof himself" D I.177; II.153 and continued with A: S I.140, 161; II.21; III.36, 74; IV.64; V.144, 166; A I.282; II.249; III.70, 217, 301, 376; IV. 235. - C. araham khinasavo vusitava katakaraniyo ohitabharo anupatta-sadattho parikkhina-bhava-sannojano sammad-anna vimutto: D III.83, 97; M I.4, 235; S I.71; III.161, 193; IV.125; V.145, 205, 273, 302; A I.144; III.359, 376; IV.362, 369, 371 sq., It 38. D. nanan ca pana me dassanam udapadi akuppa me ceto-vimutti ayan antima jati n'atthi dani punabbhavo "there arose in me insight, the emancipation of my heart became unshake able, this is my last birth, there is now no rebirth for me: S II.171; III.28; IV.8; V.204; A I.259; IV.56, 305, 448. III. Other passages (selected) Vin I.8 (araha sitibhuto nibbuto), 9 (araham Tathagato Sammasambuddho), 19 (ekadasa loke arahanto), 20 (ekasatthi id.). 25 sq.; II. 110, 161; III.1; IV.112 (te arahanto udake ki'anti); D I.49 (Bhagava araham), 144; III.10, 255: M I.245 (Gotamo na pi kalam karoti: araham Samano Gotamo), 280; S I.9, 26, 50 (Tathagato), 78, 140, 161, 169, 175, 178 (+ sitibhuta), 208, 214, 235 (khinasava arahanto); III. 160 (araha tissa*), 168; IV.123, 175, 260, 393; V.159 sq., 164, 200 sq.; A I.22 (Sammasambuddho), 27, 109, 266; Ii.134; III.376, 391, 439; IV.364, 394; V.120; Sn 186, 590, 644, 1003; It 95 (+ khinasava), 112; Kh IV. (dasahi angehi samannagato araha ti vuccati: see KhA 88); Vv 212; I.217; Dh 164, 420 (khinasava +); Ps II.3, 19, 194, 203 sq.; Pug 37, 73; Vbh 324, 336, 422; Pv I.11 (khettupama arahanto), 1112; IV.132. IV. In compounds. and der. we find two bases, viz. (1) arahanta* in *ghata the killing or murder of an Arahant (considered as one of the six deadly crimes): see abhithana; *ghataka the murderer of the A.: Vin I.89, 136, 168, 320; *magga (arahatta**) the path of an A.: D II 144. - (2) arahat* in (arahad-)dhaja the flag or banner of an A.: J I.65. V. See further details and passages under anagamin, khina, Buddha. On the relationship of Buddha and Arahant see Dial. II.1-3; III.6. For riddles or word-play on the form arahant see M I.280; A IV.145; DA I.146 = VvA 105, 6 = PvA 7; DhA IV.228; DhsA 349.

Arati [a + rati, cp. Sanskrit arati] an enemy Davs IV.1.

Ari [Ved. ari; from r] an enemy. - The word is used in exegesis and word explination, thus in etymology of arahant (see reference under arahant v.); of bhuri Ps II.197. - Otherwise in late language only, e. g. Sdhp 493 (*bhuta). See also arindama and aribhaseti.

Arincamana [ppr. med. of Pali rincati for ricyati] not leaving behind, not giving up, i. e. pursuing earnestly Sn 69 (jhanam = aja*hamana SnA 123, cp. Nd2 94).

Arittha1 (adj.) [a + rittha = Vedic aris.ta, pp of a + ris. to hurt or be hurt] unhurt Sdhp 279.

Arittha2 [Sanskrit aris.ta, N. of a tree] a kind of spirituous liquor Vin IV.110.

Aritthaka (adj.) [from arittha] (a) unhurt; perfect DA 1,94 (*m nanam). - (b) [from arittha in meaning of "soap-berry plant"*] in phrase maha aritthako mani S I.104 "a great mass of soap stone" (cp. Rh. D. in J. R. A. S. 1895, 893 sq.), "a shaped block of steatite" (Mrs. Rh. D. in K. S 130).

Aritta (nt.) [Vedic aritra, Idg. *ere to row (Sanskrit r to move); cf. Gr. e)re/ssw to row, e)retmo/s rudder, Latin remus, Ohg. ruodar = rudder; Ags. rowan = E. row] a rudder. Usually in combination. with piya (phiya) oar, as piya-rittam (phiy*) oar and rudder, thus at S I.103 (T. piya*, v. l. phiya*); A II.201 (piya*); J IV.164 (T. piya*, v.l. phiya*); Sn 321 (piya +; SnA 330 phiya = dabbi-padara, aritta = veludanda). DhsA 149.

Arindama [Sanskrit arindama, arim + dama of dam] a tamer of enemies, victor, conqueror Pv IV.315 ( = arinam damanasila PvA 251); Sdhp 276.

Aribhaseti [ = arim bhaseti] to denounce, lit. to call an enemy J IV.285. Correct to Pari* according to Fausboll (J V. corr.)

Ariya (adj.-n.) [Vedic arya, of uncertain etymology The other Pali forms are ayira and ayya] 1. (racial) Aryan D II.87. 2. (social) noble, distinguished, of high birth. - 3. (ethical) in accord with the customs and ideals of the Aryan clans, held in esteem by Aryans, generally approved. Hence: right, good, ideal. [The early Buddhists had no such ideas as we cover with the words Buddhist and Indian. Ariya does not exactly mean either. But it often comes very near to what they would have considered the best in each]. - (adj.): D I.70 = (*ena silakkhanhena samannagata fitted out with our standard morality); III.64 (cakkavatti-vatta), 246 (ditthi); M I.139 (pannaddhaja); II.103 (ariyaya jatiya jato, become of the Aryan lineage); S II.273 (tunhibhava); IV.250 (vaddhi), 287 (dhamma); V.82 (bojjhanga), 166 (satipatthana), 222 (vimutti), 228 (nana), 255 (iddhipada), 421 (maggo), 435 (saccani), 467 (panna-cakkhu); A I.71 (parisa); II.36 (naya); III.451 (nana); IV.153 (tunhibhava); V.206 (silakkhandha); It 35 (panna), 47 (bhikkhu sammaddaso); Sn 177 (patha = atthangiko maggo SnA 216); Dh 236 (bhumi), 270; Ps II.212 (iddhi). -alamariya fully or thoroughly good D I.163 = III.82 = A IV.363; na-lamariya not at all good, object, ignoble ibid. - (m.) Vin I.197 (na ramati pape); D I.37 = (yam tam ariya acikkhanti upekkhako satima etc.: see 3rd. jhana), 245; III.111 (*anam anupavadaka one who defames the noble); M I.17, 280 (sottiyo ariyo araham); S I.225 (*anam upavadaka); II.123 (id.); IV.53 (*assa vinayo), 95 (id.); A I.256 (*anam upavadaka); III.19, 252 (id.); IV.145 (dele! see arihatatta); V.68, 145 sq., 200, 317; It 21, 108; Dh 22, 164, 207; J III.354 = Miln 230; M I.7, Q35 (ariyanam adassavin: "not recognising the Noble Ones") PvA 26, 146; DhA II.99; Sdhp 444 (*anam vamsa). anariya (adj. and n.) not Ariyan, ignoble, undignified, low, common, uncultured A I.81; Sn 664 ( = asappurisa SnA 479; DhsA 353); J II.281 ( = dussila papadhamma C.); V.48 (*rupa shameless), 87; DhA IV.3. - See also nana, magga, sacca, savaka. -a-vakasa appearing noble J V.87. - uposatha the ideal feast day (as one of 3) A I.205 sq., 212. - kanta loved by the Best D III.227. - gana (pl.) troops of worthies

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J VI.50 ( = brahmana-gana, te kira tada ariya-cara ahesum, tena te evam aha C.). - garahin casting blame on the righteous Sn 660. - citta a noble heart. - traja a true descendant of the Noble ones Dpvs V.92. - dasa having the ideal (or best) belief It 93 = 94. - dhana sublime treasure; always as sattavidha* sevenfold, viz. saddha*, sila*, hiri*, ottappa*, suta*, caga*, panna* "faith, a moral life, modesty, fear of evil, learning, self-denial, wisdom" ThA 240; VvA 113; DA II.34. - dhamma the national customs of the Aryans ( = ariyanam eso dhammo Nd1 71, 72) M I.1, 7, 135; A II.69; V.145 sq., 241, 274; Sn 783; Dhs 1003. - puggala an (ethically) model person, Ps I.167; Vin V.117; ThA 206. - magga the Aryan Path. - vamsa the (fourfold) noble family, i. e. of recluses content with the 4 requisites D III.224 = A II.27 = Ps I.84 = Nd2 141; cp. A III.146. - vattin leading a noble life, of good conduct J III.443. - vata at Th 1, 334 should be read *vatta (nom. sg. of vattar, vac) "speaking noble words": - vasa the most excellent state of mind, habitual disposition, constant practice. Ten such at D III.269, 291 = A V.29 (Passage recommended to all Buddhists by Asoka in the Bhabra Edict). - vihara the best practice S V.326. - vohara noble or honorable practice. There are four, abstinence from lying, from slander, from harsh language, from frivolous talk. They are otherwise known as the 4 vaci-kammanta and represent sila nos. 4-7. See D III.232; A II.246; Vin V.125. - sangha the communion of the Nobles ones PvA 1. - sacca, a standard truth, an established fact, D I.189, II.90, 304 sq.; III 277; M I.62, 184; III.248; S V.415 sq. = Vin I.10, 230. It 17; Sn 229, 230, 267; Dh 190; DhA III.246; KhA 81, 151, 185, 187; ThA 178, 282, 291; VvA 73. - savaka a disciple of the noble ones ( = ariyanam santike sutatta a. SnA 166). M I.8, 46, 91, 181, 323; II.262; III.134, 228, 272; It 75; Sn 90; Miln 339; DhA I.5, (opp. putthujjana). - silin of unblemished conduct, practising virtue D I.115 ( = silam ariyam uttamam parisuddham DA I.286); M II.167. When the commentators, many centuries afterwards, began to write Pali in S. India and Ceylon, far from the ancient seat of the Aryan clans, the racial sense of the word ariya was scarcely, if at all, present to their minds. Dhammapala especially was probably a non-Aryan, and certainly lived in a Dravidian environment. The then current similar popular etmologies of ariya and arahant (cp. next article) also assisted the confusion in their minds. They sometimes therefore erroneously identify the two words and explain Aryans as meaning Arahants (DhA I.230; SnA 537; PvA 60). In other ways also they misrepresented the old texts by ignoring the racial force of the word. Thus at J V.48 the text, speaking of a hunter belonging to one of the aboriginal tribes, calls him anariya-rupa. The C. explains this as "shameless", but what the text has, is simply that he looked like a non-Aryan. (cp "frank" in English).

Arihatatta in phrase "arihatta ariyo hoti" at A IV.145 is wrong reading for arinam hatatta. The whole phrase is inserted by mistake from a gloss explaining araha in the following sentence "arakatta kilesanam arinam hatatta . . . araha hoti", and is to be deleted (omitted also by SS).

Aru (nt.) [Vedic aru*, unknown etymology] a wound, a sore, only in compounds: *kaya a heap of sores M II.64 = Dh 147 = Th 1, 769 ( = navannam vanamukhanam vasena arubhuta kaya DhA III.109 = VvA 77); *gatta (adj.) with wounds in the body M I.506 (+ pakka-gatta); Miln 357 (id); *pakka decaying with sores S IV.198 (*ani gattani); *bhuta consisting of wounds, a mass of wounds VvA 77 = DhA III.109.

Aruka = aru; only in cpd. *upamacitto (adj.) having a heart like a sore (of a man in anger) A I.124 = Pug 30 (explained at Pug A 212 as purana-vana-sadisa-citto "an old wound" i. e. continually breaking open).

Aruna [Vedic aruna (adj.) of the colour of fire, i. e. ruddy, nt. the dawn; of Idg. *ereu as in Sanskrit reddish, Av. white, also Sk ravi sun; an enlarged from of Idg. *reu as in Sanskrit rudhira, rohita red (bloody; see etymology under rohita), Gr. e)rudro/s, Latin ruber.] the sun Vin II.68; IV.245; J II.154; V.403; VI.330; Dpvs I.56; DA I.30. a. uggacchati the sun rises J I.108; VvA 75, and see compounds -ugga sunrise Vin IV.272; S V.29, 78, 101, 442 (at all Sanyutta pass. the v.l. SS is arunagga); Vism 49. -uggamana sunrise (opp. oggamanna). Vin III.196, 204, 264; IV.86, 166, 230, 244; DhA I.165; II.6; PvA 109. -utu the occasion of the sun (-rise) DhA I.165. -vanna of the colour of the sun, reddish, yellowish, golden Vism 123; DhA I 1.3 = PvA 216. -sadisa (vanna) like the sun (in colour) PvA 211 (gloss for suriyavanna).

Arubheda the Rigveda ThA 206.

Arupa (adj.) [a + rupa] without form or body, incorporeal, D I.195 sq.; III.240; Sn 755; It 62; Sdhp 228, 463, 480. See details under rupa. -a-vacara the realm or world of Formlessness, Dhs 1281-1285; Ps I.83 sq., 101. -kayika belonging to the group of formless beings Miln 317 (deva). -thayin standing in or being founded on the Formless It 62. -tanha "thirst" for the Formless D III.216. -dhatu the element or sphere of the Incoporeal (as one of the 3 dhatus rupa*, arupa*, nirodha*; see dhatu) D III.215, 275; It 45. -bhava formless existence D III.216. -loka the world of the Formless, Sdhp 494. -sannin not having the idea of form D II.110; III.260; Exp. I.252.

Arupin (adj.) [a + rupin] = arupa; D I.31 (arupi atta hoti: see DA I.119), 195; III.111, 139; It 87 (rupino va arupino va satta).

Are (indecl.) [onomat. Cp. Sanskrit lalalla, Gr. lale/w, Latin lallo = E. lull, Ger. lallen and without redupl. Ags. hola, Ger. halloh, E. lo. An abbrev. form of are is re. Cf. also alala] exclam. of astonishment and excitement: he! hallo! I say!, implying an imprecation: Away with you (with voc.) J I.225 (dasiputta-cetaka); IV.391 (duttha-candala); DA I.265 ( = re); VvA 68 (dubbini), 217 ("how in the world").

Ala1 frequent spelling for a'a.

Ala2 (adj.) [alam adv. as adj.] enough, only in negative anala insufficient, impossible M I.455; J II.326 = IV.471.

Alam (indecl.) [Vedic aram. In meaning 1. alam is the expanded continuation of Vedic aram, an adv. acc. of ara (adj.) suitable; fitly, aptly rightly from r Cp. annava, appeti, ara. In meaning 2. alam is the same as are] emphatic particle 1. in affirmative sentences: part. of assurance and emphasis = for sure, very much (so), indeed, truly. Note. In connection with a dat. or an infin. the latter only apparently depend upon alam, in reality they belong to the syntax of the whole sentence (as dat. or inf. absolute). It is customary however (since the practice of the Pali grammarians) to regard them as interdependent and interpret the construction as "fit for, proper" ( = yuttam Pali Com.), which meaning easily arises out of the connotation of alam, e.g. alam eva katum to be sure, this is to be done = this is proper to be done. In this sense (c. dat.) it may also be compd. with Vedic aram c. dat. - (a) (abs.) only in combination. with dat. or inf. (see c. and Note above). - (b.) (*-) see compounds - (c.) with dat. or infin.: alam antarayaya for certain an obstacle M I.130 (opp. na-lam not at all); alam te vippatisaraya you ought to feel sorry for it Vin II.250; alam vacanaya one says rightly S II.18; alam hitaya untold happiness DhA II.41. - ito ce pi so bhavam Gotamo yojana sate viharati alam eva . . . . . upasankamitum even if he were 100 miles from here, (surely) even so (i. e. it is fit or proper even then) one must go to him D I.117 (explained. at DA I.288 by yuttam eva = it is proper); alam eva katum kalyanam indeed one

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must do good = it is appropriate to do good Pv II.923 ( = yuttam PvA 122); alam punnani katave "come, let us do meritorious works" Vv 4415 ( = yuttam VvA 191). 2. in negative or prohibitive sentences: part. of disapprobation reproach and warning; enough! have done with! fie! stop! alas! (etc. see are). - (a) (abs.) enough: na-lam thutum it is not enough to praise Sn 217; te pi na honti me alam they are not enough for me Pv I.63. - (b) with voc.: alam Devadatta ma te rucci sanghabhedo "look out D. or take care D. that you do not split up the community" Vin II.198; alam Vakkali kin te imina putikayena ditthena . . . S III.120. - (c) enough of (with instr.): alam ettakena enough of this, so much of that Miln 18; alam me Buddhena enough for me of the Buddha = I am tired of the B. DhA II.34. -attha (adj.) "quite the thing", truly good, very profitable, useful D II.231; M II.69 (so read for alamatta); A II.180; Th 1, 252; J I.401 (so read for *atta). -ariya truly genuine, right noble, honourable indeed, only in *nana-dassana [cp. BSanskrit alamarya-jnana-darshana Lal V.309, 509] Vin I.9; A III.64, 430; V.88; J I.389 (cp. ariya). -kammaniya (quite or thoroughly) suitable Vin III.187. -pateyya: see the latter. -vacaniya (f.) a woman who has to be addressed with "alam" (i. e. "fie"), which means that she ceases to be the wife of a man and returns to her parental home Vin III.144, cp. 274 (Bdhgh's. explination.). -samakkhatar one who makes sufficiently clear It 107. -sajiva one who is thoroughly fit to associate with his fellow A III.81. -sataka "curse-coat", one who curses his waist-coat (alam sataka!) because of his having eaten too much it will not fit; an over-eater; one of the 5 kinds of gluttons or improper eaters as enumerated at DhA IV.16 = DhsA 404.

Alakkhika (and ika) (adj.) [a + lakkhika] unfortunate unhappy, of bad luck Vin III.23; J III.259.

Alakkhi (f.) [a + lakkhi] bad luck, misfortune Th 1, 1123.

Alagadda [Der. unknown. In late Sanskrit alagarda is a watersnake] a kind of snake M I.133 = DA I.21; DhA IV. 132 (*camma, so read for T. alla-camma, vv. ll. alanda* and alandu*).

Alagga (adj.) [pp. of laggati] not stuck or attached Nd2 107 (also alaggita); alaggamana (ppr.) id. DhA III.298.

Alaggana (nt.) [a + laggana] not hanging on anything, not being suspended DA I.180.

Alamkata [pp. of alankaroti] 1. "made too much", made much of, done up, adorned, fitted out Dh 142 ( = vattha-bharana-patimandita DhA III.83); Pv II.36; Vv 11; J III.392; IV.60. - 2. "done enough" (see alam, use with instr.), only negative analankata in meaning "insatiate" S I.15 (kamesu).

Alamkarana (nt.) [alam + karana, from alankaroti] doing up, fitting out, ornamentation J I.60.

Alamkaranaka (adj.) [from alankarana] adorning, embellishing, decorating DhA I.410.

Alamkaroti [alam + karoti, Vedic ara*karoti] to make much of i. e. to adorn, embellish, decorate J I.60; III.189; VI. 368. ger. *karitva DhA I.410; PvA 74. -pp. alankata. - Causative alankarapeti to cause to be adorned J I.52.

Alamkara [from alankaroti, cp. Vedic ara*krti] "getting up" i. e. fitting ont, ornament, decoration; esp. trinkets, oQnaments D III.190; A III.239; 263 sq.; J VI.368; PvA 23, 46, 70 (-* adj. adorned with), 74; Sdhp 249.

Alattaka [Sanskrit alaktaka] lac, a red animal dye J IV.114 (*patala); DhA II.174; IV.197.

Alanda and Alandu see alagadda.

Alamba (adj.) [a + lamba] not hanging down, not drooping, short J V.302; VI.3 (*tthaniyo not flabby: of a woman's breasts cp. alamb- ordhva-stani Sushruta I.371).

Alasa (adj.) [a + lasa] idle, lazy, slack, slothful, languid S I.44, 217; Sn 96 ( = jati-alaso SnA 170); J IV.30; Dh 280 ( = maha-alaso DhA III.410). Opp. analasa vigorous, energetic S I.44; D III.190 (dakkha +); Vin IV.211; Nd2 141 (id.).

Alasata (f.) [abstr. from alasa] sloth, laziness; only in negative analasata zeal, industry VvA 229.

Alassa (nt.) at S I.43 is spurious spelling for alassa idleness, sloth; v. l. BB alasya.

Alata (nt.) [Sanskrit alata, related to Latin altare altar, adoleo to burn] a firebrand A II.95 (chava* a burning corpse, see chava); J I.68; Pug 36; DhA III.442.

Alapu (nt.) [ = alabu, with p for b: so Trenckner Notes 6216] a gourd, pumpkin Dh 149 ( = DhA III.112; vv. ll. alabu and alabbu).

Alabu [Sanskrit alabu f.] a long white gourd, Cucurbita Lagenaris M I.80 (tittaka*), 315 (id.); PvA 47 (id.); DhsA 405. - See also alapu.

Alabhaka [a + labhaka] not getting, loss, detriment Vin III.77.

Alala (indecl.) [a + lala interjection from sound root *lal, see etymology under are] "not saying la la" i. e. not babbling, not dumb, in *mukha not (deaf &) dumb SnA 124 ( = ane'amuga of Sn 70).

Alika (adj.) [Sanskrit alika] contrary, false, untrue S I.189; J III.198; VI.361; Miln 26, 99. - nt. *m a lie, falsehood Dh 264. -vadin one who tells a lie, a liar Dh 223 = VvA 69 (has alika*); J II.4; SnA 478 (for abhuta-vadin Sn 661).

Alinata (f.) [abstr. of alina] open mindedness, prudence, sincerity J I.366.

Alu'ita (adj.) [a + lu'ita, pp. of lul] umoved, undisturbed Miln 383.

Alonika (adj.) [a + lonika] not salted J III.409; VvA 184.

Aloma (adj.) [a + loma] not hairy (upon the body) J VI.457.

Alola (adj.) [a + lola] undisturbed, not distracted (by desires), not wavering: of firm resolution, concentrated Sn 65 ( = nillolupa Nd2 98; = rasavisesesu anakula SnA 118).

Alla (adj.) (only *-) [Vedic ardra, to Gr. a)/rdw moisten, a)/rda dirt] - 1. moist, wet M III.94 (*mattika-punja a heap of moist clay; may be taken in meaning 2). - 2. fresh (opp. stale), new; freshly plucked, gathered or caught, viz.*a-valepana see adda3; *kusamutthi freshly plucked grass A V.234 = 249; *gomaya fresh dung A V.234; DhA I.377; *camma living skin Vism 195; *tina fresh grass DA I.77; PvA 40; *daruni green sticks J I.318; *madhu fresh honey DhA II.197; *mamsa-sarira a body of living flesh DhA II.51 = IV.166; *rasa fresh-tasting DhA II.155; *rohita-maccha fresh fish J III.333. 3. wet = with connotation of clean (through being washed), freshly washed, *kesa with clean hair PvA 82 (sisan nahatva allakesa); usually combined. with allavattha with clean clothes (in an ablution; often as a sign of mourning) Ud 14, 91; DhA IV.220; or with odata vattha (id.) J III.425. *pani with clean hand Pv II.99 ( = dhotapani PvA 116). [For analla-gatta at S I.183 better read, with ibid 169, an-allina-gatta. For allacamma at DhA IV.132 alagadda-camma, with the v.l., is preferable].

Allapa [Sanskrit alapa; a + lapa] conversation, talk; only in cpd. *sallapa conversation (lit. talking to and fro or together) J I.189; Miln 15; VvA 96; PvA 86.

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Allika (*) [either from alla = allikam nt. in meaning defilement, getting soiled by (-*), or from alliyati = alliyakam, a der. from ger. alliya clinging to, sticking to. The whole word is doubtful.] only in cpd. (kama-) sukh- allik-a-nuyoga given to the attachment to sensual joys Vin I.10; D III.113, 130; S IV.330; V.421; Nett 110.

Allina [pp. of alliyati; Sanskrit alina] (a) sticking to, adhering or adhered to, clinging M I.80; A V.187; Nd2 under nissita (in form asita allina upagata). - (b.) soiled by (-*), dirtied A II.201. -anallina "to which nothing sticks", i. e. pure, undefiled, clean S I.169 (id. p. on p. 183 reads analla: see alla). Cp. alaya.

Alliyati [a + liyati, li, liyate, layate] to cling to, stick to, adhere to (in both senses, good or bad); to covet. - (a) lit. kesa sisan alliyimsu the hair stuck to the head J I.64; khaggo lomesu alliyi the sword stuck in the hair J I.273. - (b) fig. to covet, desire etc.: in idiomatic phrase alliyati (S III.190 v. l.; T. alayati) kelayati vanayati (S III.190 v.l.; T. manayati; M I.260 T. dhanayati, but v.l. p. 552 vanayati) mamayati "to caress dearly and be extremely jealous of" (c. acc.) at M I.260 and S III.190. J IV.5; V.154 (alliyitum, v.l. illiyitum); DhsA 364 (vanati bhajati a); pp. allina - Causative alliyapeti [cp. Sanskrit alapayati, but B.Sanskrit allipeti M Vastu III.144; pp. allipita ibid. I.311; III.408; pass. allipiyate III.127.] to make stick, to to bring near to (c. acc. or loc.) J II.325 (hatthim mahabhittiyan alliyapetva); IV.392 (sisena sisan alliyapetva).

A'a [etymology unknown] 1. the claw of a crab M I.234; S I.123; J I.223, 505 (*chinno kakkatako; T. spells ala*); II.342; III.295; - 2. the nails (of finger or toe) (*) in *chinna one whose nails are cut off Vin I.91.

A'ara (adj.) [Is it the same as u'ara*] only used with reference to the eyelashes, and usually explained. by visala, i.e. extended, wide, but also by bahala, i.e. thick. The meaning and etymology is as yet uncertain. Kern, (Toev. s.v.) transls. by "bent, crooked, arched". *akkhin with wide eyes (eyelashes*) J I.306 ( = visala-netta C.); -pamha with thick eye-lashes Vv 357 ( = bahala-sanyata-pakhuma C.; v.l. -pamukha); -bhamuka having thick eyebrows or *lashes J VI.503 (so read for *pamukha; C. expls by visal-akkhiganda). Cp. a'ara.

A'haka in udak- a'haka VvA 155 read a'haka.

Ava- (prefix) I. Relation between ava and o. Phonetically the difference between ava and o is this, that ava is the older form, whereas o represents a later development. Historically the case is often reversed - that is, the form in o was in use first and the form in ava was built up, sometimes quite independently, long afterwards. Okaddhati, okappati, okappana, okassati, okara, okantati, okkamati, ogacchati, odata and others may be used as examples. The difference in many cases has given rise to a differentiation of meaning, like E. ripe: rife, quash: squash; Ger. Knabe: Knappe etc. (see below B 2). - A. The old Pali form of the prefix is o. In same cases however a Vedic form in ava has been preserved by virtue of its archaic character. In words forming the 2nd part of a cpd. we have ava, while the absolute form of the same word has o. See e.g. avakasa (-*) > okasa (*-); avacara > ocaraka; avatata; avadata; avabhasa; avasana. - B. 1. the proportion in the words before us (early and later) is that o alone is found in 65% of all cases, ava alone in 24%, and ava as well as o in 11%. The proportion of forms in ava increases as the books or passages become later. Restricted to the older literature (the 4 Nikayas) are the following forms with o: okiri, okkanti, okkamati, okkhipati, ogacchati, ossajati. - (1) The Pali form (o) shows a differentiation in meaning against the later Sanskrit forms (ava*). See the following: avakappana harnessing: okappana confidence; avakkanti (not Sanskrit): okkanti appearance; avakkhitta thrown down: okkhitta subdued; avacara sphere of motion: ocaraka spy; avatinna descended: otinna affected with love; avaharati to move down, put off: oharati to steal. (2) In certain secondary verb-formations, arisen on Pali grounds, the form o is used almost exclusively pointing thus to a clearly marked dialectical development of Pali. Among these formations are Deminutives in *ka usually; the Gerund and the Infinitive usually; the Causatives throughout. II. Ava as prefix. [Pali ava = Vedic ava and occasionally o; Av. ava; Latin au- (aufero = avabharati, aufugio etc.); Obg. u-; Oir. o, ua. See further relations in Walde, Latin Wtb. under au]. - Meaning. (Rest:) lower, low (opp. ut*, see e. g. ucca-vaca high and low, and below III. c), explained. as hettha (DhA IV.54 under avam) or adho (ibid. 153; SnA 290). - (Motion:) down, downward, away (down), off; e. g. avasura sun-down; adv. avam (q. v., opp. uddham). - (a) lit. away from, off: ava-kantati to cut off; *gana away from the crowd; *chindati cut off; *yiyati fall off; *bhasati shine out, effulge; *muncati take off; *sittha left over. - down, out, over: *kirati pour down or out over; *khitta thrown down; *gacchati go down; *gaheti dip down; *tarati descend; *patita fallen down; *sajjati emit; *sincati pour out over; *sidati sink down. - (b) fig. down in connection with verbs of emotion (cp. Latin de- in despico to despise, lit. look down on), see ava-janati, *bhuta, *manita, *vajja, *hasati. away from, i. e. the opposite of, as equivalent to a negation and often taking the place of the negative prefix a* (an*), e. g. in avajaya ( = ajaya), *jata, *mangala ( = a*), *pakkhin, *patta. Affinities of ava. - (a) apa. There exists an exceedingly frequent interchange of forms with apa* and ava*, the historical relation of which has not yet been thoroughly investigated. For a comparison of the two the BSanskrit forms are indispensable, and often afford a clue as to the nature of the word in question. See on this apa 2 and cp. the following words under ava: avakata, *karoti, *khalita, *anga, ottappa, avattha, *nita, *dana, *pivati, *rundhati, *lekhati, *vadati, *varaka, *sakkati, avassaya, avasseti, *hita, avapuriyati, avekkhati. - (b) abhi. The similarity between abhi and ava is seen from a comparison of meaning abhi II. b and ava II. a. The two prefixes are practically synonymous in the following words: *kankhati, *kamati, *kinna, *khipati, *maddati, *rata, *lambati, *lekheti, *lepana, *sincati. - (c) The contrary of ava is ut (cp. above II.2). Among the frequent contrast-pairs showing the two, like E. up and down, are the following ukkamsa-vakamsa, uggaman-oggamana, ucca-vaca, ullangheti-olangheti, ullitta-valitta; ogilitumuggilitum, onaman-unnamana. Two other combinations. founded on the same principle (of intensifying contrast) are chidda-vacchidda and ava* in contrast with vi* in olambavilamba, olugga-vilugga.

Avam (adv.) [Vedic avak and avam] the prep. ava in adv. use, down, downward; in C. often explained. by adho. Rarely absolute, the only passage found so far being Sn 685 (avam sari he went down, v. l. avasari, explained. by otari SnA 486). Opp. uddham (above, up high). Freq. in cpd. avamsira (adj.) head downward (+ uddhampada feet up), a position characteristic of beings in Niraya (Purgatory), e. g. S I.48; Sn 248 (patanti satta nirayan avamsira = adhogata-sisa SnA 290); Vv 5225 (of Revati, + uddhampada); Pv IV.146; J I.233 (+ uddhapada); IV.103 (nirayan vajanti yatha adhammo patito avamsiro); Nd1 404 (uddhampada +); DhA IV.153 (gloss adhosira). - On avam* cp. further avakkara, avakaroti, avekkhipati.

Avakamsa [from ava-kar.sati; on ms: *rs. cp. hamsati: har.sati] dragging down, detraction, abasement, in cpd. ukkamsa-vak.r lifting up and pulling down, raising and lowering, rise and fall D I.54.

Avakankhati (-*) [ava + kankhati; cp. Sanskrit anu-kank.sati] to wish for, strive after S IV.57 (n'); J IV.371 (n'); V 340 (n'), 348 (n' = na pattheti C).

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Avakaddhati [ava + kaddhati, cp. avakassati and apakassati] Nett 4 (avakaddhayitva). Pass. avakaddhati J IV.415 (hadayan me a. my hcart is weighed down = sokena avakaddhiyati C; v.l. avakassati). -pp. avakaddhita.

Avakaddhita [pp. of avakaddhati] pulled down, dragged away DhA III.195.

Avakata = apakata, v.l. at It 89.

Avakanta [for *avakatta, Sanskrit avakrtta; pp. of avakantati, see kanta2] cut, cut open, cut off J IV.251 (galak- a-vakantam).

Avakantati and okantati (okk.r) [cp. Sanskrit avakrntati, ava + kantati, cp. also apakantati] to cut off, cut out, cut away, carve - (ava:) J IV.155. -pp. avakanta and avakantita.

Avakantita [pp. of avakantati] cut out PvA 213.

Avakappana and okappana (f.) [ava + kappana] preparation, fixing up, esp. harnessing J VI.408.

Avakaroti [Sanskrit apakaroti, cp. Pali apa*] "to put down", to despise, throw away; only in der, avakara and avakarin. pp. avakata (q. v.). - See also avakaroti and cp. avakirati 2.

Avakassati and okassati [cp. Sanskrit avakar.sati, ava + krs.; see also apakassati and avakaddhati] to drag down, to draw or pull away, distract, remove. - A V.74 = Vin II.204 (+ vavakassati).

Avakarakam (adv.) [from avakara] throwing away, scattering about Vin II.214.

Avakarin (adj.) (-*) [from avakara] despising, degrading, neglecting Vbh 393 sq. (an*).

Avakasa and okasa [ava + kash to shine, cp. Sanskrit avakasha] 1. "appearance": akkhudda-vakaso dassanaya not little (or inferior) to behold (of appearance) D I.114; ariyavakasa appearing noble or having the app. of an Aryan J V.87; kata-vakasa put into appearance Vv 229. - 2. "opportunity": kata* given leave D I.276 Sn 1030; anavakasakarin not giving occasion Miln 383. - anavakasa not having a chance or opportunity (to happen), impossible; always in stereotype phrase atthanam etam anavakaso Vin II.199; A I.26; V.169; Pug 11, 12; PvA 28.

Avakirati and okirati [ava + kirati] 1. to pour down on, to pour out over; aor. avakiri PvA 86; ger. *kiritva J V.144. - 2. to cast out, reject, throw out; aor. avakiri Vv 305 = 485 (v.l. *kari; VvA 126 expls by chaddesi vinasesi). - Pass. avakiriyati Pv III.110 ( = chaddiyati PvA 174); grd. *kiriya (see sep.). See also apakirituna. pp. okinna.

Avakiriya [grd of avakirati] to be cast out or thrown away; rejectable, low, contemptible J V.143 (taken by C. as ger. = avakiritva).

Avakujja (adj.) [ava + kujja, cp. B.Sanskrit avakubja M Vastu I.29, avakubjaka ibid. 213; II.412] face downward, head first, prone, bent over (opp. ukkujja and uttana) J I.13 = Bu II.52; J V.295; VI.40; Pv IV.108; PvA 178. -panna (adj.) one whose reason is turned upside down (like an upturned pot, i.e. empty) A I.130; Pug 31 ( = adhomukha-panna Pug A 214).

Avakkanta (-*) [pp. of next] entered by, beset with, overwhelmed by (instr.) S III.69 (dukkha*, sukha* and an*).

Avakkanti (f.) [from avakkamati] entry, appearance, coming down into, opportunity for rebirth S II.66 (namarupassa); III.46 (pancannam indriyanam); Pug 13 ( = okkanti nibbatti patubhavo PugA 184); Kvu 142 (namarupassa); Miln 123 (gabbhassa).

Avakkama [from avakkamati] entering, appearance J V.330 (gabbhassa).

Avakkamati and okkamati [ava + kamati from kram] to approach. to enter, go into or near to, to fall into, appear in, only in ger. (poetically) avakamma J III.480 (v.l. apa*).

Avakkara [Sanskrit avaskara faeces, from avam + karoti] throwing away, refuse, sweepings; only in cpd. *pati a bowl for refuse, slop basin, ash-bin Vin I.157, 352; II.216; M I.207; DhA I.305.

Avakkhalita [pp. of avakkhaleti, Causative of k.sal] washed off, taken away from, detracted DA I.66 (v.l. apa*).

Avakkhitta and okkhitta [pp. of avakkhipati] 1. [ = Sanskrit avaks.ipta] thrown down, flung down, cast down, dropped; thrown out, rejected. (ava:) M I.296 (ujjhita +); DA I.281 (an*), 289 (pinda); PvA 174 (pinda). 2. [ = Sanskrit utks.ipta*] thrown off, gained, produced, got (cp. uppadita), in phrase sed- a-vakkhitta gained by sweat A II.67; III.45.

Avakkhipati and okkhipati [ava + khipati; cp. Sanskrit avaks.ipati] to throw down or out, cast down, drop; fig. usually applied to the eyes = to cast down, hence transferred to the other senses and used in meaning of "to keep under, to restrain, to have control over" (cp. also avakkhayati), aor. *khipi DA I.268 (bhusan, v. l. avakkhasi).

Avakkhipana (nt.) [from avakkhipati] throwing down, putting down J I.163.

Avagacchati [ava + gacchati] to come to, approach, visit (cp. Vedic avagacchati) PvA 87.

Avaganda (-karaka) (adj.) [ava + ganda*] "making a swelling", i. e. puffing out the cheeks, stuffing the cheeks, full (when eating); only nt. *m as adv. after the manner or in the way of stuffing etc. Vin II.214; IV.196.

Avagata [pp. of avagacchati] at PvA 222 is uncertain reading; the meaning is "known, understood" (annata Pv IV.111); perhaps we should read avikata or adhigata (so v.l. BB).

Avagahati and ogahati [ava + gahati] to plunge or enter into, to be absorbed in (acc. and loc.) Vism 678 (vipassanavithim); Sdhp 370, 383.

Avagunthana (adj.) (-*) [from oguntheti] covering Sdhp 314.

Avaggaha [Sanskrit avagraha] hindrance, impediment, used at DA I.95 as syn. for drought (dubutthika).

Avanga see apanga.

Avaca (adj.) [der. from ava after the analogy of ucca > ut] low, only in combination. ucca-vaca (pl.) high and low, see ucca. KvuA 38.

Avacana (nt.) [a + vacana] "non-word", i. e. the wrong word or expression J I.410.

Avacara (-*) (n.-adj.) [ava + car, also BSanskrit avacara in same sense, e.g. anta*pura-vacara the inmates of the harem Jtm 210] (a) (adj.) living in or with, moving in D I.206 (santika* one who stays near, a companion); fig. dealing or familiar with, at home in A II.189 (atakka*); IV.314 (parisa*); J I.60 (ta'a* one conversant with music, a musician, see ta'a1); II.95 (sangama*); Miln 44 (id. and yoga*). - (b) (n.) sphere (of moving or activity), realm, plane (of temporal existence); only as t.t in kama-vacara rupa-vacara arupa-vacara or the 3 realms of sense-desires, form and non-form: kama* D I.34 (*deva); Dhs 431 (as adj.); rupa* Pug 37; arupa* Pug 38; Ps I.83, 84, 101; Dhs A 387; PvA 138, 163; to be omitted in Dhs 1268, 1278.

Avacaraka and ocaraka (adj.-n.) [from avacara] 1. only in cpd. kama-vacarika as adj. to kama-vacara, belonging to the sphere of sense experiences, Sdhp. 254. - 2. Late form of ocaraka, spy, only in C. on Th 1, 315 ff. quoted in Brethren 189, n 3. Occurs in BSk (Divy 127).

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Avacarana (nt.) [from avacarati 1] being familiar with, dealing with, occupation J II.95.

Avacuttha 2nd pret. of vac, in prohib form ma evam avacuttha do not speak thus J VI.72; DhA IV.228.

Avacchidda (-*) (adj.) [ava + chidda] perforated, only in redupl. (intensive) cpd. chidda-vacchidda perforated all over, nothing but holes J III.491; DhA I.122. 284, 319. Cp. chidda-vicchidda.

Avacchedaka (-*) (adj) [ava + cheda + ka] cutting off, as nt. *m adv. in phrase kaba'a-vacchedakam after the manner of cutting off mouthfuls (of food) Vin II.214; IV.196; cp. asavacchedika whose hope or longing has been cut off or destroyed Vin I. 259.

Avajaya [ava + jaya, cp. apajita] defeat DhA II.228 (v.l. for T. ajaya).

Avajata (adj.) [ava + jata; cp. B.Sanskrit avajata in meaning misborn, miscarriage] low-born, of low or base birth, fig. of low character (opp. abhijata) Sn 664 ( = Buddhassa avajataputta SnA 479); It 63; Miln 359.

Avajanati [ava + jna] 1. to deny Vin II.85; A III.164 = Pug 65. - 2. (later) to despise DhA III.16; PvA 175 (grd. *janitabba) - Of short stem-form na are found the foll: grd. avanneyya PvA 175, and with o: grd. onatabba PvA 195; pp. avanata, besides avannata.

Avajiyati [ava + jiyati; Sanskrit avajiryate] to be diminished, to be lost, be undone J I.313 (jitam a; v.l. avajijy*); Dh 179 (jitam a = dujjitam hoti DhA III.197).

Avajja (adj.) [Sanskrit avadya, seemigly a + vadya, but in reality a der. from ava. According to Childers = Sanskrit avarjya from vraj, thus meaning "not to be shunned, not forbidden". This interpretn is justified by context of Dh 318, 319. The Pali commentator refers it to ava + vad (for *ava-vadya) in sense of to blame, cp. apavadati] low, inferior, blamable, bad, deprecable Dh 318, 319; Dhs 1160. More fig. in negative form anavajja blameless, faultless D I.70 ( = anindita DA I.183); A II.26 = It 102; Sn 47 (*bhojin carrying on a blameless mode of livelihood, see Nd2 39), 263 ( = anindita agarahita KhA 140): Ps II.116, 170; Pug 30, 41, 58; Sdhp 436. Opp. savajja.

Avajjata (f.) [abstr. to prec.), only negative an* blamelessness, faultlessness Pug 25, 41; Dhs 1349.

Avajjha (adj.) [grd of a + vadhati, Sanskrit vadhya, vadh] not to be killed or destroyed, inviolable Sn 288; J V.69; VI.132.

Avancana (adj.) [a + vancana from vanc] not (even) tottering, i.e. unfit for any motion (esp. walking), said of crippled feet J I.214 = Cp III.910.

Avanna (adj.) [to avanna] despised, despicable Pv III.113 ( = avanneyya avajanitabba PvA 175).

Avannatti (f.) [ava + natti = Sanskrit *avajnapti, from ava + jna] only as negative an* the fact of not being despised, inferior or surpassed, egotism, pride, arrogance It 72; Vbh 350, 356; *kama (adj.) wishing not to be surpassed, unvilling to be second, wanting to be praised A II.240; IV.1 sq.

Avanna (f.) [Sanskrit avajna, from ava + jna] contempt, disregard, disrespect J I.257 (*ya).

Avannata (adj.) [pp. of avajanati] despised, treated with contempt PvA 135 (an*); Sdhp 88, 90.

Avatamsaka ( = vat*) see Vin Texts II.347.

Avatthana (nt.) [Sanskrit avasthana] position, standing place J I.508; PvA 286.

Avatthita (ad.) [Sanskrit avasthita, ava + thita] "standing down" = standing up, firm, fixed, settled, lasting Th 1, 1140. Usually negative an* unsettled, unsteady; not lasting, changeable Dh 38 (*citta; cp. DhA I.308 cittam thavaram n'atthi); PvA 87 ( = na sassata not lasting for ever).

Avatthitata (f.) [abstr. from prec.] steadiness, only as negative an* unsteadiness, fickleness ThA 259.

Avatthiti (f.) [Sanskrit avasthiti] (firm) position, posture, steadfastness S V.228; Dhs 11, 570.

Avaddhi (f.) [a + vaddhi] "non-growth", decay DhA III.335; C on A III.76 (cp. apajaha).

Avanta (adj.) [a + vanta] without a stalk J V.155.

Avanna [a + vanna] blame, reproach, fault D I.1 ( = dosa ninda DA I.37); It 67; Pug 48, 59.

Avannaniya (adj.) [grd. of a + vanneti] indescribable J V.282.

Avatamsa see vatamsaka.

Avatata and otata [ava + tata, pp. of tan] stretched over, covered, spread over with Vv 643 (-*); VvA 276 ( = chadita).

Avatitthati [ava + titthati] to abide, linger, stand still. D I.251 = S IV.322 = A V.299 (tatra*); S I.25 (v.l. otitthati); Th. 1, 21; J II.62; IV.208 (aor. avatthasi). pp. avatthita (q. v.).

Avatinna and otinna [pp. of otarati] fallen into, affected with (-*), as ava* rare late or poetical form of o, e. g. J V.98 (issa-*). See otinna.

Avattha1 [der. uncertain] aimless (of carika, a bhikkhu's wandering, going on tour) A III.171 (C. avavatthika).

Avattha2 [Sanskrit apasta, apa + asta, pp. of as2] thrown away J V.302 ( = chaddita C.).

Avattharana (nt.) [from avattharati] setting in array, deploying (of an army) J II.104 (of a robber-band), 336.

Avattharati [ava + tharati, str] to strew, cover over or up J I.74 (*amana ppr.), 255 (*itva ger.); IV.84; Davs I.38. -pp. otthata Cp. pariy*.

Avattharana (nt.) = avattharana DA I.274.

Avatthu (and* ka) (adj.) [a + vatthu] groundless, unfounded (fig) Vin II.241; J I.440 (*kam vacanam). For lit meaning see vatthu.

Avadata ( = odata) Davs III.14 (metri causa).

Avadana see apadana.

Avadaniya (adj.) [from avadana cutting off; ava + da2 to cut] stingy, niggardly Sn 774 ( = Nd1 36 which expls. as follows: avam gacchanti ti pi avadaniya; maccharino pi vuccanti avadaniya; buddhanam vacanam n-a-diyanti ti avadaniya. Sn A 516 condenses this explination. into the following: avangamanataya maccharitaya Buddha-dinam vacanam anadiyanataya ca avadaniya).

Avadapana (cleansing): see vodapana.

Avadapeti (to deal out) only BSk pary* Divy 202.

Avadayati [denom. from avada in same meaning as anudda, to da1: see dayati2] to have pity on, to feel sorry for J IV.178 (bhutanam na-vadayissan, gloss n-a-nukampiyam).

Avadiyati [Sanskrit avadiryati, ava + dr1, drnati, see etymology under dari] to burst, split open J VI.183 ( = bhijjati C.) see also uddiyati,

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Avadehaka (-*) (adj.) [ava + deha + ka but more likely direct from ava + dih] in the idiom udaravadehakam bhunjati, to eat one's fill M I.102; Th 1, 935. Vism 33 has udaravadehaka-bhojana, a heavy meal.

Avadharana (nt.) [Cp. Sanskrit avadharana, from ava + dhr] calling attention to, affirmation, emphasis; as t.t. used by C's in explanation of evam at DA I.27; and of kho at PvA 11, 18.

Avadhi 3 sg. aor. of vadhati. - At DhA II.73 avadhi = odhi.

Avanata see onata.

Avanati (-*) (f.) [from avanamati] stooping, bending, bowing down, humiliation Miln 387 (unnat-a-vanati).

Avani (f.) [Vedic avani] bed or course of a river; earth, ground Davs IV.5.

Avapakasati [ava + pa + kasati = kassati, from krs.] is a doubtful compd. of kassati, the combined. ava + pa occurring only in this word. In all likelihood it is a distortion of vavakassati (vi + ava + kassati), supplementing the ordinary apakassati. See meaning and further discussion under apakasati - Vin II.204 (apakasati +; v.l. avapakassati; Bdhgh. in explination. on p. 325 has apapakasati which seems, to imply (a)vavakassati); A III.145 sq. (avapakasitum).

Avapatta see opatta.

Avapayin (-*) (adj.) [cp. avapivati] coming for a drink, drinking J I.163.

Avapivati [ava + pa, cp. apapibati] to drink from J I.163.

Avabujjhati (-*) [Cp. BSanskrit avabudhyate] to understand A IV.96 = It 83 (n-avabujjhati); A IV.98 (id.) J I.378 = III.387 (interchanging with anubujjhati at the latter pass.).

Avabodha [ava + bodha] perception, understanding, full knowledge Sn A 509 (sacca*). - Neg. an* not awakened to the truth Vv 826 ( = ananubodha VvA 319).

Avabodhati (-*) [cp. Sanskrit avabodhati] to realise, perceive, pay attention to J III.151 na-va*).

Avabhasa [later form of obhasa] Only in cpd. gambhiravabhaso D II.55, looking deep. Same cpd. at A II.105 = Pug 46 has obhasa.

Avabhasaka (-*) (adj.) [from avabhasa] shining, shedding light on, illuminating Sdhp 14.

Avabhasita (-*) [late form of obhasita] shining with, resplendent Sdhp 590.

Avabhunjati [ava + bhunjati] to eat, to eat up J III.272 (inf. *bhottum), 273.

Avabhuta (adj.) [ava + bhuta, pp. of ava + bhu] "come down", despised, low, unworthy M II.210.

Avamangala (adj.) [ava + mangala, ava here in privative function] of bad omen, unlucky, infaustus (opp. abhimangala); nt. bad luck, ill omen J I.372, 402; II.197; VI.10, 424; DhA III.123; PvA 261. Cf. next.

Avamannati [Sanskrit avamanyate] to slight, to disregard, despise DhA I.170; PvA 37, 175; Sdhp 271. -pp. Causative avamanita.

Avamangalla (adj.) [from avamangala] of bad omen, nt. anything importune, unlucky J I.446.

Avamana and omana [from ava + man, think] disregard, disrespect, contempt J II.386; III.423; V.384. Cp. next.

Avamanana (nt.) [from avamana] = avamana J I.22.

Avamaneti [Causative of avamannati] to despise J V.246. pp. avamanita PvA 36.

Avaya only in negative anavaya.

Avayava [Dern uncertain. Cp. mediaeval Sanskrit avayava] limb, member, constituent, part VvA 53 (sarira* = gatta). 168, 201, 276; PvA 211 (sarira* = gatta), 251 (mul* the fibres of the root). As t. t. g. at SnA 397. In the commentaries avayava is often used where amga would have been used in the older texts.

Avarajjhati (-*) [ava + rajjhati of radh, cp. Sanskrit avaradhyate] to neglect, fail, spurn Th 1, 167; J IV.428 (v.l. *rujjh*).

Avaruddha [from avarundhati] 1. Doubtful reading at Vin IV.181, apparently meaning "in revolt, out of hand" (of slaves) - 2. [late form of oruddha] restrained Sdhp. 592.

Avaruddhaka [avruddha + ka] subdued, expelled, banished J VI.575; Dpvs I.21 (Np).

Avaruddhati [Sanskrit aparundhati; ava + ruddhati of rudh] to expel, remove, banish J VI.505 ( = niharati C.), 515. See also avarundhati.

Avarundhati [ava + rundhati. Only referred to by Dhp. in his Cy (ThA 271) on oruddha] to put under restraint, to put into one's harem as subsidiary wife.

Avalambati [ = olambati]. Only in late verse. To hang down. Pv II.118; 102. Ger. avalamba (for *bya) Pv III.35; cp. olubbha.

Avalitta (-*) [Sanskrit avalipta, pp. of ava-limpati] besmeared; in cpd. ullitta-valitta "smeared up and down" i. e. plastereotyped inside and outside A I.101.

Avalekhati [ava + lekhati, likh, Sanskrit avalikhati] to scrape off Vin II.221 (v. l. apa*).

Avalekhana1 (nt.) [from avalekhati] (a) scraping, scraping off Vin II.141 (*pidhara), 221 (*kattha). (b) scratching in, writing down J IV.402, (*sattha a chisel for engraving letters).

Avalekhana2 (nt.) v. l. for apalekhana.

Avalepana (-*) (nt.) [from ava + lip] smearing, daubing, plastereotypeng M I.385 (pita*); Sn 194 (kayo taca-mams- a-valepano the body plastereotyped with skin and flesh).

Avasa (adj.) [a + vasa] powerless Sdhp 290.

Avasata and Osata [Sanskrit apasrta, cp. also samavasrta, pp. of ava + sr] withdrawn, gone away; one who has left a community and gone over to another sect, a renegade Vin IV.216, 217 ( = titthayatanam sankata).

Avasarati [ava + sr] to go down, to go away (to) Sn 685 (v. l. BB. T. avamsari).

Avasana (-*) [for osana] (nt.) stopping ceasing; end, finish, conclusion J I.87 (bhattakicc-a-vasane at the end of the meal); PvA 76 (id.).

Avasaya [from avaseti] stopping, end, finish Th 2, 12 ( = avasanam nitthanam ThA 19). But the id. p. at Dhp 218 has anakkhate.

Avasincanaka (-*) (adj.) [from osincati] pouring over (act. and med.), overflowing J I.400 (an*).

Avasittha (sic and not osittha) [pp. of avasissati, Sanskrit avashis.ta] left, remaining, over S II.133; J I.138; V.339; VvA 66, pl. avasittha all who are left, the others PvA 165 (jana).

Avasitthaka (adj.) [from avasittha] remaining, left J III.311.

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Avasitta (-*) [pp. of osincati] besprinkled, anointed, consecrated, only in phrase raja khattiyo muddha-vasitto of a properly consecrated king (see also khattiya) D I. 69; II.227; III.64; Pug 56; DA I.182 (T. muddha-vassita, v. l. *abhisitta); etc. - See also abhisitta.

Avasin (adj.-n.) [a + vasin from vash] not having control over oneself, D II.275.

Avasissati [Sanskrit avashis.yate; Pass. of ava + shis; but explained. by Kern, Toev. s. v. as fut of avasidati] to be left over, to remain, in phrase yam pamana-katam kammam na tam tatra-vasissati D I.251; A V.299 = S IV.322; J II.61 (see explination. on p. 62). Also in the phrases taco ca naharu ca atthi ca avasissatu sarire upasussatu mamsa-lohitam M I.481; A I.50; S II.28, and sarirani avasissanti S II. 83. With the latter phrases cp. avasussati.

Avasi metri causa for avasi, a + vasi, aor. of vas4 to stop, stay, rest J V.66 (ma avasi).

Avasussati [Sanskrit *ava-sus.yati of shus.] to dry up, to wither; in later quotations of the old kamam taco ca naharu ca atthi ca avasussatu (upasussatu sarire mamsalohitam) J I.71, 110; Sdhp 46. It is a later spelling for the older avasissatu see Trenckner (M I.569). - fut. avasucchati ( = Sanskrit **shoks.yati, fut. of Intens.) J VI.550 (v. l. BB *sussati; C. avasucchissati).

Avasura [ava + sura; ava here in function of *avams see ava II] sundown, sunset, acc. *m as adv. at or with sundown J V 56 (anavasuram metrically).

Avasesa1 [Sanskrit, from ava + shis., cp. avasissati] remainder, remaining part; only in compounds an* (adj.) without any remainder, i. e. fully, completely M I.220 = A V.347 (*dohin); A I.20 sq., 88; Sn 146; Pug 17; Dhs 363, 553; SnA 417 (*pharana); PvA 71 (*ato, adv. altogether, not leaving anything out); and sa-vasesa leaving something over, having something left A I.20 sq., 88; Pv III.55 (jivita* having still a little life left).

Avasesa2 (adj.) [see prec.] remaining, left Sn 694 (ayu avaseso); J III.19; Vbh 107 (tanha ca avasesa ca kilesa); PvA 19 (avasesa ca nataka the rest of the relatives), 21 (avasesa parisa), 201 (atthi-tacamatt- a-vasesa-sarira with a body on which nothing but skin and bones were left), 206 (atthi-sanghatamatt- a-vasesa-sarira). - nt. (as pred.) *m what is left PvA 52 (app- avasesan); KhA 245 (n- atthi tesan avasesan).

Avasesaka (adj.) [from avasesa2] being left, overflowing, additional, more J I.400 (an*); Dpvs IV.45.

Avassa (adj.) [a + vash] against one's will, inevitable J I. 19 (*bhavin); V.319 (*gamita). Usually as nt. *m adv. inevitably (cp. BSanskrit avashyam Divy 347; Av. SH I.209 etc.) J III.271; DA I.263; Sdhp 293.

Avassakam (adv.) [see avassa] inevitably Dpvs IX.13.

Avassajati and ossajati [ava + srj, perhaps ud + srj = Sanskrit utsrjati, although the usual Vedic form is avasrjati. The form ossajati puzzled the BSanskrit writers in their sanskritisation apotsrjati = apa + ut + srj Divy 203] to let loose, let go, send off, give up, dismiss, release (ava): J IV.425; V.487 (aor. avassaji read for avissaji).

Avassana (nt.) [a + vassana, Sanskrit vasana of vash to bleat] not bleating J IV.251.

Avassaya [Sanskrit *avashraya for the usual apashraya, see Pali apassaya1] support, help, protection, refuge J I.211; II. 197; IV.167; Miln 160; DhA II.267; IV.198; PvA 5, 113.

Avassava [ava + sava, Sanskrit *srava from sru to flow] outflow, effect, only negative anassava no further effect Vin II.89; M I.93; II.246; A III.334 sp.

Avasseti [ava + a + shri, for the usual *apashrayati; see apasseti] to lean against, to depend on, find shelter in (loc.) J II.80 (aor. avassayim = vasan kappesim C.). pp. avassita.

Avassavana (nt.) [from ava + Causative of sru to flow] straining, filtering (*) J II.288.

Avassita [for apassita, Sanskrit apashrita] depending on, dealing with J V.375. See apassita.

Avassuta (adj.) [Sanskrit *avasruta, pp. of ava + sru, cp. avassava] 1. (lit.) flowing out or down, oozing, leaking J IV. 20. - 2. (fig.) (cp. anvassava and asava) filled with desire, lustful (opp. anavassuta, q. v.) Vin II.236; S IV.70, 184 (an*); A I.261, 262 (an*); II.240; IV.128, 201; Sn 63 (an*); Pug 27, 36; Dpvs II.5 (T. reads avassita). Neg. anavassuta: 1. not leaking, without a leak J IV.20 (nava = udaka-pavesan- a-bhavena a. C.). - 2. free from leakage, i. e. from lust or moral intoxication Dh 39 (*citta); Sn 63 (see explained. in detail at Nd2 40); SnA 116 ( = kilesa-anvassava-virahita).

Avahata [pp. of avaharati] taken away, stolen Miln 46.

Avaharana (-*) [from avaharati in both meanings] taking away, removal; theft PvA 47 (sataka*), 92 (soka*).

Avaharati and oharati [ava + hr] to steal J I.384; PvA 47 (avahari vattham), 86 (id., = apanudi). -pp. avahata (q. v.).

Avahasati [ava + has] to laugh at, deride, mock J V.111 (annamannam); PvA 178. - aor. avahasi J IV.413.

Avahara [from avaharati] taking, acquiring, acquisition Vin V.129 (panca avahara, viz. theyya*, pasayha*, parikappa*, paticchanna*, kusa*).

Avahiyati [for ohiyati] to be left behind, to stay behind J V.340.

Avagata [ava + a + gacchati] only in phrase dhamma avagat-amha, we are fallen from righteousness, J V.82. (C. explains apagata).

Avakaroti [either ava + a + karoti or avam + karoti, the latter more probable. It is not necessary to take it with Kern, Toev. s. v. as Sanskrit apakrnoti, apa + a + kr] 1. to revoke, undo, rescind, not fulfill, spoil, destroy J III.339 (avakayira = avakareyya chindeyya C.); V.495, 500; VI. 280. - 2. to give back, restore J VI.577 ( = deti C.).

Avakirati wrong by Hardy VvA Index for avakirati (q. v.).

Avatuka see apatuka.

Avapurana (nt.) [same as apapurana] a key S III.132; A IV.374.

Avapurati [same as apapurati] to open (a door) J I.63; VI.373.

Avavata (adj.) [a + vavata] unobstructed, unhindered, free. Of a woman, not married J V.213 ( = apeta-varana, which read for *bharana, apariggahita C.).

Avikampamana (adj.) [a + vi + kampamana, ppr. med. of kamp] not hesitating, not wavering, not doubting J IV.310 ( = anosakkamana C.; Kern takes it at this passage as a + vikalpamana, see Toev. s.v., but unnecessarily); VI.176 ( = nirasanka C.); J VI.273.

Avikampin (adj.) [from a + vi + kamp] unmoved, not shaking, steady Vv 5022 ( = acala VvA 215).

Avikopin (adj.) [a + vikopin; from vi + kup] not agitated, not moving, unshaken, undisturbed J VI.226 (acchejja +).

Avikkhepa [a + vikkhepa] calmness, balance, equanimity D III.213; A I.83; Ps I.94; II.228; Dhs 11, 15, 570.

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Avicareti [a + vicareti] not to examine VvA 336.

Aviccam at J V.434 read aviviccam [a + viviccam] i. e. not secretly, openly.

Avijanam [a + vijanam] not knowing, ignorant *h 38, 60; It 103.

Avijja (f.) [Sanskrit avidya; from a + vid] ignorance; the main root of evil and of continual rebirth (see paticca-samuppada, cp. S II.6, 9, 12; Sn p. 141 and many other passages). See on term Cpd.83 n. 3, 187 sq, 262 sq. and for further detail vijja. avijja is termed an anusaya (D III.254, 282; S IV.205, 208 sq., 212); it is one of the asava (Vin III.4; D I.84; III.216; It 49; Dhs 1100, 1109), of the ogha (D III.230, 276; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162), of the nivaranani (S II.23; A I.223; It 8; Dhs 1162, 1486), of the sanyojanani (D III.254; Dhs 1131, 1460). See for various characterisatons the following passages: Vin I.1; III.3; D III.212, 230, 234, 274; M I.54, 67, 144; S II.4, 26, 263; III.47, 162; IV.256; V.52; A I.8, 285; II.132, 158, 247; III.84 sq., 414; IV.228; It 34 (ya kac- ima duggatiyo asmim loke paramhi ca avijjamulaka sabba iccha-lobha-sammussaya), 57, 81; Sn 199, 277, 729 (jati-marana-sansaram ye vajanti punappunam . . . avijjay-eva sa gati), 730, 1026, 1033 (avijjaya nivuto loko); Dh 243; Nd2 99; Pug 21; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162; DhA III.350; IV.161 (*paligha).

Avinnanaka (adj.) [a + vinnana + ka] senscless, without feeling or consciousness, unfeeling DhA I.6 (savinnanaka +).

Avinnu (adj.) = aviddasu.

Avitakka (adj.) [a + vitakka] free from thought D III.219, 274; Th 2, 75 ("where reasonings cease" trsl.); Dhs 161 ("free from the working of conception" trsl.), 504 etc.

Avidura (adj.) [a + vidura] not far, near; usually in loc. -e as adv. near Sn. 147.

Aviddasu (adj.) [a + viddasu] ignorant, foolish Sn 762 ( = bala Sn A 509); Dh 268 = Nd2 514 ( = avinnu DhA III.395); PvA 18 (so read for avindasu).

Avinasaka (*ika) (adj.) [a + vinasa + ka] not causing destruction A III.38 (*ika); J V.116 ( = anasaka C.).

Avinasana (adj.) [a + vinasana] imperishable Dpvs IV.16.

Avinicchayannu (adj.) [a + vinicchaya + nu] not knowing how to decide J V.367.

Avinibbhujam (adj.) [ppr. of a + vinibbhujati] unable to distinguish or to know J v.121 ( = atirento C.).

Avinibbhoga (ad.) [a + vinibbhoga] not to be distinguished, indistinct J III.428 (*sadda).

Aviparinama [a + viparinama] absence of change, steadfastness, endurance D I.18; III.31, 33 (*dhamma); DA I.113 ( = jara-vasena viparinamassa abhavato).

Avippatisara [a + vippatisara] absence of regret or remorse A III.46.

Avippavasa (adj.-n.) [a + vippavasa] thoughtfulness, mindfulness, attention; adj. not neglectful, mindful, attentive, eager Vin V.216; Sn 1142 (cp. Nd2 101: anussatiya bhavento); DA I.104 (appamado vuccati satiya avippavaso); DhA IV.26 (appamada = satiya avippavasa).

Aviruddha (adj.) [a + viruddha] not contrary, unobstructed, free, without difficulties Dh 406; Sn 365, 704, 854.

Aviru'hi (f.) [a + viru'hi] absence or cesssation of growth Sn 235; DhA I.245 (*dhamma).

Avirodha [a + virodha] absence of obstruction, gentleness M II.105 = Th 1, 875.

Avirodhana (nt.) = avirodha J III.320, 412; V.378.

Avivada [a + vivada] absence of contesting or disputing, agreement, harmony D III.245; Sn 896 (*bhuma SnA 557 or *bhumma Nd1 308, explained. as Nibbana).

Avisanvadaka (adj.) [a + visanvada + ka] not deceiving, not lying D I.4; III.170; Pug 57; DA I.73.

Avisanvadanata (f.) [abstr. from a + visanvada] honesty, faithfulness, uprightness D III.190.

Avisanvadeti [a + visan + Causative of vad] to keep one's word, to be honest, to be true J V.124.

Avisaggata (f.) [a + visaggata, v.l. viy*, thus as a + viyagga, Sanskrit vyagra = akula] state of being undisturbed, harmony, balance J VI.224 (C. avisaggata). Cp. avyagga.

Avisare at J V.117 according to Kern, Toev. s.v. corrupted from avisaye, i. e. towards a wrong or unworthy object [a + visaya, loc], C. differently: avisare = avisaritva atikkamitva; v.l. adhisare.

Avisahata (adj.) [a + visahata] imperturbed Dhs 15, 24, 287, 570. (*manasata).

Avissaji at J VI.79 is with Kern, Toev. s. v. better to be read avassaji (see avassajati).

Avissajjiya (adj.) [grd. of a + vissajjati] not to be given away, inalienable (cp. avebhangiya) Vin I.305 (*ika for *iya); II.170 (five such objects in detail); V.216 (+ avebh*); J VI.568.

Avissasaniya (adj.) [a + visasana + iya, ika] not to be trusted, untrustworthy J III.474.

Aviha [of uncertain etymology] the world of the Aviha's, i.e. the 12th of the 16 Brahma-worlds, cp. Kindred Sayings 48 n. 3; Cpd.139. - S I.35, 60; A I.279; Pug 17.

Avihimsa (Avihesa) (f.) [a + vihimsa] absence of cruelty, mercy, humanity, friendliness, love D III.213, 215, 240 (avihesa); Sn 292 ( = sakarunabhava SnA 318); It 82 (*vitakka).

Avihethaka (adj.) [a + vihethaka] not harassing, not hurting D III.166 (but cp. SnA 318 avihesaka in same context); Miln 219.

Avi* in general see vi*.

Avici [B.Sanskrit avici a + vici (*) no intermission, or no pleasure (*), unknown, but very likely popular etymology] 1. aviciniraya, one of the (great) hells (see niraya), described in vivid colours at many passages of the Pali canon, e.g. at Vin II.203 = It 86; Nd1 18, 347, 405 = Nd2 304 IIID; Ps I.83; Dhs 1281; J I.71, 96; III.182; IV.159; DhA I.148; PvA 52; SnA 290; Sdhp 37, 194; Pgdp 5 sq.; etc etc. - 2. disintegration, decay Vism 449 (a. jara nama).

Avekalla (*-) adj.) [a + vekalla] without deficiency, in *buddhi complete knowledge J VI.297.

Avekkhati [B.Sanskrit avik.sate. The regular Pali form however is apekkhati, to which the BSanskrit av* corresponds] to look at, to consider, to see It 33 (v.l. ap*); Dh 28, 50, J IV.6; DhA I.259 ( = passati).

Avekkhipati [avam + khipati, avam here in form ave corresponds to ava*, cp. pure for pura* etc.] to jump, hop, lit. to throw (a foot) down J IV.251 ( = pacchimapade khipati C.).

Avecca (adv.) [Usually taken as ava + ger. of i (*itya), cp. adhicca and abhisamecca, but by Pali grammarians as a + vecca. The form is not sufficiently clear semantically; B.Sanskrit avetya, e.g. Jtm. 210, is a Sanskritisation of the Pali form] certainly, definitely, absolutely, perfectly, explained. by Bdhgh. as acala (on D II.217), or as pannaya ajjhogahetva (on Sn 229); by Dhp. as apara-paccaya-bhavena (on Pv IV.125). - Usually in phrase Buddhe Dhamme Sanghe avecca-pasado perfect faith in the B., the Dhamma and the Sangha, e.g. at M I.47; S II.69; IV.271 sq., 304; V.344, 405; A I.222; II.56; III.212, 332, 451; IV.406; V.183; further at Ps I.161 (*pasanna); Sn 229 (yo ariyasaccani avecca passati); Pv IV.125.

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Avedha (adj.) [a + vedha, grd. of vidh (vyadh) to pierce, Sanskrit avedhya] not to be hurt or disturbed, inviolable, unshakable, imperturbable Sn 322 (*dhamma = akampanasabhava SnA 331).

Avebhangika (adj.) [from a + vi + bhanga] not to be divided or distributed Vin I.305. Cp. next.

Avebhangiya (nt.) [ = avebhangika] that which is not to be divided, an inalienable possession; 5 such objects enumerated at Vin II.171, which are the same as under avissajjiya (q. v.); V.129.

Avera (adj.) [a + vera] peaceable, mild, friendly Sn 150 ( = veravirahita KhA 248); Sdhp 338. - *m (nt.) friendliness, kindness D I.247 (*citta); Dh 5 ( = khantimetta DhA I 51).

Averin (adj.-n.) = avera Dh 197, 258.

Avosita [reading uncertain, cp. avyosita] only in negative an* unfulfilled, undone Th 1, 101.

Avyagga (ad) [a + vyagga, Sc. vyagra] not bewildered, not confused S V.66. Cp. avisaggata.

Avyattata (f.) [abstr. from avyatta] state or condition of not being manifest or visible, concealment, hiding DhA II.38.

Avyatha (adj.) [a + vyatha, cp. Sanskrit vyatha misfortune] not miserable, fortunate J III.466 ( = akilamana C.).

Avyaya [a + vyaya | absence of loss or change, safety D. I.72 (instr. *ena safely); Miln 393 (as abbaya T.).

Avyapajjha1 (abyabajjha) (nt.) [a + vyapajjha or bajjha, a confusion between the roots badh or pad] (act.) kindness of heart; (pass.) freedom from suffering (Ep. of Nibbana) Vin I.183 (avyapajjh*a-dhimutQa); It 31 (abyabajjh-arama).

Avyapajjha2 (abyabajjha) adj.) [either a + *vyapadya or more likely a + *vyabadhya] free from oppression or injury; not hurting, kind D II.242 (avera +), 276; M I.90; It 16 = 52 (sukham); Miln 410 (avera +).

Avyapanna (adj.) [a + vyapanna] free from desire to injure, free from malice, friendly, benevolent D III.82,83 (*citta); A II.220 (id.); Pug 68 (id.). - Same in B.Sanskrit e.g. Divy 105, 302.

Avyapada [a + vyapada] absence of desire to injure, freedom from malice D III.215, 229, 240; It 82 (all MSS. have aby*); Dhs 33, 36, 277, 313, 1056.

Avyayata (adj.) [a + vyayata of yam] at random, without discrimination, careless J I.496 ( = avyatta C.).

Avyayika (adj.) [from avyaya] not liable to loss or change, imperishable J V.508 ( = avigacchanaka C.).

Avyavata (adj.) [a + vyavata = Sk vyaprta] not occupied, i. e. careless, neglectful, not worrying Vin III.136; Nd2 72 (abyavata for appossukka Sn 43); J III.65; VI.188. Miln 177 (abya*).

Avyaseka (adj.) [a + vy + aseka] untouched, unimpaired D I.182 (*sukha = kilesa vyaseka-virahitatta avyaseka DA I.183); Pug 59.

Avyaharati [a + vy + aharati] not to bring or procure J V.80.

Avyosita (adj.) [a + vyosita, Sanskrit vyavasita] not having reached perfection, imperfect Th 1, 784 (aby*).

Avhaya [from avhayati; cp. Sanskrit ahvaya "betting"] calling, name; adj. (-*) called, having the name of Sn 684 (isi*), 686 (Asit*), 689 (kanhasiri*), 1133 (Sace*, cp. Nd2 624).

Avhayati and Avheti [Sanskrit ahvayati, a + hu or hva] - 1. to call upon, invoke, appeal to D I.244 (avhayama imper.); PvA 164. - 2. to call, call up, summon M 1.17; J II.10, 252 ( = pakkosati); V.220 (avhayesi); VI.18, 192, 273 (avhettha pret.); Vv 331 (avheti). - 3. to give a name, to call, to address SnA 487 ( = amanteti alapati). -pp. avhata (q. v.).

Avhata [pp. of avhayati] called, summoned J III.165 = (an* = anahuta ayactia) = Pv I.123, cp. PvA 64. The id. p. at Th 2, 129 reads ayacita.

Avhana (nt.) [from avhayati, Sanskrit ahvana in different meaning] 1. begging, calling, asking Sn 710; Vism 68 (*a-nabhin and ana). - 2. addressing, naming SnA 605 ( = nama).

Avhayana (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit ahvayana] calling to, asking, invocation, imploration D I.11 (Sir-avhayane, v. l. avhayana; explained. at DA I.97 with reading Sirivhayana as "ehi Siri mayham sire patitthahi ti evam sire Siriya avhayanam"), 244, 245 (v. l. avhana).

Avhayika (adj.) [from avhaya] calling, giving a name; (m.) one who gives a name J I.401 = III.234.

Asa (adj.) [for asan = asanto, a + santo, ppr. of as in meaning "good"] bad J IV.435 = VI.235 (satam va asan, acc. sg. with v. l. santam . . ., explained- by sappurisan va asappurisan va C.); V.448 (n. pl. f. asa explained. by asatiyo lamika C.; cp. p. 446 V.319).

Asanvata (adj.) [pp. of + sanvunati, cp. sanvuta] unrestricted, open J VI.306.

Asanvara [a + sanvara] absence of closing or restraint, no control Dhs 1345.

Asanvasa (adj.) [a + sanvasa] deprived of co-residence, expelled from the community Vin IV.213, 214.

Asanvindam [ppr. a + sanvindati] not finding, not knowing Th 1, 717.

Asanvuta (adj.) [pp. of a + sanvunati, cp. sanvata] not restrained Dhs 1345, 1347.

Asansattha (adj.) [a + sansattha] not mixed or mixing, not associating, not given to society M I.21Q; S I.63; Sn 628 = Dh 404 ( = dassana-savana-samullapa paribhogakaya-sansagganam abhavena SnA 468 = DhA IV.173).

Asanharima (adj.) = asanhariya (*) Vin IV.272.

Asanhariya (adj.) [grd. of a + sanharati] not to be destroyed or shattered It 77; Th 1, 372; Nd2 110.

Asanhira (adj.) [ = asanhariya of san + hr] immovable, unconquerable, irrefutable Vin II.96; S I.193; A IV.141; V.71; Sn 1149 (as Ep. of Nibbana, cp. Nd2 110); J I. 62; IV.283 (*citta unfaltering); Dpvs IV.12.

Asakka (adj.) [a + sakka; Sanskrit ashakya] impossible J V. 362 (*rupa).

Asakkuneyya (adj.) [grd. of a + Sakkoti] impossible, unable to J I.55; KhA 185 and passim.

Asakkhara (adj.) [a + sakkhara] not stony, free from gravel or stones, smooth J V.168; DhA III.401 (opp. sasakkhara).

ASakyadhita (f.) [a + Sakyadhita] not a true Buddhist nun Vin IV.214.

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Asagguna [a + sagguna] bad quality, vice Sdhp 382 (*bhavin, the a* belongs to the whole cpd.).

Asankita and *iya (adj.) [a + sankita, pp. of shank] not hesitating, not afraid, not anxious, firm, bold J I.334 (*iya); V.241; Sdhp 435, 541.

Asankuppa (adj.) [a + sankuppa, grd. of kup] not to be shaken; immovable; steady, safe (Ep. of Nibbana) Sn 1149 (cp. Nd2 106); Th 1, 649.

Asankusaka (adj.) [a + sankusaka, which is distorted from Sanskrit sankasuka splitting, crumbling, see Kern, Toev. p. 18] not contrary J VI.297 (*vattin, C. appatilomavattin, cp. J translation. VI.143).

Asankheyya (adj.) [a + sankheyya, grd. of san-khya] incalculable, innumerable, nt. an immense period A II.142; Miln 232 (cattari a.), 289 DhA I.5, 83, 104.

Asanga (adj.) [a + sanga] not sticking to anything, free from attachment, unattached Th 2, 396 (*manasa, = anasattacitta ThA 259); Miln 343. Cp. next.

Asangita (adj.) [from asanga, a + sangita, or should we read asangika*] not sticking or stuck, unimpeded, free, quick J V.409.

Asacca (adj.) [a + sacca] not true, false J V.399.

Asajjamana (adj.) [ppr. med. of a + sajjati, sanj] not clinging, not stuck, unattached Sn 38, 71 (cp. Nd2 107); Dh 221 (namarupasmim a. = alaggamana DhA III.298).

Asajjittho 2nd sg. pret. med. of sajjati to stick or cling to, to hesitate J I.376. See sajjati.

Asajjhaya [a + sajjhaya] non-repetition Dh 241 (cp. DhA III.347).

Asanna (adj.) [a + sanna] unconscious, *satta unconscious beings N. of a class of Devas D I.28 (cp. DA I.118 and BSanskrit asanjnika-sattva* Divy 505).

Asannata (adj.) [a + sannata, pp. of san + yam] unrestrained, intemperate, lacking self-control It 43 = 90 = Sn 662 = Dh 307.

Asannin (adj.) [a + sannin] unconscious D I.54 (*gabbha, cp. DA I.163); III.111, 140, 263; It 87; Sn 874.

Asatha (adj.) [a + satha] without guile, not fraudulent, honest D III.47, 55, 237; DhA I.69.

Asanthita (adj.) [a + santhita] not composed, unsettled, fickle It 62, 94.

Asat (Asanto) [a + sat, ppr. of asti] not being, not being good, i. e. bad, not genuine (cp. asa); frequent, e. g. Sn 94, 131, 881, 950; Dh 73, 77, 367; It 69 (asanto nirayan nenti). See also asaddhamma.

Asati (and Asanati q. v.) [Sanskrit ashnati, ash to partake of, to eat or drink cp. amsha share, part] to eat; imper. asnatu J V 376; fut. asissami Th 1, 223; Sn 970. - ppr. med. asamana J V.59; Sn 239. ger. asitva Miln 167; and asitvana J IV.371 (an*). pp. asita (q. v.). See also the spurious forms asmiye and anhati (anhamana Sn 240), also asita1.

Asatiya (adv.) [instr. of a + sati] heedlessly, unintentionally J III.486.

Asatta (adj.) [pp. of a + sajjati] not clinging or attached, free from attachment Sn 1059; Dh 419; Nd2 107, 108; DhA IV.228.

Asattha (n. adj.) [a + sattha] absence of a sword or knife, without a knife, usually combined. with adanda in var. phrases: see under danda. Also at Th 1, 757 (+ avana).

Asadisa (adj.) [a + sadisa] incomparable, not having its like DhA II.89; III.120 (*dana).

Asaddha (adj.) [a + saddha] not believing, without faith D III.252, 282.

Asaddhamma [a + sat + dhamma, cp. asat and BSanskrit asaddharma] evil condition, sin, esp. sexual intercourse; usually mentioned as a set of several sins, viz. as 3 at It 85; as 4 at A II.47; as 7 at D III.252, 282; as 8 at Vin II.202.

Asana1 (nt.) [Vedic ashan(m)] stone, rock J II.91; V.131.

Asana2 (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit ashana of ash, cp. asati] eating, food; adj. eating J I.472 (ghata-sana Ep. of the fire; V.64 (id.). Usually in negative form anasana fasting, famine, hunger Sn 311 ( = khuda SnA 324); DA I.139. See also nirasana.

Asana3 (nt.) [Sanskrit asana] the tree Pentaptera Tomentosa J I.40 (as Bodhi-tree of Gotama); II.91; V.420; VI.530.

Asana4 (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit asana, to asyati to hurl, throw] an arrow M I.82 = S I.62. Cp. asani.

Asanati [see asati] to eat, to consume (food) J I.472; V. 64; VI.14 (Esb. note: read asnati; C. paribhunjati).

Asani (f.) [Vedic ashani in same meaning; with Sanskrit ashri corner, caturashra four cornered (see assa), to Latin acer pointed, sharp, Gr. a)/kros pointed, Ags. egl sting, Ohg. ekka corner, point. Connected with this is Sanskrit ashan (see asana1). Cp. also amsa and asama2] orig. a sharp stone as hurling-weapon thence in mythol. Indra's thunderbolt, thunder-clap, lightning J I.71, 167; II.154; III.323; Miln 277; VvA 83. -aggi the fire of thunder, i. e. lightning or fire caused by lightning DhA III.71. -pata the falling of the thunderbolt, thunderclap, lightning DA I.280 (or should we read asannipata*); PvA 45. -vicakka same as *pata (*) S II. 229 ( = labha-sakkara-silokassa adhivacana); D III.44, 47.

Asantasan and -anto (adj.) [ppr. of a + santasati] fearless, not afraid Sn 71, 74; J IV.101; VI.306; Nd2 109.

Asantasin (adj.) [a + santasin, cp. asantasan] fearless, not trembling, not afraid Sn 850; Dh 351; Nd2 109; DhA IV.70.

Asantuttha [pp. of a + santussati] not contented with, greedy, insatiate, unhappy Sn 108. Cp. next.

Asantutthita (f.) [abstr. from asantutthita = asantuttha] dissatisfaction, discontentment D III.214 (so read for tutth*) = A I.95.

Asanthava [a + santhava] dissociation, separation from society, seclusion Sn 207.

Asandhita (f.) [a + sandhi + ta] absence of joints, disconnected state J VI.16.

Asannata (adj.) [a + sannata] not bent or bending Sdhp 417.

Asapatta (adj.-n.) [a + sapatta = Sanskrit sapatna] (act.) without enmity, friendly (med.) having no enemy or foe, secure, peaceful D II.276; Sn 150 ( = vigata-paccatthika, mettaviharin KhA 249); Th 2, 512.

Asapatti (f.) [a + sapatti] without co-wife or rival in marriage S IV.249.

Asappurisa [a + sappurisa, cp. asat] a low, bad or unworthy man M III.37; SnA 479 ( = anariya Sn 664).

Asabala (adj.) [a + sabala] unspotted D II.80 = III.245.

Asabbha (adj.) [a + sabbha, i. e. *sabhya cp. sabha and in meaning court: courteous, hof: hoflich etc.] not belonging to the assembly-room, not consistent with good manners,

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impolite, vile, low, of base character J III.527 (matugama); Dh 77 = J III.367 = Th 1, 994; Miln 221; DhA I.256; ThA 246 (akkhi). Cp. next. - Note. Both sabbha and sabbhin occur only in the negative form.

Asabbhin = asabbna J I.494, more frequent in compounds as asabbhi*, e.g. -karana a low or sinful act Miln 280. -rupa low, common J VI.386 ( = asadhu-jatika, lamaka), 387 ( = asabbhijatika), 414 ( = apandita-jatika). Cp. prec.

Asabha [Sanskrit r.sabha] see usabha.

Asama1 (adj.) [a + sama] unequal, incomparable J I.40 (+ appatipuggala); Sdhp 578 (+ atula). Esp. frequent in cpd. *dhura lit. carrying more than an equal burden, of incomparable strength, very steadfast or resolute Sn 694 ( = asama-viriya SnA 489); J I.193; VI.259, 330.

Asama2 (nt.) [the diaeretic form of Sanskrit ashman hurling stone, of whieh the contracted form is amha (q. v.); connected with Latin ocris "mons confragosus"; Gr. a)/kmwn anvil; Lith. akmu*~ stone, see also asana1 (Sanskrit ashan stone for throwing) and asani] stone, rock DA I.270, 271 (*mutthika having a hammer of stone; v. l. BB. ayamutthika); SnA 392 (instr. asmana).

Asamaggiya (nt.) [abstr. from a + samagga] lack of concord, disharmony J VI.516 (so read for asamaggiya).

Asamana at Pug 27 is to be read assamana (q. v.).

Asamapekkhana (nt.) and *a (f.) [from a + sam + apekkhati] lack of consideration S III.261; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162.

Asamahita (adj.) [a + samahita] not composed, uncontrolled, not firm It 113 (opp. susamahita); Dh 110, 111; Pug 35.

Asamijjhanaka (adj.) [a + samijjhana + ka] unsuccessful, without result, fruitless; f. *ika J III.252.

ASamiddhi (f.) [a + Samiddhi] misfortune, lack of success J VI.584.

Asamosarana (nt.) [a + samosarana] not coming together, not meeting, separation J V.233.

Asampakampiya (adj.) [grd. of a + sampakampeti] not to be shaken, not to be moved Sn 229 ( = kampetum va caletum va asakkuneyyo KhA 185).

Asampajanna (nt.) [a + sampajanna] lack of intelligence D III.213; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162, 1351.

Asampayanto [ppr. of a + sampayati] unable to solve or explain Sn p. 92.

Asambadha (adj.) [a + sambadha] unobstructed Sn 150 ( = sambadha-virahita KhA 248); J I.80; ThA 293.

Asammodiya (nt.) [a + sammodiya] disagreement, dissension J VI.517 ( = asamaggiya C.).

Asammosa [a + sammosa cp. B.Sanskrit asammo.sadharman Ep. of the Buddha; Divy 49 etc] absence of confusion D III.221 = Dhs 1366.

Asayanvasin (adj.) [a + sayan + vasim] not under one's own control, i. e. dependent D II.262; J I.337.

Asayha (adj.) [a + sayha, grd. of sah = Sanskrit asahya] impossible, insuperable J VI.337. Usually in cpd. *sahin conquering the unconquerable, doing the impossible, acchieving what has not been achieved before Th 1, 536, Pv II.922 (Angirasa); It 32.

Asahana (nt.-adj.) [a + sahana] not enduring, non-endurance, inability J III.20; PvA 17.

Asahaya (adj.) [a + sahaya] one who is without friends; who is dependent on himself Miln 225.

Asa see asa.

Asata (adj.) [a + sata, Sanskrit ashata, Kern's interpretation and etymology of asata at Toev. s.v. p. 90 is improbable] disagreeable Vin I.78 (asata vedana, cp. asata vedana M Vastu I 5); Sn 867; J I.288, 410; II.105; Dhs 152, 1343.

Asadharana (adj.) [a + sadharana cp. asadharana Divy 561] not general, not shared, uncommon, unique Vin III.35; Kh VIII.9; J I.58, 78; Miln 285; DA I.71; Sdhp 589, 592.

Asamapaka (adj.) [a + sama + paka] one who does not cook (a meal) for himself (a practice of ascetics) DA I.270.

Asara (n. adj.) [a + sara] that which is not substance, worthlessness; adj. worthless, vain, idle Sn 937 ( = asara nissara sara-pagata Nd1 409); Dh 11, 12 (cp. DhA I.114 for interpretation).

Asaraka (adj.) [a + saraka] unessential, worthless, sapless, rotten Th 1, 260; J II.163 = DhA I.144.

Asaraddha (adj.) [a + saraddha] not excited, cool A I.148 = It 119 (passaddho kayo a.; v.l. assaraddha).

Asahasa (nt.) [a + sahasa] absence of violence, meekness, peaceableness D III.147 (asahase rata fond of peace); acc. as adv. asahasan without violence, not arbitrarily J III.319; instr. asahasena id. J VI.280; Dh 257 ( = amusavadena DhA III.382).

Asi [Vedic asi, Av. amhu Latin ensis] a sword, a large knife D I.77 ( = DA I.222); M II.99; A I.48 = (asina sisan chindante); IV.97 (asina hanti attanam); J IV.118 (asi sunisito), 184; V.45 (here meaning "sickle"), 475 (asin ca me mannasi, probably faulty for either "asin ca me" or "asincam me"); Vism 201 (nana-si the sword of knowledge); PvA 253 (asina pahata). -camma sword and shield Vin II.192; A III.93; J VI.449. -tharu the hilt of a sword DhA IV.66. -nakha having nails like swords Pgdp 29. -patta having sword-like leaves, with swords (knives) for leaves (of the sword-leaf-wood in Niraya, a late feature in the descriptions of Purgatory in Indian speculative Theology, see e. g. Mark-andeyapurana XII.24 sq.; Mhbharata XII.321; Manu IV.90; XII. 75; Scherman, Visionsliteratur pp. 23 sq.) J VI.250 (*niraya); PvA 221 (*vana); Sdhp 194. -pasa having swords for snares (a class of deities) Miln 191. -mala (-kamma) sword-garland (-torture) J III.178 (+sisan chindapeti); Davs III.35. Preferable to interpretation "sword-dirt", see mala (mala). -lakkhana "swordsign", i.e. (fortune-telling from) marks or a sword D I.9; J I.455. -loma having swords for hair S II.257, cp. Vin III.106. -suna slaughter-house (so also B.Sanskrit asisuna Divy 10, 15; see further detail under "kama" similes) Vin II.26; M I.130, 143; A III.97. -sula a swordblade Th 2, 488 (explained. at ThA 287 by adhikuttanatthena, i.e. with reference to the executioner's block, cp. also sattisula).

Asika (adj.) (-*) [asi + ka] having a sword, with a sword in phrase ukkhitt-asika with drawn sword, M I.377; J I.393.

Asita1 [Sanskrit ashita, pp. of *asati, Sanskrit ashnati] having eaten, eating; (nt.) that which is eaten or enjoyed, food M I.57; A III.30, 32 (*pita-khayita etc.); PvA 25 (id.); J VI.555 *(asana having enjoyed one's food, satisfied). Cp. asita1.

Asita2 (adj.) [a + sita pp. of *shri, Sanskrit ashrita] not clinging to, unattached, independent, free (from wrong desires) D II.261 (*a-tiga); M I.386; Th 1, 38, 1242 (see Mrs Rh. D. in Brethren 404 note 2); J II.247; It 97; Sn 251, 519, 593, 686 (Asitavhaya, called the Asita i.e. the Unattached; cp. SnA 487), 698 (id.), 717, 957, 1065 (cp. Nd2 111 and nissaya).

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Asita3 (adj.) [Sanskrit asita; Idg. *as, cp. Latin areo to be dry, i. e. burnt up; Gr. a)/zw to dry; orig. meaning burnt, hence of burnt, i. e. black colour (of ashes)] black-blue, black M II.180 (*vyabhangi); A III.5 (id.); Th 2, 480 ( = indanila ThA 286); J III.419 (*a-pangin black-eyed); v. 302; Davs I.45.

Asita4 (m. nt.) [from asi] a sickle J III.129; V 46.

Asiti (num.) [Sanskrit ashiti] 80 (on symbolical meaning and frequent application see attha1 B 1 c, where also most of the ref's. In addition we mention the following:) J I.233 (*hattha 80 hands, i. e. 80 cubits deep); III.174 (*sahassa-varana-parivuta); VI.20 (vassasahassani); Miln 23 (asitiya bhikkhusahassehi saddhim); Vism 46 (satakotiyo) DhA I.14, 19 (mahathera); II.25 (*koti-vibhava). Cp. a*sitika.

Asu (pronoun.) [Sanskrit asau (m.), adas (nt.); base amu* in oblique cases and derivation, e.g. adv. amutra (q.v.)] pronoun. d*monstr. "that", that one, usually combined. with yo (yam), e. g. asu yo so puriso M I.366; yam adum khettam S IV.315. nom. sg. m. asu S IV.195; Miln 242; f. asu J V.396 (asu metri causa-); nt. adum M I.364, 483; A I.250. Of oblique cases e. g. amuna (instr.) A I.250. Cp. also next.

Asuka (pronoun.-adj.) [asn + ka] such a one, this or that, a certain Vin III.87; J I.148; PvA 29, 30, 35, 109, 122 (*m gatim gata).

Asuci (adj.) [a + suci] not clean, impure, unclean Sn 75 (*manussa, see Nd2 112); Pug 27, 36; Sdhp 378, 603.

Asucika (nt.) [abstr. from asuci] impurity, unclean living, defilement Sn 243 (*missita = asucibhava-missita SnA 286.

Asubha (adj.) [a + subha] impure, unpleasant, bad, ugly, nasty; nt. *m nastiness, impurity. Cp. on term and the Asubha-meditation, as well as on the 10 asubhas or offensive objects Dhs. trsl. 70 and Cpd.121 n. 6. - S IV.111 (asubhato manasikaroti); V.320; Sn 341; Sdhp 368. -subha-subha pleasant unpleasant, good and bad Sn 633; J III. 243; Miln 136. -a-nupassin realising or intuiting the corruptness (of the body) It 80, 81; DhA I.76. -katha talk about impurity Vin III.68. -kammatthana reflection on impurity DhA III.425. -nimitta sign of the unclean i. e. idea of impurity Vism 77. -bhavana contemplation of the impurity (of the body) Vin III.68. -sanna idea of impurity D III.253, 283, 289, 291. -sannin having an idea of or realising the impurity (of the body) It 93.

Asura [Vedic asura in more comprehensive meaning; connected with Av. ahuro Lord, ahuro mazda*; perhaps to Av. anhu.s and Latin erus mastereotype a fallen angel, a Titan; pl. asura the Titans, a class of mythological beings. Dhpala at PvA 272 and the C. on J V.186 define them as ka'akanjaka-bheda asura. The are classed with other similar inferior deities, e. g. with garu'a, naga, yakkha at Miln 117; with supanna, Gandhabba, yakkha at DA I.51. The fight between Gods and Titans is also reflected in the oldest books of the Pali Canon and occurs in identical description at the following passages under the title of deva-sura-sangama: D II.285; S I.222 (cp. 216 sq.), IV.201 sq., V.447; M I.253; A IV.432. - Rebirth as an Asura is considered as one of the four unhappy rebirths or evil fates after death (apaya; viz. niraya, tiracchana-yoni, peta or pettivisaya, asura), e. g. at It 93; J V.186; Pv IV.111, see also apaya. - Other passages in general: S I.216 sq. (fight of Devas and Asuras); IV.203; A II.91; IV.198 sq., 206; Sn 681; Nd1 89, 92, 448; DhA I.264 (*kanna); Sdhp 366, 436. -inda Chief or king of the Titans. Several Asuras are accredited with the role of leaders, most commonly Vepacitti (S I.222; IV.201 sq.) and Rahu (A II.17, 53; III.243). Besides these we find Paharada (gloss Mahabhadda) at A IV.197. -kaya the body or assembly of the asuras A I.143; J V.186; ThA 285. -parivara a retinue of Asuras A II.91. -rakkhasa Asuras and Rakkhasas (Rak.sasas) Sn 310 (defined by Bdhgh at SnA 323 as pabbata-pada-nivasino danava-yakkha-sannita).

Asuropa [probably a haplological contraction of asura-ropa. On various suggestions as to etymology and meaning see Morris's discussion at J P T S. 1893, 8 sq. The word is found as asulopa in the Asoka inscriptions] anger, malice, hatred; abruptness, want of forbearance Pug 18 = Vbh 357; Dhs 418, 1060, 1115, 1341 (an*); DhsA 396.

Asussusan [ppr. of a + sususati, Desid. of shru, cp. Sanskrit shushru.sati] not wishing to hear or listen, disobedient J V.121.

Asuyaka see anasuyaka.

Asura (adj.) [a + sura1] - 1. not brave, not valiant, cowardly Sn 439. - 2. uncouth, stupid J VI.292 (cp. Kern. Toev. p. 48).

Asekha (and Asekkha) (adj. n.) [a + sekha] not requiring to be trained, adept, perfect, m. one who is no longer a learner, an expert; very often meaning an Arahant (cp. B.Sanskrit occurring only in phrase those in training and the adepts, e.g. Divy 261, 337; Av. SH I.269, 335; II.144) Vin I.62 sq.; III.24; S I.99; D III.218, 219; It 51 (asekho silakkhandho; v. l. asekkha); Pug 14 ( = arahant); Dhs 584, 1017, 1401; Kvu 303 sq. -muni the perfectly Wise DhA III.321. -bala the power of an Arahant, enumerated in a set of 10 at Ps II.173, cp. 176.

Asecanaka (adj.) [a + secana + ka, from sic to sprinkle, cp. B.Sanskrit asecanaka-darshana in same meaning e. g. Divy 23, 226, 334] unmixed, unadulterated, i. e. with full and unimpaired properties, delicious, sublime, lovely M I.114; S I.213 (a. ojava "that elixir that no infusion needs" Mrs Rh. D.) = Th 2, 55 (explained. as anasittakam pakatiya -va maharasan at ThA 61) = Th 2, 196 ( = anasittakam ojavantam sabhava-madhuram ThA 168); S V.321; A III. 237 sq. Miln 405.

Asevana (f.) [a + sevana] not practising, abstinence from Sn 259 ( = abhajana apayirupasana KhA 124).

Asesa (adj.) [a + sesa] not leaving a remnant, without a remainder, all, entire, complete Sn 2 sq., 351, 355, 500, 1037 ( = sabba Nd2 113). As *- (adv.) entirely, fully, completely Sn p. 141 (*viraga-nirodha); Miln 212 (*vacana inclusive statement).

Asesita (adj.) [pp. of a + Causative of shis., see seseti and sissati] leaving nothing over, having nothing left, entire, whole, all J III.153.

Asoka1 (adj.) [a + soka, cp. Sanskrit ashoka] free from sorrow Sn 268 ( = nissoka abbu'ha-soka-salla KhA 153); Dh 412; Th 2, 512.

Asoka2 [Sanskrit ashoka] the Asoka tree, Jonesia Asoka J V.188; Vv 354, 359 (*rukkha); Vism 625 (*ankura); VvA 173 (*rukkha).

Asonda (adj.) [a + sonda] not being a drunkard, abstaining from drink J V.116. - f. asondi A III.38.

Asotata (nt.) [abstr. a + sota + ta, having no ears, being earless J VI.16.

Asnati [Sanskrit ashnati to eat, to take food; the regular Pali forms are asati (as base) and asanati] to eat; imper. asnatu J V.376.

Asman (nt.) [Vedic ashman; the usual Pali forms are amha and asama2] stone, rock; only in instr. asmana SnA 362.

Asmasati [spurious form for the usual assasati = Sanskrit ashvasati] to trust, to rely on J V.56 (Pot. asmase).

Asmi (I am) see atthi.

Asmimana [asmi + mana] the pride that says "I am", pride of self, egotism (same in B.Sanskrit e.g. Divy 210, 314) Vin I.3; D III.273; M I.139, 425; A III.85; Ps I.26; Kvu 212; DhA I.237. Cp. aham asmi.

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Asmiye 1 sg. ind. pres. med. of ash to eat, in sense of a fut. "I shall eat" J V.397, 405 (C. bhunjissami). The form is to be explained. as denom. formn. from -asha food, = amsiyati and with metathesis asmiyati. See also anhati which would correspond either to *amshyati or ashnati (see asati).

Assa1 [for Amsa1, q. v. for etymology] shoulder; in cpd. assaputa shoulder-bag, knapsack i. e. a bag containing provisions, instr. assuputena with provisions. Later exegesis has interpreted this as a bag full of ashes, and vv. ll. as well as Commentators take assa = bhasma ashes (thus also Morris J P T S. 1893, 10 without being able to give an etymology). The word was already misunderstood by Bdhgh. when he explained the Digha passage by bhasmaputena, sise charikam okiritva ti attho DA I.267. After all it is the same as putamsa (see under amsa1). - D I.98, cp. A II.242 (v. l. bhasma*); DA I.267 (v.l. bhassa*).

Assa2 [for amsa2 = Sanskrit ashra point, corner, cp. Sanskrit ashri, Gr. a)/krosando)cu/s sharp, Latin acer] corner, point; occurs only in cpd. caturassa four-cornered, quadrangular, regular (of symmetrical form, Vin II.316; J IV.46, 492; Pv II.119. Perhaps also at Th 2, 229 (see under assa3). Occurs also in form caturamsa under catur).

Assa3 [Vedic ashva, cp. Av. aspo; Gr. i(/ppos, dial. i(/kkos; Latin equus; Oir. ech; Gall. epo-; Cymr. ep, Goth. aihva; Os. ehu; Ags. eoh] a horse; often mentioned alongside of and combined. with hatthi (elephant) Vin III.6 (panca-mattehi assa-satehi), 52 (enumerated under catuppada, quadrupeds, with hatthi ottha gona gadrabha and pasuka); A II.207; V.271; Sn 769 (gava-ssa). At Th II.229 the commentary explains caturassa as "four in hand" ; but the context shows that the more usual sense of caturassa (see assa2) was probably what the poet meant; Dh 94, 143, 144 (bhadra, a good horse), 380 (id.); Vv 203 (+ assatari); VvA 78; DhA I.392 (hatthi-assa-dayo); Sdhp 367 (dutth*). -ajaniya [cp. BSanskrit ashvajaneya Divy 509, 511] a thoroughbred horse, a blood horse A I.77, 244; II.113 sq., 250 sq.; III.248, 282 sq.; IV.188, 397; V.166, 323; PvA 216. See also ajaniya. -a-roha one who climbs on a horse, a rider on horseback, N. of an occupation "cavalry" D I.51 (+ hattha-roha; explained. at DA I.156 by sabbe pi assacariyaassavejja-assabhandadayo). -kanna N. of a tree, Vatica Robusta, lit. "horse-ear" (cp. similarly Goth. aihva-tundi the thornbush, lit. horse-tooth) J II.161; IV.209; VI.528. -khalunka an inferior horse ("shaker"), opp. sadassa. A I.287 = IV.397. -tthara a horse cover, a horse blanket Vin I.192; D I.7 -damma a horse to be tamed, a fierce horse, a stallion A II.112; *sarathi a horse trainer A II. 112, 114; V.323 sq.; DhA IV.4. -potaka the young of a horse, a foal or colt J II.288. -bandha a groom J II. 98; V.449; DhA I.392. -bhanda (for *bandha* or should we read *pandaka*) a groom or horse-trainer, a trader in horses Vin I.85 (see on form of word Kern, Toev. p. 35). -bhandaka horse-trappings J II.113. -mandala circus Vism 308, cp. M I.446. -mandalika exercising-ground Vin III.6. -medha N. of a sacrifice: the horse-sacrifice [Vedic ashvamedha as Np.] S I.76 (v. l. sassa*); It 21 (+ purisamedha); Sn 303. -yuddha a horse-fight D I.7. -rupaka a figure of a horse, a toy horse DhA II.69 (+ hatthi-rupaka). -lakkhana (earning fees by judging) the marks on a horse D I.9. -landa horse-manure, horsedung DhA IV.156 (hatthi-landa +). -vanija a horsedealer Vin III.6. -sadassa a noble steed of the horse kind A I.289 = IV.397 (in comparison with purisa*).

Assa4 is gen. dat. sg. of ayan, this.

Assa5 3. sg. Pot. of asmi (see atthi).

Assaka1 (-*) [assa3 + ka] with a horse, having a horse; an- without a horse J VI.515 (+ arathaka).

Assaka2 (adj.) [a + saka; Sanskrit asvaka] not having one's own, poor, destitute M I.450; II.68; A III.352; Ps I.126 (v. l. asaka).

Assatara [Vedic ashvatara, ashva + compar. suffix tara in function of "a kind of", thus lit. a kind of horse, cp. Latin matertera a kind of mother. i. e. aunt] a mule Dh 322 = DhA I.213; DhA IV.4 ( = va'avaya gadrabhena jata); J IV.464 (kambojake assatare sudante; imported from Cambodia); VI.342. - f. assatari a she-mule Vin II.188; S I.154; II.241; A II.73; Miln 166. - assatari-ratha a chariot drawn by she-mules Vv 203, 208 (T. assatari rata) = 438; Pv I.111 ( = assatariyutta ratha PvA 56); J VI.355.

Assattha1 [Vedic ashvattha, explained. in K Z I.467 as ashva-ttha dial. for ashva-stha "standing place for horses, which etymology is problematic; it is likely that the Sanskrit word is borrowed from a local dialect.] the holy fig-tree, Ficus, Religiosa; the tree under which the Buddha attained enlightenment, i. e. the Bo tree Vin IV.35; D II.4 (samma-sambuddho assatthassa mule abhisambuddho); S V.96; J I.16 (V.75, in word-play with assattha2 of V.79).

Assattha2 [pp. of assasati; cp. BSanskrit asvasta Av. SH I.210] encouraged, comforted A IV.184 (v. l. as gloss assasaka); Ps I.131 (loka an*; v. l. assaka); J I.16 (V.79 cp. assattha1); VI.309 ( = laddhassasa C.), 566.

Assaddha (adj.) [a + saddha] without faith, unbelieving, Sn 663; Pug 13, 20; Dhs 1327; DhA II.187.

Assaddhiya (nt.) [a + saddhiya, in form, but not in meaning a grd. of saddahati, for which usually saddheyya; cp. Sanskrit ashradheyya incredible] disbelief S I.25; A III.421; V.113 sq., 146, 148 sq., 158, 161; Vbh 371; DA I.235; Sdhp 80.

Assama [a + shram] a hermitage (of a brahmin ascetic esp. a jatila) Vin I.24 = IV.108; I.26, 246; III.147; Sn 979; Sn p. 104, 111; J I.315 (*pada) V.75 (id.) 321. VI.76 (*pada). The word is not found anywhere in the Canon in the technical sense of the later Sanskrit law books, where "the 4 ashramas" is used as a t. t. for the four stages in the life of a brahmin priest (not of a brahmin by birth). See Dial. I.211-217.

Assamana [a + samana] not a true Samana Vin I.96; Sn 282; Pug 27 (so read for asamana); Pug A 207. - f. assamani Vin IV.214.

Assaya [a + sayati, shri] resting place, shelter, refuge, seat DA I.67 (punn*). Cp. BSanskrit rajashraya Jtm 3156; ashraya also in meaning "body": see Av. SH. I.175 and Index II.223.

Assava (adj.) [a + sunati, shru] loyal D I.137; Sn 22, 23, 32; J IV.98; VI.49; Miln 254; an* inattentive, not docile DhA I.7.

Assavati [a + sru] to flow J II.276 ( = paggharati C.). Cp. also asavati.

Assavanata (f.) [abstr. from assavana] not listening to, inattention M I.168.

Assavaniya (adj.) [a + savaniya] not pleasant to hear Sdhp 82.

Assasati [a + shvas, on semantical inversion of a and pa see under a1 3] 1. to breathe, to breathe out, to exhale, J I 163; VI.305 (gloss assasento passasento susu ti saddam karonto); Vism 272. Usually in combination. with passasati to inhale, i. e. to breathe in and out, D II.291 = M I.56, cp. M I.425; J II.53, cp. V.36. - 2. to breathe freely or quietly, to feel relieved, to be comforted, to have courage S IV.43; J IV.93 assasitvana ger. = vissamitva c.); VI.190 (assasa imper., with ma soci); med. assase J IV.57 (C. for asmase T.; explained. by vissase), 111 (*itva). - 3. to enter by the breath, to bewitch, enchant, take possession J IV.495 ( = assasa-vatena upahanati avisati C.). - Causative assaseti. -pp. assattha2. See also assasa-passasa.

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Assada [a + sadiyati, svad] taste, sweetness, enjoyment, satisfaction D I.22 (vedananam samudaya atthangama assada etc.); M I.85; S II.84 sq. (*a-nupassin), 170 sq.; III.27 sq. (ko rupassa assado), 62, 102; IV.8 sq., 220; V.193, 203 sq.; A I.50 (*a-nupassin), 258, 260; II.10; III.447 (*ditthi) J I.508; IV.113, Sn 448; Ps I.139 sq., (*ditthi), 157; cp. I.1017; Pv IV.62 (kam*); Vbh 368 (*ditthi); Nett 27 sq.; Miln 388; Vism 76 (paviveka-ras-); Sdhp 37, 51. See also appassada under appa.

Assadana (f.) [cp. assada] sweetness, taste, enjoyment S I.124; Sn 447 ( = sadubhava SnA 393).

Assadeti [Denominitive from assada] to taste S II.227 (labha-sakkarasilokam); Vism 73 (paviveka-sukha-rasan); DhA I.318.

Assaraddha v. l. at It 111 for asaraddha.

Assavin (adj.) [a + sru] only in an* not enjoying or finding pleasure, not intoxicated Sn 853 (satiyesu a. = sata-vatthusa kamagunesu tanha-santhava-virahita SnA 549). See also asava.

Assasa [Sanskrit ashvasa, a + shvas] 1. (lit.) breathing, esp. breathing out (so Vism 272), exhalation, opp. to passasa inhalation, with which often combined. or contrasted; thus as cpd. assasa-passasa meaning breathing (in and out), sign of life, process of breathing, breath D II.157 = S I.159 = Th 1, 905; D III.266; M I.243; S I.106; IV.293; V.330, 336; A IV.409; V.135; J II.146; VI.82; Miln 31, 85; Vism 116, 197. - assasa in contrast with passasa at Ps I.95, 164 sq., 182 sq. - 2. (fig.) breathing easily, freely or quietly, relief, comfort, consolation, confidence M I.64; S II.50 (dhamma-vinaye); IV.254 (param-assasa-ppatta); A I.192; III.297 sq. (dhamma-vinaye); IV.185; J VI.309 (see assattha2); Miln 354; PvA 104 (*matta only a little breathing space); Sdhp 299 (param*), 313.

Assasaka (adj. n.) [from assasa] 1. (cp. assasa 1) having breath, breathing, in an* not able to draw breath Vin III.84; IV.111. - 2. (cp. assasa2) (m. and nt.) that which gives comfort and relief, confidence, expectancy J I.84; VI. 150. Cp. next.

Assasika (adj.) [from assasa in meaning of assasa 2, cp. assasaka 2] only in negative an* not able to afford comfort, giving no comfort or security M I.514; III.30; J II.298 ( = annam assasetum asamatthataya na assasika). Cp. BSanskrit anashvasika in stereotype phrase anitya adhruva anashvasika viparinamadharman Divy 207; Av. SH. 139, 144; whereas the corresponds Pali equivalent runs anicca addhuva asassata ( = appayuka) viparinama-dhamma thus inviting the conjecture that BSanskrit ashvasika is somehow distorted out of Pali asassata.

Assasin (adj.) [Sanskrit ashvasin] reviving, cheering up, consoled, happy S IV.43 (an*).

Assaseti [Causative of assasati] to console, soothe, calm, comfort, satisfy J VI.190, 512; DhA I.13.

Assita (adj.) [Sanskrit ashrita, a + pp. of shri] dependent on, relying, supported by (acc.); abiding, living in or on D II.255 (tad*); Vv 5016 (siho va guham a.); Th 1, 149 (janam ev- assito jano); Sdhp 401.

Assiri (adj.) [a + siri] without splendour, having lost its brightness, in assiri viya khayati Nett 62 = Ud 79 (which latter has sassar- iva, cp. C. on passage l. c.).

Assu1 (nt.) [Vedic ashru, Av. asru, Lith aszarà, with etymology not definitely clear: see Walde, Latin Wtb. under lacrima] a tear Vin I.87 (assuni pavatteti to shed tears); S II.282 (id.); Dh 74; Th 2, 496 (cp. ThA 289); KhA 65; DhA I.12 (*punna-netta with eyes full of tears); II.98; PvA 125. -dhara a shower of tears DhA IV.15 (pavatteti to shed). -mukha (adj.) with tearful face [cp. BSanskrit ashrumukha e. g. Jtm 3116] D I.115, 141; Dh 67; Pug 56; DA I.284; PvA 39. -mocana shedding of tears PvA 18.

Assu2 is 3rd pl. pot. of atthi.

Assu3 (indecl.) [Sanskrit sma] expletive part. also used in emphatic sense of "surely, yes, indeed" Sn 231 (according to Fausboll, but preferably with Pali T. S. ed. as tayas su for tay- assu, cp. KhA 188); Vv 324 (assa v. l. SS) = VvA 135 (assu ti nipata-mattam). Perhaps we ought to take this assu3 together with the following assu4 as a modification of ssu (see su2). Cp. asu.

Assu4 part. for Sanskrit svid (and sma*) see under su2. According to this view Fausbolls reading ken- assu at Sn 1032 is to be emended to kena ssu.

Assuka (nt.) [assu1 + ka] a tear Vin II.289; Sn 691; Pv IV.53.

Assutavant (adj.) [a + sutavant] one who has not heard, ignorant M I.1, 8, 135; Dhs 1003, 1217, cp. Dhs trsl. 258.

Aha1 (indecl.) [cp. Sanskrit aha and Pali aho; Germ. aha; Latin ehem etc.] exclamation of surprise, constereotypeation, pain etc. "ch! alas! woe!". Perhaps to be seen in cpd. *kama miserable pleasures lit. "woe to these pleasures!") gloss at ThA 292 for T. kamakama of Th 2, 506 (explained. by C. as "aha ti lamaka-pariyayo"). See also ahaha.

Aha2 (-*) and Aho (*-) (nt.) [Vedic ahan and ahas] a day. (1) *aha only in following compounds and cases: instr. eka-hena in one day J VI. 366; loc. tadahe on that (same) day PvA 46; acc. katipa-ham (for) some or several days J I.152 etc. (kattpa-ha); sattaham seven days, a week Vin I.1; D II. 14; J IV.2, and frequent; anvaham daily Davs IV.8. - The initial a of aham (acc.) is elided after i, which often appears lengthened: kati -ham how many days* S I.7; eka-ha-dvi -ham one or two days J I.292; dviha-ti -han two or three days J II.103; VvA 45; eka-ha-dvi -h- accayena after the lapse of one or two days J I.253. - A doublet of aha is anha (through metathesis from ahan), which only occurs in phrases pubbanho and sayanha (q. v.); an adj. der. from aha is *ahika: see panca-hika (consisting of 5 days). - (2) aho in cpd. ahoratta (m. and nt.) [cp. BSanskrit ahoratram Av. SH. I.209] and ahoratti (f.) day and night, occurring mostly in oblique cases and adverbially in acc. ahorattam: M I.417 (*a-nusikkhin); Dh 226 (id.; explained. by diva ca rattin ca tisso sikkha sikkhamana DhA III. 324); Th 1, 145 (ahoratta accayanti); J IV.108 (*anam accaye); Pv II.131 (*m); Miln 82 (ena). - ahorattim Dh 387; J VI.313 (v. l. BB for T. aho va rattim).

Aham (prom.) [Vedic aham = Av. az*m; Gr. e)gw/(n); Latin ego; Goth. ik, Ags. ic, Ohg. ih etc.] pronoun. of 1st person "I". nom. sg. aham S III.235; A IV.53; Dh 222, 320; Sn 172, 192, 685, 989, 1054, 1143; J I.61; II.159. - In pregnant sense (my ego, myself, I as the one and only, i. e. egotistically) in following phrases: yam vadanti mama . . na te aham S I.116, 123; aham asmi "I am" (cp. ahamkara below) S I.129; III.46, 128 sq.; IV.203; A II.212, 215 sq.; Vism 13; aham pure ti "I am the first" Vv 8450 ( = ahamahamkara ti VvA 351). - gen. dat. mayham Sn 431, 479; J I.279; II.160, mama S I.115; Sn 22, 23, 341, 997; J II.159, and mamam S I.116; Sn 253 ( = mama C.), 694, 982. - instr. maya Sn 135, 336, 557, 982; J I.222, 279. - acc. mam Sn 356, 366, 425, 936; J II. 159; III.26, and mamam J III.55, 394. - loc. mayi Sn 559; J III 188. The enclitic form in the sg. is me, and functions in different cases, as gen. (Sn 983; J II.159), acc. (Sn 982), instr. (J I.138, 222), and abl. - Pl. nom. mayan (we) Sn 31, 91, 167, 999; J II.159; VI.365, amhe J II. 129, and vayan (q. v.). - gen. amhakam J I.221; II.159 and asmakam Sn p. 106. - acc. amhe J I.222; II.415 and asme J III.359. - instr. amhehi J I.150; II.417 and asmabhi ThA 153 (Ap. 132). - loc. amhesu J I.222. The enclitic form for the pl. is no (for acc. dat and gen.): see under vayan. -kara selfishness, egotism, arrogance (see also mamamkara) M III.18, 32; S II.253; III.80, 136, 169 sq.; IV.41, 197, 202; A I.132 sq.; III.444; Ud 70; Nett 127, and frequent passim.

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Ahaha [onomat. after exclamation ahaha: see aha1] 1. exclamation of woe J III.450 (ahaha in metre). - 2. (nt.) N. of a certain division of Purgatory (Niraya), lit. oh woe! A V.173 = Sn p. 126.

Ahasa [a + hasa, cp. Sanskrit ahasa and] absence of exultancy, modesty J III.466 ( = an-ubbillavitattam C.).

Ahasi 3rd sg. aor. of harati (q. v.).

Ahi [Vedic ahi, with Av. aži perhaps to Latin anguis etc., see Walde Latin Wtb. s. v.] a snake Vin II.109; D I.77; S IV.198; A III.306 sq.; IV.320; V.289; Nd1 484; Vism 345 (+ kukkura etc.); VvA 100; PvA 144. -kunapa the carcase of a snake Vin III.68 = M I.73 = A IV.377. -gaha a snake catcher or trainer J VI.192. -gunthika (* reading uncertain, we find as vv. ll. *gundika, *guntika and *kundika; the BSanskrit paraphrase is *tundika Divy 497. In view of this uncertainty we are unable to pronounce a safe etymology; it is in all probability a dialectical; may be Non-Aryan, word. See also under kundika and gunthika and cp. Morris in J.Pali Text Society 1886, 153) a snake charmer J I.370 (*gund*); II.267; III.348 (*gund*); IV.456 (T. *gunt; v. l. BB *kund*) 308 (T. *kund*, v. l. SS *gunth*), 456 (T. *gunt*; v. l. BB *kund); VI.171 (T. *gund*; v. l. BB *kund*); Miln 23, 305. -chattaka (nt.) "a snake's parasol", a mushroom D III.87; J II.95; Ud 81 (C. on VIII.5, 1). -tundika = *gunthika Vism 304, 500. -peta a Peta in form of a snake DhA II.63. -mekhala "snake-girdle", i. e. outfit or appearance of a snake DhA I.139. -vataka (-roga) N. of a certain disease ("snakewind-sickness") Vin I.78; J II.79; IV.200; DhA I.169, 187, 231; III.437. -vijja "snake-craft", i. e. fortune-telling or sorcery by means of snakes D I.9 ( = sappa-datthatikicchana-vijja c- eva sapp- avhayana-vijja ea "the art of healing snake bites as well as the invocation of snakes (for magic purposes)" DA I.93).

Ahimsaka (adj.) [from ahimsa] not injuring others, harmless, humane, S I.165; Th 1, 879; Dh 225; J IV.447.

Ahimsa (f.) [a + himsa] not hurting, humanity, kindness D III.147; A I.151; Dh 261, 270; J IV.71; Miln 402.

Ahita (adj.-n.) [a + hita] not good or friendly, harmful, bad; unkindliness D III.246; Dh 163; Sn 665, 692; Miln 199 (*kama).

Ahirika and Ahirika (adj.) [from a + hiri] shameless, unscrupulous D III.212, 252, 282; A II.219; Dh 244; Sn 133 (*ika); It 27 (*ika); Pug 19 (also nt. unscrupulousness); Dhs 365; Nett 39, 126; DhA III.352.

Ahinindriya see discussed under abhinindriya.

Ahuvasim 1st sg. pret. of hoti (q. v.) I was Vv 826 ( = ahosim VvA 321).

Ahuhaliya (nt.) [onomat.] a hoarse and loud laugh J III.223 ( = danta-vidansaka-maha-hasita C.).

Ahe (indecl.) [ = aho, cp. aha1] exclamation of surprise or bewilderment: alas! woe etc., perhaps in cpd. ahevana a dense forest (lit. oh! this forest, alas! the forest (i. e. how big it is) J V.63 (uttamahevan and aho, if reading is correct, which is not beyond doubt. C. on p. 64 expls. as "ahevanam vuccati vanasando").

Aho (indecl.) [Sanskrit aho, for etymology see aha1] exclamation of surprise, astonishment or constereotypeation: yea, indeed, well; I say! for sure! VvA 103 (aho ti acchariy- atthena nipato); J I.88 (aho acchariyam aho abbhutam), 140. Usually combined. with similar emphatic particles, e. g. aho vata DhA II.85; PvA 131 ( = sadhu vata); aho vata re D I. 107; Pv II.94 5. Cp. ahe.

Ahosi-kamma (nt.) an act or thought whose kamma has no longer any potential force: Cpd.145. At p. 45 ahosikakamma is said to be a kamma inhibited by a more powerful one. See Buddhaghosa in Vism. Chap. XIX.

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A1 (indecl.) [Vedic a, prep. with acc., loc., abl., meaning "to, towards", and also "from". Orig. an emphatic-deictic part. (Idg. -e) = Gr. h)_ surely, really; Ohg. -a etc., increment of a (Idg. -e), as in Sanskrit a-sau; Gr. e\kei_ (cp. a3), see Brugmann, Kurze Vergl. Gr. 464, 465] a frequent prefix, used as well-defined simple base-prefix (with rootderivations), but not as modification (i. e. first part of a double prefix cpd. like sam-a-dhi) except in one case a-ni-sansa (which is doubtful and of different origin, viz. from combination. asansa-nisansa, see below 3b). It denotes either touch (contact) or a personal (close) relation to the object (a ti anussaran- atthe nipato PvA 165), or the aim of the action expressed in the verb. - (1.) As prep. c. abl. only in J in meaning "up to, until, about, near" J VI.192 (a sahassehi = yava s. C.), prob. a late development. As prefix in meaning "forth, out, to, towards, at, on" in following applications: - (a) aim in general or touch in particular (lit.), e. g. akaddhati pull to, along or up; -kasa shining forth; -koteti knock at; -gacchati go towards; -camati rinse over; -neti bring towards, ad-duce; -bha shining forth; -bhujati bend in; -masati touch at; -yata stretched out; -rabhati at-tempt; -rohana a-scending; -laya hanging on; -loketi look at; -vattati ad-vert; -vahati bring to; -vasa dwelling at; -sadeti touch; -sidati sit by; -hanati strike at. - (b) in reflexive function: close relation to subject or person actively concerned, e. g. adati take on or up (to oneself); -dasa looking at, mirror; -dhara support; -nandati rejoice; -nisansa subjective gain; -badha being affected; -modita pleased; -rakkha guarding; -radhita satisfied; -rama (personal) delight in; -lingati embrace (to oneself); -hara taking to (oneself). - (c) in transitive function: close relation to the object passively concerned, e. g. aghatana killing; -carati indulge in; -cikkhati point ont, explain; -jiva living on; -napeti give an order to somebody; -disati point out to some one; -bhindati cut; -manteti ad-dress; -yacati pray to; -roceti speak to; sincati besprinkle; -sevati indulge in. - (d) out of meaning (a) develops that of an intensive-frequentative prefix in sense of "all-round, completely, very much", e. g. akinna strewn all over, -kula mixed up; -dhuta moved about; -rava shouting out or very much; -lu'ati move about; -hindati roam about. - 2. Affinities. Closely related in meaning and often interchanging are the following prep. (prefixes): anu (-bhati), abhi (-sansati), pa (-tapati), pati (-kankhati) in meaning 1 a-c; and vi (-kirati, -ghata, -cameti, -lepa, -lopa), sam (-tapati, -dassati) in meaning 1 d. See also 3b. - 3. Combinations: (a) Intensifying combinations. of other modifying prefixes with a as base: anu + a (anva-gacchati, -disati, -maddati, -rohati, -visati, -sanna, -hata), pati + a (pacca-janati, -ttharati, -dati, -savati), pari + a (pariya-nata, -dati, -pajjati, -harati), sam + a (sama-disati, -dana, -dhi, -pajjati, -rabhati). - (b) Contrast-combinations. with other prefix in a double cpd. of noun, adj. or verb (cp. above 2) in meaning of "up and down, in and out, to and fro"; a + ni: avedhika-nibbedhika, asansa-nisansa (contracted to anisansa), asevita-nisevita; a + pa: assasatipassasati (where both terms are semantically alike; in exegesis however they have been differentiated in a way which looks like a distortion of the original meaning, viz. assasati is taken as "breathing out", passasati as "breathing in": see Vism 271), assasa-passasa, amoditapamodita, ahuna-pahuna, ahuneyya-pahuneyya; a + pacca:

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Akotita-paccakotita; a + pari: akaddhana-parikaddhana, asankita-parisankita; a + vi: alokita-vilokita, avaha-vivaha, avethana-vinivethana; a + sam: allapa-sallapa: a + sama: acinna-samacinna. - 4. Before double consonants a is shortened to a and words containing a in this form are to be found under a*, e. g. akkamana, akkhitta, acchadeti, annata, appoteti, allapa, assada.

A2 guna or increment of a* in connection with such suffixes as -ya, -iya, -itta. So in ayaSakya from ayasaka; aruppa from arupa; arogya from aroga; alasiya from alasa; adhipacca from adhipati; abhidosika from abhidosa etc.

A3 of various other origins (guna e. g. of .r or lengthening of ordinary root a*), rare, as alinda (for alinda), asabha (from usabha).

A4 infix in repetition-compounds denoting accumulation or variety (by contrast with the opposite, cp. a1 3b), constitutes a guna- or increment-form of negative prefix a (see a2), as in following: phalaphala all sorts of fruit (lit. what is fruit and not fruit) frequent in Jatakas, e. g. I.416; II.160; III.127; IV.220, 307, 449; V.313; VI.520; karanakaranani all sorts of duties J VI.333; DhA I.385; khandakhanda pele-mele J I.114; III.256; gandaganda a mass of boils DhA III.297; ciraciram continually Vin IV.261; bhavabhava all kinds of existences Sn 801, cp. Nd1 109; Nd2 664; Th 1, 784 (*esu = mahant-a-mahantesu bh. C., see Brethren 305); ruparupa the whole aggregate ThA 285; etc.

Akankhati (asp: Akankhati Akankhati) [a + kank.s, cp. kankhati] to wish for, think of, desire; intend, plan, design Vin II.244 (-amana); D I.78, 176; S I.46; Sn 569 (-amana); Sn p. 102 ( = icchati SnA 436); DhA I.29; SnA 229; VvA 149; PvA 229.

Akankha (asp: Akankha Akankha) f. [from a + kank.s] longing, wish; as adj. at Th 1, 1030.

Akaddhati [a + kaddhati] to pull along, pull to (oneself), drag or draw out, pull up Vin II.325 (Bdhgh. for apakassati, see under apakasati); IV.219; J I.172, 192, 417; Miln 102, 135; ThA 117 (*eti); VvA 226; PvA 68. Pass. akaddhiyati J II.122 (*amana-locana with eyes drawn away or attracted); Miln 102; Vism 163; VvA 207 (*amana-hadaya with torn heart). -pp. akaddhita.

Akaddhana (nt.) [from akaddhati] drawing away or to, pulling out, distraction VvA 212 (*parikaddhana pulling about); DhsA 363; Miln 154 (*parikaddhana), 352. - As f. Vin III.121.

Akaddhita [pp. of akaddheti] pulled out, dragged along; upset, overthrown J III.256 ( = akkhitta2).

Akantana (*) a possible reading, for the durakantana of the text at Th 1, 1123, for which we might read durakantana.

Akappa [cp. Sanskrit akalpa a + kappa] 1. attire, appearance, Vin I.44 (an*) = II.213; J I.505. - 2. deportment Dhs 713 (a* gamanadi-akaro DhsA 321). -sampanna, suitably attired, well dressed, A III.78; J IV.542; an* sampanna, ill dressed, J I.420.

Akampita [pp. of akampeti, Causative of a + kamp] shaking, trembling Miln 154 (*hadaya).

Akara [cp. Sanskrit akara] a mine, usually in cpd. ratan-akara a mine of jewels Th 1, 1049; J II.414; VI. 459; Dpvs I.18. - Cp. also Miln 356; VvA 13.

Akassati [a + kassati] to draw along, draw after, plough, cultivate Nd1 428.

Akara [a + karoti, kr] "the (way of) making", i. e. (1) state, condition J I.237 (avasan* condition of inhabitability); II.154 (patan* state of falling, labile equilibrium), cp. pann*. - (2) property, quality, attribute D I.76 (anavila sabb*-sampanna endowed with all good qualities, of a jewel); II.157 (*varupeta); J II.352 (sabb* paripunna altogether perfect in qualities). - (3) sign, appearance, form, D I.175; J I.266 (chatak.r sign of hunger); Miln 24 (*ena by the sign of . .); VvA 27 (therassa a. form of the Th.); PvA 90, 283 (ranno a. the king's person); Sdhp 363. - (4) way, mode, manner, sa-akara in all their modes D I.13 = 82 = III.111; J I.266 (agaman* the mode of his coming). Esp. in instr. sg. and pl. with num. or pronoun. (in this way, in two ways etc.): chah-akarehi in a sixfold manner Nd2 680 (cp. karanehi in same sense); Nett 73, 74 (dvadasah-akarehi); Vism 613 (navah-akarehi indriyani tikkhani bhavanti); PvA 64 (yen-akarena agato ten-akarena gato as he came so he went), 99 (id.). (5) reason, ground, account D I.138, 139; Nett 4, 8 sq., 38; DhA I.14; KhA 100 (in explination. of evam). In this meaning frequent with dass (dasseti, dassana, nidassana etc.) in commentary style "what is meant by", the (statement of) reason why or of, notion, idea PvA 26 (databb*dassana), 27 (thoman*-dassana), 75 (karunn *m dassesi), 121 (pucchan*-nidassanam what has been asked); SnA 135 (*nidassana). -parivitakka study of conditions, careful consideration, examination of reasons S II.115; IV.138; A II.191 = Nd2 151.

Akaraka (nt.) [akara + ka] appearance; reason, manner (cp. akara4) J I.269 (akarakena = karanena C.).

Akaravant (adj.) [from akara] having a reason, reasonable, founded M I.401 (saddha).

Akasa1 [Sanskrit akasha from a + kash, lit. shining forth, i. e. the illuminated space] air, sky, atmosphere; space. On the concept see Cpd.5, 16, 226. On a fanciful etymology of akasa (from a + kassati of krs.) at DhsA 325 see Dhs trsl. 178. D I.55 (*m indriyani sankamanti the sense-faculties pass into space); III.224, 253, 262, 265; S III.207; IV.218; V.49, 264; J I.253; II.353; III.52, 188; IV.154; VI.126; Sn 944, 1065; Nd1 428; Pv II.118; SnA 110, 152; PvA 93; Sdhp 42, 464. -akasena gacchati to go through the air PvA 75 (agacch*), 103, 105, 162; *ena carati id. J II.103; *e gacchati id. PvA 65 (cando). - Formula "ananto akaso" frequent; e. g. at D I.183; A II.184; IV. 40, 410 sq.; V.345. -anta "the end of the sky", the sky, the air (on *anta see anta1 4) J VI.89. -ananca (or a-nanca) the infinity of space, in cpd. *ayatana the sphere or plane of the infinity of space, the "space-infinity-plane", the sphere of unbounded space. The consciousness of this sphere forms the first one of the 4 (or 6) higher attainments or recognitions of the mind, standing beyond the fourth jhana, viz. (1) akas-, (2) vinnan-ananc-ayatana (3) akincann-, (4) n-eva sannana-sann-, (5) nirodha, (6) phala. - D I.34, 183; II.70, 112, 156; III.224, 262 sq.; M I.41, 159.; III. 27, 44; S V.119; Ps I.36; Dhs 205, 501, 579, 1418; Nett 26, 39; Vism 326, 340, 453; DA I.120 (see Nd2 under akasa; Dhs 265 sq.; Dhs trsl. 71). As classed with jhana see also Nd2 672 (sadhu-viharin). -kasina one of the kasin-ayatanas (see under kasina) D III.268; A I.41. -ganga N. of the celestial river J I.95; III.344. -gamana going through the air (as a trick of elephants) Miln 201. -carika walking through the air J II.103. -carin = *carika VvA 6. -ttha living in the sky (of devata) Bu I.29; Miln 181, 285; KhA 120; SnA 476. -tala upper story, terrace on the top of a palace SnA 87. -dhatu the element of space D III.247; M I.423; III.31; A I.176; III.34; Dhs 638.

Akasa2 (nt.*) a game, playing chess "in the air" (sans voir) Vin II.10 = D I.6 ( = atthapada-dasapadesu viya akase yeva ki'anam DA I.85).

Akasaka (adj.) [akasa + ka] being in or belonging to the air or sky J VI.124.

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Akasati [from akasa1] to shine J VI.89.

Akincanna (nt.) [abstr. from akincana] state of having nothing, absence of (any) possessions; nothingness (the latter as philosophical t. t.; cp. below *ayatana and see Dhs trsl. 74). - Sn 976, 1070, 1115 (*sambhava, cp. Nd2 116); Th 2, 341 ( = akincanabhava ThA 240; trsl. "cherish no wordly wishes whatsoever"); Nd2 115, see akasa; Miln 342. -ayatana realm or sphere of nothingness (cp. akasa*) D I.35, 184; II.156; III.224, 253, 262 sq.; M I.41, 165; II.254, 263; III.28, 44, S IV.217; A I.268; IV.40, 401; Ps I.36; Nett 26, 39; Vism 333. See also jhana and vimokkha.

Akinna [pp. of akirati] 1. strewn over, beset with, crowded, full of, dense, rich in (*-) Vin III.130 (*loma with dense hair); S I.204 (*kammanta "in motley tasks engaged"); IV.37 (gamanto a. bhikkhuhi etc.); A III.104 (*viharo); IV.4; V.15 (an* C. for appakinna); Sn 408 (*varalakkhana = vipula-varalakkh* SnA 383); Pv II.124 (nana-dijagan* = ayutta PvA 157); Pug 31; PvA 32 ( = parikinna); Sdhp 595. - Freq. in idiomatic phrase describing a flourishing city "iddha phita bahujana akinna-manussa", e. g. D I.211; II.147 (*yakkha for *manussa; full of yakkhas, i. e. under their protection); A III.215; cp. Miln 2 (*jana-manussa). - 2. (uncertain whether to be taken as above 1 or as equal to avakinna from avakirati 2) dejected, base, vile, ruthless S I.205 = J III.309 = 539 = SnA 383. At K. S. 261, Mrs. Rh. D. translates "ruthless" and quotes C. as implying twofold exegesis of (a) impure, and (b) hard, ruthless. It is interesting to notice that Bdhgh. explains the same verse differently at SnA 383, viz. by vipula*, as above under Sn 408, and takes akinnaludda as vipulaludda, i. e. beset with cruelty, very or intensely cruel, thus referring it to akinna 1.

Akirati [a + kirati] to strew over, scatter, sprinkle, disperse, fill, heap Sn 665; Dh 313; Pv II.49 (danam vipulam akiri = vippakirati PvA 92); Miln 175, 238, 323 (imper. akirahi); Sn 383. -pp. akinna.

Akiritatta (nt.) [akirita + tta; abstr. from akirita, pp. of akirati Causative] the fact or state of being filled or heaped with Miln 173 (sakatam dhannassa a).

Akilayati v. l. at KhA 66 for agilayati.

Akucca (or *a*) [etymology unknown, prob. non-Aryan] an iguana J VI.538 (C. godha; gloss amatt-akucca).

Akurati [onomat. to sound-root *kur = *kor as in Latin cornix, corvus etc. See gala note 2 B and cp. kukkuta kokila, khata etc., all words expressing a rasping noise in the throat. The attempts at etymology by Trenckner (Miln p. 425 as Denominitive of akula) and Morris (J.Pali Text Society 1886, 154 as contr. Denominitive of ankura "intumescence", thus meaning "to swell") are hardly correct] to be hoarse Miln 152 (kantho akurati).

Akula (adj.) [a + *kul of which Sanskrit-Pali kula, to Idg *quel to turn round, cp. also cakka and carati; lit. meaning "revolving quickly", and so "confused"] entangled, confused, upset, twisted, bewildered J I.123 (salakaggam *m karoti to upset or disturb); Vv 849 (andha*); PvA 287 (an* clear). Often reduplicated as akulakula thoroughly confused Miln 117, 220; PvA 56; akula-pakula Ud 5 (so read for akkula-pakkula); akula-samakula J VI.270. On phrase tantakula-jata gula-gunthika-jata see gu'a.

Akulaka (adj.) [from akula] entangled D II.55 (tant* for the usual tantakula, as given under gu'a).

Akulaniya (adj.) [grd. of a + *kulayati, Denominitive of kula] in an* not to be confounded or upset PvA 118.

Akuli (-puppha) at KhA 60 (milata*) read (according to Index p. 870) as milata-bakula-puppha. Vism 260 (id. p.) however reads akuli-puppha "tangle-flower" (*), cp. Ud 5, gatha 7 bakkula, which is preferably to be read as pakula.

Akotana1 (nt.) [from akoteti] beating on, knocking M I.385; Miln 63, 306; DhsA 144.

Akotana2 (adj.) [ = akotana1] beating, driving, inciting, urging J VI.253 (f. akotani of panna, explained. by "nivaranapatoda-latthi viya panna kotini hoti" p. 254).

Akotita [pp. of akoteti] - 1. beaten, touched, knocked against J I.303; Miln 62 (of a gong). - 2. pressed, beaten down (tight), flattened, in phrase akotita-paccakotita flattened and pressed all round (of the civara) S II. 281; DhA I.37.

Akoteti [a + kotteti, Sanskrit kuttayati; BSanskrit akotayati e. g. Divy 117 dvaram trir a*, Cowell "break" (*); Av. SH. Index p. 222 s. v.] - 1. to beat down, pound, stamp J I.264. 2. to beat, knock, thrash Vin II.217; J II.274; PvA 55 (annamannam); Sdhp 159. - 3. Esp. with reference to knocking at the door, in phrases agga'am akoteti to beat on the bolt D I.89; A IV.359; V.65; DA I.252 (cp. agga'a); dvaram a. J V 217; DhA II.145; or simply akoteti Vv 8117 (akotayitvana = appotetva VvA 316). - 4. (intrs.) to knock against anything J I.239. -pp. akotita (q. v.). Causative II. akotapeti J III.361.

Akhu [Vedic akhu, from a + khan, lit. the digger in, i. e. a mole; but given as rat or mouse by Halayudha] a mouse or rat Pgdp 10.

Agacchati [a + gacchati, gam] to come to or towards, approach, go back, arive etc.

I. Forms (same arrangement as under gacchati): (1) vgacch: pres. agacchati D I.161; J II.153; Pv IV.151; fut. agacchissati J III.53; aor. agacchi Pv II.133; PvA 64. - (2) vgam: aor. agamasi PvA 81, agama D I.108; J III.128, and pl. agamimsu J I.118; fut. agamissati VvA 3; PvA 122; ger. agamma (q. v.) and agantva J I.151; Miln 14; Causative agameti (q. v.). - (3) vga: aor. aga Sn 841; Pv I.123 ( = agacchi PvA 64). -pp. agata (q. v.).

II. Mcanings: (1) to come to, approach, arrive D I.108; Pv I.113; II.133; Miln 14; to return, to come back (cp. agata) PvA 81, 122. - (2) to come into, to result, deserve (cp. agama2) D I.161 (garayham thanam deserve blame, come to be blamed); Pv IV.151 (get to, be a profit to = upakappati PvA 241). - (3) to come by, to come out to (be understood as), to refer or be referred to, to be meant or understood (cp. agata 3 and agama 3) J I.118 (tini pitakani agamimsu); SnA 321; VvA 3. See also agamma.

Agata [pp. of agacchati] (1) come, arrived Miln 18 (*karana the reason of his coming); VvA 78 (*tthana); PvA 81 (kim agat-attha why have you come here) come by, got attained (*-) A II.110 = Pug 48 (*visa); Mhvs XIV. 28 (*phala = anaganuphala) -agat-agata (pl.) people coming and going, passers by, all comers PvA 39, 78, 129; VvA 190 (Ep. of sangha). -sv-agata "wel-come", greeted, hailed; nt. welcome, hail Th 2, 337; Pv IV.315, opp. duragata not liked, unwelcome, A II.117, 143, 153; III. 163; Th 2, 337. - (2) come down, handed down (by memory, said of texts) D I.88; DhA II.35; KhA 229; VvA 30; agatagamo, one to whom the agama, or the agamas, have been handed down, Vin I.127, 337; II 8; IV.158; A II.147; Miln 19, 21. - (3) anagata not come yet, i. e. future; usually in combination. with atita (past) and paccuppanna (present): see atita and anagata.

Agati (f.) [a + gati] coming, coming back, return S III.53; J II.172. Usually opp. to gati going away. Used in spe-

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cial sense of rebirth and re-death in the course of sansara. Thus in agati gati cuti upapatti D I.162; A III.54 sq., 60 sq., 74; cp. also S II.67; Pv II.922 (gatim agatim va).

Agada (m.) and agadana (nt.) [a + gad to speak] a word; talk, speech DA I.66 ( = vacana).

Agantar [N. ag. from agacchati] one who is coming or going to come A I.63; II.159; It 4, 95 (nom. aganta only one MS, all others agantva). an* A I.64; II.160.

Agantu (adj.) [Sanskrit agantu] - 1. occasional, incidental J VI.358. - 2. an occasional arrival, a new comer, stranger J VI.529 ( = agantuka-jana C.); ThA 16.

Agantuka (adj.-n.) [agantu + ka; cp. BSanskrit agantuka in same meaning as Pali viz. agantuka bhik.sava* Av. SH I.87, 286; Divy 50] - 1. coming, arriving, new comer, guest, stranger, esp. a newly arrived bhikkhu; a visitor (opp. gamika one who goes away) Vin I.132, 167; II.170; III. 65, 181; IV.24, A I.10; III.41, 366; J VI.333; Ud 25; DhA II.54, 74; VvA 24; PvA 54. - 2. adventitions, incidental ( = agantu1) Miln 304 (of megha and roga). 3. accessory, superimposed, added Vism 195. -bhatta food given to a guest, meal for a visitor Vin I.292 (opp. gamika*); II.16.

Agama [from a + gam] - 1. coming, approach, result, D I.53 (agamanam pavattati ti DA I.160; cp. Sdhp 249 dukkh*). - 2. that which one goes by, resource, reference, source of reference, text, Scripture, Canon; thus a designation of(*) the Patimokkha, Vin II.95 = 249, or of the Four Nikayas, DA I.1, 2 (digh*). A def. at Vism 442 runs "antamaso opamma-vagga-mattassa pi Buddhavacanassa pariyapunanam". See also agata 2, for phrase agat-agama, handed down in the Canon, Vin loc. cit. Svagamo, versed in the doctrine, Pv IV.133 (sv* = sutthu agat-agamo, PvA 230); Miln 215. BSanskrit in same use and meaning, e. g. Divy 17, 333, agamani = the Four Nikayas. - 3. rule, practice, discipline, obedience, Sn 834 (agama parivitakkam), cp. Davs V.22 (takk.r, discipline of right thought) Sdhp 224 (agamato, in obedience to). 4. meaning, understanding, KhA 107 (vann*). - 5. repayment (of a debt) J. VI.245. - 6. as gram. tt. "augment", a consonant or syllable added or inserted SnA 23 (sa-kar-agama).

Agamana (nt.) [from agacchati, Sanskrit same] oncoming, arrival, approach A III.172; DA I.160; PvA 4, 81; Sdhp 224, 356. an* not coming or returning J I.203, 264.

Agameti [caus of agacchati] to cause somebody or something to come to one, i. e. (1) to wait, to stay Vin II. 166, 182, 212; D I.112, 113; S IV.291; PvA 4, 55. (2) to wait for, to welcome Vin II.128 (ppr. agamayamana); M I.161 (id.) J I.69 (id. + kalam).

Agamma (adv.) [orig. ger. of agacchati, q. v. under I.2 for form and under II.3 for meaning. BSanskrit agamya in meaning after the Pali form, e. g. Divy 95, 405 (with gen.); Av. SH I.85, 210 etc.; M Vastu I.243, 313]. With reference to (c. acc.), owing to, relating to; by means of, thanks to. In meaning nearly synonymous with arabbha, sandhaya and paticca (see K. S. 318 s. v.) D I.229; It 71; J I.50; VI.424; Kh VIII.14 ( = nissaya KhA 229); PvA 5, 21 etc.

Agamita found only in negative form anagamita.

Agamin (adj. n.) [a + gamin] returning, one who returns, esp. one who returns to another form of life in sansara (cp. agati), one who is liable to rebirth A I.63; II.159; It 95. See anagamin.

Agara (-*) see agara.

Agaraka and *ika (adj.-n.) (-*) [cp. BSanskrit agarika Divy 275, and agarika] belonging to the house, viz. (1) having control over the house, keeping, surveying, in compounds kotth* possessor or keeper of a storehouse Vin I.209; bandhan* prison-keeper A II.207; bhand* keeper of wares, treasurer PvA 2 (see also bhand*). - (2) being in the house, sharing (the house), companion S III.190 (pamsv* playmate).

Aga'ha (adj.) (a + ga'ha 1; cp. Sanskrit samagadham] strong, hard, harsh, rough (of speech), usually in instr. as adv. aga'hena roughly, harshly a I.283, 295; Pug 32 (so to be read for aga'hena, although Pug A 215 has a*, but expls. by atiga'hena vacanena); instr. f. aga'haya Vin v. 122 (ceteyya; Bdhgh. on p. 230 reads aga'aya and expls. by da'habhavaya). See also Nett 77 (aga'ha patipada a rough path), 95 (id.; v. l. aga'ha).

Agilayati [a + gilayati; Sanskrit glayati, cp. gilana] to be wearied, exhausted or tired, to ache, to become weak or faint Vin II.200; D III.209; M I.354; S IV.184; KhA 66 (hadavam a.). Cp. ayamati.

Agu (nt.) [for Vedic agas nt.] guilt, offence, S I.123; A III.346; Sn 522 = Nd2 337 (in explination. of naga as agum na karoti ti nago); Nd1 201. Note. A reconstructed agasa is found at Sdhp 294 in cpd. akatagasa not having committed sin. -carin one who does evil, D II.339; M II.88; III.163; S II.100, 128; A II.240; Miln 110.

Aghata [Sanskrit aghata only in lit. meaning of striking, killing, but cp. BSanskrit aghata in meaning "hurtfulness" at M Vastu I.79; Av. SH II.129; cp. ghata and ghateti] anger, ill-will, hatred, malice D I.3, 31; III.72 sq.; S I.179; J I.113; Dhs 1060, 1231; Vbh 167, 362, 389; Miln 136; Vism 306; DA I.52; VvA 67; PvA 178. -anaghata freedom from ill will Vin II.249; A V.80. -pativinaya repression of ill-will; the usual enumn. of a-* pativinaya comprises nine, for which see D III.262, 289; Vin V.137; A IV.408; besides this there are sets of five at A III.185 sq.; SnA 10, 11, and one of ten at Vin V.138. -vatthu occasion of ill-will; closely connected with *pativinaya and like that enumerated in sets of nine (Vin V.137; A IV.408; Ps I.130; J III.291, 404; V.149; Vbh 389; Nett 23; SnA 12), and of ten (Vin V.138; A V. 150; Ps I.130; Vbh 391).

Aghatana (nt.) [a + ghata(na), cp. aghata which has changed its meaning] - 1. slaying, striking, destroying, killing Th 1, 418, 711; death D I.31 ( = marana DA I.119). 2. shambles, slaughter-house Vin I.182 (gav*); A IV.138; J VI.113. - 3. place of execution Vin III.151; J I.326, 439; III.59; Miln 110; DhA IV.52; PvA 4, 5.

Aghateti [Denominitive from aghata, in form = a + ghateti, but different in meaning] only in phrase cittam a. (with loc.) to incite one's heart to hatred against, to obdurate one's heart. Sdhp. 126 = S I.151 = A V.172.

Acamati [a + cam] to take in water, to resorb, to rinse J III.297; Miln 152, 262 (+ dhamati). - Causative I. acamcti (a) to purge, rinse one's mouth Vin II.142; M II. 112; A III.337; Pv IV.1Q3 (acamayitva = mukham vikkhaletva PvA 241); Miln 152 (*ayamana). - (b) to wash off, clean oneself after evacuation Vin II.221. - Causative II. acamapeti to cause somebody to rinse himself J VI.8.

Acamana (nt.) [a + camana of cam] rinsing, washing with water, used (a) for the mouth D I.12 ( = udakena mukhasiddhi-karana DA I.98); (b) after evacuation J III 486. -kumbhi water-pitcher used for rinsing Vin I.49, 52; II.142, 210, 222. -paduka slippers worn when rinsing Vin I.190; II.142, 222. -saravaka a saucer for rinsing Vin II.142, 221.

Acama (f.) [from a + cam] absorption, resorption Nd1 429 (on Sn 945, which both in T. and in SnA reads ajava; explained. by tanha in Nidd.). Note. Index to SnA (Pj III) has acama.

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Acaya [a + caya] heaping up, accumulation, collection, mass (opp. apacaya). See on term Dhs trsl. 195 and Cpd.251, 252. - S II.94 (kayassa acayo pi apacayo pi); A IV.280 = Vin II.259 (opp. apacaya); Dhs 642, 685; Vbh 319, 326, 330; Vism 449; DhA II.25. -gamin making for piling up (of rebirth) A V.243, 276; Dhs 584, 1013, 1397; Kvu 357.

Acarati [a + aarati] - 1. to practice, perform, indulge in Vin I.56; II.118; Sn 327 (acare dhamma-sandosa-vadam), 401; Miln 171, 257 (papam). Cp. pp. acarita in BSanskrit e. g. Av. S I.124, 153, 213 in same meaning. -pp. acinna. - 2. to step upon, pass through J V.153.

Acarin (adj.-n.) [from a + car] treaching, f. acarini a female teacher Vin IV.227 (in contrast to gana and in same sense as acariya m. at Vin IV.130), 317 (id.).

Acariya [from a + car] a teacher (almost syn. with upajjhaya) Vin I.60, 61, 119 (*upajjhaya); II.231; IV.130 (gano va acariyo a meeting of the bhikkhus or a single teacher, cp. f. acarini); D I.103, 116 (gan*) 238 (sattama-cariyamahayuga seventh age of great teachers); III.189 sq.; M III.115; S I.68 (gan*), 177; IV.176 (yogg*); A I.132 (pubb*); Sn 595; Nd1 350 (upajjhaya va ac*); J II.100, 411; IV.91; V.501; Pv IV.323, 351 ( = acara-samacara-sikkhapaka PvA 252); Miln 201, 262 (mastereotypegoldsmith*); Vism 99 sq.; KhA 12, 155; SnA 422; VvA 138. For contracted form of acariya see acera. -kula the clan of the teacher A II.112. -dhana a teacher's fee S I.177; A V.347. -pacariya teacher upon teacher, lit. "teacher and teacher's teacher" (see a1 3b) D I.94, 114, 115, 238; S IV.306, 308; DA I.286; SnA 452 ( = acariyo c-eva acariya-acariyo ca). -bhariya the teacher's fee J V.457; VI.178; DhA I.253. -bhariya a teacher's wife AN 2 9. -mutthi "the teacher's fist" i. e. close-fistedness in teaching, keeping things back, D II.100; S V.153; J II.221, 250; Miln 144; SnA 180, 368. -vamsa the line of the teachers Miln 148. -vatta serving the teacher, service to the t. DhA I.92. -vada traditional teaching; later as heterodox teaching, sectarian teaching (opp. theravada orthodox doctrine) Miln 148; Dpvs V.30; Mhbv 96.

Acariyaka [acariya + ka, different from Sanskrit acariyaka nt. art of teaching] a teacher Vin I.249; III.25, 41; D I.88, 119, 187; II.112; M I.514; II.32; S V.261; A II.170; IV. 310. See also sacariyaka.

Acama [Sanskrit acama] the scum or foam of boiling rice D I.166; M I.78; A I.295; J II.289; Pug 55; VvA 99 sq.; DhA III.325 (*kundaka).

Acameti [for acameti* cp. Sanskrit acamayati, Causative of a + cam] at M II.112 in imper. acamehi be pleased or be thanked(*); perhaps the reading is incorrect.

Acara [a + car] way of behaving, conduct, practice, esp. right conduct, good manners; adj. (-*) practising, indulging in, or of such and such a conduct. - Sn 280 (papa*); J I.106 (vipassana*); II.280 (*ariya); VI.52 (ariya*); SnA 157; PvA 12 (sila*), 36, 67, 252; Sdhp 441. -an* bad behaviour Vin II.118 (*m acarati indulge in bad habits); DhA II.201 (*kiriya). Cp. sam*. -kusala versed in good manners Dh 376 (cp. DhA IV.111). -gocara pasturing in good conduct; i. e. practice of right behaviour D I.63 = It 118; M I.33; S V.187; A I.63 sq.; II.14, 39; III.113, 155, 262; IV.140, 172, 352; V.71 sq., 89, 133, 198; Vbh 244, 246 (cp. Miln 368, 370, quot. Vin III.185); Vism I.8. -vipatti failure of morality, a slip in good conduct Vin I.171.

Acarin (adj. n.) [from acara] of good conduct, one who behaves well A I.211 (anacari virata l. 4 from bottom is better read as acari virato, in accordance with v. l.).

Acikkhaka (adj. n.) [a + cikkha + ka of cikkhati] one who tells or shows DhA I.71.

Acikkhati [Freq. of a + khya, i. e. akkhati] to tell, relate, show, describe, explain D I.110; A II 189 (attham a to interpret); Pug 59; DhA I.14; SnA 155; PvA 121, 164 (describe). - imper. pres. acikkha Sn 1097 ( = bruhi Nd2 119 and 455); Pv I.109; II.81; and acikkhahi DhA II.27. aor. acikkhi PvA 6, 58, 61, 83. - acikkhati often occurs in stock phrase acikkhati deseti pannapeti patthapeti vivarati etc., e. g. Nd1 271; Nd2 465; Vism 163. - attanam a. to disclose one's identity PvA 89, 100. -pp. acikkhita (q. v.). - Causative II. acikkhapeti to cause some body to tell DhA II.27.

Acikkhana (adj.-nt.) [a + cikkhana of cikkhati] telling, announcing J III.444; PvA 121.

Acikkhita [pp. of acikkhati] shown, described, told PvA 154 (*magga), 203 (an* = anakkhata).

Acikkhitar [n. ag. from acikkhati] one who tells or shows DhA II.107 (for pavattar).

Acina [pp. of acinati* or is it distorted from acinna*] accumulated; practised, performed Dh 121 (papam = papam acinanto karonto DhA III.16). It may also be spelt acina.

Acinna [a + cinna, pp. of acarati] practiced, performed, (habitually) indulged in M I.372 (kamma, cp. Miln 226 and the explination. of acinnaka kamma as "chronic karma" at Cpd.144); S IV.419; A V.74 sq.; J I.81; DA I.91 (for avicinna at D I.8), 275; Vism 269; DhA I.37 (*samacinna thoroughly fulfilled); VvA 108; PvA 54; Sdhp 90. -kappa ordinance or rule of right conduct or customary practice (*) Vin I.79; II.301; Dpvs IV.47; cp. V.18.

Acita [pp. of acinati] accumulated, collected, covered, furnished or endowed with J VI.250 ( = nicita); Vv 411; DhsA 310. See also acina.

Acinati [a + cinati] to heap up, accumulate S III.89 (v. l. acinati); IV.73 (ppr. acinato dukkham); DhsA 44. -pp. acita and acina (acina). - Pass. aciyati (q. v.).

Aciyati (and aceyyati) [Pass. of acinati, cp. ciyati] to be heaped up, to increase, to grow; ppr. aceyyamana J V.6 ( = aciyanto vaddhanto C.).

Acera is the contracted form of acariya; only found in the Jatakas, e. g. J IV.248; VI.563.

Acela in kancanacela-bhusita "adorned with golden clothes" Pv II.127 stands for cela*.

Ajanna is the contracted form of ajaniya.

Ajava see acama.

Ajana (adj.) [a + jana from jna] understandable, only in cpd. durajana hard to understand S IV.127; Sn 762; J I.295, 300.

Ajanana (nt.) [a + janana, cp. Sanskrit ajnana] learning, knowing, understanding; knowledge J I.181 (*sabhava of the character of knowing, fit to learn); PvA 225.

Ajanati [a + janati] to understand, to know, to learn D I.189; Sn 1064 (*amana = vijanamana Nd2 120). As annati at Vism 200. -pp. annata. Cp. also anapeti.

Ajaniya (ajaniya) (adj. n.) [cp. BSanskrit ajaneya and Sanskrit ajati birth, good birth. Instead of its correct derivation from a + jan (to be born, i. e. well-born) it is by Bdhgh. connected with a + jna (to learn, i. e. to be trained). See for these popular etymology e. g. J I.181: sarathissa cittarucitam karanam ajanana-sabhavo ajanno, and DhA IV.4: yam assadamma-sarathi karanam kareti tassa khippam janana

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samattha ajaniya. - The contracted form of the word is ajanna] of good race or breed; almost exclusively used to denote a thoroughbred horse (cp. assajaniya under assa3). (a) ajaniya (the more common and younger Pali form): Sn 462, 528, 532; J I.178, 194; Dpvs IV.26; DhA I.402; III.49; IV.4; VvA 78; PvA 216. - (b) ajaniya: M I.445; A V.323; Dh 322 = Nd2 475. - (c) *janna = (mostly in poetry): Sn 300 = 304; J I.181; Pv IV.154; purisajanna "a steed of man", i. e. a man of noble race) S III.91 = Th 1, 1084 = Sn 544 = VvA 9; A V.325. -anajaniya of inferior birth M I.367. -susu the young of a noble horse, a noble foal M I. 445 (*upamo dhamma-pariyayo).

Ajaniyata (f.) [abstr. from ajaniya] good breed PvA 214.

Ajira [ = ajira with lengthened initial a] a courtyard Mhvs 35, 3.

Ajiva [a + jiva; Sanskrit ajiva] livelihood, mode of living, living, subsistence, D I.54; A III.124 (parisuddha*); Sn 407 (*m = parisodhayi = micchajivam hitva sammajivam eva pavattayi SnA 382), 617; Pug 51; Vbh 107, 235; Miln 229 (bhinna*); Vism 306 (id.); DhsA 390; Sdhp 342, 375, 392. Esp. frequent in the contrast pair samma-ajiva and miccha-a* right mode and wrong mode of gaining a living, e. g. at S II.168 sq.; III.239; V.9; A I.271; II 53, 240, 270; IV.82; Vbh 105, 246. See also magga (ariyatthangika). -parisuddhi purity or propriety of livelihood Miln 336; Vism 22 sq., 44; DhA IV.111. -vipatti failure in method of gaining a living A I.270. -sampada perfection of (right) livelihood A I.271; DA I.235.

Ajivaka (and *ika) [ajiva + ka, orig. "one finding his living" (scil. in a peculiar way); cp. BSanskrit ajivika Divy 393, 427] an ascetic, one of the numerous sects of non-buddhist ascetics. On their austereotypeties, practice and way of living see esp. DhA II.55 sq. and on the whole question A. L. Basham, Hist. and Doctrines of the ajivikas, 1951. - (a) ajivaka: Vin I.291; II.284; IV.74, 91; M I.31, 483: S I.217; A III.276, 384; J I.81, 257, 390. - (b) ajivika: Vin I.8; Sn 381 (v. l. BB. *aka). -savaka a hearer or lay disciple of the ajivaka ascetics Vin II 130, 165; A I.217.

Ajivika (nt.) (or ajivika f.*) [from ajiva] sustenance of life, livelihood, living Vbh 379 (*bhaya) Miln 196 (id.); PvA 274, and in phrase ajivik-a-pakata being deprived of a livelihood, without a living M I.463 = S III.93 (T. reads jivika pakata) = It 89 (reads ajivika pakata) = Miln 279.

Ajivin (adj.-n.) [from ajiva] having one's livelihood, finding one's subsistence, living, leading a life of (-*) D III.64; A V.190 (lukha*)

Ata [etymology* Cp. Sanskrit ati Turdus Ginginianus, see Aufrecht, Halayudha p. 148] a kind of bird J VI.539 ( = dabbimukha C.).

Ataviya is to be read for ataviyo (q. v.) at J VI.55 [ = Sanskrit atavika].

Athapana (f.) at Pug 18 and v. l. at Vbh 357 is to be read atthapana (so T. at Vbh 357).

Ananja see anejja.

Ananya see ananya.

Anatti (f.) [a + natti (cp. anapeti), Causative of jna] order, command, ordinance, injunction Vin I.62; KhA 29; PvA 260; Sdhp 59, 354.

Anattika (adj.) [anatti + ka] belonging to an ordinance or command, of the nature of an injunction KhA 29.

Ana (f.) [Sanskrit ajna, a + jna] order, command, authority Miln 253; DA I.289; KhA 179, 180, 194; PvA 217; Sdhp 347, 576. raj-ana the king's command or authority J I.433; III.351; PvA 242. anam deti to give an order J I.398; *m pavatteti to issue an order Miln 189, cp. anapavatti J III.504; IV.145.

Anapaka (adj. n.) [from anapeti] 1. (adj.) giving an order Vism 303. - 2. (n.) one who gives or calls out orders, a town-crier, an announcer of the orders (of an authority) Miln 147.

Anapana (nt.) [abstr. from anapeti] ordering or being, ordered, command, order PvA 135.

Anapeti [a + napeti, Causative of a + janati from jna, cp. Sanskrit ajnapayati] to give an order, to enjoin, command (with acc. of person) J III.351; Miln 147; DhA II.82; VvA 68 (dasiyo), 69; PvA 4, 39, 81.

Ani (Vedic ani to anu fine, thin, flexible, in formation an n-enlargement of Idg. *olena, cp. Ohg. lun, Ger. lunse, Ags. lynes = E. linch, further related to Latin ulna elbow, Gr. w)le/nh, Ohg. elina, Ags. eln = E. el-bow. See Walde, Lat. Wtb. under ulna and lacertus]. - 1. the pin of a wheel-axle, a linch-pin M I.119; S II.266, 267; A II.32; Sn 654; J VI.253, 432; SnA 243; KhA 45, 50. - 2. a peg, pin, bolt, stop (at a door) M I.119; S. II 266 (drum stick); J IV.30; VI.432, 460; Th 1, 744; Dh I.39. 3. (fig.) (*-) peg-like (or secured by a peg, of a door), small, little in *colaka a small (piece of) rag Vin II.271, cp. I.205 (vanabandhana-colaka); *dvara Th 1, 355; C. khuddaka-dvara, quoted at Brethren 200, trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. as "the towngate's sallyport" by Neumann as "Gestock" (fastening, enclosure) ani-ganthik-ahato ayopatto at Vism 108; DA I.199 is apparently a sort of brush made of four or five small pieces of flexible wood.

Atanka [etymology uncertain; Sanskrit atanka] illness, sickness, disease M I.437; S III.1; Sn 966 (*phassa, cp. Nd1 486). Freq. in cpd. appatanka freedom from illness, health (cp. appabadha) D I.204; III.166; A III.65, 103; Miln 14. - f. abstr. appatankata M I.124.

Atankin (adj.) [from atanka] sick, ill J V.84 ( = gilana C.).

Atata [from a + tan, pp. tata; lit. stretched, covered over] generic name for drums covered with leather on one side Dpvs XIV.14; VvA 37 (q. v. for enumn. of musical instruments), 96.

Atatta [a + tatta1, pp. of a-tapati] heated, burnt. scorched, dry J V.69 (*rupa = sukkha-sarira C.).

Atapa [a + tapa] - 1. sun-heat Sn 52; J I.336; Dhs 617; Dpvs I.57; VvA 54; PvA 58. - 2. glow, heat (in general) Pv I.74; Sdhp 396. - 3. (fig.) (cp. tapa2) ardour, zeal, exertion PvA 98 (viriya-tapa; perhaps better to be read *atapa q. v.). Cp. atappa. -varana "warding off the sun-heat", i. e. a parasol, sun-shade Davs I.28; V.35.

Atapata (f.) [abstr. of atapa] glowing or burning state, heat Sdhp 122.

Atapati [a + tap] to burn J III.447.

Atappa (nt.) [Sanskrit *atapya, from atapa] ardour, zeal, exertion D I.13; III.30 sq., 104 sq., 238 sq.; M III.210; S II.132, 196 sq.; A I.153; III.249; IV.460 sq.; V.17 sq.; Sn 1062 ( = ussaha usso'hi thama etc. Nd2 122); J III.447; Nd1 378; Vbh 194 ( = vayama); DA I.104.

Atapa [a + tapa from tap; cp. tapeti] glow, heat; fig. ardour, keen endeavour, or perhaps better "torturing, mortifica-

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tion" Miln 313 (cittassa atapo paritapo); PvA 98 (viriya*). Cp. atappa and atapana.

Atapana (nt.) [a + tapana] tormenting, torture, mortification M I.78; A I.296 (*paritapana); II.207 (id.); Pug 55 (id.); Vism 3 (id.).

Atapin (adj.) [from atapa, cp. BSanskrit atapin Av. SH I.233; II. 194 = Divy 37; 618] ardent, zealous, strenuous, active D III.58, 76 sq., 141 (+ sampajana), 221, 276; M I.22, 56, 116, 207, 349; II.11; III.89, 128, 156; S 113, 117 sq., 140, 165; II.21, 136 sq.; III.73 sq.; IV.37, 48, 54, 218; V.165, 187, 213; A II.13 sq.; III 38, 100 sq.; IV. 29, 177 sq., 266 sq., 300, 457 sq.; V.343 sq.; Sn 926; Nd1 378; It 41, 42; Vbh 193 sq.; Miln 34, 366; Vism 3 ( = viriyava); DhA I.120; SnA 157, 503. - Freq. in the formula of Arahantship "eko vupakattho appamatto atapi pahitatto": see arahant II. B. See also satipatthana. Opp. anatapin S II.195 sq.; A II.13; It 27 (+ anottappin).

Atapeti [a + tapeti] to burn, scorch; fig. to torment, inflict pain, torture M I.341 (+ paritapeti); S IV.337; Miln 314, 315.

Atitheyya (nt.) [from ati + theyya] great theft (*) A I.93; IV. 63 sq. (v. l. ati* which is perhaps to be prcferred).

Atu [dialectical] father M I.449 (cp. Trenckner's note on p. 567: the text no doubt purports to make the woman speak a sort of patois).

Atuman [Vedic atman, diaeretic form for the usual contracted attan; only found in poetry. Cp. also the shortened form tuman] self. nom. sg. atumo Pv IV.52 ( = sabhavo PvA 259), atuma Nd1 69 (atuma vuccati atta), 296 (id.), and atumano Nd1 351; acc. atumanam Sn 782 ( = attanam SnA 521), 888, 918; loc. atume Pv II.1311 ( = attani C.).

Atura (adj.) [Sanskrit atura, cp. BSanskrit atura, e. g. Jtm 3170] ill, sick, diseased; miserable, affected S III.1 (*kaya); A I. 250; Sn 331; Vv 8314 (*rupa = abhitunna-kaya VvA 328); J I.197 (*anna "food of the miserable", i. e. last meal of one going to be killed; C. expls. as maranabhojana), 211 (*citta); II.420 (*anna, as above); III.201; V.90, 433; VI.248; Miln 139, 168; DhA I.31 (*rupa); PvA 160, 161; VvA 77; Sdhp 507. Used by Commentators as syn. of atto, e. g. at J IV.293; SnA 489. -anatura healthy, well, in good condition S III.1; Dh 198.

Athabbana (nt.) [ = athabbana, q. v.] the Atharva Veda as a code of magic working formulas, witchcraft, sorcery Sn 927 (v. l. ath*, see interpreted at Nd1 381; explained. as athabbanika-manta-ppayoga at SnA 564).

Athabbanika (adj. n.) [from athabbana] one conversant with magic, wonder-worker, medicine-man Nd1 381; SnA 564.

Adapeti [Causative of adati] to cause one to take, to accept, agree to M II.104; S I.132.

Adara [Sanskrit adara, prob. a + dara, cp. semantically Ger. ehrfurcht awe] consideration of, esteem, regard, respect, reverence, honour J V.493; SnA 290; DA I.30; DhsA 61; VvA 36, 61, 101, 321; PvA 121, 123, 135, 278; Sdhp 2, 21, 207, 560. -anadara lack of reverence, disregard, disrespect; (adj.) disrespectful S I.96; Vin IV.218; Sn 247 ( = adara-virahita SnA 290; DA I.284; VvA 219; PvA 3, 5, 54, 67, 257.

Adarata (f.) [abstr. from adara] = adara, in negative an* want of consideration J IV.229; Dhs 1325 = Vbh 359 (in explination. of dovacassata).

Adariya (nt.) [abstr. from adara] showing respect of honour; negative an* disregard, disrespect Vin II.220; A V.146, 148; Pug 20; Vbh 371; miln 266.

Adava [a + dava2*] is gloss at VvA 216 for maddava Vv 5123; meaning: excitement, adj. exciting. The passage in VvA is somewhat corrupt, and therefore unclear.

Adahati1 [a + dahati1] to put down, put on, settle, fix Vism 289 (samam a. = samadahati). Cp. sam* and adhiyati.

Adahati2 [a + dahati2] to set fire to, to burn J VI.201, 203.

Ada [ger. of adati from reduced base *da of dadati 1b] taking up, taking to oneself Vin IV.120 ( = anadiyitva C.; cp. the usual form adaya).

Adati (adadati) [a + dadati of dadati base 1 da] to take up, accept, appropriate, grasp, seize; grd. adatabba Vin I.50; inf. adatum D III.133 (adinnam theyyasankhatam a.). ger. ada and adaya (see sep.); grd. adeyya, Causative adapeti (q. v.). - See also adiyati and adeti.

Adana (nt.) [ad + ana, or directly from a + da, base 1 of dadati] taking up, getting, grasping, seizing; fig. appropriating, clinging to the world, seizing on (worldly objects). (1) (lit.) taking (food), pasturing M III.133; J V.371 (and *esana). - (2) getting, acquiring, taking, seizing S II.94; A IV.400 (dand*); PvA 27 (phal*); esp. frequent in adinn* seizing what is not given, i. e. theft: see under adinna. - (3) (fig.) attachment, clinging A V.233, 253 (*patinissagga); Dh 89 (id.; cp. DhA II.163); Sn 1103 (*tanha), 1104 (*satta); Nd1 98 (*gantha); Nd2 123, 124. -an* free from attachment S I.236 (sadanesu anadano "not laying hold mong them that grip" trsl.); A II.10; It 109; J IV.354; Miln 342; DhA IV.70 ( = khandhadisu niggahano). Cp. upa*, pari*.

Adaya [ger. of adati, either from base 1 of dadati (da) or base 2 (day). See also adiya] having received or taken, taking up, seizing on, receiving; frequent used in the sense of a prep. "with" (c. acc.) Sn 120, 247, 452; J V.13; Vbh 245; DhA II.74; SnA 139; PvA 10, 13, 38, 61 etc. - At Vin I.70 the form adaya is used as a noun f. adaya in meaning of "a casually taken up belief" (tassa adayassa vanne bhanati). Cp. upa*, pari*.

Adayin (adj.-n.) [from a + dadati base 2, cp. adaya] taking up, grasping, receiving; one who takes, seizes or appropriates D I.4 (dinn*); A III.80; V.137 (sar*); DA I.72.

Adasa [Sanskrit adarsha, a + drsh, Pali dass, of dassati1 2] a mirror Vin II.107; D I.7, 11 (*panha mirror-questioning, cp. DA I.97: "adase devatam otaretva panha-pucchanam"), 80; II.93 (dhamna*-adasan nama dhamma-pariyayam desessami); S V.357 (id.); A V.92, 97 sq., 103; J I.504; Dhs 617 (*mandala); Vism 591 (in simile); KhA 50 (*danda) 237; DhA I.226. -tala the surface of the mirror, in similes at Vism 450, 456, 489.

Adasaka = adasa Th 2, 411.

Adi [Sanskrit adi, etymology uncertain] - 1. (m.) starting-point, beginning Sn 358 (acc. adim = karanam SnA 351); Dh 375 (nom. adi); Miln 10 (adimhi); J VI.567 (abl. adito from the beginning). For use as nt. see below 2 b. - 2. (adj. and adv.) (a) (*-) beginning, initially, first, principal, chief: see compounds - (b) (*-) beginning with, being the first (of a series which either is supposed to be familiar in its constituents to the reader or hearer or is immediately intelligible from the context), i. e. and so on, so forth (cp. adhika); e. g. rukkha-gumb-adayo (acc. pl.) trees, jungle etc. J I.150; amba-panas- adihi rukkehi sampanno (and similar kinds of fruit) J I.278; amba-labuj-adinam phalanam anto J II.159; asi-satti-dhami-adini avudhani (weapous, such as sword, knife, bow and the like) J I.150; kasi-gorakkh- adini karonte manusse J II.128; . . . ti adina nayena in this and similar ways J I.81; PvA 30. Absolute as nt. pl. adini with ti (evam) (adini), closing a quotation, meaning "this and such like", e. g. at J II.128,

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416 (ti adini viravitva). - In phrase adim katva meaning "putting (him, her, it) first", i. e. heginning with, from . . . on, from . . . down (c. acc.) e. g. DhA I.393 (rajanam adim K. from the king down); PvA 20 (viharam adikatva), 21 (pancavaggiye adim K.). -kammika [cp. BSanskrit adikarmaka Divy 544] a beginner Vin III.146; IV.100; Miln 59; Vism 241; DhsA 187. -kalyana in phrase adikalyana majjhe-kalyana pariyosana-kalyana of the Dhamma, "beautiful in the beginning, the middle and the end" see references under dhamma C. 3 and cp. DA I.175 ( = adimhi kalyana etc.); SnA 444; abstr. *kalyanata Vism 4. -pubbangama original Dpvs IV.26. -brahmacariyaka belonging to the principles or fundaments of moral life D I.189; III.284; M I.431; II.125, 211; III. 192; S II.75, 223; IV.91; V.417, 438; f. *ika Vin I.64, 68; A I.231 sq. -majjhapariyosana beginning, middle and end Miln 10; cp. above adikalyana.

Adika (adj.) [adi + ka] from the beginning, initial (see adhika); instr. adikena in the beginning, at once, at the same time M I.395, 479; II.213; S II.224; J VI.567. Cp. adiya3.

Adicca [Vedic aditya] the sun S I.15, 47; II.284; III.156; V.44, 101; A I.242; V.22, 263, 266 sq.; It 85; Sn 550, 569, 1097 ("adicco vuccati suriyo" Nd2 125); DhA IV. 143; Sdhp 14, 17, 40. -upatthana sun-worship D I.11 ( = jivikatthaya adiccaparicariya DA I.97); J II.72 (*jataka; adiccam upatitthati p. 73 = suriyam namassamano titthati C.). -patha the path of the sun, i. e. the sky, the heavens Dh 175 ( = akasa DhA III.177). -bandhu "kinsman of the sun", Ep. of the Buddha Vin II.296; S I.186, 192; A II.54; Sn 54, 915, 1128; Nd1 341; Nd2 125b; Vv 425, 7810; VvA 116.

Adinna [Sanskrit adirna, pp. of a + dr, see adiyati2] broken, split open S IV.193 ( = sipatika with burst pod); cp. M I.306.

Adinnata (nt.) [abstr. from adinna] state of being broken or split Ps I.49.

Aditta [a + ditta1, Sanskrit adipta, pp. of a + dip] set on fire, blazing, burning Vin I.34; Kv 209 (sabbam adittam); S III.71; IV.19, 108; A IV.320 (*cela); Sn 591; J IV.391; Pv I.85 ( = paditta jalita PvA 41); Kvu 209; DA I.264; PvA 149; Sdhp 599. -pariyaya the discourse or sermon on the fire (lit. being in fllames) S IV.168 sq.; Vin I.34; DhA I.88.

Adina only at D I.115 (T. reading adina, but v. l. S id. adina, B p. abhinna) in phrase adina-khattiya-kula primordial. See note in Dial. I.148.

Adiya1 (adj.) grd. of admi, ad, Sanskrit adya] edible, eatable A III.45 (bhojanani).

Adiya2 in -mukha is uncertain reading at A III.164 sq. (vv. ll. adeyya- and adheyya), meaning perhaps "grasp-mouth", i. e. gossip; thus equal to ger. of adiyati1. Perhaps to be taken to adiyati2. The same phrase occurs at Pug 65 (T. adheyya-, C. has v. l. adheyya-) where Pug A 248 explinations. "adito dheyyamukho, pathama-vacanasmim yeva thapita-mukho ti attho" (sticking to one's word). See adheyya.

Adiya3 = adika, instr. adiyena in the beginning J VI.567 ( = adikena C.).

Adiya4 ger. of adiyati.

Adiyati1 [a + diyati, med. pass. base of dadati4, viz. di* and di*; see also adati and adeti] to take up; take to oneself, seize on, grasp, appropriate, fig. take notice of, take to heart, heed. - pres. adiyati A IIJ.46; Sn 119, 156, 633, 785, Nd1 67; Nd2 123, 124; J III.296: V.367. - pot. adiye Sn 400; imper. adiya M III.133 (so read for adissa*). - aor. adiyi D III.65; A III.209, adiyasi Pv IV.148 (sayan dandam a. = acchinditva ganhasi PvA 241), and adapayi (Causative formation from adati*) to take heed S I.132 (v. l. adiyi, trsl. "put this into thy mind"). - ger. adiyitva Vin IV.120 ( = ada); J II.224 (C. for adiya T.); III.104; IV.352 (an* not heeding; v. l. anaditva, cp. anadiyanto not attending J III.196); DhA III.32 (id.); PvA 13 (T. anadayitva not heeding), 212 (vacanam anadiyitva not paying attention to his word), adiya S III.26 (v. l. an* for anadiya); J II.223 ( = adiyitva C.); see also adiya2, and adiya S III.26 (an*). See also upadiyati and pariyadiyati.

Adiyati2 [a + diyati, Sanskrit adiryate, Pass. of dr to split: see etymology under dari] to split, go asunder, break Ps I.49. pp. adinna. See also avadiyati. Cp. also upadinna.

Adiyanata (f.) [abstr. formation adiyana (from adiya ger. of adiyati) + ta] in an* the fact of not taking up or heeding SnA 516.

Adisati [a + disati] (a) to announce, tell, point out, refer to. - (b) to dedicate (a gift, dakkhinam or danam). pres. ind. adisati D I.213 = A I.170 (tell or read one's character); Sn 1112 (atitam); Nd1 382 (nakkhattam set the horoscope); Miln 294 (danam); pot. adiseyya Th 2, 307 (dakkhinam); Pv IV.130 (id. = uddiseyya PvA 228), and adise Vin I.229 = D II.88 (dakkhinam); imper. adisa PvA 49. - fut. adissati Th 2, 308 (dakkhinam) PvA 88 (id.). - aor. adisi Pv II.28; PvA 46 (dakkhinam); pl. adisimsu ibid. 53 (id.) and adisum Pv I.106 (id.). - ger. adissa Vin III.127; Sn 1018; Pv II.16 (danam), and adisitvana Th 2, 311. - grd. adissa (adj.) to be told or shown M I.12.

Adiso (adv.) [orig. abl. of adi, Qormed with *sa*] from the beginning, i. e. thoroughly, absolutely D I.180; M III.208.

Adissa at M III.133 is an imper. pres. meaning "take", and should probably better be read adiya (in corresponsion with adana). It is not grd. of adisati, which its form might suggest.

Adissa2 (adj.) blameworthy M I.12; MA = garayha.

Adina at D I.115 and S V.74 (vv. ll. adina, and abhinna) see adina. See dinna.

Adinava [a + dina + va (nt.), a substantivised adj., orig. meaning "full of wretchedness", cp. BSanskrit adinava M Vastu III.297 (misery); Divy 329] disadvantage, danger (in or through = loc.) D I.38 (vedananam assadan ca adinavan ca etc.), 213 (iddhi-patihariye M I.318; S I.9 (ettha bhiyo); II.170 sq. (dhatunam); III.27, 62, 102 (rupassa etc.); IV.7, 168; A I.57 (akaraniye kayiramane) 258 (ko loke assado); III.250 sq.; 267 sq. (duccarite), 270 (puggala-ppasade); IV.439 sq.; V.81; J I.146; IV.2; It 9 = A II.10 = Nd2 172a; Sn 36, 50 (cp. Nd2 127), 69, 424, 732; Th 2, 17 (kaye a. = dosa ThA 23), 485 (kamesu a. = dosa ThA 287); Pv III.107 ( = dosa PvA 214); IV.67 ( = dosa PvA 263); Ps I.192 sq.; II.9, 10; PvA 12, 208. - There are several sets of sources of evil or danger, viz. five dussilassa sila-vipattiya a. at D II.85 = III.235 = A III.252; five akkhantiya a. at Vbh 378; six of six each at D III.182 sq. - In phrase kamanam a. okaro sankileso D I.110, 148; M I.115; Nett 42; DhA 16. -a-nupassin realising the danger or evil of S II.85 (upa daniyesu dhammesu) abstr. *a-nupassana Vism 647 sq., 695. -dassavin same as *a-nupassin D I.245 (an*); A V.178 (id.); D III.46; S II.194, 269; A III.146; V.181 sq.; Nd2 141. -pariyesana search for danger in (-*) S II.171; III.29; IV.8 sq. -sanna consciousness of danger D I.7); III.253, 283; A III.79.

Adipaniya (adj.) [grd. of a + dipeti] to be explained Miln 270.

Adipita [pp. of adipeti, a + caus. of dip, cp. dipeti] ablaze, in flames S I.31 (loka; v. l. adittaka) 108; J V.366; DhA III.32 (v. l. aditta).

Adu (indecl.) [see also adu] emphatic (adversative) part. (1) of affirmation and emphasis: but, indeed, rather J III.

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499 = VI.443; V.180; VI.552. - (2) as 2nd component of a disjunctive question, mostly in corresponsion udahu . . . adu ( = kim . . . udahu SnA 350), viz. is it so . . . or" Th 1, 1274 = Sn 354; Pv IV.317 = DhA I.31; J V.384; VI.382; without udahu at J V.460 (adu). The close connection with udahu suggests an explination. of adu as a somehow distorted abbreviation of udahu.

Adeti [a + deti, base2 of dadati (day* and de*), cp. also adiyati] to take, receive, get Sn 121 ( = ganhati SnA 179), 954 ( = upadiyati ganhati Nd1 444); cp. I.43; J III. 103, 296; V.366 ( = ganhati C.; cp. adiyati on p. 367); Miln 336.

Adeyya (adj.) [grd. of adati (q. v.)] to be taken up, acceptable, pleasant, welcome, only in phrase *vacana welcome or acceptable speech, glad words Vin II.158; J VI.243; Miln 110; ThA 42.

Adeva, adevana [a + div. devati] lamenting, deploring, crying etc. in stereotype phrase (explaining parideva or pariddava) adevo paridevo adevana pari adevitattam pari* Nd1 370 = Nd2 416 = Ps I.38.

Adesa [from adisati, cp. Sanskrit adesha] information, pointing out; as tt. g. characteristic, determination, substitute, e. g. kutonidana is at SnA 303 said to equal kim-nidana, the to of kuto (abl.) equalling or being substituted for the acc. case: paccatta-vacanassa to-adeso veditabbo.

Adesana (f.) [a + desana] pointing out, guessing, prophesy; only in phrase *patihariya trick or marvellous ability of mind-reading or guessing other peoples character Vin II. 200; D I.212, 213; III.220; A I.170, 292; V.327; Ps II. 227. For patihariya is subsiituted *vidha (lit. variety of, i. e. act or performance etc.) at D III.103.

Adhana (nt.) [a + dhana] - 1. putting up, putting down, placing, laying A IV.41 (aggissa adhanam, v. l. of 6 MSS adanam). - 2. receptacle M I.414 (udak.r), cp. adheyya. 3. enclosure, hedge Miln 220 (kantak.r thorny brake, see under kantaka). -gahin holding one's own place, i. e. obstinate (*), reading uncertain and interchanging with adana, only in one stereotype phrase, viz. sanditthi-paramasin adhana-gahin duppatinissaggin Vin II.89; M I.43, 96; A III.335 (v. l. adana*, C. expls by da'hagahin); D III.247 (adhana*).

Adhara [a + dhara] - 1. a container, receptacle, basin, lit. holder A III.27; J VI.257. - 2. "holding up", i. e. support, basis, prop. esp. a (round) stool or stand for the alms-bowl (patta) Vin II.113 (an* patto); M III.95; S V.21; J V.202. - fig. S V.20 (an* without a support, cittam); Vism 8, 444. - 3. (tt. g.) name for the loc. case ("resting on") Sn 211.

Adharaka (m. and nt.) [a + dharaka, or simply adhara + ka] - 1. a stool or stand (as adhara2) (always m., except at J I.33 where *ani pl. nt.) J I.33; DhA III.290 = VvA 220; DhA III.120 = 186 (one of the four priceless things of a Tathagata, viz.: setacchattam, nisidanapallanko, adharako padapitham). - 2. a reading desk, pulpit J III.235; IV.299.

Adharanata (f.) [a + dharanata] concentration, attention, mindfulness SnA 290 (+ da'hikarana), 398 (id.).

Adharita [pp. of a + dhareti, cp. dhareti1] supported, held up Miln 68.

Adhavati [a + dhavati1] to run towards a goal, to run after M I.265 (where id. p. S II.26 has upadh*); DA I. 39. Freq. in combination. adhavati paridhavaQi to run about, e. g. J I.127, 134, 158; II.68.

Adhavana (nt.) [from adhavati] onrush, violent motion Miln 135.

Adhipacca (and adhipateyya) (nt.) [from adhi + pati + ya "being over-lord"; see also adhipateyya] supreme rule, lordship, sovereignty, power S V.342 (issariy*); A I.62 (id.), 147, 212; II.205 (id.); III.33, 76; IV.252 sg.; Pv II.959 (one of the thanas, cp. thana II.2b; see also D III. 146, where spelt adhipateyya; explained. by issariya at PvA 137); J I.57; Davs V.17; VvA 126 (gehe a = issariya). The three (att*, lok.r, dhamm*) at Vism 14.

Adhuta [a + dhuta1] shaken, moved (by the wind, i. e. fanned Vv 394 (v. l. adhuta which is perhaps to be preferred, i. e. not shaken, cp. vatadhutam Davs V.49; VvA 178 expls. by sanikam vidhupayamana, i. e. gently fanned).

Adheyya (adj.) [grd. of a + dadhati cp. adhana2] to be deposited (in one's head and heart Pug A), to be heeded, to be appropriated [in latter meaning easily mixed with adheyya, cp. vv. ll. under adiya2]; nt. depository ( = adhatabbata thapetabbata Pug A 217) Pug 34 (*m gacchati is deposited); Miln 359 (sabbe tass- adheyya2 honti they all become deposited in him, i. e. his deposits or his property). -mukha see adiya2.

Anaka [Sanskrit anaka, cp. Morris J.Pali Text Society 1893, 10] a kind of kettledrum, beaten only at one end S II.266; J II. 344; Dpvs XVI.14.

Ananca, mfn. and n. [S. anantya], endless; endlessness, infinity; Vism 333, 1 (nassa anto ti anantam, anantam eva ~am, vinnanam ~am); - ifc see akasa and vinnana

Ananja see anejja, anenja.

Ananya (nt.) [Sanskrit anrnya, so also BSanskrit e. g. Jtm 3118; from a + rna, Pali ina but also ana in composition, thus an-ana as base of ananya] freedom from debt D I.73; A III.354 (Ep. of Nibbana, cp. anana); Nd1 160; Vism 44; DA I.3.

Anadati [a + nadati] to trumpet (of elephants) J IV.233.

Anana (nt.) [Vedic ana, later Sanskrit anana from an to breathe] the mouth; adj. (-*) having a mouth Sdhp 103; Pgdp 63 (vikat*).

Anantarika (and *ya) [from an + antara + ika] without an interval, immediately following, successive Vin I.321; II. 212; Pug 13; Dhs 1291. -kamma "conduct that finds retribution without delay" (Kvu trsl. 275 n. 2) Vin II.193; J I.45; Kvu 480; Miln 25 (cp. Dhs trsl. 267); Vism 177 (as prohibiting practice of kammatthana).

Ananda [Vedic Ananda, from a + nand, cp. BSanskrit anandi joy Divy 37] joy, pleasure, bliss, delight D I.3; Sn 679, 687; J I.207 (*maccha Leviathan); VI.589 (*bheri festive drum); DA I 53 ( = pitiya etam adhivacanam).

Anandati [a + nandati] to be pleased or delighted J VI. 589 (aor. anandi in T. reading anandi vitta, explained. by C. as nandittha was pleased; we should however read anandi-citta with gladdened heart). See also anandiya.

Anandin (adj.) [from a + nand] joyful, friendly Th 1, 555; J IV.226.

Anandiya (adj.-.) [grd. of Anandati] enjoyable, nt. joy, feast J VI.589 (*m acarati to celebrate the feast = Anandachana C.).

Anandi (f.) [a + nandi, cp. Ananda] joy, happiness in cpd. anandi-citta J VI.589 (so read probably for anandi vitta: see Anandati).

Anaya (adj.) [a + naya] to be brought, in suvanaya easy to bring S I.124 = J I.80.

Anayati see aneti.

Anapana (nt.) [ana + apana, compounds of an to breathe] in haled and exhaled breath, inspiration and respiration S V.132,

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311 sq.; J I.58; Ps I.162 (-katha); usually in cpd. *sati concentration by in-breathing and out-breathing (cp. Man. of Mystic 70) M I.425 (cp. D II.291); III.82; Vin III.70; A I.30; It 80; Ps I.166, 172, 185 (-samadhi); Nd2 466 B (id.); Miln 332; Vism 111, 197, 266 sq.; SnA 165. See detail under sati. [apnia]

Anapeti see aneti.

Anameti [a + nameti, Causative of namati, which is usually spelt nameti] to make bend, to bend, to bring toward or under J V.154 (doubtful reading fut anamayissasi, v. l. anayissati, C. anessasi = lead to).

Anisansa [a + ni + sansa, BSanskrit distorted to anushamsa] praise i. e. that which is commendable, profit, merit, advantage, good result, blessing in or from (c. loc.). There are five anisansa silavato sila-sampadaya or blessings which accrue to the virtuous enumerated at D II.86, viz. bhoga-kkhandha great wealth, kittisadda good report, visarada self-confidence, asammulho kalam karoti an untroubled death, saggam lokam uppajjati a happy state after death. - D I.110, 143; III.132 (four), 236 (five); M I.204; S I.46, 52; III.8, 93 (maha-); V.69 (seven), 73, 129, 133, 237 (seven), 267, 276; A I.58 (karaniye kariyamane); II.26, 185, 239, 243 (sikkha-); III.41 (dane), 248 (dhammasavane), 250 (yaguya), 251 (upatthita-satissa), 253 sq. (silavato silasampadaya etc., as above), 267 (sucarite), 441; IV.150 (mettaya ceto-vimuttiya), 361 (dhammasavane), 439 sq. (nekkhamme avitakke nippitike), 442, 443 sq. (akas-anancayatane); V.I, 106 (maha-), 311; It 28, 29, 40 (sikkha-); Sn 256 (phala-), 784, 952; J I.9, 94; V.491 (v. l. anu-); Nd1 73, 104, 441; Kvu 400; Miln 198; VvA 6, 113; PvA 9 (dana-) 12, 64 ( = phala), 208, 221 ( = guna); Sdhp 263. - Eleven anisansas of metta (cp. Ps II.130) are given in detail at Vism 311 314; on another eight see pp. 644 sq.

Anisada (nt.) [a + sad] "sit down", bottom, behind M I. 80 = 245; J III.435 (gloss asata) Vism 251 = KhA 45 (-ttaca), 252 (-mamsa).

Anuttariya (nt.) [see also anuttariya which as -- probably represents anutt-] incomparableness, excellency, supreme ideal D III.102 sq.; A V.37.

Anita [pp. of aneti] fetched, brought (here), brought back adduced J I.291; III.127; IV.1.

Anuputtha metri causa for anuputtha (q. v.).

Anupubba (nt.) [abstr. from anupubba] rule, regularity, order Th 1, 727 (cp. M Vastu II.224 anupubba).

Anupubbata (f.) (or -ta nt.*) [from last] succession; only in tt. g. pad¢nu-pubbata word sequence, in explination. of iti Nd1 140; Nd2 137 (v. l. -ka).

Anupubbikatha [for anupubbi- representing its isolated composition form, cp. anubhava and see also anupubbi-] regulated exposition, graduated sermon D I.110; II.41 sq.; M I.379; J I.8; Miln 228; DA I.277, 308; DhA IV.199.

Anubhava [the dissociated composition form of anubhava, q. v. for details. Only in later language] greatness, magnificence, majesty, splendour J I.69 (mahanto); II.102 (of a jewel) V.491; DhA II.58.

Anejja and ananja [abstr. from an + *anja or *ejja = *ijja. The Sanskritised equivalent would be *injya or *ingya of ing to stir, move, with a peculiar substitution of *ang in Pali, referring it to a base with r (probably Sanskrit rj, rnjati) in analogy to a form like Sanskrit rna = Pali ana and ina, both a and i representing Sanskrit r. The form anja would thus correspond to a Sanskrit *anjya (*angya). The third Pali form an-enja is a direct (later, and probably re-instituted) formation from Sanskrit injya, which in an interesting way became in BSanskrit re-sanskritised to anijya (which on the other hand may represent anejja and thus give the latter the feature of a later, but more specifically Pali form). The editions of Pali Texts show a great variance of spelling, based on MSS. vacillation, in part also due to confusion of derivation] immovability, imperturbability, impassibility. The word is n. but occurs as adj. at Vin III. 109 (ananja samadhi, with which cp. BSanskrit anijya shantih. at Av. SH I.199. - The term usually occurs in cpd. anejja-ppatta (adj.) immovable lit. having attained impassibility, explained. by Bdhgh. at Vin III.267 (on Par. I.1, 6) as acala, niccala, i. e. motionless. This cpd. is indicated below by (p.) after the reference. - The various spellings of the word are as follows: - 1. anejja D I.76 (v. l. ananja-p.) A II.184 (p.); III.93 (p.), 100 (p.), 377 sq. (p.); Nd2 471 (v. l. aneja, ananja) = Vbh 137 (anenja); Nd2 569a (v. l. ananja), 601 (v. l. anejja and anenja); Pug 60 (p.); DA I.219 (v. l. BB anenja). - 2. ananja Vin III.4 (p.) (v. l. ananca-, ananja-, ananja-; Bdhgh. anejja- p. 267), 109; Ud 27 (samadhi, adj. v. l. ananca); DhA IV.46. See also below cpd. -karana. - A peculiarity of Trenckner a spelling is ananja at M II.229 (v. l. ananja, anenja, anenja), 253, 254. - 3. anenja S II.82. (v. l. ananje, or is it anenja*); D III.217 (-¢bhisankhara of imperturbable character, remaining static, cp. Kvu trsl. 358); Nd1 90 (id.), 206, 442; Ps II.206; Vbh 135, 340; Vism 377 (p.), 386 (sixteen- fold), 571; Nett 87, 99. See also injati. -karana trick of immovability, i. e. pretending to be dead (done by an elephant, but see differently Morris J P T S. 1886, 154) J I.415; II.325 (v. l. ananja, anenca, ananca); IV.308; V.273, 310.

Anenjata (f.) [from anenja] steadfastness Vism 330, 386.

Aneti [a + neti] to bring, to bring towards, to fetch, procure, convey, bring back Sn 110; PvA 54, 92. pot. 1st pl. anema (or imper. 2nd pl anetha M I.371. fut. anayissati S I.124; Pv II.65; J III.173; V.154 (v. l.), and anessati J V.154. inf. anayitum Pv II 610, ger. anetva PvA 42, 74. aor. anesi PvA 3, and anayi Pv I.77 (sapatim). -pp. anita (q. v.). - Med. pass. aniyati and aniyyati D II.245 (aniyyatam imper. shall be brought); M I. 371 (ppr. aniyamana). - Causative II. anapeti to cause to be fetched J III.391; V.225.

Apa and apo (nt.) [Vedic ap and ap, f. sg. apa, pl. apah., later Sanskrit also apah. nt. - Idg. *ap and *ab, primarily to Lith. .spe water, Old Prussian ape river, Gr. *)lpi/a N. of the Peloponnesus; further (as *ab) to Latin amnis river, Sanskrit abda cloud, and perhaps ambu water] water; philosophically t. t. for cohesion, representative of one of the 4 great elements (cp. mahabhuta), viz. pathavi, apo, tejo, vayo: see Cpd.268 and Dhs trsl. 201, also below -dhatu. D II.259; M I.327; S II.103; III.54, 207; A IV.312, 375; Sn 307, 391 (-m), 392 (loc. ape), 437 (id.); J IV.8 (pathavi-apa-teja-); Dhs 652; Miln 363 (gen. apassa, with pathavi etc.); Sdhp 100. -kasina the water-device, i. e. meditation by (the element of) water (cp. Mystic 75 n.) D III.268; J I.313; Dhs 203; Vism 170; DhA I 312; III.214. -dhatu the fluid element, the essential element in water, i. e element of cohesion (see Cpd.155 n. 2; Mystic 9 n. 2; Dhs trsl. 201, 242) D III.228, 247; M I.187, 422: Dhs 652; Nett 74. See also dhatu. -rasa the taste of water A I.32; SnA 6. -sama resembling water M I.423.

Apaka (f.) [ = apaga] river J V.452; VI.518.

Apaga (f.) [apa + ga of gam] a river Th 1, 309; Sn 319; J V.454; Davs I.32; VvA 41.

Apajjati [Sanskrit apadyate, a + pad] to get into, to meet with (acc.); to undergo; to make, produce, exhibit Vin II.126 (sanvaram); D I.222 (pariyetthim); It 113 (vuddhim); J I.73; Pug 20, 33 (ditth-¢nugatim); PvA 29 (ppr. apajjanto); DhA II.71 - pot. apajjeyya D I.119 (musa-vadam). - aor. apajji J V.349; PvA 124 (sankocam) and

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apadi S I.37; A II.34; It 85; J II.293; 3rd pl. apadu D II.273. - ger. apajjitva PvA 22 (sanvegam), 151. pp. apanna (q. v.). - Causative apadeti (q. v.). - Note. The reading apajja in apajja nam It 86 is uncertain (vv. ll. asajja and alajja). The id. p. at Vin II.203 (CV. VII.4, 8) has asajjanam, for which Bdhgh, on p. 325 has apajjanam. Cp. pariyapajjati.

Apana [Sanskrit apana, a + pan] a bazaar, shop Vin I.140; J I.55; V.445; Pv II.322; Miln 2, 341; SnA 440; DhA I. 317; II.89; VvA 157; PvA 88, 333 (phal- fruit shop), 215.

Apanika [from apana] a shopkeeper, tradesman J I.124; Miln 344; VvA 157; DhA II.89.

Apatacchika at J VI.17 is C. reading for apatacchika in khar¢pat- (q. v.).

Apatati [a + patati] to fall on to, to rush on to J V.349 ( = upadhavati C.); VI.451 ( = agacchati C.); Miln 371.

Apatti (f.) [Sanskrit apatti, from a + pad, cp. apajjati and BSanskrit apatti, e. g, Divy 330] an ecclesiastical offence (cp. Kvu trsl. 362 n. 1), Vin I.103 (-khandha), 164 (-m patikaroti), 322 (-m passati), 354 (avasesa and anavasesa); II.2 sq. (-m ropeti), 59, 60 (-pariyanta), 88 (-adhikarana), 259 (-m patikaroti); IV.344; D III.212 (-kusalata); A I.84 (id.), 87; II.240 (-bhaya); Dhs 1330 sq. (cp. Dhs trsl. 346). anapatti Vin III.35. -vutthanata forgiveness of an offence Vin II.250 (put before anapatti).

Apattika (adj.) [apatti + ka, cp. BSanskrit apattika Divy 303] guilty of an offence M I.443; Vin IV.224. an- Vin I.127.

Apatha in micchapatha, dvedhapatha as classified in Vbh Ind. p. 441 should be grouped under patha as miccha-, dvedha-.

Apathaka in -jjhayin Nd2 3422 is read apadaka- at Nd1 226, and apataka- at Vism 26.

Apada (f.) [Sanskrit apad, from a + pad, cp. apajjati and BSanskrit apad, e. g. in apadgata Jtm 3133] accident, misfortune, distress, D III.190; A II.68 (loc. pl. apadasu), 187; III. 45; IV.31; Th 1, 371; J IV.163 (apadattha, a difficult form; vv. ll. T. aparatta, apadatva, C. aparattha; explained. by apadaya); V.340 (loc. apade), 368; PvA 130 (quot.); Sdhp 312, 554. Note. For the contracted form in loc. pl. apasu ( = *apatsu) see *apa.

Apanna [pp. of apajjati] - 1. entered upon, fallen into, possessed of, having done Vin I.164 (apattim a.); III.90; D I.4 (dayapanna merciful); Nd2 32 (tanhaya). - 2. unfortunate, miserable J I.19 (V.124). Cp. pari-.

Apa (and ava) (f.) [for apada, q. v.] misery, misfortune J II.317 (loc. pl. apasu, v. l. avasu, C. apadasu); III.12 (BB avasu); V.82 (avagata gone into misery, v. l. apagata, C. apagata parihina), 445 (loc. avasu, v. l. avasu, C. apadasu), 448 (avasu kiccesu; v. l. apassu, read apasu). Note. Since *apa only occurs in loc. pl., the form apasu is to be regarded as a direct contraction of Sanskrit apatsu.

Apana [a + pana] life, lit. breathing, only in cpd. -koti the end of life Miln 397; Davs III.93; adj. -kotika M II.120; Vism 10.

Apatha [etymology* Trenckner, Miln p. 428 says: "I suspect a. to be corrupted from apata (cp. apatati), under an impression that it is allied to patha; but it is scarcely ever written so"] sphere, range, focus, field (of consciousness or perception; cp. Dhs trsl. 199), appearance A II.67; J I.336; Vbh 321; Miln 298; Vism 21, 548; DA I.228; DhsA 308, 333; VvA 232 (-kala); DhA IV.85; Sdhp 356. Usually in phrase apatham gacchati to come into focus, to become clear, to appear M I.190; S IV.160, or -m agacchati Vin I.184; A III.377 sq.; IV.404; Vism 125. Cp. -gata below. -gata come into the sphere of, appearing, visible M I.174 = Nd2 jhana (an- unapproached); PvA 23 (apatham gata). -gatatta abstr. from last: appcarance Vism 617.

Apathaka (adj.) [from apatha] belonging to the (perceptual) sphere of, visible, in -nisadin lying down visible D III.44, 47. Cp. apathaka.

Apadaka (adj.-n.) [from a + pad] - 1. (adj.) producing, leading to (*-) VvA 4 (abhinn- catuttha-jjhana). - 2. (n.) one who takes care of a child, a protector, guardian A I.62 = 132 = It 110 (+ posaka). - f. apadika a nurse, fostereotypemother Vin II.289 (+ posika).

Apada (f.) [short for apadika] a nursing woman, in an- not nursing, unmarried J IV.178.

Apadi aor. of apajjati (q. v.).

Apadeti [Causative of apajjati] to produce, make out, bring, bring into M I.78; III.248; S IV.110 (addhanam to live one's life, cp. addhanam apadi J II.293 = jivit-addhanam apadi ayum vindi C.); SnA 466. - Cp. pari-

Apana (nt.) [from a + pa] drinking; drinking party, banquet; banqueting-hall, drinking-hall J I.52 (-mandala); V.292 (-bhumi); Vism 399 (id.); DhA I.213 (id., ranno).

Apanaka (adj.) [apana + ka] drinking, one who is in the habit of drinking D I.167.

Apaniya (adj.) [from apana, a + pa] drinkable, fit for drinking or drinking with, in -kamsa drinking-bowl, goblet M I. 316; S II.110.

Apayika (adj.-n.) [from apaya] one suffering in an apaya or state of misery after death Vin II.202 = It 85 (v. l. ap-); Vin II.205; D I.103; A I.265; It 42; Vism 16; PvA 60.

Apiyati [from r, cp. appayati and appeti] to be in motion (in etymology of apo) Vism 364.

Apucchati [a + pucchati] to enquire after, look for, ask, esp. to ask permission or leave; aor. apucchi J I.140; PvA 110; grd. apucchitabba DhA I.6; ger. apucchitva Vin IV.267 (apaloketva +); Miln 29; PvA 111; apucchituna (cp. Geiger * 211) Th 2, 426; apuccha Th 2, 416, and apuccha [ = aprcchya, cp. Vedic acya for acya], only in negative form an- without asking Vin II.211, 219; IV.165, 226 ( = anapaloketva); DhA I.81. -pp. apucchita Vin IV.272.

Apurati [a + purati] to be filled, to become full, to increase J III.154 (cando a. = purati C.); IV.26, 99, 100.

Apeti [Causative of ap, see appoti and papunati] to cause to reach or obtain J VI.46. Cp. vy-.

Aphusati [a + phusati] to feel, realise, attain to, reach; aor. aphusi Vv 169 ( = adhigacchi VvA 84).

Abaddha [pp. of abandhati] tied, bound, bound up DA I. 127; fig. bound to, attached to, in love with DhA I.88; PvA 82 (Tissaya -sineha); Sdhp 372 (sineh, -hadaya).

Abandhaka (adj.) [a + bandh, cp. Sanskrit abandha tie, bond] (being) tied to (loc.) PvA 169 (sise).

Abandhati (a + bandhati, Sanskrit abadhnati, bandh] to bind to, tie, fasten on to, hold fast; fig. to tie to, to attach to, J IV.132, 289; V.319, 338, 359. -pp. abaddha.

Abandhana (nt.) [from a + bandh] - 1. tie, bond DA I. 181 = Pug A 236 (-atthena nati yeva nati-parivatto). 2. tying, binding Vism 351 (-lakkhana, of apodhatu). 3. reins (*) or harness (on a chariot) J V.319 (but cp. C. explination. "hatthi-assa-rathesu abandhitabbani bhandakani", thus taking it as a + bhanda + na, i. e. wares, loads etc.). With this cp. Sanskrit abandha, according to Halayudha 2, 420 a thong of leather which fastens the oxen to the yoke of a plough.

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Abadha [a + badh to oppress, Vedic abadha oppression] affliction, illness, disease Vin IV.261; D I.72; II.13; A I.121; III.94, 143; IV.333, 415 sq., 440; Dh 138; Pug 28; Vism 41 (udara-vata-) 95; VvA 351 (an- safe and sound); SnA 476; Sdhp 85. - A list of abadhas or illnesses, as classified on grounds of aetiology, runs as follows: pittasamutthana, semha-, vata-, sannipatika, utu-parinamaja, visama-pariharaja, opakkamika, kammavipakaja (after Nd2 304I.C., recurring with slight variations at S IV.230; A II.87; III.131; V.110; Nd1 17, 47; Miln 112, cp. 135). Another list of illnesses mentioned in tha Vinaya is given in Index to Vin II., p. 351. - Five abadhas at Vin I. 71, viz. kuttham gando kilaso soso apamaro said to be raging in Magadha cp. p. 93. - Three abadhas at D III.75, viz. iccha anasanam jara, cp. Sn 311. - See also cpd. appabadha (health) under appa.

Abadhika (adj.-n.) [from abadha] affected with illness, a sick person A III.189, 238; Nd1 160; Miln 302; DA 212; DhA I.31; PvA 271. - f. abadhikini a sick woman A II.144.

Abadhita [pp. of abadheti, Causative of a + badh] afflicted, oppressed, molested Th 1, 185.

Abadheti [a + Causative of badh, cp. abadha] to oppress, vex, annoy, harass S IV.329.

Abila (adj.) [Sanskrit avila; see also Pali avila] turbid, disturbed, soiled J V.90.

Abhata [pp. of a + bharati from bhr] brought (there or here), carried, conveyed, taken D I.142; S. I.65; A II.71, 83; It 12, 14 with phrase yathabhatam as he has been reared (cp. J V.330 evam kiccha bhato); Pv III.5 (ratt- = rattiyam a. PvA 199); DhA II.57, 81; IV.89; VvA 65. Cp. yathabhata.

Abhataka (adj.) = abhata; DA I.205 (v. l. abhata).

Abharana (nt.) [Sanskrit abharana, a + bhr] that which is taken up or put on, viz. ornament, decoration, trinkets D I. 104; Vv 802; J III.11, 31; DhA III.83; VvA 187.

Abharati [a + bhr] to bring, to carry; ger. abhatva J IV.351.

Abhassara (adj.-n.) [etymology uncertain; one suggested in Cpd.138 n. 4 is a + *bha + *sar, i. e. from whose bodies are emitted rays like lightning, more probably a combination. of abha + svar (to shine, be bright), i. e. shining in splendour] shining, brilliant, radiant, N. of a class of gods in the Brahma heavens "the radiant gods", usually referred to as the representatives of supreme love (piti and metta); thus at D I.17; Dh 200; It 15; DhA III.258 (-loka). In another context at Vism 414 sq.

Abha (f.) [Sanskrit abha, from a + bha, see abhati] shine, splendour, lustre, light D II.12; M III.147 (adj. --); S II.150 (-dhatu); A II.130, 139; III.34; Mhvs XI.11; VvA 234 (of a Vimana, v. l. pabha); DhA IV.191; Sdhp 286.

Abhati [a + bha] to shine, shine forth, radiate Dh 387 ( = virocati DhA IV.144); J V.204. See also abheti.

Abhaveti [a + bhaveti] to cultivate, pursue Pv II.1319 (mettacittam; gloss and v. l. abhavetva; explained. as vaddhetva bruhetva PvA 168).

Abhasa [Sanskrit abhasa, from a + bhas] splendour, light, appearance M III.215.

Abhicetasika (adj.) See abhicetasika. This spelling, with guna of the first syllable, is probably more correct; but the short a is the more frequent.

Abhidosika (adj.) [abhidosa+ika] belonging to the evening before, of last night Vin III.15 (of food; stale); M I.170 (-kalakata died last night); Miln 291.

Abhidhammika (adj.) [abhidhamma + ika] belonging to the specialised Dhamma, versed in or studying the Abhidhamma Miln 17, 341; Vism 93. As abhi- atKhA 151; J IV.219.

Abhindati [a + bhindati] to split, cut, strike (with an axe) S IV.160 (v. l. a-).

Abhisekika (adj.) [from abhiseka] belonging to the consecration (of a king) Vin V.129.

Abhujati [a + bhujati, bhuj1] to bend, bend towards or in, contract; usually in phrase pallankam a- "to bend in the round lap" or "bend in hookwise", to sit crosslegged (as a devotee with straightened back), e. g. at Vin I.24; D I.71; M I.56 (v. l. abhunjitva), 219; A III. 320; Pug 68; Ps I.176; J I.71, 213; Miln 289; DA I. 58, 210. In other connection J I.18 (V.101; of the ocean "to recede"); Miln 253 (kayam).

Abhujana (nt.) [from abhujati] crouching, bending, turning in, in phrase pallank-abhujana sitting cross-legged J I 17 (V.91); PvA 219.

Abhuji (f.) [lit. the one that bends, prob. a poetic metaphor] N. of a tree, the Bhurja or Bhojpatr J V.195 ( = bhujapatta-vana C.), 405 ( = bhujapatta C.).

Abhunjati [a + bhuj2, Sanskrit bhunakti] to enjoy, partake of, take in, feel, experience J IV.456 (bhoge; Rh. D. "hold in its hood"*); DhsA 333.

Abhunjana (nt.) [from abhunjati] partaking of, enjoying, experiencing DhsA 333.

Abheti [*abhayati = abhati, q. v.] to shine Pv II.126 (ppr. -enti); Vv 82 (-anti, v. l. -enti; = obhasenti VvA 50).

Abhoga [from abhunjati, bhuj2 to enjoy etc. The translators of Kvu derive it from bhuj1 to bend etc. (Kvu trsl. 221 n. 4) which however is hardly correct, cp. the similar meaning of gocara "pasturing", fig. perception etc.] ideation, idea, thought D I.37 ( = manasikaro samannaharo DA I.122; cp. semantically ahara = abhoga, food); Vbh 320; Miln 97; Vism 164, 325, 354; Davs 62; KhA 42 (-paccavekkhana), 43 (id.) 68.

Ama1 (indecl.) [a specific Pali formation representing either amma (q. v.) or a gradation of pronoun. base amu- "that" (see asu), thus deictic-emphatic exclamn. Cp. also BSanskrit ama e. g. Av. SH I.36] affirmative part. "yes, indeed, certainly" D I.192 sq. (as v. l. BB.; T. has amo); J I.115, 226 (in C. explination. of T. ama-jata which is to be read for amajata); II.92; V.448; Miln 11, 19, 253; DhA I.10, 34; II.39, 44; VvA 69; PvA 12, 22, 56, 61, 75, 93 etc.

Ama2 (adj.) [Vedic ama = Gr. w)mo/s, connected with Latin amarus. The more common Pali form is amaka (q. v.)] raw, viz. (a) unbaked (of an earthen vessel), unfinished Sn 443; (b) uncooked (of flesh), nt. raw flesh, only in following compounds: -gandha "smell of raw flesh", verminous odour, a smell attributed in particular to rotting corpses (cp. similarly BSanskrit amagandha M Vastu III.214) D II.242 sq.; A I.280; Sn 241, 242 ( = vissagandha kunapagandha SnA 286), 248, 251; Dhs 625; and -giddha greedy after flesh (used as bait) J VI.416 ( = amasankhata amisa C.).

Amaka (adj.) [ = ama2] raw, uncooked D I.5 = Pug 58 (-mamsa raw flesh); M I.80 (titta-kalabu amaka-cchinno). -dhanna "raw" grain, corn in its natural, unprepared state D I.5 = Pug 58 (see DA I.78 for definition); Vin IV.264; V.135. -saka raw vegetables Vism 70. -susana "cemetery of raw flesh" charnel grove (cp. amagandha under ama2), i. e. fetid smelling cremation ground J I.264, 489; IV.45 sq.; VI.10; DhA I.176; VvA 76; PvA 196.

Amattha [Sanskrit amrs.ta, pp. of amasati; cp. amasita] touched, handled J I.98 (an-); DA I.107 ( = paramattha); Sdhp 333.

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Amandaliya [a + mandala + iya] a formation resembling a circle, in phrase -m karoti to form a ring (of people) or a circle, to stand closely together M I 225 (cp. Sanskrit amandalikaroti).

Amata in anamata at J II.56 is metric for amata.

Amattika (f.) [a + mattika] earthenware, crockery; in -apana a crockery shop, chandler's shop Vin IV.243.

Amaddana (nt.) [a + maddana of mrd] crushing VvA 311.

Amanta (adj.-adv.) [either ger. of amanteti (q. v.) or root der. from a + mant, cp. amantana] asking or asked, invited, only as an- without being asked, unasked, uninvited Vin I.254 (-cara); A III.259 (id.).

Amantana (nt.) and -na (f., also -na) [from amanteti] addressing, calling; invitation, greeting Sn 40 (ep. Nd2 128); -vacana the address-form of speech i. e. the vocative case (cp. Sanskrit amantritam id.) SnA 435; KhA 167.

Amantanaka (adj.-n.) [from amantana] addressing, speaking to, conversing; f. -ika interlocutor, companion, favourite queen Vv 188 ( = allapa-sallapa-yogga ki'anakale va tena (i. e. Sakkena) amantetabba VvA 96).

Amantaniya (adj.) [grd. of amanteti] to be addressed J IV.371.

Amantita [pp. of amanteti] addressed, called, invited Pv II.313 ( = nimantita PvA 86).

Amanteti [denom. of a + *mantra] to call, address, speak to, invite, consult J VI.265; DA I.297; SnA 487 ( = alapati and avhayati); PvA 75, 80, 127. - aor. amantesi D II.16; Sn p. 78 ( = alapi SnA 394) and in poetry amantayi Sn 997; Pv II.27; 37 (perhaps better with v. l. SS samantayi). - ger. amanta ( = Sanskrit *amantrya) J III.209, 315 ( = amantayitva* C.), 329; IV.111; V.233; VI.511. pp. amantita (q. v.). - Causative II. amantapeti to invite to come, to cause to be called, to send for D I.134 (v. l. amanteti); Miln 149.

Amaya [etymology* cp. Sanskrit amaya] affliction, illness, misery; only as an- (adj.) not afflicted, not decaying, healthy, well (cp. BSanskrit niramaya II.9) Vin I.294; Vv 1510 ( = aroga VvA 74); 177; 368; J III.260, 528; IV. 427; VI.23. Positive only very late, e. g. Sdhp 397.

Amalaka [cp. Sanskrit amalaka] emblic myrobalan, Phyllanthus Emblica Vin I.201, 278; II.149 (-vantika pithu); S I.150; A V.170; Sn p. 125 (-matti); J IV.363; V.380 (as v. l. for T. amala); Miln 11; DhA I.319; VvA 7.

Amalaki (f.) amalaka Vin I.30; M I.456 (-vana).

Amasati [a + masati from mrsh] to touch (upon), to handle, to lay hold on Vin II.221; III.48 (kumbhim); J III.319 (id.); A V.263, 266; J IV.67; Ps II.209; Miln 306; SnA 400; DhsA 302; VvA 17. - aor. amasi J II.360; ger. amasitva Vin III.140 (udakapattam) J II.330; grd. amassa J II.360 (an-) and amasitabba id. (C.). -pp. amattha and amasita (q. v.).

Amasana (nt.) [from amasati] touching, handling; touch Vin IV.214. Cp. III.118; Miln 127, 306; DA I.78.

Amasita [pp. of amasati] touched, taken hold of, occupied VvA 113 (an- khetta virgin land).

Amaya (adj.) [to be considered either a der. from ama (see amajata in same meaning) or to be spelt amaya which metri causa may be written a-] "born in the house" (cp. semantically Gr. i)qagenh/s > indigenous), inborn, being by birth, in cpd. -dasa (dasi) a born slave, a slave by birth J VI.117 ( = gehadasiya kucchismim jatadasi C.), 285 ( = dasassa dasiya kucchimhi jatadasa).

Amasaya [ama2 + asaya, cp. Sanskrit amashaya and amashraya] receptacle of undigested food, i. e. the stomach Vism 260; KhA 59. Opp. pakkasaya.

Amilaka (nt.*) [etymology*] a woollen cover into which a floral pattern is woven DA I.87.

Amisa (nt.) [der. from ama raw, q. v. for etymology - Vedic amis (m.); later Sanskrit (nt.), both in lit. and fig. meaning] 1. originally raw meat; hence prevailing notion of "raw, unprepared, uncultivated"; thus -khara raw lye Vin I. 206. - 2. "fleshy, of the flesh" (as opposed to mind or spirit), hence material, physical; generally in opposition to dhamma (see dhamma B 1. a. and also next no.), thus at M I.12 (-dayada); It 101 (id.); A I.91 = It 98 (-dana material gifts opp. to spiritual ones); Dhs 1344 (-patisanthara hospitality towards bodily needs, cp. Dhs trsl. 350). - 3. food, esp. palatable food (cp. E. sweetmeat); food for enjoyment, dainties Vin II.269 sq.; J II.6; Miln 413 (lok-); DA I.83 (-sannidhi), - 4. bait S I.67; IV.158; J IV.57, 219; VI.416; DA I.270. - 5. gain, reward, money, douceur, gratuity, " ti." PvA 36, 46; esp. in phrase -kincikkha-hetu for the sake of some (little) gain S II.234; A I.128; V.265, 283 sq., 293 sq.; Pug 29; Pv II.83 ( = kinci amisan patthento PvA 107); Miln 93; VvA 241 ( = bhogahetu). - 6. enjoyment Pv II.82 ( = kamamise-laggacitto PvA 107). - 7. greed, desire, lust Vin I.303 (-antara out of greed, selfish, opp. mettacitto); A III.144 (id.), 184 (id.); I.73 (-garu parisa); J V.91 (-cakkhu); Ps II.238 (mar-). See also compounds with nir- and sa-.

Amuncati [a + mtic] to put on, take up; to be attached to, cling to DhsA 305. -pp. amutta (q. v.).

Amutta [Sanskrit amukta, pp. of a + muc, cp. also BSanskrit amukta jewel Divy 2, 3 etc., a meaning which might also be seen in the later Pali passages, e. g. at PvA 134. Semantically cp. abharana] having put on, clothed in, dressed with, adorned with (always --) D I.104 (-malabharana); Vin II.156 = Vv 208 (-mani-kundala); S I.211; J IV.460; V. 155; VI.492; Vv 721 ( = patimukka); 802 (-hatthabharana); Pv II.951 (-manikundala);J IV.183; VvA 182.

Amendita (or amedita) [Sanskrit amredita fram a + mred, dialectical] - (nt.) sympathy in -m karoti to show sympathy (* so Morris J.Pali Text Society 1887, 106) DA I.228 = SnA 155 (v. l. at DA amedita).

Amo = ama D I.192, 3.

Amoda [Sanskrit amoda, from a + mud] that which pleases; fragrance, perfume Davs V.51.

Amodana (f.) [from a + mud] rejoicing Dhs 86, 285.

Amodamana (adj.) [ppr. med. of amodeti] rejoicing, glad S I.100 (v. l. anu-) = It 66; Vv 648 ( = pamodamana VvA 278); J V.45.

Amodita [pp. from amodeti] pleased, satisfied, glad J I.17 (V.80); V.45 (-pamodita highly pleased); Miln 346.

Amodeti [Sanskrit amodayati, Causative of a + mud] to please, gladden, satisfy Th 1, 649 (cittam); J V.34. -pp. amodita (q. v.).

Aya [Sanskrit aya; a + i] 1. coming in, entrance M III.93. 2. tax J V.113. - 3. income, earning, profit, gain (opp. vaya loss) A IV.282 = 323; Sn 978; J I.228; KhA 38 (in explination. of kaya), 82 (in etymology of ayatana); PvA 130. 4. (aya f.*) a lucky dice ("the incomer") J VI.281. -kammika a treasurer DhA I.184. -kusala clever in earnings Nett 20. -kosalla proficiency in money making D III.220 (one of the three kosallas); Vbh 325. -pariccaga expediture of one's income PvA 8. -mukha (lit.) entrance, inflow, going in D I.74 ( = agamana-magga DA

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1.78); M II.15; A II.166; (fig.) revenue income, money SnA 173.

Ayata [Sanskrit ayata, pp. of a + yam, cp. ayamati] - 1. (adj.) outstretched, extended, long, in length (with numeral) D III.73 (natikkhaya, prolonged or heavy*); M I.178 (dighato a-; tiriyan ca vitthata); J I.77, 273 (tettims--angul-ayato khaggo); III.438; Vv 8415 (-amsa; cp. explination. at VvA 339); SnA 447; DhsA 48; PvA 152 (datha fangs; loma hair), 185 (-vatta); Sdhp 257. - 2. (n.) a bow J III.438. -agga having its point (end) stretched forward, i. e. in the future (see ayati) It 15, 52. -panhin having long eye-lashes (one of the signs of a Mahapurisa) D II.17 = III.143. -pamha a long eye-lash Th 2, 384 ( = dighapakhuma ThA 250).

Ayataka (adj.) [ = ayata] - 1. long. extended, prolonged, kept up, lasting Vin II.108 (gitassara); A III.251 (id.); J I.362. - 2. sudden, abrupt, instr. -ena abruptly Vin II.237.

Ayatana (nt.) [Sanskrit ayatana, not found in the Vedas; but frequent in BSanskrit From a + yam, cp. ayata. The pl. is ayatana at S IV.70. - For full definition of term as seen by the Pali Commentators see Bdhgh's explination at DA I. 124, 125, with which cp. the popular etymology at KhA 82: "ayassa va tananato ayatassa va sansaradukkhassa nayanato ayatanani" and at Vism 527 "aye tanoti ayatan ca nayati ti a."] - 1. stretch, extent, reach, compass, region; sphere, locus, place, spot; position, occasion (corresponding to Bdhgh's definition at DA I.124 as "samosarana") D III.241, 279 (vimutti-); S II.41, 269; IV.217; V.119 sq., 318. sq.; A III.141 (ariya-); V.61 (abhibh-, q. v.) Sn 406 (rajass- "haunt of passion" = ragadi-rajassa uppatti-deso SnA 381); J I.80 (raj-). Freq. in phrase arann- a lonely spot, a spot in the forest J I.173; VvA 301; PvA 42, 54. - 2. exertion, doing, working, practice, performance (comprising Bdhgh's definition at DA I.124 as pannatti), usually --, viz. kamm- Nd1 505; Vbh 324, 353; kasin- A V.46 sq., 60; Ps I.28; titth- A I.173, 175; Vbh 145, 367; sipp- (art, craft) D I.51; Nd2 505; Vbh 324, 353; cp. an- non-exertion, indolence, sluggishness J V.121. - 3. sphere of perception or sense in general, object of thought, sense-organ and object; relation, order. - Cpd.p. 183 says rightly: "ayatana cannot be rendered by a single English word to cover both sense-organs (the mind being regarded as 6th sense) and sense objects". - These ayatanani (relations, functions, reciprocalities) are thus divided into two groups, inner (ajjhattikani) and outer (bahirani), and comprise the following: (a) ajjhatt-: 1. cakkhu eye, 2. sota ear, 3. ghana nose, 4. jivha tongue, 5. kaya body, 6. mano mind; (b) bah-: 1. rupa visible object, 2. sadda sound, 3. gandha odour, 4. rasa taste, 5. photthabba tangible object, 6. dhamma cognizable object. - For details as regards connotation and application see Dhs trsl. introduction li sq. Cpd.90 n. 2; 254 sq. - Approximately covering this meaning (3) is Bdhgh's definition of ayatana at DA I.124 as sanjati and as karana (origin and cause, i. e. mutually occasioning and conditioning relations or adaptations). See also Nd2 under rupa for further classifications. - For the above mentioned 12 ayatanani see the following passages: D II.302 sq.; III.102, 243; A III.400; V.52; Sn 373 (cp. SnA 366); Ps I.7, 22, 101, 137; II. 181, 225, 230; Dhs 1335; Vbh 401 sq.; Nett 57, 82; Vism 481; ThA 49, 285. Of these 6 are mentioned at S I.113, II.3; IV.100, 174 sq.; It 114; Vbh 135 sq., 294; Nett 13, 28, 30; Vism 565 sq. Other sets of 10 at Nett 69; of 4 at D II.112, 156; of 2 at D II.69. - Here also belongs akas- ananc- ayatana, akincann- etc. (see under akasa etc. and s. v.), e. g. at D I.34 sq., 183; A IV.451 sq.; Vbh 172, 189, 262 sq.; Vism 324 sq. - Unclassified passages: M I.61; II.233; III.32, 216, 273; S I.196; II.6, 8, 24, 72 sq.; III.228; IV.98; V.426; A I.113, 163, 225; III.17, 27, 82, 426; IV.146, 426; V.30, 321, 351, 359; Nd1 109, 133, 171, 340; J I.381 (paripunna-); Vbh 412 sq. (id.). -uppada birth of the ayatanas (see above 3) Vin I.185. -kusala skilled in the a. M III.63. -kusalata skill in the spheres (of sense) D III.212; Dhs 1335. -ttha founded in the sense-organs Ps I.132; II.121.

Ayatanika (adj.) [from ayatana] belonging to the sphere of (some special sense, see ayatana 3) S IV.126 (phass- niraya and sagga).

Ayati (f.) [from a + yam, cp. Sanskrit ayati] "stretching forth", extension, length (of time), future. Only (*) in acc. ayatim (adv.) in future Vin II.89, 185; III.3; Sn 49; It 115 (T. reads ayati but cp. p. 94 where T. ayatim, v. l. ayati); J I.89; V.431; DA I 236.

Ayatika (adj.) [from last] future S I.142.

Ayatika (f.) [of ayataka] a tube, waterpipe Vin II.123.

Ayatta [Sanskrit ayatta, pp. of a + yat]. - 1. striving, active, ready, exerted J V.395 (-mana = ussukkamana C.). 2. striven after, pursued J I.341. - 3. dependent on Vism 310 (assasa-passasa-); Nett 194; Sdhp 477, 605.

Ayana (f.) [*] at DhsA 259 and Vism 26 is a grammarian's construction, abstracted from f. abstr. words ending in -ayana, e. g. kankha > kankhayana, of which the correct explination. is a derivation from caus.-formation kankhayati > kankhay + a + na. What the idea of Bdhgh. was in propounding his explination. is hard to say, perhaps he related it to i and understood it to be the same as ayana.

Ayamati [a + yam] to stretch, extend, stretch out, draw out Miln 176, usually in stereotype phrase pitthi me agilayati tam aham ayamissami "my back feels weak, I will stretch it" Vin II.200; D III.209; M I.354; S IV.184; J I.491. Besides this in commentaries e. g. J III.489 (mukham ayamitum).

Ayasa (adj.) [Sanskrit ayasa, of ayas iron] made of iron S II. 182; A III.58; Dh 345; J IV.416; V.81; Vv 845 (an-* cp. the rather strange explination. at VvA 335).

AyaSakya (nt.) dishonour, disgrace, bad repute A IV.96; J V.17; VvA 110; usually in phrase -m papunati to fall into disgrace Th 1, 292; J II.33 = 271; III.514. [Bdhgh. on A IV.96 explains it as ayasaka + ya with guna of the initial, cp. arogya].

Ayasmant (adj.) [Sanskrit ayus.mant, the Pali form showing assimilation of u to a] lit. old, i. e. venerable; used, either as adj. or absolute as a respectful appellation of a bhikkhu of some standing (cp. the semantically identical thera). It occurs usually in nom. ayasma and is explained. in Nd by typical formula "piya-vacanam garu-, sagarava-sappatiss¢dhivacanam", e. g. Nd1 140, 445; Nd2 130 on var. Sn loci (e. g. 814, 1032, 1040, 1061, 1096). - Freq. in all texts, of later passages see SnA 158; PvA 53, 54, 63, 78. - See also avuso.

Ayaga [a + yaga of yaj] sacrificial fee, gift; (m.) recipient of a sacrifice or gift (deyyadhamma) Sn 486 ( = deyyadhammanam adhitthana-bhuta SnA 412); Th 1, 566; J VI. 205 (-vatthu worthy objact of sacrificial fees).

Ayacaka (adj.-n.) [from a + yac] one who begs or prays, petitioner Miln 129.

Ayacati [a + yac, cp. Buddh. Sanskrit ayacate Divy 1.] - 1. to request, beg, implore, pray to (acc.) Vin III.127; D I.240; PvA 160. - 2. to make a vow, to vow, promise A I. 88; J I.169 = V.472; I.260; II.117. -pp. ayacita (q. v.).

Ayacana (nt.) [from ayacati] - 1. asking, adhortation, addressing (t. t. g. in explination. of imperative) SnA 43, 176, 412. - 2. a vow, prayer A I.88; III.47; J I.169 = V.472.

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Ayacita [pp. of ayacati] vowed, promised J I.169 (-bhattajataka N.).

Ayata [pp. of ayat.; cp. BSanskrit ayata in same meaning at Jtm 210] gone to, undertaken Sdhp 407.

Ayati [a + yati of ya] to come on or here, to come near, approach, get into S I.240; Sn 669; Sn p. 116 ( = gacchati SnA 463); J IV.410; pv II.1212 ( = agacchati PvA 158); DhA I.93 (imper. ayama let us go). -pp. ayata.

Ayana (nt.) [from a + ya to go] coming, arrival: see ayana.

Ayama [from a + yam, see ayamati] - 1. (lit.) stretching, stretching out, extension Vin I.349 = J III.488 (mukh-). 2. (applied) usually as linear measure: extension, length (often combined. with and contrasted to vitthara breadth or width and ubbedha height), as n. (esp. in abl. ayamato and instr. ayamena in length) or as adj. (*-): J I.7, 49 (-ato tini yojanasatani, vittharato addhatiyani); III.389; Miln 17 (ratanam so'asahattham ayamena atthahattham vittharena), 282 (ratanam catuhatth-ayamam); Vism 205 (+ vitth-); Khb 133 (+ vitthara and parikkhepa); VvA 188 (so'asayojan-), 199 (-vittharehi), 221 (-ato + vitth-); PvA 77 (+ vitth-), 113 (id. + ubbedha); DhA I.17 (satthi-yojan-).

Ayasa [cp. Sanskrit ayasa, etymology*] trouble, sorrow, only [ed: * Upayasa] negative an- (adj.) peaceful, free from trouble A IV.98; Th 1, 1008.

Ayu (nt.) [Vedic ayus; Av. ayu, gradation form of same root as Gr. ai)w/n "aeon", ai)e/n always; Latin aevum, Goth. aiws. Ohg. ewa, io always; Ger. ewig eternal; Ags. ae eternity, a always (cp. ever and aye)] life, vitality, duration of life, longevity D III.68, 69, 73, 77; S III.143 (usma ca); IV.294; A I.155; II.63, 66 (addh-); III.47; IV.76, 139; Sn 694, 1019; It 89; J I.197 (digh-); Vv 555 (cp. VvA 247 with its definition of divine life as comprising 30 600 000 years); Vism 229 (length of man's ayu = 100 years); Dhs 19, 82, 295, 644, 716; Sdhp 234, 239, 258. - Long or divine life, dibbam ayu is one of the 10 attributes of adhipateyya or majesty (see thana), thus at Vin I.294; D III.146; S IV.275 sq.; A I.115; III. 33; IV.242, 396; Pv II.959 ( = jivitam PvA 136). -uha see ayuha. -kappa duration of life Miln 141; DhA I.250. -khaya decay of life (cp. jivita-kkhaya) D I.17 (cp. DA I.110); III.29. -pamana span or measure of life time D II.3; A I.213, 267; II.126 sq.; IV.138, 252 sq., 261; V.172; Pug 16; Vbh 422 sq.; SnA 476. -pariyanta end of life It 99; Vism 422. -sankhaya exhaustion of life or lifetime Dpvs V.102. -sankhara (usually pl. -a) constituent of life, conditions or properties resulting in life, vital principle D II.106; M I.295 sq.; S II.266; A IV.311 sq.; Ud 64; J IV.215; Miln 285; Vism 292; DhA I.129; PvA 210. Cp. BSanskrit ayuh.-sanskara Divy 203.

Ayuka (*-) (adj.) [from ayu] - being of life; having a life or age A IV.396 (niyat-); VvA 196 (yavatayuka dibbasampatti divine bliss lasting for a lifetime). Esp. frequent in combination. with digha (long) and appa (short) as dighayuka A IV.240; PvA 27; appayuka A IV.247; PvA 103; both at Vism 422. In phrase visati-vassasahass-ayukesu manussesu at the time when men lived 20 000 years D II.5-12 (see Table at Dial. II.6); DhA II.9; PvA 135; dasa-vassasahass-ayukesu manussesu (10 000 years) PvA 73; catta'isa- DhA I.103; catusatthi-kapp-ayuka subhakinha Vism 422.

Ayukin (adj.) [from ayu] = ayuka; in appayukin short lived Vv 416.

Ayuta (adj.) [Sanskrit ayuta, pp. of a + yu, yuvati] - 1. connected with, endowed, furnished with Th 1, 753 (dve pannaras-ayuta due to twice fifteen); Sn 301 (nari-varagan- = -sanyutta SnA 320); Pv II.124 (nana-saragan- = -yutta PvA 157). - 2. seized, conquered, in dur- hard to conquer, invincible J VI.271 ( = paccatthikehi durasada C.).

Ayutta [Sanskrit ayukta; pp. of a + yuj] - 1. yoked, to connected with, full of Pv I.1014 (tejas-ayuta T., but PvA 52 reads -ayutta and explinations. as samayutta); PvA 157 ( = akinna of Pv II.124). - 2. intent upon, devoted to S I.67.

Ayuttaka (adj.-n.) [ayutta + ka] one who is devoted to or entrusted with, a trustee, agent, superintendent, overseer J I.230 (-vesa); IV.492; DhA I.101, 103, 180.

Ayudha is the Vedic form of the common Pali form avudha weapon, and occurs only spuriously at D I.9 (v. l. avudha).

Ayuvant (adj.) [from ayu] advanced in years, old, of age Th 1, 234.

Ayusmant (adj.) [Sanskrit ayus.mant; see also the regular Pali form ayasmant] having life or vitality PvA 63 (ayusmavinnana feeling or sense of vitality; is reading correct*).

Ayussa (adj.) [Sanskrit *ayus.ya] connected with life, bringing (long) life A III.145 dhamma).

Ayuhaka (adj.) [from ayuhati] keen, eager, active Miln 207 (+ viriyava).

Ayuhati [a + y + uhati with euphonic y, from Vedic uhati, uh1, a gradation of vah (see etymology under vahati). Kern's etymology on Toev. 99 = ayodhati is to be doubted, more acceptable is Morris' explination. at J.Pali Text Society 1885, 58 sq., although contradictory in part.] lit. to push on or forward, aim at, go for, i. e. (1) to endeavour, strain, exert oneself S I.1 (ppr. anayuham unstriving), 48; J VI.35 ( = viriyam karoti C.), 283 ( = vayamati C.). - (2) to be keen on (w. acc.), to cultivate, pursue, do Sn 210 ( = karoti SnA 258); Miln 108 (kammam uyuhitva), 214 (kammam ayuhi), 326 (maggam). -pp. ayuhita (q. v.).

Ayuhana (adj.-nt.) [from ayuhati] - 1. endeavouring, striving, Ps I.10 sq., 32, 52; II.218; Vism 103, 212, 462, 579. f. ayuhani Dhs 1059 ("she who toils" trsl.) = Vbh 361 = Nd2 tanha 1. (has ayuhana). - 2. furtherance, pursuit DA I.64 (bhavassa).

Ayuha f. [ayu + uha] life, lifetime, only in -pariyosana at the end of (his) life PvA 136, 162; VvA 319.

Ayuhapeti [Causative II. from ayuhati] to cause somebody to toil or strive after DhsA 364.

Ayuhita [*Sanskrit a + uhita, pp. of uh] busy, eager, active Miln 181.

Ayoga [Sanskrit ayoga, of a + yuj; cp. ayutta] - 1. binding, bandage Vin II.135; Vv 3341; VvA 142 (-patta). - 2. yoke Dhs 1061 (avijj-), 1162. - 3. ornament, decoration Nd1 226; J III.447 (-vatta, for v. l. -vanta*). - 4. occupation, devotion to, pursuit, exertion D I.187; Dh 185 ( = payoga-karana DhA III.238). - 5. (t. t.) obligation, guarantee(*) SnA 179. - Cp. sam-.

Arakatta (nt.) [*arakat + tvam] warding off, keeping away, holding aloof, being far from (c. gen.); occurring only in pop. etymology of arahant at A IV.145; DhA IV.228; DA I.146 = VvA 105, 106 = PvA 7; cp. DhsA 349.

Araka (adv.) [Sanskrit arat and arakat, abl. form. from *araka, see ara2] far off, far from, away from, also used as prep. c. abl. and as adj. pl. keeping away from, removed, far Vin II.239 = A IV.202 (sanghamha); D I.99, 102 (adj.) 167; M I.280 (adj.) S II.99; IV.43 sq.; A I.281; It 91; J I.272; III.525; V.451; Miln 243; VvA 72, 73 (adj. + virata).

Arakkha [a + rakkha] watch, guard, protection, care D II.59; III.289; S IV.97, 175, 195; A II.120; III.38; IV. 266, 270, 281 (-sampada), 322 (id.), 400; V.29 sq.; J I.203; II.326; IV.29 (-purisa); V.212 (-tthana, i. e. harem), 374 (-parivara); Pug 21 (an-), 24; Miln 154; Vism 19

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(-gocara preventive behaviour, cautiousness); SnA 476 (-devata); KhA 120 (id.), 169; DhA II.146; PvA 195; Sdhp 357, 365.

Arakkhlka [from arakkha] a guard, watchman J IV.29.

Arakkheyya see arakkheyya.

Aragga (nt.) [ara + agga; Sanskrit aragra of ara an awl, a prick] the point of an awl, the head of certain arrows, having the shape of an awl, or an arrow of that kind (see Halayudha p. 151) A I.65; Sn 625, 631; Dh 401, 407; Vism 306; DhA II 51; IV.181.

Aracayaracaya [a + racaya a ger. or abl. form. from a + *rac, in usual Sanskrit meaning "to produce", but here as a sound-root for slashing noise, in reduplication for sake of intensification. Altogether problematic] by means of hammering, slashing or beating (like beating a hide) Sn 673 (gloss arajayarajaya from a + *ranj or *raj). - SnA 481 explinations. the passage as follows: arajayarajaya; i. e. yatha manussa allacammam bhumiyam pattharitva khilehi akotenti, evam akotetva pharasuhi pha'etva ekam ekam kotim chinditva vihananti, chinnachinnakoti punappuna samutthati; aracayaracaya ti pi patho, avinjitva (v. l. BB. avijjhitva) avinjitva ti attho. - Cp. aranjita.

Arannaka (adj.) [from aranna + ka] belonging to solitude or the forest, sequestereotyped; living in the forest, fond of seclusion, living as hermits (bhikkhu). Freq. spelt arannaka (q. v.). - Vin I.92 (bhikkhu); II.32, 197, 217 (bh.), 265 (bh.); M I.214; A III.100 sq., 219; IV.21; V.66; J III.174 (v. l. BB. a-); Miln 342; DhA II.94 (vihara).

Arannakatta (nt.) [abstr. from arannaka, see also arannakatta] the habit of sequestration or living in solitude M I.214; III.40; A I.38.

Arannika (adj.) = arannaka Vin III.15; A I.24; Pug 69; Vism 61, 71 (where defined); Miln 341.

Aranjita [in form = Sanskrit *aranjita, a + pp. of ranjayati, Causative of ranj or raj, but in meaning different. Perhaps to rac (as *racita) to furnish with, prepare, or better still to be regarded as an idiomatic Pali form of soundroot *rac (see aracaya-) mixed with ranj, of which we find another example in the double spelling of aracaya (and arajaya) q. v.] furrowed, cut open, dug up, slashed, torn (perhaps also "beaten") M I.178 (hatthipadam dantehi aranjitam an elephant-track bearing the marks of tusks, i. e. occasional slashes or furrows).

Arata [Sanskrit arata, pp. of a + ram, cp. arati] leaving off, keeping away from, abstaining J IV.372 ( = virata); Nd2 591 (+ virata pativirata).

Arati (f.) [Sanskrit arati, a + ram] leaving off, abstinence Vv 639 ( = pativirati VvA 263); in exegetical style occurring in typ. combination. with virati pativirati veramani, e. g. at Nd2 462; Dhs 299.

Aratta (nt.*) [Sanskrit cp. arakta, pp. of a + raj] time, period (orig. affected, tinted with), only in cpd. vassaratta the rainy season, lent J IV.444; Davs II.74.

Araddha (adj.) [pp. of a + rabh] begun, started, bent on, undertaking, holding on to, resolved, firm A I.148 (araddham me viriyam It 30; PvA 73 (thapetum began to place), 212 (gantum). Cp. aradhaka 1. -citta concentrated of mind, decided, settled D I.176; M I.414; S II.21; Sn p. 102; SnA 436. Cp. aradheti 1. -viriya (adj.) strenuous, energetic, resolute Vin I.182; D III.252, 268, 282, 285; A I.24; Sn 68, 344; It 71 (opp. hina-viriya); Nd2 131; Ps I.171; ThA 95. Cp. viriyarambha; f. abstr. -viriyata M I.19.

Arabbha (indecl.) [ger. of arabhati2 in abs. function; cp. Sanskrit arabhya meaning since, from] - 1. beginning, under taking etc., in cpd. -vatthu occasion for making an effort, concern, duty, obligation D III.256 = A IV.334 (eight such occasions enumd). - 2. (prep. with acc.) lit. beginning with, taking (into consideration), referring to, concerning, with reference to, about D I.180; A II.27 = It 103 (senasanam a.); Sn 972 (upekham; v. l. arambha; C. uppadetva); Pv I.41 (pubbe pete a.); DhA I.3; II.37; PvA 3 (setthiputta-petam a.), 16, and passim.

Arabhati1 [not with Morris J.Pali Text Society 1889, 202 from rabh and identical with arabhati2, but with Kern, Toev. s. v. identical with Sanskrit alabhate, a + labh meaning to seize the sacrificial animal in order to kill it; cp. nirarambha] to kill, destroy M I.371 (panam).

Arabhati2 and arabbhati [a + rabhati, Sanskrit arabhati and arambhati, a + rabh] to begin, start, undertake, attempt S I.156 (arabbhatha "bestir yourselves") = Miln 245 = Th 1, 256 (bh.); Pug 64 (bh.); viriyam arabhati to make an effort, to exert oneself (cp. arambha) A IV.334. aor. arabhi DhA II.38 and arabbhi PvA 35. - ger. arabbha, see sep. -pp. araddha (q. v.).

Arambha [Sanskrit arambha in meaning "beginning", fr a + rabh (rambh) cp. arabhati] - 1. attempt, effort, inception of energy (cp. Dhs trsl. 15 and K. S. p. 318 giving C. def. as kicca, karaniya, attha, i. e. 1. undertaking and duty, 2. object) S I.76 (mah-); V.66, 104 sq. (-dhatu); III.338 (id.), 166 (-ja; T. arabbhaja, v. l. arambhaja to be preferred) = Pug 64; Miln 244; Net 41; DhsA 145. -viriyarambha (cp. araddha-viriya) zeal, resolution, energy Vin II.197; S IV.175; A I.12, 16. - 2. support, ground, object, thing Nett 70 sq., 107; an- unsupported, independent Sn 743 ( = nibbana SnA 507). Cp. also nirambha, uparambha, sarambha.

Arammana (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit alambana, lamb, but in meaning confounded with rambh (see rabhati)] primary meaning "foundation", from this applied in the following senses: (1) support, help, footing, expedient, anything to be depended upon as a means of achieving what is desired, i. e. basis of operation, chance Sn 1069 ( = alambana, nissaya, upanissaya Nd2 132); Pv I.41 (yam kinc- arammanam katva); arammanam labhati (+ otaram labhati) to get the chance S II.268; IV.185. - (2) condition, ground, cause, means, esp. a cause of desire or clinging to life, pl. -a causes of rebirth (interpreted by tanha at Nd1 429), lust Sn 474 ( = paccaya SnA 410), 945 ( = Nd1 429); KhA 23; DhA I.288 (sappay-); PvA 279. - (3) a basis for the working of the mind and intellect; i. e. sense-object, object of thought or consciousness, the outward constituent in the relation of subject and object, object in general. In this meaning of "relation" it is closely connected with ayatana (see ayatana3), so that it sometimes takes its place, it is also similar to visaya. Cpd.3 distinguishes a 5 fold object, viz. citta, cetasika, pasada- and sukhuma-rupa, pannatti, nibbana. See on term especially Cpd.3, 14; Dhs trsl. XLI. and 209. - A 1. sq.; IV.385; Sn 506; Ps I.57 sq., 84 (four a.); II.97, 118, 143; Dhs 1 (dhamm- object of ideation), 180, 584, 1186 et passim; Vbh 12, 79, 92, 319, 332 (four); Nett 191 (six); Vism 87 sq., 375 (-sankantika), 430 sq. (in var. sets with reference to var. objects), 533; DhsA 48, 127; VvA 11, 38. - ruparammana lit. dependence on form, i. e. object of sight, visible form, especially striking appearance, visibility, sight D III.228; S III.53; A I.82; J I.304; II.439, 442; PvA 265. arammanam karoti to make it an object (of intellection or intention), to make it one's concern (cp. Pv I.41, above 1). - arammana-kusala clever in the objects (of meditation) S III.266; a--paccayata relation of presentation (i. e. of subj. and obj.) Nett 80. - (4) (*-) (adj.) being supported by, depending on, centred in, concentrated upon PvA 8 (nissay-), 98 (ek-); VvA 119 (buddh- piti rapture centred in the Buddha).

Araha (adj.) metri causa for araha deserving J VI.164.

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Ara1 (f.) [Sanskrit ar¢; *el "pointed", as in Ohg. ala = Ger. ahle, Ags. ael = E awl; Oicel. alr] an awl; see cp. aragga. Perhaps a der. of ara is a'aka (q. v.).

Ara2 (indecl.) [Vedic arad, abl. as adv.; orig. a root der. from *ara remoteness, as in Sanskrit arana foreign and aranya solitude q. v. under arana1 and aranna] far from, remote (from) (adv. as well as prep. with abl.) Sn 156 (pamadamha), 736; Dh 253 (asavakkhaya; DhA III.377 expls. by duragata); J II.449 (jhanabhumiya; = dure thita C.); V.78 (sanyame; = durato C.). See also araka. -cara [in this combination. by Kern, Toev. s. v. unecessarily explained. as ara = arya; cp. similar phrases under araka] a life remote (from evil) A IV.389. -carin living far from evil leading a virtuous life D I.4; M I.179; III.33; A III. 216, 348; IV.249; V.138, 205; DA I.72 ( = abrahmacariyato dura-carin).

Aradhaka (adj.-n.) [from a + radh] 1. [perhaps for *araddhaka because of analogy to araddha of a + rabh] successful, accomplishing or accomplished, undertaking, eager Vin I.70 (an- one who fails); M I.491; II.197 = A I.69 = Miln 243; S V.19; A V.329 (in correlation with araddhaviriya). - 2. pleasing, propitiating Miln 227; VvA 220 (-ika f.).

Aradhana (nt.) and -a (f.) (either from a + radh or a + rabh, cp. aradhaka] satisfying, accomplishing; satisfaction, accomplishment D II.287 (opp. viradhana failure); M I.479; II.199; A V.211 sq.; J IV.427.

Aradhaniya (adj.) [grd. from aradheti] to be attained, to be won; successful Vin I.70 (an-); J II.233 (dur-).

Aradhita [pp. of aradheti; Sanskrit aradhita, but BSanskrit aragita, e. g. Divy 131, 233] pleased Sdhp 510.

Aradheti [Causative of a + radh, in meaning 2 confused with arabhati. In BSanskrit strangely distorted to aragayati; frequent in Divy as well as Av. SH] - 1. to please, win favour, propitiate, convince J I.337 (darake), 421, 452; II.72 (manusse); IV.274 (for abhiradheti T.); Vism 73 (aradhayanto Nathassa vana-vasena manasan); DhA II.71; Davs III.93 (aradhayi sabbajanam); Miln 352. In older literature only in phrase cittam aradheti to please one's heart, to gladden, win over, propitiate D I.118 sq., 175 (but cp. araddha-citta to arabhati); M I85, 341; S II.107; V.109; J II.372; Miln 25. - 2. to attain, accomplish, fulfill, succeed S V.23 (maggam), 82, 180, 294; It III. (v. l. aram-); Sn 488 = 509. Cp. aradhaka 1. -pp. aradhita (q. v.). - See also parabhetva.

Arama [Sanskrit arama, a + ram] - 1. pleasure, fondness of (*-), delight, always as adj. (*-) delighting in, enjoying, finding pleasure in (usually combined. with rata, e. g. dhammarama dhammarata finding delight in the Dh.) S I.235; IV.389 sq. (bhav-, upadan-); A I.35, 37, 130; II.28 (bhavan-); It 82 (dhamm-); Sn 327 (id.; explained. by SnA 333 as rati and "dhamme aramo assa ti"); Pug 53 (samagg-); Vbh 351. - 2. a pleasure-ground, park, garden (lit. sport, sporting); classified at Vin III.49 as pupph- and phal- a park with flowers or with fruit (i. e. orchard), def. at DhA III.246 as veluvana-Jivak- ambavan- adayo, i. e. the park of veluvana, or the park belonging to Jivaka or mango-groves in general. Therefore: (a) (in general) a park, resort for pastime etc. Vin II.109; D I. 106; Dh 188; Vv 795 (amb- garden of mangoes); VvA 305 (id.); Pv II.78 (pl. aramani = aram- upavanani PvA 102). - (b) (in special) a private park, given to the Buddha or the Sangha for the benefit of the bhikkhus, where they meet and hold discussions about sacred and secular matters; a place of recreation and meditation, a meeting place for religious gatherings. Amongst the many aramas given to the bhikkhus the most renowned is that of Anathapindika (Jetavana; see J I.92-94) D I.178; Vin IV.69; others more frequently mentioned are e. g. the park of Ambapali (Vin I.233); of Mallika (D I.178), etc. - Vin I.39, 140, 283, 291; II.170; III.6, 45, 162; IV.85; A II.176; Dpvs V.18. -pala keeper of a park or orchard, gardener Vin II. 109; VvA 288. -ropa, -ropana planter, planting of pleasuregroves S I.33; PvA 151. -vatthu the site of an arama Vin I.140; II. 170; III.50, 90.

Aramakini (f.) see aramika.

Aramata (f.) [abstr. from arama 1] pleasure, satisfaction A II.28; III.116; Vbh 381; Miln 233.

Aramika (adj.) [from arama] 1. (to arama 1) finding delight in, fond of (c. gen.) (or servant in general*) Miln 6 (sanghassa trsl. at the service of the order). - 2. (to arama 2) belonging to an arama, one who shares the congregation, an attendant of the arama Vin I.207 sq.; II.177 (and -pesaka), 211; III.24; IV.40; V.204; A II.78 (-samanuddesa); III.109 (id.), 275 (-pesaka); J I.38 (-kicca) Vism 74 (-samanuddesa). - f. aramakini a female attendant or visitor of an arama Vin I.208.

Arava [cp. Sanskrit arava, from a + ru] cry, sound, noise Davs IV.46.

Araha (nt.) only in pl. gihinam arahani, things proper to laymen, D III.163.

Ariya in anariya at Sn 815 is metric for anariya (q. v.).

Arunna (nt.) [orig. pp of a + rud] weeping, crying, lamenting Miln 357.

Aruppa (adj.) [from arupa as a ( = a2) - *rupya] formless, incorporeal; nt. formless existence D III.275; M I.410, cp. 472; III.163; S I.131 (-tthayin); II.123; A IV.316; It 61; Sn 754; J I.406; Dhs 1385 (cp. trsl. 57); Vism 338; DA I.224; SnA 488, 508; Sdhp 5, 10; the four: Vism III, 326 sq.

Aruhati [a + ruh] to climb, ascend, go up or on to Sn 1014 (aor. aruham); Sdhp 188; ger. aruhitva Sn 321 and aruyha J VI.452; Sn 139 (v. l. abhiruyha); It 71. Causative aropeti (q. v.).

Arugya see arogya.

Aru'ha [pp. of aruhati] - 1. ascended, mounted, gone up, gone on to IV.137; J VI.452 (T. aru'ha); Vism 135 (nekkhamma-patipadam an-); VvA 64 (magga-); PvA 47 (-nava), 56 (hatthi-). - 2. come about, effected, made, done PvA 2, 144 (cp. BSanskrit pratijnam arudha having taken a vow Divy 26). - 3. (of an ornament) put on (to), arrayed J VI.153, 488.

Aruha see aroha.

Arogata (f.) [abstr. from a + roga + ta] freedom from illness, health Miln 341.

Arogya (nt.) [abstr. from aroga, i. e. a ( = a2) + roga + ya] absence of illness, health D I.11; III.220 (-mada), 235 (-sampada); M I.451 (T. arugya, v. l. arogya), 508, 509; S II.109; A I.146 (-mada); II.143; III.72; V.135 sq.; Sn 749, 257 = Dh 204 = J III.196; Nd1 160; Vism 77 (-mada pride of health); PvA 129, 198; Sdhp 234.

Arocapana (nt.) [from arocapeti, Causative of aroceti] announcement DhA II.167.

Arocapeti (Causative II. of aroceti] to make some one announce, to let somebody know, usually in phrase kalam a. Sn p. 111; J I.115, 125; DhA II.89; PvA 141.

Arocita [pp. of aroceti] announced, called Vin II.213 (kala).

Aroceti [a + roceti, Causative of ruc; cp. BSanskrit arocayati Sp. Av. SH I.9 etc.] to relate, to tell, announce, speak to, address D I.109, 224; Pv II.89 (aor, arocayi); PvA 4, 13

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(annamannam anarocetva not speaking to each other), 81, 274 and frequent passim. -pp. arocita; Causative II. arocapeti (q. v.).

Arodana (nt.) [from a + rud, cp. arunna] crying, lamenting A III.268 sq.; J I.34; DhA I.184; II.100.

Aropana (nt.) [from aropeti] "putting on to", impaling Miln 197 (sul-), 290 (id.).

Aropita [pp. of aropeti] - 1. produced, come forward, set up PvA 2. - 2. effected, made S III.12; PvA 92, 257. - 3. put on (to a stake), impaled PvA 220 ( = avuta).

Aropeti [Causative of aruhati]. - 1. to make ascend, to lead up to (w. acc.) PvA 76 (pasadam), 160 (id.) - 2. to put on, take up to (w. acc. or loc.) Pv II.92 (yakkham yanam aropayitvana); PvA 62 (sariram citakam a.), 100 (bhandam sakatesu a.). - 3. to put on, commit to the care of, entrust, give over to (w. loc.) J I.227; PvA 154 (rajjam amaccesu a.). - 4. to bring about, get ready, make PvA 73, 257 (sangaham a. make a collection); SnA 51, 142. 5. to exhibit, tell, show, give S I.160 (ovadam); Miln 176 (dosan); DhA II.75 (id.) - 6. vadam aropeti to refute a person, to get the better of (gen.) Vin I.60; M II.122; S I.160. -pp. aropita (q. v.).

Aroha (*-) [from a + ruh] - 1. climbing up, growth, increase, extent, in cpd. -parinaha length and circumference S II.206; A I.288; II.250; IV.397; V.19; J III.192; V. 299; VI.20; Vbh 345 (-mana + parinaha-mana); SnA 382. - 2. one who has climbed up, mounted on, a rider, usually in cpd. ass- and hatth- horse-rider and elephantrider S IV.310; A II.166 = III.162 (T. aruha); IV.107; DhsA 305. - 3. outfit, possession (or increase, as 1*) Sn 420 (vann-).

Arohana (nt.) [from a + ruh] climbing, ascending; ascent J I.70; VI.488; Miln 352; Vism 244; PvA 74.

Alaka-manda [alaya-*] at Vin II.152 is of uncertain reading and meaning ("open to view"* or "not having pegs" = a'aka*) vv. ll. a'akamanta and alakamandara; Bdhgh on p. 321 explinations. a'akamanda ti ekangana manuss¢bhikinna, i. e. full of a crowd of people, Ch. quotes alakamanda as "the city of Kuvera" (cp. Sanskrit alaka).

Alaggeti [a + Causative of lag] to (make) hang on to (loc.), to stick on, fasten to Vin II.110 (pattam velagge alaggetva).

Alapati [a + lapati] to address S I.177, 212; J V.201; SnA 42, 347, 383, 394 ( = amantayi of Sn 997), 487 ( avhayati); PvA 11, 13, 33, 69.

Alapana (nt.) and -a (f.) [from a + lap] talking to, addressing, conversation Vin III.73 (with reference to exclam. "ambho"); J V.253 (-a); Vism 23 (-a); SnA 396; PvA 131 (re ti a.).

Alapanata (f.) [abstr. from alapana] speaking to, conversing with, conversation M I.331) (an-).

Alamba [Sanskrit alamba, a + lamb] anything to hang on, support S I.53 (an- without support); Sn 173 (id. + appatittha); J III.396; Miln 343; Sdhp 245, 463.

Alambati [a + lamb] to hang on to or up, to take hold of, to fasten to Vin I.28, J I.57; VI.192; Vv 8448; ThA 34. - alambeti id. VvA 32.

Alambana (adj.-nt.) [from a + lamb, cp. alamba] (adj.) hanging down from, hanging up J III.396; IV.457; SnA 214. - (nt.) support, balustrade (or screen*) Vin II.117, 152 (-baha) Miln 126.

Alambara and a'ambara (nt.) [Sanskrit adambara] a drum Vin I.15 (l); J II.344 ('); V.390 (l); Vv 5418 (').

Alaya (m. and nt.) [cp. Sanskrit alaya, a + li, liyate, cp. allina and alliyati, also niralaya] - 1. orig. roosting place, perch, i. e. abode settling place, house J I.10 (geh-); Miln 213; DhA II.162 (an- = anoka), 170 ( = oka). - 2. "hanging on", attachment, desire, clinging, lust S I.136 = Vin I.4 (-rama "devoted to the things to which it clings" K. S.); Vin III.20, 111; S IV.372 (an-); V.421 sq. (id.); A II. 34, 131 (-rama); III.35; It 88; Sn 177 (kam- = kamesu tanha-ditthi-vasena duvidho alayo SnA 216), 535 (+ asavani), 635; Nett 121, 123 (-samugghata); Vism 293 (id.), 497; Miln 203 (Buddh -m akasi*); DhA I.121; IV.186 ( = tanha); SnA 468 ( = anoka of Sn 366). - 3. pretence, pretext, feint [cp. BSanskrit alaya M Vastu III.314] J I.157 (gilan-), 438; III.533 (mat-); IV.37 (gabbhini); VI 20, 262 (gilan-).

Alayati see alliyati.

Alassa (nt.) [Der. from alasa] sloth, idleness, laziness S I.43; D III.182; A IV.59; V.136; Sdhp 567. Spelling also alasya S I.43 (v. l. BB); Vbh 352; Miln 289, and alasiya J I.427; DA I.310; DhA I.299; VvA 43.

Alana and a'ana (nt.) [for anahana with substitution of l for n (cp. apil and hana for apinandh- and contraction of -ahana to -ana originally meaning "tying to" then the thing to which anything is tied] a peg, stake, post, esp. one to which an elephant is tied J I.415; IV.308; DhA I.126 (') where all MSS. have a'ahana, perhaps correctly.

Ali1 (m. or f.* [Sanskrit a'i] a certain kind of fish J V.405.

Ali2 and a'i (f.) [Sanskrit ali] a dike, embankment Vin II.256; M III.96; A II.166 (-pabbheda); III.28; J I.336; III.533, 334.

Alika in saccalika at S IV.306 is sacc-alika distortion of truth, falsehood S IV.306.

Alikhati [a + likhati] to draw, delineate, copy in writing or drawing J I.71; Miln 51.

Alinga [a + ling] a small drum J V.156 (suvann--tala).

Alingati [a + ling] to embrace, enfold D I.230; III.73; J I.281; IV.21, 316, 438; V.8; Miln 7; DhA I.101: VvA 260.

Alitta [pp. of alimpati; Sanskrit alipta] besmeared, stained Th 1, 737.

Alinda (and a'inda) [Sanskrit alinda] a terrace or verandah before the house-door Vin I.248; II.153; D I.89; M II.119; S IV.290 ('); A V.65 ('); J VI.429; DA I.252; DhA I. 26; IV.196; SnA 55 (-ka-vasin; v. l. alindaka); Mhvs 35, 3. As alindaka at J III.283.

Alippati Pass. of alimpeti (q. v.).

Alimpana (nt.) [for a'imp- = Sanskrit adipana, see alimpeti2] conflagration, burning, flame Miln 43.

Alimpita [pp. of alimpeti2] ignited, lit. A IV.102 (v. l. alepita).

Alimpeti1 [Sanskrit alimpayati or alepayati. a + lip or limp] to smear, anoint Vin II.107; S IV.177 (vanam). - Causative II. alimpapeti Vin IV.316. - Pass. alimpiyati Miln 74 and alippati DhA IV.166 (v. l. for lippati). -pp. alitta (q. v.).

Alimpeti2 [for Sanskrit adipayati, with change of d to l over ' and substitution of limp for 'ip after analogy of roots in -mp, like lup > lump, lip > limp] to kindle, ignite, set fire to Vin II.138 (dayo alimpetabbo); III.85; D II.163 (citakam); A I.257; DhA I.177 (avasan read avapam), 225; PvA 62 (katthani). -pp. alimpita (q. v.).

Alu (nt.) [Sanskrit alu and -ka; cognate with Latin alum and alium, see Walde Latin Wtb. under alium] a bulbous plant, Radix

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Globosa Esculenta or Amorphophallus (Kern), Arum Campanulatum (Hardy) J IV.371 = VI.578; IV.373.

Aluka1 = alu J IV.46 (C. for alupa).

Aluka2 (adj.) [etymology*] susceptible of, longing for, affected with (*-) Vin I.288 (sit-); DA I.198 (id.); J II.278 (tanh- greedy).

Alupa (nt.) [etymology* Kern, Toev. s. v. suggests alu-a > aluva > alupa] = aluka the edible root of Amorphophallus Campanulatus J IV.46 ( = aluka-kanda C.). The form aluva occurs at Ap 237.

Alumpakara [reading not sure, to alumpati or alopa] breaking off, falling off (*) or forming into bits(*) DhA II.55 (-gutha).

Alumpati [a + lup or lump, cp. alopa] to pull out, break off M I.324.

Alu'a (adj. [from a + lul] being in motion, confusion or agitation, disturbed, agitated J VI.431.

Alu'ati [a + lul; Sanskrit alolati, cp. also Pali alo'eti] to move here and there, ppr. med. alu'amana agitated, whirling about DhA IV.47 (T. alul-; v. l. a'ul-) confuse DhsA 375. Causative alu'eti to set in motion, agitate, confound J II.9, 33. -pp. alu'ita (q. v.).

Alu'ita [pp. of alu'eti] agitated, confused J II.101; Miln 397 (+ khalita).

Alepa [cp. Sanskrit alepa, of a + lip] ointment, salve, liniment Vin I.274; Miln 74; DhsA 249.

Alepana (nt.) [from a + lip] anointing, application of salve D I.7 (mukkh-).

Aloka [a + lok, Sanskrit aloka] seeing, sight (obj. and subj.), i. e. - 1. sight, view, look S IV.128 = Sn 763; A III. 236 (aloke nikkhitta laid before one's eye). analoka without sight, blind Miln 296 (andha +). - 2. light A I. 164 (tamo vigato a. uppanno) = It 100 (vihato); A II. 139 (four lights, i.e. canda-, suriya-, agg-, pann-, of the moon, sun, fire and wisdom); J II 34; Dhs 617 (opp. and hakara); VvA 51 (dip-). - 3. (clear) sight, power of observation, intuition, in combination. with vijja knowledge D II.33 = S II.7 = 105, cp. Ps II.150 sq. (obhasatthena, S A. on II.7). - 4. splendour VvA 53; DvA 71. -kara making light, bringing light, n. light-bringer It 108. -karana making light, illumining It 108. -da giving light or insight Th 1, 3. -dassana seeing light, i. e. perceiving Th 1, 422. -pharana diffusing light or diffusion of light Vbh 334; Nett 89. -bahula good in sight, fig. full of foresight A III.432. -bhuta light J VI 459. -sanna consciousness or faculty of sight or perception D III.223; A II.45; III.93 -sannin conscious of sight, i. e. susceptible to sight or insight D III.49; M III.3; A II 211; III.92, 323; IV.437; V.207; Pug 69. -sandhi "break for the light", a slit to look through, an opening, a crack or casement Vin I.48 = II.209 = 218; II.172; III.65; IV.47; J IV.310; PvA 24.

Alokana (nt.) [from a + lok] looking at, regarding DA I.194.

Alokita (nt.) [pp. of aloketi] looking before, looking at, looking forward (opp. vilokitam looking behind or backward), always in combination. alokita-vilokita in stereotype phrase at D I.70 = e. g. A II.104, 106, 210; Pug 44, 45, 50; Vism 19; VvA 6; DA I.193 (alokitam purato pekkhanam vil- anudisa p.).

Aloketar [n. ag. to aloketi] one who looks forward or before, a beholder DA I.194 (opp. viloketar).

Aloketi [Sanskrit alokayati, a + lok] to look before, look at, regard, see DA I.193, 194. -pp. alokita (q. v.).

Alopa [a + lup, cp. alumpati; BSanskrit alopa, e. g. Av. SH I. 173, 341; Divy 290, 481] a piece (cut off), a bit (of food) morsel, esp. bits of food gathered by bhikkhus D I.5 = A V.206; III.176; A II 209; III.304; IV.318; Th 1, 1055; It 18; Pv II.17; Pug 58; Miln 231, 406; Vism 106; DA I.80 ( = vilopa-karanam).

Alopati [alopeti* a + lopeti, Causative of alumpati] to break in, plunder, violate Th 1, 743.

Alopika (adj.) [alopa + ika] getting or having, or consisting of pieces (of food) A I.295; II.206; Pug 55.

Alo'a [from a + lu', cp. alu'ati and alo'eti] confusion, uproar, agitation DhA I.38.

Alo'i (f.) [a + lu'] that which is stirred up, mud, in cpd. sitalo'i mud or loam from the furrow adhering to the plough Vin I.206.

Alo'eti [Causative of alu'ati, cp. alu'eti] to confuse, mix, shake together, jumble S I.175; J II.272, 363; IV.333; VI.331; Vism 105.

A'aka (or -a f.) [Dimin of a'a (*) or of aQ 1 (*). See Morris J.Pali Text Society 1886, 158] - 1. a thorn, sting, dart, spike, used either as arrow-straightener Miln 418; DhA I.288; or (perhaps also for piece of bone, fishbone) in making up a comb VvA 349 (-sandhapana = comb; how Hardy got the meaning of "alum" in Ind. to VvA is incomprehensible). - 2 a peg, spike, stake or post (to tie an elephant to, cp. alana). Cp. II.13.

A'amba = a'ambara Vv 189 = 5024. See alambara.

A'avaka (and -ika) (adj.-n.) [ = atavika] dwelling in forests, a forest-dweller S II.235. As Np. at Vism 208.

A'advaraka (adj.) at J V.81, 82 is corrupt and should with v. l. perhaps better be read advaraka without doors. Cp. Kern, Toev. 29 (alaraka*). J V.81 has a'araka only.

A'ara (adj.) [ = a'ara or u'ara or = Sanskrit arala*] thick, massed, dense or crooked, arched (*), only in cpd. -pamha with thick eyelashes Vv 6411 ( = gopakhuma VvA 279); Pv III.35 ( = vellita-digha-nila-pamukha). Cp. alara.

A'arika and -iya (adj.-n.) [Sanskrit aralika, of uncertain etymology] a cook D I.51 ( = bhattakaraka DA I.157); J V.296 ( = bhattakaraka C.); 307; VI.276 (-iya, C. -ika = supika); Miln 331.

A'ahana (nt.) [from a + dah or dah, see dahati] a place of cremation, cemetery D I.55; J I.287 (here meaning the funereal fire) 402; III.505; Pv II.122; Vism 76; Miln 350; DA I.166; DhA I.26; III.276; PvA 92, 161, 163 ( = sarirassa daddha-tthana). - Note. For a'ahana in meaning "peg, stake" see alana.

A'ika at A III.352, 384 (an-) is preferably to be read a'hika, see a'haka.

A'ha (nt.) = a'haka; only at A III.52 (udak-), where perhaps better with v. l. to be read as a'haka. The id. p. at A II.55 has alhaka only.

A'haka (m. and nt.) [Sanskrit adhaka, from *adha probably meaning "grain"] a certain measure of capacity, originally for grain; in older texts usually applied to a liquid measure (udaka-). Its size is given by Bdhgh. at SnA 476 as follows: "cattaro pattha a'hakani donam etc." - udaka'haka S V.400; A II.55 = III.337; VvA 155. - In other connections at J I.419 (addh-); III.541 (mitam a'hakena = dhanna-mapaka-kammam katam C.); Miln 229 (patt-); DhA III.367 (addh-).

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-thalika a bowl of the capacity of an a'haka Vin I. 240; A III.369; DhA III.370 (v. l. bhatta-thalika).

A'hiya (and a'hika) (adj.) [from *a'ha, Sanskrit adhya, orig. possessing grain, rich in grain, i. e. wealth; semantically cp. dhanna2] rich, happy, fortunate; only in negative ana'hiya poor, unlucky, miserable M I.450; II.178 (+ da'idda); A III.352 sq. (so read with v. l. BB. -a'hika for T. -a'ika; combined. with da'idda; v. l. SS. anaddhika); J V. 96, 97 (+ da'idda; C. na a'hika).

Avajati [a + vajati, vraj] - 1. to go into, to or towards J III.434; IV.49, 107. - 2. to return, come back J V.24, 479.

Avajjati [not with Senart M Vastu 377 = ava + dhya, but = Sanskrit avrnakti a + vrj, with pres. act. avajjeti = Sanskrit avarjayati] - 1. to reflect upon, notice, take in, advert to, catch (a sound), listen J I.81; II.423; V.3; Miln 106. - 2. to remove, upset (a vessel), pour out Vin I.286 (kumbhim); J II.102 (gloss asincati). - Causative avajjeti (q. v.).

Avajjana (nt.) [from avajjati, cp. BSanskrit avarjana in different meaning] turning to, paying attention, apprehending; adverting the mind. - See discussion of term at Cpd.85, 227 (the C. derive avajjana from avatteti to turn towards, this confusion being due to close resemblance of jj and tt in writing); also Kvu trsl. 221 n. 4 (on Kvu 380 which has avattana), 282 n. 2 (on Kvu 491 avattana). - Ps II.5, 120; J II.243; Vbh 320; Miln 102 sq.; Vism 432; DA I.271.

AVajjita [pp. of avajjeti cp. BSanskrit avarjita, e. g. Divy 171; Itin 221] bent, turned to, inclined; noticed, observed Miln 297; Vism 432 (citta); Sdhp 433.

AVajjitatta (nt.) [abstr. from aVajjita] inclination of mind, observation, paying attention Ps II.27 sq.

Avajjeti [Causative of avajjati] 1. to turn over, incline, bend M III.96; J IV.56 (so read for avijjhanto); DA I.10 (kayam). 2. to incline (the mind); observe, reflect, muse, think, heed, listen for. According to Cpd.227 often paraphrased in C. by parinameti. - J I.69, 74, 81, 89, 108, 200; Miln 297; DhA II.96; PvA 181 ( = manasikaroti). - 3. to cause to yield A III.27 (perhaps better avatt-). pp. aVajjita (q. v.).

Avata [Sanskrit avrta, pp. of a + vr] covered, veiled, shut off against, prohibited D I.97, 246; M I.381 (-dvara); J VI.267. -anavata uncovered, unveiled, exposed, open D I.137 (-dvara); III.191 (-dvarata); S I.55; J V.213; Pv III.64; Miln 283. Cp. avuta2 and vy-.

Avatta (adj.-n.) [Sanskrit avarta, a + vrt] - 1. turning round, winding, twisting M I.382; S I.32 (dvi-r-a- turning twice); J II.217; SnA 439 (-ganga). - 2. turned, brought round, changed, enticed M I.381; DhA II.153. - 3. an eddy, whirlpool, vortex M I.461 = A II.123 (-bhaya); Miln 122, 196, 377. - 4. circumference J V.337; Davs V.24; DhA III 184.

Avattati [ = avattati] in phrase a. vivattati to turn forward and backward Vism 504.

Avattana (nt.) [from a + vrt, cp. avatta 2 and avattanin] turning, twisting; enticement, snare, temptation J III.494; DhA II.153.

Avattana (f.) [most likely for avajjana. q. v. and see also Kvu trsl. 221, 282] turning to (of the mind), adverting, apprehending Kvu 380, 491.

Avattanin (adj.) [from avattana] turning (away or towards), changing, tempting, enticing M I.375, 381; A II.190; J II.330 = IV.471; DA I.250. - Cp. etymologically the same, but semantically different avattanin.

Avattin (adj.-n.) [from avatta instead of avattana] only at M I.91 in negative an- not enticed by (loc.), i. e. kamesu. Cp. avattin.

Avatteti [a + vatteti, Causative of vrt, cp. BSanskrit avartayati to employ spells Divy 438] to turn round, entice, change, convert, bring or win over M I.375, 381, 383, 505; A III.27; DA I.272.

Avatta1 (adj.) [pp. of avattati] gone away to, fallen back to, in phrase hinay-avatta (see same phrase under avattati) M I.460; S II.50; J I.206.

Avatta2 (nt.) [Sanskrit avarta, of a + vrt, cp. avatta[ winding, turn, bent J I.70 (in a river); Nett 81 (v. l. avatta*), 105 (-harasampata).

Avattaka (adj.) [avatta + ka] turning, in dakkhin- turning to the right, dextrorsal D II.18; cp. dakkhin¢vatta at DA I.259.

Avattati [a + vattati, of vrt] to turn round, come to, go back, go away to, turn to; only in phrase hinaya avattati to turn to "the low", i. e. to give up orders and return to the world Vin I.17; M I.460; S II.231; IV.191; Sn p. 92 ( = osakkati SnA 423); Ud 21; Pug 66; Miln 246. pp. avatta (q. v.). Cp. avattati.

Avattana (adj.-nt.) [Sanskrit avartana] turning; turn, return Nett 113; Miln 251.

Avattanin (adj.) [from avattana] turning round or back Th 1, 16 (cp. avattanin).

Avattin (adj.-n.) [from avatta, cp. avattin in different meaning] returning, coming back, one who returns, in spec. meaning of one who comes back in transmigration, syn. with agamin (an-), only in negative anavattin not returning, a non-returner, with -dhamma not liable to return at D I. 156; III.132; S V.346, 357, 376, 406; M I.91; DA I.313.

Avatthika (adj.) [a + vatthika] befitting, original, inherent (one of the 4 kinds of nomenclature) Vism 210 = KhA 107.

Avapati [a + vap] to give away, to offer, to deposit as a pledge Miln 279.

Avapana (nt.) [from avapati] sowing, dispersing, offering,depositing, scattering J I.321.

Avara (adj.) [from a + vr] obstructing, keeping off from J V.325 (so to be read in ariya-magg-¢vara).

Avarana (adj.-n.) [from a + vr, cp. avarati; BSanskrit avarana in panc- avaranani Divy 378] shutting off, barring out, withstanding; nt. hindrance, obstruction, bar Vin I.84 (-m karoti to prohibit, hinder); II.262 (id.); D I.246 (syn. of panca nivaranani); S V.93 sq.; A III.63; J I.78 (an-); V.412 (nadim -ena bandhapeti to obstruct or dam off the river); Sn 66 (pahaya panc- avaranani cetaso, cp. Nd2 379), 1005 (an--dassavin); Ps I.131 sq.; II.158 (an-); Pug 13; Dhs 1059, 1136; Vbh 341, 342; Miln 21 (dur- hard to withstand or oppose). - dant- "screen of the teeth", lip J IV.188; VI.590.

Avaranata (f.) [abstr. from avarana] keeping away from, withholding from A III 436.

Avaraniya (adj.) [grd. from avarati], M I.273; an- not to be obstructed, impossible to obstruct M III.3; Miln 157.

Avarati [a + vr, cp. avunati] to shut out from (abl.), hold back from, refuse, withhold, obstruct M I.380 (dvaram); Sn 922 (pot. -aye, cp. Nd1 368); DA I.235 (dvaram); Dpvs I.38. -pp. avata and avuta2 (q. v.).

Avali (f.) [cp. Sanskrit avali and see vali] a row, range J V.69; DA I.140.

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Avasati [a + vas] to live at or in, to inhabit, reside, stay M II.72; S I.42; Sn 43, 805, 1134; Nd1 123, 127; Nd2 133; J VI.317. -pp. avuttha (q. v.).

Avasatha [SkQ avasatha, from a + vas] dwelling-place, habitation; abode, house, dwelling Vin I 226 (-¢gara restinghouse); IV.304 ( = kavatabaddha); S I.94, 229; IV.329; Sn 287, 672; J IV.396; VI.425; Pug 51; Miln 279.

Avaha (adj.) (*-) [from a + vah] bringing, going, causing Pv II.924 (sukh-); Vv 2211 (id); Davs II.37; PvA 86 (upakar-), 116 (anatth-); Sdhp 15, 98, 206.

Avahati [a + vahati] to bring, cause, entail, give S I.42 = Sn 181, 182 (avahati sukham metri causa); J III.169; V. 80; Sn 823; Nd1 302; PvA 6. - Pass. avuyhati VvA 237 (ppr. -amana).

Avahana (adj) (*-) [ = avaha] bringing, causing Th 1, 519; Sn 256.

Avahanaka (adj.-nt) [ = avahana] one who brings VvA 114 (sukhassa).

Ava (misery, misfortune) see ava.

Avata [etymology*] a hole dug in the ground, a pit, a well D I.142 (yann-); J I.99, 264; II 406; III.286; IV 46 (caturassa); VI.10; DhA I.223; VvA 63; PvA 225.

Avapa [if correct, from a + va2 to blow with caus. p. - Cp. J R A S. 1898, 750 sp.] a potter's furnace DhA I.177 (read for avasa*), 178.

Avara [Sanskrit avara, from a + vr] warding off, protection, guard J VI 432 (yanta-yutta-, does it mean "cover, shield"*). For cpd. khandh-avara see khandha.

Avareti [Sanskrit avarayati, a + Causative of vr] to ward off, hold back, bar, S IV 298; Nett 99.

Avasa [Sanskrit avasa; a + vas] sojourn, stay, dwelling, living; dwelling-place, residence Vin I.92; D III.234; S IV.91; A II 68, 168; III.46, 262; Sn 406; Dh 73 (cp. DhA II.77); Nd1 128; J VI.105; Dhs 1122; Pug, 15, 19, 57; KhA 40; DhA I.177 (avasan alimpeti: read avapam); PvA 13, 14, 36; VvA 113; Sdhp 247. -anavasa (n. and adj.) uninhabited, without a home; an uninhabited place A IV.345; J II.77; Pv II.333; PvA 80 ( = anagara); VvA 46. -kappa the practice of (holding Uposatha in different) residence (within the same boundary) Vin II.294, 300, 306; Dpvs IV.47, cp. V.18. -palibodha the obstruction of having a home (in set of 10 Palibodhas) KhA 39; cp. Vism 90 sq. -sappayata suitability of residence Vism 127.

Avasika (adj.) [avasa + ika] living in, residing at home, being in (constant or fixed) residence, usually applied. to bhikkhus (opp. agantuka) Vin I.128 sq.; II.15, 170; III. 65; V.203 sq.; M I.473; A I.236; III.261 sq., 366; J IV.310; Pv IV.84 ( = nibaddha-vasanaka PvA 267).

Avaha [a + vah] taking in marriage, lit. carrying away to oneself, marriage D I.99; J VI.363; SnA 273, 448; DhA IV.7. Often in cpd. a- vivaha(ka) lit. leading to (one's home) and leading away (from the bride's home), wedding feast D III.183 (-ka); J I.452; VvA 109, 157. (v. l. -ka).

Avahana (nt.) [a + vshana, of vah] - 1. = avaha, i. e. marriage, taking a wife D I.11 ( = avaha-karana DA I. 96). - 2. "getting up, bringing together", i. e. a mass, a group or formation, in sena- a contingent of an army J IV.91.

Avi (adv.) [Sanskrit avih., to Gr. a)i/w to hear, Latin audio (from *auizdio) to hear] clear, manifest, evident; openly, before one's eyes, in full view. Only in phrase avi va raho openly or secret A V.350, 353; Pv II.716 = DhA IV.21 (avi v. l.), explained. at PvA 103 by pakasanam paresan pakatavasana. Otherwise in following compounds (with kar and bhu): -kamma making clear, evidence, explanation Vin II.88; III.24; Pug 19, 23; -karoti to make clear, show, explain D III.121; Sn 84, 85, 349; J V.457; Pug 57; VvA 79, 150; -bhavati (-bhoti) to become visible or evident, to be explained, to get clear J I.136; Vism 287 (fnt. avibhavissati); DhA II.51, 82; bhava appearance, manifestation D I.78; A III.17; J II.50, 111; Vism 390 sq. (revelation, opp. tirobhava). Cp. patur.

Avijjhati (avinjati, avinchati) [a + vijjhati of vyadh to pierce; thus recognised by Morris J P T S. 1884, 72, against Trenckner, Notes 59 (to pinj) and Hardy Nett. Ind. = vicchay] - 1. to encircle, encompass, comprise, go round, usually in ger. avijjhitva (w. acc.) used as prep. round about, near J I.153 (khettam), 170 (pokkharanim); DA I.245 (nagaram bahi avijjhitva round the outer circle of the town). Ordinarily = go round (acc.) at J IV.59 (charika-punjam). - 2. [as in lit. Sanskrit] to swing round, brandish, twirl, whirl round Vin III.127 (dandam avinji); M III.141 (matthena avinjati to churn); J I.313; V.291 (cakkam, of a potter's wheel); SnA 481 (T. avinj-, v. l. avijjh-; see aracaya-); DhA II.277 (avinchamana T.; v. l. asinciy-, avajiy-, aganch-). - 3. to resort to, go to, approach, incline to S IV.199 (T. avinch-; v. l. avicch- and avinj-); Nett 13. - 4. to arrange, set in order J II.406. 5. to pull (*) A IV.86 (kannasotani avijjeyyasi, v. l. avijj-, avinj-, avicc-, avinch-; cp. Trenckner, Notes 59 avinjati "to pull"). -pp. aviddha (q. v.).

Avijjhana (so for avinchana and avinjana) (adj.-n.) [from avijjhati, lit. piercing through, i. e. revolving axis] - 1. ( = avijjhati 2) swinging round, hanging loose, spinning in avijjhana-rajju a loose, rope, esp. in mythology the swinging or whirling rope by which Sakka holds the world's wheel or axis, in the latter sense at DhA II.143 (T. avinch- (v. l. avijj-) = III.97, 98 (where avinjanatthana for -rajju). Otherwise a rope used in connection with the opening and shutting of a door (pulling rope*) Vin II.120, 148; J V.298, 299 (T. avinj-, v. l. avicch- and avij-). - 2. (cp. avijjhati 3) going to, approach, contact with DhsA 312 (-rasa, T. avinj-, v. l. avinch-; or is it "encompassing"* = avijjhati 1 *); Vism 444 (avinjanarasa). - 3. (cp. avijjhati 5) pulling, drawing along Vin III.121 ( = akaddhana nama).

Avijjhanaka (ntQ) [from avijjhati in meaning 2] whirlirg round, that which spins round, the whirling-round wheel (or pole) of the world (cp. the potter's wheel), the worldaxis DhA II.146 (T. avinch-).

Aviddha [pp. of avijjhati 2, cp. BSanskrit aviddha in meaning curved, crooked Av. S I.87 Lal. V. 207] whirling or spinning round, revolving; swung round, set into whirling motion J IV.6 (cakkam = kumbhakara-cakkam iva bhamati C.); V.291. What does an-aviddha at PvA 135 mean*

Avila (adj.) [is it a haplological contraction from a + vi + lul to roll about*] stirred up, agitated, disturbed, stained, soiled, dirty A I.9; III.233; J V.16, 90 (abila); Nd1 488 (+ lu'ita), 489; ThA 251; DA I.226. More frequent as anavila undisturbed, clean, pure, serene D I.76; S III. 83; IV,118; A I.9; III.236; Sn 160; Dh 82, 413; J III. 157; Miln 35; VvA 29, 30; ThA 251.

Avilati [from avila or is it a direct contraction of a + vi + lulati*] to whirl round, to be agitated, to be in motion Miln 259 (+ lu'ati).

Avilatta (nt.) [abstr. from avila] confusion, disturbance, agitation Sn 967; Nd1 488.

Avisati [a + vish] to approach, to enter Vin IV.334; Sn 936 (aor. avisi); J IV.410, 496; Vism 42.

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Avunati [in form = *avrnoti, a + vr, cp. avarati, but in meaning = *avayati, a + va to weave, thus a confusion of the two roots, the latter being merged into the former] to string upon, to fix on to (c. loc.), to impale J I.430; III.35; V.145; VI.105. - Causative II. avunapeti J III.218 (sule). -pp. avuta1 (q. v.), whereas the other pp. avata is the true derivative of a + vr.

Avuta [pp. of avunati in meaning of Sanskrit avayati, the corresponding Sanskrit form being a + uta = ota] - 1. strung upon, tied on, fixed on to D I.76 (suttam); II.13 (id.); A I.286 (tantavutam web); J III.52 (valliya); VI.346 (suttakena); DA I.94 (-sutta). - 2. impaled, stuck on (sule on the pale) J I.430; III.35; V.497; VI.105; PvA 217, 220.

Avuta2 = avata (see avunati and avuta1) covered, obstructed, hindered It 8 (mohena); also in phrase avuta nivuta ophuta etc. Nd1 24 (t) = Nd2 365 = DA I.59.

Avuttha [pp. of avasati] inhabited D II.50 (an-); S I.33.

Avudha (nt.) [Vedic ayudha, from a + yudh to fight] an instrument to fight with, a weapon, stick etc. D III 219; M II.100; A IV.107, 110; Sn 1008; J I.150; II.110; III. 467; IV.160, 283, 437; Nd2 on Sn 72; Miln 8, 339; DhA II.2; IV.207; SnA 225, 466 (-jivika = issattha). See also ayudha.

Avuyhamana ppr. of avuyhati (Pass. of avahati), being conveyed or brought VvA 237 (reading uncertain).

Avuso (voc. pl. m.) [a contracted form of ayusmanto pl. of ayusman, of which the regular Pali form is ayasmant, with v for y as frequently in Pali, e. g. avudha for ayudha] friend, a form of polite address "friend, brother, Sir", usually in conversation between bhikkhus. The grammatical construction is with the pl. of the verb, like bhavam and bhavanto. - Vin II.302; D I.151, 157; II.8; SnA 227; DhA I.9; II.93; PvA 12, 13, 38, 208.

Avethana (nt.) [a + vethana, ves.t] rolling up, winding up or round, fig. explanation Miln 28 (+ nibbethana, lit. rolling up and rolling down, ravelling and unravelling), 231 (-vinivethana).

Avethita [pp. of avetheti, a + ves.t, cp. avedhika] turned round, slung round or over J IV.383 sq. (v. l. avedhita and avelita, C. expls. by parivattita).

Aveni (adj) (*-) [according to Trenckner, Notes 75 from a + vina "Sine qua non", but very doubtful] special, peculiar, separate Vin II.204 (-uposatha etc.); J I.490 (-sangha-kammani).

Avenika (adj.) [from aveni; cp. BSanskrit avenika Av. SH I.14, 108; Divy 2, 182, 268, 302] special, extraordinary, exceptional S IV.239; A V.74 sq.; Vism 268; VvA 112 (-bhava peculiarity, specialty), KhA 23, 35.

Aveniya (adj.) = avenika Vin I.71; J IV.358; VI.128.

Avedha [cp. Sanskrit aviddha, a + pp. of vyadh] piercing, hole, wound J II.276 (v. l. aveddha; C. = viddha-tthane vana).

Avedhika (adj. f. scil. panna) [a + vedhaka of avedha, vyadh, but confused with aveth- of a + ves.t, cp. avethana and nibbedhaka] piercing, penetrating; or ravelling, turning, rolling up or round (cp. avijjhati which is derived from a + vyadh, but takes its meaning from avetheti), discrimination, thinking over J II.9 (+ nibbedhika, v. l. for both th).

Avela (adj. and -a f.) [not with Muller Pali Gr. 10, 30, 37 = Sanskrit apida, but from a + to wind or turn round, which in Pali is represented by avetheti as well as avijjhati; ' then standing for either dh (th) or dh (avedha, q. v.). There may have been an analogy influence through vell to move to and fro, cp. avelita. Muller refers to avela rightly the late dial. (Prk.) amela] - 1. turning round, swinging round; diffusion, radiation; protuberance, with reference to the rays of the Buddha at J I.12, 95, 501. 2. (f.) a garland or other ornament slung round and worn over the head Vv 362 (kancan-; = avela-pilandhana VuA 167). See avelin.

Avelita ('*) [pp. of a + vell, cp. avela and BSanskrit aviddha curved, crooked Av. SH I.87, Lal. V. 207] turned round, wound, curved J VI.354 (-singika with curved horns, v. l. avellita).

Avelin (adj.) [from avela] wearing garlands or other headornaments, usually in f. -ini J V.409 ( = kannalankarehi yutta C.); Vv 302 (voc. avelini, but at id. p. 482 aveline), 323; VvA 125 (on Vv 302 expls. as ratana-maya-pupph- avelavati).

Avesana (nt.) [from avisati] entrance; workshop; living-place, house Vin II 117 (-vitthaka, meaning*); M II 53; Pv II.915.

Asa1 contr.-form of amsa in cpd. kotthasa part., portion etc.: see amsa1. Can we compare BSanskrit asapatri (see next).

Asa3 [Sanskrit asha] food, only in cpd. patarasa morning food, breakfast Sn 387 (pato asitabbo ti patar-aso pindapatass- etam namam SnA 374); DhA IV.211; see further reference under patar; and paccha-asa aftermath S I.74. Can we compare BSanskrit asa-patri (vessel) Divy 246* Der. from asa is asaka with abstr. ending asakattam "cating", food, in nana- various food or na + anasak-) Sn 249. See also nirasa, which may be taken either as nir + *asha or nir + *asa.

Asa3 the adj. form of asa (f.), wish, hope. See under asa.

Asa4 archaic 3rd sg. perf. of atthi to be, only in cpd. itihasa = iti ha asa "thus it has been".

Asansa (adj.) [of *ashamsa, see next] hoping, expecting something, longing for A I.108 = Pug 27 (explained. by Pug A 208 as "so hi arahattam asansati pattheti ti asanso"); SnA 321, 336. Cp. nir-.

Asansati [for the usual asimsati, a + shams] to expect, hope for, wish Pug A 208 ( = pattheti). See also asamana.

Asansa (f.) [from a + shams] wish, desire, expectation, hope J IV.92. - Cp. nirasansa.

Asa*msuka (adj.) [from asansa] full of expectation, longing, hankering after, Th 2, 273 ( = asimsanaka ThA 217; trsl. "cadging").

Asaka (adj.) [of asa2] belonging to food, having food, only in negative an- fasting S IV.118; Dh 141 (f. a fasting = bhatta-patikkhepa DhA III.77); J V.17; VI.63.

Asakatta (nt.) [abstr. from asaka] having food, feeding, in an- fasting Sn 249 ( = abhojana SnA 292).

Asankati [a + shank] to be doubtful or afraid, to suspect, distrust, J I.151 (pret. asankittha), 163 (aor. asanki); II. 203; SnA 298. -pp. asankita (q v.),

Asanka (fQ) [Sanskrit ashanka from a + shank] fear, apprehension, doubt, suspicion J I.338; II.383; III.533; VI.350, 370; DhA III.485; VvA 110. - Cp. sasanka and nirasanka.

Asankita (adj.) [pp. of asankati] suspected, in fear, afraid, apprehensive, doubtful (obj. and subj.) Miln 173, 372 (-parisankita full of apprehension and suspicion); DhA I.223; VvA 110. - Cp. ussankita and parisankita.

Asankin (*-) (adj.) [from asanka] fearing, anxious, apprehensive Sn 255 (bheda-); J III.192 (id.).

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Asanga [a + sanga from sanj to hang on, cp. Sanskrit asanga and asakti] - 1. adhering, clinging to, attachment, pursuit J IV.11. - 2. that which hangs on (the body), clothing, garment, dress; adj. dressed or clothed in (*-); usually in cpd. uttarasanga a loose (hanging) outer robe e. g. Vin I.289; S IV.290; PvA 73; VvA 33 (suddh-), 51 (id.).

Asangin (adj.) [from asanga] hanging on, attached to J IV.11.

Asajja (indecl.) [ger. of asadeti, Causative of asidati, a + sad; Sanskrit asadya] - 1. sitting on, going to, approaching; allocated, belonging to; sometimes merely as prep. acc. "near" (cp. asanna) Sn 418 (asajja nam upavisi he came up near to him), 448 (kako va selam a. nibbijjapema Gotamam); J II.95; VI.194; Miln 271. - 2. put on to (lit. sitting or sticking on), hitting, striking S I.127 (khanum va urasa a. nibbijjapetha Gotama "ye've thrust as 't were your breast against a stake. Disgusted, come ye hence from Gotama" trsl. p. 159; C. expls. by paharitva, which comes near the usual paraphrase ghattetva) 3. knocking against or "giving one a setting-to", insulting, offending, assailing D I.107 (a. a. avocasi = ghattetva DA I.276); A III.373 (tadisan bhikkhum a.); J V.267 (isim a. Gotamam; C. p. 272 asadetva); Pv IV.710 (isim a. = asadetva~ PvA 266). - 4. "sitting on", i. e. attending constantly to, persevering, energetically, with energy or emphasis, willingly, spontaneously M I.250; D III.258 = A IV.236 (danam deti); Vv 106 (danam adasim; cp. VvA 55 samagantva). See asada, asadeti, asideti, asajjana.

Asajjana (nt.) [from asajja in meaning of no. 3] "knocking against", setting on, insult, offence Vin II.203 (-m Tathagatam an insult to the T.; quoted as such at VvA 55, where two meanings of a. are given, corresponding to asajja 1 and 3, viz. samagama and ghattana, the latter in this quot.) = It 86 (so to be read with v. l.; T. has apajja nam); S I.114 (apunnam pasavi Maro asajjanam Tathagatam; trsl. "in seeking the T. to assail"); J V.208.

Asati [from as] to sit DA I.208; h. sg. asi S I.130. pp. asina (q. v.).

Asatta1 [pp. of a + sanj] (a) lit. hanging on, in phrase kanthe asatto kunapo a corpse hanging round one's neck M I.120; J I.5. - (b) fig. attached to, clinging to J I. 377 (+ satta lagga); ThA 259 (an-).

Asatta2 [pp. of a + shap] accursed, cursed J V.446 (an-).

Asatti (f.) [a + sanj] attachment, hanging on (w. loc.), dependence, clinging Vin II.156 = A I.138; S I.212; Sn 777 (bhavesu); Nd1 51, 221; Nett 12, 128. - Cp. nirasattin.

Asada [a + sad; cp. asajja and asadeti] - 1. approach, dealing with, business with (acc.), concern, affair, means of acting or getting Vin II.195 = J V.336 (ma kunjara nagam asado); M I.326 (me tam asado = ma etam asado do not meddle with this, lit., be not this any affair); J I 414 (cakkam asado you have to do with the wheel; interpreted as adj. in meaning patto = finding, getting); VI.528 (interpreted as ankusa a hook, i. e. means of getting something). - 2. (as adj.) in phrase durasada hard to sit on, i. e. hard to get at, unapproachable, difficult to attack or manage or conquer Sn p. 107 (cp. SnA 451); J VI.272; Vv 5016 ( = anupagamaniyato kenaci pi anasadaniyato ca durasado VvA 213); Miln 21; Dpvs V.21; VI.38; Sdhp 384.

Asana (nt.) [from asati] sitting, sitting down; a seat, throne M I.469; Vin I.272 ( = pallankassa okasa); S I.46 (ek- sitting alone, a solitary seat); A III.389 (an- without a seat); Sn 338, 718, 810, 981; Nd1 131; J IV.435 (asan' udaka-dayin giving seat and drink); V.403 (id.); VI.413; DhA II.31 (dhamm- the preacher's seat or throne); SnA 401; PvA 16, 23, 141. -¢bhihara gift or distinction of the seat J I.81. -upagata endowed with a seat, sitting down Sn 708 ( = nisinna SnA 495). -pannapaka one who appoints seats Vin II.305. -patikkhitta one who rejects all seats, or objects to sitting down D I.167; A I.296; II.206; Pug 55. -sala a hall with seating accommodation Vism 69; DhA II. 65; IV.46.

Asana2 (*) eating Vism 116 (visam-, cp. visam-asita Miln 302). See, however, masana.

Asanaka (nt.) [asana + ka] a small seat Vv 15.

Asanika (adj.) [from asana] having a seat; in ek- sitting by oneself Vism 69.

Asandi (f.) [from a + sad] an extra long chair, a deck-chair Vin I.192; II.142, 163, 169, 170; D I.7 ( = paman¢tikkant' asanam DA I.86), 55 = M I.515 = S III.307 (used as a bier) A I.181; J I.108. See note at Dial. I.11.

Asandika (f.) from asandi] a small chair or tabouret Vin II. 149; KhA 44.

Asanna (adj.) [pp. of a + sad, see asidati] near (cp. asajja1), opp. dura J II.154; DhA II 91; PvA 42, 243.

Asappana (from) [from + srp] lit. "creeping on to", doubt, mistrust, always combined. with parisappana Nd3 1; Dhs 1004 (trsl. "evasion", cp. Dhs trsl. p 116), 1118, 1235; DA I.69.

Asabha [the guna- and compounds. form of usabha, corresponding to Sanskrit ar.sabha > r.sabha, see usabha] (in compounds.) a bull, peculiar to a bull, bull-like, fig. a man of strong and eminent qualities, a hero or great man, a leader, thus in tar- Sn 687; nar- Sn 684, 696; asabha-camma bull's hide J VI. 453 (v. l. usabha-). -tthana (as asabhanthana) "bull's place", first place, distinguished position, leadership M I.69; S II.27; A II.8 (C. settha-tthana uttama-tthana); III.9; V.33 sq.; DA I. 31; KhA 104.

Asabhin (adj?) [from asabha] bull-like, becoming to a bull, lordly, majestic, imposing, bold; only in phrase -m vacam bhasati "speak the lordly word" D II.15, 82; M III.123j J I.53; DA I.91; cp. Davs I.28 (niccharayi vacam asabhim).

Asamana (adj.) [ppr. of asansati or asimsati, for the usual earlier asasana] wishing, desiring, hoping, expecting Vv 846 (kim a = kim paccasim santo VvA 336); Pv IV.124 ( = asimsamana patthayamana PvA 226).

Asaya [a + shi, cp. in similar meaning and derivation anusaya. The semantically related Sanskrit ashraya from a + shri is in Pali represented by assaya. Cp. also BSanskrit ashayatah. intentionally, in earnest Divy 281; Av. SH II.161] - 1. abode, haunt, receptacle; dependence on, refuge, support, condition S I.38; Vin III.151; J II.99; Miln 257; VvA 60; PvA 210; jal- river VvA 47; Pgdp 80; adj. depending on, living in (*-) Miln 317; Nd1 362 (bil-, dak- etc.). See also amasaya, pakkasaya. - 2. (fig.) inclination, intention, will, hope; often combined. and compared with anusaya (inclination, hankering, disposition), e. g. at Ps I. 133; II.158; Vbh 340; Vism 140 (-posana); PvA 197. SnA 182 (-vipatti), 314 (-suddhi), KhA 103 (-sampatti). Cp. nirasaya. - 3. outflow, excretion Pv III.53 (gabbh- = gabbha-mala PvA 198); Vism 344.

Asayati [a + shi; lit. "lie on", cp. Ger. anliegen and Sanskrit ashaya = Ger. Angelegenheit] to wish, desire, hope, intend J IV.291 (grd. asayana, gloss esamana). See asaya.

Asava [from a + sru, would corresponds to a Sanskrit *asrava, cp. Sanskrit asrava. The BSanskrit ashrava is a (wrong) sankritisation of the Pali asava, cp. Divy 391 and ks.inashrava] that which

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flows (out or on to) outflow and influx. 1. spirit, the intoxicating extract or secretion of a tree or flower, O. C. in Vin IV.110 (four kinds); B. on D III.182 (five kinds) DhsA 48; KhA 26; J IV.222; VI.9. - 2. discharge from a sore, A I.124, 127 = Pug 30. - 3. in psychologQ, t.t. for certain specified ideas which intoxicate the mind (bemuddle it, befoozle it, so that it cannot rise to higher things). Freedom from the "asavas" constitutes Arahantship, and the fight for the extinction of these asavas forms one of the main duties of man. On the difficulty of translating the term see Cpd.227. See also discussion of term asava ( = asavanti ti asava) at DhsA 48 (cp. Expositor pp. 63 sq). See also Cpd.227 sq., and especially Dhs trsl. 291 sq. - The 4 asavas are kam-, bhav-, ditth-, avijj-, i. e. sensuality, rebirth (lust of life), speculation and ignorance. - They are mentioned as such at D II.81, 84, 91, 94, 98, 123, 126; A I.165 sq., 196; II.211; III.93, 414; IV.79; Ps I.94, 117; Dhs 1099, 1448; Nd2 134; Nett 31, 114 sq. - The set of 3, which is probably older (kama-, bhava-, avijja-) occurs at M I. 55; A I.165; III.414; S IV.256; V.56, 189; It 49; Vbh 364. For other connections see Vin I.14 (anupadaya asavehi cittani vimuccimsu), 17, 20, 182; II.202; III.5 (-samudaya, -nirodha etc.); D I.83, 167; III.78, 108, 130, 220, 223, 230, 240, 283; M I.7 sq., 23, 35, 76, 219, 279, 445 (-thaniya); II.22; III.72, 277; S II.187 sq. (-ehi cittam vimucci); III.45 (id.); IV.107 (id.), 20; V.8, 28, 410; A I.85 sq. (vaddhanti), 98, 165 (-samudaya, -nirodha etc.), 187; II.154 (-ehi cittam vimuttam), 196; III.21, 93 (-samudaya, -nirodha etc.), 245, 387 sq., 410, 414; IV.13, 146 (-pariyadana end of the a.), 161 (-vighata-pari'aha); V.70, 237; Th 2, 4, 99, 101 (pahasi asave sabbe); Sn 162, 374, 535 (pl. asavani), 546, 749, 915, 1100; Dh 93, 253, 292; Nd1 331 (pubb-); Vbh 42, 64, 426; Pug 11, 13, 27, 30 sq.; Miln 419; DhsA 48; ThA 94, 173; KhA 26; DA I 224; Sdhp 1; Pgdp 65 (piyasava-sura, meaning*).

Referring specially to the extinction (khaya) of the asavas and to Arahantship following as a result are the following passages: (1) asavanam khaya D I.156; S II.29, 214; III 57, 96 sq, 152 sq; IV.105, 175; V.92, 203, 220, 271, 284; A I.107 sq., 123 sq., 232 sq., 273, 291; II.6, 36, 44 sq., 149 sq., 214; III 69, 114, 131, 202, 306, 319 sq.; IV.83 sq., 119, 140 sq., 314 sq.; V.10 sq., 36, 69, 94 sq, 105, 132, 174 sq., 343 sq.; It 49; Pug 27, 62; Vbh 334, 344; Vism 9; DA I.224; cp. -parikkhaya A V 343 sq. See also arahatta formula C. - (2) khinasava (adj.) one whose asavas are destroyed (see khina) S I.13, 48, 53, 146; II 83, 239; III.199, 128, 178; IV.217; A I 77, 109, 241, 266; IV.120, 224, 370 sq.; V 40, 253 sq.; Ps II 173; cp. parikkhina asava A IV.418, 434, 451 sq.; asavakhina Sn 370. - (3) anasava (adj.) one who is free from the asavas, an Arahant Vin II.148 = 164; D III.112; S I 130; II.214, 222; III.83; IV.128; A I.81, 107 sqQ, 123 sq., 273, 291; II.6, 36, 87, 146; III.19, 29, 114, 166; IV.98, 140 sq., 314 sq., 400; A V.10 sqQ, 36, 242, 340; Sn 1105, 1133; Dh 94, 126, 386; Th I.100; It 75; Nd2 44; Pv II.615; Pug 27; Vbh 426; Dhs 1101, 1451; VvA 9Q Cp. nirasava ThA 148. - Opp. sasava S III 47; V.232; A I.81 V.242; Dhs 990; Nett 10; Vism 13, 438.

Asavati [a + sru, cp. Sanskrit asravati; its doublet is assavati] to flow towards, come to, occur, happen Nett 116.

Asasana [either grd. for *asansana or contracted form of ppr. med. of asansati ( = asimsati) for *asansamana] hoping, wishing, desiring, longing for Sn 369 (an-; SnA 365 however reads asayana), 1090; Th 1, 528; J IV.18 ( = asimsanto C.), 381; V.391 ( = asimsanto C.). See anasasana, asansati, asamana and asayana.

Asa (f.) [cp. Sanskrit ashah. f.] expectation, hope, wish, longing, desire; adj. asa (*-) longing for, anticipating, desirous of Vin I.255 (-avacchedika hope-destroying), 259; D II. 206; III.88; M III.138 (asan karoti); A I.86 (dve asa), 107 (vigat-aso one whose longings have gone); Sn 474, 634, 794, 864; J I.267, 285; V.401; VI.452 (-chinna = chinnasa C.); Nd1 99, 261, 213 sq; Vv 3713 (perhaps better to be read with v. l. SS aham, cp. VvA 172); Pug 27 (vigat- = arahattasaya vigatatta vigataso Pug A 208); Dhs 1059 (+ asimsana etc.), 1136; PvA 22 (chinn- disappointed), 29 (-¢bhibhuta), 105; Davs V.13; Sdhp 78, 111, 498, 609.

Asatika (f.) [cp. Marathi asadi] a fly's egg, a nit M I.220 sq.; A V.347 sq., 351, 359; Nett 59; J III.176.

Asadeti [Causative of asidati, a + sad; cp. asajja and asanna] 1. to lay hand on, to touch, strike; fig. to offend, assail, insult M I.371; J I.481; V.197; aor. asadesi Th 1, 280 (ma a. Tathagate); ger. asadetva J V.272; Miln 100, 205 (-ayitva); PvA 266 (isim), asadiya J V.154 (asadiya metri causa; isim, cp. asajja3), and asajja (q. v.); infin. asadum J V.154 and asaditum ibid.; grd. asadaniya Miln 205; VvA 213 (an-). - 2. to come near to (c. acc.), approach, get J III.206 (khuracakkam).

Asa'ha and asa'hi (f.) [Sanskrit as.adha] N. of a month (JuneJuly) and of a Nakkhatta; only in compounds. as asa'ha- and asa'hi-, viz. -nakkhatta J I.50; SnA 208; -punnama J I.63; DhA I.87; SnA 199; VvA 66; PvA 137; -masa SnA 378 ( = vassupanayikaya purimabhage A.); VvA 307 ( = gimhanam pacchimo maso).

Asavati (f.) N. of a creeper (growing at the celestial grove Cittalata) J III.250, 251.

Asasati [cp. Sanskrit ashasati and ashasti, a + shas] to pray for, expect, hope; confounded with shams in asansati and asimsati (q. v.) and their derivations. -pp. asittha (q. v.).

Asi and asim 3rd and 1st sg. aor. of atthi (q. v.).

Asimsaka (adj.) [from a + simsati, cp. asansa] wishing, aspiring after, praying for Miln 342.

Asimsati [Sanskrit ashamsati, a + shams, cp. also shas and asasati, further abhisansati, abhisimsati and asansati] to hope for, wish, pray for (lit. praise for the sake of gain), desire, (w. acc.) S I.34, 62; Sn 779, 1044, 1046 (see Nd2 135); J I.267; III.251; IV.18; V.435; VI.43; Nd1 60; Mhvs 30, 100; VvA 337; PvA 226 (ppr. asimsamana for asamana, q. v.).

Asimsanaka (adj.) [from asimsana] hoping for something, lit. praising somebody for the sake of gain, cadging ThA 217 (for asansuka Th 2, 273).

Asimsana (f.) [abstr. from a + shams, cp. asimsati] desire, wish, craving J V.28; Dhs 1059, 1136 (+ asimsitatta). As asisana at Nett 53.

Asimsaniya (adj.) [grd. of asimsati] to be wished for, desirable Miln 2 (-ratana).

Asikkhita [pp. of a + shiks., Sanskrit ashiks.ita] sohooled, instructed PvA 67, 68.

Asincati [a + sic, cp. abhisincati and avasincati] to sprinkle, besprinkle Vin I.44; II.208; J IV.376; Vv 796 ( = sincati VvA 307); PvA 41 (udakena), 104, 213 (ger. -itva). pp. asitta (q. v.). Cp. vy-.

Asittha [pp. of asasati, Sanskrit ashis.ta] wished or longed for PvA 104.

Asita1 [ = asita1*] "having eaten", but probably masita (pp. of mrsh to touch, cp. Sanskrit mrshita, which is ordinarily in massita), since it only occurs in combinations. where m precedes, viz. J II.446 (dumapakkani-m-asita, where C. reading is masita and explination. khaditva asita (v. l. asita) dhata); Miln 302 (visam-asita affected with poison = visamasita).

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Cp. also the form masi(n) touching, eating at J VI.354 (tina-, explained. by C. as khadaka). - asita at J V.70 is very doubtful, v. l. asina and asita; C. expls. by dhata suhita p. 73.

Asita2 [registereotyped as such with meaning "performed" by Hardy in Index] at VvA 276 is better read with v. l. SS bhasita (-vadana etc.).

Asitta [pp. of asincati, Sanskrit asikta] sprinkled, poured out, anointed J V.87; Pug 31; Miln 286; DhsA 307; DhA I.10; VvA 69.

Asittaka (adj.) [asitta + ka] mixed, mingled, adulterated Vin II.123 (-upadhana "decorated divan"*); ThA 61, 168 (an- for asecanaka, q. v.).

Asitika (adj.) [from asita] 80 years old M II.124; J III.395; SnA 172.

Asitika (m.) [etymology* Cp. BSanskrit asitaki Lal. V. 319] a certain plant M I 80 = 245 (-pabba).

Asidati [cp. Sanskrit asidati, a + sad] - 1. to come together, lit. to sit by D I.248 (v. l. BB adisitva for asiditva, to be preferred*). - 2. to come or go near, to approach (w. acc.), to get (to) A III.69 (asivisan), 373 (na sadhurupam aside, should perhaps be read without the na); J IV.56. - 3. to knock against, insult, offend attack J V. 267 (Pot. aside = pharusa-vacanehe kayakammena va gbattento upagaccheyya C.). -pp. asanna (q. v.). See also asajja, asajjana, asada and Causative asadeti.

Asina (adj.) [pp. of as, see asati] sitting S I.195 = Nd2 136; Sn 1105, 1136; Dh 227, 386; J I.390; III.95; V. 340; VI.297; Davs II.17.

Asiyati [etymology doubtful; Trenckner Miln p. 422 = a + shya to freeze or dry up, but taken by him in meaning to thaw, to warm oneself; Muller, Pali Gr. 40 same with meaning "cool oneself"; Morris' J.Pali T. S. 1884, 72 as a + shra or shri to become ripe, come to perfection, evidently at fault because of shra etc. not found in Sanskrit More likely as a Pass. formation to be referred to a + shi as in asaya, i. e. to abide etc.] to have one's home, one's abode or support in (loc.), to live in, thrive by means of, to depend on Miln 75 (kaddame jayati udake asiyati i. e. the lotus is born in the mud and is supported or thrives by means of the water).

Asivisa Derivation uncertain. The BSanskrit (e. g. Jtm 3161) is a Sanskritisation of the Pali. To suppose this to come from ahi + visa (snake's poison) would give a wrong meaning, and leave unexplained the change from ahi to asi] a snake Vin IV.108; S IV.172; A II.110; III. 69; J I.245; II.274; IV.30, 496; V.82, 267; Pug 48; Vism 470 (in comp.); DhA I.139; II.8, 38; SnA 334, 458, 465; VvA 308.

Asisana see asimsana.

Asu expletive particle = assu3 J V.241 (v. l. assu; nipatamattam C. p.243).

Asum 3rd pl. aor. of atthi.

Asumbhati (and asumhati) [a + shumbh to glide] to bring to fall, throw down or round, sling round Vin IV.263, 265; Vv 5011 (-itvana); J III.435 (aor. asumhi, gloss khipi).

Asevati [a + sev] to frequent, visit; to practise, pursue, indulge, enjoy A I.10; Sn 73 (cp. Nd2 94); Ps II.93 (maggam). -pp. asevita.

Asevana (nt.) and asevana (f.) [from asevati] - 1. practice, pursuit, indulgence in Vin II.117; PvA 45. - 2. succession, repetition Dhs 1367; Kvu 510 (cp. trsl. 294, 362); Vism 538.

Asevita [pp. of asevati] frequented, indulged, practised, enjoyed J I.21 (V.141; asevita-nisevita); II.60; Sdhp 93, 237.

Aha [Vedic aha, orig. perfect of ah to speak, meaning "he began to speak", thus in meaning of pres. "he says"] a perfect in meaning of pret. and pres. "he says or he said", he spoke, also spoke to somebody (w. acc.), as at J I.197 (cullalohitam aha). Usually in 3rd person, very rarely used of 2nd person, as at Sn 839, 840 ( = kathesi bhanasi Nd 188, 191). - 3rd sg. aha Vin II.191; Sn 790 ( = bhanati Nd1 87), 888; J I.280; III.53 and frequent passim; 3rd pl. ahu Sn 87, 181; Dh 345; J I.59; SnA 377, and ahamsu J I.222; III.278 and frequent

Ahacca1 ger. of ahanati.

Ahacca2 (adj.) [grd. of aharati, corresponding to a Sanskrit *ahrtya] 1. (cp. aharati1) to be removed, removable, in -padaka-pitha and -manca a collapsible bed or chair, i e. whose legs or feet can be put on and taken away at pleasure (by drawing out a pin) Vin II.149 (cp. Vin Texts III.164 n. 5); IV.40, 46 (def. as "ange vijjhitva thito hoti" it stands by means of a perforated limb), 168, 169. - 2. (cp. aharati2) reciting, repeating, or to be quoted, recitation (of the Scriptures); by authority or by tradition M III.139; DhsA 9, and in compounds -pada a text quoted from Scripture), tradition Miln 148 (-ena by reference to the text of the Scriptures); -vacana a saying of the Scriptures, a traditional or proverbial saying Nett 21 (in def. of suttam).

Ahata [pp. of aharati] brought, carried, obtained Vin I.121; III.53; D II.180 (spelt ahata); J III.512 (gloss anita); Davs I.58.

Ahata [pp. of ahanati] struck, beaten, stamped; afflicted, affected with (*-) Vin IV.236 = D III.238 (kupito anattamano ahata-citto); Vin I.75, 76; S I.170 (tilak-, so read for tilaka-hata, affected with freckles, C. ka'a-setadi vannehi tilakehi ahatagatta, K. S. p. 318); J III 456; Sdhp 187, 401.

Ahataka [from ahata] "one who is beaten", a slave, a worker (of low grade) Vin IV.224 (in def. of kammakara, as bhataka + a).

Ahanati [a + han] to beat, strike, press against, touch ppr. ahananto Miln 21 (dhamma-bherim); Davs IV.50. ger. ahacca touching M I.493; J I.330; VI 2, 200; Sn 716 = uppi'etva SnA 498; Vism 420. -pp. ahata (q. v.). 1st sg. fut. ahanhi Vin I.8; D II.72, where probably to be read as ahanh' ( = ahanham). See Geiger, Pali Gr. * 153, 2.

Ahanana (nt.) [from a + han] beating, striking, coming into touch, "impinging" Vism 142 (+ pariyahanana, in def. of vitakka) = DhsA 114 (cp. Expos. 151); Vism 515 (id.).

Aharana (adj.-n.) [from aharati] to be taken; taking away; only in phrase acoraharano nidhi a treasure not to be taken by thieves Miln 320; Kh VIII.9; KhA 224; Sdhp 589.

Aharanaka [aharana + ka] one who has to take or bring, a messenger J II.199; III.328.

Aharati [a + hr] - 1. to take, take up, take hold of, take out, take away M I.429 (sallam); S I 121; III.123; J I.40 (ger. aharitva "with"), 293 (te hattam); Nd2 540c (puttamamsan, read ahareyya*); Pv II.310; DA I.186, 188 2. to bring, bring down, fetch D II.245; J IV 159 (navam; v. l. ahahitva); V.466; VvA 63 (bhattam); PvA 75. 3. to get, acquire, bring upon oneself J V.433 (padosan); DhA II.89. - 4. to bring on to, put into (w. loc.); fig. and intrs. to hold on to, put oneself to, touch, resort to M I.395 (kathalam mukhe a.; also inf. ahattum); Th 1, 1156 (papacitte a.; Mrs. Rh. D. Brethren ver. 1156, not as "accost" p. 419, n.). - 5. to assault, strike, offend (for pahari*) Th 1, 1173. - 6. (fig.) to take up, fall or go back on

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(w. acc.), recite, quote, repeat (usually with desanam and dasseti of an instructive story or sermon or homily) J III.383 (desanam), 401; V.462 (vatthum aharitva dassesi told a story for example); SnA 376; PvA 38, 39 (atitam), 42, 66, 99 (dhamma-desanam). See also payirudaharati. pp. ahata (q. v.). - Causative II. aharapeti to cause to be brought or fetched; to wish to take, to call or ask for J III.88, 342; V.466; PvA 215.

Aharima (adj.) [from aharati] "fetching", fascinating, captivating, charming Vin IV.299; Th 2, 299; ThA 227; VvA 14, 15, 77.

Ahariya [grd. of aharati] one who is to bring something J III.328.

Ahavana and ahavaniya see under ahuneyya.

Ahara [from a + hr, lit. taking up or on to oneself] feeding, support, food, nutriment (lit and fig.). The term is used comprehensively and the usual enumn. comprises four kinds of nutriment, viz. (1) kaba'inkara aharo (bodily nutriment, either o'ariko gross, solid, or sukhumo fine), (2) phassaharo n. of contact, (3) manosancetana- n. of volition ( = cetana S. A. on II.11 f.), (4) vinnan- of consciousness. Thus at M I.261; D III.228, 276; Dhs 71-73; Vism 341. Another definition of Dhammapala's refers it to the fourfold tasting as asita (eaten), pita (drunk), khayita (chewed), sayita (tasted) food PvA 25. A synonym with mula, hetu, etc. for cause, Yamaka, I.3; Yam. A (J.Pali Text Society, 1910-12) 54. See on term also Dhs trsl. 30. - Vin I.84; D I.166; S I.172; II.11, 13, 98 sq. (the 4 kinds, in detail); III.54 (sa-); V.64, 391; A III.51 (sukhass-), 79, 142 sq., 192 sq.; IV.49, 108; V.52 (the four), 108, 113 (avijjaya etc.), 116 (bhavatanhaya), 269 sq. (nerayikanam etc.); Sn 78, 165, 707, 747; Nd1 25; Ps I.22 (the four) 122 (id.), 55, 76 sq; Kvu 508; Pug 21, 55; Vbh 2, 13, 72, 89, 320, 383, 401 sq. (the four); Dhs 58, 121, 358, 646; Nett 31, 114, 124; DhsA 153, 401; DhA I.183 (-m pacchindati to bring up food, to vomit); II.87; VvA 118; PvA 14, 35, 112, 148 (utu- physical nutriment); Sdhp 100, 395, 406; A V.136 gives ten ahara opposed to ten paripantha. -an- without food, unfed M I.487 (aggi); S III.126; V.105; Sn 985. -upahara consumption of food, feeding, eating Vin III. 136. -thitika subsisting or living on food D III.211, 273; A V.50, 55; Ps I.5, 122. -pariggaha taking up or acquirement of food Miln 244 or is it "restraint or abstinence in food"* Same combination. at Miln 313. -maya "food-like", feeding stuff, food J III.523. -lolata greed after food SnA 35. -samudaya origin of nutriment S III.59.

Aharattham [ahara + tta] the state of being food. In the idiom aharattan pharati; Vin I.199, of medicine, "to penetrate into food-ness" , to come under the category of food; Miln 152, of poison, to turn into food. [According to Oldenberg (Vin I.381) his MSS read about equally -attam and -attham. Trenckner prints -attham, and records no variant (see p. 425)].

Ahareti [Denominitive from ahara] to take food, eat, feed on S II.13; III.240; IV.104; A I.114, 295; II.40, 145, 206; IV. 167; Nd2 540c (aharam and puttamamsan cp. S II.98).

Ahika (*-) (adj.) [der. from aha2] only in pancahika every five days (cp. pancaham and sattaham) M III.157.

Ahindati [a + hind, cp. BSanskrit ahindate Divy 165 etc.] to wander about, to roam, to be on an errand, to be engaged in (w. acc.) Vin I.203 (senasana-carikam), 217; II. 132 (na Sakkoti vina dandena ahinditum); IV.62; J I.48, 108, 239; Nd2 540B; Pv III.229 ( = vicarati PvA 185); Vism 38, 284 (atavim); VvA 238 (tattha tattha); PvA 143.

Ahita [pp. of a + dha] put up, heaped; provided with fuel (of a fire), blazing Sn 18 (gini = abhato jalito va SnA 28). See sam-.

Ahu 3rd pl. of aha (q. v.).

Ahuti (f.) [Vedic ahuti, a + hu] oblation, sacrifice; veneration, adoration M III 167; S I.141; Th 1, 566 (-inam patiggaho recipient of sacrificial gifts); J I.15; V.70 (id.); Vv 6433 (param¢hutim gato deserving the highest adoration); Sn 249, 458; Kvu 530; SnA 175; VvA 285.

Ahuna = ahuti, in ahuna-pahuna giving oblations and sacrificing VvA 155; by itself at Vism 219.

Ahuneyya (adj.) [a grd. form. from a + hu, cp. ahuti] sacrificial, worthy of offerings or of sacrifice, venerable, adorable, worshipful D III.5, 217 (aggi); A II.56, 70 (sahuneyyaka), 145 sq. (id.); IV.13, 41 (aggi); It 88 (+ pahuneyya); Vv 6433 (cp. VvA 285). See def. at Vism 219 where explained. by "ahavaniya" and "ahavanam arahati" deserving of offerings.

Ahundarika (adj.) [doubtful or ahund-*] according to Morris J.Pali Text Society 1884, 73 "crowded up, blocked up, impassable" Vin I.79; IV.297; Vism 413 (-m and ha-tamam).


I in i-kara the letter or sound i SnA 12 (-lopa), 508 (id.).

Ikka [Sanskrit, of which the regular representation is Pali accha2] a bear J VI.538 [ = accha C.).

Ikkasa (*) [uncertain as regard meaning and etymology] at Vin II.151 (+ kasava) is trsl. by "slime of trees", according to Bdhgh's explination. on p. 321 (to C. V. VI.3, 1), who however reads nikkasa.

Ikkhana (nt.) [from iks.] seeing Vism 16.

Ikkhanika [from iks. to look or see, cp. akkhi] a fortuneteller Vin III.107; S II.260; J I.456, 457; VI.504.

Ikkhati [from iks.] to look J V.153; ThA 147; DhsA 172.

Ingita (nt.) [pp. of ingati = injati] movement, gesture, sign J II.195, 408; VI.368, 459.

Ingha (indecl.) [Sanskrit anga prob. after Pali ingha (or anja, q. v.); from injati, cp. J.Pali Text Society 1883, 84] part. of exhortation, lit. "get a move on", come on, go on, look here, Sn 83, 189, 862, 875 = 1052; J V.148; Pv IV.57; Vv 539 ( = codan'atthe nipato VvA 237); VvA 47; DhA IV.62.

Ingha'a [according to Morris J.Pali Text Society 1884, 74 = angara, cp. Marathi ingala live coal] coal, embers, in ingha'akhu Th 2, 386 a pit of glowing embers ( = angara-kasu ThA 256). The whole cpd. is doubtful.

Icc' see iti.

Iccha (*-) (adj.) [the adj. form of iccha] wishing, longing, having desires, only in pap- having evil desires S I.50; II.156; an- without desires S I.61, 204; Sn 707; app- id. Sn 628, 707.

Icchaka (*-) (adj.) [from iccha] wishing, desirous, only in nt. adv. yad-icchikam (and yen-) after one's wish or liking M III.97; A III.28.

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Icchati1 [Sanskrit icchati, is., cp. Av. isaiti, Obulg. iskati, Ohg. eiscon, Ags. ascian = E. ask; all of same meaning "seek, wish"] to wish, desire, ask for (c. acc.), expect S I.210 (dhammam sotum i.); Sn 127, 345, 512, 813, 836; Dh 162, 291; Nd1 3, 138, 164; Nd2 s. v.; Pv II.63; Pug 19; Miln 269, 327; SnA 16, 23, 321; KhA 17; PvA 20, 71, 74; Pot. icche Dh 84; Sn 835 Pv II.66 and iccheyya D II.2, 10; Sn 35; Dh 73, 88; ppr. iccham Sn 826, 831, 937; Dh 334 (phalam) aor. icchi PvA 31. - grd. icchitabba PvA 8. -pp. ittha and icchita (q. v.). Note. In prep.-compounds the root is.2 (icchati) is confused with root is.1 (i.sati, e.sati) with pp. both -ittha and -is.ita. Thus ajjhesati, pp. ajjhittha and ajjhesita; anvesati (Sanskrit anvicehati); pariyesati (Sanskrit paricchati), pp. pariyittha and pariyesita.

Icchati2 [Sanskrit rcchati of r, concerning which see appeti] see aticchati and cp. icchata.

Icchata (*-) (f.) [abstr. from iccha] wishfulness, wishing: only in aticchata too great wish for, covetousness, greed Vbh 350 (cp. aticchati, which is probably the primary basis of the word); mah- and pap- Vbh 351, 370.

Icchana (nt.) [from is.2, cp. Sanskrit ipsana] desiring, wish J IV. 5; VI.244.

Iccha (f.) [from icchati, is.2] wish, longing, desire D II.243; III.75; S I.40 (-dhupayito loko), 44 (naram parikassati); A II.143; IV.293 sq.; 325 sq.; V.40, 42 sq.; Sn 773, 872; Dh 74, 264 (-lobha-samapanna); Nd1 29, 30; Pug 19; Dhs 1059, 1136; Vbh 101, 357, 361, 370; Nett 18, 23, 24; Asl. 363; DhsA 250 (read iccha for issa* See Dhs trsl. 100); SnA 108; PvA 65, 155; Sdhp 242, 320. -¢vacara moving in desires M I.27 (papaka); Nett 27. -¢vatinna affected with desire, overcome by covetousness Sn 306. -pakata same Vin I.97; A III.119, 191, 219 sq.; Pug 69; Miln 357; Vism 24 (where Bdhgh however takes it as "icchaya apakata" and puts apakata = upadduta). -vinaya discipline of one's wishes D III.252, A IV.15; V.165 sq.

Icchita [pp. of icchati] wished, desired, longed for J I.208; DhsA 364; PvA 3, 53, 64 (read anicchita for anijjhittha, which may be a contamination of icchita and ittha), 113, 127 (twice).

Ijjhati [Vedic rdhyate and rdhnoti; Gr. a)/lqomai to thrive, Latin alo to nourish, also Vedic ida refreshment and Pali iddhi power] to have a good result, turn out a blessing. succeed, prosper, be successful S I.175 ("work effectively" trsl.; = samijjhati mahapphalam hoti C.); IV.303; Sn 461, 485; J V.393; Pv II.111; II.913 ( = samijjhati PvA 120); Pot. ijjhe Sn 458, 459; pret. ijjhittha ( = Sanskrit rdhyis.tha) Vv 206 ( = nippajjittha mahapphalo ahuvattha VvA 103). pp. iddha. See also addha2 and addhaka. Cp. sam-.

Ijjhana (nt.) and -a (f.) [from ijjhati] success, carrying out successfully Ps I.17 sq., 74, 181; II.125, 143 sq., 161, 174; Vbh 217 sq.; Vism 266, 383 (-atthena iddhi); DhsA 91, 118, 237.

Injati [Vedic rnjati (cp. Pali ajjati). Also found as ingati (so Veda), and as ang in Sanskrit anga = Pali anja and ingha and Vedic pali-angati to turn about. See also anejja and anjati1] to shake, move, turn about, stir D I.56; S I.107, 132, 181 (aninjamana ppr. med. "impassive"); III.211; Th 1, 42; 2, 231; Nd2 s. v. (+ calati vedhati); Vism 377; DA I.167. -pp. injita (q. v.).

Injana (f.) and -am (nt.) [from inj, see injati] shaking, movement, motion Sn 193 ( = calana phandana SnA 245); Nett 88 ( = phandana C.). an- immobility, steadfastness Ps I.15; II.118.

Injita [pp. of injati] shaken, moved Th 1, 386 (an-). Usually as nt. injitam shaking, turning about, movement, vacillation M I.454; S I.109; IV.202; A II.45; Sn 750, 1040 (pl. injita), 1048 (see Nd2 140); Dh 255; Vbh 390. On the 7 injitas see J.Pali Text Society 1884, 58.

Injitatta (nt.) [abstr. from injita nt.] state of vacillation, wavering, motion S V.315 (kayassa).

Ittha (adj.) [pp. of icchati] pleasing, welcome, agreeable, pleasant, often in the idiomatic group ittha kanta manapa (of objects pleasing to the senses) D I.245; II.192; M I.85; S IV.60, 158, 235 sq.; V.22, 60, 147; A II.66 sq.; V.135 (dasa, dhamma etc., ten objects affording pleasure); Sn 759; It. 15; Vbh 2, 100, 337. - Alone as nt. meaning welfare, good state, pleasure, happiness at Sn 154 (+ anittha); Nett 28 (+ anittha); Vism 167 (id.); PvA 116 ( = bhadram), 140. -anittha unpleasant, disagreeable PvA 32, 52, 60, 116. - See also pariy-, in which ittha stands for ettha.

Itthaka (Itthaka) (f.) [BSanskrit is.taka, e. g. Divy 221; from the Idg. root *idh > *aidh to burn, cp. Sanskrit idhma firewood, inddhe to kindle (idh or indh), edhah. fuel; Gr. a)i/qw burn, ai(_qos fire-brand; Latin aedes, aestas and aestus; more especially Av. i.stya tile, brick] - 1. a burnt brick, a tile Vin II 121 (-pakara a brick wall, distinguished from silapakara and daru-); J III.435, 446 (pakar itthika read -atthaka); V.213 (rattitthika); Vism 355 (-darugomaya); PvA 4 (-cunna-makkhita-sisa the head rubbed with brickpowder, i. e. plastereotype a ceremony performed on one to be executed, cp. Mrcchakatika X.5 pis.ta-curn-¢vakirnashca -ham pashukrtah. with striking equation is.taka > pis.ta). 2. pl. (as suvanna-) gold or gilt tiles used for covering a cetiya or tope DhA III.29, 61; VvA 157.

Itthi- in -khagga-dhara at J VI.223 should be read iddha.

Ina (nt.) [Sanskrit rna, see also Pali an-ana] debt D I.71, 73; A III.352; V.324 (enumerated with baddha, jani and kali); Sn 120; J I.307; II.388, 423; III.66; IV.184 (inagga for nagga*); 256; V.253 (where enumerated as one of the 4 paribhogas, viz. theyya-, ina-, daya-, sami-); VI.69, 193; Miln 375; PvA 273, 276, inam ganhati to borrow money or take up a loan Vism 556; SnA 289; PvA 3. - inam muncati to discharge a debt J IV.280; V.238; -m sodheti same PvA 276; labhati same PvA 3. -apagama absence of debt ThA 245. -gahaka a borrower Miln 364. -ghata stricken by debt Sn 246 ( = inam gahetva tassa appadanena inaghata). -ttha (with inatta as v. l. at all passages, see atta) fallen into or being in debt M I.463 = S III.93 = It 89 = Miln 279. -panna promissory note J I.230; IV.256. -mokkha release from debt J IV.280; V.239. -sadhaka negotiator of a loan Miln 365.

Inayika [from ina] one connected with a debt, viz. (1) a creditor S I.170; J IV.159, 256; VI.178; ThA 271 see also dhanika); PvA 3. - (2) a debtor Vin I.76; Nd1 160.

Ita [pp. of eti, i] gone, only in cpd. dur-ita gone badly, as nt. evil, wrong Davs I.61; otherwise in compounds. with prep., as peta, vita etc.

Itara1 (adj.) [Ved. itara = Latin iterum a second time; compar. of pronoun. base *i, as in ayan, etam, iti etc.] other, second, next; different Dh 85, 104, 222; J II.3; III.26; IV.4; PvA 13, 14, 42, 83, 117. In repetition cpd. itaritara one or the other, whatsoever, any Sn 42; J V.425; Nd2 141; Miln 395; KhA 145, 147; acc. itaritaram and instr. itaritarena used as adv. of one kind or another, in every way, anyhow [cp. BSanskrit itaretara M Vastu III. 348 and see Wackernagel Altind. Gram. II. SH 121 c.] J VI 448 (-m); Dh 331 (-ena); Vv 841 (text reads itritarena, v. l. itaritarena, explained. by itaritaram VvA 333).

Itara2 (adj.) frequent spelling for ittara (q. v.).

Iti (ti) (indecl.) [Vedic iti, of pronoun. base *i, cp. Sanskrit ittham thus, ittha here, there; Av. ipa so; Latin ita and item thus. Cp. also Pali ettha; lit. "here, there (now), then"] emphatic

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deictic particle "thus". Occurs in both forms iti and ti, the former in higher style (poetry), the latter more familiar in conversational prose. The function of "Iti" is explained. by the old Pali C. in a conventional phrase, looking upon it more as a "filling" particle than trying to define its meaning viz. -iti ti padas and hi padasansaggo padaparipuri akkharasamavayo etc." Nd1 123 = Nd2 137. The same explination. also for i' ti.ham (see below IV.) - I. As deictic adv. "thus, in this way" (Vism 423 iti = evam) pointing to something either just mentioned or about to be mentioned: (a) referring to what precedes Sn 253 (n'eso maman ti iti nam vijanna), 805; It 123 (ito deva. . . tam namassanti); Dh 74 (iti balassa sankappo thus think the foolish), 286 (iti balo vicinteti); Vv 7910 ( = evam VvA 307); VvA 5. - (b) referring to what follows D I.63 (iti patisancikkhati); A I.205 (id.) - II. As emphatic part. pointing out or marking off a statement either as not one's own (reported) or as the definite contents of (one's own or other's) thoughts. On the whole untranslatable (unless written as quotation marks), often only setting off a statement as emphatic, where we would either underline the word or phrase in question, or print it in italics, or put it in quot. marks (e. g. balo ti vuccati Dh 63 = balo vuccati). - 1. in direct speech (as given by writer or narrator), e. g. sadhu bhante Kassapa labhatam esa janata dassanaya ti. Tena hi Siha tvam yeva Bhagavato arocehi ti. Evam bhante ti kho Siho . . . . D I.151. - 2. in indirect speech: (a) as statement of a fact "so it is that" (cp. E. "viz.", Ger. "und zwar"), mostly untranslated Kh IV. (araha ti pavuccati); J I.253 (tasma pesanaka-cora t' eva vuccanti); III.51 (tayo sahaya ahesum makkato sigalo uddo ti); PvA 112 (ankuro panca-sakatasatehi . . . annataro pi brahmano panca-sakatasatehi ti dve jana sakata-sahassehi . . . patipanna). - (b) as statement of a thought "like this", "I think", so, thus Sn 61 ("sango eso" iti natva knowing "this is defilement"), 253 ("neso maman" ti iti nam vijanna), 783 ("I' ti.han" ti), 1094 (etam dipam anaparam Nibbanam iti nam brumi I call this N.), 1130 (apara param gaccheyya tasma "Parayanam" iti). - III. Peculiarities of spelling. (1) in combination. with other part. iti is elided and contracted as follows: icc' eva, t' eva, etc. - (2) final a, i, u preceding ti are lengthened to a, i, u, e. g. ma evam akattha ti DhA I.7; kati dhurani ti ibid; dve yeva dhurani bhikkhu ti ibid. IV. Combinations with other emphatic particles: + eva thus indeed, in truth, really; as icc' eva Pv I.119 ( = evam eva PvA 59); t' eva J I.253; Miin 114; tv' eva J I.203; II.2. -iti kira thus now, perhaps, I should say D I.228, 229, 240. -iti kho thus, therefore D I.98, 103; III.135. iti va and so on (*), thus and such (similar cases) Nd1 13 = Nd2 420 A1. -iti ha thus surely, indeed Sn 934, 1084 (see below under itihitiham; cp. SnA Index 669: itiha* and itikira); It 76; DA I.247, as iti ham at Sn 783 (same explination. at Nd1 71 as for iti). -kin ti how J II.159. -kira (f.) [a substantivised iti kira] hearsay, lit. "so I guess" or "I have heard" A I.189 = II.191 sq. = Nd2 151. Cp. itiha. -bhava becoming so and so (opp. abhava not becoming) Vin II.184 (-abhava); D I.8 (ip = iti bhavo iti abhavo DA I.91); A II.248; It 109 (id.); syn. with itthabhava (q. v.). -vada "speaking so and so", talk, gossip M I.133; S V.73; A II.26; It III.35. -vuttaka (nt.) [a noun formation from iti vuttam] "so it has been said", (book of) quotations, "Logia", N. of the fourth book of the Khuddaka-nikaya, named thus because every sutta begins with vuttam h'etam Bhagavata "thus has the Buddha said" (see khuddaka and navanga) Vin III.8; M I.133; A II.7, 103; III.86, 177, 361 sq.; Pug 43, 62; KhA 12. Kern, Toev. s. v. compares the interesting BSanskrit distortion itivrttam. -hasa [ = iti ha asa, preserving the Vedic form asa, 3rd sg. perf. of atthi] "thus indeed it has been", legendary lore, oral tradition, history; usually mentioned as a branch of brahmanic learning, in phrase itihasa-panca-manam padako veyyakarano etc. D I.88 = (see DA I.247); A I.163; III.223; Sn 447, 1020. Cp. also M Vastu I.556. -hitiha [itiha + itiha] "so and so" talk, gossip, oral tradition, belief by hearsay etc. (cp. itikira and anitiha. Nd2 spells itihitiha) M I.520; S I.154; Sn 1084; Nd2 151.

Ito (indecl.) [Vedic itah., abl.-adv. formation from pronoun. base *i, cp. iti, ayan etc.] adv. of succession or motion in space and time "from here". "from now". (1) with reference to space: (a) from here, from this, often implying the present existence (in opp. to the "other" world) It 77; Sn 271 (-ja. -nidana caused or founded in or by this existence = attabhavam sandhay' aha SnA 303), 774 (cutase), 870 (-nidana), 1062 (from this source, i. e. from me), 1101; Pv I.57 (ito dinnam what is given in this world); I.62 (i. e. manussalokato PvA 33); I.123 ( = idhalokato PvA 64); Nett 93 (ito bahiddha); PvA 46 (ito dukkhato mutti). - (b) here (with implication of movement), in phrases ito c' ito here and there PvA 4, 6; and ito va etto va here and there DhA II.80. - (2) with reference to time: from here, from now, hence (in chronological records with num. ord. or card., with reference either to past or future). (a) referring to the past, since D II.2 (ito so ekanavuto kappo 91 kappas ago); Sn 570 (ito atthame, scil. divase 8 days ago SnA 457; T. reads atthami); VvA 319 (ito kira timsa-kappa-sahasse); PvA 19 (dva navuti kappe 92 kappas ago), 21 (id.), 78 (pancamaya jatiya in the fifth previous re-birth). - (b) referring to the future, i. e. henceforth, in future, from now e. g. ito sattame divase in a week VvA 138; ito param further, after this SnA 160, 178, 412, 549; PvA 83; ito patthaya from now on, henceforward J I.63 (ito dani p.); PvA 41.

Ittara (sometimes spelt itara) (adj.) [Vedic itvara in meaning "going", going along, hence developed meaning "passing"; from i] - 1. passing, changeable, short, temporary, brief, unstable M I.318 (opp. digha-rattam); A II.187; J I.393; III.83 (-dassana = khanika- C.), IV.112 (-vasa temporary abode); Pv I.1111 ( = na cira-kala-tthayin anicca viparinama-dhamma PvA 60); DA I.195; PvA 60 ( = paritta khanika). - 2. small, inferior, poor, unreliable, mean M II.47 (-jacca of inferior birth); A II.34; Sn 757 ( = paritta paccupatthana SnA 509); Miln 93, 114 (-panna of small wisdom). This meaning (2) also in BSanskrit itvara, e. g. Divy 317 (dana).

Ittarata (f.) [from ittara] changeableness Miln 93 (of a woman).

Ittha (indecl.) [the regular representative of Vedic ittha here, there, but preserved only in compounds while the Pali form is ettha] here, in this world (or "thus, in such a way"), only in cpd. -bhav' annatha-bhava such an (i. e. earthly) existence and one of another kind, or existence here (in this life) and in another form" (cp. itibhava and itthatta) Sn 729, 740 = 752; It 9 (v. l. itthi- for iti-) = A II.10 = Nd2 172a; It 94 (v. l. ittha-). There is likely to have been a confusion between ittha = Sanskrit ittha and ittham = Sanskrit ittham (see next).

Ittham (indecl.) [adv. from pronoun. base -i, as also iti in same meaning] thus, in this way D I.53, 213; Davs IV.35; V.18. -nama (itthan-) having such as name, called thus, socalled Vin I.56; IV.136; J I.297; Miln 115; DhA II.98. -bhuta being thus, of this kind, modal, only in cpd. -lakkhana or -akhyana the sign or case of modality, i. e. the ablative case SnA 441; VvA 162, 174; PvA 150.

Itthatta1 (nt.) [ittha + *tvam, abstr. from ittha. The curious BSanskrit distortion of this word is icchatta M Vastu 417] being here (in this world), in the present state of becoming, this (earthly) state (not "thusness" or "life as we conceive it", as Mrs. Rh. D. in K. S. I.177; although a confusion between ittha and ittham seems to exist, see ittha); "life in these conditions" K. S. II.17; explained. by itthabhava C. on S I.140 (see K. S. 318). - See also frequent formula A of arahatta. - D I.18, 84; A I.63; II.82, 159, 203; Sn 158; Dhs 633; Pug 70, 71; DA I.112.

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Itthatta2 (nt.) [itthi + *tvam abstr. from itthi] state or condition of femininity, womanhood, muliebrity Dhs 633 ( = itthi-sabhava DhsA 321).

Itthi and Itthi (f.) [Vedic stri, Av. stri woman, perhaps with Sanskrit satuh. uterus from Idg. -si to sow or produce, Latin sero, Goth. saian, Ohg. saen, Ags. sawan etc., cp. also Cymr. hil progeny, Oir. sil seed; see J. Schmidt, K. Z. XXV.29. The regular representative of Vedic stri is Pali thi, which only occurs rarely (in poetry and compounds.) see thi] woman, female; also (usually as --) wife. Opp. purisa man (see e. g. for contrast of itthi and purisa J V.72, 398; Nett 93; DhA I.390; PvA 153). - S I.33 (nibbanass' eva santike), 42, 125 (majjhim-, mah-), 185; A I.28, 138; II.115, 209; III.68, 90, 156; IV.196 (purisan bandhati); Sn 112, 769 (nom. pl. thiyo = itthi-sannika thiyo SnA 513); J I.286 (itthi doso), 300 (gen. pl. itthinam); II.415 (nom. pl. thiyo); V.397 (thi-ghataka), 398 (gen. dat. itthiya), V.425 (nom pl. itthiyo); Vbh 336, 337; DA I.147; PvA 5, 44, 46, 67, 154 (amanuss- of petis); Sdhp 64, 79. - anitthi a woman lacking the characteristics of womanhood, an unfaithful wife J II.126 ( = ucchitth- C.); kul'-itthi a wife of good descent Vin II.10; A III.76; IV.16, 19; dahar- a young wife J I.291; dur- a poor woman J IV.38. Some general characterisations of womanhood: 10 kinds of women enumerated at Vin III.139 = A V.264 = VvA 72, viz. matu-rakkhita, pitu-, matapitu- bhatu-, bhagini-, nati-, gotta-, dhamma-, sarakkha, saparidanda; see Vin III.139 for explination. - S I.38 (malam brahmacariyassa), 43 (id.); J I.287 (itthiyo nama asa lamika pacchimika); IV. 222 (itthiyo papato akkhato; pamattam pamathenti); V. 425 (siho yatha . . . tath' itthiyo); women as goods for sale S I.43 (bhandanam uttamam); DhA I.390 (itthiyo vikkiniya bhandam). -agara (-agara) as ittha**gara women's apartment, seraglio Vin I.72; IV.158; S I.58, 89; J I.90; also coll. for womenfolk, women (cp. Ger. frauenzimmer) D II.249; J V.188. -indriya the female principle or sex, femininity (opp. puris' indriya) S V.204; A IV.57 sq.; Vism 447, 492; Dhs 585, 633, 653 et passim. -katha talk about women D I.7 (cp. DA I.90). -kama the craving for a woman S IV.343. -kutta a woman's behaviour, woman's wiles, charming behaviour, coquetry A IV.57 = Dhs 633; J I.296, 433; II.127, 329; IV.219, 472; DhA IV.197. -ghataka a woman-killer J V. 398. -dhana wife's treasure, dowry Vin III.16. -dhutta a rogue in the matter of women, one who indulges in women Sn 106; J III.260; PvA 5. -nimitta characteristic of a woman Dhs 633, 713, 836. -pariggaha a woman's company, a woman Nd1 11. -bhava existence as woman, womanhood S I.129; Th 2, 216 (referring to a yakkhini, cp. ThA 178; Dhs 633; PvA 168. -rupa womanly beauty A I.1; III.68; Th 2, 294. -lakkhana fortune-telling regarding a woman D I.9 (cp. DhA I.94, + purisa-); J VI. 135. -linga "sign of a woman", feminine quality, female sex Vism 184; Dhs 633, 713, 836; DhsA 321 sq. -sadda the sound (or word) "woman" DhA I.15. -sondi a woman addicted to drink Sn 112.

Itthika (f.) [from itthi] a woman Vin III.16; D II.14; J I. 336; Vv 187; Sdhp 79. As adj. itthika in bahutthika having many women, plentiful in women Vin II.256 (kulani bahuttikani appapurisakani rich in women and lacking in men); S II.264 (id. and appitthikani).

Ida and Idan (indecl.) [nt. of ayan (idan) in function of a deictic part.] emphatic demonstr. adv. in local, temporal and modal function, as (1) in this, here: idappaccayata having its foundation in this, i. e. causally connected, by way of cause Vin I.5 = S I.136; D I.185; Dhs 1004, 1061; Vbh 340, 362, 365; Vism 518; etc. - (2) now, then which idha is more frequent) D II.267, 270, almost syn. (for with kira. - (3) just (this), even so, only: idam-atthika just sufficient, proper, right Th 1, 984 (civara); Pug 69 (read so for -matthika, see Pug A 250); as idam-atthita "being satisfied with what is sufficient" at Vism 81: explained. as atthika-bhava at Pug A 250. idansacc¢bhinivesa inclination to say: only this is the truth, i. e. inclination to dogmatise, one of the four kaya-gantha, viz. abhijjha, byapada, silabbata-paramasa, idan- (see Dhs 1135 and Dhs trsl. 304); D III.230; S V.59; Nd1 98; Nett 115 sq.

Idani (indecl.) [Vedic idanim] now Dh 235, 237; KhA 247.

Iddha1 [pp. of iddhe to idh or indh, cp. indhana and idhuma] in flames, burning, flaming bright, clear J VI.223 (-khaggadhara bali; so read for T. itthi-khagga-); Dpvs VI.42.

Iddha2 [pp. of ijjhati; cp. Sanskrit rddha] (a) prosperous, opulent, wealthy D I.211 (in idiomatic phrase iddha phita bahujana, of a prosperous town); A III.215 (id.); J VI.227, 361 ( = issara C.), 517; Davs I.11. - (b) successful, satisfactory, sufficient Vin I.212 (bhattam); IV.313 (ovado).

Iddhi [Vedic rddhi from ardh, to prosper; Pali ijjhati]. There is no single word in English for Iddhi, as the idea is unknown in Europe. The main sense seems to be "potency" . - 1. Pre-Buddhistic; the Iddhi of a layman. The four Iddhis of a king are personal beauty, long life, good health, and popularity (D II.177; M III.176, cp. J III.454 for a later set). The Iddhi of a rich young noble is 1. The use of a beautiful garden, 2. of soft and pleasant clothing, 3. of different houses for the different seasons, 4. of good food, A I.145. At M I.152 the Iddhi of a hunter, is the craft and skill with which he captures game; but at p. 155 other game have an Iddhi of their own by which they outwit the hunter. The Iddhi, the power of a confederation of clans, is referred to at D II.72. It is by the Iddhi they possess that birds are able to fly (Dhp 175). - 2. Psychic powers. including most of those claimed for modern mediums (see under Abhinna). Ten such are given in a stock paragraph. They are the power to project mind-made images of oneself; to become invisible; to pass through solid things, such as a wall; to penetrate solid ground as if it were water; to walk on water; to fly through the air; to touch sun and moon; to ascend into the highest heavens (D I.77, 212; II.87, 213; III.112, 281; S II.121; V.264, 303; A I.170, 255; III.17, 28, 82, 425; V.199; Ps I.111; II.207; Vism 378 sq., 384; DA I.122). For other such powers see S I.144; IV.290; V.263; A III.340. - 3. The Buddhist theory of Iddhi. At D I.213 the Buddha is represented as saying: "It is because I see danger in the practice of these mystic wonders that I loathe and abhor and am ashamed thereof" . The mystic wonder that he himself believed in and advocated (p. 214) was the wonder of education. What education was meant in the case of Iddhi, we learn from M I.34; A III.425, and from the four bases of Iddhi, the Iddhipada. They are the making determination in respect of concentration on purpose, on will, on thoughts and on investigation (D II.213; M I.103; A I.39, 297; II.256; III. 82; Ps I.111; II 154, 164, 205; Vbh 216). It was an offence against the regulations of the Sangha for a Bhikkhu to display before the laity these psychic powers beyond the capacity of ordinary men (Vin II.112). And falsely to claim the possession of such powers involved expulsion from the Order (Vin III.91). The psychic powers of Iddhi were looked upon as inferior (as the Iddhi of an unconverted man seeking his own profit), compared to the higher Iddhi, the Ariyan Iddhi (D III.112; A I.93; Vin II.183). There is no valid evidence that any one of the ten Iddhis in the above list actually took place. A few instances are given, but all are in texts more than a century later than the recorded wonder. And now for nearly two thousand years we have no further instances. Various points on Iddhi discussed at Dial. I.272, 3; Cpd.60 ff.; Expositor 121. Also at Kvu 55; Ps II.150; Vism XII; DhA I.91; J I.47, 360. -¢nubhava (iddhinu-) power or majesty of thaumaturgy Vin 31, 209, 240; III.67; S I 147; IV.290; PvA 53. -¢bhisankhara (iddhibhi-) exercise of any of the psychic powers Vin I.16, 17, 25; D I.106; S III.92; IV.289; V.270;

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Sn p. 107; PvA 57, 172 212. -patihariya a wonder of psychic power Vin I.25, 28, 180, 209; II.76, 112, 200; D I.211, 212; III.3, 4, 9, 12 sq., 27; S IV.290; A I.170, 292; Ps II.227. -pada constituent or basis of psychic power Vin II.240; D II.103, 115 sq., 120; III.77, 102, 127, 221; M II.11; III.296; S I.116, 132; III.96, 153; IV.360; V.254, 255, 259 sq., 264 sq., 269 sq., 275, 285; A IV.128 sq., 203, 463; V.175; Nd1 14, 45 (-dhira), 340 (-puccha); Nd1 s. v.; Ps I.17, 21, 84; II.56, 85 sq., 120, 166, 174; Ud 62; Dhs 358, 528, 552; Nett 16, 31, 83; DhsA 237; DhA III.177; IV.32. -bala the power of working wonders VvA 4; PvA 171. -yana the carriage (fig.) of psychic faculties Miln 276. -vikubbana the practice of psychic powers Vism 373 sq. -vidha kinds of iddhi D I.77, 212; II.213; III.112, 281; S II.121; v.264 sq., 303; A I.170 sq., 255; III.17, 28, 82 sq., 425 sq.; V.199; Ps I.111; II.207; Vism 384; DA I.222. -visaya range or extent of psychic power Vin III.67; Nett 23.

Iddhika1 (*-) (adj.) the compounds. form of addhika in cpd. kapan-iddhika tramps and wayfarers (see kapana), e. g. at J I.6; IV.15; PvA 78.

Iddhika2 (*-) (adj.) [iddhi + ka] possessed of power, only in cpd. mah-iddhika of great power, always combined. with mah-¢nubhava, e. g. at Vin I.31; II.193; III.101; S II. 155; M I.34; Th 1, 429. As mahiddhiya at J V.149. See mahiddhika.

Iddhimant (adj.) [from iddhi] - 1. (lit.) successful, proficient, only in negative an- unfortunate, miserable, poor J VI.361. 2. (fig.) possessing psychic powers Vin III.67; IV.108; A I.23, 25; II.185; III.340; IV.312; Sn 179; Nett 23; Sdhp 32, 472.

Idha (indecl.) [Sanskrit iha, adv. of space from pronoun. base *i (cp. ayan, iti etc.), cp. Latin ihi, Gr. i)qa-genh/s, Av. ida] here, in this place, in this connection, now; esp. in this world or present existence Sn 1038, 1056, 1065; It 99 (idh' upapanna reborn in this existence); Dh 5, 15, 267, 343, 392; Nd1 40, 109, 156; Nd2 145, 146; SnA 147; PvA 45, 60, 71. -idhaloka this world, the world of men Sn 1043 ( = manussaloka Nd2 552c); PvA 64; in this religion, Vbh 245. On different meanings of idha see DhsA 348.

Idhuma [Sanskrit idhma, see etymology under itthaka] fire-wood Tela-kataha-gatha, p. 53, J.Pali Text Society 1884.

Inda [Vedic indra, most likely to same root as indu moon, viz. *Idg. *eid to shine, cp. Latin idus middle of month (after the full moon), Oir. esce moon. Jacobi in K. Z. XXXI.316 sq. connects Indra with Latin neriosus strong and Nero). - 1. The Vedic god Indra D I.244; II.261, 274; Sn 310, 316, 679, 1024; Nd1 177. - 2. lord, chief, king. Sakko devanam indo D I.216, 217; II.221, 275; S I.219. Vep-citti asurindo S I.221 ff. manussinda, S I.69, manujinda, Sn 553, narinda, Sn 863, all of the Buddha, "chief of men" ; cp. Vism 491. [Europeans have found a strange difficulty in understanding the real relation of Sakka to Indra. The few references to Indra in the Nikayas should be classed with the other fragments of Vedic mythology to be found in them. Sakka belongs only to the Buddhist mythology then being built up. He is not only quite different from Indra, but is the direct contrary of that blustereotypeng, drunken, god of war. See the passages collected in Dial. II.294 298. The idiom sa-Inda deva, D II.261, 274; A V.325, means "the gods about Indra, Indra's retinue" , this being a Vedic story. But Deva Tavatimsa sahindaka means the T. gods together with their leader (D II.208-212; S III.90; cp. Vv 301) this being a Buddhist story]. -aggi (ind' aggi) Indra's fire, i. e. lightning PvA 56. -gajjita (nt.) Indra's thunder Miln 22. -jala deception DA I.85. -jalika a juggler, conjurer Miln 331. -dhanu the rainbow DA I.40. -bhavana the realm of Indra Nd1 448 (cp. Tavatimsa-bhavana). -linga the characteristic of Indra Vism 491. -sala N. of tree J IV.92.

Indaka [dimin. from inda] - 1. Np. (see Dict. of names), e. g. at Pv II.9Q; PvA 136 sq. - 2. (*-) see inda 2.

Indakhila [inda + khila, cp. BSanskrit indrakila Divy 250, 365, 544; Av. SH I.109, 223]. "Indra's post"; the post, stake or column of Indra, at or before the city gate; also a large slab of stone let into the ground at the entrance of a house D II.254 (-m uhacca, cp. DhA II.181); Vin IV.160 (explained. ibid. as sayani-gharassa ummaro, i. e. threshold); S V.444 (ayokhilo +); Dh 95 (-upama, cp. DhA II.181); Th 1, 663; J I.89; Miln 364; Vism 72, 466; SnA 201; DA I.209 (nikkhamitva bahi -a); DhA II.180 (-sadisan Sariputtassa cittam), 181 (nagara-dvare nikhatam -m).

Indagu see hindagu.

Indagopaka [inda + gopaka, cp. Vedic indragopa having Indra as protector] a sort of insect ("cochineal, a red beetle", Bohtlingk), observed to come out of the ground after rain Th 1, 13; Vin III.42; J IV.258; V.168; DhA I.20; Brethren p. 18, n.

Indanila [inda + nila "Indra's blue"] a sapphire J I.80; Miln 118; VvA 111 (+ mahanila).

Indavaruni (f.) [inda + varuna] the Coloquintida plant J IV.8 (-ka-rukkha).

Indivara (nt.) [etymology*] the blue water lily, Nymphaea Stellata or Cassia Fistula J V.92 (-i-sama ratti); VI.536; Vv 451 ( = uddalaka-puppha VvA 197).

Indriya (nt.) [Vedic indriya adj. only in meaning "belonging to Indra"; nt. strength, might (cp. inda), but in specific pali sense "belonging to the ruler", i. e. governing, ruling nt. governing, ruling or controlling principle] A. On term: Indriya is one of the most comprehensive and important categories of Buddhist psychological philosophy and ethics, meaning "controlling principle, directive force, elan, du/namis", in the following applications: (a) with reference to sense-perceptibility "faculty, function", often wrongly interpreted as "organ"; (b) w. reference to objective aspects of form and matter "kind, characteristic, determinating principle, sign, mark" (cp. woman-hood, hood = Goth. haidus "kind, form"); (c) w. reference to moods of sensation and (d) to moral powers or motives controlling action, "principle, controlling" force; (e) w. reference to cognition and insight "category". Definitions of indriya among others at DhsA 119; cp. Expositor 157; Dhs trsl. LVII; Cpd.228, 229. B. Classifications and groups of indriyani. An exhaustive list comprises the indriyani enumd under A a-e, thus establishing a canonical scheme of 22 Controlling Powers (bavisati indriyani), running thus at Vbh 122 sq. (see trsl. at Cpd.175, 176); and discussed in detail at Vism 491 sq. (a. sensorial) (1) cakkh-undriya ("the eye which is a power", Cpd.228) the eye or (personal potentiality of) vision, (2) sot-indriya the ear or hearing, (3) ghan- nose or smell, (4) jivh- tongue or taste, (5) kay- body-sensibility, (6) man-) mind; (b. material) (7) itth- female sex or femininity, (8) puris- male sex or masculinity, (9) jivit- life or vitality; (c. sensational) (10) sukh- pleasure, (11) dukkh- pain, (12) somanasa- joy, (13) domanass- grief, (14) upekh- hedonic indifference (d. moral) (15) saddh- faith, (16) viriy- energy, (17) sat- mindfulness, (18) samadh- concentration, (19) pann- reason; (e. cognitional) (20) anannata-nassamit- the thought "I shall come to know the unknown", (21) ann- ( = anna) gnosis, (22) annata-v- one who knows. - Jivitindriya (no. 9) is in some redactions placed before itth- (no. 7), e. g. at Ps I.7, 137. - From this list are detached several groups, mentioned frequently and in various connections, no. 6 manas (mano, man-indriya) wavering in its function, being either included under (a) or (more frequently) omitted, so that the first set (a) is marked off as panc' indriyani, the 6th being silently included (see below). This uncertainty regarding manas deserves to be noted. The following groups may be mentioned here viz 19 (nos. 1-19) at Ps I.137; 10 (panca rupini and

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panca arupini) at Nett 69; three groups of five (nos. 1-5, 10-14, 15-19) at D III.239, cp. 278; four (group d without panna, i. e. nos. 15-18) at A II.141; three (saddh-, samadh-, pann-, i. e. nos. 15, 18, 19) at A I. 118 sq. Under atthavidham indriya-rupam (Cpd. 159) or rupam as indriyam "form which is faculty" Dhs 661 (cp. trsl. p. 204) are understood the 5 sensitives (nos. 1-5), the 2 sex-states (nos. 7, 8) and the vital force (no. 9), i. e. groups a and b of enumn.; discussed and defined in detail at Dhs 709-717, 971-973. - It is often to be guessed from the context only, which of the sets of 5 indriyani (usually either group a or d) is meant. These detached groups are classed as below under C. f. - Note. This system of 22 indriyani reflects a revised and more elaborate form of the 25 (or 23) categories of the Sankhya philosophy, with its 10 elements, 10 indri, ini and the isolated position of manas. C. Material in detail (grouped according to A a-e) (a) sensorial: (mentioned or referred to as set of 5 viz B. nos. 1-5): M I.295: S III.46 (pancannam -anam avak kanti), 225; IV.168; A II.151 (as set of 6, viz. B. nos. 1-6): M I.9; S IV.176; V.74, 205, 230; A I.113; II.16, 39, 152; III.99, 163, 387 sq.; V.348. Specially referring to restraint and control of the senses in following phrases: in driyani sanvutani S II.231, 271; IV.112; pancasu -esu sanvuto Sn 340 ( = lakkhanato pana chattham pi vuttam yeva hoti, i. e. the 6th as manas included, SnA 343); -esu susanvuta Th 2, 196 ( = mana-chatthesu i- sutthu sanvuta ThA 168) indriyesu guttadvara and guttadvarata D III.107; S II.218; IV.103, 112, 175; A I.25, 94, 113; II.39; III.70, 138, 173, 199, 449 sq.; IV.25, 166; V.134; It 23, 24; Nd1 14; Vbh 248, 360; DA I.182 ( = manachattesu indriyesu pihita-dvaro hoti), i. vippasannani S II. 275; III.2, 235; IV.294; V.301; A I.181; III.380. -anam samata (v. l. samatha) A III.375 sq. (see also f. below) -ani bhavitani Sn 516 ( = cakkh' adini cha i. SnA 426); Nd2 475 B8. - Various: S I.26 (rakkhati), 48 (-upasame rato); IV.40, 140 (-sampanna); V.216, 217 sq. (independent in function, mano as referee); Ps. I.190 (man-); Vbh 13 (rupa), 341 (mud- and tikkh-) 384 (ahin-). - (b) physical: (above B 7-9) all three: S V.204; Vism 447; itthi- and purisa- A IV.57; Vbh 122, 415 sq.; puris- A III.404; jivit- Vbh 123, 137; Vism 230 (-upaccheda = marana). See also under itthi, jivita and purisa. - (c) sensational (above B 10-14): S V.207 sq. (see Cpd.111 and cp. p. 15), 211 sq.; Vbh 15, 71; Nett 88. - (d) moral (above B 15 19): S III.96, 153; IV.36, 365 sq.; V.193 sq., 202, 219 (corresponding to pancabalani), 220 sq. (and amata), 223 sq. (their culture brings assurance of no rebirth), 227 sq. (panna the chief one), 235, 237 (sevenfold fruit of), A IV.125 sq., 203, 225; V.56, 175; Ps II.49, 51 sq., 86; Nd1 14; Nd2 628 (sat- + satibala); Kvu 589; Vbh 341; Nett 15, 28, 47, 54. Often in standard combination. with satipatthana, sammappadhana. iddhipada, indriya, bala, bojjhanga, magga (see Nd2 s. v. p. 263) D II.120; Vin III. 93, Ps II.166 and passim. As set of 4 indriyani (nos. 16 19) at Nett 83. - (e) cognitional (above B 20-22) D III.219 = S v.204 (as peculiar to Arahantship); It 53; Ps I.115; II.30. - (f) collectively, either two or more of groups a-e, also var. peculiar uses: personal; esp. physical faculties. S I.61 (pakat-), 204 (id.); III.207 (akasan -ani sankamanti); IV.294 (vipari-bhinnani); A III.441 (-anam avekallata). magic power A IV.264 sq. (okkhipati -ani). indriyanam paripako (moral or physical) over-ripeness of faculties S II.2, 42; A V.203; Nd2 252 (in def. of jara); Vbh 137. moral forces Vin I.183 (-anam samata, + viriyanam s. as sign of Arahant); II.240 (panc-). principle of life ekindriyam jivam Vin III.156; Miln 259. heart or seat of feeling in phrase -ani paricareti to satisfy one's heart PvA 16, 58, 77. obligation, duty, vow in phrase -ani bhinditva breaking one's vow J II.274; IV.190. D. Unclassified material D I 77 (ahin-); III 239 (domanass- and somanass-) M I.437 (vemattata), 453 (id.); II. 11, 106; III.296; S III.225; V.209 (dukkh-, domanass-); A I.39, 42 sq., 297; II.38 (sant-), 149 sq.; III.277, 282; Ps I.16, 21, 88, 180; II.1 sq, 13, 84, 119, 132, 143, 145, 110, 223; Nd1 45 (-dhira), 171 (-kusala), 341 (puccha); Dhs 58, 121, 528, 556 (dukkh-), 560, 644. 736; Nett 18 (sotapannassa), 28 (-vavatthana), 162 (lok'uttara); Vism 350 (-vekallata); Sdhp 280, 342, 364, 371, 449, 473. E. As adj. (*-) having one's senses, mind or heart as such and such S I.138 (tikkh- and mud-); III.93 (pakat-); V.269 (id.); A I.70 (id) and passim (id.); A I.70 (sanvut-) 266 (id.), 236 (gutt-); II.6 (samahit-); 8n 214 (susamahit- his senses well-composed); PvA 70 (pinit- joyful or gladdened of heart). F. Some compounds: -gutta one who restrains and watches his senses S I.154; Dh 375. -gutti keeping watch over the senses, self-restraint DhA IV.111. a paropariya, b paropariyatta and c paropariyatti (-nana) (knowledge of) what goes on in the senses and intentions of others a J I.78; b A V.34, 38; b Ps I.121 sq., 133 sq.; II.158, 175; b Vbh 340, 342; c S V.205; c Nett 101. See remark under paropariya. -bhavana cultivation of the (five, see above Cd) moral qualities Vin I.294 (+ balabhavana); M III.298. -sanvara restraint or subjugation of the senses D II.281; M I.269, 346; S I.54; A III.360; IV.99; V.113 sq., 136, 206; Nd1 483; Nett 27, 121 sq; Vism 20 sq.

Indhana (nt.) [Vedic indhana, of idh or indh to kindle, cp. iddha1] firewood, fuel J IV.27 (adj. an- without fuel, aggi); V.447; ThA 256; VvA 335; Sdhp 608. Cp. idhuma.

Ibbha (adj.) [Ved. ibhya belonging to the servants] menial; a retainer, in the phrase mundaka samanaka ibbha kanha (kinha) bandhupad¢pacca D I.90 (v. l. SS imbha; T. kinha, v. l. kanha), 91, 103; M I.334 (kinha, v. l. kanha). Also at J VI.214. Expld. by Bdhgh. as gahapatika at DA I.254, (also at J VI.215).

Irina (nt.) [Vedic irina, on etymology see Walde, Latin Wtb. under rarus] barren soil, desert J VI.560 ( = niroja C.). Cp. irina.

Iriyati [from ir to set in motion, to stir, Sanskrit irte, but pres. formation influenced by iriya and also by Sanskrit iyarti of r (see acchati and icchati2); cp. Causative irayati ( = Pali ireti), pp. irna and irita. See also issa] to move, to wander about, stir; fig. to move, behave, show a certain way of deportment M I.74, 75; S I.53 (dukkham aticca iriyati); IV.71; A III.451; V.41; Sn 947, 1063, 1097; Th 1,276; J III.498 ( = viharati); Nd1 431; Nd2 147 ( = carati etc.); Vism 16; DA I.70.

Iriyana (f.) [from iriyati] way of moving on, progress, Dhs 19, 82, 295, 380, 441, 716.

Iriya (f.) [cp. from iriyati, BSanskrit irya Divy 485] movement, posture, deportment M I.81; Sn 1038 ( = cariya vatti viharo Nd2 148); It 31; Vism 145 (+ vutti palana yapana). -patha way of deportment; mode of movement; good behaviour. There are 4 iriyapathas or postures, viz. walking, standing, sitting, lying down (see Ps II.225 and DA I.183). Cp. BSanskrit iryapatha Divy 37. - Vin I.39; II.146 (-sampanna); Vin I.91 (chinn- a cripple); S V.78 (cattaro i.); Sn 385; Nd1 225, 226; Nd2 s. v.; J I.22 (of a lion), 66, 506; Miln 17; Vism 104, 128, 290, 396; DhA I.9; IV.17; VvA 6; PvA 141; Sdhp 604.

Irubbeda the Rig-veda Dpvs V.62 (iruveda); Miln 178; DA I.247; SnA 447.

Illiya (f.) [from illi, cp. Sanskrit *ilika] = illi J V.259; VI.50.

Illi (f.) [cp. Vedic ilibisha Np. of a demon] a sort of weapon, a short one-edged sword J V.259.

Illiyitum v. l. for alliyitum at J V.154.

Iva (indecl.) [Vedic iva and va] part. of comparison: like, as Dh 1, 2, 7, 8, 287, 334; J I.295; SnA 12 ( = opamma-vacanam). Elided to 'va, diaeretic-metathetic form viya (q. v.).

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Isi [Vedic from rs.. - Voc. ise Sn 1025; pl. npm. isayo, gen. isinam S II.280 and isinam S I.192; etc. inst. isibhi Th 1, 1065] - 1. a holy man, one gifted with special powers of insight and inspiration, an anchoret, a Seer, Sage, Saint, "Mastereotype D I.96 (kanho isi ahosi); S I.33, 35, 65, 128, 191, 192, 226 sq., 236 (acaro isinam); II.280 (dhammo isinam dhajo); A II.24, 51; Vin IV.15 = 22 (-bhasito dhammo); It 123; Sn 284, 458, 979, 689, 691, 1008, 1025, 1043, 1044, 1116 (dev- divine Seer), 1126, Nd2 149 (isi-namaka ye keci isi-pabbajjam pabbajita ajivika nigantha jatila tapasa); Dh 281; J I.17 (v.90: isayo n' atthi me sama of Buddha); J V.140 (-gana), 266, 267 (isi Gotamo); Pv II.614 ( = yama-niyam' adinam esanatthena isayo PvA 98); II.133 ( = jhan' adinam gunanam esanatthena isi PvA 163); IV.73 ( = asekkhanam silakkhandh' adinam esanatthena isim PvA 265); Miln 19 (-vata) 248 (-bhattika); DA I.266 (gen. isino); Sdhp 200, 384. See also mahesi. - 2. (in brahmanic tradition) the ten (divinely) inspired singers or composers of the Vedic hymns (brahmananam pubbaka isayo mantanam kattaro pavattaro), whose names are given at Vin I. 245; D I.104, 238; A III.224, IV.61 as follows: Atthaka, Vamaka, Vamadeva, Vessamitta, Yamataggi (Yamadaggi), Angirasa, Bharadvaja, Vasettha, Kassapa, Bhagu. -nisabha the first (lit. "bull") among Saints, Ep. of the Buddha Sn 698; Vv 167 (cp. VvA 82). -pabbajja the (holy) life of an anchoret Vism 123; DhA I.105; IV.55; PvA 162. -vata the wind of a Saint Miln 19; Vism 18. -sattama the 7th of the great Sages (i. e. Gotama Buddha, as 7th in the sequence of Vipassin, Sikhin, Vessabhu, Kakusandha, Konagamana and Kassapa Buddhas) M I.386; S I.192; Sn 356; Th 1, 1240 ( = Bhagava isi ca sattamo ca uttamatthena SnA 351); Vv 211 ( = Buddha-isinam Vipassi-adinam sattamo VvA 105).

Isika (isika) (f.) [Sanskrit is.ika] a reed D I.77, cp. DA I.222; J VI.67 (isika).

Isitta (nt.) [abstr. from isi] rishi-ship D I.104 ( = isi-bhava DA I.274).

Issati [denom. from issa. Av. ares.yeiti to be jealous, Gr. e)/ratai to desire; connected also with Sanskrit ar.sati from rs. to flow, Latin erro; and Sanskrit irasyati to be angry = Gr. *)/arhs God of war, a)rh\; Ags. eorsian to be angry] to bear illwill, to be angry, to envy J III.7; ppr. med. issamanaka Sdhp 89, f. -ika A II.203. -pp. issita (q. v.).

Issattha (nt. m.) [cp. Sanskrit is.vastra nt. bow, from ( = Pali usu) an arrow + as to throw. Cp. Pali issasa. - Bdhgh. in a strange way dissects it as "usun ca satthan ca ti vuttam hoti" (i. e. usu arrow + sattha sword, knife) SnA 466] - 1. (nt.) archery (as means of livelihood and occupation) M I.85; III.1; S I.100 (so read with v. l.; T. has issatta, C. explinations. by usu-sippam K. S. p. 318); Sn 617 (-m upajivati = avudha jivikam SnA 466); J VI.81; Sdhp 390. - 2. (m.) an archer Miln 250, 305, 352, 418.

Issatthaka [issattha + ka] an archer Miln 419.

Issara [Vedic ishvara, from ish to have power, cp. also Pali isa] lord, ruler, mastereotype chief A IV.90; Sn 552; J I.89 (-jana), 100, 283 (-bheri); IV.132 (-jana); Pv IV.67 (-mada); Miln 253 (an- without a ruler); DhsA 141; DA I.111; PvA 31 (gehassa issara); Sdhp 348, 431. - 2. creative deity, Brahma, D III.28; M II.222 = A I.173; Vism 598.

Issariya [from issara] rulership, mastereotypehip, supremacy, dominion (Syn. adhipacca) D III.190; S I.43, 100 (-mada); V.342 (issariy-¢dhipacca); A I.62 (-adhipacca); II.205, 249; III.38; IV.263; Sn 112; Dh 73; Ud 18; Ps II.171, 176; J I.156; V.443; DhA II.73; VvA 126 (for adhipacca) PvA 42, 117, 137 (for adhipacca); Sdhp 418, 583.

Issariyata (f.) [from issariya] mastereotypehip, lordship Sdhp 422.

Issa1 (f.) [Sanskrit irs.ya to Sanskrit irin forceful, irasyati to be angry, Latin ira anger, Gr. *)/arhs God of war; Ags. eorsian to be angry. See also issati] jealousy, anger, envy, ill-will D II.277 (-macchariya); III.44 (id.); M I.15; S II.260; A I.95, 105 (-mala), 299; II.203; IV.8 (-sannojana), 148, 349, 465; V.42 sq., 156, 310; Sn 110; J V.90 (-¢vatinna); Pv II.37; Vv 155; Pug 19, 23; Vbh 380, 391; Dhs 1121, 1131, 1460; Vism 470 (def.); PvA 24, 46, 87; DhA II.76; Miln 155; Sdhp 313, 510. -pakata overcome by envy, of an envious nature S II.260; Miln 155; PvA 31. See remarks under apakata and pakata.

Issa2 (f.) [cp. Sanskrit rshya-mrga] in issammiga ( = issamiga) J V.410, and issamiga J V.431, a species of antelope, cp. J V.425 issasinga the antlers of this antelope.

Issayana (and Issayitatta) [abstr. formations from issa] = issa Pug 19, 23; Dhs 1121; Vism 470.

Issasa [Sanskrit is.vasa, see issattha] an archer Vin IV.124; M III.1; A IV.423 (issaso va issas' antevasi va); J II.87; IV.494; Miln 232; DA I.156.

Issasin [Sanskrit is.vasa in meaning "bow" + in] an archer, lit. one having a bow J IV.494 ( = issasa C.).

Issita [pp. of irs. (see issati); Sanskrit irs.ita] being envied or scolded, giving offence or causing anger J V.44.

Issukin (adj.) [from issa, Sanskrit irs.yu + ka + in] envious, jealous Vin II.89 (+ maccharin); D III.45, 246; M I.43, 96; S IV.241; A III.140, 335; IV.2; Dh 262; J III.259; Pv. II.34; Pug 19, 23; DhA III.389; PvA 174. See also an-.

Iha (indecl.) [Sanskrit iha; form iha is rare in Pali, the usual form is idha (q. v.)] adv. of place "here" Sn 460.

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Igha (*) [doubtful as to origin and etymology since only found in cpd. anigha and abs. only in exegetical literature. If genuine, it should belong to rgh Sanskrit rghayati to tremble, rage etc. See discussed under nigha1] confusion, rage, badness SnA 590 (in explination of anigha). Usually as an- (or anigha), e. g. J III.343 ( = niddukkha C.); V.343.

Iti and iti (f.) [Sanskrit iti, of doubtful origin] ill, calamity, plague, distress, often combb. with and substituted for upaddava, cp. BSanskrit itay' opadrava (attack of plague) Divy 119. Sn 51; J I.27 (V.189); V.401 = upaddava; Nd1 381; Nd2 48, 636 (+ upaddava = santapa); Miln 152, 274, 418. -aniti sound condition, health, safety A IV.238; Miln 323.

Itika (adj.) [from iti] connected or affected with ill or harm, only in negative an-.

Itiha a doublet of itiha, only found in negative an-.

Idisa (adj.) [Sanskrit idrs, i + drsh, lit. so-looking] such like, such DhsA 400 (f. -i); PvA 50, (id.) 51.

Irina (nt.) [ = irina, q. v. and cp. Sanskrit irina] barren soil, desert D I.248; A V.156 sq.; J V.70 ( = sukkha-kantara C.); VI.560; VvA 334.

Irita [pp. of ireti, Causative of ir, see iriyati] - 1. set in motion, stirred, moved, shaken Vv 394 (vat'erita moved by

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the wind); J I.32 (id.); Vv 6420 (haday'erita); Pv II.123 (malut'erita); PvA 156 (has erita for i-); VvA 177 ( = calita). - 2. uttered, proclaimed, said Davs V.12.

Isa [from ish to have power, perf. ishe = Goth. aih; cp. Sanskrit ishvara = Pali issara, and BSanskrit isha, e. g. Jtm 3181] lord, owner, ruler J IV.209 (of a black lion = ka'a-siha C.); VvA 168. f. isi see mahesi a chief queen. Cp. also mahesakkha.

Isaka [dimin. of isa] a pole J II.152; VI.456 (-agga the top of a pole).

Isakam (adv.) [nt. of isaka] a little, slightly, easily M I. 450; J I.77; VI.456; DA I.252, 310; VvA 36; Vism 136, 137, 231, isakam pi even a little Vism 106; Sdhp 586.

Isa (f.) [Vedic is.a] the pole of a plough or of a carriage S I.104 (nangal' isa read with v. l. for nangala-sisa T.), 172, 224 (-mukha): A IV.191 (rath-); Sn 77; J I.203 (-mukha); IV.209; Ud 42; Miln 27; SnA 146; VvA 269 (-mulam = rathassa uro). -danta having teeth (tusks) as long as a plough-pole (of an elephant) Vin I.352; M I.414; Vv 209 = 439 ( = ratha-isa-sadisa-danto); J VI.490 = 515.

Isaka (adj.) [from isa] having a pole (said of a carriage) J VI.252.

Ihati [Vedic ih, cp. Av. iža ardour, eagerness, azi.s greed] to endeavour, attempt, strive after Vin III.268 (Bdhgh.) J VI.518 (cp. Kern, Toev. p. 112); DA I.139; VvA 35.

Iha (f.) [from ih] exertion, endeavour, activity, only in adj. nir-iha void of activity Miln 413.

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U the sound or syllable u, explained. by Bdhgh at Vism 495 as expressing origin ( = ud).

Ukkamsa [from ud + krs. see ukkassati] exaltation, excellence, superiority (opp. avakkamsa) D I.54 (ukkams-¢vakkamsa = hayana-vaddhana DA I.165); M I.518; Vism 563 (id.); VvA 146 (-gata excellent), 335 (instr. ukkamsena par excellence, exceedingly); PvA 228 (-vasena, with reference to devatas; v. l. SS okk-).

Ukkamsaka (adj.) [from ukkamsa] raising, exalting (oneself), extolling M I.19 (att-; opp. para-vambhin); J II.152. Cp. samukkamsika.

Ukkamsati [ud + krs., kar.sati, lit. draw or up, raise] to exalt, praise M I.498; J IV.108. -pp. Ukkattha. - ukkamseti in same meaning M I.402 sq. (attanam u. param vambheti); A II.27; Nd2 141.

Ukkamsana (f.) [abstr. of ukkamsati] raising, extolling, exaltation, in att- self-exaltation, self-praise M I.402 (opp. para-vambhana); Nd2 505 (id.).

Ukkattha (adj.) [pp. of ukkamsati] - 1. exalted, high, prominent, glorious, excellent, most frequent opp. to hina, in phrase hina-m-Ukkattha-majjhime Vin IV.7; J I.20 (v.129), 22 (v.143); III.218 ( = uttama C.). In other combination. at Vism 64 (u. majjhima mudu referring to the 3 grades of the Dhutangas); SnA 160 (dvipada sabbasattanam ukkattha); VvA 105 (superl. Ukkatthatama with reference to Gotama as the most exalted of the 7 Rishis); Sdhp 506 (opp. lamaka). - 2. large, comprehensive, great, in ukkattho patto a bowl of great capacity (as different from majjhima and omaka p.) Vin III.243 ( = uk. nama patto addhalhak' odanam ganhati catu-bhagam khadanam va tadupiyam va byanjanam). - 3. detailed, exhaustive, specialised Vism 37 (ati-Ukkattha-desana); also in phrase -vasena in detail SnA 181. - 4. arrogant, insolent J V. 16. - 5. used as nom at J I.387 in meaning "battle, conflict". - an- Vism 64 (-civara). -niddesa exhaustive exposition, special designation, term par excellence DhsA 70; VvA 231; PvA 7. -pariccheda comprehensive connotation SnA 229, 231, 376.

Ukkatthata (f.) [abstr. from Ukkattha] superiority, eminence, exalted state J IV.303 (opp. hinata).

Ukkatthita [for ukkathita, ud + pp. of kvath, see kathati and kuthati] boiled up, boiling, seething A III.231 and 234 (udapatto aggina santatto ukkatthito, v. l. ukkutthito); J IV.118 (v. l. pakkudhita = pakkuthita, as gloss).

Ukkanthati [from ud + kanth in secondary meaning of kantha neck, lit. to stretch one's neck for anything; i. e. long for, be hungry after, etc.] to long for, to be dissatisfied, to fret J I.386 (-mana); III.143 (-itva); IV.3, 160; V.10 (anukkhanthanto); DhsA 407; PvA 162 (ma ukkanthi, v. l. ukkanhi, so read for T. ma khundali). -pp. ukkanthita (q. v.). Cp. pari-.

Ukkanthana (f.) [from ukkanthati] emotion, commotion D II.239.

Ukkantha (f.) [from ukkanth.-] longing, desire; distress, regret Nett 88; PvA 55 (spelt kkh), 60, 145, 152.

Ukkanthi (f.) [from ukkanth.-] longing, dissatisfaction ThA 239 ( = arati).

Ukkanthika (f.) [abstr. from ukkanthita] = ukkanthi, i. e. longing, state of distress, pain J III.643.

Ukkanthita [pp. of ukkanthati] dissatisfied, regretting, longing, fretting J I.196; II.92, 115; III.185; Miln 281; DhA IV.66, 225; PvA 13 (an-), 55, 187.

Ukkanna (adj.) [ud + kanna] having the ears erect (*) J VI.559.

Ukkannaka (ad.) [ut + kanna + ka lit. "with ears out" or is it ukkandaka*] a certain disease (* mange) of jackals, S II.230, 271; S. A. "the fur falls off from the whole body".

Ukkantati [ud + kantati] to cut out, tear out, skin Vin I.217 (-itva); J I.164; IV.210 (v. l. for okk-); V.10 (ger. ukkacca); Pv III.94 (ukkantva, v. l. BB ukkacca); PvA 210 (v. l. SS ni-), 211 ( = chinditva).

Ukkapindaka [etymology unknown] only in pl.; vermin, Vin I.211 = 239. See comment at Vin. Texts II.70.

Ukkantikam (nt. adv.), in jhan- and kasin-, after the method of stepping away from or skipping Vism 374.

Ukkamati (or okk- which is v. l. at all passages quoted) [ud + kamati from kram] to step aside, step out from (w. abl.), depart from A III.301 (magga); J III.531; IV. 101 (magga); Ud 13 (id.); DA I.185 (id.). Causative ukkameti; Causative II. ukkamapeti J II.3.

Ukkamana (nt.) [from ukkamati] stepping away from Vism 374.

Ukkala in phrase ukkala-vassa-bhanna S III.73 = A II.31 = Kvu 141 is translated. as "the folk of Ukkala, Lenten speakers of old" (see Kvu trsl. 95 with n. 2). Another interpretation is ukkalavassa-, i. e. ukkala + avassa- [*avashya-], one who speaks of, or like, a porter (ukkala = Sk utkala porter, one who carries a load) and bondsman M III.78 reads Okkala (v. l. Ukkala)-Vassa-Bhanna, all as N. pr.

Ukkalapa see uklapa.

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Ukkalissati [ = ukkilissati* ud + kilissati] to become depraved, to revoke(*) Miln 143.

Ukka (f.) [Vedic ulka and ulkus.i, cp. Gr. a)/flac ( = lamprw_s torch Hesychius), velxa/nos ( = Volcanus); Latin Volcanus, Oir. Olcan, Idg. **I*q to be fiery] 1. firebr and , glow of fire, torch D I.49, 108; S II.264; Th 2, 488 (-upama); J I.34 (dhamm-okka); II.401; IV.291; V.322; Vism 428; ThA 287; DA I.148; DhA I.42, 205; PvA 154. Esp. as tin- firebr and of dry grass M I.128, 365; Nd2 40Ie; DhA I.126; Sdhp 573. - 2. a furnace or forge of a smith A I.210, 257; J VI.437; see also below -mukha. 3. a meteor: see below -pata. -dhara a torch-bearer Sn 335; It 108; Miln 1. -pata "falling of a firebrand ", a meteor D I.10 ( = akasato ukkanam patanam DA I.95); J I.374; VI.476; Miln 178. -mukha the opening or receiver of a furnace, a goldsmith's smelting pot A I.257; J VI.217 ( = kammar-uddhana C.), 574; Sn 686; DhA II.250.

Ukkacana (f.) [from ukkaceti, ud + *kac, see ukkacita] enlightening, clearing up, instruction Vbh 352 (in def. of lapana, v. l. -kapana). Note Kern, Toev. s. v. compares Vism p. 115 and Sanskrit uddipana in same sense. Def. at Vism 27 ( = uddipana).

Ukkacita [pp. either to *kac to shine or to kaceti denom. from kaca1] enlightened, made bright (fig.) or cleaned, cleared up A I.72, 286 (-vinita parisa enlightened and trained).

Ukkaceti [according to Morris J.Pali Text Society 1884, 112 a denom. from kaca2 a carrying pole, although the idea of a bucket is somewhat removed from that of a pole] to bale out water, to empty by means of buckets J II.70 (v. l. ussincati).

Ukkameti [Causative of ukkamati] to cause to step aside J VI.11.

Ukkara [from ud + kr "do out"] dung, excrement J IV.485, otherwise only in cpd. ukkara-bhumi dung-hill J I.5, 146 (so read for ukkar-), II.40; III.16, 75, 377; IV.72, 305; Vism 196 (-upama kunapa); DhA III.208. Cp. uccara.

Ukkasati [ud + kasati of kas to cough] to "ahem"! to cough, to clear one's throat Vin II.222; IV.16; M II.4; A V.65; aor. ukkasi J I.161, 217. -pp. ukkasita.

Ukkasika (f.*) [doubtful] at Vin II.106 is not clear. Vin Texts III.68 leave it untranslated. Bdhgh's explination. is vattavatti (patta-* a leaf* Cp. S III.141), prob. = vatti (Sanskrit varti a kind of pad). See details given by Morris J.Pali Text Society 1887, 113, who translations. "rubber, a kind of pad or roll of cotton with which the delicate bather could rub himself without too much friction".

Ukkasita [pp. of ukkasati] coughed, clearing one's throat, coughed out, hawking D I.89; Bu I.52 (+ khipita) -sadda the noise of clearing the throat D I.50; J I.119; DhA I.250 (+ khipita-).

Ukkinna [pp. of ud + kr dig2] dug up or out D I.105; J IV.106; Miln 330; DA I.274 ( = khata).

Ukkiledeti [Causative of ud + klid, see kilijjati] to take the dirt out, to clean out DA I.255 (dosan); SnA 274 (ragam; v. l. BB. uggileti).

Ukkujja (adj.) [ud + kujja] set up, upright, opp. either nikkujja or avakujja A I.131; S V.89 (ukkujjQ¢vakujja); Pug 32 ( = uparimukho thapito C. 214).

Ukkujjati (-eti) [Denominitive from ukkujja] to bend up, turn up, set upright Vin I.181; II.126 (pattam), 269 (bhikkhum); mostly in phrase nikkujjitam ukkujjeyya "(like) one might raise up one who has fallen" D I.85, 110; II.132, 152; Sn p. 15 ( = uparimukham karoti DA I.228 = SnA 155).

Ukkujjana (nt.) [from ukkujjati] raising up, setting up again Vin II.126 (patt-).

Ukkutika [from ud + *kut = *kunc, as in kutila and kuncita; lit. "bending up". The BSanskrit form is ukkutuka, e. g. Av. S I.315] a special manner of squatting. The soles of the feet are firmly on the ground, the man sinks down, the heels slightly rising as he does so, until the thighs rest on the calves, and the hams are about six inches or more from the ground. Then with elbows on knees he balances himself. Few Europeans can adopt this posture, and none (save miners) can maintain it with comfort, as the calf muscles upset the balance. Indians find it easy, and when the palms of the hands are also held together upwards, it indicates submission. See Dial. I.231 n. 4. - Vin I.45 (-m nisidati); III.228; A I.296; II.206; Pug 55; Vism 62, 104, 105 (quot. from Papanca Sudani) 426; DhA I.201, 217; II.61 (as posture of humility); III.195; IV.223. -padhana [in BSanskrit distorted to utkutuka-prahana Divy 339 = Dh 141] exertion when squatting (an ascetic habit) D I.167; M I.78, 515; A I.296; II.206; J I.493; III.235; IV.299; Dh 141 ( = ukkutika-bhavena araddha-viriyo DhA III.78).

Ukkutthi (f.) [from ud + krush, cp. *krunc as in Pali kunca and Sanskrit kroshati] shouting out, acclamation J II.367; VI.41; Bu I.35; Miln 21; Vism 245; DhA II.43; VvA 132 (-sadda).

Ukkusa [see ukkutthi and cp. BSanskrit utkrosha watchman (*) Divy 453] an osprey J IV.291 (-raja), 392.

Ukkula (adj.) [ud + kula] sloping up, steep, high (opp. vikkula) A I.35 sq.; Vism 153 (nadi); SnA 42. Cp. utkulanikula-sama Lal. V. 340.

Ukkotana (nt.) [from ud + *kut to be crooked or to deceive, cp. kujja and kutila crooked] crookedness, perverting justice, taking bribes to get people into unlawful possessions (Bdhgh.) D I.5; III.176; S V.473; A II.209, V.206; DA I.79 = Pug A 240 ("assamike samike katum lancagahanam").

Ukkotanaka (adj.) [from ukkotana] belonging to the perversion of justice Vin II.94.

Ukkoteti [denom. from *ukkot-ana] to disturb what is settled, to open up again a legal question that has been adjudged, Vin II.94, 303; IV.126; J II.387; DA I.5.

Ukkhali (-li) (f.) [der. from Vedic ukha and ukha pot, boiler; related to Latin aulla (from *auxla); Goth. auhns oven] a pot in which to boil rice (and other food) J I.68, 235; V. 389, 471; Pug 33; Vism 346 (-mukhavatti), 356 (-kapala, in comp.); DhA I.136; II.5; III.371; IV.130; Pug A 231; VvA 100. Cp. next.

Ukkhalika (f.) = ukkhali. Th 2, 23 ( = bhatta-pacanabhajanam ThA 29); DhA IV.98 (Qkala); DhsA 376.

Ukkha (*) [can it be compared with Vedic uk.san*] in ukkhasatam danam, given at various times of the day (meaning = e(kato/mbh*) S II.264 (v. l. ukka). Or is it to be read ukhasatam d. i. e. consisting of 100 pots (of rice = maha danam*). S A: panitabhojana-bharitanam maha-ukkhalinam satam danam. Cp. ukha cooking vessel ThA 71 (Ap. V.38). Kern, Toev. under ukkha trsl. "zeker muntstuck", i. e. kind of gift.

Ukkhita [pp. of uks. sprinkle] besmeared, besprinkled J IV.331 (ruhir-, so read for -rakkhita). Cp. okkhita.

Ukkhitta [pp. of ukkhipati] taken up, lifted up, t.t. of the canon law "suspended" Vin IV.218; J III.487. --asika with drawn sword M I.377; S IV.173; J I.393; DhsA 329; Vism 230 (vadhaka), 479. -paligha having the obstacles removed M I.139; A III.84; Dh 398 = Sn 622 ( = avijja-palighassa ukkhittataya u. SnA 467 = DhA IV.161). -sira with uplifted head Vism 162.

Ukkhittaka (adj.-n.) [from ukkhitta] a bhikkbu who has been suspended Vin I.97, 121; II.61, 173, 213.

Ukkhipati [ut + khipati, ks.ip]. To hold up, to take up J I.213; IV.391: VI.350; Vism 4 (sattham); PvA 265. A

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t. t. of canon law, to suspend (a bhikkhu for breach of rules) Vin IV.309; Pug 33. -ukkhipiyati to be suspended Vin II.61. Causative II. ukkhipapeti to cause to be supported J I.52; II.15, 38; III.285, 436. -pp. ukkhitta, ger. ukkhipitva as adv. "upright" Vism 126.

Ukkhipana (nt.) [from ud + ks.ip] 1. pushing upwards J I.163. - 2. throwing up, sneering Vism 29 (vacaya).

Ukkhetita [pp. of ud + khet or *khel, see khe'a] spit out, thrown off, in phrase moho (rago etc) catto vanto mutto pahino patinissattho u. Vin III.97 = IV.27.

Ukkhepa (adj.-n.) [from ud + ks.ip] (adj.) throwing away DhA IV.59 (-daya a throw-away donation, tip). - (m.) lifting up raising J I.394 (cel-); VI.508; DA I.273; dur- hard to lift or raise Sdhp 347.

Ukkhepaka (adj.) [from ukkhepa] throwing (up); -m (acc.) in the manner of throwing Vin II.214 = IV.195 (pind-).

Ukkhepana (nt.) [from ud + ks.ip] suspension J III.487.

Ukkhepana (f.) [ = last] throwing up, provocation, sneering Vbh 352 = Vism 23, explained. at p. 29.

Ukkhepaniya (adj.) [ukkhepana + iya, cp. BSanskrit utks.epaniyam karma Divy 329] referring to the suspension (of a bhikkhu), -kamma act or resolution of suspension Vin I.49, 53, 98, 143, 168; II.27, 226, 230, 298: A I.99.

Uklapa (ukkalapa) (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit ut-kalapayati to let go] 1. deserted J II.275 (ukkalapa T.; vv. ll. uklapa and ullapa). - 2. dirtied, soiled Vin II.154, 208, 222; Vism 128; DhA III.168 (ukkalapa).

Ugga1 (adj.) [Vedic ugra, from uk.sati, weak base of vaks. as in vak.sana, vak.sayati = Gr. a)ve/cw, Goth. wahsjan "to wax", also Latin augeo and Pali oja] mighty, huge, strong, fierce, grave, m. a mighty or great person, noble lord D I.103; S I.51 = VvA 116 (uggateja "the fiery heat"); J IV.496; V.452 (-teja); VI.490 (+ rajaputta, explained. with etymologising effort as uggata pannata by C.); Miln 331; DhA II.57 (-tapa); Sdhp 286 (-danda), 304 (id.). Cp. sam-. As Np. at Vism 233 and J I.94. -putta a nobleman, mighty lord S I.185 ("high born warrior" trsl.); J VI.353 ( = amacca-putta C.); Th 1, 1210.

Ugga2 = uggamana, in arun-ugga sunrise Vin IV.272.

Uggacchati [ud + gam] to rise, get up out of (lit. and fig.) Th 1, 181; arune uggacchante at sunrise VvA 75; Pv IV.8; Vism 43, ger. ugganchitvana Miln 376. -pp. uggata (q. v.).

Uggajjati [ud + gajjati] to shout out Nd1 172.

Ugganhati [ud + grh, see ganhati] to take up, acquire, learn [cp. BSanskrit udgrhnati in same sense, e. g. Divy 18, 77 etc.] Sn 912 (uggahananta = uggahananti = ugganhanti SnA 561); imper. ugganha J II.30 (sippam) and ugganhahi Miln 10 (mantani); ger. uggayha Sn 832, 845; Nd1 173. - Causative uggaheti in same meaning Sdhp 520; aor. uggahesi Pv III.54 (nakkhatta-yogam = akari PvA 198); ger. uggahetva J V.282, VvA 98 (vipassanakammatthanam); infin. uggahetum VvA 138 (sippam to study a craft). - Causative II. ugganhapeti to instruct J V. 217; VI.353. -pp. uggahita (q. v.). See also uggahayati. - A peculiar ppr. med. is uggahamana going or wanting to learn DA I 32 (cp. uggahaka).

Uggata [pp. of uggacchati] come out, risen; high, lofty, exalted J IV.213 (suriya), 296 (-atta), 490; V.244; Pv IV.14 (-atta one who has risen = uggata-sabhava samiddha PvA 220); VvA 217 (-manasa); DA I.248; PvA 68 (-phasuka with ribs come out or showing, i. e. emaciated, for upphasulika). Cp. acc-.

Uggatta in all Pv. readings is to be read uttatta-, thus at Pv III.32; PvA 10, 188.

Uggatthana at J VI.590 means a kind of ornament or trinket, it should prob. be read ugghattana [from ghatteti] lit. " ti.kling", i. e. a bangle.

Uggama [from ud + gam; Sanskrit udgama] rising up Sdhp 594.

Uggamana (-na) (nt.) [from ud + gam] going up, rising; rise (of sun and stars) D I.10, 240; S II.268 (suriy-); J IV.321 (an-), 388; Pv II.941 (suriy-); DA I.95 ( = udayana); DhA I.165 (arun-); II.6 (id.); VvA 326 (oggaman-); PvA 109 (arun-). Cp. ugga2 and uggama.

Uggaha (adj) (*-) [from ud + grh, see ganhati] - 1. taking up, acquiring, learning Vism 96 (acariy-), 99 (-paripuccha), 277 (kananatthanassa). - 2. noticing, taking notice, perception (as opp. to manasikara) Vism 125, 241 sq. negative an- Sn 912 ( = ganhati Nd1 330). Cp. dhanuggaha.

Uggahana (nt.) [from ugganhati] learning, taking up, studying PvA 3 (sipp-). As ugganhana at Vism 277.

Uggahayati [poetic form of uggaheti (see ugganhati), but according to Kern, Toev. s. v. representing Ved. udgrbhayati] to take hold of, to take up Sn 791 ( = ganhati Nd1 91). - ger. uggahaya Sn 837.

Uggahita [pp. of ugganhati] taken up, taken, acquired Vin I.212; J III.168 (-sippa, adj.), 325; IV.220; VI 76; Vism 241. The metric form is uggahita at Sn 795, 833, 1098; Nd1 175 = Nd2 152 ( = gahita paramattha).

Uggahetar [n. ag. to ugganhati, Causative uggaheti] one who takes up, acquires or learns A IV.196.

Uggara [ud + gr or *gI* to swallow, see gala and gilati; lit. to swallow up] spitting out, vomiting, ejection Vism 54; DA I.41; KhA 61.

Uggahaka (adj.-n.) [from ud + grh, see ugganhati] one who is eager to learn J V.148 [cp. M Vastu III.373 ograhaka in same context].

Uggahamana see ugganhati.

Uggirati1 [Sanskrit udgirati, ud + gr2; but BSanskrit udgirati in meaning to sing, chant, utter, formation from gr2 instead of gr1, pres. grnati; in giram udgirati Jtm 3126. - The by-form uggirati is uggilati with interchange of I* and r, roots *gr* and *gI*, see gala and gilati] to vomit up ("swallow up") to spit out Ud 14 (uggiritvana); DA I.41 (uggaram uggiranto). Cp. BSanskrit prodgirna cast out Divy 589.

Uggirati2 [cp. Sanskrit udgurate, ud + gur] to lift up, carry Vin IV.147 = DhA III.50 (talasattikam explained. by uccareti); J I.150 (avudhani); VI.460, 472. Cp. sam-.

Uggilati = uggirati1, i. e. to spit out (opp. ogilati) M I.393; S IV.323; J III.529; Miln 5; PvA 283.

Uggiva (nt.) [ud + giva] a neckb and to hold a basket hanging down J VI.562 (uggivan c-¢pi amsato = amsakute pacchi-lagganakam C.).

Ugghamseti [ud + ghrs., see ghamsati1] to rub Vin II.106. pp. ugghattha (q. v.).

Ugghatita (adj.) [pp. of ud + ghatati; cp. BSanskrit udghataka skilled Divy 3, 26 and phrase at M Vastu III.260 udghatitajna] striving, exerting oneself; keen, eager in cpd. -nnu of quick understanding A II.135; Pug 41; Nett 7-9, 125; DA I.291.

Ugghateti [ud + ghatati] to open, reveal (* so Hardy in Index to Nett) Nett 9; ugghatiyati and ugghatana ibid.

Ugghatta (Ugghattha*) [should be pp. of ugghamsati = Sanskrit udghrs.ta, see ghamsati1, but taken by Bdhgh. either as pp. of or an adj. der. from ghatt, see ghatteti] knocked, crushed, rubbed against, only in phrase ughatta-pada

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foot-sore Sn 980 ( = maggakkamanena ghatta-padatala etc. SnA 582); J IV.20 (tth; explained. by unha-valukaya ghattapada); V.69 ( = raj okinna-pada C. not to the point).

Uggharati [ud + k.sar] to ooze Th 1, 394 = DhA III.117.

Ugghatana (nt.*) [from ugghateti] that which can be removed, in -kitika a curtain to be drawn aside Vin II.153 (cp. Vin Texts III.174, 176). Ch s. v. gives "rope and bucket of a well" as meaning (kavatam anugghateti). Cp. ugghatana.

Ugghatita [pp. of ugghateti] opened Miln 55; DhA I.134.

Ugghateti [for ugghatteti, ud + ghatt but BSanskrit udghatayati Divy 130] to remove, take away, unfasten, abolish, put an end to Vin II.148 (talani), 208 (ghatikam); IV.37; J II.31; VI.68; Miln 140 (bhava-patisandhim), 371; Vism 374. - Causative II. ugghatapeti to have opened J V.381.

Ugghata [ud + ghata] shaking, jolting; jolt, jerk Vin II. 276 (yan-); J VI.253 (an-); DhA III.283 (yan-).

Ugghati (f.) [from ud + ghata] - 1. shaking, shock VvA 36. - 2. striking, conquering; victory, combined. with nighati Sn 828; Nd1 167; SnA 541; Nett 110 (T. reads ugghata-).

Ugghatita [pp. of ugghateti, denom. from udghata] struck, killed A III.68.

Ugghosana (f.) [abstr. from ugghoseti, cp. ghosana] proclamation DA I.310.

Ugghoseti [ud + ghoseti] to shout out, announce, proclaim J I.75; DhA II.94; PvA 127.

Ucca (adj.) [For udya, adj. formation from prep. ud above, up] high (opp. avaca low) D I.194; M II.213; A V.82 (-thaniyam nice thane thapeti puts on a low place which ought to be placed high); Pv IV.74 (uccam paggayha lifting high up = uccataram katva PvA 265); Pug 52, 58; DA I.135; PvA 176. -¢vaca high and low, various, manifold Vin I.70, 203; J IV.115, 363 ( = mahaggha-samaggha C. p. 366); Sn 703, 714, 792, 959; Dh 83; Nd1 93, 467; Vv 121 ( = vividha VvA 60); 311. -kulinata high birth A III.48 (cp. ucca-).

Uccaka (adj.) [from ucca] high Vin II.149 (asandika a kind of high chair).

Uccatta (nt.) [from ucca = Sanskrit uccatvam] height J III.318.

Uccaya [from ud + ci, see cinati; Sanskrit uccaya] heaping up, heap, pile, accumulation Dh 115, 191, 192; Vv 4711; 827 ( = cetiya VvA 321); DhA III.5, 9; DhsA 41 (papassa). -siluccaya a mountain Th 1, 692; J I.29 (V.209); VI.272, 278; Davs V.63.

Ucca (*-) (adv.) [cp. Sanskrit ucca, instr. sg. of uccam, cp. pashca behind, as well as uccaih. instr. pl. - In BSanskrit we find ucca- (uccakulina Av. SH III.117) as well as uccam (uccamgama Divy 476). It is in all cases restricted to compounds] high (lit. and fig.), raised, in following compounds -kaneruka a tall female elephant M I.178. -ka'arika id. M I.178 (v. l. -ka'arika to be preferred). -kula a high, noble family Pv III.116 ( = ucca khattiya-kul-¢dino PvA 176). -kulinata birth in a high-class family, high rank M III.37; VvA 32. -sadda a loud noise D I.143, 178; A III.30. -sayana a high bed (+ mahasayana) Vin I. 192; D I.5, 7; cp. DA I.78.

Uccara [Ud + car] discharge, excrement, faeces Vin III.36 (-m gacchati to go to stool); IV.265, 266 (uccaro nama gutho vuccati); DhA II.56 (-karana defecation); uccarapassava faeces and urine D I.70; M I.83; J I.5; II.19.

Uccarana (f.) [from uccareti] lifting up, raising Vin III.121.

Uccarita [pp. of uccareti] - 1. uttered, let out PvA 280 (akkharani). - 2. lifted, raised ThA 255.

Uccareti [ud + careti, Causative of car] to lift up, raise aloft Vin III.81; IV.147 = DhA III.50; M I.135. -pp. uccarita (q. v.).

Uccalinga [etymology*] a maw-worm Vin III.38, 112; J II.146.

Uccinati [ud + cinati] to select, choose, search, gather, pick out or up Vin I.73; II.285 (aor. uccini); J IV.9; Pv III.2 4 (nantake = gavesana-vasena gahetvana PvA 185); Dpvs IV.2.

Ucchanga [Sanskrit utsanga, ts > cch like Sanskrit utsahate > BSanskrit ucchahate see ussahati] the hip, the lap Vin I.225; M I. 366; A I.130 (-panna); J I.5, 308; II.412; III.22; IV.38, 151; Pug 31; Vism 279; DhA II.72.

Ucchadana (nt.) [ut + sad, Causative of sad, sidati, cp. ussada] rubbing the limbs, anointing the body with perfumes shampooing D I.7, 76; at the latter passage in combination. anicc- -dhamma, of the body, meaning "erosion, decay", and combined. with parimaddana abrasion (see about detail of meaning Dial. I.87); thus in same formula at M I. 500; S IV.83; J I.146 and passim; A I.62; II.70 (+ nahapana); IV.54, 386; It 111; Th 2, 89 (nahapan-); Miln 241 (-parimaddana) 315 (+ nahapana); DA I.88.

Ucchadeti [from ut + sad, see ucchadana] to rub the body with perfumes J VI.298; Miln 241 (+ parimaddati nahapeti); DA I.88.

Ucchittha [pp. of ud + shis.] left, left over, rejected, thrown out; impure, vile Vin II.115 (-odakam); IV.266 (id.); J II.83 (bhattam ucchittham akatva), 126 (-nadi impure; also itthi outcast), 363; IV.386 (-m pindam), 388; VI.508; Miln 315; DhA I.52; II.85; III.208; PvA 80 ( = chaddita), 173 (-bhattam). At J IV.433 read ucch- for uccittha. -an- not touched or thrown away (of food) J III.257; DhA II.3. - See also uttittha and ucchepaka.

Ucchitthaka (from ucchittha) = ucchittha J IV.386; VI.63, 509.

Ucchindati [ud + chid, see chindati] to break up, destroy, annihilate S V.432 (bhavatanham), A IV.17 (fut. ucchecchami to be read with v. l. for T. ucchejjissami); Sn 2 (pret. udacchida), 208 (ger. ucchijja); J V.383; Dh 285. Pass. ucchijjati to be destroyed or annihilated, to cease to exist S IV.309; J V.242, 467; Miln 192; PvA 63, 130 ( = na pavattati), 253 ( = n'atthi). -pp. ucchinna (q. v.).

Ucchinna [pp. of ucchindati] broken up, destroyed S III. 10; A V.32; Sn 746. Cp. sam-.

Ucchu [Sanskrit cp. Vedic Np. Iks.vaku from iks.u] sugar-cane Vin IV.35; A III.76; IV.279; Miln 46; DhA IV.199 (-unam yanta sugar-cane mill), PvA 257, 260; VvA 124. -agga (ucch-) top of s. c. Vism 172. -khandika a bit of sugar-cane Vv 3326. -khadana eating s. c. Vism 70. -khetta sugar-cane field J I.339; VvA 256. -ganthika a kind of sugar-cane, Batatas Paniculata J I.339; VI.114 (so read for -ghatika). -pala watchman of s.-c. VvA 256. -pi'ana, cane-pressing, Asl. 274. -puta sugar-cane basket J IV.363. -bija seed of s.-c. A I.32; V.213. -yantra a sugar-mill J I.339. -rasa s.-c. juice Vin I.246; Vism 489; VvA 180 -vata, Asl. 274. -sala, Asl. 274.

Uccheda [from ud + chid, chind, see ucchindati and cp. cheda] breaking up, disintegration, perishing (of the soul) Vin III.2 (either after this life, or after kamadeva life, or after brahmadeva life) D I.34, 55; S IV.323; Nd1 324; Miln 413; Nett 95, 112, 160; DA I.120. -ditthi the doctrine of the annihilation (of the soul), as opp. to sassata- or atta-ditthi (the continuance of the soul after death) S II.20; III.99, 110 sq; Ps I.150, 158; NdQ 248 (opp. sassati-); Dhs 1316; Nett 40, 127; SnA 523 (opp. atta-). -vada (adj.) one who professes the doctrine of annihilation (ucchedaditthi) Vin I.235; III.2; D I.34, 55; S II.18; IV.401; A IV.174, 182 sq.; Nd1 282; Pug 38. -vadin = -vada Nett 111; J V.244.

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Ucchedana (adj.) [from ud + chid] cutting off, destroying; f. -ani J V.16 (sura).

Ucchedin (adj.) an adherent of the ucchedavada J V.241.

Ucchepaka (nt.) [ = ucchitthaka in sense of ucchitthabhatta] leavings of food M II.7 (v. l. uccepaka with cc for cch as uccittha: ucchittha). The passage is to be read ucchepake va te rata. A different connotation would be implied by taking ucchepaka = uncha, as Neumann does (Majjhima trsl.2 II.682).

Uju and Ujju (adj.) [Vedic rju, also rjyati, irajyate to stretch out: cp. Gr. o)re/gw to stretch; Latin rego to govern; Goth. ufrakjan to straighten up; Ohg. recchen = Ger. recken = E. reach; Oir. ren span. See also Pali ajjava] straight, direct; straightforward, honest, upright D III.150 T. ujja), 352 (do.) 422, 550; Vv 187 ( = sabba-jimha-vanka-kutilabhav'¢pagama-hetutaya u. VvA 96); Pug 59; Vbh 244 (ujum kayam panidhaya); Vism 219 (uju avanka akutila); DA I.210 (id.), KhA 236; DhA I.288 (cittam ujum akutilam nibbisevanam karoti); VvA 281 (-koti-vanka); PvA 123 (an-). -angin (ujjangin) having straight limbs, negative an- not having straight limbs, i. e. pliable, skilful, nimble, graceful J V.40 ( = kancana-sannibha-sarira C.); VI.500 (T. anuccangin = anindita-agarahitangin C.). -gata walking straight, of upright life M I.46; A III.285 sq. (-citta); V.290 sq.; Sn 350 (ujju-), 477 (id.); Dh 108 (ujju-, see DhA II.234 for interpretation). -gamin, negative an- going crooked, a snake J IV.330. -cittata straightness, unwieldiness of heart Vbh 350. -ditthita the fact of having a straightforward view or theory (of life) Miln 257. -patipanna living uprightly D I.192; S IV.304; V.343; Vism 219. -magga the straight road D I.235; Vin V.149; It 104; J I.344; VI.252; DhA II.192. -bhava straightness, uprightness SnA 292, 317; PvA 51. -bhuta straight, upright S I.100, 170; II.279Q V.384, 404; A II.57; IV.292; J I.94; V.293 (an-); Vv 3423 (see VvA 155); Pv I.1010 ( = citta-jimha-vanka Kutila-bhava-karanam kilesanam abhavena ujubhavappatta PvA 51). -vamsa straight lineage, direct descendency J V.251. -vata a soft wind Miln 283. -vipaccanika in direct opposition D I.1; M I.402; DA I.38.

Ujuka and Ujjuka (adj.) [uju + ka] straight, direct, upright M I.124; S I.33 (ujuko so maggo, the road to Nibbana), 260 (citta); IV.298; V.143, 165; J I.163; V.297 (opp. khujja); DhA I.18 (-magga); Sdhp 321. -anujjuka crooked, not straight S IV.299; J III.318.

Ujukata (f.) [abstr. from ujuka] straightness, rectitude Dhs 50, 51 (kayassa, cittassa); Vism 436 sq.

Ujuta (f.) [abstr. of uju] straight(forward)ness, rectitude Dhs 50, 51.

Ujjagghati [ud + jagghati] to laugh at, deride, mock, make fun of Vin III.128; Th 2, 74 (spelt jjh = hasati ThA 78); A III.91 (ujjh-, v. l. ujj-) = Pug 67 ( = panim paharitva mahahasitam hasati Pug A 249).

Ujjangala [ud + jangala] hard, barren soil; a very sandy and deserted place D II.146 (-nagaraka, trsl. "town in the midst of a jungle", cp. Dial. II.161); J I.391; Vv 855 ( = ukkamsena jangala i. e. exceedingly dusty or sandy, dry); Pv II.970 (spelt ujjhangala, explained. by ativiya-thaddhabhumibhaga at PvA 139); Vism 107. Also in BSanskrit ujjangala, e. g. M Vastu II.207.

Ujjala (adj.) [ud + jval, see jalati] blazing, flashing; bright, beautiful J I.220; Davs II.63.

Ujjalati [ud + jalati, jval] to blaze up, shine forth Vin I.31; VvA 161 (+ jotati). - Causative ujjaleti to make shine, to kindle Vin I.31; Miln 259; Vism 428; ThA 69 (Ap. V.14, read dipam ujjalayim); VvA 51 (padipam).

Ujjava (adj.) [ud + java] "running up", in cpd. ujjav-ujjava a certain term in the art of spinning or weaving Vin IV. 300, explained. by "yattakam patthena (patthana*) ancitam hoti tasmi takkamhi vedhite".

Ujjavati [ud + javati] to go up-stream Vin II.301.

Ujjavanikaya instr. fem. of ujjavanaka used as adv. [ud + javanaka, q. v.] up-stream, lit "running up" Vin II.290; IV.65 (in explination. of uddhamgamin, opp. ojavanikaya).

Ujjahati [ud + jahati] to give up, let go; imper. ujjaha S I.188; Th 2, 19; Sn 342.

Ujju and Ujjuka see [ud + *jot of jotati, Sanskrit uddyotate] light, lustre J I.183 (-kara); Miln 321.

Ujjotita [pp. of ujjoteti, ud + joteti] illumined Davs V.53.

Ujjhaggati see ujjagghati.

Ujjhaggika (f.) [from ujjagghati, spelling varies] loud laughter Vin II.213, cp. IV.187.

Ujjhati [Sanskrit ujjhati, ujjh] - 1. to forsake, leave, give up J VI.138; Davs II.86. - 2. to sweep or brush away J VI.296. -pp. ujjhita (q. vQ).

Ujjhatti (f.) [from ud + jhayati1, corresponding to a Sanskrit *ud-dhyati] irritation, discontent A IV.223, 467 (v. l. ujj-); cp. ujjhana.

Ujjhana (nt.) [ud + jhana1 or jhana2*] - 1. taking offence, captiousness Dh 253 ( = paresan randha-gavesitaya DhA III.377); Miln 352 (an* -bahula). - 2. complaining, wailing J IV.287. -sannin, -sannika irritable S I.23; Th 1, 958; Vin II.214, cp. IV.194; Dpvs II.6; DhA III.376 (-sannita irritability).

Ujjhapana (nt.) [from ud + jhayati1 or jhayati2 to burn, to which jhapeti to bring to ruin etc.* cp. ujjhana] stirring up, provoking J V.91 (devat-), 94 (-kamma).

Ujjhapanaka (adj.) [from ujjhapana] one who stirs up another to discontent Vin IV.38.

Ujjhapeti [Causative of ujjhayati] to harass, vex, irritate M I. 126; S I.209 ("give occasion for offence"); Vin IV.38 (cp. p. 356); J V.286; PvA 266.

Ujjhayati [ud + jhayati1 or perhaps more likely jhayati2 to burn, fig. to be consumed. According to Muller Pali G. pp. 12 and 42 = Sanskrit ava-dhya, but that is doubtful phonetically as well as semantically] to be irritated, to be annoyed or offended, to get angry, grumble; often in phrase ujjhayati khiyati vipaceti expressing great annoyance Vin I.53, 62, 73; II.207; IV.226; S I.232 and passim. - S I.232 (ma ujjhayittha); J II.15; DhA II.20; aor. ujjhayi J I.475; DhA II.88; inf. ujjhatum J II.355. Causative ujjhapeti (q. v.).

Ujjhita [pp. of ujjhati] destitute, forsaken; thrown out, cast away M I.296 (+ avakkhitta); Th 1, 315 (itthi); 2, 386 (cp. ThA 256 vatakkhitto viya yo koci dahano); Dh 58 ( = chaddita of sweepings DhA I.445); J III.499; V.302; VI.51.

Uncha and Uncha (f.) [Sanskrit uncha and unchana, to unch. Neumann's etymology uncha = E. ounce, Ger. unze (Majjhima trsl.2 II.682) is incorrect, see Walde Latin Wtb. under uncia] anything gathered for sustenance, gleaning S II. 281; A I.36; III.66 sq., 104; Vin III.87; Sn 977; Th 2, 329, 349; J III.389; IV.23, 28, 434, 471 (-ya, dat. = phal¢phal-atthaya C.); ThA 235, 242. Cp. samunchaka. -cariya wandering for, or on search for gleaning, J II.272; III.37, 515; V.3; DA I.270; VvA 103; ThA 208. -carika (adj.) going about after gleanings, one of 8 kinds of tapasa SnA 295 (cp. DA I.270, 271). -patta the gleaning-bowl, in phrase unchapattagate rato

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"fond of that which has come into the gl. b." Th 1, 155 = Pv IV.73 ( = unchena bhikkhacarena laddhe pattagate ahare rato PvA 265; translated. in Psalms of Brethren "contented with whatever fills the bowl"). annat-, marked off as discarded (goods) S II.281, so S A.

Unchati [from unch] to gather for sustenance, seek (alms), glean Vism 60 ( = gavesati).

Unna (f.) [ = avanna (*) from ava + jna, or after unnatabba* ] contempt Vin IV.241; Vbh 353 sq. (att-).

Unnatabba (adj.) [grd. from ava + jna (*)] to be despised, contemptible, only in stock-phrase "daharo na unnatabbo na paribhotabbo" S I.69; Sn p. 93; SnA 424 ( = na avajanitabbo, na nicam katva janitabbo ti). In same connection at J V.63 ma nam daharo [ti] unnasi (v. l. mannasi) apucchitvana (v. l. a-).

Uttitva at Vin II.131 is doubtful reading (see p. 318, v. l. uddhetva), and should perhaps be read uddetva ( = oddetva, see uddeti), meaning "putting into a sling, tying or binding up".

Uttepaka one who scares away (or catches*) crows (kak-) Vin I.79 (vv. ll. utthe-, udde-, ude-). See remarks on uttepeti.

Uttepeti in phrase kake u. "to scare crows away" (or to catch them in snares*) at Vin I.79. Reading doubtful and should probably be read uddepeti (* Causative of uddeti = oddeti, or of uddeti to make fly away). The vv. ll. given to this passage are utteceti, upatthapeti, uddoyeti. See also uttepaka.

Utthapana see vo-.

Utthahati and Utthati [ud + stha see titthati and uttitthati] to rise, stand up, get up, to arise, to be produced, to rouse or exert oneself, to be active, pres. utthahati Pug 51. - pot. utthaheyya S I.217; as imper. uttitthe Dh 168 (explained. by uttitthitva paresan gharadvare thatva DhA III.165, cp. Vin Texts I.152). - imper. 2nd pl. utthahatha Sn 331; 2nd sg. utthehi Pv II.61; J IV.433. - ppr. utthahanto M I.86; S I.217; J I.476. - aor. utthahi J I.117; PvA 75. - ger. utthahitva PvA 4, 43, 55, 152, and utthaya Sn 401. - inf. utthatum J I.187. Note. When utth- follows a word ending in a vowel, and without a pause in the sense, a v is generally prefixed for euphony, e. g. gabbho vutthasi an embryo was produced or arose Vin II.278; asana vutthaya arising from his seat, Vism 126. See also under vutthahati. -pp. utthita; Causative utthapeti. - Cp. pariyutthati.

Utthahana [ppr. of utthahati] exerting oneself, rousing oneself; an- sluggish, lazy Dh 280 ( = ayayamanto DhA III. 409); cp. anutthaham S I.217.

Utthatar [n. ag. of ut + s.tha, see utthahati] one who gets up or rouses himself, one who shows energy S I.214; A IV.285, 288, 322; Sn 187; J VI.297. -an- one who is without energy S I.217; Sn 96.

Utthana (nt.) [from ut + s.tha] - 1. rising, rise, getting up, standing (opp. sayana and nisidana lying or sitting down) D II.134 (siha-seyyam kappesi utthana-sannam manasikaritva); Dh 280 (-kala); J I.392 (an* -seyya a bed from which one cannot get up); Vism 73 (arun-utthanavela time of sunrise) DhA I.17. - 2. rise, origin, occasion or oppertunity for; as adj. (*-) producing J I.47 (kapp-); VI.459; Miln 326 (dhann- khettam atthi). - 3. "rousing", exertion, energy, zeal, activity, manly vigour, industry, often syn. with viriya M I.86; A I.94; II.135 (-phala); III.45 (-viriya), 311; IV.281 (-sampada); It 66 (-adhigatam dhanam earned by industry); Pv IV.324; Pug 51 (-phala); Miln 344, 416; ThA 267 (-viriya); PvA 129 (+ viriya). -an- want of energy, sluggishness A IV.195; Dh 241. Note. The form vutthana appears for utth- after a vowel under the same conditions as vutthahati for utthahati (q. v.) gabbha-vutthanam J I.114. See also vutth-, and cp. pariy-.

Utthanaka (*-) (adj.) [from utthana] - 1. giving rise to yielding (revenue), producing J I.377, 420 (satasahass-); III. 229 (id.); V.44 (id.). Cp. utthayika. - 2. energetic J VI.246.

Utthanavant (adj.) [utthana + vant] strenuous, active Dh 24.

Utthapeti [Causative II. of utthahati] - 1. to make rise, only in phrase arunam (suriyam) u. to let the sun rise, i. e. wait for sunrise or to go on till sunrise J I.318; VI.330; Vism 71, 73 (arunam). - 2. to raise J VI.32 (pathavim). 3. to fit up J VI.445 (navam). - 4. to exalt, praise DA I.256. - 5. to turn a person out DhA IV.69. - See also vutthapeti.

Utthayaka (adj.) [adj. formation from utthaya, ger. of utthahati] "getting-up-ish", i. e. ready to get up, quick, alert, active, industrious; f. -ika Th 2, 413 ( = utthana-viriyasampanna ThA 267; v. l. utthahika)

Utthayika (adj.) [ = utthanaka] yielding, producing J II.403 (satasahass-).

Utthayin (adj.) [adj. form. from utthaya, cp. utthayaka] getting up D I.60 (pubb- + paccha-nipatin rising early and lying down late).

Utthahaka (adj.) [for utthayaka after analogy of gahaka etc.] = utthayaka J V.448; f. -ika A III.38 (v. l. -ayika); IV.266 sq.

Utthita [pp. of utthahati] - 1. risen, got up Pv II.941 (kal-); Vism 73. - 2. arisen, produced J I.36; Miln 155. - 3. striving, exerting oneself, active J II.61; Dh 168; Miln 213. -an- S II.264; Ps I.172. - Cp. pariy-. Note: The form is vutthiti when following upon a vowel from the seclusion D II.9; pato vutthito risen early PvA 128.

Uddayhana (nt.) [from uddayhati, see uddahati] burning up, conflagration Pug 13 (*vela = jhayana-kalo Pug A 187); KhA 181 (T. uddahanavela v. 1. preferable uddayh*).

Uddahati [ud + dahati] to burn up (intrs.) KhA 181 (uddaheyya vith v. 1. uddayheyya, the latter preferable). Usually in Pass. uddayhati to be burnt, to burn up (intrs.) S III.149,150 (v.1. for dayhati); J III.22 (udayhate) v.194. fut. uddayhissati J I.48.

Uddita [pp. of uddeti2] ensnared (*), bound, tied up S 1.40 ( = = tanhaya ullanghita C.; translated. "the world is all strung up").

Uddeti1 [ud + deti to fly. The etymology is doubtful, Müller Pali Gr. 99 identifies uddeti 1 & uddeti 2 both as causatives to di. Of uddeti2 two forms exist, udd* & odd*, the latter of which may be a variant of the former, but with specialization of meaning ("lay snares"), it may be a cpd. with ava* instead of Ud*. It is extremly doubtful whether uddeti 2 belongs here, we should rather separate it and refer it to another root, probably li, layate (as in allina, niliyati etc.), to stick to, adhere, fasten etc. The change l > d is a frequent Pali phenomenon. Another Causative II. of the same root (di*) is uttepeti] to fly up M I.364 (kako mansapesin adaya uddayeyya; vv.l1. ubbadaheyya, uyya, dayeyya); J v.256, 368, 417.

Uddeti2 [see discussion under uddeti l] (a) to bind up, tie up to string up Vin II.l31 (so read for uttitva, v. I. uddhetva). -- (b) to throw away, reject PyA 256 (+ chaddayami gloss). -- pp. uddita.

Uddha (--*) (num. ord.) [the apocope form of catuttha = uttha, dialectically reduced to uddha under the influence of the preceding addim] the fourth, only in cpd. addhuddha "half of the fourth unit", i.e. three & a half (cp.

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diyaddha 1 1/2 and addha-teyya 2 1/2) J V.417 sq. (-ani itthisahassani); Mhvs XII.53.

Unna (nt.) and Unna (f.) [Sanskrit urna and urna; Latin lana wool; Goth. wulla; Ohg. wolla = E. wool; Lith. vilna; Cymr. gwlan ( = E. flannel); Gr. lh_nos, also ou_)los = Latin vellus (fleece) = Ags. wil-mod] - 1. wool A III.37 = IV.265 (+ kappasa cotton) J II.147; SnA 263 (patt-). - 2. hair between the eyebrows Sn 1022, and in stock phrase, describing one of the 32 signs of a Mahapurisa, bhamuk-antare jata unna odata etc. D II.18 = III.144 = 170 = SnA 285. Also at Vism 552 in jati-unnaya. -ja in unnaja mukha J VI.218, meaning "rounded, swelling" (C. expls. by kancan-adaso viya paripunnam mukham). -nabhi (either unna- or unna, cp. Vedic urnavabhi, urna + vabhi from Idg. **ebh to weave as in Latin vespa = wasp, of which shorter root in Sanskrit va) a spider, lit. "wool- i. e. thread-weaver", only in combination. with sarabu and musika at Vin II.110 = A II.73 = J II.147 ( = makkataka C).

Unnata (adj.) [pp. of unnamati, Sanskrit unnata] raised, high, fig. haughty (opp. onata) A II.86; Sn 702 (an- care = uddhaccam n-apajjeyya SnA 492); Pug 52 ( = ucca uggata Pug A 229). Cp. unnata.

Unnati (f.) [from unnamati] haughtiness Sn 830; Nd1 158, 170; Dhs 1116, 1233. Cp. unnati.

Unnama [from unnamati] loftiness, height, haughtiness Dhs 1116, 1233. Cp. unnama.

Unnamati [ud + nam] to rise up, to be raised, to straighten up, to be haughty or conceited Sn 366, 829, 928; Nd1 169; J VI.346 inf. unnametave Sn 206. Cp. unnamati.

Unni (f.) [Sanskrit aurni from aurna woollen, der. of urna] a woollen dress Vin II.108.

Unha (adj.-n.) [Vedic f. to o.sati to burn, pp. us.ta burnt, Sanskrit = Latin ustus; cp. Gr. eu)/w, Latin uro to burn, Ags. ysla glowing cinders, Lith. usnis nettle] hot, as adj. only in phrase unham lohitam chaddeti to spill hot blood, i. e. to kill oneself DhA I.95; otherwise in compounds; abs. only as nt. "heat" and always in contrast to sitam "cold" Vin II.117 (sitena pi unhena pi); D II.15 (opp. sita); M I.85; A I.145 = 170 = J V.417 (sitam va unham va tinam va rajo va ussavo va); Sn 52, 966 (acc -); Nd1 486 = Nd2 677 (same as under sita); J I.17 (V.93); Miln 410 (megho unham nibbapeti); PvA 37 (ati-). -akara appearance of heat, often in phrase (Sakkassa) pandu-kambala-sil-asanam unhakaram dassesi, of Sakka's throne showing an appearance of heat as a sign of some extraordinary event happening in the world, e. g. J I.330; V.92; DhA I.17, and passim. -odaka hot water VvA 68. -kalla glowing-hot embers or ashes J II.94 (so read for -kalala); IV.389 (-vassa, rain of hot ashes, v. l. -kukku'avassa). -kala hot weather Vin II.209.

Unhatta (nt.) [abstr. from unha] hot state, heat Vism 171.

Unhisa [Sanskrit] a turban D I.7; II.19 = III.145 (-sisa cp. Dial. II.16); J II.88; Miln 330; DA I.89; DhsA 198.

Ut(t)anda see uddanda.

Utu (m. and nt.) [Vedic rtu special or proper time, with adj. rta straight, right, rite, rti manner to Latin ars "art", Gr. damar(t), further Latin ritus (rite), Ags. rim number; of *ar to fit in, adjust etc. q. v. under appeti] - 1. (lit.) (a) (good or proper) time, season: aruna-utu occasion or time of the sun(-rise) DhA I.165; utum ganhati to watch for the right time (in horoscopic practice), to prognosticate ibid. sariram utum ganhapeti "to cause the body to take season", i. e. to refresh the body by cool, sleep, washing etc. J III.527; DA I.252. - (b) yearly change, time of the year, season Vism 128. There are usually three seasons men tioned, viz. the hot, rainy and wintry season or gimha, vassa and hemanta A IV.138; SnA 317. Six seasons (in connection with nakkhatta) at J V.330 and VI.524. Often utu is to be understood, as in hemantikena (scil. utuna) in the wintry season S V.51. - (c) the menses SnA 317; J V.330 (utusinataya read utusi nhataya; utusi loc., as explained. by C. pupphe uppanne utumhi nahataya). - 2. (applied in a philosophical sense: one of the five fold cosmic order, physical change, physical law of causation (opp. kamma), physical order: see Asl. 272 f.; Dialogues, II, 8, n.; Kvu translation. 207; cp. Mrs. Rh. D. Buddhism, p. 119 f., Cpd.161, Dhs translation. introd. XVII; and cp. compounds So in connection with kamma at Vism 451, 614; J VI.105 (kamma-paccayena utuna samutthita Verarani); perhaps also at Miln 410 (megha ututo samutthahitva). -ahara physical nutriment (cp. Dhs translation. 174) PvA 148. -upasevana seasonable activity, pursuit (of activities) according to the seasons, observance of the seasons Sn 249 ( = gimhe atapa-tthana-sevana vasse rukkha-mula-sevana hemante jalappavesa-sevana SnA 291). -kala seasonable, favourable time (of the year) Vin I.299; II.173. -ja produced by the seasons or by physical change Miln 268 (kamma-, hetu-, utu-); Vism 451. -nibbatta coming to existence through physical causes Miln 268. -pamana measure of the season, i. e. the exact season Vin I.95. -parinama change (adversity) of the season (as cause of disease) S IV.230; A II.87; III.131; V.110; Miln 112, 304; Vism 31. -parissaya danger or risk of the seasons A III.388. -pubba festival on the eve of each of the (6) seasons J VI.524. -vara time of the season, -varena -varena according to the turn of the season J I.58. -vikara change of season Vism 262. -veramani abstinence during the time of menstruaiion Sn 291 (cp. SnA 317). -sanvacchara the year or cycle of the seasons, pl. -a the seasons D III.85 = A II.75; S V.442. The phrase utusanvaccharani at Pv II.955 is by Dhammapala taken as a bahuvrihi cpd., viz. cycles of seasons and of years, i. e. vasanta-gimh adike bahu utu ca citta-sanvacchar-adi bahuni sanvaccharani ca PvA 135. Similarly at J V.330 (with Cy). -sappaya suitable to the season, seasonable DhA 327. -samaya time of the menses SnA 317.

Utuka (*-) (adj.) [utu + ka] seasonable, only in cpd. sabbotuka belonging to all seasons, perennial D II.179; Pv IV. 122 ( = pupphupaga-rukkhadihi sabbesu utusu sukkhavaha PvA 275); Sdhp 248.

Utuni (f.) [formed from utu like bhikkhuni from bhikkhu] a menstruating woman Vin III.18; IV.303; S IV.239; A III. 221, 229; Miln 127. an- A III.221, 226.

Utta [pp. of vac, Sanskrit ukta; for which the usual form is vutta only as dur- speaking badly or spoken of badly, i. e. of bad repute A II.117, 143; III.163; Kh VIII.2; KhA 218.

Uttandala (adj.) [ud + tandula] "grainy", i. e. having too many rice grains (of rice gruel), too thick or solid (opp. atikilinna too thin or liquid) J I.340; III.383 (id.); IV.44 (id.).

Uttatta [ud + tatta1, pp. of ud + tap, Sanskrit uttapta] heated; of metals: molten, refined; shining, splendid, pure J VI. 574 (hemam uttattam aggina); Vv 8417; Pv III.32 (-rupa, so read for uggata-, reading correct at PvA 188 -singi); PvA 10 (-kanaka, T. uggatta-); Mhbv 25 (id.).

Uttanta [ = utrasta, is reading correct*] frightened, faint Vin III.84. See uttasta & utrasta.

Uttama (adj.) [superl. of ud*, to which compar. is uttara. See etym. under ud*] "ut-most", highest, greatest, best Sn 1054 (dhamman uttaman the highest ideal = Nibbana, for which setthan' Sn 1064; cp. Nd2 317); Dh 56; Nd1 211; Nd2 502 (in paraphrase of maha combd with pavara);

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KhA 124; DhA I.430: PvA 1, 50. - dum-uttama a splendid tree Vv 393; nar- the best of men Sn 1021 ( = narasabha of 996); pur- the most magnificent town Sn 1012; puris- the noblest man Th 1, 629, 1084; nt. uttamam the highest ideal, i. e. Arahantship J I.96. -anga the best or most important limb or part of the body, viz. (a) the head Vin II.256 = M I.32 = A IV.278 (in phrase uttamange sirasmim); J II.163; also in cpd. -bhuta the hair of the head Th 2, 253 ( = kesa-kalapa ThA 209, 210) and -ruha id. J I.138 = VI.96 ( = kesa C.); (b) the eye J IV.403; (c) the penis J V.197. -attha the highest gain or good (i. e. Arahantship SnA 332) Sn 324; Dh 386, 403; DhA IV.142; ThA 160. -adhama most contemptible J V.394, 437. -guna (pl.) loftiest virtues J I.96. -purisa It 97 and -porisa the greatest man ( = mahapurisa) Dh 97 (see DhA II.188). -bhava the highest condition, state or place DhA II.188 (-m patto = puris' uttamo).

Uttamata (f.) [abstr. from uttama] highest amount, climax, limit DA I.169 (for paramata).

Uttara1 (adj.) compar. of ud-, q. v. for etymology; the superl. is uttama] - 1. higher, high, superior, upper, only in compounds, J II.420 (musal- with the club on top of him* Cy not clear, perhaps to uttara2); see also below. - 2. northern (with disa region or point of compass) D I.153; M I.123; S I.224; PvA 75. uttaramukha (for uttarammukha) turning north, facing north Sn 1010. - 3. subsequent, following, second (*-) J I.63 (-asa'ha-nakkhatta). 4. over, beyond (*-): atth-utara-sata eight over a hundred, i. e. 108; DhA I.388. - sa-uttara having something above or higher, having a superior i. e. inferior D I.80 (citta), II.299; M I.59; S V.265; Vbh 324 (panna); Dhs 1292, 1596; DhsA 50. - anuttara without a superior, unrivalled, unparalleled D I.40; S I.124; II.278; III.84; Sn 179. See also under anuttara. -attharana upper cover J VI.253. -¢bhimukha facing North D II.15. -asanga an upper robe Vin I.289; II. 126; S I.81; IV.290; A I.67, 145; II.146; DhA I.218; PvA 73; VvA 33 = 51. -itara something higher, superior D I.45, 156, 174; S I.81; J I.364; DhA II.60; IV.4. -ottha the upper lip (opp. adhar-) J II.420; III.26; IV. 184. -chada a cover, coverlet, awning (sa- a carpet with awnings or canopy above it) D I.7; A I.181; III.50. -chadana = -chada D II.187; DhA I.87. -dvara the northern gate J VI.364. -dhamma the higher norm of the world (lok-), higher righteousness D II.188 (patividdha-lok-uttara-dhammataya uttama-bhavam patta). -pasaka the (upper) lintel (of a door) Vin II.120 = 148. -pubba north-eastereotype J VI.518. -sse (v. l. -suve) on the day after tomorrow A I.240.

Uttara2 (adj.) [from uttarati] crossing over, to be crossed, in dur- difficult to cross or to get out of S I.197 (not duruttamo); Miln 158; and in cpd. -setu one who is going to cross a bridge Miln 194 (cp. uttara-setu).

Uttarana (nt.) [from uttarati] bringing or moving out, saving, delivery Th 1, 418; J I.195. In BSanskrit uttarana only in sense of crossing, overcoming, e. g. Jtm 31 Q (-setu). Cp. uttara.

Uttarati [ud + tarati1] - 1. to come out of (water) Vin II.221 (opp. otarati); J I.108 (id.). - 2. to go over, to flow over (of water), to boil over Miln 117, 118, 132, 260, 277. - 3. to cross over, to go beyond M I.135; aor. udatari Sn 471 (ogham). - 4. to go over, to overspread J V.204 (ger. uttariyana = avattharitva C.). -pp. otinna (q. v.). - Causative uttareti (q. v.).

Uttari (*-) and Uttarim (adv.) [compounds. form of uttara, cp. angi-bhuta uttani-karoti etc.] out, over, beyond; additional, moreover, further, besides. - (1) uttarim: D I.71; M I.83; III.148; S IV.15; Sn 796 (uttarim kurute = uttarim karoti Nd2 102, i. e. to do more than anything, to do best, to esteem especially); J II.23; III.324; Miln 10 (ito uttarim anything beyond this, any more) DhA IV.109 (bhaveti to cultivate especially; see vuttari); VvA 152. - uttarim appativijjhanto not going further in comprehension, i. e. reaching the highest degree of comprehension, Vism 314, referring to Ps II.131, which is quoted at Miln 198, as the last of the 11 blessings of metta. - (2) uttari- in following compounds -karaniya an additional duty, higher obligation S II. 99; III.168; A V.157 = 164; It 118. -bhanga an extra portion, tit-bit, dainties, additional or after-meal bits Vin II.214; III.160; IV.259; J II.419; DhA I.214 sa-uttaribhanga together with dainty bits J I.186, cp. 196 (yagu). -bhangika serving as dainties J I.196. -manussa beyond the power of men, superhuman, in cpd. -dhamma an order which is above man, extraordinary condition, transcendental norm, adj. of a transcendental character, miraculous, overwhelming Vin I.209; II.112; III.105; IV.24; D I.211; III.3, 12, 18; M I.68; II.200; S IV.290, 300, 337; A III.430; V.88; DhA III.480. -sataka a further, i. e. upper or outer garment, cloak, mantle J II.246; DhA IV.200; PvA 48, 49 ( = uttariyam).

Uttarika (adj.) [from uttara] transcending, superior, superhuman Nett 50.

Uttariya (nt.) [abstr. from uttara; uttara + ya = Sanskrit *uttarya] - 1. state of being higher. Cp. III.35; negative an- state of being unsurpassed (lit. with nothing higher), preeminence; see anuttariya. - 2. an answer, rejoinder DhA I.44 (karan--karana).

Uttariya (nt.) [from uttara] an outer garment, cloak PvI.103 ( = uparivasanam upariharam uttarisatakam PvA 49); Davs III.30; ThA 253.

Uttasati1 [identical in form with next] only in Causative uttaseti to impale, q. v.

Uttasati2 [ut + tasati2] - 1. to frighten J I.47 (v.267). to be alarmed or terrified Vin I.74 (ubbijjati u. palayati); III.145 (id.); J II.384; VI.79; ppr. uttasan Th 1, 863; and uttasanto Pv II.23. - See utrasati. Causative uttaseti (q. v.). pp. uttasta and utrasta (q. v.). Cp. also uttanta.

Uttasana (adj.-nt.) [from ud + tras, cp. uttasana] frightening, fear J I.414 (v. l. for uttasta).

Uttasta [pp. of uttasati2; usual form utrasta (q. v.)] frightened, terrified, faint-hearted J I.414 (-bhikkhu; v. l. uttasana-).

Uttana (adj.) [from ut + tan, see tanoti and tanta] - 1. streched out (flat), lying on one's back, supine Vin I.271 (mancake uttanam nipajjapetva making her lie back on the couch); II.215; J I.205; Pv IV.108 (opp. avakujja); PvA 178 (id.), 265. - 2. clear, manifest, open, evident [cp. BSanskrit uttana in same sense at Av. S II.106] D I.116; S II.28 (dhammo uttano vivato pakasito); J II.168 ( = pakata); V.460; PvA 66, 89, 140, 168. - anuttana unclear, not explained J VI.247. - The cpd. form (*-) of uttana in combination. with kr and bhu is uttani- (q. v.). - 3. superficial, "flat", shallow A I.70 (parisa); Pug 46. -mukha "clear mouthed", speaking plainly, easily understood D I.116 (see DA I.287); DhA IV.8. -seyyaka "lying on one's back", i. e. an infant M I.432; A III.6; Th 1, 935; Miln 40; Vism 97 (-daraka).

Uttanaka (adj.) [from uttana] - 1. ( = uttana1) lying on one's back J VI.38 (-m patetva); DhA I.184. - 2. ( = uttana2) clear, open D II.55; M I.340 = DhA I.173.

Uttani (*-) [the compounds. form of uttana in compounds with kr and bhu cp. BSanskrit uttani-karoti M Vastu III.408; uttani-krta Av. SH I.287; II.151] open, manifest etc., in -kamma (uttani-) declaration, exposition, manifestation S V.443; Pug 19; Vbh 259, 358; Nett 5, 8, 9, 38. - -karana id. SnA 445. - -karoti to make clear or open, to declare, show up, confess (a sin) Vin I.103; S II.25, 154; III.132, 139; IV.166; V.261; A I.286; III.361 sq.

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Uttapeti [Causative of uttapati] to heat, to cause pain, torment J VI.161.

Uttara [from ud + tr as in uttarati] crossing, passing over, -setu a bridge for crossing (a river) S IV.174 = M I.134; cp. uttara2.

Uttarita [pp. of uttareti] pulled out, brought or moved out J I.194.

Uttaritatta (nt.) [abstr. from uttarita] the fact of having or being brought or moved out J I.195.

Uttareti [Causative of uttarati] to make come out, to move or pull out J I.194; SnA 349. -pp. uttarita (q. v.).

Uttasa [Sanskrit uttrasa, from ud + tras] terror, fear, fright D III.148; S V.386; Miln 170; PvA 180.

Uttasana (nt.) [from uttaseti2] impalement J II.444; SnA 61 (sule).

Uttasavant (adj.) [uttasa + vant] showing fear or fright, fearful S III.16 sq.

Uttasita [pp. of uttaseti2] impaled Pv IV.16 ( = avuta aropita VvA 220); J I.499; IV.29.

Uttaseti1 [Caus of uttasati, ud + tras, of which tams is uttaseti2 is a variant] to frighten, terrify J I.230, 385; II.117.

Uttaseti2 [cp. Sanskrit uttamsayati in meaning to adorn with a wreath; ud + tams to shake, a variation of tars to shake, tremble] to impale A I.48; J I.230, 326; II.443; III.34; IV.29. -pp. uttasita (q. v.). Cp. uttasana.

Uttittha [ = ucchittha* Cp. ucchepaka. By Pali Cys. referred to utthahati "alms which one stands up for, or expects"] left over, thrown out Vin I.44 (-patta); Th 1, 1057 (-pinda); 2, 349 (-pinda = vivatadvare ghare ghare patitthitva labhanaka-pinda ThA 242); J IV.380 (-pinda; C. similarly as at ThA; not to the point); 386 (-pinda = ucchitthaka pinda C.); Miln 213, 214.

Uttitthe see utthahati.

Uttina (adj.) [ud + tina] in uttinam karoti to take the straw off, lit. to make off-straw; to deprive of the roof M II.53. Cp. next.

Uttinna [pp. of uttarati] drawn out, pulled out, nt. outlet, passage J II.72 (pannasalaya uttinnani karoti make entrances in the hut). Or should it be uttina*

Utrasta [pp. of uttasati, also cp. uttasta] frightened, terrified, alarmed Vin II.184; S I.53, 54 (an-); Sn 986; Miln 23; DhA II.6 (-manasa); PvA 243 (-citta), 250 (-sabhava).

Utrasa [ = uttasa] terror J II.8 (citt-).

Utrasin (adj.) [from *Sanskrit uttrasa = Pali uttasa] terrified, frightened, fearful, anxious S I.99, 219. - Usually negative an- in phrase abhiru anutrasin apalayin without fear, steadfast and not running away S I.99; Th 1, 864; Nd2 13; J IV.296; V.4; Miln 339. See also apalayin.

Ud- [Vedic ud-; Goth. ut = Ohg. uz = E. out, Oir. ud-; cp. Latin usque "from-unto" and Gr. u(/stereotypes = Sanskrit uttara] prefix in verbal and nominal combination. One half of all the words beginning with u- are combinations. with ud-, which in compounds. appears modified according to the rules of assimilation as prevailing in Pali. - I. Original meaning "out in an upward direction", out of, forth; like ummujjati to rise up out of (water), ujjalati to blaze up high; udeti to come out of and go up; ukkantha stretching one's neck out high (cp. Ger. "empor"); uggilati to "swallow up", i. e. spit out. - The opposites of ud- are represented by either ava or o- (see under II. and IV. and cp. ucc-¢vaca; uddhambhagiya: orambhagiya), ni (see below) or vi (as udaya: vi-aya or vaya). - II. Hence develop 2 clearly defined meanings, viz. (1) out, out of, away from -: -anha ("day-out"); -agga ("top-out"); -agacchati; -ikkhati look out for, expect; -kantati tear out; -khitta thrown off; -khipati pick out; -gacchati come out; -gamana rising (opp. o-); -gajjati shout out; -gilati (opp. o-); -ghoseti shout out; -cinati pick out; -chittha thrown out; -jagghati laugh at, cp. Ger. aus-lachen -tatta smelted out; -tana stretched out; -daleti tear out; -dhata lifted out, drawn out; -disati point out to; -driyati pull out; -pajjati to be produced; -patti and -pada coming out, origin, birth; -patipatiya out of reach; -pa'aseti sound out; -phasulika "ribs out"; etc. etc. - (2) up (high) or high up, upwards, on to (cp. ucca high, uttara higher) -: -kujja erect (opp. ava-); -kula sloping up (opp. vi-); -khipati throw-up, -ganhati take up; -chindati cut up; -javati go up-stream, -javana id. (opp. o-); unna pride; -thana "standing up" -thita got up; -tarati come out, go up (opp. o-); -nata raised up, high (opp. o-); -nama e-levation; -namin raised (opp. ni-); -patati fly up; etc. etc. - III. More specialised meanings (from elliptical or figurative use) are: (1) ud- = without, "ex-", e. g. unnangala "outplough" = without a plough; uppabbajita an ex-bhikkhu. (2) ud- = off, i. e. out of the way, wrong, e. g. uppatha a wrong road, ummagga id. - (3) ud- = out of the ordinary, i. e. exceedingly, e. g. ujjangala extremely dusty; uppanduka very pale; uppotheti to beat hard. - IV. Dialectical variations and combinations. - (1) Owing to semantic affinity we often find an interchange between ud- and ava- (cp. E. break up = break down, grind up or down, tie up or down), according to different points of view. This wavering between the two prefixes was favoured by the fact that o always had shown an unstable tendency and had often been substituted for or replaced by u, which in its place was reduced to u before a double consonant, thus doing away with the different between u and u or o and u. For comparison see the following: ukkamati and okk-; unna: avanna; uddiyati: odd-; uddeyya odd-; uppi'eti: opi'-; etc., and cp. abbhokirati > abbhukkirati. - (2) the most frequent combinations. that ud- enters into are those with the intensifying prefixes abhi- and sam-; see e. g. abhi + ud ( = abbhud-) + gacchati, -jalati; -thati; -namati etc.; sam + ud + eti; -kamati; -chindati; -tejeti; -pajjati etc.

Uda1 (indecl.) [Sanskrit uta and u, with Latin aut (or), Gr. au(_ti (again), au)ta/r (but, or), Goth. auk = Ger. auch to pronoun. base ava- yonder, cp. ava II.] disjunctive part. "or"; either singly, as at Sn 455, 955, 1090; J V.478 (v. l. udahu); Nd1 445 (explained. as "padasandhi" with same formula as iti, q. v.); Pv II.1216 (kayena uda cetasa); or combined. with other synonymous particles, as uda va at Sn 193, 842, 1075; It 82 = 117 (caram va yadi va tittham nisinno uda va sayan walking or standing, sitting or lying down); KhA 191. - See also udahu.

Uda2 (*-) [Vedic udan (nt.), also later uda (but only --), commonly udaka, q. v.] water, wave. In compounds sometimes the older form udan- is preserved (like udanjala, udannavant), but generally it has been substituted by the later uda- (see under udakaccha, udakanti, udakumbha, udapatta, udapana, udabindu).

Udaka (nt.) [Vedic udaka, uda + ka (see uda2), of Idg. **ed, *ud, fuller form *e*ed (as in Sanskrit odati, odman flood, odana gruel, q. v.); cp. Sanskrit unatti, undati to water, udra = Av. udra = Ags. otor = E. otter ("water-animal"); Gr. u(/dwr water ("hydro"), u(/dra hydra ("water-animal"); Latin unda wave; Goth. wato = Ohg. wazzar = E. water; Obulg. voda water, vydra otter] water Vin II.120, 213; D II.15 (-assa dhara gushes or showers of w.); Dh 80, 145; J I.212; Pv I.57; Pug 31, 32; Miln 318; VvA 20 (udake temanam aggimhe tapanam); DhA I.289; DhA III. 176, 256; PvA 39, 70. - Syn. ambu, ela, jala etc. The compounds. form (*-) is either udaka (asanudaka-dayin

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J IV.435) or -odaka (padodaka water for the feet PvA 78). odaka occurs also in abs. form (q. v.), cp. also oka. Bdgh.'s kam = udakam, tena daritan: kandaran ti is a false etymology; DA I.209. -annava water-flood M I.134. -ayatika a water-pipe Vin II.123. -a'haka a certain measure of water, an a'haka of w. S V.400; A II.55 = III.337; VvA 155. -upama resembling water, like water A IV.11 (puggala). -ogahana plunging into water J III.235. -ogha a water flood VvA 48. -orohaka descending into water, bathing; N. of a class of ascetics, lit. "bather" M I.281; S IV.312; A V. 263. -orohana plunging into water, taking a bath, bathing D I.167; S I.182; A I.296; II.206; J IV.299; Pug 55. -kalaha the "water dispute" DhA III.256. -kaka a water crow J II.441. -kicca libation of water, lit. water-performance; cleansing, washing D II.15. -ki'a sporting in the w. J VI.420. -gahanasataka bathing-gown J V.477. -ghata a water pitcher PvA 66. -cati a water jar DhA I.52. -tthana a stand for water Vin II.120. -tumba a water vessel J II.441; DA I.202; DhA II.193. -telaka an oily preparation mixed with water Vin II.107. -dantapona water for rinsing the mouth and tooth-cleaner Vin III.51; IV.90, 92, 233; J IV.69. -daha a lake (of water) D I.45. -donika a water-tub or trough Vin II.220. -dhara a shower of water Ps I.125; J IV.351. -niddhamana a water spout or drain Vin II.120, 123; DhA II.37. -nibbahana an aquaduct Miln 295. -patiggaha receiving or accepting water Vin II.213. -patta a waterbowl Vin II. 107; D I.80; S III.105. -punchani a towel Vin II.122. -posita fed or nourished by water VvA 173. -phusita a drop of water S II.135. -bindu a drop of w. It 84 (v. l. for udabindu); PvA 99. -bubbula a w. bubble A IV.137; Vism 109, 479 (in comp.). -bhasta devoid of water ThA 212 (for anodaka Th 2, 265). -manika a water-pot Vin I.227; M I.354; A III.27; Miln 28; DhA I.79. -mallaka a cup for w. A I.250. -rakkhasa a water-sprite DhA III.74. -rahada a lake (of w.) D I.74, 84; A I.9; II.105; III.25; Sn 467; Pug 47. -ruha a water plant Vv 35Q. -lekha writing on w. A I.283 = Pug 32 (in simile -upama like writing on w.; cp. Pug A 215). -vara "waterturn", i. e. fetching water DhA I.49. -varaka bucket S II.118. -vaha a flow of water, flowing w. J VI.162. -vahaka rise or swelling (lit. carrying or pulling along (of water), overflowing, flood A I.178. -vahana pulling up water Vin II.122 (-rajju). -sadda sound of water Dhs 621. -saravaka a saucer for w. Vin II.120. -sataka = satika J II.13. -satika "water-cloak", a bathing-mantle Vin I. 292; II.272; IV.279 ( = yaya nivattha nhayati C.); DhA II.61 (T. -sataka). -suddhika ablution with water (after passing urine) Vin IV.262 ( = mutta-karanassa dhovana C.).

Udakaccha [uda + kaccha] watery soil, swamp J V.137.

Udakumbha [uda + kumbha] a water jug J I.20; Dh 121, 122; Pv I.129.

Udagga (adj.) [ud + agga, lit. "out-top", cp. Sanskrit udagra] topmost, high, lofty Th 1, 110; fig. elated, exalted, exultant, joyful, happy D I.110 (-citta); Sn 689 (+ sumana), 1028 (id.); Pv IV.155 (attamana +); IV.58 (hattha +); Miln 248; DhA II.42 (hattha-pahattha udagg-udagga in high glee and jubilant); Vism 346 (id.); Sdhp 323. See also der. odagya.

Udaggata (f.) [abstr. from udagga] exaltation, jubilation, glee Sdhp 298.

Udaggi- in udaggihuttam [ = ud + aggi + hutta, cp. Vedic agnihotra] the fire prepared (for sacrifice) J V.396 ( = uda-aggihuttam C. wrongly), lit. "the sacrifice (being) out"

Udangana (nt.) [ud + angana1; Kern unnecessarily changes it to uttankana "a place for digging for water" see Toev. p. 96] an open place J I.109.

Udacchida 3rd sg. praet. of ucchindati to break up Sn 2, 3 (-a metri causa).

Udancana (nt.) [from ud + anc, see anchati] a bucket for drawing water out of a well DhA I.94.

Udancanin (adj.-n.) [ud + ancanin to anc see anchati] draining, pulling up water f. -i a bucket or pail J I. 417 (f. -i).

Udanjala [udan + jala see uda2] in -m ki'ati a water-game: playing with drops of water (*) Vin III.118 (Bdhgh.: udanjalan ti udaka-cikkhallo vuccati p. 274)

Udannavant (adj.) [udan = uda(ka) + vant] rich in water, well-watered J V.405 ( = udaka-sampanna C.).

Udanha [ud + anha] day-break, dawn, sunrise J V.155.

Udatari 3rd sg aor. of uttarati to cross over Sn 471 (ogham).

Udatta (adj.) [Sanskrit udatta] elevated, high, lofty, clever Nett 7, 118, 123 ( = u'arapanna C.).

Udadhi [uda + dhi, lit. water-container] the sea, ocean S I.67; It 86; Sn 720; J V.326; VI.526; ThA 289; VvA 155 ("udakam ettha dhiyati ti udadhi"); Sdhp 322, 577.

Udapatta1 [*da for ud, and patta, pp. of pat, for patita* Kern, Toev. s. v. takes it as udak-prapta, risen, flying up, sprung up J III.484 ( = uppatita C.); V.71 ( = utthita C.).

Udapatta2 [uda + patta; Sanskrit udapatra] a bowl of water, a water-jug, ewer M I.100; S V.121; A III.230 sq., 236; V.92, 94, 97 sq.

Udapadi 3rd sg. aor. of uppajjati to arise, originate, become D I.110, 180, 185; S II.273; It 52, 99; SnA 346, 462.

Udapana [uda + pana lit. "(place for) drinking water"; cp. opana, which in the incorrect opinion of Pali Commentators represents a contracted udapana] a well, a cistereotype Vin I.139; II.122; M I.80; A IV.171; J III.216; Ud 78; Pv II.78; II.925; Miln 411; Vism 244 (in simile); DA I.298; VvA 40; PvA 78.

Udappatta see udapatta.

Udabindu [uda + bindu] a drop of water M I.78; Sn 812; Dh 121, 122, 336; It 84 (v. l. udaka-); Nd1 135; SnA 114; DhA II.51.

Udabbhadhi aor. 3rd sg. of ubbadhati [ud + vadh] to destroy, kill Sn 4 ( = ucchindanto vadhati SnA 18).

Udabbahe 3rd sg. Pot. of ubbahati [ud + brh1, see also abbahati] to draw out, tear out, remove Th 1, 158; Sn 583 ( = ubbaheyya dhareyya (*) SnA 460); J II.223 ( = udabbaheyya C.); VI.587 ( = hareyya C.); aor. udabbahi Vin IV.5.

Udaya [from ud + i, cp. udeti] rise, growth; increment, increase; income, revenue, interest A II.199; Ps I.34; Vv 847 (dhan-atthika uddayan patthayana = anisansan atirekalabham VvA 336); 8452; DhA II.270; PvA 146 (ular- vipaka), 273 (-bhutani panca kahapana-satani labhitva, with interest); Sdhp 40, 230, 258. - See also uddaya. -attha rise and fall, birth and death (to attha2) M I.356; S V.197 sq., 395; A III.152 sq.; IV.111, 289, 352; V.15, 25. -atthika desirous of increase, interest or wealth (cp. above Vv 847 dhan-atthika) A II.199. -bbaya (ud-aya + vy-aya) increase and decrease, rise and fall, birth and death, up and down D III.223; S I.46 = 52 (lokassa); III.130; A II.90; III. 32; IV.153; It 120; Vism 287; Ps I.54; ThA 90. -vyaya = -bbaya S IV.140; A II.15 (khandhanam); Dh 113, 374 (khandhanam, see DhA IV.110).

Udayan and Udayanto ppr. of udeti (q. v.).

Udayana (nt.) [from ud + i] going up, rise DA I.95.

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Udara (nt.) [Vedic udara, Av udara belly, Gr. u(/stereotypes = Latin uterus belly, womb; Lith. vedaras stomach, See also Walde, Latin Wtb. under vensica] - 1 the belly, stomach D II.266; Sn 78, 604, 609, 716; J I.146, 164, 265; Miln 213; PvA 283; KhA 57, 58; DhA I.47 (pregnant); Sdhp 102. - 2. cavity, interior, inside Davs I.56 (mandir-odare). -unudara with empty belly Th 1, 982; Miln 406, 407; cp. una. -aggi the fire of the belly or stomach (i. e. of digestion) KhA 59; SnA 462; PvA 33; -¢vadehakam (adv.) bhunjati to eat to fill the stomach, eat to satiety, to be gluttonous M I.102; A V.18; Th 1, 935; Vism 33. -patala the mucous membrane of the stomach Vism 359 ( = sarir-abbhantara 261); SnA 248; KhA 55, 61. -pura stomachfilling Vism 108. -vatti "belly-sack", belly Vin III.39, 117; Vism 262 where KhA reads ud. patala). -vata the wind of the belly, stomach-ache 9J I.33, 433; Vism 41 (-abadha); DhA IV.129.

Udariya (nt.) [from udara] the stomach Kh III. (cp. KhA 57); Vism 258, 358. Cp sodariya.

Udassaye 2nd sg. pot. of ud + assayati [a + shri, cp. assaya] J V.26 (meaning to instal, raise*), explained. by C. as ussayapesi (*) Reading may be faulty for udasase (*).

Udaharaka [uda + haraka] a water-carrier J II.80.

Udahariya (adj.) [from udahara fetching of water, uda + hr] going for water Vv 509.

Udagacchati [ud + a + gacchati] to come to completion Da I.288. Cp sam.

Udana (nt.) [from ud + an to breathe] - 1. "breathing out", exulting cry, i e. an utterance, mostly in metrical form, inspired by a particularly intense emotion, whether it be joyful or sorrowful (cp. K. S. p. 29 n. 2) D I.50, 92; S I.20, 27, 82, 160; A I.67; J I.76; Pug 43, 62; Nett 174; PvA 67; Sdhp 514. - The utterance of such an inspired thought is usually introduced with the standing phrase "imam udanam udanesi" i. e. breathed forth this solemn utterance [Cp. BSanskrit udanam udanayati Divy 99 etc.], e. g. at Vin I.2 sq., 12, 230, 353; D I.47; II.107 (udana of triumph); S III.55; Mhvs XIX.29; DA I.140; Ud. 1 passim; SnA 354 ("the familiar quotation about the Sakyas"). Occasionally (later) we find other phrases, as e. g. udanam pavatti J I.61; abhasi Vin IV.54; kathesi J VI. 38. - 2. one of the angas or categories of the Buddhist Scriptures: see under nava and anga. - Cp. vodana.

Udanita [pp. of udaneti] uttered, breathed forth, said DhA IV.55.

Udaneti [denom. f. udana, cp. BSanskrit udanayati] to breathe out or forth, usually in phrase udanam udanesi: see under udana1. Absolutely only at J III.218.

Udapatva at J V.255 is uncertain reading (v. l. udapatva, C. explinations. reading udapatva by uppatitva = flying up), perhaps we should read udapatta flew up, pret. of ud + pat = Sanskrit *udapaptat (so Kern, Toev. s. v.).

Udayati at DA I.266 (udayissati fut.) is hardly correct; D I.96 has here udriyissati (q. v.), which belongs to darati to break, tear etc., udayati could only belong to dayati meaning to cut, mow, reap. but not to split etc. DA I.266 explinations. udayissati with bhijjhissati. The difficulty is removed by reading udriyissati. To v. l. undriyati cp. -undriya for -uddaya (dukkh- for dukkhudraya see udraya). We find udayati once more at Vism 156 in explination. of ekodi where it is evidently meant for udeti (Causative = utthapeti).

Udara (adj.) [Sanskrit udara, of which the usual Pali form is ulara (q. v.). Cp. BSanskrit audara and audarika.] raised, sublime, noble, excellent Davs III.4 (samussit-odara-sitatapattam); DA I.50 (-issariya); Sdhp 429, 591.

Udavatta [pp. of udavattate, ud + a vattati] retired, desisting J V.158 ( = udavattitva nivattitva C).

Udasina (adj.) [ud + asina, pp. of as to sit; lit. sit apart, be indifferent] indifferent, passive, neutral DhsA 129.

Udahata [pp of udaharati] uttered, spoken; called, quoted Pug 41.

Udaharana (nt.) [from udaharati] example, instance J III.401 (-m aharitva dassento), 510; Miln 345; SnA 445; VvA 297.

Udaharati [ud + a + hr] to utter, recite. speak. Sn 389; J III.289; DA I.140 (see udahara). - pp udahata (q. v.). Cp. pariy-.

Udahara [from udaharati] utterance, speech DA I.140 (-m udahari = udanam udanesi); Pug A 223,

Udahu (indecl.) [uta + aho, cp. Pali uda and aho and Sanskrit utaro] disjunctive-adversative particle "or", in direct questions D I 157; II.8; Sn 599, 875, 885; J I.20, 83; VvA 258 ( = adu); PvA 33, 51; Miln 10. - The first part of the question is often introduced with kim, while udahu follows in the second (disjunctive) part, e. g. kin nakkhattam ki'issasi udahu bhatim karissasi VvA 63; kim amhehi saddhim agamissasi udahu paccha will you come with us or later* DhA II.96: See under kim. - Often combined with other expletive particles, e. g. udahu ve Sn 1075, 1077; udahu no Sn 347; eva . . . no udahu (so . . . or not) D I.152; (ayan) nu kho - udahu (ayan) is it (this) - (this) Vism 313.

Udi (or udi) is artificial adj. formn. from udeti, meaning "rising, excelling", in explination. of ekodi at Vism 156 (udayati ti udi utthapeti ti attho).

Udikkhati [ud + iks., Sanskrit udik.sate] - 1. to look at, to survey. to perceive Vin I.25 (udiccare, 3sd. pl. pres. med.); J V.71, 296; Vv 8121 (aor. udikkhisan = ullokesim VvA 316); Davs II 109; Sdhp 308. - 2. to look out for, to expect J I.344; VvA 118. - 3. to envy Miln 338.

Udikkhitar [n. ag. of udikkhati] one who looks for or after D III 167.

Udicca (adj.) [apparently an adjectivised ger. of udeti but distorted from and in meaning = Sanskrit udanc, f. udici northern, the north] "rising", used in a geographical sense of the N. W. country, i. e. north-westereotypey, of north-westereotype origin (cp. Brethren 79, Miln translation. II.45 n. 1) J I.140, 324, 343, 373; Miln 236. - See also uddiya.

Udiccare 3sd. pl. pres. med. of udikkhati (q. v.).

Udita1 [pp. of ud-i, see udeti] risen, high, elevated Miln 222; (-odita); Davs IV.42; Sdhp 14 (of the sun) 442 (-odita).

Udita2 [pp. of vad, see vadati] spoken, proclaimed, uttered Vuttodaya 2 (quoted by Childers in Khuddaka-patha ed. 1869, p. 22).

Udirana (nt.) [from udireti] utterance, saying J V.237; Dhs 637, 720; Miln 145.

Udirita [pp. of udireti] uttered J III.339; V.394 = 407.

Udireti [ud + ireti, cp. in meaning irita] - 1. to set in motion, stir up, cause J III.441 (dukkham udiraye Pot. = udireyya C.); V.395 (kalaham to begin a quarrel). - 2. to utter, proclaim, speak, say S I.190; Sn 632 (pot. -raye = bhaseyya SnA 468); Dh 408 (giram udiraye = bhaseyya DhA IV.182); J V.78 (vakyam); Pass. udiyati (uddiyyati = Sanskrit udiryate) Th 1, 1232 (nigghoso).

Udu (adj.) [ = *rtu* cp. utu and uju] straight, upright, in -mano straight-minded D III.167, 168 ( = uju- in v. l. and explination. by C.).

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Udukkhala (m. and nt.) [Sanskrit ulukhala] a mortar Vin I.202 (+ musala pestle); J I.502; II.428; V.49; II.161, 335; Ud 69 (m; + musa'a); DhA II.131 (-sala); Vism 354 (in comp.). The relation between udukkhala and musala is seen best from the description of eating at Vism 344 and DA I.200, where the lower teeth play the role of ud., the upper teeth act as m., while the tongue takes the part of a hand. On this passage and other connections as well as etymology see Morris J.Pali Text Society 1893, 37.

Udukkhalika (f.) [from udukkhala] part of a door (threshold*) Vin II.148 (+ uttara-pasaka lintel of a door).

Udumbara [Sanskrit udumbara] the glomerous fig tree, Ficus Glomerata D II.4; Vin IV.35; A IV.283 (-khadika), 283 (id.), 324 (id.); Sn 5; DhA I.284; SnA 19; KhA 46, 56; VvA 213. Cp. odumbara.

Udeti (ud + eti of i to go] to go out or up, to rise (of the sun), to come out, to increase Asl. 169; Vism 156 (eko udeti ti ekodi); J II.33; III.324; ppr. udayan It 85 (adicco), and udayanto PvA 154 (udayante suriye = sole surgente). -pp. udita (see udita1). Cp. udicca and udi.

Udda1 [Vedic udra, to uda2 water, lit. living in water; Cp. Gr. u(/dros "hydra"; Ohg. ottar = Ags. otor = E. otter; Lith. udra = Obulg. vydra otter] an aquatic animal, the otter (*) Childers s. v. doubts the identity of this creature with the regular otter, since it lives in the jungle. Is it a beaver - Vin I.186 (-camma otter-skin, used for sandals); Cp. I.102 (-pota); J III.51 sq., 335. The names of two otters at J III.333 are Gambhira-carin and Anutira-carin.

Udda2 [for uda2*] water, in passage amakkhito uddena, amakkhito semhena, a. ruhirena i. e. not stained by any kind of (dirty) fluid D II.14; M III.122.

Uddanda [ud + danda] a kind of building (or hut), in which the sticks stand out (*) Nd1 226 = Nd2 976 (utanda) = Vism 25 (v. l. BB uttanda).

Uddaya1 [a (metric*) variant of udaya] gain, advantage, profit Vv 847 (see udaya); J v.39 (satt--mahapaduma of profit to beings*).

Uddaya2 in compounds dukkh- and sukh-. see udraya.

Uddalomi [ = udda + lomin beaver-hair-y ] a woollen coverlet with a fringe at each end D I.7 ( = ubhato dasan unna-may- attharanam; keci ubhato uggata-puppham ti vadanti DA I.87); A I.181. See however uddha-lomin under uddham.

Uddasseti [ud + dasseti, Causative of dassati1] to show, reveal, point out, order, inform, instruct D II.321 sq.; M I.480 (read uddassessami for conjectured reading uddisissami*); II.60 (v. l. uddiset-) A IV.66.

Uddana (nt.) [from ud + da, dayati to bind: see under dama] a group of Suttas, used throughout the Vinaya Pitaka, with reference to each Khandhaka, in the Sanyutta, the Anguttara and other books (cp. Miln 407) for each group of about ten Suttas (cp. DhsA 27). The Uddana gives, in a sort of doggerel verse, at the end of each group, the titles of the Suttas in the group. It may then be roughly rendered "summary". If all the Uddanas were collected together, they would form a table of contents to the whole work. - Otherwise the word has only been found used of fishes "macchuddana" (so J II.425; DhA II.132). It then means a group of fish placed apart for for sale in one lot. Perhaps a set or a batch would meet the case.

Uddapa [*udvapa] foundation of a wall, in stock phrase da'h- etc. D III.101; S V.194 = also at J VI.276 ( = pakara-vatthu C.). Kern, Toev. s. v. refers it to Sanskrit ud-vapati to dig out, and translates "moat, ditch". The meaning "wall" or "mound" however harmonises quite well with the der. from "digging", cp. E. dike > Ger. Teich. See also uddama 2.

Uddapavant (adj.) [from uddapa] having a wall or embankment S II.106 (v. l. uddha-); C. expls. as apato uggatatta J IV.536 (so read with v. l. for T. uddha pavatta; C. expls. as tira-mariyada-bandhana).

Uddama [from ud + da as in uddana, see dama] 1. (adj.) "out of bounds", unrestrained, restless Davs V.56 (-sagara). - 2. (n.) wall, enclosure (either as "binding in", protecting or as equivalent of uddapa from ud + vam "to throw up" in sense of to throw up earth, to dig a mound = udvapati) in phrase attala-uddama-parikh¢dini watchtowers, enceintes, moats etc. DhA III.488.

Uddaraka [*] some wild animal J V.416 (reading uncertain, explination. ditto).

Uddala = uddalaka, only as Np. J IV.298 sq.

Uddalaka [from ud + dal, see dalati] the Uddala tree, Cassia Fistula (also known as indivara), or Cordia Myxa, lit. "uprooter" Vv 67 ( = vataghatako yo rajarukkho ti pi vuccati VvA 43); J IV.301 (-rukkha), 440; V.199 ( = vataghataka C.), 405; VI.530 (so read for uddh-); VvA 197 (-puppha = indivara); PvA 169.

Uddalanaka (adj.) [from uddalana > ud + daleti] referring to destruction or vandalism, tearing out Vin IV.169.

Uddaleti [ud + daleti, Causative of dal, see dalati] to tear out or off Vin IV.170; S IV.178.

Uddittha [pp. of uddisati] - 1. pointed out, appointed, set out, put forth, proposed, put down, codified M I.480 (panha); Sn p. 91 (id. = uddesa-matten- eva vutta, na vibhangena SnA 422); SnA 372. - 2. appointed, dedicated J V.393 (an -m puppham = asukassa nama dassami ti); PvA 50; KhA 138.

Uddiya (adj.) [Sanskrit udicya*] northern, northwestereotype (i. e. Nepalese) J IV.352 (-kambala) in explination. of uddiyana [Sanskrit udicina*]. See udicca and cp. Morris in J.Pali Text Society 1889, 202, and last not least Luders in K. Z. 1920 (vol. 49), 233 sq. The word is not sufficiently cleared up yet.

Uddisati [ud + disati] - to propose, point out, appoint, allot Dh 353, cp. DhA IV.72; Miln 94 (satiharam); fut. uddisissati M I.480 (ex conj., is probably to be changed to uddassessati, q. v.). - 2. to specify PvA 22 (aor. uddisi), 25 ( = niyadeti, dadati), 27. - Pass. uddissati to show oneself, to be seen Pv III.212, and uddissiyati PvA 46. -pp. uddittha (q. v.). - Causative II. uddisapeti (q. v.). - ger. uddissa (q. v.)

Uddisapeti [Causative II. of uddisati] - 1. to make recite Vin I.47 = II.224; IV.290. - 2. to dedicate PvA 35 (v. l. adisati).

Uddissa (indecl.) [orig. ger. of uddisati] - 1. indicating, with signs or indications J III.354 = Miln 230. - 2. prep w. acc.: (a) (lit.) pointing to, tending towards, towards, to PvA 250 Surattha-visayan). - (b) (applied.) with reference to, on account of, for, concerning PvA 8 (pete), 17 ( = arabbha), 49 (ratanattayan), 70 (mam), 146. -kata allotted to, specified as, meant for (cp. odissa and odissaka) Vin I.237 (mamsa); II.163; D I.166 = A I. 295 = Pug 55 (viz. bhikkha); M I.77; KhA 222; J II. 262, 263 (bhatta).

Uddissana (nt.) [from uddissa] dedication PvA 27, 80.

Uddipana (f.) [from ud + dipeti] explanation, reasoning, argument Vism 27 (for ukkacana).

Uddiyati, Uddiyana ete. see udri-.

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Uddeka [Sanskrit udreka, ud + ric] vomit, spouting out, eruption Vism 261 (where id. p. at KhA 61 reads uggara); -m dadati to vomit Vin I.277.

Uddekanika (adj.) [uddeka + ana + ika] spouting, ejecting M II.39 (manika; perhaps better to be read with v. l. as udanjanika = udancanika fit for drawing up water).

Uddesa [from uddisati] - 1. pointing out, setting forth, proposition, exposition, indication, programme M III.223 (u. uddittha), 239; S IV.299; SnA 422. - 2. explanation S V.110 sq.; sa-uddesa (adj.) with (the necessary) explination., point by point, in detail, D I.13, 81; III.111; A III.418; It 99; Nd2 6171. - 3. samanuddesa one marked as a Samana, a novice (cp. samanera) D I.151; M III.128; A IV.343; uddesa-bhatta special or specified food Vin I.58 = 96, cp. II.175, propounding, recitation, repetition Vin I.50 = II.228 (uddesena paripucchaya ovadena by recitation, questioning and advice); II.219 (-m dadati to hold a recitation + paripuccham d); A IV.114 (+ paripuccha); V.50 sq. (panho, u. veyyakaranam); Nd2 3852 (+ paripuccha); J I.116; Miln 257 (+paripuccha). ek'uddesa a single repetition Vin III.47; A III.67, 180; Miln 10, 18.

Uddesaka (adj.) [from uddesa] assigning, defining, determining, in bhatt- one who sorts out the food VvA 92.

Uddesika (adj. nt.) [from uddesa] - 1. indicating, referring to, respecting, defining; (nt.) indication, definition D II. 100 (mam -bhikkhusangho); Miln 159 (id.); KhA 29. Esp. as -- in phrase attha-vass' uddesika-kala the time referring to (or indicating) the 8th year, i. e. at the age of 8 PvA 67; so'asa-vass- M I.88; J I.456; VvA 259. In the same application padesika (q. v.). - 2. memorial J IV.228 (cetiya).

Uddehaka (adj.) [from ud + dih, see deha] "bubbling up", only adv. -m in cpd. phen- (paccamana) boiling) under production of scum (foam) M III.167; A I.141; J III.46; Miln 357.

Uddosita [Derivation uncertain. Cp. Muller Pali Gr. 42] shed, stable (*) Vin I.140; II.278; III.200; IV.223.

Uddha (adj.) [possibly a combination. of addha2 and uddham; or should we read addh- or vuddh-*] in phrase uddhehi vatthehi in rich, lofty clothes J IV.154 (of a devata; passage may be corrupt).

Uddham (and Uddha-) (indecl.) [nt. of adj. *uddha = Sanskrit urdhva high; to Idg. *ared(h) as in Latin arduus steep, or *ured as in Sanskrit vardhate to raise, Gr. o)rqo/s straight] high up, on top, above (adv. and prep.). - On uddham in spatial, temporal, ethical and psychological application see in detail Nd2 155. I. (adv.). - A. (of space) up, aloft, on top, above (opp. adho) Vin III.121; KhA 248 ( = upari). - In contrast with adho (above > below) D I.23, 153, 251; Vism 176 (u. adho tiriyam explained.); DA I.98 (see also adho). - Esp. with reference to the points of the compass as "in zenith" (opp. adho "in nadir"), e. g. at D I.222 ("straight up"); It 120; J I.20. B. (of time) in future, ahead, hence Sn 894; Nd1 303 (u. vuccati anagatam). II. (prep. with abl. and instr.). A. (of space) in phrase uddham padatala adho kesamatthaka (above the soles and below the scalp) D II. 293, 294; III.104; A III.323; V.109. - B. (of time) after, hence Pv I.1012 (u. catuhi masehi after 4 months = catunnam masanam upari PvA 52); PvA 147 (sattahi vassa satehi u., meaning here 700 years ago, cp. ito in similar application, meaning both past and future), 148 (sattahato u. after a week; uttari v. l. BB.). - In compounds uddha- and uddham- (see below). The reading udhogalam at PvA 104 is to corrected to adho-. - III. Note (cp. Trenckner, Notes 60). In certain cases we find ubbham for uddham. Notice the following: ubbham yojanam uggato J V.269; ubbhatthako hoti "standing erect" D I.167; M I.78; ubbhamukhu "mouth (face) upwards", turned upwards S III.238; Miln 122. (1) uddha- in: -gamin going upwards S V.370 sq. cchiddaka (-vatapana) (windows) having openings above DhA I.211. -pada heels upwards either with adhosira (head down) A IV.133, or avansira Vv 5225 (v. l.); J I. 233. -mukha turned upwards, adv. -a upwards or backwards (of a river) Miln 295 (Ganga u. sandati; in same context ubbha- Miln 122). -lomin "having hair on the upper side", a kind of couch or bed (or rug on a couch) Vin I.192 = II.163, 169. So is prob. to be read for uddalomi (q. v.). -virecana action of an emetic (lit. throwing up) (opp. adho-virecana of a purgative) D I.12 ( = uddham dosanam niharanam DA I.98); DhA III.126; SnA 86. -suddha clean on top Vin II.152. (2) uddham- in: -aghatanika an after-deather, a teacher who maintains that the soul exists after death D I.31, cp. DA I.119. -pada feet up (and head down) Vv 5225 (v. l. uddha-). -bhagiya belonging to the upper part (opp. oram-): see sanyojana. -virecana v. l. BB. at SnA 86 for uddha-. -sara(m) (adv.) with raised or lofty voice, lit. "sounding high" Sn 901, see Nd1 315. -sota (adj.) one who is going upwards in the stream of life [cp. BSanskrit urdhvasrotah. Mahavy * 46] D III.237; S V.69, 201, 205, 237, 285, 314, 378; A I.233; II.134; IV.14 sq., 73 sq., 146, 380; V.120; Dh 218; Th II.12; Pug 17; Nett 190; DhA III.289; lit. up-stream at J III.371.

Uddhamsati [ud + dhamsati, in lit. meaning of dhvams, see dhamsati] to fly out or up (of dust) Vv 784 na tatth- uddhamsati rajo; explained. by uggacchati VvA 304. -pp. uddhasta (q. v.).

Uddhagga (adj.) [uddha + agga] - 1. standing on end (lit. with raised point). bristling, of the hair of a Mahapurisa D II.18 = III.144, 154. - 2. prominent, conspicuous J IV.345 (-rajin having prominent stripes, of a lion). 3. pointing upwards (of the lower teeth, opp. adhagga point-downwards) J V.156 ( = hetthima-danta C.). 4. lofty, beneficial (of gifts) A II.68 (dakkhina); III.46 (id.) see also uddhaggika.

Uddhaggika (adj.) [cp. uddhagga) aiming at or resulting in a lofty end, promoting spiritual welfare, beneficial (of gifts) D I.51 = III.66; S I.90; A III.259; DA I.158.

Uddhacca (nt.) [substantivised ger. of ud-dharati, ud + dhr, cp. uddhata and uddhata. The BSanskrit auddhatya shows a strange distortion. BSanskrit uddhava seems to be also a substitute for uddhacca] over-balancing, agitation, excitement, distraction, flurry (see on meaning Dialogues I.82; Dhs translation. 119; Cpd.18, 45, 83). A I.256, 282; III.375, 421, 449; IV.87; V.142, 145, 148; D III.234; S V.277 sq.; DhSA 260; SnA 492 (in sense of "haughtiness"* for Sn 702 unnata); Nd1 220, 501; Ps I.81, 83; II.9, 97 sq.; 119, 142, 145, 169, 176; Pug 18, 59; Dhs 427, 429 (cittassa), 1159, 1229, 1426, 1482; Vbh 168, 369, 372, 377; Vism 137, 469 ( = uddhata-bhava); Sdhp 459. Together with kukkucca "flurry or worry" u. is enumerated as the 4th of the 5th nivarana's and as the 9th of the 10 sanyojana's (q. v.), e. g. at D I.71, 246; III.49, 234, 269, 278; S I.99; A I.3; III.16; V.30; Nd2 379; Dhs 1486.

Uddhaja (adj.) [uddham + ja] upright, honest M I.386 (v. l. for pannadhaja).

Uddhata [pp. of uddharati2; see also uddhata, uddhita and uddhacca] - 1. pulled out J II.26. - 2. pulled out, destroyed, extirpated, in phrase- datha with its fangs removed (of a snake) J I.505; II.259; VI.6. - 3. cut off or out Miln 231 (uddhat-uddhate alope whenever a piece is cut off). - 4. drawn out, lifted out, raised J I.143; sass-kale at the time of lifting the corn; V.49 (-pamsu). Cp. uddhata-bija castrated J II.237.

Uddhata [pp. of uddharati1; as to its relation to uddhata see remarks under uddhacca]. - 1. lifted up, raised, risen, high (of the sun, only in this special phrase u. aruno) Vin II.236; Ud 27 (vv. ll. uggata and uddhasta).

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2. unbalanced, disturbed, agitated, shaken S I.61 (+ unna'a "muddled in mind and puffed up" trsl.), 204 (id.) V.112 (linam cittam uddhatam c.), 114 = Vism 133, 269; A II.23; III.391; V.93 sq., 142, 163; It 72; Th 2, 77 (so read with v. l., T. has uddhata; ThA 80 explinations. as nan- arammane vikkhitta-citta asamahita); Nd2 433 (+ avupasanta-citto); Pug 35 ( = uddhaccena samannagata Pug A 217). -an- well balanced, not shaken, calm, subdued M I.470; A II.211; V.93 sq., 104; Sn 850 ( = uddhaccavirahita SnA 549); Dh 363 ( = nibbutacitto DhA IV.93); J V.203; Vv 648. - See also ubbhata.

Uddhana (nt.) [*ud-dhvana, from ud + dhvan instead of dhma, for uddhamana (*uddhmana Sanskrit), see dhamati] an oven J I.33, 68, 71, 346; II.133, 277; III.178, 425; V.385, 471; II.218 (kammar-), 574; Sn p. 105; Miln 118, 259; Vism 171, 254; DhA I.52, 224; II.3; III.219 (-panti); IV.176.

Uddhamma [ud + dhamma] false doctrine Dpvs V.19.

Uddharana (nt.) [abstr. from uddharati] - 1. taking up, lifting, raising Miln 307 (sass--samaya the time of gathering the corn; to uddharati 1. but cp. in same meaning uddhata from uddharati 2). DA I.192. - 2. pulling or drawing out (cp. uddharati 2) Vin III.29. See also ubbahati2.

Uddharati [ud + dharate of dhr] - 1. (in this meaning confused with ubbharati from brh, cp. interchange of ddh and bbh in uddha: ubbha, possibly also with brh: see abbahati and cp. ubbahati1). (a) to raise, rise, lift up; hence: to raise too much, overbalance, shake etc.: see pp. uddhata (*udbhrta) and cp. uddhacca and uddharana. - (b) to take up, lift, to remove, take away D I.135 (balim uddhareyya raise a tax); M I.306 (hiyam); J I.193 (aor. poet. udaddhari = uddharitva kaddhitva pavattesi C.); VvA 157. - Causative uddharapeti Vin II.180, 181; J VI.95. - 2. to pull out, draw out (syn. with abbahati, q. v. for comparison) D I. 77 (ahim karanda uddhareyya, further on ahi k. ubbhato) PvA 115 ( = abbahati); imper. uddharatha J II.95 (for abbaha); Dh 327 (attanam dugga); aor. uddhari J III.190 (ankena); cond. uddhare Th 1, 756; ger. uddharitva D I.234; Nd1 419; SnA 567; DhA IV.26; PvA 139, and (poet.) uddhatva J IV.406 (cakkhuni, so read for T. laddhatvan cakkhuni = akkhini uddharitva C.). -pp. uddhata and ubbhata.

Uddharin in an- Sn 952 see under nitthurin.

Uddhaseta see uddhasta.

Uddhasta [pp. of uddhamseti, see dhamsati and cp. anuddham seti] attacked, perhaps "spoilt" (smothered!) in combination. with pariyonaddha (covered) at A I.202 (T. uddhaseta, explained. by upari dhamsita C.); II.211 (vv. ll. uddhasota for -eta and uddhamso). - Registereotyped with an- as anuddhasta in Index vol. to A, should however be read as anuddhasta (q. v.). Cp. also viddhasta.

Uddhara (and ubbhara in Vin.; e. g. II.255, cp. 256 where ubbhata unterchanges with uddhara) [from uddharati1] 1. taking away, withdrawal, suspension, in kathin- (q. v.) Vin I.255 sq.; III.262; IV.287; V.177 sq. - 2. a tax, levy, debt, in phrase -m sodheti (so read for sadheti loc. cit.) to clear up a debt J II.341; III.106; IV.45, 247. uddhara-sodhana (v. l. sadh-) the clearance of a debt J II.341. - 3. synopsis or abstract Dpvs V.37 (atth- of the meaning of the Vin.); SnA 237 (atth- + pad-).

Uddhalaka at J VI.530 is to be read uddalaka.

Uddhita [a by-form of uddhata] pulled out, destroyed, extirpated, removed J VI.237 (-pphala = uddhata-bija C.).

Uddhunati [ud + dhunati] to shake VvA 279.

Uddhumata (adj.) [pp. of uddhumayati] swollen, bloated, risen (of flour) A I.140; Sn 200 (of a corpse); SnA 100 sq., 171; DA I.114. Cp. next.

Uddhumataka (adj.) [prec. + ka] swollen, bloated, puffed up M I.88 (of a corpse; + vinilaka); Vism 178, 193 (id.); J I.164 (udaram -m katva), 420 (-nimitta appearance of being blown up); Miln 332; DhA I.307. See also subha and asubha. -sanna the idea of a bloated corpse A II.17; Dhs 263; Miln 331; cp. Dhs translation. 69.

Uddhumatatta (nt.) [abstr. from uddhumata] swollen condition Vism 178.

Uddhumayati [ud + dhma, see dhamati and remarks on uddhacca] to be blown up, to swell up, rise; aor. -ayi J III.26; VvA 76; ger. -ajitva J II.18; DhA I.126. -pp. uddhumata and -ayita (q. v.).

Uddhumayana (nt.) [from uddhumayati] puffing, blowing or swelling up J IV.37.

Uddhumayika (adj.) [cp. uddhumayita] like blowing or swelling up, of blown-up appearance M I.142 sq.

Uddhumayita [pp. of uddhumayati] swollen, bloated, puffed up VvA 218.

Udrabhati [* doubtful in form and etymology] to eat M I.306 (upacika bijam na udrabheyyum; vv. ll. on p. 555: udrah-, udah-, udah-, uddhah-, utthah-; udraheyyun ti khadeyyum C. (udrabhasane, Dhatum.)). - Note. The Dhatupatha, 212, and the Dhatu-manjusa, 311, explain udrabha by adane, eating.

Udraya (and Uddaya) (*-) [perhaps a bastard form of uddaya = udaya yielding etc. The BSanskrit usually renders Pali dd by dr. If so, then equal to adaya and uddaya1] coming forth, result, consequence. Usually in following two phrases: dukkh- (yielding pain) and sukh- (giving pleasure); e. g. as dukkh- at M I 415; J IV.398; V.119 (v. l. -indriya); Pv I.1110 (so read for T. -andriya, cp. undriyati as v. l. for udayati); Ps II.79 (kammam); as sukh- at J V.389 (v. l. -indriya); DhA II.47 (-uddaya). Both dukkh- and sukh- at Ps I.80. Besides these in following combinations.: katuk- causing bitterness J V.241; sa- with (good or evil) consequences S II.29; M I.271.

Udriyati (and Uddiyati) [cp. Sanskrit ud diryate, Pass of ud + dr, drnoti, and Pali darati and dalati; see also avadiyati which may be a Sanskritised oddiyati for uddiyati] to burst, split open, break, fall to pieces Vin I.148 (viharo udriyati); II 174 (id); IV.254 (i); D I.96 (-iyissati = bhijjhissati DA I 96, so read for udayati); S I 113, 119.

Udriyana and Uddiyana (nt.) [from udriyati] breaking or splitting open, bursting J I.72; DhA II.7 (-sadda), 100 (pathavi-uddiyana-sadda; vv. ll. uddri-, udri-).

Undura [etym *] a rat Vin I.209; II.148, 152; III.151; J I.120; Miln 23, 363. Spelt undura at Vism 62.

Unna [pp. of ud, unatti and undati, see udaka] in phrase piti-vegen-unna "bubbling up with the excitement of joy", overflowing with joy Mhvs 19, 29 (explained. by uggatacitta i. e. lofty, exalted C.). - It may however be better and more in keeping with Pali word-formation as well as with meaning and interpretation to explain the word as ud + na, taking -na as abs. (base)-form of nam, thus lit. "bent up", i. e. raised, high, in meaning of unnata. Cp. the exactly similar formation, use and meaning of ninna = ninnata. Thus unna / ninna would correspond to unnata / ninnata.

Unnaka [etymology*] a species of perfume J VI 537 (gloss kutantaja).

Unnangala (adj.) [ud + nangala, on meaning of ud in this case see ud] in phrase -m karoti, according to Morris, J P T S 1887, 120 "to make an up-ploughing, to turn up etc.", but more aptly with C. on J VI.328 to make

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"out-plough" (not "up-plough") in sense of out-of-work, i. e. to make the people put their ploughs (or work in general) away and prepare for a festival; to take a holiday. A typical "Jataka"-phrase; J I.228; II.296, 367; III. 129, 414; IV.355; VI.328; DhA III.10.

Unnata [pp. of unnamati. Besides this form we find unnata in fig. special meaning, q. v.] raised, high, lofty, in high situation (opp. onata) Pv IV.66 ( = samin PvA 262); J I.71; II369; VI 487; Miln 146, 387; DA I.45 See also unna'a.

Unnati (f) [from unnamati; cp. unnati] rising, lifting up, elevation Miln 387 (-avanati).

Unnadati [ud + nadati] to resound, shout out, roar J I.110; II 90; III.271, 325; Miln 18; aor. unnadi J I 74; Miln 13. - Causative unnadeti (q. v.).

Unnama [fr ud + nam; cp. also unnama in fig. meaning] rising ground, elevation, plateau Kh VII.7 = Pv I.57 ( = thala unnata-padesa PvA 29); Miln 349; DA I.154.

Unnamati [ud + namati, see unnamati in fig. meaning] to rise up, ascend Miln 117 (onamati +); Vism 306. - Causative unnameti (q. v.). -pp. unnara and unnata (q. v.).

Unnala and Unna'a (adj.) [Bdhgh. has ud + nala; but it is either a dissimilated form for *ullala (n > l change frequent, cp. Pali nangala > langala; nalata > lalata) from ud + lal to sport, thus meaning "sporting, sporty, wild" etc.; or (still more likely) with Kern, Toev. s. v. a dial. form of unnata Pali unnata, although the Pali Commentators never thought of that. Cp. with this the BSanskrit unnata in same stock phrase uddhata unnata capala M Vastu I.305, and the Marathic Prk. mula = Sanskrit mrta, Pischel, Gr. * 244. To these may be added Pali celakedu > cetakedu J VI.538] showing off, insolent, arrogant, proud, haughty, in phrase uddhata unna'a capala M I.32; S I.61 = 204 (translated. as "muddled in mind, puffed up, vain", explained. as uggata-nala uddhata-tuccha-mana K. S. 318); A I.70, 266; II.26; III 199, 355, 391; It 113 (+ asamahita); Dh 292 (+ pamatta; explained. as "mana-na'am ukkhipitva caranena unnala" DhA III.452); Th 1, 634; Pug 35 ( = uggatana'o tuccha-manam ukkhipitva ti attho PugA 217).

Unnahana (f.) [ud + nah, see nayhati] flattering, tying or pushing oneself on to somebody, begging Vism 27.

Unnada [from ud + nad] shout, shouting J II 405.

Unnadin (adj.) [from ud + nad] shouting out; resounding, noisy, loud, tumultuous Vin III.336; D I.95, 143, 178; J II.216.

Unnadeti [Causative of unnadati] to make resound J I.408 (pathavim), II.34.

Unnamin (adj) [ud + nam in Causative form] raising or rising; in combination. with ninnamin raised and bent, high and low A IV.237 (of cultivated land).

Unnameti (unn-) [Causative of unnamati] to raise DhsA 5; written unnameti (with a for a before mutes and liquids) at Sn 206 (inf. umnametave).

Upa - [Vedic upa; Av. upa on, up; Gr. u(po/ under, u(pe/r over; Latin sub from *(e)ks-upo; Goth. uf under and on; Ohg. uf = Ags. up = E. up; Oir. fo under. See also upari] prefix denoting nearness or close touch (cp. similarly a), usually with the idea of approach from below or rest on top, on, upon, up, by. - In compounds. a upa is always contracted to upa, e. g. devupatthana, lokupaga, punnupatthambhita. - Meanings: (1) (Rest): on upon, up -: -kinna covered over; -jivati live on (cp. anu-); -tthambhita propped up, sup-ported; -cita heaped up, ac-cumulated; -dhareti hold or take up; -nata bent on; -nissaya foundation; -nissita depending on etc. - (2) (Aim): (out) up to (the speaker or hearer); cp. the meanings developed out of this as "higher, above" in upara, upari, upama = Latin superus, supremus E. g. -kaddhati drag on to; -kappati come to, accrue; -kappana ad-ministereotypeng; -kara service to; -kkhata administereotyped; -gacchati go to, ap-proach (cp. up¢tigacchati); -disati ad-vise; -dhavati run up to: -nadati to sound out; -nikkhamati come out up to; -nisevita gone on to or after; -neti bring on to; etc. - (3) (Nearness): close by, close to, near, "ad-"; e. g. -kannaka close to the ear; -cara ap-plication; -tthana at-tending; tthita ap-proached; -titthati stand by, look after; -dduta urged; -nameti place close to; -nibandhati tie close to; -nisidati sit close to or down by. - (4) (Intensive use): quite, altogether, "up"; e. g. -antika quite near; -chindati cut up. - (5) (Diminutive use as in Latin subabsurdus; Gr. u(po/leukos whitish; Oir. fo-dord; Cymr. go-durdd murmur): nearly, about, somewhat, a little, secondary, by -, miniature, made after the style of, e. g. -addha about half; -kacchaka like a little hollow; -kandakin ( = -pandukin* whitish); -deva a minor god; -nibha somewhat similar to; -nila bluish; upapurohita minor priest; uparajja viceroyalty; upalohitaka, uparopa; -vana a little forest. etc. Note. The nearest semantie affinity of upa is a-.

Upaka (*-) [for -upaga] found only in combination. kulupaka where second k stands for g. through assimilation with first k. Only with reference to a bhikkhu = one who frequents a certain family (for the purpose of getting alms), a family friend, associate Vin I.192, 208; III.84; S II.200 sq.; A III.258 sq.; Nd2 3851; Pv III.85; PvA 266. - f. kulupika (bhikkhuni) Vin II.268; IV.66. - Sporadic in gayhupaka (for -upaga) at J IV.219.

Upakaccha (*-) [upa + kaccha2] only in combination. with -antare lit. "in between the hips or loins or arm-pits", in 3 phrases (cp. Kern, Toev. II.140 s. v.), viz. upakacchantare katva taking (it) between the legs J I.63, 425, khipitva throwing (it) into the armpits J V.211 and thapetva id. J V.46.

Upakacchaka [upa + kaccha + ka, cp. Sanskrit in different meaning] (1) [ = upa + kaccha1 + ka] like an enclosure, adj. in the form of a hollow or a shelter J I.158. (2) [ = upa + kaccha2 + ka] like the armpit, a hollow, usually the armpit, but occasionally it seems to be applied to the hip or waist Vin III.39; IV.260 (pudendum muliebre); Miln 293; J V.437 ( = kaccha2).

Upakattha (adj.) [pp. of upa + karsh to draw up or near to] approaehing, near J IV.213 (yava upakattha-majjhantika till nearly noon). Usually in following two phrases: upakatthe kale when the time was near, i. e. at the approach of meal time Vin IV.175; VvA 6, 294; and upakatthaya vassupanayikaya as Lent was approaching Vin I.253; PvA 42; VvA 44. Cp. vupakattha. - loc. upakatthe as adv. or prep. "near, in the neighbourhood of" Nd2 639 ( = santike); Davs V.41 (so read for upakanthe).

Upakaddhati [upa + kaddhati, cp. upakattha] to drag or pull on to (w. dat.), or down to D I.180 (+ apakaddhati); III.127 (id.); M I.365; S I.49; II.99; Dh 311 (nirayaya = niraye nibbattapeti DhA III.484).

Upakantha at Davs V.41 is to be corrected to upakattha.

Upakandakin (Pv II.113) see under uppandukin.

Upakanna (*-) [upa + kanna] lit. (spot) near the ear, only in oblique cases or in der. -ka (q. v.) Th 1, 200 (upakannamhi close to the ear, under the ear).

Upakannaka (adj.) [upa + kanna + ka) by the ear, being at or on the ear of somebody, only in loc. as adv. upakannake secretly Vin I.237; II.99; IV.20, 271; S I.86; A III.57; SnA 186; and in cpd. -jappin one who whispers into the ear (of another), spreader of reports A III. 136. Cp. kannajappaka and kannajappana.

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Upakappati [upa + kappati] intrs.) to be beneficial to (w. dat.), to serve, to accrue S I.85; Pv I.44 ( = nippajjati PvA 19); I.57 (petanam); I.104 ( = viniyujjati PvA 49); J V.350; PvA 8, 29 (petanam), 27 (id.), 241; Sdhp 501, 504.

Upakappana (nt.) [from upakappati] profit PvA 29 (dan-), 49 (an-).

Upakappanaka (adj.) [from upakappana] profitable J I.398; DhA II.133.

Upakarana (nt.) [from upa + kr] help, service, support; means of existence, livelihood D II.340; A II.86; J I.7; PvA 60 (commodities), 133 (-manussa, adj. suitable, fit); Sdhp 69. In general any instrument or means of achieving a purpose, viz. apparatus of a ship J IV.165; tunnavaya- a weaver's outfit J II.364; dabb- fit to be used as wood Vism 120; dan- materials for a gift PvA 105 (so read and cp. upakkhata); nahan- bathing requisites VvA 248; vitt- luxuries A V.264 sq., 283, 290 sq.; PvA 71.

Upakaroti [upa + karoti] to do a service, serve, help, support Th 2, 89 (aor. upakasim = anuganhim santappesim ThA 88). -pp. upakkhata (q. v.).

Upakara [from upa + kr, cp. upakarana] service, help, benefit, obligation, favour D III.187 sq.; VvA 68; PvA 8, 18 (-aya hoti is good for); Sdhp 283, 447, 530. bahupakara (adj.) of great help, very serviceable or helpful S IV.295; PvA 114. upakaram karoti to do a favour, to oblige PvA 42, 88, 159 (kata); katupakara one to whom a service has been rendered PvA 116. -avaha useful, serviceable, doing good PvA 86.

Upakaraka (adj.) [from upakara] serviceable, helping, effective J V.99; Vism 534. - f. upakarika 1. benefactress, helper J III.437. - 2. fortification (strengthening of the defence) on a city wall D I.105, see DA I.274 and cp. parikkhara; M I.86 ( = Nd2 1996). - 3. (philosophy) = cause (that which is an aid in the persistence or happening of any given thing) Tikapatthana I.11

Upakarin (adj.-n.) [from upakara; cp. ASanskrit upakarin Jtm. 3142] a benefactor J III.11; DA I.187; Sdhp 540, 546.

Upakinna [pp. of upakirati] strewn over with (*-), covered Vv 351 (rucak-, so read for rajak-; explained by okinna VvA 160).

Upakiriya (f.) [from upa + kr] implement, ornament J V.408.

Upakujati [upa + kujati] to sing to (of birds) J IV.296 (kujantam u. = replies w. song to the singing). -pp. upakujita (q. v.).

Upakujita (*-) [pp. of upakujati] resounding, filled with the hum or song of (birds) J IV.359; PvA 154.

Upakula [upa + kula] embankment, a river's bank, riverside J VI.26 (rukkh-upakulaje the trees sprung up at its bank).

Upakulita [derivation uncertain] used of the nose in old age Th 2, 258 (jaraya patisedhika viya says the commentary. Morris J.Pali Text Society 1884, 74 translations. obstructed; Mrs. Rh. D. in "Sistereotype" takes it for upaku'ita and translations. seared and shrivelled. So also Ed. Muller J R A S. 1919. 538. This is probably right; but Oldenberg, Pischel and Hardy all read upakulita.

Upaku'ita [pp. of kud, a variant of kuth, kvathati] singed, boiled, roasted J I.405 ("half-roasted" = addhajjhamaka C.). See also upakusita.

Upakusita at J II.134 is perhaps faulty for -ku'ita, which is suggested by C. explination. "kukkule jhamo" and also by v. l. -kuthita (for kutthita boiled, sweltering, hot). The variant (gloss) -kujita may have the same origin, viz. -ku'ita, was however interpreted (v. l. BB.) by -kupita (meaning "shaken, disturbed by fire").

Upakka see uppakka.

Upakkanta [pp. of upakkamati] 1. attacked by (*-) Miln 112. - 2. attacking, intriguing or plotting against (loc.) DA I.140.

Upakkama [from upa + kram] (1) lit. (a) going to, nearing, approach (*-) VvA 72. - (b) attack Vin II.195; Miln 157; DA I.69, 71. - (2) applied (a) in general: doing, acting, undertaking, act S I.152 = Sn p. 126. - (b) in special: ways, means, i. e. either good of helpful means, expedient, remedy Sn 575; Miln 151, 152; or bad or unfair means, treachery, plotting Th 1, 143; J IV.115 (punishment); Miln 135, 176.

Upakkamati [upa + kamati of kram] to go on to, i e. (1) to attack M I.86 = Ud 71. - (2) to undertake Vin III.110, 111. - (3) to begin Vin IV.316; DA I.318.

Upakkamana (nt.) [from upa + kram] going near to, attacking J IV.12.

Upakkitaka [from upa + kri to buy] a buyer, hawker, dealer combined. with bhataka DhA I.119 = Ud 23 (C. expls. by "yo kahapan¢dihi kinci kinati so upakkitako ti vuccati"); Ps II.196 (* T. upakkhittaka).

Upakkilittha [pp. of upa + klid or klish, cp. kilesa and next] soiled, stained, depraved, impure S I.179; A I.207 (citta); Vism 13.

Upakkilesa [from upa + klish] anything that spoils or obstructs, a minor stain, impurity, defilement, depravity, Vin II.295 (cp. SnA 487 and VvA 134 and see abbha); M I.36, 91; D III.42 sq., 49 sq., 201; S V.92 sq. (panca cittassa upakkilesa), 108, 115; A I.10 (agantuka), 207 (cittassa), 253 (o'arika etc.); II.53 (candima-suriyanam samana-brahmananam), 67; III.16 (jatarupassa, cittassa), 386 sq.; IV.177 (vigata); V.195; Ps I.164 (eighteen); Pug 60; Dhs 1059, 1136; Nett 86 sq., 94, 114 sq.; Sdhp 216, 225 (as upaklesa). Ten stains at Vism 633.

Upakkuttha [pp. of upakkosati] blamed, reproached, censured, faulty D I.113 (an-); Sn p. 115 (id.); J III.523; DA I.211.

Upakkosa [from upa + krush] censure, reproach J VI.489.

Upakkosati [upa + kosati] to scold, reprove, blame D I. 161; J III.436, 523; IV.81, 317, 409.

Upakkhata and -ta [pp. of upakaroti] done as a favour or service, given, prepared, administereotyped D I.127 ( = sajjita DA I.294); Pv II.84 ( = sajjita PvA 107); J VI.139; Miln 156.

Upakkhalati [upa + khalati] to stumble, trip D II.250; M II.209; A III.101; J III.433.

Upakkhalana (nt.) [from prec.] stumbling, tripping Vism 500.

Upakkhittaka at Ps II.196 see upakk-.

Upakhandha [upa + khandha] lit. upper (side of the) trunk, back, shoulder J IV.210 ( = khandha C.).

Upaga (always as -upaga) (adj.) [upa + ga] - 1. going to, getting to, reaching, in phrases kay-, S II.24; akas-ananc- ayatan- etc. Ps I.84; kay- S II.24; brahmalok- Pv II.1319; yathakamm- D I.82. - 2. coming into, experiencing, having, as vikappan- according to option Vin IV.283; phal- bearing fruit, and pupph- having flowers, in flower PvA 275. 3. attached to, belonging to, being at J I.51 (hatth-); VvA 12 (id. + padupaga). - 4. in phrase gayh- lit. "accessible to the grip", acquisition of property, theft J IV.219 (T. gayhupaka); Miln 325; DhA II.29; PvA 4.

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Upagacchati [upa + gacchati] - 1. to come to, go to, approach, flow to (of water) D II.12; PvA 12 (vasanatthanam), 29, 32 (vasan) 132; ger. -gantva PvA 70 (attano santikam), and -gamma S II.17, 20. - 2. to undergo, go (in) to, to begin, undertake Sn 152 (ditthim anupagamma); J I.106 (vassan); PvA 42 (id.); J I.200; niddam upagacchati to drop off into sleep PvA 43 (aor. upagacchi, MSS. -ganchi), 105, 128. -pp. upagata (q. v.).

Upaganhana (f.) [abstr. of upa + grh] taking up, keeping up. meditating Miln 37.

Upaganhati [upa + ganhati] to take up (for meditation) Miln 38.