Digha Nikaya


[Site Map]  [Home]  [Sutta Indexes]  [Glossology]  [Site Sub-Sections]

The Pali is transliterated as IAST Unicode (āīūṃṅñṭḍṇḷ). Alternatives:
[ ASCII (aiumnntdnl) | Mobile (āīūŋńñţđņļ) | Velthuis (aaiiuu.m'n~n.t.d.n.l) ]

 

Dīgha Nikāya

The Longs Basket

Sutta 33

Saṅgīti Suttanta

The Compilation

Fives

Translated from the Pali by Michael Olds

 


 

There are, friends, five-part Dhammas consummately taught by the Bhagava, that #1-Consummately-Awakened-One, an Arahant who knows and sees. In this situation, let us all gather together as one, undivided, so that this Best of Lives will stay on track and stand for a long time as a benefit to the many, as a pleasure for the many, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit and pleasure of gods and man.
What are these fives?

[5.01][pts][wp] The five piles:[1]
The materiality pile, the sense experience pile, the perception pile, the confounding pile, the consciousness pile.

[5.02][pts][wp] Five piles of bindups:[2]
The bound-up-in-materiality pile, the bound-up-in-sense-experience pile, the bound-up-in-perception pile, the bound-up-in-confounding pile, the bound-up-in-consciousness pile.

[5.03][pts][wp] Five strings of pleasure:[3]
Eye-consciousness of shapes that are wished for, enjoyable, pleasing, appearing friendly, connected with desire and lust.
Ear-consciousness of sounds that are wished for, enjoyable, pleasing, appearing friendly, connected with desire and lust.
Nose-consciousness of scents that are wished for, enjoyable, pleasing, appearing friendly, connected with desire and lust.
Tongue-consciousness of tastes that are wished for, enjoyable, pleasing, appearing friendly, connected with desire and lust.
Body-consciousness of touches that are wished for, enjoyable, pleasing, appearing friendly, connected with desire and lust.

[5.04][pts][wp] Five destinations:[4]
Hell, the womb of an animal, the ghostly-garb, as man, as god.

[5.05][pts][wp] Five sorts of snobbery:[5]
Snobbery with regard to residence, snobbery with regard to birth, snobbery with regard to wealth and possessions, snobbery with regard to race or appearance, snobbery with regard to Dhamma.

[5.06][pts][wp] Five obstructions:[6]
The obstruction that is wanting; the obstruction that is anger; the obstruction that is lazy-ways-and-inertia; the obstruction that is fear-and-trembling, the obstruction that is doubt.

[5.07][pts][wp] Five attachments to the lower rebirths:[7]
One-truth-view, vascillation, attachment to trust in ethics and rituals, pleasure-wishing, anger.

[5.08][pts][wp] Five attachments to the higher rebirths:[8]
Lust for material things, lust for immaterial things, pride, fear, blindness.

[5.09][pts][wp] Five paths laid down for the seeker:[9]
Abstenance from assault on breathing beings, abstenance from taking what is not given, abstenance from sensual miscoduct, abstenance from deceitful speechifying, abstenance from drinking intoxicating drinks that engender carelessness.

[5.10][pts][wp] Five situations that cannot happen:[10]
It cannot happen, friends, that in a beggar, one who has left behind the asavas, there is intentional deprivation of the life of a breating being.
It cannot happen, friends, that in a beggar, one who has left behind the asavas, there is taking what has not been given in such a way as to constitute theft.
It cannot happen, friends, that in a beggar, one who has left behind the asavas, there could be indulgence in sucha thing as sexual intercourse.
It cannot happen, friends, that in a beggar, one who has left behind the asavas, there is deliberate false speech.
It cannot happen, friends, that in a beggar, one who has left behind the asavas, there is the storing-up of desirable eatables suchas was done in the prior life as a layman.

[5.11][pts][wp] Five distortions:[11]
Distortion caused by kinfolk, distortion caused by wealth, distortion caused by disease, distortion caused by values, distortion caused by view.
It is not because of distortion caused by kinfolk, distortion caused by wealth or distortion caused by disease, friends, that beings upon the break-up of the body after death rise up reborn suffering in the pits, punished in Niraya; it is because of distortion caused by values and distortion caused by view, friends that beings upon the breakup of the body after death rise up reborn suffering in the pits, punished in Niraya.

[5.12][pts][wp] Five smooth paths:[12]
The smooth path caused by kinfolk, the smooth path caused by wealth, the smooth path caused by health, the smooth path caused by values, the smooth path caused by view.
It is not because of the smooth path caused by kinfolk, the smooth path caused by wealth or the smooth path caused by health, friends, that beings upon the break-up of the body after death rise up reborn in happyness, in heavenly states; it is because of the smooth path caused by values and the smooth path caused by view, friends that beings upon the breakup of the body after death rise up reborn in happyness, in heavenly states.

[5.13][pts][wp] Five dangers from the lapse in values of those of bad values.[13]
Here friends, a danger from the lapse in values of those of bad values is great loss of wealth through careless behavior. This is the first danger from the lapse in values of those of bad values.
Additionally, friends, and deeper than that, a danger from the lapse in values of those of bad values is the spreading abroad of a bad reputation. This is the second danger from the lapse in values of those of bad values.
Additionally, friends, and deeper than that, a danger from the lapse in values of those of bad values is that coming upon a group of people, whether it's a group of royalty or a group of brahmins or a group of householders or a group of shamen one does so without confidence and in confusion. This is the third danger from the lapse in values of those of bad values.
Additionally, friends, and deeper than that, a danger from the lapse in values of those of bad values is reaching the end of one's time bewildered. This is the fourth danger from the lapse in values of those of bad values.
Additionally, friends, and deeper than that, a danger from the lapse in values of those of bad values is that upon the breakup of the body after death one rises up reborn suffering in the pits, punished in Niraya. This is the fifth danger from the lapse in values of those of bad values.

[5.14][pts][wp] Five benefits in the maintenance of values of those endowed with values:[14]
Here friends, a benefit in the maintenance of values of those endowed with values is accumulation of great wealth through industriousness. This is the first benefit in the maintenance of values of those endowed with values.
Additionally, friends, and deeper than that, a benefit in the maintenance of values of those endowed with values is the spreading abroad of a good reputation. This is the second benefit in the maintenance of values of those endowed with values.
Additionally, friends, and deeper than that, a benefit in the maintenance of values of those endowed with values is that coming upon a group of people, whether it's a group of royalty or a group of brahmins, or a group of householders or a group of shamen one does so confidently and without confusion. This is the third benefit in the maintenance of values of those endowed with values.
Additionally, friends, and deeper than that, a benefit in the maintenance of values of those endowed with values is reaching the end of one's time without bewilderment. This is the fourth benefit in the maintenance of value of those endowed with values.
Addāonally, friends, and deeper than that, a benefit in the maintenance of values of those endowed with values is that upon the breakup of the body after death one rises reborn in happyness, in a heavenly state.

[5.15][pts][wp] In correcting, friends, a beggar should keep in mind five things when he desires to correct another:[15]
'Let me speak in a timely way, not in a way that is not timely;
Let me speak with verasity, not without verasity;
Let me speak gently, not harshly;
Let me speak about what is profitable, not what is not profitable;
Let me speak with friendlyness in my heart not with an angry attitude;
In correcting, friends, these are the five things a beggar should keep in mind when he desires to correct another.

[5.16][pts][wp] Five dimensions of striving:[16]
Here, friends, a beggar has faith, believing in the awakening of the Tathagata:[17] Thus is the Bhagava, Arahant, Consummately-Self-Awakened, perfected in vision and conduct, The Wellcome One[18], World-Knower, unsurpassable Dhamma-coach for man, teacher of gods and men, A Buddha, The Lucky Man.
He has few oppressions, few upsets, is possessed of smoothly assimilating[19] digestion, neither too cool nor too hot, but in between, of a sort for making effort.
He has no dishonesty, is undeceiving about himself, is no boaster to his Teacher or to the wise among his fellow Brahma-farers.
He lives with roused energy, letting go of unskillful things, taking up skillful things, steadfast, of steady exertion, not putting down the undertaking of skillful things.
He has wisdom, he is wise to what leads to rise and fall, being possessed of that aristocratic penetration that leads to consummate destruction of Pain.

[5.17][pts][wp] Five pure habitations:[20]
Without-violence, without torment, being pure, among the pure, without youngsters.

[5.18][pts][wp] Five Non-Returners:[21]
Midway-All-round-unbound, reduced-all-round-unbound, no-confounding-all-round-unbounding, with-confounding-all-round-unbounding, the up-stream-to-the-Akanittha-goer.

[5.19][pts][wp] Five mental sticking points:[22]
Here, friends, a bhikkhu has perplexity, doubt and vascillation about the Teacher and can neither make up his mind or find tranquillity. This perplexity, doubt and vascillation concerning the Teacher this inability to make up his mind or find tranquillity being the case, friends, a beggar's heart is disinclined towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-ivness, making effort. This disinclination of the heart towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-iveness, and making effort is the first mental sticking point.
Again, additionally friends, a bhikkhu has perplexity, doubt and vascillation about the Dhamma and can neither make up his mind or find tranquillity. This perplexity, doubt and vascillation concerning the Dhamma this inability to make up his mind or find tranquillity being the case, friends, a beggar's heart is disinclined towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-ivness, making effort. This disinclination of the heart towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-iveness, and making effort is the second mental sticking point.
Again, additionally friends, a bhikkhu has perplexity, doubt and vascillation about the Sangha and can neither make up his mind or find tranquillity. This perplexity, doubt and vascillation concerning the Sangha this inability to make up his mind or find tranquillity being the case, friends, a beggar's heart is disinclined towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-ivness, making effort. This disinclination of the heart towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-iveness, and making effort is the third mental sticking point.
Again, additionally friends, a bhikkhu has perplexity, doubt and vascillation about the way to seek and can neither make up his mind or find tranquillity. This perplexity, doubt and vascillation concerning the way to seek this inability to make up his mind or find tranquillity being the case, friends, a beggar's heart is disinclined towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-ivness, making effort. This disinclination of the heart towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-iveness, and making effort is the fourth mental sticking point.
Again, additionally friends, a bhikkhu has anger and displeasure with regard to his fellow Brahma-farers, afflicted at heart, he is stuck. This anger and displeasure with regard to his fellow Brahma-farers, this affliction of heart, this being stuck being the case, friends, a beggar's heart is disinclined towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-ivness, making effort. This disinclination of the heart towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-iveness, and making effort is the fifth mental sticking point.

[5.20][pts][wp] Five mental rebindings:[23]
Here, friends, a beggar has, with regard to the carnal pleasures, not foregone lust, not foregone wanting, not foregone affection, not foregone thirst, not foregone the hysteria, not foregone the hunger. This not having foregone lust, not having foregone wanting, not having foregone affection, not having foregone thirst, not having foregone the hysteria, not having foregone the hunger with regard to carnal pleasures being the case, friends, a beggar's heart is disinclined towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-ivness, making effort. This disinclination of the heart towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-iveness, and making effort is the first mental rebinding.
And additionally, friends, a beggar has, with regard to body not foregone lust, not foregone wanting, not foregone affection, not foregone thirst, not foregone the hysteria, not foregone the hunger. This not having foregone lust, not having foregone wanting, not having foregone affection, not having foregone thirst, not having foregone the hysteria, not having foregone the hunger with regard to body being the case, friends, a beggar's heart is disinclined towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-ivness, making effort. This disinclination of the heart towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-iveness, and making effort is the second mental rebinding.
And additionally, friends, a beggar has, with regard to materiality not foregone lust, not foregone wanting, not foregone affection, not foregone thirst, not foregone the hysteria, not foregone the hunger. This not having foregone lust, not having foregone wanting, not having foregone affection, not having foregone thirst, not having foregone the hysteria, not having foregone the hunger with regard to materiality being the case, friends, a beggar's heart is disinclined towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-ivness, making effort. This disinclination of the heart towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-iveness, and making effort is the third mental rebinding.
And, additionally friends, a beggar, having filled his belly with as much food as he likes applies himself to habit of enjoying thepleasure of the bed, the pleasure of touch, the pleasure of torpor. This filling his belly with as much food as he likes and applying himself to the habit of enjoying the pleasure of the bed, the pleasure of touch, the pleasure of torpor being the case, friends, a beggar's heart is disinclined towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-ivness, making effort. This disinclination of the heart towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-iveness, and making effort is the fourth mental rebinding.
And, additionally friends, a beggar walks this Brahma-Faring intent on some group of gods thinking: "In this way, by this practice and by this ethical conduct and by these self-sacrifices, by this Brahma-Faring I will become a god or one in the company of these gods." This waling this Brahma-Faring intent on some group of gods thinking: "in this way, by this practice and by this ethical conduct and by these self-sacrifices, by this Brahma-Faring I will become a god or one in the company of these gods," being the case, friends, a beggar's heart is disinclined towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-iveness, making effort. This disinclination of the heart towards struggle, devotion, stick-to-it-iveness, and making effort is the fifth mental rebinding.

[5.21][pts][wp] Five Forces:[24]
The force of the eye, the force of the ear, the force of the nose, the force of the tongue, the force of the body.

[5.22][pts][wp] Another five forces:[25]
The force of pleasure, the force of pain, the force of mental ease, the force of mental pain, the force of detachment.

[5.23][pts][wp] Another five forces:[26]
The force of faith, the force of energy, force of mind, the force of getting high, the force of wisdom.

[5.24][pts][wp] Five elements of escape:[27]
Here friends a beggar, mentally working on sensuality, does not gather-in, does not become comfortable with, does not take his stand on, does not unharness the sensuality in his heart, mentally working on giving-up, gathers-in, becomes comfortable with, takes his stand on, unharnesses the giving-up in his heart, and, getting such state of mind well developed, well established, well freed from sensuality, so that, truly disconnected and free from those reverberations of sensuality that may reappear, the consuming passions of the no-goods destroyed, there is no experience of such sensations, this is called the escape from sensuality.
Again additionally, friends a beggar, mentally working on anger, does not gather-in, does not become comfortable with, does not take his stand on, does not unharness the anger in his heart, mentally working on non-anger, gathers-in, becomes comfortable with, takes his stand on, unharnesses the non-anger in his heart, and, getting such state of mind well developed, well established, well freed from anger, so that, truly disconnected and free from those reverberations of anger that may reappear, the consuming passions of the no-goods destroyed, there is no experience of such sensations, this is called the escape from anger.
Again additionally, friends a beggar, mentally working on cruelty, does not gather-in, does not become comfortable with, does not take his stand on, does not unharness the cruelty in his heart, mentally working on non-cruelty, gathers-in, becomes comfortable with, takes his stand on, unharnesses the non-cruelty in his heart, and, getting such state of mind well developed, well established, well freed from cruelty, so that, truly disconnected and free from those reverberations of cruelty that may reappear, the consuming passions of the no-goods destroyed, there is no experience of such sensations, this is called the escape from cruelty.
Again additionally, friends a beggar, mentally working on materialism, does not gather-in, does not become comfortable with, does not take his stand on, does not unharness the materialism in his heart, mentally working on non-materialism, gathers-in, becomes comfortable with, takes his stand on, unharnesses the non-materialism in his heart, and, getting such state of mind well developed, well established, well freed from materialism, so that, truly disconnected and free from those reverberations of materialism that may reappear, the consuming passions of the no-goods destroyed, there is no experience of such sensations, this is called the escape from materialism.
Again additionally, friends a beggar, mentally working on the idea of own-self, does not gather-in, does not become comfortable with, does not take his stand on, does not unharness the idea of own-self in his heart, mentally working on erradication of own-self, gathers-in, becomes comfortable with, takes his stand on, unharnesses the erradication of own-self in his heart, and, getting such state of mind well developed, well established, well freed from the idea of own-self, so that, truly disconnected and free from those reverberations of the idea of own-self that may reappear, the consuming passions of the no-goods destroyed, there is no experience of such sensations, this is called the escape from own-self.

[5.25][pts][wp] Five spheres of freedom:[28]
Here friends a beggar is taught dhamma by the Master or by some esteemed Guru in the BrahmaLife.
Suchas suchas[29] he is taught by the Master or by some esteemed Guru in the BrahmaLife, friends, and such as such is as a beggar's experience of dhamma is attained and such is as the experience of dhamma he gets: from such is delight born from the experience he gains in the experience of dhamma. From such delight there is born enthusiasm; enthusiastic in mind, the body is calmed, calmed in body he experiences pleasure, pleased at heart he gets high. This is the first sphere of freedom.
Again, additionally, friends, a beggar has not had dhamma taught to him by the Master or by some esteemed Guru in the BrahmaLife, however such is heard[30] and dhamma is thoroughly understood from the detailed teaching of others. Such as suchas is heard and such dhamma as is thoroughly understood of the detailed teaching of others, friends, and such as such is as a beggar's experience of dhamma is attained and such is as the experience of dhamma he gets: from such is delight born from the experience he gains in the experience of dhamma. From such delight there is born enthusiasm; enthusiastic in mind, the body is calmed, calmed in body he experiences pleasure, pleased at heart he gets high. This is the second sphere of freedom.
Again, additionally, friends, a beggar has not had dhamma taught to him by the Master or by some esteemed Guru in the BrahmaLife, nor has such been heard and thoroughly understood from the detailed teaching of others, however such is heard and such dhamma is thoroughly understood from pieced-together memorizations. Such as suchas is heard and such dhamma as is thoroughly understood from pieced-together memorizations, friends, and such as such is as a beggar's experience of dhamma is attained and such is as the experience of dhamma he gets: from such is delight born from the experience he gains in the experience of dhamma. From such delight there is born enthusiasm; enthusiastic in mind, the body is calmed, calmed in body he experiences pleasure, pleased at heart he gets high. This is the third sphere of freedom.
Again, additionally, friends, a beggar has not had dhamma taught to him by the Master or by some esteemed Guru in the BrahmaLife, nor has such been heard and thoroughly understood from the detailed teaching of others, nor has such been heard and thoroughly understood from pieced-together memorizations, however such is heard and such dhamma is thoroughly understood from thinking over in mind and mental re-examination of reactions. Such as suchas is heard and such dhamma as is thoroughly understood from thinking over in mind and mental re-examination of reactions, friends, and such as such is as a beggar's experience of dhamma is attained and such is as the experience of dhamma he gets: from such is delight born from the experience he gains in the experience of dhamma. From such delight there is born enthusiasm; enthusiastic in mind, the body is calmed, calmed in body he experiences pleasure, pleased at heart he gets high. This is the fourth sphere of freedom.
Again, additionally, friends, a beggar has not had dhamma taught to him by the Master or by some esteemed Guru in the BrahmaLife, nor has such been heard and thoroughly understood from the detailed teaching of others, nor has such been heard and thoroughly understood from pieced-together memorizations, nor has such been heard and thoroughly understood from thinking over in mind and mental re-examination of reactions, however he has a good mastery of some mark of highgetting in which he has mentally well trained himself, which is well-grasped, well penetrated by wisdom. Such as suchas is heard and such dhamma as is thoroughly understood from a good mastery of some mark of highgetting in which he has mentally well trained himself, which is well-grasped, well penetrated by wisdom, friends, and such as such is as a beggar's experience of dhamma is attained and such is as the experience of dhamma he gets: from such is delight born from the experience he gains in the experience of dhamma. From such delight there is born enthusiasm; enthusiastic in mind, the body is calmed, calmed in body he experiences pleasure, pleased at heart he gets high. This is the fifth sphere of freedom.

[5.26][pts][wp] Five freedom-ripening perceptions:[31]
Perception of impermanance, perception of pain in impermanance, perception of not-self in pain, perception of letting go, perception of dispassion.

These then, friends, are those five-part Dhammas consummately taught by the Bhagava, that #1-Consummately-Awakened-One, an Arahant who knows and sees. In this situation, let us all gather to gether as one, undivided, so that this Best of Lives will stay on track and stand for a long time as a benefit to the many, as a pleasure for the many, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit and pleasure of gods and man.

 


[1] Pañcakkhandhā.
Piles or heaps because they are what is piled up or heaped up as a consequence of the actions of individuals. Or you could say: "that which we understand to be the componants of an indivuality can be heaped into five piles, sorted into five groups, etc.
See Bhikkhu Thanissaro: Five Piles of Bricks (...bricks! ugh!) and his Study Guide

[2] Pañcupādāna-kkhandhā.
Most of the other translators speak of "grasping or clinging," Venerable Punnaji speaks of "personalization," but grasping or clinging or personalizing, or getting bound up, it is materiality, sense experience, etc., which is that with which one is geting involved, and it is the pile that is the result (i.e., these are not grasping-groups (little piles sitting there grasping after rupas, etc), they are groups resulting from grasping; the group is identified as the rupa-pile because those components which make up that pile were a result of grasping after material shapes.
I say the idea is "going after getting."
This is where "upadana" fits into the paticca samuppada So when it speaks of "upadana" you should be thinking that what is being upadana'd after is rupa, etc.
See: The Fifth Lesson
Glossology: Pañcūpādāna-kkhandhā
PED: Khandha. Crude meaning: bulk, massiveness (gross) substance. A. esp. used (a) of an elephant: the bulk of the body. (b) of a person: the shoulder or back. (c) of a tree: the trunk.
Applied meaning. — A. the body of, a collection of, mass, or parts of; in collective sense "all that is comprised under"; forming the substance of.
B. (absolute) in individual sense: constituent element, factor, substantiality.
Upādāna: lit. that (material) substratum by means of which an active process is kept alive or going (mo: how that can be called the "literal" definition is beyond me), fuel, supply, provision; adj. supported by, drawing one's existence from S I.69; ... 2. (appld.) "drawing upon", grasping, holding on, grip, attachment; adj. finding one's support by or in, clinging to, taking up, nourished by.

[3] Pañca kāma-guṇā.
Guṇa1 1. a string, a cord — (a) of a robe, etc. (b) of musical instruments. — (c) of a bow, in aguna stringless. 2.(a strand of a rope as) constituent part, ingredient, component, element; with numerals it equals -fold
MO: my guess is this is from guṇa2 in it's meaning as "gut." The idea seems to be more of "string, or strand, or thread" than of "cord, or rope;" one thread of a rug or rope made up of many such threads. I think we need to relate this to sutta, where sutta is similar to our "yarn" or a story with many threads composed of small strands of fiber which is, in turn, composed of filiments.

[4] Pañca gatiyo.
See also: The 9th Lesson PED: Gata. gone, 1. literal: gone away, arrived at, directed to 2. in applied meaning: gone in a certain way, i. e. affected, behaved, fared, fated, being in or having come into a state or condition.
Meanings and Use: 1. to go, to be in motion, to move, to go on 2. to go, to walk 3. to go away, to go out, to go forth 4. with acc. or substitute: to go to, to have access to, to arrive or get at (with the aim of the movement or the object of the intention); hence fig. to come to know, to experience, to realize.

[5] Pañca macchariyāni.
PED: Macchariya avarice, stinginess, selfishness, envy; one of the principal evil passions & the main cause of rebirth in the Petaloka.

[6] Pañca nīvaraṇāni.
See Glossology: Nivarana which links to the individual terms and numerous references.
PED: Nīvaraṇa. an obstacle, hindrance, applied to obstacles in an ethical sense
See: The Pali Line: High Getting High and The Great Master's Satisfaction Pastures Walshe, Rhys Davids (any many others): hindrances.
Bhante Punnaji, Awakening Meditation, pp8-55: "When the mind is free of the obscurants (nivarana) there is proper attention. Obscurants are the emotional excitements that prevent you from observing what is there. That is the main thing to understand. When you are free of those interferences then your mind is calm and rested and you are able to observe whatever is there. You are able to pay attention because your mind is not going after the past or the future, but just observing what is in the present moment. The ability to do that is facilitated by entering the jhana because the jhana is the state where the id is free of the obscurants.

[7] Pañc'orambhāgiyāni saɱyojanānā.
See #3.19 above.
See Glossology: Sanyojana for these terms.
See the discussion of MN II, #64: Greater Discourse to Malunkyaputta, PTS, Horner trans., pp102; Wisdom, Nanamoli/Bodhi trans., pp537. On the important distinction between there being these types of things existing in the world and their being fetters; it is only when obsession with or attachment to things in the ways described by the sanyojanas develops that they become fetters. The difference is that holding that the thing itself is the problem makes the problem impossible to solve: one will never rid the world of own-self view, etc., and to say that one intends by that idea simply "ridding the self" of these things is to assume a self from which these things can be eliminated. It's like looking at the sky and saying that seeing the sky is a problem and then attempting to get rid of the sight of it by getting rid of the sky. Not only will one not succeed in getting rid of the sky in the world, the individuality will not get rid of seeing it (whether attached to it or not, when the eye of the individual looks at the world, it will see the sky). It is not the sky or the seeing of the sky that is the problem, it is the attachment to seeing the sky that is the problem.
This is the subtlety of Mara: that when the individuality comes in contact with some object and sense experience arises the habitual subjective tendancy is to identify with the reaction and to overlook the fact that the identification actually took place at the earlier stage. Then, when we strive after self-improvement, (if we fall into Malunkyaputta's error, which is likely) we focus on our reactions and not the source of the reaction: a situation that amounts to no more than simply reacting to reaction (the image of Bugs Bunny furiously fighting with himself comes to mind). What the sanyojanas describe is a variety of classes of sources of reaction to sense experience, and the task for the practitioner is not to get rid of these constructs, but by using these constructs, to identify the areas where one is vulnerable to attachment. When one can slow down sufficiently (by "not-reacting", which is not the same thing as fighting one's reactions) to see that one is reacting to sense experience because of one or another of these ways to become attached, one is able to move the attention up passed that and focus on the original source: It is at that point that one has "got rid of the attachment to ..." or, in any case, is at least able to focus on the real problem with the predictable outcome that it will be solved soon enough.
Another simile found in the suttas describes two cows, one black, one white, with a rope that ties them together. It is not that the black cow is attached to the white cow, and it is not that the white cow is attached to the black cow, but it is that the two cows are attached to each other by the rope.

[8] Pañc'uddhama-bhāgiyāni saɱyojanāni.
See Glossology: Sanyojana.

[9] Pañca sikkhāpadāni.

[10] Pañca abhabba-ṭṭhānāni.
PED: Abhabba impossible, not likely, unable D III.13 sq., 19, 26 sq., 133.
-ṭṭhāna a (moral) impossibility

[11] Pañca vyasanāni.
PED: Vyasana misfortune, misery, ruin, destruction, loss.

[12] Pañca sampadā.
PED: Sampadā Attainment, success, accomplishment; happiness, good fortune; blessing, bliss
The problem here is that we have labha and alabha for gains and losses, and this and the next call for two distinctly different sets of matching words. Also the word used for "health" by Walshe and Rhys Davids in the first instance is "disease", and using the same construction for each set of terms as is done in the Pali, renders "loss" (e.g. as it would be for Walshe: Loss of relatives, loss of wealth, loss of disease...) incorrectly according to the context.

[13] Pañca ādīnāvā dussīlassa sīla-vipattiyā.
PED: Ādīnava a substantivised adj., orig. meaning "full of wretchedness" ... disadvantage, danger ... 1. nature, character, habit, behaviour; usually as *- in adj. function "being of such a nature," like, having the character of...
Vipatti wrong state, false manifestation, failure, misfortune.
Nigacchati to go down to, to "undergo," incur, enter, come to; to suffer.
Kitti praise. fame, renown, glory, honour
-sadda the sound of fame, praise, renown.
Visārada self-possessed, confident; knowing how to conduct oneself, skilled, wise.
Manku staggering, confused, troubled, discontented.
Sammū'ha infatuated, bewildered D II.85; M I.250; A I.165.
Mū'ha 1. gone astray, erring, having lost one's way ... 2. confused, infatuated, blinded, erring, foolish D I.59.

[14] Pañca ānisaɱsā sīla-vato sīla-sampadāya.
PED: Ānisaŋsa praise i. e. that which is commendable, profit, merit, advantage, good result, blessing in or from.

[15] Codakena āvuso bhikkhunā paraɱ codetu-kāmena pañca dhamme ajjhattaɱ upaṭṭhepetvā paro codetabbo.
PED: Codeti to urge, incite, exhort; to reprove, reprimand, to call forth, to question; in spec. sense to demand payment of a debt.

[16] Pañca padhāniyaŋgāni.
Padhāna exertion, energetic effort, striving, concentration of mind.

[17] Tathāgata. The "That-That-Got-That."
PED: Tathāgata [Derivation uncertain. Buddhaghosa (DA I.59-67) gives eight explanations showing that there was no fixed tradition on the point, and that he himself was in doubt]. The context shows that the word is an epithet of an Arahant, and that non-Buddhists were supposed to know what it meant. The compilers of the Nikāyas must therefore have considered the expression as pre-Buddhistic; but it has not yet been found in any pre-Buddhistic work. Mrs. Rhys Davids (Dhs. tr. 1099, quoting Chalmers J.R.A.S. Jan., 1898) suggests "he who has won through to the truth."
I don't know if non-Buddhists should know the meaning, but Buddhists should "get it." A term for describing a being that cannot be said to be a being and cannot be described in any other way who has attained (gat) a goal (ta) that cannot be described. A That That's gotten That. Say: "t'ta-ga-ta." tata got ta go!

[18] Sugata. [su+gata] well-gone, (welcome), happy, having a happy life after death.

[19] Sama-vepākiniyā. Thanks to Rhys Davids for this one: Lit: "evenly-ripening."

[20] Pañca Suddhāvāsā.
PED: Suddha. clean, pure, ... 2. purified, pure of heart ... 3. simple, mere, unmixed, nothing but
-āvāsa pure abode, name of a heaven and of the devas inhabiting it
These are the "Lokas" where non-returners alone may be reborn. Life there is highly conducive to attaining the goal and this end is accomplished, so I hear, at about half way through the lifespan of these realms. Non-returners may be reborn in other realms than these, but only non-returners may be reborn in these realms. It is most likely that these realms form the basis of the belief in the Pure Abodes of the sect of Chinese Mahayana Buddhists that call themselves the Pure Land Buddhists. This group, however, believes that these realms should be the destination of all beings...sort of a staging area for the universal attainment of Nibbāna of all beings that is a main proposition of this school. This does not fit with the Pali view of the meaning of the Suddhavasa Realms.
Note Walsh has taken an admirable stab at translating the names of these realms, see his DN 33 #5.17

[21] Pañca anāgāmino.
PED: Parinibbāna "complete Nibbāna" in two meanings: 1. complete extinction of khandha life; i. e. all possibility of such life and its rebirth, final release from (the misery of) rebirth and transmigration, death (after the last life-span of an Arahant). This is the so-called "an-upādi-sesa Parinibbāna," or "extinction with no rebirth-substratum left." — 2. release from cravings and attachment to life, emancipation (in this life) with the assurance of final death; freedom of spirit, calm, perfect well-being or peace of soul. This is the so-called "sa-upādisesa-P.," or "extinction (of passion) with some substratum left." This state of final emancipation (during life) has also received the determination of anupādā-parinibbāna, i. e. emancipation without ground for further clinging (lit. without fuel).

[22] Pañca ceto-khīlā.
PED: Khīla a stake, post, bolt, peg
-ṭṭhāyi-ṭhita standing like a post (of a stubborn horse)

[23] Pañca cetaso vinibandhā.
PED: Vinibandha bondage
Nibandha binding, bond; attachment, continuance, continuity.
Bandha 1. bond, fetter. ... 4. a halter, tether.
[Ed.: To: band-aid, rubber band, bandana, a band of thieves, etc. so this word is really Re-Down-Bound. Not just the bond that holds you down, but the bond you re-apply which binds you to the next thing.]

[24] Pañc'indriyāni. For Indriyani see also: DN.33:#2.19, DN.33:#2.20, and DN.33:#3.45 and the next two fives.

[25] Aparāni'pi pañc'indriyāni.

[26] Aparāni'pi pañc'indriyāni.

[27] Pañca nissaraṇiyā dhātuyo.
Dhatu (element) is here I think, not a "factor" of escape but a "bit" of escape.
Nissaraṇa Walshe and Rhys Davids: "deliverance"
PED: going out, departure; issue, outcome, result; giving up, leaving behind, being freed, escape, salvation.
Sarati to go, flow, run, move along.
"Like they say: "Ex-scape"

[28] Pañca vimuttāyatanāni.

[29] Yathā yathā...tathā tathā.
PED: Yathā [fr. ya- (MOZ PALI: whatever)] as, like, in relation to, after (the manner of).
[Or, in what I used to call an interesting bit of irrelevant information: this is what is known in the darker circles of magic making as jive-talk, or to put it in the Pali j-ji-a-talk. Today the word "jive" has come to mean something like talking bullshi, but in The Old Days the meaning was to throw certain words into one's speech suchas would act as a kind of mental parenthesis into which one could include some message that would pass unnoticed...precursor of subliminal advertising. Today in RAP music this technique is being used so extensively as to render it ineffective. This is what is happening when they make a record stutter, or when they speak only half a word, or stutter a word and so forth: it produces a kind of break in the flow of pictures (or the "sense of a story") in the mind which is quickly "corrected" (made smooth) in memory, so what is said in the break is forgotten. We also get a reverse kind of use of this technique in advertising, where there is some tiny almost unnoticable little quirk in the presentation which sticks in the mind.
Here's the way to practice as I was taught it:
Did ja did ya ji-ja?
If'n ya didna didja jiji
Wicky witchl wackya with'r
wicky witchi wan
Sucha such'n sucha such'n such!
 
This is how I have translated the above, because I believe that it was intended to be just as difficult to grasp as the way it appears in my translation ... actually, if you follow it it is extremely precise, it just does not compromise on word use for the sake of explanation. Often times the Dhamma is put in these mind-bending forms in what I believe amounts to mental gymnastics. While it is doubtful that this sutta (I am talking about the whole Sangiti Suttanta) was actually ever given like this, it is no doubt compiled from authentic suttas, and many of these were given in circumstances such as is described as the setting for this sutta: i.e., for the in-group, after the 'many folk' had departed for the night. However, for the sake of clarity, here is how I would put the idea in "plain talk":
 
In the first case we have the case of the beggar who is taught the Dhamma by The Master or by some Esteemed Guru in the BrahmaLife. In so far as what he is taught by the Master or by some esteemed Guru in the BrahmaLife (for example, he may only be taught ethics, not further dhamma),
and to the extent that he is able to attain in experience what he has been taught (being told to act ethically, he acts ethically),
and to the extent that he has "got" understanding from that (acting ethically, he sees the benefit),
to this degree he will experience delight
From this delight comes enthusiasm,
Enthusiastic in mind, the body becomes calm,
Calm in body he experiences pleasure,
Pleased in mind he is said to have attained samadhi.
This is the first area experienced as freedom.]

[30] Sutaɱ. here in the sense of "learned."

[31] Pañca vimutati-paripācaniyā saññā.


 [Next]


 [Ones and Twos]  [Threes]  [Fours]  [Fives]  [Sixes]  [Sevens]  [Eights]  [Nines]  [Tens]


 

Contact:
E-mail
Copyright Statement   Webmaster's Page