Digha Nikaya


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Dīgha Nikāya

The Longs Basket

Sutta 33

Saṅgīti Suttanta

The Compilation

Fours

Translated from the Pali by Michael Olds

 


 

There are, friends, four-part Dhammas consummately taught by the Bhagava, that #1-Consummately-Awakened-One, an Arahant who knows and sees. In this situation, let us allgather together as one, undivided, so that this Best of Lives will stay on track and stand for a long time as a benefit to the many, as a pleasure for the many, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit and pleasure of gods and man.
What are these fours?

[4.01][pts][wp] Four preparations of mind:[1]
Here friends a beggar lives in a body reviewing the body, burning for comprehension of mind, restraining worldly ambitions and disappointments.
Here friends a beggar lives in a sense experience reviewing sense experience, burning for comprehension of mind, restraining worldly ambitions and disappointments.
Here friends a beggar lives in the emotions reviewing the emotions, burning for comprehension of mind, restraining worldly ambitions and disappointments.
Here friends a beggar lives in The Word reviewing The Word, burning for comprehension of mind, restraining worldly ambitions and disappointments.

[4.02][pts][wp] Four Consummate Efforts[2]
Here friends a beggar generates intention, sets his thinking on, rouses energy, and makes an effort to prevent the arising of bad, unskillful states not yet present in the here and now,
generates intention, sets his thinking on, rouses energy, and makes an effort to let go of bad, unskillful states that are present in the here and now,
generates intention, sets his thinking on, rouses energy and makes an effort to get skillful states not yet present in the here and now,
generates intention, sets his thinking on, rouses energy and makes an effort to retain, establish, rid of confusion, complete, develop, increase, and add to skillful states that are present in the here and now

[4.03][pts][wp] The Four Power Paths[3]
He begets the Powerpath Consisting of Effort-upon-Effort at Confounding Wish-HighGetting;
He begets the Powerpath Consisting of Effort-upon-Effort at Confounding Energy-HighGetting;
He begets the Powerpath Consisting of Effort-upon-Effort at Confounding HeartFelt-HighGetting;
He begets the Powerpath Consisting of Effort-upon-Effort at Confounding Reminiscence-HighGetting.

[4.04][pts][wp] The Four Burnings[4]
Here friends a bhikkhu,
separating himself from sense pleasures, separating himself from unskillful things, still thinking andreacting with the pleasurable enthusiasm born of detachment enters into and makes a habitat of the First Burning,
then, with thinking and reacting having calmed down, attaining tranquillity, becoming single-minded, without thinking and reacting, with the pleasurable enthusiasm born of Highgetting he enters into and makes a habitat of the Second Burning,
then, dispassionate and detached from enthusiasm, living conscious and aware of bodily sense-reactions suchas those described by the aristocrats when they say 'Detached, with satisfied mind, he lives pleasantly,' he enters into and makes a habitat of the Third Burning
then, letting go of his former experiences of pleasure and pain, allowing his experience of mental ease and discomfort to subside on their own, without pleasure or pain, with utterly pure detachment of mind, he enters into and mades a habitat of the Fourth Burning.

[4.05][pts][wp] Four methods of becoming High[51]
There is, friends, a method of becoming high that when developed and made much of results in living pleasantly in the here and now.
There is, friends, a method of becoming high that when developed and made much of results in knowing and seeing.
There is, friends, a method of becoming high that when developed and made much of results in a knowing one's own mind.
There is, friends, a method of becoming high that when developed and made much of results in the destruction of the no-goods.
 
And what is it, friends, that is the method of becoming high that when developed and made much of results in living pleasantly in the here and now?
Here friends a bhikkhu,
separating himself from sense pleasures, separating himself from unskillful things, still thinking and reacting with the pleasurable enthusiasm born of detachment, enters into and makes a habitat of the First Burning,
then, with thinking and reacting having calmed down, attaining tranquillity, becoming single-minded, without thinking and reacting, with the pleasurable enthusiasm born of Highgetting he enters into and makes a habitat of the Second Burning,
then, dispassionate and detached from enthusiasm, living conscious and aware of bodily sense-reactions suchas those described by the aristocrats when they say 'Detached, with satisfied mind, he lives pleasantly,' he enters into and makes a habitat of the Third Burning
then, letting go of his former experiences of pleasure and pain, allowing his experience of mental ease and discomfort to subside on their own, without pleasure or pain, with utterly pure detachment of mind, he enters into and mades a habitat of the Fourth Burning.
This, friends, is that method of becoming high that when developed and made much of results in living pleasantly in the here and now.
 
And what is it, friends, is the method of becoming high that when developed and made much of results in knowing and seeing?[6]
Here, friends a beggar focuses his mind on the perception of light. Fixing on the perception of day, as by day, so by night, as by night so by day. Thus he unblindfolds the heart and reveals a mind of surpassing brilliance.
This, friends, is that method of becoming high that when developed and made much of results in knowing and seeing.
 
And what is it, friends, that is the method of becoming high that when developed and made much of results in knowing one's own mind?
Here, friends, a beggar sees sense experiences as they arise, sees them in place, sees them going on their going.
He sees perceptions as they arise, sees them in place, sees them going on their going.
He sees thoughts as they arise, sees them in place, sees them going on their going.
This, friends, is that method of becoming high that when developed and made much of results in knowing one's own mind.
 
And what is it, friends, that is the method of becoming high that when developed and made much of results in the destruction of the no-goods?
Here beggars a beggar knows: This[7] is material, this is the arising of material, this is the going of material,
This is sense experience, this is the arising of sense experience, this is the going of sense experience,
This is perception, this is the arising of perception, this is the going of perception,
This is own-making, this is the arising of confounding, this is the going of own-making,
This is consciousness, this is the arising of consciousness, this is the going of consciousness.
This, friends, is that way of getting high that when developed and made much of results in the destruction of the no-goods.

[4.06][pts][wp] Four immeasurables[8]:
Here friends, a beggar lives suffusing[9] the first quarter with thoughts of friendliness; and so also the second, third, and fourth quarters. Thus he lives suffusing the world all-over, all-through, encompassing all, above, below and across. Thus he lives a suffusing that is bountiful, widespread, immeasurable, friendly, without injury.
He lives suffusing the first quarter with thoughts of sympathy; and so also the second, third, and fourth quarters. Thus he lives suffusing the world all-over, all-through, encompassing all, above, below and across with thoughts of sympathy. Thus he lives a suffusing that is bountiful, widespread, immeasurable, friendly, without injury.
He lives suffusing the first quarter with thoughts of empathy; and so also the second, third, and fourth quarters. Thus he lives suffusing the world all-over, all-through, encompassing all, above, below and across with thoughts of empathy. Thus he lives a suffusing that is bountiful, widespread, immeasurable, friendly, without injury.
He lives suffusing the first quarter with objectively detached thought; and so also the second, third, and fourth quarters. Thus he lives suffusing the world all-over, all-through, encompassing all, above, below and across with objectively detached thought. Thus he lives a suffusing that is bountiful, widespread, immeasurable, friendly, without injury.

[4.07][pts][wp] Four immaterialities[10]: Here friends, a beggar elevating himself above all perceptions of materiality, allowing perceptions of resistance to subside, and not scrutinizing perceptions of diversity, thinking[11]: 'Un-ending is space.' enters into and makes a habitat of the Space-dimension.
Elevating himself completely above the Space-dimension, thinking: 'Un-ending is consciousness.' he enters into and makes a habitat of the Consciousness-dimension.
Elevating himself completely above the Consciousness-dimension, thinking: 'There is nothing.' he enters into and makes a habitat of the No-thing-there[12] dimension.
Elevating himself completely above the No-thing-there-dimension he enters into and makes a habitat of the Dimension of Neither-perception-nor-non-perception.

[4.08][pts][wp] Four calculations[13]: Here friends a beggar figures a thing is to be gone after, a thing is to be endured, a thing is to be avoided, a thing is to be got rid of.

[4.09][pts][wp] Four Old Time Ways of the Aristocrats[14]:
Here friends a beggar is content having anywhich robe, speaks well of contentment with anywhich robe, does not accept un-essential or unseemly robes[15]; not obtaining robes he is not dissatisfied, attaining robes he accepts and uses them without greed and infatuation, thus he guiltlessly enjoys the use thereof perceiving the possible dangers, wise to the ways things work out. Furthermore, being content having anywhich robe, he neither puts himself above nor puts down others, nor is he self satisfied at being of such respectable behavior. He indeed is one who may be called one of the Ancient, Old-Time Aristocrats.
Again, friends a beggar is content having any lump-dole'd'inni-bowl, speaks well of contentment with any food put in the bowl, does not accept un-essential or unseemly food; not obtaining food he is not dissatisfied, attaining food he accepts and uses it without greed and infatuation, thus he guiltlessly enjoys the use thereof perceiving the possible dangers, wise to the ways things work out. Furthermore, being content with any handouts, he neither puts himself above nor puts down others, nor is he self-satisfied at being of such respectable behavior. He indeed is one who may be called one of the Ancient, Old-Time Aristocrats.
Again, friends a beggar is content having any sit'n'sleep'n-spot, speaks well of contentment with any place to sit and sleep, does not accept un-essential or unseemly dwelling places; not obtaining lodging he is not dissatisfied, attaining shelter he accepts and uses it without greed and infatuation, thus he guiltlessly enjoys the use thereof perceiving the possible dangers, wise to the ways things work out. Furthermore, being content with any sit'n'sleep'n-spot, he neither puts himself above nor puts down others, nor is he self-satisfied at being of such respectable behavior. He indeed is one who may be called one of the Ancient, Old-Time Aristocrats.
Again, friends, a beggar taking pleasure in letting go, enjoying letting go, taking pleasure in advancement, enjoying advancement and furthermore, taking pleasure in letting go, enjoying letting go, taking pleasure in advancement, enjoying advancement, he neither puts himself above nor puts down others, nor is he self-satisfied at being of such respectable behavior. He indeed is one who may be called one of the Ancient, Old-Time Aristocrats.

[4.10][pts][wp] Four efforts[16]: the effort to restrain, the effort to let go, the effort to make become, the effort to retain.
 
And what, friends, is the effort to restrain?
Here friends a beggar seeing matter with the eye grasps at neither its signs or identifying characteristics because living without restraining the power of the eye there will flow in on him covetousness and mental discomfort, bad, unskillful things. Thus restraining, renouncing, watching out for the power of the eye is the way he restrains the power of the eye.
Hearing a sound with the ear he grasps at neither its signs or identifying characteristics because living without restraining the power of the ear there will flow in on him covetousness and mental discomfort, bad, unskillful things. Thus restraining, renouncing, watching out for the power of the ear is the way he restrains the power of the ear.
Smelling a scent with the nose he grasps at neither its signs or identifying characteristics because living without restraining the power of the eye there will flow in on him covetousness and mental discomfort, bad, unskillful things. Thus restraining, renouncing, watching out for the power of the nose is the way he restrains the power of the nose.
Tasting a taste with the tongue he grasps at neither its signs or identifying characteristics because living without restraining the power of the tongue there will flow in on him covetousness and mental discomfort, bad, unskillful things. Thus restraining, renouncing, watching out for the power of the tongue is the way he restrains the power of the tongue.
Experiencing a contact with the body he grasps at neither its signs or identifying characteristics because living without restraāng the power of body there will flow in on him covetousness and mental discomfort, bad, unskillful things. Thus restraining, renouncing, watching out for the power of body is the way he restrains the power of body.
Becoming conscious of a thing in the mind he grasps at neither its signs or identifying characteristics because living without restraining the power of the mind there will flow in on him covetousness and mental discomfort, bad, unsillful things. Thus restraining, renouncing, watching out for the power of the mind is the way he restrains the power of the mind.[17]
This, friends is the effort to restrain, say I.
 
And what, friends, is the effort to let go?
Here friends, a beggar on the occurrence of a thought of lust does not yield to it, lets go of it, rejects it, brings it to an end, causes it to go to annihilation;
at the occurrence of a thought of anger he does not yield to it, lets go of it, rejects it, brings it to an end, causes it to go to annihilation;
at the occurrence of a thought of violence he does not yield to it, lets go of it, rejects it, brings it to an end, causes it to go to annihilation;
at the occurrence of any bad unskillful thing he does not yield to it, lets go of it, rejects it, brings it to an end, causes it togo to annihilation.
This friends, is the effort to let go, say I.
 
And what, friends, is the effort to make become[18]?
Here friends, a beggar makes become the dimension of self-awakening that is memory, which is rooted in solitude, rooted in calm, rooted in ending and culminates in letting go.
He makes become the dimension of self-awakening that is dhamma-research, which is rooted in soitude, rooted in calm, rooted in ending and culminates in letting go.
He makes become the dimension of self-awakening that is energy-building, which is rooted in solitude, rooted in calm, rooted in ending and culminates in letting go.
He makes become the dimension of self-awakening that is enthusiasm, which is rooted in soitude, rooted in calm, rooted in ending and culminates in letting go.
He makes become the dimension of self-awakening that is impassivity, which is rooted in solitude, rooted in calm, rooted in ending and culminates in letting go.
He makes become the dimension of self-awakening that is getting high which is rooted in solitude, rooted in calm, rooted in ending and culminates in letting go.
He makes become the dimension of self-awakening that is objective detachment wich is rooted in solitude, rooted in calm, rooted in ending and culminates in letting go.
This is the effort to make become, say I.
And what, beggars, is the effort to retain?
Here friends, a beggar on the occurrence of an auspicious thing, a sign of getting high, suchas perception of bones, perception of maggots, perception of blackish-blue, perception of spongiformity, perception of inflation, sets a guard over it[19].
This is the effort to retain, say I.

[4.11][pts][wp] Four knowledges[20]. Knowledge of Dhamma, "It follows"[21] knowledge, knowledge of scope[22], knowledge by common consent[23].

[4.12][pts][wp] Four additional knowledges:[24] Knowledge of Pain, Knowledge of it's Origin, Knowledge of it's ending, Knowledge of The Way.

[4.13][pts][wp] Four dimensions of streamwinning[25]:
Associating with good men, hearing the Good Word, exploration of the mind, getting the meaning of the dhamma.

[4.14][pts][wp] Four characteristics of the Streamwinner[26]:
Here friends the hearer of the aristocrats has got complete confidence in the Buddha along such lines as: 'This Lucky Man is the Arahant Number One Self-Awakened One, perfected in conduct and vision, The Welcome One, a knower of the world, unsurpassable trainer of trainable men, teacher of gods and man, The Buddha, The Lucky Man.'
He has complete confidence in the Dhamma along such lines as: 'The Dhamma is well said by the Lucky Man, to be seen for one's self here, not a thing of Time, a 'come'n-see' thing, a thing that guides the intelligent in understanding for themselves.'
He has complete confidence in the Sangha[27] along such lines as: 'The Bhagava's Order of the Hearers is undertaking the good, The Bhagava's Order of the Hearers is undertaking the straight, The Bhagava's Order of the Hearers is undertaking the method, The Bhagava's Order of the Hearers is undertaking the highest; The four pairs of men, the eight individual men — this is the Bhagava's Order of the Hearers that is worthy of offerings, that are worthy guests, worthy of the gifts of those wishing to make good kamma, worthy of the gesture of putting together the fingers of both hands and stretching them forth to the sky and bringing them to the forehead, a site unsurpassed in the world for sewing merit.
He comes to be one who goes after getting that intact, unrent, unspotted, unbruised, unwarped, praised by the wise, uncorrupted, ethical culture that evolves into highetting that is enjoyed by the Aristocrats.[28]

[4.15][pts][wp] Four fruitions of shamanship[29]: fruition in Streamwinning, fruition in Once Returning, fruition in Non-Returning, fruition in Arahantship.

[4.16][pts][wp] Four elements[30]: The Earth Element, The Water Element, The Fire Element, The Wind Element.

[4.17][pts][wp] Four foods[31]: Material food whether gross material or subtle,[32] touch, intention, consciousness.

[4.18][pts][wp] Four Stands of Consciousness:[33]
Standing on materiality, friends, beginning with materiality, proceeding from a stand on materiality, enveloped in the joy of materiality, consciousness manifests increase, growth, and maturity.
Standing on sense-experience, friends, beginning with sense-experience, proceeding from sense-experience, enveloped in the joy of sense-experience, consciousness manifests increase, growth, and maturity.
Standing on perception, friends, beginning with perception, proceeding from perception, enveloped in the joy of perception, consciousness manifests increase, growth, and maturity.
Standing on confounding, friends, beginning with confounding, proceeding from confounding, enveloped in the joy of confounding, consciousness manifests increase, growth, and maturity.

[4.19][pts][wp] Four Not Getting Goings:[34]
Not Getting Going because of wishes, not getting going because of anger, not getting going because of stupidity, not getting going because of fear.

[4.20][pts][wp] Four ways hunger/thirst is born.[35]
Because of robes, friends, there appears in a beggar the birth of hunger/thirst.
Because of hand-outs, friends there appears in a beggar the birth of hunger/thirst.
Because of a place to sit and sleep, friends there appears in a beggar the birth of hunger/thirst.
Because of becoming and non-becoming, friends, there appears in a beggar the birth of hunger/thirst.

[4.21][pts][wp] Four Walk'n-the-Walks:[36]
Walk'n the walk that is painful with duh'n'duh higher powers, walk'n the walk that is painful with swift higher powers, walk'n the walk that is pleasant with so-so higher powers, walk'n the walk that is pleasant with swift higher powers.

[4.22][pts][wp] Another four walk'n-the-walks:[37]
Impatiently Walk'n the walk, patiently walk'n the walk, walk'n the walk with control, calmly walk'n the walk.

[4.23][pts][wp] Four Dhamma-Paths:[38]
The Dhamma-Path without yearning, the dhamma-path without anger, the high-minded dhamma-path, the high gett'n high dhamma-path.

[4.24][pts][wp] Four ways of taking things on:[39]
There is, friends, the taking on of things which is painful at the outset and painful in consequences.
There is, friends, the taking on of things which is painful at the outset but pleasant in consequences.
There is, friends, the taking on of things which is pleasant at the outset but painful in consequences.
There is, friends, the taking on of things which is pleasant at the outset and pleasant in consequences.

[4.25][pts][wp] The Four Trunks of Dhamma.[40]
The trunk of ethical culture, the trunk of getting high, the trunk of wisdom, the trunk of freedom.

[4.26][pts][wp] Four Powers:[41]
Energy-power, mind-power, getting-high-power, wisdom-power.

[4.27][pts][wp] Four Stances:[42]
Taking one's stand on wisdom, taking one's stand on truth, taking one's stand on letting go, taking one's stand on calm

[4.28][pts][wp] Four ways of explaining questions.[43]
Explaining a question directly;[44] explaining and analysing a question;[45] explaining a question by asking a counter-question;[46] the question is left standing unexplained.[47]

[4.29][pts][wp] Four ways of laying in kamma:[48]
There is, friends, dark kamma with dark consequences.
There is, friends, bright kamma with bright consequences.
There is, friends, dark/bright kamma with dark/bright consequences.
There is, friends, not-dark not-bright kamma with not-dark/not-bright consequences leading on to the withering away[49] of kamma.

[4.30][pts][wp] Four things one may see the reality of for one' self:[50]
Past lives,[51] seeing for one's self using the memory.
Disappearance and reappearance,[52] seeing for one's self using the eye[53].
The 8 releases,[54] seeing for one's self using the body[55].
The elimination of the asavas,[56] seeing for one's self using wisdom.

[4.31][pts][wp] Four Floods[57]:
The flood of pleasure, the flood of living, the flood of views, the flood of blindness.

[4.32][pts][wp] Four Yokes[58]:
The yoke to pleasure, the yoke to living, the yoke to views, the yoke to blindness.

[4.33][pts][wp] Four yokes to disowning yokes[59]:
The yoke to disowning the yoke to pleasure, the yoke to disowning the yoke to living, the yoke to disowning the yoke to views, the yoke to disowning the yoke to blindness.

[4.34][pts][wp] Four ties[60]:
The covetousness tie-to-body, the anger tie-to-body, the reliance on outward practices tie-to-body, this-is-the-only-true-view-position tie-to-body.

[4.35][pts][wp] Four ways of getting bound up[61]:
Getting bound up in pleasures, getting bound up in views, getting bound up in reliance on outward practices, getting bound up in one point of view.

[4.36][pts][wp] Four wombs:[62]:
The womb of the egg-born, the womb of the embryo-born, the womb of the mitosis-born, the womb of the spontaneously appearing.

[4.37][pts][wp] Four states of a child during gestation[63]:
Here friends, one unknowingly falls into the mother's cavity, stays in the mother's cavity unknowingly, goes forth from the mother's cavity unknowingly. This is the first state of a child during gestation.
Again, deeper than that, another knowingly falls into the mother's cavity, stays in the mother's cavity unknowingly, goes forth from the mother's cavity unknowingly. This is the second state of a child during gestation.
Again, deeper than that, another knowingly falls into the mother's cavity, stays in the mother's cavity knowingly, goes forth from the mother's cavity unknowingly. This is the third state of a child during gestation.
Again, deeper than that, another knowingly falls into the mother's cavity, stays in the mother's cavity knowingly, goes forth from the mother's cavity knowingly. This is the fourth state of a child during gestation.

[4.38][pts][wp] Four ways of attaining the regaining of life[64]:
There is, friends, the attaining the regaining of life which is the attaining the regaining of life effected by one's own intention not the intention of another.
There is, friends, the attaining the regaining of life which is the attaining the regaining of life effected by another's intentions not the intention of one's self.
There is, friends, the attaining the regaining of life which is the attaining the regaining of life effected by both one's own intention and the intention of another.
There is, friends, the attaining the regaining of life which is the attaining the regaining of life effected by neither one's own intention nor the intention of another.

[4.39][pts][wp] Four handout-purifications[65]:
There is, friends, the handout which is purified by the donor not the recipient.
There is, friends, the handout which is purified by the recipient not the donor.
There is, friends, the handout which is purified neither by the donor nor the recipient.
There is, friends, the handout which is purified both by the donor and the recipient.

[4.40][pts][wp] Four investments in brotherhood[66]:
Giving, speaking well of others, making one's self useful, even-handedness.

[4.41][pts][wp] Four un-aristocratic ways of speaking[67]:
Mistaken speech, brutish speech, ferocious speech, idle lip-flapping.

[4.42][pts][wp] Four aristocratic ways of speaking[68]:
Refraining from mistaken speech, refraining from brutish speech, refraining from ferocious speech, refraining from idle lip-flapping.

[4.43][pts][wp] Four additional unaristocratic ways of speaking[69]:
Saying as seen the unseen, saying as heard the unheard, saying as sensed the unsensed, saying as known the unknown.

[4.44][pts][wp] Four additional aristocratic ways of speaking[70]:
Saying as unseen the unseen, saying as unheard the unheard, saying as unsensed the unsensed, saying as unknown the unknown.

[4.45][pts][wp] Four additional unaristocratic ways of speaking[71]:
Saying as unseen the seen, saying as unheard the heard, saying as unsensed the sensed, saying as unknown the known.

[4.46][pts][wp] Four additional aristocratic ways of speaking[72]:
Saying as seen the seen, saying as heard the heard, saying assensed the sensed, saying as known the known.

[4.47][pts][wp] Four individuals[73]:
Here, friends, one individual tortures himself and comes to be a practitioner of devotion to self-torture.
Here, friends, one individual tortures others and and comes to be a practitioner of the torture of others.
Here, friends, one individual tortures himself and and comes to be a practitioner of devotion to self-torture, tortures others and and comes to be a practitioner of the torture of others.
Here friends, one individual neither tortures himself and does not come to be a practitioner of devotion to self-torture, nor tortures others and does not come to be a practitioner of devotion to the torture of others. And so not self torturing, not torturing others he lives here among things seen as one who, experiencing pleasure, is wishless, rolled-up, cool, become Brahma.

[4.48][pts][wp] Four additional individuals[74]:
Here, friends one individual's conduct benefits himself but produces no benefit to others.
Here, friends one individual's condust benefits others but produces no benefit to himself.
Here, friends one individual's conduts neither benefits himself nor produces benefit to others.
Here, friends one individual's conduct benefits both himself and produces benefit to others.

[4.49][pts][wp] Four additional individuals[75]:
In darkness journeying into darkness, in darkness journeying into light, in the light journeying into darkness, in the light journeying into the light.

[4.50][pts][wp] Four additional individuals[76]:
The unshakable shaman, the lotus-shaman, the white-lotus shaman, the shaman that is the sweet flowering of shamanship.

These then, friends, are those four-part Dhammas consummately taught by the Bhagava, that #1-Consummately-Awakened-One, an Arahant who knows and sees. In this situation, let us all gather to gether as one, undivided, so that this Best of Lives will stay on track and stand for a long time as a benefit to the many, as a pleasure for the many, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit and pleasure of gods and man.

 


[1] See: Glossology: Cattāro satipaṭṭhānā,
and: Sati
Paṭṭha, standing up, setting out or forth, undertaking, able
paṭṭhahati to put down, set down, provide
paṭṭhapeti to put out or up, to furnish, establish, give
paṭṭhāna setting forth, putting forward
What we have in the Satipatthana is the Setting up of Mind, the Preparation of Mind in Four Ways, or four ways of setting up Memory, "by way of" the body, etc. The idea is that we are to use our understanding of the transient, painful, and impersonal nature of body (etc.) in order to establish a "mental set." The idea is not that we are to use our mind to develop some kind of continuous, all encompassing awareness of the details of bodies ...
That this is the case is made even more clear looking at the case of Dhamma. We are to live seeing things/situations "in terms of" the Dhamma, we are not to live paying attention to the Dhamma.
So the construction of this needs to be saying something like this: With regard to the body, we should look upon the body in such a way as to set up the mind ...
kāye kāyānupassī viharati: 'lives body overseeing body'.
See, for a discussion of the related concept "kayagata sati", (minding by way of body).The Ones #585. and
Majjhima Nikāya: Bhk. Thanissaro: Discourse on Mindfulness Emerssed in the Body (MN 119),
WP, Ñāṇāmoli/Bodhi: Mindfulness of the Body, 949;
PTS, Horner: Discourse on Mindfulness of Body, III.129)
ātāpā usually translated "ardent"; my personal preference is to see this as "a-flame" or "a-burn'n", reading the first part of this sentence: "...lives in a body seeing the body as a-flame." Ardent works.
sampajāno: [san=one's own + pajana knowing] self-aware, (PED: thoughtful, mindful, attentive, deliberate — Walshe: clearly aware; Rhys Davids: self-possessed — Bhk. Thanissaro: discerning)
satimā: of a mind
vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanssaɱ: restraining worldly ambitions and disappointments.

[2] Cattāro sammappadhānā.
See Samma Vayama under The Pali Line, The 10th Lesson, The Magga;
the effort to restrain (= guarding the senses),
the effort to let go (not yielding to thoughts of lust, anger, or cruelty),
the effort to develop (=Seven Dimensions of Wisdom),
the effort to preserve (he notices the origin of good states increasing and bad states decreasing and continuously returns to an cultivates this source)

[3] See: The Four Power Paths in The Pali Line, 10th Question

[4] See Glossology: jhāna for the Pali, PED definition, and comparisons of the terms used by the various translators.

[5] Catasso samādhi-bhāvana.

[6] See: The Pali Line: The Wakeful Watch.

[7] What does 'this' mean? Here it means that which previously one had considered "Me" or "My."
See: Glossology: Pancupadanakkhandha and The Pali Line: Lesson 5

[8] PED: a+pamaññā: 1. measure, size, amount; 2. measure of time, compass, length duration; 3. age; 4. limit; 5. stndard, definition, description, dimension, of characteristic, of the character of, measuring or mesured by, taking the standard of — boundlessness, infinitude
mettā
karuṇā
muditā
upekkhā
see: The Four Godly Thoughts

[9] Pharati: suffuses

[10] Cattāro arūpa. Here both Walshe and Rhys Davids insert "jhana".
ākāsānañcāyatanaɱ, etc: Looking at this compound one can see: There is no 'limitless' there. He thinks (or says): 'Space is Endless, or Limitless,' but the name of the ayatana itself does not contain the term 'limitless or endless.' So here we are not justified in saying he enters the sphere, or realm of Limitless Space. We must say he enters the Realm of Space. Given that, I think we have a much more commonly understood description of the phenomena attained, if we use the term 'Dimension.' And I would suggest that this is what is understood by modern physics as the 5th Dimension. We have 'length' and 'width' and 'height' and 'Time' and the 5th Dimension is sort of like looking at the world as though it were a hologram, you can see it all from all directions, but you are not "in" it. '...not scrutinizing perceptions of diversity (nānatta)': then becomes much more easily understood as 'Time' or the phenomena perceived as time, that is, the swift flow of changes in materiality, that like a movie, produces the illusion of continuity...for it is the question: 'How can I be seeing this, from outside, and account for Time?' that causes one to re-enter the ordinary world from this dimension: 'How does one emerge from the ākāsānañcāyatanaɱ? By paying attention to all forms, perceptions of resistance, and scrutinizing perceptions of diversity.'

[11] ti: 'quote' or 'said'; so maybe not even 'thinking' but 'with the idea of'.

[12] Ākiñcaññāyatanaɱ: How would one describe the Dimension of No Thing There? The thesis is the world we normally perceive. The antithesis breaks this world into The Material (what in physics is referred to as "space", that which occupies space — length, width, and height) and Time. Space and Time cannot exist independantly of each other and are held together by what the Physicists are calling the 5th Dimension (what is, in the Pali, the Dimension of Space): Space/Time (observed from without). The 5th Dimension becomes the new Thesis. The Antithesis then becomes Materiality and Time and the Dimension of Space. But examining it, one quickly concludes that should this have any actual basis in reality, it would tear itself to shreds. Just look at any one physical, apparently unchanging, thing in your environment while making yourself simultaneously aware of something else that is clearly changing (such as the second hand of a watch to make it easy). It obviously cannot be happening as it is perceived: The one, apparently unchanging physical thing exists in the same "Time Frame" as the clearly changing thing. This drives the perception that the apparently unchanging thing is in fact changing, but on the molecular level. This then drives one to the conclusion that even the molecules must be changing. If there is nothing there that is not changing, then there is No Thing There. Next up from there is the inevitable conclusion that one must in fact be inhabiting a Dimension in which there is neither perception (you can't perceive what isn't there) nor non-perception (you can't not be perceiving what you are perceiving, or in the Buddhist sense, perception is occuring, but it is an impersonal, mechanical thing, essentially a reaction among elements).
Now I hear a Zen master and a student of the Abhidhamma out there and they are both saying "This is just hocum. Sophistry. Logic and Reasoning. Beating out with the mind some theoretical construct to account for experience!"
And to this I say: "Bravo! Exactly! That is all that all this arupajhana stuff is all about, let it go!"

[13] Cattāri apassenāni.
apassenāni: Rhys Davids: Bases of Conduct; Walshe: Supports; PED: a rest, support, dependence from apasseti: to lean against, have a support, to depend on
saŋkhāy'ekaɱ: PED: 1. to appear. 2. to calculate
The text does not go into detail. I don't know what Sāriputta had in mind, but there is a thing that is to be gone after: knowing and seeing a doctrine that is well-taught by a sammasamBuddha, helpful in the beginning, helpful in the middle, helpful at the end;
a thing that is to be endured: heat and cold, hunger and thirst, the bite of bugs and insects; harsh and abusive language; pain even to the point of death;
a thing that is to be avoided: the briar patch, a fierce dog, a fierce horse, a fierce elephant, a poisonous snake or insect, another man's wife or child;
a thing to be got rid of: bad conditions that have arisen in the here and now.

[14] Cattāro ariya-vaɱsā.
ariya-vaŋsā: Walshe and Rhys Davids: Ariyan Lineages. PED: 1. a bamboo [mo: count the links]; 2. race, lineage, family; 3. tradition, hereditary custom, usage, reputation; 4. dynasty; 5. a bamboo flute, fife; 6. a certain game [MO: some guesses have been: playing a toy flute, a game called tip-cat where you hit a stick with a stick trying to keep it moving along end on end, possibly pick-up-sticks, possibly walking on stilts, or balancing a bamboo pole in the air endwise].

[15] Such as robes made of silk that involve the death of many creatures, very fine robes, or robes offered as a consequence of pressure (hints) either applied by someone else or by the beggar himself at an earlier time.

[16] Cattāri padhānāni.

[17] See also: The Pali Line: Self Discipline

[18] See also: The Pali Line: The Seventh Lesson; and also see the Satipatthana Resources section and review the sections on Dhamma where the Satta Sambojjhangas are described.

[19] Walshe: (preservation)"...keeps firmly in his mind a favourable object of concentration which has arisen, such as a skeleton..."; Rhys Davids: (safe-guarding) "...keeps pure and genuine an auspicious object of concentrated imagination when it has arisen [such as] one of the contemplations of foul things."
Walshe and Rhys Davids go to the "devices" from these terms. The assertion here is that the 'devices' are late, artificial inventions (swaddlings). There is a situation in Dhamma practice where the idea that everything boils down to being Dukkha, and where Samadhi — getting high or getting clearly focused — results in having certain perceptions of an extraordinarily disagreeable nature. Absolutely repulsive and more than a little disturbing. But also highly stimulative of energetic effort, wakefulness and dispassion. These images can come in the form of visions in meditation, dream images, daydreams, and seeing something in "real life". These are not practices, but results, and the images are not restricted to things like human corpses or the degradation of human corpses. I have been for years repelled by a certain Austrialian bush in my garden called the bottle-brush which creates "pocks" on it's stems when it sheds its flowers. The other night on Animal Planet there was a sequence showing a frog that gave birth to it's infants from pores in it's back which "I cannot get out of my mind". I mentioned here once a persistant dream image of removing garlic cloves from between my toes. There are states in which one can see "all this" as a skeleton, or where one sees the skin peel back revealing the bones, or where one sees the rot of the body in a variety of ways. I have seen images of my arm filled with maggots. Many of us have had dreams of running or being chased through a land filled with holes into which we are liable to sink. Allowed to generate fear and without context these can be psychologically damaging phenomena. In the context of the Buddha's Dhamma they are very valuable in generating effort (this is a tool to keep in mind during periods of sloth ... viriya-sambojjhanga: the science of energy building), and it is because these visions have been recognized for their usefulness that "devices" were made from them.

[20] Cattāri ñāṇāni.

[21] anvaye: PED: 1. conformity, accordance; 2. following, having the same course, behaving according to, consequential in conformity with.
Rhys Davids and Walshe take this as knowledge of what is in conformity with Dhamma. This is not indicated by the text, and I think what is intended is the general principle. For example, supposing one were in a debate with someone of another view who was presenting their idea; it would be necessary to be able to determine what followed from their theories in order to present counter arguments.

[22] paricchede: PED: 1. exact determination, circumscription, range, definition, connotation, measure; 2. limit, boundary; 3. limitation, restriction; 4. division (of time); 5. (town)-planning, designing. Rhys Davids and Walshe take this, apparently following the commentary as paresaŋ citta-paricchede.
Again I think the better course is to stick with what we are given, and understand that it includes this as one reasonable way to apply it.

[23] This is an interesting concept in that the implication is that knolwledge in general (or at least some forms of knowledge) is what is agreed upon as knowledge, arrived at by general concensus.

[24] Aparāni pi cattāri ñāṇāni.
Interesting that this is not the first of the knowledges given.
Putting asside the idea of the Four Truths, this could be considered the expansion of the first knowledge in the above category of four knowledges. Here again the actual categories we are given are narrower than the interpretations in the translations (knolwedge of pain, origins, endings, ways), but here I think the context is set by the first category, knowledge of pain.
See specifically: The Pali Line: The Fourth Lesson;
The Eighth Lesson;
and The 10th Lesson.

[25] Cattāri sotāpattiyaŋgāni.
dhammānu-dhamma-paṭipatti: dhamma following-from-dhamma getting
See also: The Four Pairs of Powerful Individuals

[26] Cattāri sotāpannassa aŋgāni.
sāvaka: PED says: "a hearer, disciple (never an Arahant)", but note the case here.
See also: The Four Pairs of Powerful Individuals

[27] Saŋgha: The wording for this "characteristic" reflects an understanding based on the idea: "It is not by wearing yellow robes that one is near to me [the Buddha]" (or is worthy to be called a bhikkhu, or a member of the Sangha). It is by intent and conduct and attainment that one is worthy of such. The description of the hand jesure in the Pali is covered by the phrase añjali-karaṇīyo; I didn't think it would hurt to have a full description for the benefit of those of us in the west who may be unfamiliar with this reverential form of greeting.
On this also see Bhikkhu Bodhi: Going for Refuge on Access to Insight (scroll down): ". . . the order of monks is not itself the Sangha which takes the position of the third refuge. The Sangha which serves as refuge is not an institutional body but an unchartered spiritual community comprising all those who have achieved penetration of the innermost meaning of the Buddha's teaching. The Sangha-refuge is the ariyan Sangha, the noble community, made up exclusively of ariyans, person of superior spiritual stature. Its membership is not bound together by formal ecclesiastical ties but by the invisible bond of a common inward realization. The one requirement for admission is the attainment of this realization, which in itself is sufficient to grant entrance."

[28] The way I read Rhys Davids, Walshe and most other translators is that the string of descriptive terms is to apply to the way the streamwinner practices ethical culture. I have them describing the nature of the ethical culture he strives after attaining. I here put forward two arguments for my interpretation: 1. The string of terms includes two (viññūppasatthehi — praised by the wise (there is some doubt about the meaning of this word; it could also mean undisturbed) — and samādhi-saŋvattanikehi — that evolves into highgetting) that seem to me to not apply to the practitioner but to the ethical culture itself, and 2. It is clear from numerous passages in the Suttas that the Streamwinner may not have fully developed such perfection in his behavior. The big advantage of becoming a streamwinner that is put out there (and which one is perperported to be seeabel for one's self) is the fact that one will not backlslide to such a degree that one will perform any act (thought, word, or deed) that will result in rebirth in Hell, as a Demon or as an Animal. There are passages that state that even one with no greater personal development than what we can assume is unreasoned (but steadfast) faith in the Buddha can be called a Streamwinner. This is not being said here in any effort to weaken the importance of perfecting one's self in ethical culture, but to eliminate the discouragement of those who are doing their best and occasionally fall short.

[29] Cattāri sāmañña-phalāni.
See: The Four Pairs of Very Powerful Individuals

[30] Catasso dhātuyo.
See: Glossology: The Great Elements: and individually: paṭhavī āpo tejo vāyo
The Satipatthana Sutta: The Four Great Elements
Mulapariyaya Resources, and especially Examining the Mulapariyaya
(and see above, this sutta: #2.10: Knowledge of the Elements; #3.13, 14, 15: Additional Elements)

[31] Cattāro āhārā.

[32] Kalabliṅkāro āhāro: (kabala: a small piece, ball, of food, a mouthful) PED has food "made into a ball," i.e. eatable, material food. The idea here is easy enough (stuff people actually eat for nourishment), but finding a word for it is not. This term is further defined as "either o'āriko or sukhumo; gross or coarse, or subtle. And subtle here most likely applies to the food enjoyed by the gods as well as that enjoyed by man: in other words, it could also mean such food as being nourished on friendly vibrations and pitī or Enthusiasm (although this might fall under the category of "sense stimulation" as food), or on scents as for some gods that reside nearby.
See: The Pali Line: The Four Foods, Expansion See: Glossology: The Four Foods
The First Lesson

[33] Catasso viññāṇa-ṭṭhitiyo.
This group would usually be found under the fives and include consciousness itself as a "stand" for consciousness. See Glossology: The Five Stockpiles of Existance.

[34] Cattāri agati-gamanāni.
agatiɱ- gacchati: Rhys Davids has 'going astray' and notes: literally, he goes to a not-going, or wrong going, or impasse. Walshe has 'going wrong'.
gati: PED: 1. going, going away; 2. going away, passing on, course, esp. after death, destiny, as regards another (future) existence; 3. behavior, state or condition of life, sphere of existence, element, especially characterized as sugati and duggati, a happy or an unhappy existence; 4. one of the five relms of existence of sentient beings — agati: 1. no course, no access; 2. = duggati, a wrong course
A-Gati is Not-Going. Since "Gati" is used both in the form of "got" or "having gotten" and in the form of "gone," what we probably need for a-gata is not going-wrong (which is a "having got"), but either "not getting" or "not going/getting where/what we would wish."
I am taking this as word-play, based on the idea that in this system the only acceptable "getting" is Nibbāna or at least one of the stages on the way to Nibbāna, so the meaning is, here, he doesn't "get" Nibbāna because he has not "got going" because of X.

[35] Cattāro taṇhuppādā.

[36] Cattāro paṭipadā.
These are explained in more detail as one who is passionate by nature and who makes little effort, one who is passionate by nature and who makes effort, one who is not passionate by nature and makes little effort and one who is not passionate by nature and makes effort.

[37] Aparā pi catasso paṭipadā.

[38] Cattāri dhamma-padāni.

[39] Cattāri dhamma-samādānāni.
dhamma-samādānaɱ: PED: Samādāna 2. taking upon oneself, undertaking, acquiring
Walshe: undertaking dhamma; Rhys Davids: religious undertakings. Rhys Davids understanding being that the term 'dhamma' here applies to all religious systems. Walsh's rendering is unclear in that it is hard to imagine the undertaking of the Buddha's Dhamma which is both of immediate painful results and which will result in pain in the future. One could undertake Dhamma wrongly, but would this be undertaking Dhamma? So "things."
paccuppannaɱ: PED: [pp. of paṭi+uppajjati, cp. Sk. pratyutpanna] what has arisen (just now), existing, present (as opposed to atīta past & anāgata future) This term nicely reflects the Buddhist position that all things arise as a consequence of conditions, so that which is experienced in the present is something that is already the consequence of something done in the past. "If you do this now, the results will have had this effect upon being experienced."
This is the case that apparently results in what we in The US think of as 'the Indian accent' [Indian English syntax]. "I am having had such troubles rendering this expression." Definately not easy to render into English.
vipākaɱ: PED: fruit, fruition, product; always in pregnant meaning of "result, effect, consequence (of one's action)," either as good & meritorious (kusala) or bad & detrimental (akusala). Hence "retribution" (kamma-), reward or punishment.
My translation above is given with some recollection of the details of each category where we would understand it in terms such as "short-term thinking" (do what feels good and don't worry about the consequences) and "long-term thinking" (accept the fact that some things are difficult to accomplish but worth the effort). This would be my best effort at an accurate translation:
Four ways of taking things on:
There is, friends, the taking on of things which will have had painful results and will thereafter have a painful impact.
There is, friends, the taking on of things which will have had painful results but will thereafter have a pleasant impact.
There is, friends, the taking on of things which will have had pleasurable results but will thereafter have a painful impact.
There is, friends, the taking on of things which will have had pleasureable results and will thereafter have a pleasant impact.

[40] Cattāro dhamma-kkhandhā.
PED: Khandha: [Sk. skandha] — I. Crude meaning: bulk, massiveness (gross) substance. A. esp. used (a) of an elephant: the bulk of the body, i. e. its back (b) of a person: the shoulder or back: (c) of a tree: the trunk; mūlaɱ atikkamma kh- ɱ sāraɱ pariyesitabbaɱ "one must go beyond the root and search the trunk for sweetness" S IV.94. (d) as t.t. in exegetical literature: section, chapter, lit. material as collected into uniform bulk; freq. in postscripts to Texts and Commentaries.

[41] Cattāri balāni.
See: Glossology: Bala

[42] Cattāri adhiṭṭhānāni.
PED: Adhiṭṭhāti (adhiṭṭhahati) [Sk. adhitis.ṭhati, adhi + sthā] 1. to stand on; fig. to insist on. - 2. to concentrate or fix one's attention on, to direct one's thoughts to, to make up one's mind, to wish. - 3. to undertake, practice, perform, look after, to celebrate.
Adhiṭṭhāna 1. decision, resolution, self-determination, will, D III.229 (where 4 are enumd., viz. paññā-, sacca- cāga- upasama-). - 2. mentioned in bad sense with abhinivesa and anusaya, obstinacy, prejudice and bias M I.136; III.31, 240; S II.17; III.10, 135, 194. - As adj. applying oneself to, bent on A III.363. - 3. looking after, management, direction, power.
Adhiṭṭhita 1. standing on (c. loc.), esp. with the idea of standing above, towering over. - (a) looked after, managed, undertaken, governed. - (b) undertaking, bent on.
One is not limited to one stand, but it is clear from looking around that beings tend towards a preference for one or another of these stands over the others. This is somewhat like Don Juan's attitude towards Death: that is, that knowing Death will win the game one does one's dance with impeccability.

[43] Cattāro pañha-vyākaraṇā.
PED: Pañha [Ved. prashna] mode of asking, inquiry, investigation, question D I.11 (deva-) M I.83; III.30; A I.103, 288; III.81, 191 sq., 419 sq.; pañhaɱ pucchati to ask a question.
-paṭibhāna an answer to a question M I.83;
-vīmaɱsaka one who tests a question Sn 827;
-vyākaraṇa mode of answering questions, of which there are 4, viz. ekaɱsa "direct," vibhajja "qualified," paṭipucchā "after further questioning," ṭhapanīya "not to be answered or left undecided," thus enumd at D III.229; A I.197 sq.; II.46.
Vyākaraṇa (nt.) [fr. vyākaroti; see also veyyākaraṇa] 1. answer (pañha-), explanation, exposition A I.197; II.46; III.119; - 2. grammar (as one of the 6 angas) - 3. prediction
Veyyākaraṇa (m. nt.) [=vyākaraṇa] 1. (nt.) answer, explanation, exposition D I.46, 51, 105, 223; II.202; A III.125; V.50 sq.; - 2. (m.) one who is expert in explanation or answer, a grammarian D I.88; A III.125.

[44] Ekaŋsa-vyākaraṇīyo pañho: At-once explaining question. This is a little deeper than simply answering directly. It also means not adding any extraneous or supplemental information; an answer that would resemble one given by a well-trained witness.

[45] PED: Vibhajja dividing, analysing, detailing; in detail, D III.229 (-vyākaraṇīya pañha "discriminating reply" trsln); A II.46 (-vacana analysis).
-vāda the Vibhajja doctrine, i. e. the doctrine which analyses, or the "religion of logic or reason"; a term identical with theravāda, the doctrine of the Elders, i. e. the original teaching of the Buddhist church.
-vādin one who teaches the V. doctrine, Ep. of the Buddha.
Well that's what PED says, but there is good basis for thinking that there is a considerable difference between the Theravadans and the Vibhajjans.

[46] PED: Paṭipucchati [paṭi+pucchati] to ask (in return), to put a question to, to inquire D I.60; M I.27; S III.2; A I.197; II.46; also neg. appaṭipucchā without inquiry Vin I.325.
Paṭipucchā [paṭi+pucchā] a question in return, inquiry; only by question, by inquiry, by means of question & answer
This doesn't mean argumentative counter-questioning ('Well, I ask the same question of you!" etc.); this is a question designed to elicit the answer from the questioner after having perceived that the questioner is likely to know the answer but is not thinking in the right way to bring it to consciousness.

[47] ṭhapanīya: left standing.

[48] Cattari kammāni.
PED: Kaṇha. dark, black, as attr. of darkness, opposed to light.
akaṇha 1. not dark, i. e. light, ... 2. not evil, i. e. good A II.230, 231.

[49] Khaya [Sk. ks.aya to ks.i, ks.iṇoti & ks.iṇāti; cp. Lat. situs withering, Gr. fqi/sis, fqi/nw, fqi/w wasting.] waste, destruction, consumption; decay, ruin, loss; of the passing away of night; mostly in applied meaning with ref. to the extinction of passions & such elements as condition, life, & rebirth.

[50] Cattāro sacchikaraṇīyā dhammā.
PED: Sacchikaraṇīya to be realized S III.223 sq.; D III.230=A II.182 (in four ways: by kāya, sati, cakkhu, paññā).
Sacchikaroti to see with one's eyes, to realize, to experience for oneself.
Sakkhi1 an eyewitness D II.237 - kāya-sakkhī a bodily witness, i. e. one who has bodily experienced the 8 vimokkhas A IV.451; - sakkhiɱ karoti to see with one's own eyes S II.255.
Akkhi [to *oks, an enlarged form of *oqu, cp. Sk. īks.ate, ks.aṇa, pratīka, anīka; Gr. o)/sse, w)/y (*ku/klwy), o)fqalmo/s, pro/swpon; Lat. oculus, Ags. eowan (= E eye & wind-ow); Goth. augo. See also cakkhu & cp. akkha2 & ikkhaṇika] the eye M I.383. In combn with sa- as sacchi & sakkhi.

I am going to go way out on a limb here and say that we get to Sacchi from Akkhi by way of sacca: we see the truth or see a thing is true or 'seeing is believing'.
The translations of both Rhys Davids and Walshe are either confused or are uniform but are using "realized" in the sense of 'made become'. The first two instances of each could be either way (It took me hours and hours to figure that out, it was like one of those images that look like a face then look like a jar and when you look at the jar you forgot how you could see it as a face...about a finger snap away from a major headache); the other way round they would indicate that 'the fact of the existance of (former lives, death and rebirth) is to be seen using (memory, the eye)'; whereas in the second two they would indicate that 'the state of having made real the experience of (the 8 releases, destruction of the asavas) is to be made to happen using (body (which they understand to be mind) and wisdom).
 
Walshe: "Four things to be realised by seeing:
former lives, to be realised by recollection
passing-away and rearising to be realised by the (devine) eye
the eight deliverances, to be realised with the mental body
the destruction of the corruptions, to be realised by wisdom."
 
Rhys Davids: "Four matters to be realized:
former lives, to be realized by clear mentality
decease and rebirth, to be realized by the 'heavenly eye'
the eight deliverances, to be realized by all the mental factors
destruction of intoxicants, to be realized by insight."
 
I think this can only be taken in the sense of "One may come to recognize the fact that one is lost with the aid of a map (i.e., the map does not cause one to be lost)." In other words I have 'sacchikaraniya' as indicating the process of arrival at a state of 'seeing' (having become conscious of a thing), which interpretation has the modifiers (memory, eye, body, wisdom) as the 'medium' dependant upon which the realization takes place.

[51] Pubbenivāso: See Knowledge of Former Habitations

[52] PED: Cuta. shifted, disappeared, deceased, passed from one existence to another Vin IV.216 ... in cpd. cutūpapāta disappearance & reappearance, transmigration.

[53] Cakkhunā: eye. Both Walshe and Rhys Davids turn this into the Dibba Cakkhu. I suggest this is a special case of cakkhu. We see the coming and going of the seasons, crops, people, etc., we see the decease of individuals, seers see the manner of their reappearance with the Dibba Cakkhu. The Dhamma is helpful in the beginning! It is helpful in determining the value of the Four Truths for beginners to be able to see decease and rebirth in common terms.

[54] PED: Vimokkha (& Vimokha) deliverance, release, emancipation, dissociation from the things of the world, Arahantship D II.70, 111; III. 34, 35, 230, 288; M I.196 (samaya- & asamaya-); S I.159 (cetaso v.); II.53, 123; III.121; IV.33; A II.87; IV.316; V.11; Vin V.164 (cittassa). The three vimokkhas are: suññato v., animitto v., appaṇihito v. The eight vimokkhas or stages of emancipation, are: the condition of rūpī, arūpa--saññī, recognition of subha, realization of ākāsa-nañc'āyatana, of viññāṇ'a-nañc'āyatana, ākiñcaññ'āyatana, n'eva-saññā-n'a-saññ'āyatana, saññāvedayita-nirodha D III.262 (cp. Dial. III.242), A I.40; IV.306.
See also The Seven Types of Individuals

[55] kāyena: Both Walshe and Rhys Davids rely on the Abhidhamma interpretation which forces this from meaning body as it is usually used in the suttas into meaning Mind (PED: ...Abhidhamma distinguished kāya as = the cetasikas (mental properties, or the vedanā, saññā and sankhārā khandhas), body being excluded...)(and I think this also warps the meaning of sankhara). This, in turn, forces the meaning of kāyasakkin to be the "mental realizer" of Horner.
It may well be that it is here in this sutta that the Abhidhamma idea began: if the modifiers are methods rather than mediums, and the arupajhanas are purely mental, then it would not be possible to use the body to attain these vimokkhas, so kaya must be made to be "mind-body" or the body of things making up what we understand to be mind. The whole issue is made much simpler by understanding the modifiers to be mediums: One may understand the 8 vimokkhas with (while still in the; or in the case of this sutta 'by way of reference to (or seeing) the bodily state') body.
(See also: Glossology: kaya)

[56] See: Glossology: Āsavā

[57] Cattāro oghā: Kāmogho, bhavogho, diṭṭhogho, avijjogho.
PED: Oggata gone down, set (of the sun)
Ogha a flood of water; usually as mahogha a great flood. - 2. the flood of ignorance and vain desires which sweep a man down, away from the security of emancipation. To him who has "crossed the flood", oghatiṇṇo, are ascribed all, or nearly all, the mental and moral qualifications of the Arahant.
Walshe: Floods: sensuality, becoming, (wrong) views, ignorance.
Rhys Davids: Floods: sensual desires, life renewed, error, ignorance.
Walshe's "(wrong) views:" 'wrong' here is unnecessary. In this system, essentially views are aways wrong. Having "Samma (High, Consummate)" View is the start of the path to the letting go of all views including Samma ditthi. Here Rhys Davids' "error" is more correct.
Rhys Davids "life renewed:" is a little misleading. Bhava, as either "living" or "becoming" or "development" is in fact a process of renewing life, but not necessarily in the sense of rebirth which I think the use here implies.

[58] Cattāro yogā: Kāma-yogo, bhava-yogo, diṭṭhi-yogo, avijjā-yogo.
PED: Yoga lit. "yoking, or being yoked," i. e. connection, bond, means; fig. application, endeavour, device. - 1. yoke, yoking. - 2. connection with, application to; (natural) relation (i. e. body, living connection), association; also conjunction (of stars). - 3. (fig.) bond, tie; attachment (to the world and its lusts), or what yokes to rebirth There are 4 yogas, which are identical with the 4 oghas viz. kāma-, bhava-, diṭṭhi-, avijjā-, or the bonds of craving, existence, false views, and ignorance ... 4. application, endeavour, undertaking, effort ... 5. pondering (over), concentration, devotion ... 6. (magic) power, influence, device, scheme. ... 7. means, instrument, remedy.

[59] Cattāro visaŋyogā: Kāmayoga-visaŋyogo, bhavayoga-visaŋyogo, diṭṭhiyoga-visaŋyogo, avijjāyoga-visaŋyogo.
PED: Visaŋ is P. prefix ... in meaning "diverging, on opposite sides,") apart, against;
Visaŋyoga disconnection, separation from, dissociation.

[60] Cattāro ganthā: Abbhijjhā kāya-gantho, vyāpādo kāya-gantho, sīlabbata-parāmāso kāya-gantho, idaŋ-sacc¢bhiniveso kāya-gantho.
PED: Gantha a bond, fetter, trammel; always fig. and usually referring to and enumd as the four bodily ties, or knots.
-dhura the burden of the books, i. e. of studying the Scriptures, expld as one who knows by heart one, two, or all Nikāyas. Always combd w. vipassanādhuraɱ, the burden of contemplation.
Ganthati. to tie, knot, bind, fasten together. Of medicines: to mix, to prepare. - pp. ganthita tied, bound, fettered: catūhi ganthehi; - grd. ganthaniya to be tied or tending to act as a tie (of "body"). - 2. to put together, to compose.
OED: gremial [med.L gremialis alumjnus, gremiale bishop's apron, f. L gremium lap, bosom] 2. A silk apron placed on a bishop's lap when celebrating Mass or conferring orders. B adj. 1. Of or pertaining to the bosom or lap
Perhaps to the "piece of cloth" always carried by Old Time beggars used as a hankerchief, bib, towel, wrapper, whatsoever all in ordinary circumstances, but which gathers great magical power over time. When eating it is placed across the lap.
In Dialogs Rhys Davids translates: "knots; body-knot of covetousnes, etc., and footnotes Buddhist Psychological Ethics (PED: pp281) (1st book of the Abhidhamma, where Mrs Rhys Davids translates: " ti.s; bodily tie of covetousness..." and footnotes: "Gantho is defined as that which ties (or knots) or binds him for whom it exists on to the "circle" of re-birth. And the term kayagantho (body-tie) is used because the tying is effected through the body — that is, is got in conception and rebirth." This is reasonable. But Walshe reads the commentary and notes: "Kaya here means nama-kaya 'mental body'.
Note PED and BSE refer to these as kayaganthas, where this sutta calls them simply ganthas. To my perception this is just another way of describing sanyojanas.
The meaning is that one who has covetousness, etc., has (shows evidence of, reveals a sign that he has) ties to a body, and that covetousness ties one to a body. It may be obvious to some but it might be helpful to others to spell this out: it is not possible to "want" witout "wanting for 'me'"; or to be angry 'at,' without a 'because this makes 'me' feel bad'; or to believe that the practice of good deeds, ethical culture and the performance of rites and rituals will result in the elimination of dukkha without a misunderstanding of the nature of anatta; or to hold on to the idea that there is any one single point of view about anything that is the one and only way of seeing it without having a misunderstanding of the paticca samuppada or the four truths.
One more thing: the reader should avoid thinking that what is being referred to here is the human body exclusively; this means any "KA-YA:" KA-kha — whatsoever that is thought of by a being as "me." See The Ninth Lesson.

[61] Cattāri upādāni: Kāmūpādānaɱ, diṭṭhūpādānaɱ, sālabbatūpādānaɱ, attavādūpādānaɱ.
PED: Upādāna lit. that (material) substratum by means of which an active process is kept alive or going ... fuel, supply, provision; adj. supported by, drawing one's existence from S I.69; II 85 ... sa-upādāna (adj.) provided with fuel S IV.399; anupādāna without fuel. 2. (appld.) "drawing upon", grasping, holding on, grip, attachment; adj. finding one's support by or in, clinging to, taking up, nourished by. They are classified as 4 upādānāni or four Graspings viz. kām-, diṭṭh-, sīlabbat-, attavād- or the graspings arising from sense-desires, speculation, belief in rites, belief in the soul-theory D II.58; III.230; M I.51, 66; S II.3; ... sa- full of attachment (to life) M I.65; Vin III.111; S IV.102; an- unattached, not showing attachment to existence S IV.399; Vin III.111.
See The 10th Lesson: Downbound Confounded Rebounding Conjuration
Downbound Hunger/Thirst Rebounds Bound up Bound up (Going after getting)
Downbound Bound up, Rebound Bound up Living (becoming)
or, restated another way:
Could there be any Living of any kind by any kind of being in any sort of realm of being if there were no "Going after Getting Life" by any kind of being in any sort of realm of being?
Answering correctly, the answer should be: 'No'.
Therefore Living arises dependant on Going After Getting.

[62] Catasso yoniyo: Aṇḍaja-yoni, jalābuja-yoni, saŋedaja-yoni, opapātika-yoni.
PED: Yoni 1. the womb. - 2. origin, way of birth, place of birth, realm of existence; nature, matrix. ... 3. thoroughness, knowledge, insight. -ayoni superficiality in thought S I.203 ("muddled ways" Mrs. Rh. D.). -yoniso (abl.) "down to its origin or foundation," i. e. thoroughly, orderly, wisely, properly, judiciously S I.203 ("in ordered governance" K.S. I.259); D I.118 (wisely). Opp. ayoniso disorderly improperly. - Esp. frequent in phrase yoniso manasikāra "fixing one's attention with a purpose or thoroughly," proper attention, "having thorough method in one's thought" ...
-ja born from the
Aṇḍa 1. an egg - 2. (pl.) the testicles ...
Jalābu 1. the womb - 2. the embryo - 3. the placenta
The distinguishing difference between the egg-born and the embryo born is in the direct linkage and contact (or absense of such) of the embryo with the mother.
Seda (+saŋ) sweat. Usually as above "moisture" but this may actually be indicating a view more consistant with the way it would look to the modern scientist: mitosis, the process of division whereby a cell divides to form two identical cells, something that has a strong resemblance to sweating
Opapātika arisen or reborn without visible cause (i. e. without parents), spontaneous rebirth, apparitional rebirth D I.27, 55, 156; III.132, 230 (-yoni), 265; M I.34, 73, 287, 401 sq., 436 sq, 465 sq.; II.52; III.22, 80, 247; S III.206, 240 sq., 246 sq.; IV.348; V.346, 357 sq., 406; A I.232, 245, 269; II.5, 89, 186; IV.12, 226, 399, 423 sq.; V. 265 sq., 286 sq., 343 sq.
This is most important to Buddhists in that it is the manner in which the Non-returner is reborn into his final life, often, but not exclusively in the Sudhavassa Realms. Others are even reborn here in this manner. This is the manner in which those who were previously in the Asanna realm are reborn when a thought occurs to them.

[63] catasso gabbhāvakkanatiyo.
PED: Kucchi a cavity, esp. the belly or the womb.
To our vulgar slang: kucchi? or to the baby-talk phrase: kucchi-kucchi-cu?

[64] Cattāro attabhāva-paṭilābhā.
PED: Paṭilābha obtaining, receiving, taking up, acquisition, assumption, attainment D I.195; M I.50; A II.93, 143. - attabhāva- obtaining a reincarnation, coming into existence S II.256; III.144; A II.159, 188; III.122.
attabhāva-paṭilābhā: attaining-becoming-regaining or attaining-living-regaining

Rhys Davids notes: "The second of these is illustrated by the slaughter of an animal by a butcher. The other three cases are referred to the decease and rebirth of the devas referred to in Vol.I, pp. 32 and 33 and of other devas respectively."
I make these out a little differently in the case of the final one. Case one is clearly the situation where after death or at death one intends rebirth of some sort or another. The second case is where one's life has been prematurely cut short by another and no intent has been formed by the individual himself (kamma dictates the rebirth, but it has been effected by the killer). The third case, apparently, is where one is identifying as one's own the intent of another (as in the case of those individuals deceasing from the Abhisara realm to be reborn with Brahma at the time of his wishing for companionship) or of those identifying with the implied intent of a dominant idea (such as lust, for example the making real of some sexual fantasy). I see the fourth case as being the case of the non-returner, or possibly the once-returner where there is no need of intent as there are no choices in terms of intentions concerning being reborn left (There remains the possibility to intend not to be reborn, but that would not be a case of attaining the regaining of life.).

[65] Catasso dakkhiṇā-visuddhiyo.
If you read any of the early non-Buddhist texts you will note the big place "purification" played in the everyday lives of people of the time. We still have plenty of this today both as superstitious ritual (as in food taboos) and in our daily habits of cleanliness (many of which are superstitions). My thinking is that the idea of purification came out of the observation that under certain conditions (impure states) some foods were poisonous. This idea was then generalized to conduct and further broadened to include factors influencing the afterlife. Here the idea has been interpreted to mean the manner in which a gift becomes effective in providing benefit to a second party, such as a departed relative. It is pretty clear that this is a debunked idea from the point of view of the Pali. We have one case, where some person was making a very generous gift of a meal to the Buddha where in fact the gift was made up from donations given to this man by his friends. He made the wish to the Buddha: "May the benefit go to those who provided these gifts." The Buddha's response was to say: "Those people will receive the benefit of having given to an unenlightened one such as are you. You will get the benefit of having given to an enlightened one such as I." In another case the Buddha is observing funeral rites in which some people are saying about a dead man: "May his soul rise up to heaven, may his soul rise up to heaven!" And he observes that this is no more effective in causing this man to go to heaven than it would be possible to raise a stone from water's depths by wishing: "May this rock rise up! May this rock rise up!" It is by way of an individual's deeds that good or bad kamma is created, not by what another may wish for one. The basic principle of "transferring merit" goes against the whole idea of kamma.
So, given that this segment of this sutta is Dhamma (and the idea here does come up elsewhere), what is intended here? What we can have in connection with a gift, are several factors which inhance the potency of the rebound which may be anticipated from a deed: First is intent concerning the outcome for the doer of the deed (A spectrum of such expectations is often given, from rebirth in a wealthy family here, to rebirth in some grand heavenly state, to purification of the mind (see 8s#7 for such a list). A gift given without such an intent is considered to be a deed that has been carelessly done, the effectiveness of intent in producing that outcome is related to it's clarity, and the clarity is related to the objective detachment of giver and receiver. In addition, giving without regret, giving with trust in the potency of good deeds, giving by one's own hand (the real meaning of dakkhiṇā, giving good clean things and useful things are other factors that influence the potency of a gift.
So here the matter breaks down to the case where the giver is or is not clear as to his intent, and takes good care in the other matters concerning the gift; or you have the case where the recipient is one who is or is not, by way of his objective detachment capable of turning even a poorly executed deed into one of potent results. The best outcome to be hoped for is in the case of the fourth case. See Also: The Pali Line: Dana

[66] Cattāri saŋgah-vatthūni.
The 4 Basics for Making Friends: Giving gifts, speaking well of others, making one's self useful, treating all alike according to the same standard.
The 4 sangaha-vatthūni or objects (characteristics) of sympathy are: dāna, peyyavajja, atthacariyā, samānattatā, or liberality, kindly speech, a life of usefulness.
Peyya kindness of language, kind speech.
Samānatta equanimous, of even mind.

[67] Cattāro anariya-vohārā.
Musā-vāda lying, a falsehood, a lie
Mussati to forget, to pass into oblivion, to become bewildered, to become careless
This comes to our: Mis-taken, which could be taken for both intentional and unintentional false speech. "I must have mistaken myself," for having said something untrue; later to "I must have misspoken". Note with reference to discussions of "samma" and "micchā" where I hold that both these terms have been ...um...taken wrongly (see the discussion of terminology at the top of Lesson 8: Samma.) Intentional untrue speech, but clearly it covers careless untrue speech as well.
Pisuṇa backbiting, calumnious, malicious — combd with vācā malicious speech, slander.
Pharusa 1. (lit.) rough. 2. (fig.) harsh, unkind, rough (of speech) 3. cruel.
Samphappalāpā: I don't know where I saw this defined (probably discussed in the texts), I can't find it in PED, but what I heard was something like "drooling lip-flapper".
I believe my translation above would be heard correctly by an aristocrat even today, but most of us would not understand the subtlties, so for a more spelled-out version:
"Untrue speech (intentional or otherwise; the aristocrat is to deliberate before speaking), crude language (in the society of the time this did not carry the same meaning as it does here — USA — today — 24 Aug 2002 —; it would not have been considered use of crude language to describe, for example "excrement" as "shit"; the idea is cursing for cursing's sake; there is pleny'nuf good reason to fear the power of words without fearing the words themselves.), injurious speech (speech intended to hurt), talk not focused on the goal (for this note the behavior of the Anuruddha's, where even communicating every day needs was considered an unfit topic for "breaking into speech.")
See also: The 10th Lesson: Samma Vaca.

[68] Cattāro ariya-vohārā.

[69] See: The Modes of Knowing Through Signs,
Glossology: The Mulapariyaya
Diṭṭha
Sutta
Muta
Viññāta

[70] Apare pi cattāro ariya-vohārā.

[71] Apare pi cattāro anariya-vohārā.

[72] Apare pi cattāro ariya-vohārā.

[73] Cattāro puggalā.
On style: when you read one of these series like this with a string of "here's", what you want to remember is that this is being spoken and will have been accompanied by changes in inflection if not also by hand jestures. So you get "Over here," "On the one hand" and "Over here," "On the other hand..." Our written suttas should be taken as "scripts".
Puggala: an individual, as opposed to a group (sangha or parisā), person, man.
Paritāpana tormenting, torture, affliction, mortification.
Paritāpeti. to burn, scorch, molest, trouble, torture, torment
Nibbuta. (a) covered up, extinguished, quenched, and (b) without movement, with motion finished, ceasing, exhaustion
The first is usually described as a religious practitioner engaged in various painful practices such as never sitting, wearing horse-hair robes, going naked, sleeping on a bed of nails, but we should take this as a broad description of types of persons, and include those who punish themselves in other ways, including mental.
The second is one who practices a bloody trade, such as executioner, butcher, hunter, soldier, and so on.
The third is one who is in a position of power and commands with real and threatened punishments.
The fourth is one who trains himself to abstain from harm to all living creatures.

[74] Apare'pi cattāro puggalā.

[75] Apare'pi cattāro puggalā.

[76] Apare'pi cattāro puggalā. Walshe footnotes: "These curious designations are supposed to refer to the Stream-Winner, Once-Returner, Non-Returner, and Arahant respectively." RD comments similarly.
Paduma the lotus Nelumbium speciosum. It is usually mentioned in two varieties, i. e. red and white lotus.
Puṇḍarīka white lotus
Sukhumāla tender, delicate, refined, delicately nurtured — beautifully young, graceful — a soft, graceful. I hear: sukha + mālā; sweet flowering; which I take to be "culmination".)


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