Digha Nikaya


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Sacred Books of the Buddhists
Volume IV

Dīgha Nikāya

Dialogues of the Buddha
Part III

Sutta 33

Saŋgīti Suttantaɱ

The Recital

Sixes

Translated from the Pali by T.W. Rhys Davids and
C.A.F. Rhys Davids

Public Domain

Originally published under the patronage of
His Majesty King Chulālankarana,
King of Siam
by The Pali Text Society, Oxford

 


 

[230] There are sixfold doctrines, friends, which have been perfectly set forth by the Exalted One who knows ... for the happiness of devas and of men. Which are they?

[6.01][wp][bd] Six fields of personal experience, to wit, sight, sound, smell, taste, touch and mind.

[6.02][wp][bd] Six exernal fields [of objects of experience], to wit, sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, phenomena.[1]

[6.03][wp][bd] Six groups of consciousness,[2] to wit, visual, auditory, olfactory, sapid, tactual and perceptual-and-conceptual consciousness.[3]

[6.04][wp][bd] Six groups of contacts, to wit, visual and other sensory contact, and impact on the mind.

[6.05][wp][bd] Six groups of feeling on occasion of sensory [231] stimulus, to wit, [244]the feeling that is excited when we see, hear, etc. or when we think.

[6.06][wp][bd] Six groups of perceptions, to wit, perception on occasion of sensory stimulus, or of ideas.

[6.07][wp][bd] Six groups of colitions, to wit, purposes on occasion of sensory stimulus, or of ideas.

[6.08][wp][bd] Six craving-groups, to wit, the five kinds of sense-objects, and phenomena.

[6.09][wp][bd] Six forms of irreverence. Herein, friends, a brother conducts himself irreverently and insolently to the Master, the Norm, the Order, the training, or to his studies, or lacks in reverence and respect towards the duties of courtesy.

[6.10][wp][bd] Six forms of reverence. Herein, friends, a brother conducts himself in the opposite manner in the foregoing six cases.

[6.11][wp][bd] Six pleasurable investigations, to wit, when on occasion of any sensation through the five senses, or any cognition by the mind, a corresponding object giving rise to pleasure is examined.

[245] [6.12][wp][bd] Six disagreeable investigations, to wit, the contraries of the foregoing.

[6.13][wp][bd] Six investigations of indifference, to wit, when such investigations as the foregoing leave anyone indifferent.

[6.14][wp][bd] Six occasions of fraternal living.[4] Herein, friends, when a brother's kindly act towards his fellow-disciples has been attested, as wrought publicly and in private, that is an occasion of fraternity, causing affection and regard, and conducing to concord, absence of strife, harmony, union. The second and third occasions are those of kindly speech and kind thoughts. In the next place, when a brother who has honestly and righteously obtained gifts, distributes these impartially among his fellow-disciples, and has everything in common with them, even to the contents of his alms-bowl, that is an occasion of fraternity, etc. Next, when the character and moral habits of a brother are [232] without rupture or flaw, are consistently practised, unblemished, making a man free, commended by the wise, unperverted, and conducing to rapt concentration,[5] and he, so virtuous, [246] dwells openly and privately among his fellow-disciples, that is an occasion of fraternity, causing affection and regard, and conducing to concord, absence of strife, harmony, union. Lastly, when a brother lives with his religious life [guided by] that Ariyan, safe-guarding belief, which leads him who so lives to the perfect destruction of sorrow,-- when he thus equipped lives among his fellow-disciples publicly and in private, that is an occasion of fraternity ... like the foregoing.

[6.15][wp][bd] Six roots of contention. Herein, friends, take a brother who gets angry and cherishes rancour, and in this mood becomes irreverent and insolent toward the Master, the Norm, the Order, and does not accomplish the training. Such an one stirs up contention in the Order, and that contention is fraught with ill and misery for multitudes, with disadvantage, ill and sorrow for devas and men. If you, friends, should discern such a root of contention among yourselves or in other communities, then should ye strive to get just that evil root of contention eliminated. And if ye do not discern any such root, so work that it may not come to overwhelm you in the future. Such is the eliminating, suchis the future averting of that evil root of contention. The other five roots of contention are (2) when a brother conceals other's good deeds,[6] and is hypocritical ... (3) is envious and mean ... (4) is deceiftul and crafty ... (5) is full of evil wishes and false opinions ... [247] (6) is infatuated with his own opinion, clutching it tenaciously and is loth to renounce it.

[6.16][wp][bd] Six elements, to wit, those of extension, cohesion, heat and mobility [in matter], space and consciousness.[7]

[233] [6.17][wp][bd] Six elements tending to deliverance. Herein, friends, a brother might say: 'Lo! I have developed mental emancipation by love, [248]I have multiplied it, made it a vehicle, and a base. I have brought it out, accumulated and set it well going. Nevertheless malevolence persistently possesses my heart.' To him it should be said: 'Not so! Say not so, your reverence! Do not misrepresent the Exalted One! It is not well to calumniate the Exalted One! Surely he would not say this was so! This is a baseless and uncalled-for statement, friend. Things cannot be as you say. Emancipation of the heart through love, brother, this is how you become delivered from malevolence. In the same way a brother might wrongly complain that after cultivating emancipation of the heart through pity, he was still possessed by cruelty, or that after cultivating emancipation of the heart through sympathetic joy, or through equanimity, he was still possessed by disgust, and passion respectively. [249] Next, friends, a brother might say: 'Lo! I have developed mental emancipation from the power of any object to catch the fancy and incide lust,[8] I have multiplied that emancipation, made it a vehicle and a base I have brought it out, accumulated and set it well going. Nevertheless my mind still pursues seductive objects. Or again he may say: 'Lo! the notion "I am" is offensive to me! I pay no heed to the notion "This 'I' exists!" Nevertheless doubts and queries and debating[9] still possess my mind.' To these answer should be made as before. He should be assured that such cannot really be the case; that it is by emancipating the heart through equanimity, or again, through the expulsion of the conceit of the [234] existence of an 'I,' that he becomes delivered from lust [250] and from doubts and queries and debatings.

[6.18][wp][bd] Six unsurpassable experiences, to wit, certain sights, certain things heard, certain gains, certain trainings, certain ministries, certain memories.

[6.19][wp][bd] Six matters for recollection, to wit, the Buddha, the Norm, the Order, the moral precepts, renunciation, the devas.[10]

[6.20][wp][bd] Six chronic states.[11] Herein, friends, a brother on occasion of any of the five kinds of sensation, as well as on that of any impression or idea, is neither delighted nor displeased, but remains equable, mindful and deliberate.

[6.21][wp][bd] Six modes of heredity.[12] Herein, friends, some persons being reborn in dark circumstances [251]lead dark lives, others so born lead bright lives, and other so born bring Nibbāna to pass, which is neither dark nor bright.[13] Again, others born in bright circumstances lead bright lives, or dark lives, or bring Nibbāna to pass, which is neither dark nor bright.

[6.22][wp][bd] Six ideas conducing to Nibbāna, to wit, the idea of impermanence, of ill in impermanence, of soullessness in ill, of elimination of passionlessness, of cessation.

These Sixfold Doctrines, friends, have been perfectly set forth by the Exalted One ... for the happiness of devas and men.

 


[1] Dhammā: the co-ordinated impressions of sense, and all mental objects.

[2] Kāya. See above, p. 229, n.3 (5.25.1)

[3] Mano-viññānaŋ

[4] Sārāṇiyā dhammā

[5] See above 219, xiv, (4). (4.14)

[6] So B. paresaṃ guṇamakkhana...

[7] The primary meaning of the first four is earth, water, fire, air. In Abhidhamma, the meaning is as stated. B. paraphrases by (1) patiṭṭhā, the more usual interpretation being kakkhalatta, or hardness (v. B.P.E. 241, n.1), (2) ābandhanā, or binding, (3) paripācanā, or maturing, (4) vitthambanā, or unstable, (5) asamphuṭṭhā, or intangible. Cf. p. 219, xvi. (4.16)

[8] A cumbbrous rendering of the elusive words a-nimittā cetovimutti. See above, p. 230, n.1 (note 5.25.2)

[9] Sallāpaṃ

[10] These, says B., are fully explained in the Visuddhi Magga P.T.S., ed. i., pp. 197-228.

[11] Satata. In his Comy. on A. II, 198, B. explains by nicca, nibaddha.

[12] Abhijātiyo, explained as just jātiyo, which means equally birth and social status.

[13] B. takes 'dark,' 'bright,' when applied to birth to mean 'obscure,' 'high born'; when applied to life and conduct, to mean 'demeritorious,' 'meritorious.' Nibbāna involves the transcendence of merit and demerit. Cf. Kindred Sayings, I, pp. 118-20; above, p. 221, xxix (4.19); 224, xlix (4.49).

 


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