Digha Nikaya


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Sacred Books of the Buddhists
Volume IV

Dīgha Nikāya

Dialogues of the Buddha
Part III

Sutta 34

Dasuttara Suttantaɱ

The Tenfold Series[1]

Translated from the Pali by T.W. Rhys Davids and
C.A.F. Rhys Davids

Public Domain

Originally published under the patronage of
His Majesty King Chulālankarana,
King of Siam
by The Pali Text Society, Oxford

 


[272] [250]

[1] THUS HAVE I HEARD:

The Exalted One was once staying at Campā,[2] on the banks of Lake Gaggara, with a great company of the brethren, about five hundred in number. There the venerable Sāriputta addressed them, saying, 'Friends, brethren!'

'Yes, friend,' responded the brethren.

And the venerable Sariputta spake thus: —

In groups from one to ten will I declare
The Norm, that so ye may Nibbāna win,
That ye may make an end of ill and pain,
That ye may be from every bond set free.

 


 

I.

[2] There is One thing,[3] friends, that helpeth much,
One thing that is to be developed,
One that is to be understood,
One that is to be eliminated,
One that belongs to disaster,
One that leads to distinction,
One that is hard to penetrate,
One that is to be brought to pass,
One that is to be thoroughly learnt,
One that is to be realized.

i. Which One thing helpeth much?

Zeal in things that are good.

ii. Which One thing is to be developed?[4]

Mindfulness with respect to the bodily factors, accompanied by pleasurable feeling.

iii. Which One thing is to be understood?

Contact as a condition of intoxicants (Āsavas) and of grasping.

[273] [251] iv. Which One thing is to be eliminated?

The conceit: 'I am.'[5]

v. Which One thing belongs to decline?

Disorderly[6] thinking.

vi. Which One thing leads to distinction?

Orderly thinking.

vii. Which One thing is hard to penetrate?

Immediacy of succession in mental concentration.[7]

viii. Which One thing is to be brought to pass?

Sure and unskakeable knowledge.[8]

ix. Which One thing is to be thoroughly learnt?

All beings are maintained by causes.[9]

x. Which One thing is to be realized?

Sure and unshakeable emancipation of mind.

Now these ten things are genuine, true, thus, not otherwise, not different, perfectly comprehended by the Tathāgata.[10]

 


 

II.

[3] There are Two things, friends,
that helpeth much,
Two things that are to be developed,
Two things that are to be understood,
Two things that are to be eliminated,
Two things that belong to disaster,
Two things that lead to distinction,
Two things that are hard to penetrate,
Two things that are to be brought to pass,
Two things that are to be thoroughly learnt,
Two things that are to be realized.

i. Which Two help much?

Mindfulness and deliberation.

ii. Which Two are to be developed?

Calm and insight.

iii. Which Two are to be understood?

Mind and body.[11]

[274] [252] iv. Which Two are to be eliminated?

Ignorance and the craving for rebirth.

v. Which Two belong to decline?

Contumacy and friendship with evil.

vi. Which Two lead to distinction?

Suavity and friendship with good.

vii. Which Two are hard to penetrate?

That which is the condition,
the cause of the corruption of beings,
and that which is the condition,
the cause of their purification.

viii. Which Two are to be brought to pass?

Insight into extinction,
and insight into not coming to be.

#ix. Saŋkhatā ca dhātu,||
asaŋkhatā ca dhātu

'own-made,' or 'constructed' not paccaya, 'conditioned'!

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

ix. Which Two are to be thoroughly learnt?

Two elements, to wit,
the Conditioned and
the Unconditioned.[12]

x. Which Two are to be realized?

Supernormal knowledge[13] and emancipation.

Now these Twofold things are genuine, true, thus, not otherwise, not different, and perfectly comprehended by the Tathāgata.

 


 

III.

[4] There are Three things, friends,
that helpeth much,
Three things that are to be developed,
Three things that are to be understood,
Three things that are to be eliminated,
Three things that belong to disaster,
Three things that lead to distinction,
Three things that are hard to penetrate,
Three things that are to be brought to pass,
Three things that are to be thoroughly learnt,
Three things that are to be realized.

i. Which Three[14] help much?

Intercourse with noble-minded persons,
hearing the good Doctrine,
progress in doctrine and minor doctrines.

ii. Which Three are to be developed?

The three modes of concentrative thought, to wit,
mental application followed by sustained thought,
sustained thought without mental application,
concentrative thought without either.

[275] [253] iii. Which Three are to be understood?

Three modes of feeling, to wit,
pleasurable,
painful,
and neutral feeling.

iv. Which Three are to be eliminated?

Three cravings, to wit,
sensual, worldly craving,
craving for rebirth,
craving to end life.[15]

v. Which Three belong- to decline?

Three roots of demerit, to wit,
greed,
hate,
illusion.

vi. Which Three lead to distinction?

Three roots of merit, to wit,
disinterestedness,
love,
intelligence.

vii. Which Three are hard to penetrate?

Three elements of deliverance, to wit,
renunciation;
— this is the escape from all worldly desires;
the immaterial:
— this is the escape from material things;
but whatever has become,
is conditioned,
has arisen from a cause:
— the escape from that is cessation.[16]

viii, Which Three are to be brought to pass?

Three knowledges, to wit,
as to the past,
the future and
the present.

ix. Which Three are to be thoroughly learnt?

Three elements, to wit,
the element[17] of sensuous desires,
of Rūpa,
of Arūpa.[18]

x. Which Three are to be realized?

Three branches of wisdom,[19] to wit,
intuition of former births,
intuition of the deceases and rebirths of beings,
intuition of the extinction of 'intoxicants.'

[276] Now these Three Things are genuine, true, thus, not otherwise, not different, perfectly comprehended by the Tathagata.

 


[254]

IV.

[5] There are Four things, friends,
that helpeth much,
Four things that are to be developed,
Four things that are to be understood,
Four things that are to be eliminated,
Four things that belong to disaster,
Four things that lead to distinction,
Four things that are hard to penetrate,
Four things that are to be brought to pass,
Four things that are to be thoroughly learnt,
Four things that are to be realized.

i. Which Four help much?

Four 'wheels,'[20] to wit,
the orbit of a favourable place of residence,
the orbit of association with the good,
perfect adjustment of one's self,
the cycle of merit wrought in the past.

ii. Which Four are to be developed?

The Four Applications of Mindfulness,[21] to wit:
— Herein, friends, a brother as to the body,
feelings,
thought,
and ideas,
continues so to look upon [each of these four groups],
that he remains ardent,
self-possessed and mindful,
and can suppress both the hankering and the dejection common in the world.

iii. Which Four are to be understood?

The Four Nutriments,[22] to wit,
solid nutriment, gross or subtle;
contact as second,
the purposes of the mind as third,
[rebirth-] consciousness as fourth.

iv. Which Four are to be eliminated?

The Four Floods of sensuous desires,
re-becoming,
erroneous opinions,
ignorance.

v. Which Four belong to decline?

The Four Bonds of sensuous desires,
re-becoming,
erroneous opinions,
ignorance.

vi. Which Four lead to distinction?

The Four Detachments, to wit,
detachment from sensuous desires,
re-becoming,
erroneous opinions,
ignorance.

[277] vii. Which Four are hard to penetrate?

The Four Concentrations, to wit,
that leading to decline,
that leading to maintenance,
that leading to distinction,
that leading to Nibbana.

viii. Which Four are to be brought to pass?

The Four knowledges,[23] to wit,
knowledge of the Doctrine,
know- [255] ledge of its corollaries,
knowledge of what is in another's consciousness and
popular knowledge.

ix. Which Four are to be thoroughly learnt?

The Four Ariyan Truths,[24] to wit,
the Ariyan Truth as to i11,
and the Ariyan Truths as to the Genesis of i11,
the Cessation of i11,
the Path leading to the Cessation of i11.

x. Which Four are to be realized?

The Four Fruits of the Recluse's Life, to wit,
the Fruit of each Path:
— that of the Stream-winning,
of Once-Returning,
of Never-Returning,
of Arahantship.

Now these Four Things are genuine, true, thus, not otherwise, not different, perfectly comprehended by the Tathagata.

 


 

V.

[6] There are Five things, friends,
that helpeth much,
Five things that are to be developed,
Five things that are to be understood,
Five things that are to be eliminated,
Five things that belong to disaster,
Five things that lead to distinction,
Five things that are hard to penetrate,
Five things that are to be brought to pass,
Five things that are to be thoroughly learnt,
Five things that are to be realized.

i. Which Five help much?

Five factors in spiritual wrestling
confidence (or faith),
good health,
honesty,
energy,
insight.[25]

ii. Which Five are to be developed?

The five factors of perfect concentration, to wit,
suffusion of rapture,
suffusion of easeful bliss,
suffusion [278] of [telepathic] consciousness,
suffusion of light,
and images for retrospective thought.[26]

iii. Which Five are to be understood?

The five aggregates of grasping, to wit,
material qualities,
feeling,
perception,
volitional and other complexes,
consciousness.

iv. Which Five are to be eliminated?

The Five Hindrances, to wit,
sensuality,
malevolence,
sloth and torpor,
excitement and worry,
doubt.

[256] v. Which Five belong to decline?

The five spiritual barrennesses, to wit,
(1) herein, a brother doubts,
is perplexed about the Master,
comes to no definite choice,
is not satisfied.
He being thus,
his mind does not incline (lit. bend) towards ardour,
devotion,
perserverance,
exertion:
— this is the first barrenness.
(2-4) When he doubts,
is perplexed about the Doctrine,
the Order,
the Training,
these are, in order, the second,
third and
fourth barrennesses.
(5) When he is offended with his fellow-disciples,
vexed,
agitated,
sterile towards them,
he being thus,
his mind does not incline towards ardour, etc.[27]

vi. Which Five belong to distinction?

The five spiritual faculties, to wit,
faith,
energy,
mindfulness,
concentration,
insight.

vii. Which Five are hard to penetrate?

(1) The five elements favourable to deliverance, to wit,
Herein, friends,
when a brother is contemplating sensuous desires,
his heart does not leap forward to them,
nor rest complacent in them,
does not choose them.

But when he is contemplating renunciation of them,
his heart leaps forward,
rests complacent in it,
chooses it.

This frame of mind he gets well in hand,
well developed,
well lifted up,
well freed and detached from sense desires.

And those intoxicants,
whose miseries,
those fevers which arise in consequence of sense-desires,
from all these he is freed,
nor does he feel that sort of feeling.

This is pronounced to be the first deliverance.

(2) Again, friends,
when a brother is contemplating [Ed.: thoughts of] ill will,
his heart does not leap forward to them,
nor rest complacent in them,
does not choose them.

But when he is contemplating renunciation of them,
his heart leaps forward,
rests complacent in it,
chooses it.

This frame of mind he gets well in hand,
well developed,
well lifted up,
well freed and detached from ill will.

And those intoxicants,
whose miseries,
those fevers which arise in consequence of ill will,
from all these he is freed,
nor does he feel that sort of feeling.

This is pronounced to be the second deliverance.

(3) Again, friends,
when a brother is contemplating [Ed.: thoughts of] cruelty,
his heart does not leap forward to them,
nor rest complacent in them,
does not choose them.

But when he is contemplating renunciation of them,
his heart leaps forward,
rests complacent in it,
chooses it.

This frame of mind he gets well in hand,
well developed,
well lifted up,
well freed and detached from cruelty.

And those intoxicants,
whose miseries,
those fevers which arise in consequence of cruelty,
from all these he is freed,
nor does he feel that sort of feeling.

This is pronounced to be the third deliverance.

(4) Again, friends,
when a brother is contemplating external objects,
his heart does not leap forward to them,
nor rest complacent in them,
does not choose them.

But when he is contemplating renunciation of them,
his heart leaps forward,
rests complacent in it,
chooses it.

This frame of mind he gets well in hand,
well developed,
well lifted up,
well freed and detached from external objects.

And those intoxicants,
whose miseries,
those fevers which arise in consequence of external objects,
from all these he is freed,
nor does he feel that sort of feeling.

This is pronounced to be the fourth deliverance.

(5) Again, friends,
when a brother is contemplating [Ed.: thoughts of] individuality,
his heart does not leap forward to them,
nor rest complacent in them,
does not choose them.

But when he is contemplating renunciation of them,
his heart leaps forward,
rests complacent in it,
chooses it.

This frame of mind he gets well in hand,
well developed,
well lifted up,
well freed and detached from [Ed.: thoughts of] individuality.

And those intoxicants,
whose miseries,
those fevers which arise in consequence of [Ed.: thoughts of] individuality,
from all these he is freed,
nor does he feel that sort of feeling.

This is pronounced to be the fifth deliverance.[28]

viii. Which Five are to be brought to pass?

The fivefold intuition of perfect concentration,[29] to wit:
— As a personal experience the intuition arises that
(1) 'this rapture is both a present happiness and
a future result of happiness;'
(2) 'this rapture is Ariyan, is unworldly;'
(3) [279] 'this rapture is not a pursuit of any but the noblest men;'[30]
(4) 'this rapture is good, excellent,
has won tranquillization,
has attained to mental uplift and concentration,[31]
and is not instigated
nor opposed
nor foiled;[32]
(5) 'this rapture I myself with mental clarity attain,
and from it with mental clarity emerge.'

ix. Which Five are to be thoroughly learnt?

The five occasions of emancipation, to wit:
(1) Herein, when the Master,
or a reverend fellow-disciple
teaches the Norm to a brother,
according as the teaching is given,
the listener comes to know both
the matter of the doctrine,
and the text of the doctrine.
And gladness springs up in him,
and in him gladdened zest springs up;
his mind enraptured,
the faculties become serene;
with serenity comes happiness,
and of him thus happy
the heart is stayed and firm.
This is the first occasion.

(2) In the next place,
a brother has a similar experience
not from hearing the Master
or a reverend fellow-disciple teach,
but while himself teaching others the Norm in detail,
as he has learnt and got it by memory
and he comes to know both
the matter of the doctrine,
and the text of the doctrine.
And gladness springs up in him,
and in him gladdened zest springs up;
his mind enraptured,
the faculties become serene;
with serenity comes happiness,
and of him thus happy
the heart is stayed and firm.
This is the second occasion.

(3) In the third place,
a brother has a similar experience,
not on those first two occasions,
but when he is reciting
the doctrines of the Norm in detail
as he has learnt and got them by memory
and he comes to know both
the matter of the doctrine,
and the text of the doctrine.
And gladness springs up in him,
and in him gladdened zest springs up;
his mind enraptured,
the faculties become serene;
with serenity comes happiness,
and of him thus happy
the heart is stayed and firm.
This is the third occasion.

(4) In the fourth place,
a brother has a similar experience,
not on those first three occasions,
but when he applies his thought to the Norm
as he has learnt and got it by memory
and he comes to know both
the matter of the doctrine,
and the text of the doctrine.
and sustains protracted meditation on it
and contemplates it in mind.
And gladness springs up in him,
and in him gladdened zest springs up;
his mind enraptured,
the faculties become serene;
with serenity comes happiness,
and of him thus happy
the heart is stayed and firm.
This is the fourth occasion.

(5) Finally, a brother has a similar experience,
not on those first four occasions,
but when he has well grasped
some given clue to concentration,
has well applied his understanding,
has well thought it out,
has well penetrated it by intuition.
And gladness springs up in him,
and in him gladdened zest springs up;
his mind enraptured,
the faculties become serene;
with serenity comes happiness,
and of him thus happy
the heart is stayed and firm.
This is the fifth occasion.

x. Which Five are to be realized?

The five bodies of doctrine, to wit,
morals,
concentrative exercise,
insight,
emancipation,
knowledge and insight requisite for emancipation.[33]

Now these Five Things are genuine, true, thus, not [257] otherwise, not different, perfectly comprehended by the Tathāgata.

 


 

VI.

[7] There are Six things, friends,
that helpeth much,
Six things that are to be developed,
Six things that are to be understood,
Six things that are to be eliminated,
Six things that belong to disaster,
Six things that lead to distinction,
Six things that are hard to penetrate,
Six things that are to be brought to pass,
Six things that are to be thoroughly learnt,
Six things that are to be realized.

i. Which Six help much?

The six occasions of fraternal living, [280] to wit:
(1) Herein, friends, when a brother's kindly act towards his fellow-disciples has been attested,
as wrought publicly and in private,
that is an occasion of fraternity,
causing affection and regard,
and conducing to concord,
absence of strife, harmony, union.
(2-3) The second and third occasions are those of kindly speech and kind thoughts.
(4) In the next place,
when a brother who has honestly and righteously obtained gifts,
distributes these impartially among his fellow-disciples,
and has everything in common with them,
even to the contents of his alms-bowl,
that is an occasion of fraternity, etc.
(5) Next, when the character and moral habits of a brother are without rupture or flaw,
are consistently practised,
unblemished,
making a man free,
commended by the wise,
unperverted,
and conducing to rapt concentration,
and he, so virtuous,
dwells openly and privately among his fellow-disciples,
that is an occasion of fraternity,
causing affection and regard,
and conducing to concord,
absence of strife,
harmony, union.
(6) Lastly, when a brother lives with his religious life [guided by] that Ariyan,
safe-guarding belief,
which leads him who so lives to the perfect destruction of sorrow,
— when he thus equipped lives among his fellow-disciples publicly and in private,
that is an occasion of fraternity
... like the foregoing.

ii. Which Six are to be developed?

The six matters for recollection, to wit,
the Buddha,
the Norm,
the Order,
the moral precepts,
renunciation,
the devas.

iii. Which Six are to be understood?

The six (organs of sense or) fields of personal experience, to wit,
sight,
sound,
smell,
taste,
touch and
mind.

iv. Which Six are to be eliminated?

The six groups of cravings, to wit,
the five kinds of sense-objects, and phenomena.

v. Which Six belong to decline?

The six forms of irreverence, to wit,
Herein, friends, a brother conducts himself irreverently and insolently to the Master,
the Norm,
the Order,
the training,
or to his studies,
or lacks in reverence and respect towards the duties of courtesy.

vi. Which Six belong to distinction?

The six forms of reverence, to wit,
Herein, friends, a brother conducts himself in the opposite manner in the foregoing six cases.

vii. Which Six are hard to penetrate?

The six elements tending to deliverance, to wit,
(1) Herein, friends, a brother might say:
'Lo! I have developed mental emancipation by love,
I have multiplied it, made it a vehicle, and a base.
I have brought it out,
accumulated and set it well going.
Nevertheless malevolence persistently possesses my heart.'
To him it should be said:
'Not so! Say not so, your reverence!
Do not misrepresent the Exalted One!
It is not well to calumniate the Exalted One!
Surely he would not say this was so!
This is a baseless and uncalled-for statement, friend.
Things cannot be as you say.
Emancipation of the heart through love, brother,
this is how you become delivered from malevolence.
(2-4) In the same way a brother might wrongly complain that after cultivating emancipation of the heart through pity,
he was still possessed by cruelty,
or that after cultivating emancipation of the heart through sympathetic joy,
or through equanimity,
he was still possessed by disgust,
and passion respectively.
(5) Next, friends, a brother might say:
'Lo! I have developed mental emancipation
from the power of any object
to catch the fancy and incide lust,
I have multiplied that emancipation,
made it a vehicle and a base I have brought it out,
accumulated and set it well going.
Nevertheless my mind still pursues seductive objects.
(6) Or again he may say:
'Lo! the notion "I am" is offensive to me!
I pay no heed to the notion "This 'I' exists!"
Nevertheless doubts and queries and debating
still possess my mind.'
To these answer should be made as before.
He should be assured that such cannot really be the case;
that it is by emancipating the heart through equanimity,
or again, through the expulsion of the conceit of the existence of an 'I,'
that he becomes delivered from lust
and from doubts and queries and debatings.

[281] viii. Which Six are to be brought to pass?

The six chronic states, to wit,
(1-5) Herein, friends, a brother on occasion of any of the five kinds of sensation,
(6) as well as on that of any impression or idea,
is neither delighted nor displeased,
but remains equable,
mindful and deliberate.

ix. Which Six are to be thoroughly learnt??

The six unsurpassable experiences, to wit,
certain sights,
certain things heard,
certain gains,
certain trainings,
certain ministries,
certain memories.

x. Which Six are to be realized?

The six superknowledges.
Herein, friends, a brother
(1) enjoys the wondrous gift[34] in its various modes:

— being one he becomes many,
or having become many becomes one again;
he becomes visible or invisible;
he goes, feeling no obstruction,
to the further side of a wall or rampart or hill,
as if through air;
he penetrates up and down through solid ground,
as if through water;
he walks on water without breaking through,
as if on solid ground;
he travels cross-legged in the sky,
like the birds on wing;
even the Moon and the Sun,
so potent, so mighty though they be,
does he touch and feel with his hand;
he reaches in the body
even up to the heaven of Brahmā.

(2) With that clear Heavenly Ear
surpassing the ear of men
he hears sounds both human and celestial,
whether far or near.

(3) Penetrating with his own heart
the hearts of other beings, of other men,
he knows them.
He discerns —

The passionate mind to be passionate,
and the calm mind calm;
the angry mind to be angry,
and the peaceful mind peaceful;
the dull mind to be dull,
and the alert mind alert;
the attentive mind to be attentive,
and the wandering mind wandering;
the broad mind to be broad,
and the narrow mind narrow;
the mean mind to be mean,
and the lofty mind lofty;
the stedfast mind to be stedfast,
and the wavering mind to be wavering;
the free mind to be free,
and the enslaved mind enslaved.

(4) He recalls to mind
his various temporary [258] states in days gone by
— one birth,
or two or three or four or five births,
or ten or twenty or thirty or forty or fifty
or a hundred or a thousand
or a hundred thousand births,
through many an aeon of dissolution,
many an aeon of evolution,
many an aeon of both dissolution and evolution.
"In such a place such was my name,
such my family,
such my caste,
such my food,
such my experience of discomfort or of ease,
and such the limits of my life.

When I passed away from that state,
I took form again in such a place.
There I had such and such a name
and family
and caste
and food
and experience of discomfort or of ease,
such was the limit of my life.

When I passed away from that state
I took form again here."
— thus does he call to mind
his temporary states in days gone by
in all their details,
and in all their modes.

(5) With the pure Heavenly Eye,
surpassing that of men,
he sees beings as they pass away
from one form of existence
and take shape in another;
he recognises the mean and the noble,
the well favoured and the ill favoured,
the happy and the wretched,
passing away according to their deeds:

"Such and such beings, my brethren,
evil-doers in act and word and thought,
revilers of the noble ones,
holding to wrong views,
acquiring for themselves that Karma
which results from wrong views,
they, on the dissolution of the body, after death,
are reborn in some unhappy state of suffering or woe.

But such and such beings, my brethren,
well-doers in act and word and thought,
not revilers of the noble ones,
holding to right views,
acquiring for themselves that Karma
that results from right views,
they, on the dissolution of the body, after death,
are reborn in some happy state in heaven."

Thus with the pure Heavenly Eye,
surpassing that of men,
he sees beings as they pass away from one state of existence,
and take form in another;
he recognises the mean and the noble,
the well favoured and the ill favoured,
the happy and the wretched,
passing away according to their deeds.

(6) he lives in the attainment, the personal knowledge and realization, through the extinction of the intoxicants, of sane and immune freedom of heart and mind.

Now these Six Things are genuine, true, thus, not otherwise, not different, perfectly comprehended by the Tathāgata.

 


 

VII.

[282] [8] There are Seven things, friends,
that helpeth much,
Seven things that are to be developed,
Seven things that are to be understood,
Seven things that are to be eliminated,
Seven things that belong to disaster,
Seven things that lead to distinction,
Seven things that are hard to penetrate,
Seven things that are to be brought to pass,
Seven things that are to be thoroughly learnt,
Seven things that are to be realized.

i. Which Seven help much?

The seven treasures, to wit:

The treasure of faith,
of morals,
of conscientiousness,
of discretion,
of learning,
of self-denial,
of insight.

ii. Which Seven are to be developed?

Seven factors of enlightenment, to wit,
the factor of mindfulness,
of study of doctrines,
of energy,
of zest,
of serenity,
of concentration,
of equanimity.

iii. Which Seven are to be understood?

Seven stations of consciousness.
(1) There are beings, brethren, who are diverse both in body and in mind,
such as mankind,
certain devas and some who have gone to an evil doom.
This is the first station (or persistence) for [re-born] consciousness.
(2) Other beings are diverse of body,
but uniform in mind,
such as the devas of the Brahma-world,
reborn there from [practice here of] first [Jhāna].
(3) Others are uniform in body,
diverse in intelligence,
such as the Radiant Devas.
(4) Others are uniform both in body and in intelligence,
such as the All-Lustrous Devas.
(5) Others there are who,
by having passed wholly beyond all consciousness of matter,
by the dying out of the consciousness of sense-reaction,
by having turned the attention away from any consciousness of the manifold
and become conscious only of 'space as infinite'
are dwellers in the realm of infinite space.
(6) Others there are who,
by having passed wholly beyond the realm of infinite space
and become conscious only of consciousness as infinite
are dwellers in the realm of infinite consciousness.
(7) Others there are who,
having passed wholly beyond the realm of infinite consciousness,
and become conscious only that
'there is nothing whatever,'
are dwellers in the realm of nothingness.
Such are the remaining stations of consciousness.

iv. Which Seven are to be eliminated?

The seven forms of latent bias, to wit,
the bias of sensual passion,
of enmity,
of false opinion,
of doubt,
of conceit,
of lust for rebirth,
of ignorance.

v. Which Seven belong to decline?

The seven vicious qualities, to wit,
want of faith,
unconscientiousness,
indiscretion,
want of doctrinal knowledge,
slackness,
muddleheadedness,
want of insight.

vi. Which Seven are belong to increase?

The seven virtuous qualities, to wit, the opposites of the foregoing.

vii. Which Seven are hard to penetrate?

The seven qualities of the good, to wit,
knowledge of the Dhamma,
of the meaning [contained in its doctrines],
knowledge of self,
knowledge how to be temperate,
how to choose and keep time,
knowledge of groups of persons,
and of individuals.

viii. Which Seven are to be brought to pass?

The seven perceptions, to wit,
that of impermanence,
of soullessness,
of ugliness,
of evil [in the world],
of elimination,
of passionlessness,
of cessation.

ix. Which Seven are to be thoroughly understood?

The [259] seven bases of arahantship.
Herein, friends, a brother is keenly desirous of entering the training,
and longs to continue doing so.
He feels similarly with regard to insight into the doctrine,
to the suppression of hankerings,
to [the need of] solitude,
to evoking energy,
to mindfulness and perspicacity,
to intuition of the truth.

x. Which Seven are to be realized?

The seven powers of the Arahant.
Herein, friends, for a brother who is Arahant

#i. Again: saŋkhārā
'own-made,' or 'constructed' not paccaya, 'conditioned'!

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

(1) the impermanence of all conditioned things is well seen as it really is by perfect insight.
This is one of his powers,
on account of which he recognizes that for him the
'Intoxicants' are destroyed.
(2) That sensuous worldly desires are like coals of fire"[35] is well seen as it really is etc. . . . (as above) destroyed.
(3) His heart is inclined to, set upon detachment;
he has made detachment its mountain-cave, its object;
his heart loves renunciation,
and has become entirely non-existent
for all opportunities of incoming intoxicants.
This is one, etc. ...
(4) the four applications of mindfulness have been developed and well developed.
[284] This, etc. ...
(5) so also for the five spiritual faculties,
(6) the seven factors of enlightenment,
(7) the Ariyan Eightfold Path.
In that this and those have been developed and well developed,
these are powers of the Arahant brother,
on account of which he recognizes that for him
the 'Intoxicants' are destroyed.

Now these Seven Things are genuine, true, thus, not otherwise, not different, perfectly comprehended by the Tathāgata.

Here endeth the first Portion for Recitation.

 


 

VIII.

[9] There are Eight things, friends,
that helpeth much,
Eight things that are to be developed,
Eight things that are to be understood,
Eight things that are to be eliminated,
Eight things that belong to disaster,
Eight things that lead to distinction,
Eight things that are hard to penetrate,
Eight things that are to be brought to pass,
Eight things that are to be thoroughly learnt,
Eight things that are to be realized.

i. Which Eight help much?

The eight conditions,
the eight causes which conduce to attaining
that wisdom in those fundamentals of religious life
which have not been attained,
to multiplying,
expanding,
developing,
[260] perfecting those that have been attained.
Herein, friends,
(1) one dwells near the Master,
or near a fellow-disciple occupying the place of teacher,
whereby he is strongly established in conscientiousness,
prudence,
love,
and respect.
[285] (2) Under such circumstances he approaches his teachers from time to time and asks and considers, saying:
'Lord, how is this?
What does this mean?'
And to him those reverend ones reveal what is hidden,
make plain what is obscure,
and dispel any doubts in perplexing matters.
(3) When he has heard their doctrine,
he succeeds in obtaining a double serenity,[36]
that of body and of mind.
(4) Moreover, friends, a brother,
virtuous,
habitually self-restrained
with the self-restraint of the Canon law,
proficient in behaviour and propriety,[37]
seeing danger in the smallest offence,
undertakes to train himself in the stages of the training.
This is the fourth condition,
the eiohth cause of such as conduce
to attaining that wisdom
in the fundamentals of religious life
which have not been attained,
to multiplying,
expanding,
developing,
perfecting those that have been attained.
(5) Moreover, friends,
a brother having learnt much,
bears what he has heard in mind and stores it up.
And whatever doctrines,
lovely in the beginning,
in the middle,
at the end,
both in the letter and in the spirit,
commend a religious life
that is absolutely fulfilled
and made quite pure,
those doctrines are by such a brother much learnt,
remembered,
treasured by repetition,
pondered in mind,
well penetrated by intuition.[38]
This is the fifth condition,
the eiohth cause of such as conduce
to attaining that wisdom
in the fundamentals of religious life
which have not been attained,
to multiplying,
expanding,
developing,
perfecting those that have been attained.
(6) Moreover, friends,
a brother is habitually stirring up energy
for the elimination of bad qualities,
the evoking of good qualities,
indomitable,
strongly progressing and never shirking
with respect to what is good.
This is the sixth condition,
the eiohth cause of such as conduce
to attaining that wisdom
in the fundamentals of religious life
which have not been attained,
to multiplying,
expanding,
developing,
perfecting those that have been attained.
[286] (7) Moreover, friends,
he is clear-minded,
supremely heedful and discriminating,
noting and remembering
what has long since been done and spoken.
This is the seventh condition,
the eiohth cause of such as conduce
to attaining that wisdom
in the fundamentals of religious life
which have not been attained,
to multiplying,
expanding,
developing,
perfecting those that have been attained.
(8) Moreover, friends,
a brother is habitually contemplating
the rise and passing away of the five aggregates of grasping,
to wit:
'Such is the material [aggregate],
such its cause,
its cessation.'

[261] Similarly for the four mental aggregates.
This is the eighth condition,
the eiohth cause of such as conduce
to attaining that wisdom
in the fundamentals of religious life
which have not been attained,
to multiplying,
expanding,
developing,
perfecting those that have been attained.

ii. Which Eight are to be developed?

The Aryan Eightfold Path, to wit,
right views,
intentions,
speech,
action,
livelihood,
effort,
mindfulness,
concentration
(VIII, ii of the Sangiti Sutta).

iii. Which Eight are to be understood?

Eight matters of worldly concern, to wit,
gains and losses,
fame and obscurity,
blame and praise,
pleasures and pains.

iv. Which Eight are to be eliminated?

[287] Eight wrong factors of character and conduct, to wit,
wrong views,
intention,
speech,
action,
livelihood,
effort,
mindfulness,
concentration.
(VIII, i of the Sangiti Sutta)

v. Which Eight belonging to decline?

Eight bases of slackness.
Herein, friends,
(1) let a brother have some work to do.
He thinks:
'There's that work I have to do,
but the doing of it will tire me.
Well then, I shall lie down.'
He lies down;
he stirs up no energy to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.
(2) Or he has been working, and thinks:
'I have been working,
and the doing of my work has tired me.
Well then, I shall lie down.'
He lies down;
he stirs up no energy to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.
(3) Or he has to make a journey,
and he thinks:
'I have to make a journey,
and that will tire me.
Well then, I shall lie down.'
He lies down;
he stirs up no energy to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.
(4) Or he has gone on his journey,
and reflects:
'I have gone on a journey,
and that has tired me.
Well then, I shall lie down.'
He lies down;
he stirs up no energy to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.
(5) Or he tours about a village or township for alms
and does not obtain his fill
of poor or rich food, and thinks:
'I've gone about village,
about township for alms
and have not obtained my fill
of poor or rich food.
This body of me is tired and good for naught.
Well then, I'll lie down.'
He lies down;
he stirs up no energy to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.
(6) Or he tours about a village or township for alms
and does obtain his fill
of poor or rich food and thinks:
'I've gone about a village or township for alms
and have obtained my fill
of poor or rich food.
This body of me is heavy and good for naught,
seems tome like a load of soaked beans.
Well then, I'll lie down'
He lies down;
he stirs up no energy to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.
(7) Or in him some slight ailment has arisen,
and he thinks:
In this state it is fit I lie down.
He lies down;
he stirs up no energy to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.
(8) Or he has recovered from illness,
has recently arisen from some indisposition.
And he thinks his body is weak and good for naught
and lies down
nor stirs up energy to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.
(VIII, iv of the Sangiti Sutta).

vi. Which Eight belonging to distinction?

Eight bases of setting afoot an undertaking.
Herein, brethren,
(1) let a brother have some work to do.
He thinks:
'There is that work I have to do,
but in doing it,
I shall not find it easy to attend to the religion of the Buddhas.
Well then, I will stir up energy to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.'
(2) Or he has done a task, and thinks:
'I have been working,
but I could not attend to the religion of the Buddhas.
Well then, I will stir up energy to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.'
(3) Or he has to go on a journey,
and thinks it will not be easy for him, on his way,
to attend to the religion of the Buddhas,
and resolves:
'Well then, I will stir up energy to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.'
(4) Or he has been on a journey,
but has not been able to attend to the religion of the Buddhas,
and resolves:
Well then, I will stir up energy to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.'
(5) Or he has toured about village or township for alms
and has not obtained his fill
of poor or rich food.
And he thinks that,
under the circumstances,
his body is light and fit for work
and resolves:
Well then, I will stir up energy to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.'
(6) Or he has toured and has obtained his fill and thinks that,
under the circumstances,
his body is strong and fit to work
and resolves:
Well then, I will stir up energy to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.'
(7) Or in him some slight ailment has arisen.
And he thinks it is possible that the ailment may grow worse,
so that he must stir up energy
to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.'
(8) Or he has recovered from illness,
has recently arisen from some indisposition.
And he thinks:
I have recovered from illness,
I have recently arisen from my indisposition.
It is possible that the illness may recur.
Well then, I will stir up energy to finish that which is not done,
to accomplish the unaccomplished,
to realize the unrealized.'
(VIII, v of the Sangiti Sutta).

vii. Which Eight are hard to penetrate?

Eight untimely unseasonable intervals for life in a religious order,
(1) A Tathāgata, friends, is born into the world, Arahant Buddha Supreme. The Norm is taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, declared by the Well-Farer.
And this person is reborn at that time in purgatory.
This is the first untimely,
unsseasonable period
for living in a religious order.
(2) A Tathāgata, friends, is born into the world, Arahant Buddha Supreme. The Norm is taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, declared by the Well-Farer.
And this person is reborn at that time in the animal kingdom.
This is the second untimely,
unsseasonable period
for living in a religious order.
(3) A Tathāgata, friends, is born into the world, Arahant Buddha Supreme. The Norm is taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, declared by the Well-Farer.
And this person is reborn at that time among the Petas.
This is the third untimely,
unsseasonable period
for living in a religious order.
(4) A Tathāgata, friends, is born into the world, Arahant Buddha Supreme. The Norm is taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, declared by the Well-Farer.
And this person is reborn at that time among some longlived deva community.
This is the fourth untimely,
unsseasonable period
for living in a religious order.
(5) A Tathāgata, friends, is born into the world, Arahant Buddha Supreme. The Norm is taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, declared by the Well-Farer.
And this person is reborn at that time in the border countries among unintelligent barbarians, where there is no opening for members of the Order or lay-brethren.
This is the fifth untimely,
unsseasonable period
for living in a religious order.
(6) A Tathāgata, friends, is born into the world, Arahant Buddha Supreme. The Norm is taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, declared by the Well-Farer.
And this person is reborn at that time in the middle countries, but he holds wrong opinions and has perverted vision, holding that gifts, offerings, oblations are as naught, for thhere is no fruit nor result of deeds well or ill done;
there are no parents nor birth without them; there are no recluses or brahmins in the world who have attained the highest, leading perfect lives, and who, havintg known and realized each for himself the truth as to this and the next world, do reveal it.
This is the sixth untimely,
unsseasonable period
for living in a religious order.
(7) A Tathāgata, friends, is born into the world, Arahant Buddha Supreme. The Norm is taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, declared by the Well-Farer.
And though reborn at the time in the Middle countries,
he is stupid, dull, or deaf and dumb,
unable to know whether a matter has been well said or ill said.
This is the seventh untimely,
unsseasonable period
for living in a religious order.
(8) Or finally, friends, a Tathāagata has not arisen in the world as Arahant Buddha Supreme, the Norm is not taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, as revealed by the Well-Farer; and this person is [in that interval] reborn in the Middle country, is intelligent, bright of wit, nor deaf-mute, able to know whether a matter has been well said or ill said.
This is the eighth untimely,
unsseasonable period
for living in a religious order.
(IX, iv of the Sangiti Sutta, but omitting the fourth: — 'rebirth as Asura').

viii. Which Eight are to be brought to pass?

The eight thoughts of a superman.[39]
This Norm[39] is for one of little wants,
not for one of great wants;
for one who is serenely content,
not for the discontented;
for one who is detached,[40]
not for one who is fond of society;
for one who is energetic,
not for the slacker;
for one who has presence of mind,
not a confused mind;
for one whose mind is concentrated,
not distracted;
for one who has insight,
not for the unintelligent;
for one who delights [262] not in conceit,
craving and opinion,[41]
not for one who delights therein.

ix. Which Eight are to be thoroughly learnt?

Eight positions of mastery.
(1) When anyone pictures to himself some material feature of his person
and sees [corresponding] features in others,
lovely or ugly,
as small,
transcending this [object] he is aware of doing so,
[thinks] 'I know, I see!'
(2) Or when he has the same experience,
but sees those features not as small,
but as infinitely great,
and nevertheless transcending this [object],
and is aware of doing so [thinks]:
'I know, I see!'
(3) Or when he sees the features in others
lovely or ugly,
as small,
without first picturing any material feature of his own
transcending this [object] he is aware of doing so,
[thinks] 'I know, I see!'
(4) Or when he sees the features in others
but sees those features not as small,
but as infinitely great,
and nevertheless transcending this [object],
and is aware of doing so [thinks]:
'I know, I see!'
(5) Or when without the personal preliminary,
he sees external shapes of indigo,
indigo in colour,
indigo in visible expanse,
indigo in lustre,
as is the ummā flower,
or a Benares muslin delicately finished on both sides
transcending this [object] he is aware of doing so,
[thinks] 'I know, I see!'
(6) or shapes of yellow
yellow in colour,
yellow in visible expanse,
yellow in lustre,
as is the kaṇikāra flower,
or Benares muslin delicately finished on both sides
transcending this [object] he is aware of doing so,
[thinks] 'I know, I see!'
(7) or shapes of red
red in colour,
red in visible expanse,
red in lustre,
as is the bandhujīvaka flower,
or Benares muslin delicately finished on both sides
transcending this [object] he is aware of doing so,
[thinks] 'I know, I see!'
(8) or shapes of white,
white in color,
white in visible expanse,
white in lustre
as is the morning star,
or Benares muslin delicately finished on both sides
transcends this [object] and is aware of doing so,
[thinks]: 'I know, I see!'
(VIII, x of the Sangiti Sutta).

[288] x. Which Eight are to be realized?

Eight deliverances, to wit,
(1) He, picturing any material feature of himself,
sees such material features [as they really are].
(2) Not picturing any such,
he sees material features external to his own.
(3) He decides that it is beautiful.
(4) By passing wholly beyond all consciousness of material qualities,
by the dying out of the awareness of sensory reaction,
by the unheeding of any awareness of difference,
he enters into and abides
in that rapt ecstasy
which is a consciousness of infinite space.
(5) By passing wholly beyond such a sphere of consciousness,
he enters into and abides
in that rapt ecstasy
which is a consciousness of infinitude of consciousness itself.
(6) By passing wholly beyond such a sphere of consciousness,
he enters into and abides
in that rapt ecstasy
which regards consciousness itself as nothing whatever,
a sphere of nothingness.
(7) By passing wholly beyond such a sphere,
he enters into and abides
in that rapt consciousness
which neither is,
nor yet is not
to be called conscious.
(8) By passing wholly beyond such a sphere,
he enters into and abides
in a state of unconsciousness,
wherein awareness and feeling cease.
(VIII, xi of the Sangiti Sutta).

Now these Eight Things are genuine, true, thus, not otherwise, not different, perfectly comprehended by the Tathāgata.

 


 

IX.

[10] There are Nine things, friends,
that helpeth much,
Nine things that are to be developed,
Nine things that are to be understood,
Nine things that are to be eliminated,
Nine things that belong to disaster,
Nine things that lead to distinction,
Nine things that are hard to penetrate,
Nine things that are to be brought to pass,
Nine things that are to be thoroughly learnt,
Nine things that are to be realized.

i. Which Nine help much?

The nine states of mind and body which are rooted in orderly thinking[42]: —
To one so thinking, gladness arises,
in him gladdened, rapture arises,
his mind enraptured the body is satisfied,
one whose body is thus appeased is at ease,
he being happily at ease, the mind is stayed,
with mind thus stayed, concentrated,
he knows he sees [things] as they really are,
and he thus knowing thus seeing turns in repulsion,
repelled he becomes passionless;
hence he is set free.

ii. Which Nine are to be developed?

The nine factors in wrestling for utter purity, to wit,
the purification of morals,
of the mind,
of views,
the purification of escaping from doubt,
that of intuition and insight into what is the [genuine] path,
and what is not,
that of intuition and insight into progress,
the purification which is intuition and insight,
that which is understanding,
that which is emancipation.[43]

[263] iii. Which Nine are to be understood?

Nine spheres inhabited by beings.
(1) 'There are beings differing in body
and differing in intelligence,
for instance,
human beings and certain of the gods
and some of those in purgatory.
This is the first resting place for Cognition.
(2) 'There are beings differing in body
but of uniform intelligence,
for instance,
the gods of the Brahma-heaven
who are there reborn by means of the First [Jhāna].
This is the second resting-place for Cognition.
(3) 'There are beings uniform in body
and differing in intelligence,
for instance,
the Luminous Gods.
This is the third resting place for Cognition.
(4) 'There are beings uniform in body
and of uniform intelligence,
for instance,
the All-Lustrous Gods.
This is the fourth resting place for Cognition.'.
(5) There are beings without perception or feeling.
These live in the sphere of the 'unconscious devas.'
(6) There are beings who
having passed wholly beyond awareness of material qualities,
by the dying out of sensory reaction,
by unheeding the awareness of difference,
have attained to the sphere of infinite space
with a consciousness thereof,
(7) by passing wholly beyond such a sphere of consciousness,
enter into and abides
in that rapt ecstasy
which is a consciousness of infinitude of consciousness itself,
(8) by passing wholly beyond such a sphere of consciousness,
enter into and abides
in that rapt ecstasy
which regards consciousness itself as nothing whatever,
a sphere of nothingness,
(9) by passing wholly beyond such a sphere,
enter into and abides
in that rapt consciousness
which neither is,
nor yet is not
to be called conscious.
(IX, iii of the Sangiti Sutta).

iv. Which Nine are to be eliminated?

[289] The nine things springing from craving, to wit,
pursuit caused by craving,
gain because of pursuit,
decision because of gain,
desire and passion because of decision,
tenacity because of desire and passion,
possession because of tenacity,
avarice because of possession,
watch and ward because of avarice,
and many a bad and wicked state of things
arising from keeping watch and ward over possessions:
— blows and wounds,
strife,
contradiction and retort,
quarrelling,
slander and lies.[44]

v. Which Nine are belong to decline?

Nine bases of quarrelling, thus: —
quarrelling is stirred up at the thought:
'he has done me an injury,'
or 'he is doing me an injury,'
or 'he will do me an injury,'
or 'he has done,
is doing,
will do an injury to one I love,'
or 'he has bestowed a benefit,
is bestowing,
will bestow a benefit on one I dislike.'
(IX, iii of the Sangiti Sutta).

vi. Which Nine are belong to distinction?

Nine suppressions of quarrelling, thus: —
quarrelling is suppressed by the thought:
'He has done,
is doing,
will do me an injury,
or 'he has done,
is doing,
will do an injury to one I love',
or 'he has bestowed,
is bestowing,
will bestow a benefit on one I dislike', true,
but what gain would there be to either of us if I quarrelled about it?'
(IX, iii of the Sangiti Sutta).

vii. Which Nine are hard to penetrate?

The nine differences : —
on account of difference in the [sensory] element,
a different contact takes place,
on account of difference in contact
difference in feeling arises,
hence difference in perception,[45]
hence difference in purposive thought,
hence difference in active desire,
hence difference in greed,
hence difference in pursuit,
hence difference in gain.

viii. Which Nine are to be brought to pass?

The nine perceptions, to wit,
perception of ugliness,
of death,[46]
revulsion from nutriment (physical, sensory, mental),[47]
disaffection with everything worldly,
impermanence,
suffering in impermanence,
[290] no-soul in that which suffers,
elimination,
passionlessness.

[264] ix. Which Nine are to be thoroughly learnt?

Herein, friends, a brother,
(1) aloof from sensuous appetites,
aloof from evil ideas,
enters into and abides in the First Jhāna,
wherein there is initiative and sustained thought,
which is born of solitude,
and is full of zest and ease.
(2) Secondly, when suppressing initiative and sustained thought,
he enters into and abides in the Second Jhāna,
which is self-evoked,
born of concentration,
full of zest and ease,
in that, set free from initial and sustined thought,
the mind grows calm and sure,
dwelling on high.
(3) Thirdly, when a brother,
no longer fired with zest,
abides calmly contemplative,
while mindful and self-possessed
he feels in his body
that ease whereof Ariyans declare:
He that is calmly contemplative and aware,
he dwelleth at ease,
so does he enter into and abide in the Third Jhāna.
(4) Fourthly, by putting aside ease
and by putting aside malaise,
by the passing away of the joy and the sorrow he used to feel,
he enters into and abides in the Fourth Jhāna,
rapture of utter purity of mindfulness and equanimity,
wherein neither ease is felt
nor any ill.
(5) By passing wholly beyond all consciousness of material qualities,
by the dying out of the awareness of sensory reaction,
by the unheeding of any awareness of difference,
he enters into and abides
in that rapt ecstasy
which is a consciousness of infinite space.
(6) By passing wholly beyond such a sphere of consciousness,
he enters into and abides
in that rapt ecstasy
which is a consciousness of infinitude of consciousness itself.
(7) By passing wholly beyond such a sphere of consciousness,
he enters into and abides
in that rapt ecstasy
which regards consciousness itself as nothing whatever,
a sphere of nothingness.
(8) By passing wholly beyond such a sphere,
he enters into and abides
in that rapt consciousness
which neither is,
nor yet is not
to be called conscious.
(9) By passing wholly beyond such a sphere,
he enters into and abides
in a state of unconsciousness,
wherein awareness and feeling cease.
(IV.iv; and VIII, xi of the Sangiti Sutta)

x. Which Nine are to be realized?

The nine successional cessations, thus: —
Taking each of the foregoing nine in order,
by the attainment of
(1) First Jhāna,
sensuous perceptions cease,
(2) Second Jhāna,
applied and sustained thought ceases,
(3) Third Jhāna,
zest ceases,
(4) Fourth Jhāna,
respiration ceases,
(5) by the perception of infinite space,
perception of material things ceases,
(6) by the perception of infinite consciousness,
perception of infinite space ceases,
(7) by the perception of nothingness,
perception of infinite consciousness ceases,
(8) by the perception that is neither conscious nor yet unconscious,
perception of nothingness ceases,
(9) by the cessation of perception and feeling,
perception that is neither conscious nor yet unconscious ceases.
(VIII, xi of the Sangiti Sutta).

Now these Nine Things are genuine, genuine, true, thus, not otherwise, not different, perfectly comprehended by the Tathāgata.

 


 

X.

[11] There are Ten things, friends,
that helpeth much,
Ten things that are to be developed,
Ten things that are to be understood,
Ten things that are to be eliminated,
Ten things that belong to disaster,
Ten things that lead to distinction.
Ten things that are hard to penetrate,
Ten things that are to be brought to pass.
Ten things that are to be thoroughly learnt,
Ten things that are to be realized.

i. Which Ten help much?

Ten doctrines conferring protection.

(1) Herein friends, a brother is virtuous, lives self-controlled according to the self-control prescribed in the Vinaya, he has entered on a proper range of conduct, he sees danger in the least of the things he should avoid, he adopts and trains himself in the precepts.
(2) He learns much, and remembers and stores up what he has learnt. Those doctrines which, excellent at the start, in the middle, at the end, in the letter and in their contents, declare the absolutely perfect and pure religious life, these he learns to a great extent bears them in mind, treasures them by repetition, onders them in mind, penetrates them by intuition.
(3) He is a friend, an associate, an intimate of men of good character.
(4) He is affable, endowed with gentleness and humility; he is patient and receives admonition with deference.
(5) Where there are duties to be done for the seniors among his fellow-disciples, he therin is industrious, not slothful, and exercises forethought in methods for discharging them, is capable of accomplishing, capable of organizing.
(6) And furthermore, friends, he loves the doctrine, the utterance of it is dear to him, he finds exceeding joy in the advanced teaching of both Doctrine and Discipline.
(7) Furthermore, friends, he is content with necessaries of any quality, whether it be raiment, alms, lodging, drugs and provision against sickness.
(8) Furthermore, friends, he is continually stirring up effort to eliminate bad qualities, evoke good qualities, making dogged and vigorous progress in good things, never throwing off the burden.
(9) Furthermore, friends, he is mindful, and possessed of supreme lucidity and perspicacity in following mentally and recollecting deeds and words long past.
(10) Furthermore,friends, he is intelligent, endowed withinsight into the rise and passing away [of things], insight which is of that Ariyan penetration which leads to the complete destruction of pain.
(as detailed in X, i onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

ii. Which Ten must be developed?

Ten objects for self-hypnosis.
These, perceived severally as above, below or across, and as homogeneous, and without limits, are
a piece of earth [extended matter],
water,
fire,
air,
indigo,
yellow,
red,
white,
space,
consciousness.
(as detailed in X, ii onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

iii. Which Ten must be understood?

The ten areas [of sense-contact],[48] to wit,
the five organs of special sense
and the five kinds of sense-objects.

iv. Which Ten must be eliminated?

The ten wrong factors [of character and conduct], to wit,
wrong views,
wrong purposes,
wrong speech,
action
and livelihood,
wrong effort,
mindfulness
and concentrative practice,
wrong knowledge,
wrong emancipation.[49]

v. Which Ten belong to decline?

Ten bad channels of action, to wit,
taking life,
theft,
inchastity,
lying,
abuse,
slander,
idle talk,
covetousness,
malevolence,
wrong views.
(X, iii of the Sangiti Sutta).

[291] vi. Which Ten belong to distinction?

The ten good channels of action, to wit,
abstention from taking life,
abstention from theft,
abstention from inchastity,
abstention from lying,
abstention from abuse,
abstention from slander,
abstention from idle talk,
abstention from covetousness,
abstention from malevolence,
abstention from wrong views. (the opposites of the ten X, iii of the Sangiti Sutta).

vii. Which Ten are hard to perpetrate?

Ten Ariyan methods of living.
Herein, friends, a brother has got rid of five factors,
is possessed of six factors,
has set the one guard,
carries out the four bases of observance,
has put away sectarian opinions,
has utterly given up quests,
is candid in his thoughts,
has calmed the restlessness of his body,
and is well emancipated in heart and intellect.
(1) What five factors has he got rid of?
Sensuality,
malevolence,
sloth and torpor,
excitement and worry,
doubt.
(2) What six factors is he possessed of?
The six 'chronic states.'
Herein, friends, a brother on occasion
(1-5) of any of the five kinds of sensation,
(6) as well as on that of any impression or idea,
is neither delighted
nor displeased,
but remains equable,
mindful
and deliberate.
(See p. 234)
(3) How has he set the one guard?
By the mental guard of mindfulness.
(4) What are the four bases of observance?
Herein a brother judges that something is to be
(i) habitually pursued,
(ii) endured,
(iii) avoided,
(iv) suppressed.
(5) How does he become 'one who has put away sectarian opinions?
All those many opinions
of the mass of recluses and brahmins
which are held by individuals as dogmas:
— all these he has dismissed,
put away,
given up,
ejected,
let go,
eliminated,
abandoned.
(6) How is he one whose questing is utterly given up?
He has eliminated the questing after worldly desires,
the questing for rebirth,
the questing for religious life.
(7) How is he candid in his thoughts?
He has eliminated occupying his mind with sensual
or malicous
or cruel ideas.
(8) How does he tranquillize the activity of the body?
Because of eliminating the being affected pleasurably or painfully,
because of the dying out of previous impressions as joyful or sorrowful,
he attains to and abides in a state of neutral feeling,
of very pure indifference and mental lucidity,
namely,
the state called Fourth Jhāna.
(9) How does he become well emancipated in heart?
He becomes emancipated in heart from passion,
hate,
and illusion.
(10) How does he become well emancipated in intellect?
He understands his emancipated condition, namely, in the thought: Passion for me is eliminated,
cut off at the root,
become as a palmtree stump,
become non-existent,
unable to grow again in future.
Hate for me is eliminated,
cut off at the root,
become as a palmtree stump,
become non-existent,
unable to grow again in future.
Illusion for me is eliminated,
cut off at the root,
become as a palmtree stump,
become non-existent,
unable to grow again in future.
(X, v of the Sangiti Sutta).

viii. Which Ten must be brought to pass?

The ten perceptions, to wit,
perception of ugliness,
of death,
revulsion from nutriment (physical, sensory, mental),
disaffection with everything worldly,
impermanence,
suffering in impermanence,
no-soul in that which suffers,
elimination,
passionlessness,
and of cessation.

[265] ix. Which Ten are to be thoroughly learnt?

The ten causes of wearing away: —
by right views wrong views are worn away;
whatever manifold bad and wicked qualities,
proceeding from those wrong views,
take shape,
they are worn away in you.
And many good qualities,
caused by right views,
become developed and brought to perfection.
The same wearing away is wrought by the other nine factors of the tenfold Path[50] on the opposed nine wrong factors of character and conduct.[51]

x. Which Ten are to be realized?

Ten qualities belonging to the adept, to wit,
the right (or perfect) views,
intentions,
speech,
action,
livelihood,
effort,
mindfulness,
concentration,
insight and
emancipation as held by adepts.
(X, vi of the Sangiti Sutta).

Now these Ten Things are genuine, true, thus, not otherwise, not different, perfectly comprehended by the Tathāgata.

Thus spake the venerable Sariputta. And pleased in mind those brethren delighted in his words.

HERE ENDETH THE DASUTTARA SUTTANTA

[ENVOI]

To compass utter end of ill;
To bring to pass true happiness;
Haven ambrosial to win
Under the Sovereign of the Norm.

HERE ENDETH THE DĪGHA NIKĀYA OR LONG-[SUTTA]-COLLECTION

 


[1] This is not a literal rendering. Plus-up-to-ten is a little nearer, but uncouth. So we have not tried to be literal.

[2] Pronounced Champā.

[3] Dhamma. Anything as presented to the mind is a dhamma. We have no parallel word.

[4] Or 'made to grow' (vaḍḍhetabbo = bhāvetabbo).

[5] 1 Rūpādīsu. Comy.

[6] Ayoniso. I.e., taking the changing as permanent, etc. Comy.

[7] Of Path, as result, after insight. Comy.

[8] I.e., to understand when reflecting on fruition gained. This was an attribute of Emancipation (Vin. Texts, i., 97, Ī 29, Majjhima I. 167, etc.) and Nibbāna. See (x.).

[9] See above, p. 204.

[10] Namely, 'under the bo-tree.' Comy. Hence, according to B., Tathāgata here means clearly a Buddha, and not any Arahant.

[11] See above, p. 205. B. passes over this answer. Element (dhātu) has here somewhat the meaning of conditions of being, e.g., water to a fish, not any one factor in such.

[12] 'Made by causes, the five aggregates; not so made, Nibbana.' Comy.

[13] 'Vijjā here means the threefold lore' (an annexed Brahmanic term). Comy. Cf. above, p, 214, lviii. ff., and below, x.

[14] The ten questions are to be read as repeated here and below. [Ed. filled out in this edition.]

[15] 1 Lit. becoming-craving and contra-becoming craving. Cf. above 1, 10, xvi.

[16] B.'s comments are purely exegetical. He calls the three escapes the Path of the Non-returner, the Path, and the Fruit of Arahantship respectively.

[17] I.e., conditions. See above 2, ix.

[18] I.e., the three spheres of existence, described in Bud. Psy. Eth., p. 334.

[19] In text verbatim, as on p. 214, lviii. See the six, p. 257 f.

n 20. Another is a sutta in which a number of elements are developed off each other until all possibilities have been given.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[20]Cakkāni, says B., are of five kinds: wheels of wood, as in a carriage; circlets of gems; the [symbolic] wheel of Dhamma (righteousness or law); the fourfold range of postures (standing, walking, sitting, lying); the vehicles or means of success (sampatti), as here.

[21] Cf. Vol. II. p. 327 f.; above, p. 214 (i.).

[22] Cf. p. 219 (xvii.).

[23] Cf. above, p. 218 (xi.).

[24] 1 Saccāni (sat-yāni), lit. things that are. Truths is the more subjective counterpart, although the word may be objectively used.

[25] As detailed in V, xvi of the Sangiti Sutta

[26] The first and second are the expression of insight in the first two and first three Jhānas respectively. The third expresses telepathic (thought-reading) insight. The fourth expresses the insight of the 'heavenly eye' (clairvoyance). The fifth is insight on emerging from ecstasy.

[27] As in p. 227. [Ed. here inserted]

[28] Detailed as on DN 33: Sangitti Sutta, p. 228 (xxiv.). [Ed.: Here inserted from his translation and then fully expanded to agree with the Pali]

[29] Samādhi (includes all the stages preliminary to ecstasy). Cf. ii.

[30] Akapuriso, 'to wit Buddhas, supermen, etc.'

[31] Of this phrase ekodibhāvadhigato B. remarks: 'because the rapture has been attained by mental uplift, etc., or because of mental uplift, etc., having been attained.'

[32] On sasankhāra see Bud. Psy. Eth., p. 34, n. I, Of vārita-vato the readings in MSS. of the Comy, vary as much as those in the text. The only comment is paccanīkadhamme gatattā.

[33] Cf. the four on p. 221.

[34] 1 Iddhi (Vol. 1, 88 f.; cf. above, p. 253, x.).

[35] Kāmā here are both the objects of desire, desires objectified, lit. object-desires (vatthukāmā), and the modes of desire, or passions (ki1esakama). 'Coals of fire,' i.e., feverish states. Cf. Majjhima I, 130; Anguttara IV, 224; Jataka IV, 118.

[36] Vupakāsa. We have not elsewhere met with this word.

[37] Gocara: range, proper limits in thought and conduct.

[38] Cf. above, p. 246 (2); cf. 230*.

[39] 1 The first seven are said to have been excogitated by the Thera Anuruddha. The Buddha adds the eighth, and repeats them all as a sermon to the Order. A.IV (a misprint in our text gives III), 229.

[40] 'As to body, mind and the conditions for rebirth' Comy.

[41] Expansion of papañca. This term is by the Commentators usually analyzed into these three, the term itself being left unequated.

[42] Cf. above, pp. 229, 25 t, vi.

[43] On the later scheme of this 'purity,' cf. Compendium, p 210 f. Here the first seven are given, the eighth is omitted (paññā occurs only twice in the book), the ninth is developed separately. B.'s sparse comments agree with the definitions, p. 212 f., but he refers the reader to Visuddhi Magga for more, also to the 'Ratha-Vinīta,' presumably M. I, Sutta 24, especially p. 147. The last two he calls the fruition of Arahantship. The Visuddhi Magga is an expansion of just these nine heads.

[44] 1 Repeated verbatim from the Māhā Nidāna Suttanta (Dial, II, 55, cf. footnotes ibid.).

[45] That is, in perception with regard to sense-experience. Comy.

[46] Intuition on contemplating death. Comy. 'Saññā' is here concept rather than percept, or perception widely understood.

[47] On the four kinds, see p. 254.

[48] Or 'fields,' or ' spheres,' Ayatanāni. Cf. Expositor I, 186.

[49] Cf. the first eight, p. 237.

[50] Cf. x.

[51] Cf. iv.



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