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 [Ditthadhamma Lokadhamma]


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Wednesday, December 17, 2014
Previous upload was Tuesday, November 25, 2014


 

PDF e-books
Venerable Madawela Punnaji, Maha Thera's: Return to Tranquility
David N. Snyder, Ph.D.: The Complete Book of Buddha's Lists — Explained.
Neither of these books is being recommended here at this point. They are being made available because they are books that should be and may eventually be reviewed in the book review section.

 

new Sunday, December 07, 2014 6:16 AM Vinaya Piṭaka
[VP.3.CV.7.3] Chapter 7.3 This chapter contains a part of the story of Devedatta's becoming an enemy of the Buddha, his attempt to kill him, and the attempt to create a schism in the order. It also contains the Buddha's statement about eating fish and flesh. (Macchamaṃsaṃ In this translation only 'fish'). This chapter has not been fully converted to the style of this site and is included here primarily because of it's relevance to SN 2.16.11.

 


"If the laugh be turned against yourself, be the first to join, and all will be well."

"May the best day you have ever seen be the worst you will ever see."

On the written word, for the lame memory:

"You will have to help your lame memory with books, and the more you help it with written words the feebler it grows."

— sayings of Ogma, the Druid god that invented Ogam


 

new Wednesday, November 26, 2014 11:59 AM Psalms of the Brethren
[THAG 234] Ekavihāriya, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
the story and verses of Tissa Kumara, youngest son of King Dhammāsoka and brother to Asoka.
[THAG 254] Bhaddiya son of Kāḷī of the Godhas, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
The story and verses of one of the five who renounced the world with Gotama.
[THAG 96] Khaṇḍasumana Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
[THAG 97] Tiasa Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
A different Tissa from the above.
[THAG 261] Kassapa the Great Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
The story and verses of this great Thera. Considered the patron saint of Chinese Buddhism and believed by many Chinese Buddhists to still be living.

 

new Wednesday, November 26, 2014 3:23 AM [AN 5 113] Tolerant, the Kumara Bhikkhu translation.
Linked to the Pali and Hare translation.

 

new Tuesday, November 25, 2014 11:09 AM Saŋyutta Nikāya
[SN 2.15.6] Sāsapa Suttaṃ
Mustard-Seed, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha provides a simile to describe the length of an aeon.
[SN 2.15.7] Sāvaka Suttaṃ
Disciples, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha provides a simile to describe the number of aeons that there have been.
The simile is not intended to suggest the number of aeons that have passed since the beginning of time. It is intended to show that the scope is beyond reckoning. To reckon the scope that is provided, four disciples who live 100 years, recall just the fact of an aeon 100,000 times in a day. Figuring a disciple to start his recollections at age 15, that is 4 X 100,000 X 365 x 85 = 124,100,000 aeons. Figuring an aeon at 10,395,902,500 years (103,959,025 sesame seeds removed from a Magadhan Karika one at a time every hundred years (see Magadha Karika) that is 1,290,131,500,250,000,000 years from the time where it was not possible for our Buddha to recall back further. Our Buddha is said to have been the weakest in the line of known previous Buddhas.
[SN 2.15.8] Gaŋgā Suttaṃ
Ganges, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha provides a simile to describe the number of aeons that there have been.
A variation on the previous.
[SN 2.15.9] The Stick, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha likens the way beings are reborn here and there to the way a stick, tossed into the air, lands sometimes on one end sometimes on the other and sometimes on it's side.
[SN 2.15.10] Ekapuggala Suttaṃ
A Person, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that the pile of a single person's bones during only one aeon would be greater than a huge mountain. ... if there were a collector of such bones, and if the collection were not destroyed.
[SN 2.15.13] Thirty Only, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A hair-raising sutta in which the Buddha awakens 30 bhikkhus by describing to them the oceans of their own blood that has been spilled in executions and slaughters in their round of rebirths.
[SN 2.15.14] Mother, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that due to the long course of rebirths it is hard to find a being that has not at one time been one's mother.
Mrs. Rhys Davids abridges and Bhk. Thanissaro condenses into this one the next five suttas. This greatly diminishes the impact. Note that the Buddha speaks of 'beings', not just human beings. You want to be able to think for a minute after each of these suttas that anyone you can think of has at one time been your mother; that is men, women, children, brothers, sisters, enemies, friends, animals, birds, insects, gods, whatever. Also note that this is not 'mother or father, or ...' but 'mother, father, ...' so that pretty much the spectrum of feelings one reserves for mothers or fathers or ... can be applied to any being.
[SN 2.15.15] Pitā Suttaṃ
Father, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that due to the long course of rebirths it is hard to find a being that has not at one time been one's father.
[SN 2.15.16] Bhātā Suttaṃ
Brother, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that due to the long course of rebirths it is hard to find a being that has not at one time been one's brother.
[SN 2.15.17] Bhagini Suttaṃ
Sister, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that due to the long course of rebirths it is hard to find a being that has not at one time been one's sister.
[SN 2.15.18] Putto Suttaṃ
Son, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that due to the long course of rebirths it is hard to find a being that has not at one time been one's son.
[SN 2.15.19] Dhītā Suttaṃ
Daughter, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that due to the long course of rebirths it is hard to find a being that has not at one time been one's daughter.
[SN 2.15.20] Vepullapabbatam Suttaṃ
Mount Vipulla, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha illustrates the changing nature of things by revealing the evolution of Mount Vepulla over the course of the lifetimes of three previous Buddhas.
This concludes the uploading of the Pali and PTS translation of Samyutta Nikaya, Nidana Vagga, Anamatagga Samyutta. The Book of the Kindred Sayings, The Nidana Book, Kindred Sayings on the Beginning.
[SN 2.16.1] Saṇtuṭṭhaṃ Suttaṃ
Contented, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha exhorts the bhikkhus by extolling the satisfaction Maha Kassapa obtains through his contentment with whatever he gets.
[SN 2.16.2] Anottāpi Suttaṃ
Careless, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Maha Kassapa explains the Four Consummate Efforts in detail.
[SN 2.16.3] Comparable to the Moon, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Warren translation. The Buddha admonishes the bhikkhus with the example of Kassapa, who approaches the world with an alert mind and extreme caution.
[SN 2.16.4] Kulūpaga Suttaṃ,
Visiting the Families, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha councils the bhikkhus on the thoughts to eliminate and those to keep in mind when they go on their begging rounds. He cites Kassapa as one who is a good example in this practice.
[SN 2.16.5] Grown Old, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation,
Maha Kassapa extolls the virtues of living the austere life.
[SN 2.16.6] Ovāda Suttaṃ,
Exhortation (1), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha rebukes two bhikkhus who have been one-upping each other.
[SN 2.16.7] Dutiya Ovāda Suttaṃ,
Exhortation (2), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Maha Kassapa describes the states which amount to decline in the bhikkhus and which make the bhikkhus hard to exhort and the states which amount to advancement and which make them easy to exhort. The Buddha confirms his analysis.
[SN 2.16.8] Tatiya Ovāda Suttaṃ,
Exhortation (3), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Gotama laments with Maha Kassapa about the lax state of practice of the bhikkhus compared to the early days.
Imagine what he would think about the state of affairs today!
[SN 2.16.9] Jhānābhiññā Suttaṃ,
Jhāna and Super-knowledge, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha extolls the accomplishments of Maha Kassapa by comparing him with his own accomplishments.
In every case Maha Kassapa is said to be able to do whatever the Buddha claims he himself is able to do. What, then, is the difference between the two? And why does the Buddha make this declaration? The difference between a Buddha and a very powerful Arahant such as Maha Kassapa is described as being in the fact that the Buddha was the first and has a greater scope (for example in the number of past lives he can perceive). This sutta was given apparently towards the end of Gotama's life and after the deaths of Sariputta and Moggalana. It is possible that what we see here is Gotama's attempt to make it clear to the bhikkhus that Maha Kassapa was worthy to lead the Sangha after Gotama's death. It is likely, because of his forest-dwelling and austere habits, that Maha Kassapa was not well known and it might be questioned as to why he thought himself worthy to assume this leadership role. So a discourse such as this would serve to praise Kassapa and protect him from the discomfort of doubts of the younger bhikkhus and to protect the younger bhikkhus from making the mistake of questioning his authority.
[SN 2.16.10] Bhikkhun'upassaya Suttaṃ,
The Sisters' Quarters, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Was Maha Kassapa the needle peddler and Ananda the needle maker? or was it the other way around. Maha Kassapa sets the matter straight.
[SN 2.16.11] Cīvara Suttaṃ,
The Robe, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Maha Kassapa criticizes Ananda for going around with a great crowd of novices and relates the story of his first incounter with the Buddha, his exchanging robes with the Buddha and the Buddha's high praise of him.
[SN 2.16.12] Tathāgata Param-Māraṇa Suttaṃ,
After Death, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Maha Kassapa and Sariputta discuss why the Buddha did not state an opnion concerning whether or not an awakened one lives again after death.
This completes the uploading of the digital version of the Pali Text and Pali Text Society translation of The Kindred Sayings on Kassapa, the Kassapa-Samyutta (Samyutta #16) of the Samyutta Nikaya.
[SN 2.18.1] Cakkhu Suttaṃ,
The Eye, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
This and the following nine suttas, which are all constructed using the same form, are not a series of variations, but a series which gets progressively deeper. Altough each sutta is here apparently independent, it is much more likely it was given as a whole, perhaps over several days. In any case, once completed it makes a whole and should be read as such.
Mrs. Rhys Davids translation here is misleading and spoils the message. She translates the terms 'eye, ear, nose, etc.' as 'sight, hearing, smelling, etc.' which is to speak of the sense experience when what is being spoken of is the sense organ. The idea is that when the sense organ is not stable, anything derived from that is going to be unstable. She gives the lesson no foundation in the concrete. Her abridgements in the following suttas are so severe as to allow multiple interpretations; I have chosen in expanding these suttas those possibilities I believe are most closely aligned with the Pali.
The lesson is:
Dependent on the eye and visual objects, eye-consciousness;
Dependent on the eye, visual objects and eye-consciousness, visual contact;
Dependent on the eye, visual objects, eye-consciousness and visual contact, eye-sense-experience;
Dependent on eye-sense-experience, eye-sense perception;
Dependent on eye-sense perception, intentions with regard to visual objects;
Dependent on intentions with regard to visual objects, thirst for visual objets;
Dependent on thirst for visual objects pain;
and this applies to all of the senses;
for anything derived from earth, water, fire, or wind
including forms, sense-experience, perception, own-making, or consciousness.
And this lesson amounts to what? The Paticca Samuppada.
[SN 2.18.2] Rūpa Suttaṃ,
Thing Seen, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.3] Viññāṇa Suttaṃ,
Awareness, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.4] Samphasso Suttaṃ,
Contact, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.5] Vedanā Suttaṃ,
Feeling, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.6] Saññā Suttaṃ,
Perception, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.7] Sañcetanā Suttaṃ,
Volition, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.8] Sañcetanā Suttaṃ,
Volition, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.9] Dhātu Suttaṃ,
Element, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.10] Khandha Suttaṃ,
Aggregates, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
The following ten suttas are identical respectively to Numbers 1 to 10 above with the difference that they omit the request by Rahula. The first batch therefore were the lessons, the second batch a re-enforcement. They are abridged into one line that does not explain the difference in the PTS.
[SN 2.18.11] Cakkhu Suttaṃ,
The Eye, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.12] Rūpa Suttaṃ,
Thing Seen, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.13] Viññāṇa Suttaṃ,
Awareness, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.14] Samphasso Suttaṃ,
Contact, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.15] Vedanā Suttaṃ,
Feeling, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.16] Saññā Suttaṃ,
Perception, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.17] Sañcetanā Suttaṃ,
Volition, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.18] Sañcetanā Suttaṃ,
Volition, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.19] Dhātu Suttaṃ,
Element, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.20] Khandha Suttaṃ,
Aggregates, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on change, pain, and not self from the Buddha.
[SN 2.18.21] Anusaya Suttaṃ,
Insidious Tendency, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on how to view all things as not-self.
The trick is to break perception down into the categories called 'the khandhas' 'the stockpiles': form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness where it is easy to see these things as 'not self'. This already creates a tendency to objectification and makes the transfer of that objectivity to the otherwise identified-with body and mind much easier.
[SN 2.18.22] Anusaya Suttaṃ,
Insidious Tendency, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on how to view all things as not-self.
A variation of the previous.
This completes the uploading of the digital version of the Pali Text and Pali Text Society translation of The Kindred Sayings on Rahula, the Rahula-Samyutta (Samyutta #18) of the Samyutta Nikaya. And that completes the uploading of Volume II of the digital version of the Pali Text and Pali Text Society translation of the Book of the Kindred Sayings: The Nidāna Book.
[SN 3.22.12] Anicca Suttaṃ,
Impermanence, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that seeing form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as impermanent is sufficient to be repelled by them and that being repelled one is free.
[SN 3.22.13] Dukkha Suttaṃ,
Ill, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that seeing form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as painful is sufficient to be repelled by them and that being repelled one is free.
[SN 3.22.14] Anatta suttaṃ,
Without the Self, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that seeing form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as without the self is sufficient to be repelled by them and that being repelled one is free.
[SN 3.22.15] Yad Anicca Suttaṃ,
What is Impermanent (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that that which is impermanent is painful and that which is painful should not be regarded as the self. So seeing form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness is sufficient to be repelled by them and that being repelled one is free.
[SN 3.22.16] Yaṃ Dukkha Suttaṃ,
What is Impermanent (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that that which is painful is not self and that which is not self should not be regarded as the self. So seeing form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness is sufficient to be repelled by them and that being repelled one is free.
[SN 3.22.17] Yad Anatta Suttaṃ,
What is Impermanent (3), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that that which is not self should not be regarded as the self. So seeing form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness is sufficient to be repelled by them and that being repelled one is free.
Form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are not self. They are not self because they are painful. They are painful because they are inconstant.
[SN 3.22.18] Paṭhama Hetu Suttaṃ,
Cause (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the understanding that a thing built on the changeable is itself subject to change.
See Glossology: 'hetu', for a discussion as to why this term should not be being translated 'cause' as per Woodward and most other translators.
[SN 3.22.19] Dutiya Hetu Suttaṃ,
Cause (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the understanding that a thing built of the painful does not result in the pleasant.
[SN 3.22.20] Tatiya Hetu Suttaṃ,
Cause (3), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the understanding that a thing built of the not-self does not become a self.
The BJT Pali I have apparently used copy and paste but forgot to make the appropriate changes. Woodward does a similar thing in not making the appropriate changes in the second and third of the previous three. The PTS Pali is correct although abridged; I have unabridged the Pali and corrected the Woodward.
[SN 3.22.21] Ānanda Suttaṃ,
Ānanda, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha explains to Ananda that the saying of seers of old 'Its Ending! Its Ending!' points to the perception that form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consiousness are ending things.
[SN 3.22.22] The Burden, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Warren, Walshe, and Bhk. Thanissaro translations.
The Buddha teaches that the five stockpiles (khandha: body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness) amount to a burden, that the asumption of individuality can be termed the grasping of the burden, that desire for experience through the senses, desire to be, and the desire for more being, un-being, or re-being is the lifting up of the burden, and that the laying down of the burden is the utter eradication of desire.
This sutta has sparked extra interest by the translators because of an assumption made by an early western commentator (as noted in a footnote on the Woodward translation) that where there is a grabing hold, taking up, and laying down, there must be a grabber, a take-holder, and a let-goer and that therefore this sutta proves that the Buddha taught the existence of a being outside the khandhas. This is the error of reading into what one reads what is not written into what one is reading. The Buddha did not teach the non-existence of the self, but neither did he teach the existence of the self. What he taught was the process that results in existence and that the problem with existence was the fact of its coming to an end, and this, and only this is what is taught in this sutta.
There is a problem for translators in translation of the term 'vibhava'. VI = re, un, and 2: re-in the sense of doubling or increase; BHAVA = being, living, existing. Woodward assumes that any meaning other than 'un' for this word is a later development. I am not sure there is a good basis for that assumption. It is equally possible that Gotama chose that term precisely because of it's multiple meanings.
[SN 3.22.23] The Burden, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhk. Thanissaro translations.
The Buddha teaches that what is to be understood is body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness and what is called understanding is having completely eradicated lust, hatred and blindness.
[SN 3.22.24] Parijānaṃ or Abhijāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,Understanding, or Thorough Knowledge, the F.W. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that it is only by thoroughly understanding, being detached from, and giving up body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness that attainment of the ending of pain is possible.
[SN 3.22.25] Chanda-Rāga Suttaṃ, the Pali,Desire and Lust, the F.W. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that it is by putting away wanting and lust associated with body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness that these things are abandoned in such a way as to prevent their arising again in the future.

 


Tuesday, November 25, 2014
Previous upload was Tuesday, November 4, 2014


 

new Wednesday, November 19, 2014 11:35 AM Vinaya Piṭaka
[VP.2.MV.9.1] Chapter 9.1 An example of the formula for confession of a fault.

 

new Saturday, November 15, 2014 5:08 AM Pali Buddhist Review, Vol.5 #1-2 The first article is the Ñāṇamoli Thera translation of Majjhima Nikaya 1: The Mulapariyaya Suttanta. Slightly different than the version edited by Bhk. Bodhi. Edited plus notes and commentary by Ven. Khantipālo.

 

new Tuesday, November 04, 2014 9:12 AMSaŋyutta Nikāya
[SN 2.12.37] Na Tumhā Suttaṃ
Not Yours, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha explains that body belongs neither to the self nor to another and arises as a result of action and it's repeated reappearance is brought to a halt by the ending of that action.
By 'belonging to another' is meant such things as having been the creation of a creator god or under the ultimate control of any other being.
[SN 2.12.38] Will (1), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha states that where there is the heart, or intent, or resolve or even pre-occupation with doing or acting, that provides a basis for consciousness of self, or re-birth, in the future.
If there are any that still doubt my translation of saŋkhāra as 'own-making', (or, at least that it should be translated using some term which implies the same thing) reading this sutta should resolve that doubt. This is the description of saŋkhāra using other terms. In other words, the other words are saying that it is by intending to act (without renouncing or abandoning that intention) consciousness is projected into the future becoming of individuality.
[SN 2.12.39] Dutiya Cetanā Suttaṃ
Will (2), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha states that where there is the heart, or intent, or resolve or even pre-occupation with doing or acting, that provides a basis for consciousness and the rest of the links in the chain of dependent factors leading to birth and old age, sickness and death.
An even more convincing argument for the case of translating saŋkhāra as 'own-making'. Here intent, etc. leading to consciousness takes the place of saŋkhāra 'own-making', in an otherwise conventional listing of the links in the Paṭicca Samuppada.
[SN 2.12.40] Dutiya Cetanā Suttaṃ
Will (3), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha states that where there is the heart, or intent, or resolve or even pre-occupation with doing or acting, that provides a basis for consciousness and there follows a bending down to a going to a coming into rebirth, aging and death in the future.
A third variation on the previous two, briefly encapsulating the idea of the Paṭicca Samuppada into 'a basis for consciousness having been established there is going on to rebirth and all that follows.
A very important set of suttas!
[SN 2.12.41] Paṭhavi Pañca-Vera-Bhagayā Suttaṃ
The Fivefold Guilty Dread (1), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha tells Anathapindika that when a layman is able to identify in himself that he is free from the five sources of guilty dread in poor ethical behavior, when he has solid faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, and when he has wised up to the aristocratic method, he may call himself a Streamwinner and assure himself that rebirth below human states is finished.
Faith in the Buddha is faith that Gotama did in fact achieve the end of pain, faith in the Dhamma is faith that that is the way to do it, faith in the Sangha is faith that those in the various stages of awakening are following the path pointed out by Gotama, and that, as such, they are worthy of honor. Understanding the Aristocratic method is understanding the mechanism. It is not just knowledge of the links, but it is actually seeing how this leads to that.
Mrs. Rhys Davids has translated 'ariyo ñāyo' (Aristocratic Method or Noble Method) 'Ariyan truth', which could lead to confusion of this with the 'Ariyan Truths', which would be confusing translation but correct Dhamma and that is actually the basis for her translation. She quotes commentary: 'Buddhaghosa quotes a text which says that the Causal Law and the Eightfold Path are both ñāyo. I would go farther and say that they are two different ways of saying the same thing.
[SN 2.12.42] Dutiya Pañca-Vera-Bhagayā Suttaṃ
The Fivefold Guilty Dread (2), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha tells a group of bhikkhus that when a disciple is able to identify in himself that he is free from the five sources of guilty dread in poor ethical behavior, when he has solid faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, and when he has wised up to the aristocratic method, he may call himself a Streamwinner and assure himself that rebirth below human states is finished.
Almost identical to the previous sutta.
[SN 2.12.43] Dukkha Suttaṃ
Ill, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha explains a version of the Paticca Samuppada that begins with the six realms of the senses.
Another way of saying that is that this sutta gives the details of the way consciousness resulting in named-forms turns into the six realms of the senses.
Another good possible translation for paṭicca! 'Turns into'. Blindness turns into own-making, own-making turns into consciousness; consciousness turns into named-forms; named forms turns into the six relms of the senses ...
[SN 2.12.44] The World, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha explains a version of the Paticca Samuppada wherein the origin of the world begins with the six realms of the senses.
Almost identical to the previous but substituting 'The World' for "Pain". Note that here is an example where the Buddha explains the origin of the world. Those who say that he never explained the origin of the world did not read carefully those passages where he is asked about the origin of the world. In those passages he is not asked: what is the origin of the world? He is asked: 'Does the world exist?" and his response is either 'this is not explained by me' or 'it is not such as that'.
[SN 2.12.45] Ñātika Suttaṃ
Ñātika Suttaṃ the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha recites a version of the Paticca Samuppada that explains that the origin of pain begins with the six realms of the senses.
Identical to #43, but here the Buddha is overheard reciting it to himself.
[SN 2.12.46] A Certain [brahmin], the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A question about who experiences the consequence of deeds leads to an exposition of the Paṭicca Samuppada.
[SN 2.12.47] Jāṇussoṇi Suttaṃ
Jāṇussoṇi, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
A question about the existence or non-existence of the world leads to an exposition of the Paṭicca Samuppada.
[SN 2.12.48] The Brahmin Wise in World-lore, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Questions about the existence and nature of the world lead to an exposition of the Paticca Samuppada.
[SN 2.12.49] Paṭhama Ariyasāvaka Suttaṃ
The Ariyan Disciple the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha describes how the student of the Aristocrats is free from doubts concerning the origin and ending of pain (dukkha).
[SN 2.12.50] Dutiya Ariyasāvaka Suttaṃ
The Ariyan Disciple (2) the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha describes how the student of the Aristocrats is free from doubts concerning the origin and ending of pain (dukkha).
Almost identical to the previous.
[SN 2.12.51] Parivimaṃsana Suttaṃ
Pondering the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
An outline of the practice to be used by the person interested in comprehending the Paticca Samuppada.
The term translated 'pondering' by Mrs. Rhys Davids is 'parivimaṃsana', literally 'all-round re-membering'; but usually vimaṃsa is translated 'in-vestigation.' It should not be confused with vicara, also translated 'pondering,' although vimaṃsa is probably vicara,. Also included in this sutta is a test that measures one's understanding. If one is still making plans, one has not yet got a thorough understanding. This means that although one may understand in theory, intellectually, the real job here is 'seeing' or 'knowing': seeing the inevitable progression from own-making to death in the mind's eye in the real world in absolutely every plan-making without exception.
[SN 2.12.52] Grasping, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha likens contimplation of delight in sense pleasures to throwing fuel on a fire.
The subject in Pali is 'upādāna' and the simile makes it clear that the idea is fueling or feeding. It looks like this was the sutta that resulted in Bhk. Thanissaro's translation 'sustinance', but here he has translated it as 'clinging'. It now looks to me like the whole idea of 'grasping' or 'clinging' is off the mark and arose out of a bias to see the series as a description of causation with an individuality as the agent. The individual clings or grasps; the phenomena needs fueling, sustenance, food, support.
[SN 2.12.53] Saññojana Suttaṃ
Fetters the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha likens the yokes to rebirth as the maintenance necessary to keep an oil lamp burning.
Very similar to the previous sutta, the distinction to be drawn from the similes is that while upādāna is strictly 'fueling', the saññojana involves other maintenance tasks. One does not just add more oil, one must also trim the wick. That's the wiki-wacki-wiki.

 


The Andrews Sisters – The Carioca

"The Carioca" as written by Edward Eliscu, Gus Kahn and Vincent Youmans:

Say, have you seen a Carioca?
It's not a foxtrot or a polka
It has a little bit of new rhythm, a blue rhythm that sighs

It has a meter that is tricky
A bit of wicked wacky-wicky
But when you dance it with a new love, there's a true love in her eye ...

Lyrics Ō Warner/Chappell Music, Inc., THE SONGWRITERS GUILD OF AMERICA


 

The contimplation of the pleasures to be found in sense experience is the fuel or underlying motivation,
the yokes to rebirth (viewpoints concerning self, doubts, trust in good works and ethical conduct, wanting pleasure, deviance, lust for material things, lust for immaterial things, pride, fear and blindness) are the mechanisms, the means of maintenance, the actions of fueling, that are used by the individual to keep the flame burning. One needs to eliminate both, but the elimination of one eliminates the other. An important distinction that is the explanation I was looking for to point out why ideas such as 'grasping' are not a good translation for 'upādāna'. And if you will permit I will suggest also that this is the real meaning of Dhamma Research. Bear down on what is actually being said by Gotama, and even the sequences of the suttas, and it will be seen that the questions that arise in one's mind have been anticipated and answered by The Buddha. The Dhamma teaches the translator how to translate.
[SN 2.12.54] Dutiya Saññojana Suttaṃ
Fetters (2) the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha likens the yokes to rebirth to the maintenance necessary to keep an oil lamp burning.
Identical to the previous sutta but omitting the initial statement for both positive and negative cases.
[SN 2.12.55] Mahā Rukkha Suttaṃ
The Great Tree the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha likens the prospects for continued growth for one who delights in contimplation of whatever is included under the heading of fuel to the condition of a great tree with healthy roots sucking up it's nourishment.
Of course he recommends chopping the tree down and destroying it's every trace. It is interesting to note that there is a great variation in the use made of the same image in similes throughout the suttas. The Great Stable and Pithy Tree is often made to be the simile for the Buddha's Dhamma, where here it is made to be all that stands for the world of Pain.
[SN 2.12.56] Mahā Rukkha Suttaṃ
The Great Tree the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha likens the prospects for continued growth for one who delights in contimplation of whatever is included under the heading of fuel to the condition of a great tree with healthy roots sucking up it's nourishment.
Identical with the previous but omitting the initial statement for both positive and negative cases.
[SN 2.12.57] Taruṇa-rukkha Suttaṃ
The Sapling, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha likens the contimplation of that which yokes one to rebirth to the prospects of a young tree that is well tended and recommends in stead chopping that young tree down and destroying it completely.
Here Mrs. Rhys Davids confronts the clear indication that upādāna means fuel by stating that it means fuel and grasping equally. PED has 'grasping' and such as meaning #2. It looks to me as though in all cases 'fueled' would do and would be more clear. Does a fire 'cling' to the wood? I think the whole idea of grasping is encompassed by the idea of taṇhā, or thirst.
Why repeat the previous sutta for a young tree? Possibly because some young trees might not recognize themselves in the image of a great tree. Possibly some teaching Dhamma might think the idea applied only to great trees.
[SN 2.12.58] Nāma-rūpa Suttaṃ
Name-and-Shape, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha likens the prospects for continued growth for one who delights in contimplation of whatever is included under the heading of fuel to the condition of a great tree with healthy roots sucking up it's nourishment.
A variation of #55 above, but in this case in stead of saying that such contimplations lead to fueling rebirth, he states that they lead to a 'descent' of named-shapes. In other words he has placed this thinking about such things in the position of blindness resulting in own-making resulting in consciousness resulting in named-shapes. Again note that the idea is not 'cause' but 'a descent of' as though named-shapes were a previously existing phenomena that attached themselves to own-making. I am not suggesting that there is any actual pre-existing nameed-shape, but only that it is 'like that'. We are talking about the arising (or descent) of an illusion which does not require any 'substance,' pre- or post.
[SN 2.12.59] Viññāṇa Suttaṃ
Consciousness, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha likens the prospects for continued growth for one who delights in contimplation of whatever is included under the heading of fuel to the condition of a great tree with healthy roots sucking up it's nourishment.
A variation of the previous, this time the result being said to be the descent of consciousness. One step back from the previous. So the three previous suttas are being shown to be equivalents with different elaboration of the details.
[SN 2.12.60] Nidāna (Paṭicca-Samuppāda) Suttaṃ
The Base, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
After Ananda praises the exposition of the Paticca Samuppada to him, The Buddha cautions him that this is no easy thing to see and he goes on to liken the prospects for continued growth for one who delights in contimplation of whatever is included under the heading of fuel to the condition of a great tree with healthy roots sucking up it's nourishment.
With the exception of the introductory story, identical to the previous sutta.
[SN 2.12.61] The Untaught, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the K. Nizamis translation.
The Buddha points out that because it is easier to become repelled by body than by mind, that it would be better for most people if they thought of the body as the self. That way they would not be attached to it and might more easily become free from it. Then he compares the mind to a monkey traveling from branch to branch.
A famous sutta because of the simile of the monkey for the mind.
It is interesting to note here that the Buddha speaks of 'heart' 'mind' and 'conscousness' (cittam, mano, viññāṇaṃ) more or less as synonyms much as we do here today [USA Friday, November 14, 2014 9:32 AM]. So at least when we are not bearing down on subtlties, we do not need to be concerned that we are being misleading when we use these terms interchangably.
[SN 2.12.62] The Untaught (2), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Warren translation.
The Buddha points out that because it is easier to become repelled by body than by mind, that it would be better for most people if they thought of the body as the self. That way they would not be attached to it and might more easily become free from it. Then he describes how it is that consciousness arises through contact, sense-experience and perception and that it is by perceiving that that detachment leads to freedom and the knowledge of freedom.
This sutta begins as the previous, omits the simile of the monkey, and finishes with what is essentially a condensation of the Paṭicca Samuppāda into four steps: contact, sense-experience, perception and consciousness.
[SN 2.12.66] Sammasam Suttaṃ
Handling, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha teaches a method for self-mastery based on conceptualizing the world and it's pleasures and delights as inherantly painful.
[SN 2.12.69] Upayanti Suttaṃ
The Swelling [Tide], the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha likens the momentum of ignorance to the way the rise and fall of the sea-level influences the momentum of the flow of water in the great rivers, streams, lakes, and feeder streams.
This sutta poses some difficulties with regard to making the simile comport with the message. The words to understand here are upaya (PED: approach, undertaking, taking up; clinging to, attachment ... in an- (anūpaya metri causa) not going near, aloof, unattached) from upa-upāya, and apaya from an-upāya (I say), which would have the meaning here not of rise or fall, but of flow or impeded momentum. The flood tide does cause back-flow in some rivers, but to 'see' either the change in level or momentum of the tributaries, etc., takes some imagining.
[SN 2.12.70] The Untaught (2), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Susima enters the order to learn the secret of Gotama's ability to generate respect and donatives. There he hears about bhikkhus gaining Arahantship and quesions them about super-normal powers. These bhikkhus tell him they have no super-normal powers and have been awakened through wisdom. Questioning the Buddha about this he learns to appreciate the Dhamma and confesses his earlier bad intentions.
This sutta figures prominantly in the discussion of whether or not the jhānas are necessary for the attainment of Arahantship. Bhk. Bodhi deals with this in a footnote where he points out that the idea that these bhikkhus did not attain jhāna is a statement made by the commentator, not something found in the sutta.
What is interesting is to ask yourself what it is that Susima sees that has convinced him of the error of his ways and the superior nature of the Buddha's Dhamma.
What we have here is a number of bhikkhus that have declared arahantship who also say they do not have a number of supernormal powers usually associated with arahantship. Then Susima is lead by the Buddha through the Paṭicca Samuppāda step-by-step and he shows that he has full comprehension of this doctrine. Then Gotama makes a comparison between the knowledge of the bhikkhus with the knowledge of Susima which would indicate that the knowledge of Susima and the knowledge of the bhikkhus is the same. And both parties do not have supernormal powers. But the Bhikkhus are arahants and Susima is not. What is the difference? Two things: Susima has not asked about the third 'vision' of the Arahant: the perception that the corrupting influences (āsavas) are destroyed; and the bhikkhus say they are liberated 'through wisdom'. "First comes attaining knowledge of Dhamma, following that comes knowledge of Nibbāna." This is as much as to say: 'Forget about magic powers, what is important is to take knowledge of the Dhamma and using wisdom so reconstruct your behavior as to lead to Nibbāna. As for those supernormal powers: All the powers mentioned by Susima are relative to this world. For the Arahant they are 'optional,' or possibly 'later' developments. That is: what the Buddha is describing is that wisdom indicates a progression from attaining knowledge to attaining Nibbāna and that attaining supernormal powers or not, should come after. Susima sees the wisdom, recognizes that he has been pursuiing the worldly and that it has lead him into becoming a thief and to the danger of a very bad outcome.
In the middle of the Pali for this sutta there is a huge or insignificant mistake which has led to Mrs. Rhys davids making a completely incomprehensible translation of a paragraph pretty much necessary for the understanding of the sutta. Bhikkhus Bodhi and Thanissaro come up with alternative, certainly more comprehensible translations. I have suggested in a note in the Pali that the problem is what looks like a messed up abridgment. This book seems to have a number of unusual ways of abridging. This could mean it was early and a 'style' had not yet been worked out, or that it came later and represents an effort to change the usual style. I would go for the 'early' explanation as the Paṭicca Samuppāda is a topic that would have been high on any list of priorities for forming a collection based on topics.
[SN 2.12.71-81]
71-81:71. Jarā-Māraṇa Suttaṃ,
72. Jāti Suttaṃ,
73. Bhava Suttaṃ,
74. Upādāna Suttaṃ,
75. Taṇhā Suttaṃ,
76. Vedanā Suttaṃ,
77. Phassa Suttaṃ,
78. Saḷāyatana Suttaṃ,
79. Nāma-Rūpa Suttaṃ,
80. Viññāṇa Suttaṃ,
81. Saŋkhāra Suttaṃ,
II.129
(all on one file)
PTS: 71-81: 71. Decay-and-Death,
72. Birth,
73. Becoming,
74. Grasping,
75. Craving,
76. Feeling,
77. Contact,
78. Sense,
79. Name-and-Shape,
80. Consciousness,
81. Activities, II.92. (all on one file)
Any shaman or brahman who does not understand the Paticca Samuppada in all it's details has not realized the benefits of being a shaman or brahman.
Except for the fact that made to stand alone as individual suttas each link is shown to encompass all the other links is made clear, this is really one sutta. Another way of saying that is to say that to fully understand any one single link all the other links must be understood.
Antara-peyyālaṃ Final Repetition:
[SN 2.12.82] Satthā Vagga, the Pali,
The Teacher, The Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
[SN 2.12.83] Sikkhā Vagga, the Pali,
Training, The Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
[SN 2.12.84] Yogo Vagga, the Pali,
Practice, The Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
[SN 2.12.85] Chando Vagga, the Pali,
Will, The Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
[SN 2.12.86] Ussoḷhī Vagga, the Pali,
Exertion, The Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
[SN 2.12.87] Appaṭivāni Vagga, the Pali,
No Turning Back, The Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
[SN 2.12.88] Atappam Vagga, the Pali,
Ardour, The Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
[SN 2.12.89] Viriyam Vagga, the Pali,
Energy, The Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
[SN 2.12.90] Sātaccam Vagga, the Pali,
Perseverance, The Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
[SN 2.12.91] Sati Vagga, the Pali,
Mindfulness, The Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
[SN 2.12.92] Sampajaññaṃ Vagga, the Pali,
Understanding, The Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
[SN 2.12.93] Appamādo Vagga, the Pali,
Earnestness, The Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
The things that must be done for the full understanding of the details of the Paṭicca Samuppāda.
These all should really be one sutta. They are in the form of the Wheel, where one series of concepts is played off against another series. Elsewhere in the collections this might have been calculated as 132 suttas.
This completes the scanning, conversion, formatting and uploading of the Pali text and PTS translation of Nidāna Saṃyutta of the Nidāna Vagga of the Saṃutta Nikāya. (PTS: The Book of the Kindred Sayings: The Nidāna Book, Kindred Sayings on Cause) A very interesting and important group of suttas.
[SN 2.13.2] The Bathing Tank, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner.
[SN 2.13.3] Samhejjaudaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Confluent Waters (1), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner.
[SN 2.13.4] Dutiya Samhejjaudaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Confluent Waters (2), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner.
Compare with the previous sutta. The simile is inverted. A trick that is used with several similes in the Suttas.
[SN 2.13.5] Pathavī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Earth, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner.
[SN 2.13.6] Pathavī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Earth, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner.
The inverse of the previous.
[SN 2.13.7] Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Sea (1), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner.
[SN 2.13.8] The Sea (2), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner.
The inverse of the previous.
[SN 2.13.9] Pabbatūpama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Mountain Simile (1), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner.
[SN 2.13.10] Dutiya Pabbatūpama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Mountain Simile (2), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner.
The inverse of the previous.
[SN 2.13.11] Tatiya Pabbatūpama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Mountain Simile (3), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner.
A variation of the first Mountain sutta.

Jujube

Jujube. The fruit is an edible oval drupe 1.5–3 centimetres (0.59–1.18 in) deep; when immature it is smooth-green, with the consistency and taste of an apple, maturing brown to purplish-black and eventually wrinkled, looking like a small date. There is a single hard stone similar to an olive stone.
— Wikipedia

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

Seeking for the profound: This last sutta is different from the first Mountain simile only in that beans are used for comparison rather than mustard seeds. The conclusion is that the difference between the difference between three mustard seeds and Mt. Everest, and the diference between three beans and Mt. Everest is insignificant.
This concludes the scanning, formatting and uploading of the Pali text and PTS translation of Samyutta Nikaya 2, Nidana Vagga, Abhisamaya-samyutta (PTS: Kindred Sayings on Understanding).
[SN 2.15.2] Pathavi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Earth, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
A simile for the incalculable length of time we have been passing from birth to birth suffering pain, suffering disaster filling the charnal fields tied to the unwanted, separated from the loved.
[SN 2.15.3] Assu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Tears, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation,
A simile for the incalculable length of time we have been passing from birth to birth suffering pain, suffering disaster filling the charnal fields tied to the unwanted, separated from the loved.
[SN 2.15.4] Khīram Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Milk, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
A simile for the incalculable length of time we have been passing from birth to birth suffering pain, suffering disaster filling the charnal fields tied to the unwanted, separated from the loved.
These three and the one preceding them already posted are four of the most moving suttas in the whole of the collections.

 


Incalculable is the beginning, brethren, of this faring on.
The earliest point is not revealed
of the faring on, running on,
of beings cloaked in ignorance,
tied to craving.

Thus many a day, brethren,
have ye been suffering ill,
have ye been suffering pain,
have ye been suffering disaster,
have the charnel-fields been growing.

Thus far enough is there, brethren,
for you to be repelled
by all the things of this world,
enough to lose all passion for them,
enough to be delivered therefrom.

— Mrs. Rhys Davids translation of SN 2.15.4.


 

[SN 2.15.5] Pabbata Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Hill, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha provides a simile to describe the length of an aeon.

 

Tuesday, November 04, 2014
Previous upload was Saturday, September 27, 2014

 


'Wherever there is sense-experience, there is pain.'
Yam kiñci vedayitaṃ taṃ dukkhasmiṃ.
SN 2.12.32


 

new Sunday, October 26, 2014 6:58 AM Dhammatalk Discussion Forum
The Ten Powers and the Four Confidences of the Tathāgata, A list and first stab at an accurate version of these two groups of attributes of the Tathāgata.

 

new Wednesday, October 22, 2014 8:14 AMSaŋyutta Nikāya
[SN 2.12.11] Sustenances, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. (Links to the Bhk. Bodhi, Wisdom Publication edition where they exist are mostly to empty files due to copyright restrictions. Permission to reproduce occasional suttas (some of the most important) was obtained for early versions of this site. Some of Bhk. Bodhi's translations are included by way of permission secured by Access to Insight.)
The Buddha enumerates the four foods which sustain living and shows their connection to the chain of interdependent factors (paṭicca samuppāda) that result in birth, old age, sickness, and death.
Bhk. Thanissaro points out that the foods occupy the position in the paṭicca samuppāda of Upadana, or 'support' (Mrs. Rhys davids 'grasping'; Bhk. Thanissaro's 'clinging/sustenance'). He also warns the reader not to fall into the trap of accepting just one of the several understandings of the mechanism of action of the paṭicca samuppāda: it is not just linear, and it is not just circular, and it is not just a description of the three-lives (past, future, present) involved in becoming an existing being: what it is is the most helpful description of the process of becoming an existing being from multiple perspectives simultaneously. As life itself, it needs to be 'seen' three-dimensionally. It applies to the millisecond-to-millisecond movement of an individual through life, it applies to the full extent of the single life, and it applies to the process of repeated rebirth of the individuality. It is equally helpful in the way it points out the places where the chain can be broken.
This sutta also shows how it can be said that by making the study of Food one's meditation theme, dukkha, or pain can be brought to an end, arahantship attained.
[SN 2.12.12] Phagguna, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
After the Buddha has taught the four foods, Moliya Phagguna asks who it is that feeds on the consciousness food. Gotama responds correcting his thinking from 'who feeds?' to 'what results from feeding on?', which leads into the chain of interdependent factors (paṭicca samuppāda).
[SN 2.12.13] Samaṇa-Brāhmaṇa Suttaṃ
Recluses and Brahmins 1, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that any seeker or brahman who does not know and see the links in the chain of interdependent factors (paticca samuppada) has not realized the benefits of being a seeker or brahmin.
Note that in this version 'avijja' or 'blindness' is not listed explicitly. It's place is taken by the statement concerning the seeker or brahman who does not see. The result is the definition of avijja.
[SN 2.12.14] Samaṇa-Brāhmaṇa Suttaṃ
Recluses and Brahmins 1, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that any seeker or brahman who does not know and see the links in the chain of interdependent factors (paticca samuppada) has not realized the benefits of being a seeker or brahmin.
This is a variation of the previous sutta. It is very awkwardly done in the translation (and that was not helped by the abridgment), but it would not be easy to find a way to do it that was not awkward in the written word. It is constructed using a retorical device where one begins with a statement that is unclear and unfinished which is only finished and made clear by a statement at the end. It works to hold the mind of the listener, but in writing just seems to have been badly constructed.
[SN 2.12.17] The Unclothed (Ascetic), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Kassapa, a naked ascetic, asks the Buddha a series of questions about the source of pain and to each of his questions receives the response, 'it is not such as that.' When Kassapa asks for an explanation, The Buddha teaches him the 'Doctrine Going Down the Middle': that is, the Paṭicca Samuppāda, the chain of interdependent factors giving rise to the experience of individualized existence and the resulting pain.
An excellent sutta for sharpening your understanding of the Paṭicca Samuppāda,, the idea of 'not-self, and the theories or views of eternalism and annihiliationism.' The idea that one and the same individual does a deed and experiences the consequence implies the continuity of that individual from the time of the doing of the deed to the time of the receiving of the consequences and can be seen to be in error because it can be seen that there is no thing there which is the self or which has existence which is continuous from the doing of a deed to the receiving of the consequences. The idea that one individuality does the deed and another indivituality experiences the consequence (both identified by that individuality as 'my self') implies the extinction of the self that does the deed without the experience of the consequences which is another way of saying that there is no experiencing of the consequences of intentionally done deeds and that the pain that one experiences is a matter of chance and that consequently there could be no escape from pain. Since it can be seen that pain is a result of identification with the doing of deeds done with the intent to create identified-with experience of the consequences, and that there is escape from pain by not doing such intentional deeds, that theory is seen to be incorrect. The resolution of the dilemma is to wake up to the fact that there is no thing there that can be called the 'self' and see the process: Blindness to the process results in own-making, own-making results in identified-with experience of old age, sickness, suffering and death, grief and lamentation, pain and misery, and despair.
Note, while we are speaking about the 'Middle Way' that here that term refers to the Paṭicca Samuppada, where in the First Sutta, it refers to the Magga. What does this tell us? It tells us that these two things are equivalants. See if you can see how this can be.
[SN 2.12.18] Timbaruka Suttaṃ,
Timbaruka, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Timbaruka asks the Buddha a series of questions about the source of pain and pleasure and to each of his questions receives the response, 'it is not such as that.' When Timbaruka asks for an explanation, The Buddha teaches him the 'Doctrine Going Down the Middle': that is, the Paṭicca Samuppāda, the chain of interdependent factors giving rise to the experience of individualized existence and the resulting pain.
Almost identical to the previous sutta, but without reference to the Eternalist and Annihilationist theories.
[SN 2.12.19] The Wise Man [Compared] with the Fool, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Foolish — the Wise, the Olds translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha draws the distinction between the fool born identifying with body and pulled around by desires and the wise man born identifying with body and pulled around by desires: the wise man takes on the burden of the holy life and gives up his blindness and thirsts for pleasures of the senses where the fool does not.
I did a translation because Mrs. Rhys Davids construction does not make it clear that what is being talked about is how, though the wise man and the fool begin at the same point it is how they deal with the situation that makes the difference. Bhk. Thanissaro's translation is good enough. I have introduced some readings that are a little different, hopefully clearer.
[SN 2.12.20] Untitled, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches that whether a Buddha arises or not, existence arises as a consequence of a chain of interdependent factors, that each of the factors is impermanent, and that one who sees coming into existence and existence in this way will not have ideas of self with regard to the past, future or present.
A famous sutta because of the following lines:

 

Uppādā vā Tathāgatānaṃ||
anuppādā vā Tathāgatānaṃ||
ṭhitā va sā dhātu||
dhammaṭṭhitatā||
dhammaniyāmatā||
idapaccayatā.|| ||

 

Tathāgatas appearing
or Tathāgatas not appearing,
one fact remains:
things are established
things are steered
through 'this-resultings'.
   — Olds, trans.

 

Mrs. Rhys Davids:

Whether, brethren, there be an arising of Tathāgatas,
or whether there be no such arising,
this nature of things just stands,
this causal status,
this causal orderliness,
the relatedness of this to that.

 

Bhk. Thanissaro:

Whether or not there is the arising of Tathāgatas,
this property stands —
this regularity of the Dhamma,
this orderliness of the Dhamma,
this this/that conditionality.

 

Bhk. Bodhi:

Whethere there is an arising of Tathāgatas,
or no arising of Tathāgatas,
that element still persists,
the stableness of the Dhamma,
the fixed course of the Dhamma,
specific conditionality.

Obviously the saying is famous not because there is any agreement as to what it means, but because of the statement that the phenomena of dependence is something that was discovered by the Buddha, not invented by him, and is, consequently, discoverable by others for themselves. An idea that is always appealing to the rational mind.
I have changed my attitude towards translating 'dhātu' as 'element'. Thought of as 'aspect', as it could be here, it would be a useful translation. But note my use of 'fact' as a translation for 'dhātu'. which works very well here. I have not seen this used before for 'dhātu' and it seems to reasonably fit most cases.
I don't think translating 'dhamma' here as 'Dhamma' makes good sense. This is speaking about something that is possible to discover without the appearance of a Buddha. If 'the teaching' is intended by 'Dhamma' that is out of the question in this case. It is possible that this refers to 'a law of nature' (such as the Tao) but that would throw the meaning of the sutta from the discussion of 'this resulting from that' to the nature of Dhamma. And it would do it for only this section, where, if it were a discussion of Dhamma as a law of nature, this idea should be present in the next two sections. I think the simpler explanation is that Gotama is explaining how things work whether or not Buddhas appear.
As for the obscurity of the last line, I believe that is answered by understanding that in many cases like this when the word 'this' is used, it is intended to mean 'this world' or 'this that has become' or 'this body' or 'this everything whatsoever'. See on this idea the use of 'this' in the definition of 'dukkha' at DN 22 and elsewhere, 'Idaṃ dukkhan.' and in the next sutta in the condensed version of the paṭicca samuppada: Iti imasmiṃ sati idaṃ hoti. The idea is basically as the other translators have it: [~ is the case] through this resulting in that. The idea seems to have been understood in the condensed formula something like I have given it.
[SN 2.12.21] Dasabala Suttaṃ,
The Ten Powers (1), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha states that it is because he has ten powers and is confident in four ways that he is able to teach about the components of existence, their arising and their ending.
The Buddha does not explain the ten powers or the four confidences in this sutta, but I have listed them in a discussion thread on the forum: The Ten Powers and the Four Confidences of the Tathāgata,
Mrs. Rhys Davids references MN 12: The Greater Discourse on the Lion's Roar for the details. See also: AN 10.21.
[SN 2.12.22] Dutiya Dasabala Suttaṃ,
The Ten Powers (2), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha states that it is because he has ten powers and is confident in four ways that he is able to teach about the components of existence, their arising and their ending and then adds an inspiring admonition to give up lazy ways and take on energy to accomplish the goal.
[SN 2.12.23] Causal Association, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Bhkkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches a variation of the Paṭicca Samuppada which works back from the elimination of the corrupting influences (āsavas) and he states that there is no destroying the corrupting influences without knowing and seeing this progression.
The key word to understand here, aside from the terms for the links themselves, is 'Upanisa' = up-sitting ('Set ya'sef down!') that which gives rise to the setting up of something. Bhk. Thanissaro: 'prerequisites'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'Supporting Conditions'
[SN 2.12.24] Aññatitthiyā Suttaṃ,
Sectarian Teachers, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Sariputta teaches Wanderers that ask about who causes kammic consequences that it is in all cases contact that results in kammic consequences. This is repeated to the Buddha by Ānanda, and confirmed by Gotama and then Ānanda, remarking on how interesting it is that the whole doctrine could be stated with one word like this, when asked to do so, gives a version of the sequence in detail.
It is very interesting! Although it is stated in a different way by Ānanda, what is being said is that it is because of deliberate intention resulting from ignorance that 'self' is projected into the contact of consciousness with named forms that is then experienced as "I am experiencing". Consequently it is a matter of eliminating the ignorance that propells this projecting of self into such contact that brings pain to an end.
[SN 2.12.25] Bhūmija, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
Sariputta teaches Venerable Bumija who asks about who causes kammic consequences that it is in all cases contact that results in kammic consequences. This is repeated to the Buddha by Ānanda, and confirmed by Gotama and then Gotama goes on to explain that pleasure and pain corespond to the intent with which deeds of body, speech and mind are done. He further explains that intent can originate with the self or with another and can be done by the self either knowingly or without reflection.
The Pali text in some versions ends the first part of Gotama's expansion of this sutta with 'avijjāpaccayā va' and in some versions has this phrase as beginning the next section. Woodward, in AN 4.171 has opted to use it both at the end of this section and the beginning of the next. Mrs. Rhys Davids has put it at the beginning of the next section per the PTS text. Put at the beginning of the second section, it should also be at the beginning of the next two sections which is how I have reconstructed it here. Bhk. Thanissaro abridges, but appears to indicate that he would follow this plan. Bhk. Bodhi has it only at the end of the first section. It makes bad sense in this position. The idea described there is that it is intent (Bhk. Bodhi's 'volition') that is the basis for the arising of pleasant or painful consequences of deeds. Intent can be ignorant or not, ignorance is not an alternative to intent. The BJT Pali was a complete mess which I have straightened up for the version here.
[SN 2.12.26] Upavāna Suttaṃ,
Upavāna, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha teaches Venerable Upavāna who asks about who causes kammic consequences that it is in all cases contact that results in kammic consequences.
A variation of the previous, or perhaps the previous are variatins of this one.
[SN 2.12.27] Paccaya Suttaṃ,
The Causal Relation, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Results, the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha gives the chain of interdependent links leading from blindness to pain and then gives definitions of the individual links.
This one should be on everyone's 'Must Read' list. Having the definitions for the individual terms allows one to work out the meaning for one's self. I have given a translation with my best understanding. My suggested main point to consider would be to avoid the idea of causation. This is a chain of interdependent associations. See also, for an almost identical sutta, SN 2.12.2 where Bhk. Thanissaro has a translation.
[SN 2.12.28] Bhikkhu Suttaṃ,
The Brother, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
A variation of the previous.
[SN 2.12.29] Samaṇa-Brāhmaṇa Suttaṃ,
Recluses and Brahmins (1), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that any recluse or brahmin who does not understand the chain of interdependent factors that result in Pain has not realized the goal of being a recluse or brahmin, but any one who does understand has realized that goal.
[SN 2.12.30] Dutiya Samaṇa-Brāhmaṇa Suttaṃ,
Recluses and Brahmins (2), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that any recluse or brahmin who does not understand the chain of interdependent factors that result in Pain will be able to stand up to passing beyond Pain is something that cannot happen, but any one who does understand will be able to do so.
A variation of the previous.
[SN 2.12.31] Bhūta Suttaṃ,
Become, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Prompted by a question from the Buddha which at first perplexes him, Sariputta explains in detail the meaning of what it is that is practiced by the bhikkhu in training and what it is that is different in the practice of the adept.
[SN 2.12.32] Kaḷāra Suttaṃ,
Kaḷāra, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Kalara in bringing Sariputta the news that Moliya Phagguna has left the order discovers by Sariputta's responses that Sariputta has become Arahant. He reports this to the Buddha and the Buddha summons Sariputta to question him about the manner of his declaration and questions him further asking him about the paticca samuppada.
The secondary value of this sutta is as an interesting window on the manners and modes of dialogue of the times, and the flexibility of analysis of the paticca samuppada. In the case of this sutta the chain was considered sufficiently developed to lead to arahantship, at 'sense-experience' to be interrupted at that point.
[SN 2.12.33] Ñāṇassa Vatthuatthūṇi Suttaṃ,
The Bases of Knowledge (1), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha casts the Paticca Samuppand in terms of Fourty-four basis of knowledge, explains of what that knowledge consists, and applies that knowledge to the future and the past.
Mrs. Rhys Davids calls the application of the knowledge to the future and the past 'retrospective knowledge'; Bhk. Bodhi calls it 'knowledge of entailment'. What it is is the drawing of inference. "I see that it is this way now, seeing that it is this way now and can be no other way, I understand (in retrospect) that it will have been such in the past and I understand that in future it will entail a similar process.'
This sutta is virtually incomprehensible in abridged form and magical when unabridged. What we have here is the key to the three knowledges of the Arahant, the 'tivijja.' Seeing the application of the Paticca Samuppada to the past is the key to seeing past lives; seeing how it applies to the future is the key to seeing the passing away and rising up again of beings according to their deeds, and seeing it as it is in the present is the way to ending the corrupting influences āsavas.
Purification of each knowledge-base is done by way of seeing, in the mind's eye, actual cases in one's self and in others in terms of each of the bases, past, future, present. 'What is it that keeps me 'being?' What is it that supports that inability to let it go? Is it the desire for sense pleasures? Is it some viewpoint? Is it the belief in ethics and rituals? Is it some experience of self? Does this apply only to me or does it apply to all beings? Does this apply in all cases in the past? In the future?
This sutta gives us the tools to work through the Paticca Samuppada in detail step-by-step. But it should not be done 'intellectually'! You need to 'see' in pictures exemplifying each step. That takes effort but will prove convincing knowledge.
[SN 2.12.34] Dutiya Ñāṇassa Vatthuatthūṇi Suttaṃ,
The Bases of Knowledge (2), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha casts the Paticca Samuppada in terms of seven aspects: The relatedness of this to that put positively and negatively; positively and negatively with regard to the past; positively and negatively with regard to the future; and the implication when cast in general terms.
A good companion piece to the previous as is indicated by it's title. It emphasizes the issue of the timelessness of the law.
[SN 2.12.35] Conditioned by Ignorance (1), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali, the H.C. Warren translation, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
In response to a series of questions concerning 'who' experiences the various stages of the Paticca Samuppada, The Buddha explains that these questions assume the idea of an individual or experiencer, and a differentiation between the experience and the experiencer and that such an assumption falls into the trap of postulating an eternal self or a self that is annihilated and that with either of those two extreme views it is not possible to end pain and reach the goal of Arahantship and that this amounts to blindness, but by bringing this blindness to an end and seeing that the process is impersonal the end of pain is attainable and the goal of Arahantship can be reached.
This is a different set of questions than those which are referred to as 'not answered' by Gotama. Here he suggests the questions themselves are mis-phrased. Be sure to check out the Warren translation!
Working back from the Buddha's response, we have a problem with all translators translating the first part of the bhikkhu's questions as "What is X?" The question 'What is X?' is a valid one and is asked by The Buddha himself rhetorically in many of the previous suttas explaining the factors. The PTS Pali and the CSCD puts this as a compound question rather than two separate questions; the BJT puts it as two separate questions. As one question it can be heard as: 'What is, and what experiences X?' And the Buddha's response then makes sense when he says that to pose the question that way implies an experiencer and a distinction between the experience and the experiencer and that where such distinctions are being made this implies one or the other of the speculative viewpoints called eternalism or annihilationism, both of which can be shown to be in error and which, if held, bar living the sort of life that would lead to the end of Pain and Arahantship.
[SN 2.12.36] Dutiya Avijjā-paccayā Suttaṃ,
Conditioned by Ignorance (2), the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
The Buddha explains that questions concerning 'what and who' experiences the various stages of the Paticca Samuppada assume the idea of an individual or experiencer, and a differentiation between the experience and the experiencer and that such an assumption falls into the trap of postulating an eternal self or a self that is annihilated and that with either of those two extreme views it is not possible to end pain and reach the goal of Arahantship and that this amounts to blindness, but by bringing this blindness to an end and seeing that the process is impersonal the end of pain is attainable and the goal of Arahantship can be reached.
Almost identical to the previous but without the questioner. Mrs. Rhys Davids abridges completely. Here the BJT is in conformity with the PTS and CSCD in having the question posed as a single compound question. I suspect the first BJT was made to conform to the Rhys Davids translation.

 


Where everything is tottering
it is above all necessary that something, no matter what, remain steadfast
so that the lost can find a connection and the strayed a refuge.
— Metternich, quoted in Kissinger, World Order.

Buddhism: What the Buddha taught. Steadfast since 480 B.C.


 

new Wednesday, October 08, 2014 8:04 AM Vinaya Piṭaka
[VP CV 8.1] VP.CV.8.1: Regulations as to the Duties of the Bhikkhus towards One Another, S.B.E.: Rhys Davids, Oldenberg translation.

 

new Wednesday, October 01, 2014 11:09 AM Thera Gāthā: Psalms of the Early Buddhists. II. Psalms of the Brethren. All linked to the Pali.
[THAG.107] Dhammasava, Mrs. Rhys Davids, translation.
[THAG.108] Dhammasava's Father, Mrs. Rhys Davids, translation.
A man who was 120 years old when he left the world and became an Arahant.
[THAG.109] Sangha-Rakkhita, Mrs. Rhys Davids, translation.
[THAG.110] Usabha, Mrs. Rhys Davids, translation.
[THAG.111] Jenta, Mrs. Rhys Davids, translation,
Jenta's Dilemma, Olds translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
[THAG.112] Vacchagotta, Mrs. Rhys Davids, translation.
[THAG.208] Soṇa-Kuṭikanna, Mrs. Rhys Davids, translation.
[THAG.208] Kosiya, Mrs. Rhys Davids, translation.
[THAG.260] Ānanda Mrs. Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Andrew Olendzki translation and the Hellmuth Hecker/Sister Khema translation.
The various verses attributed to Ananda. Includes the story of his becoming the Buddhas attendant and lists the Buddhas previous attendants. There is also here, in one of Ananda's verses, what is probably the beginning of the idea that the Buddha left us 84,000 suttas. Of course it is not certain that this was not a later insertion. However, I have personally counted up the suttas and using the most expansive understanding of 'sutta' there are, if not exactly 84,000, very close to that number. And that was not counting the Kuddhaka.

 

new Sunday, September 28, 2014 7:14 AM Anguttara Nikaya, Sixes
[AN 6.28] Dutiya Samaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Times (b), the E.M. Hare translation.
A group of bhikkhus has gathered around to discuss the appropriate time for visiting a bhikkhu who has become mind. Their suggestions all have to do with the convenience of the visit for the mind-become bhikkhu. Maha Kaccana however heard the teaching of the Buddha himself on the subject when a bhikkhu asks the Buddha about the same issue. He then relates the sutta [AN 6.27.] in which the Buddha describes the six occasions when such a visit is called for: at the time a bhikkhu is harassed by lust for sense pleasures, the anger and hate resulting from deviance from the way, sluggishness, anxiety from remorse, uncertainty, and not knowing what indicates what such as to terminate the āsavas.
Hare has translated 'manobhāvanīyhassa' as 'a student of mind'; Bhk. Bodhi has 'an esteemed bhikkhu'; P.E.D.: 'of right mind-culture, self-composed'. The word means: 'mind-become-one', or 'one who has made mind-become', and that is how I suggest it should be translated. This is perfectly consistent with the context, which suggests, if it does not absolutely require, a bhikkhu who has realized arahantship. What isn't in this word is anything indicating 'student' or 'right' or 'esteemed' though such a one could be all of these. Who should one go to for help? The most advanced person available. How does one differentiate? Approach, observe their behavior, listen to their instructions, remember, ponder, test, evaluate the results of your testing against the arising and disappearing of states in accordance with Dhamma (Sutta and Vinaya), and don't get stuck on individuals.
[AN 6.29] Udāyi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Udāyin, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha asks Udayi about the five establishments of memory and gets a wrong answer. Then he asks Ananda the same question and gets a satisfactory response.
Compare this sutta with AN 6 9, 10, and 25. There were at least 2 Udāyis; this one was 'Foolish Udāyi.'
Note the similarity of several passages with those found in the Satipatthana Suttas MN 10; DN 22. One could definately piece together the entire Satipatthana verbatum from passages in the Anguttara and Samyutta Nikayas. This, together with the understanding that the Satipatthanas are called 'Suttanta', or 'Collection of Suttas' would argue strongly against the conclusion that the Satipatthanas were first created whole and then later raided for parts. The Satipatthanas may well have been spoken as they are found by Gotama as collections of earlier bits, but the disjointed 'feel', the lack of symmetry (e.g., some parts have similes and some not), of the four divisions would suggest a compilation by someone other than Gotama either before or after his death. Who knows? It is not important. The content is True Dhamma no matter what. True Dhamma is determined by the message, not the reported speaker or time it was delivered or language in which it was delivered. The problem with works such as the Mahayana suttas and some parts at least of the Abhidhamma is that they preach a message contradictory to the goal as found in the suttas while claiming to be the word of the Buddha. Then it is useful to point out that they were composed centuries after Gotama's death and that it is a contradiction of Dhamma to claim that he returned to deliver such messages when the entire point of the system is not returning. That is misleading. To point out the misleading nature of some doctrine is True Dhamma. Otherwise one should not get wound up in such issues. One could spend lifetimes digging around in the suttas trying to determine the truth of such things and end up hardly moving ahead at all towards the goal.
[AN 6.30] Anuttariya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Above All, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha delivers a forceful sermon on distinguishing between material and spiritual values with regard to what is seen, what is heard, what is considered gain, what is useful to study, who is profitable to serve, and what is best to keep in mind.
[AN 6.31] Anuttariya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Above All, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things that lead to the falling away of a bhikkhu in training, and six things that lead to not falling away.
[AN 6.32] Paṭhama Aparihāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
They Fail Not (a), the E.M. Hare translation.
A deva visits the Buddha and tells him of six things that lead to a bhikkhu not falling away.
[AN 6.33] Dutiya Aparihāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
They Fail Not (b), the E.M. Hare translation.
A deva visits the Buddha and tells him of six things that lead to a bhikkhu not falling away.
A variation of the previous sutta.
[AN 6.34] Moggallāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Mahā Moggallāna, the E.M. Hare translation.
Maha Moggallana in a dialog with a deva asks about which of the gods who have achieved Streamwinning are aware of the fact.
This sutta was thoroughly mangled by abridgment in both the translation and in the Pali. Unabridged it becomes a poweful spell and lesson. This would be a good sutta to study as a lesson in Pali. Read the translation once and you know the sense and can see that it is mostly repitition — so easy to figure out. You will end up knowing the names of the Devas up to the Brahma realm. Along these lines the Mulapariyaya Sutta of the Majjhima Nikaya is one of the most useful suttas of all for learning Pali, as the 'roots' are as well as being the roots of 'things' the basic roots of Pali.
[AN 6.35] Vijjābhāgiya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Parts of Wisdom, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Constituents of Vision the Olds translation,
A paticca-samuppada-like progression leading to vision of a method to bring about Nibbana.
A little six-liner, about which I have written the following in a footnote:
[The sutta uses] the 'causitive' form. But I object on general principles to the whole idea of causation. Instability does not cause pain perception. One perceives instability; using that perception of instability one, of one's self, (not 'because of', but 'one is enabled by that to'), perceives pain or maybe not.
If instability caused pain-perception everyone would perceive pain; if pain caused not-self-perception everyone would perceive not-self. If eveyone perceived not self everyone would let go of living, become dispassionate, and bring Pain to an end, snap fingers everyone's an Arahant.
Both Hare's and Bhk. Bodhi's translations suggest the meaning: "the perception that pain is inherant in that which is unstable'; 'the perception that not-self is inherant in that which is painful'. These are both statements that are consistent with Dhamma, but neither of them are what is being said here in this sutta.
Hare's 'the idea of ill in impermanence' misleads in that the letter directs one to an intellectual understanding, not a direct perception. This is consistent with his translation of 'vijja' as 'wisdom' and 'saññā' as 'thought', but does not much help one attain the "perceptions" necessary to "see" a method for attaining freedom and does not accurately give the letter which should reflect the idea that the one perception is based on the other.
Bhk. Bodhi has 'perception of suffering in the impermanent' at least points to the direct perception but it too ignores the letter.
The idea of the sutta is a mini-version of the paticca-samuppada: the vision of a method for attaining utter detachment provided by the sequence of perceptions. A progression which insists on there being a relationship of dependence between the six items. Given this, that leads to this, this leads to that and this and this and this.
It is not the constituents of vision are: the perception of instability, and the perception of pain in instability, and the perception of not-self in instability, and the perception of letting go, and the perception of dispassion and the idea of ending;
it is
the constituents of vision are the perception that the perception of instability leads to the perception of pain which leads to the perception of not-self, the perception of letting go, the perception of dispassion, and the perception of ending.
It's being scatter-brained versus being focused. The one way leaves one saying "OK", the other way leaves one saying "I see!"
One of the original names for the Buddhsits was 'vibanghers', 'hair-splitters'; we need to respect that level of precision in our translations. I include me in this caution.
[AN 6.42] Parts of Wisdom, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha explains to Nagita, his attendant, his refusal to accept homage by a series of images progressively pointing out the disadvantages of proximity to society and the advantages of solitude.
See also: AN 8.86, AN 5.30
Hare's translation of the end of this sutta does not make sense. He has:
But when walking along the highway, Nāgita,
I see nothing whatever in front nor behind,
it suits me,
even over the calls of nature.'
The Pali: Yasmāhaṃ Nāgita samaye addhānamaggapaṭipanno na kañci passāmi purato vā pacchato vā,|| phāsu me Nāgita tasmiṃ samaye hoti antamaso uccārapassāvakammāyā" ti.
MO: At such a time, Nāgita, as I am walking along the highway and there is no one whatsoever to be seen either ahead or behind, I am comfortable at such a time even in passing water and passing matter.
Bhk. Bodhi also mis-reads the situation: "When, Nāgita I am traveling on a highway and do not see anyone ahead of me or behind me, even if it is for the purpose of defecating and urinating, on that occasion I am at ease.
Bhk. Thanissaro has the sense of it:
But when I am traveling along a road and see no one in front or behind me, at that time I have my ease, even when urinating and defecating.
The sutta is about the advantages of solitude over the enjoyments of gains, favors and flattery and this is about as strong a statement as can be made concerning such. Put yourself in the position of a king, or famous person, constantly surrounded by a following, who finds himself needing to ... um ... answer the calls of nature.
[AN 6.43] Nāga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Elephant, the E.M. Hare translation.
Udayi praises the Buddha.
Drivvle. The sort of flattery that was common in the courts of kings and emporors from the Roman Empire to China. The sutta does have value in that in it is explained the use of the term 'Naga' to mean just about anything of great stature.
[AN 6.45] The Debt, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha likens to a debt the trouble one gets into when one's behavior is not governed by faith, conscientiousness, energy, and wisdom into in the good nor fear of blame for doing bad.
A simple but powerful analogy that will make your hair stand on end if you arn't being good.
[AN 6.47] For This Life (a), the E.M. Hare translation.
To Be Seen for One's Self, the M. Olds translation,
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Sivaka the wanderer asks Gotama to explain the idea of a Dhamma which is to be seen for one's self.
There are some significant differences of opinion concerning the meaning of a couple of terms in this sutta and this results also in a very different understanding between translators as to its meaning in general. My take is that it is a very skillfully handled answer to Sivaka's question that not only answers his question, but teaches him a Dhamma lesson that illustrates the answer. Check it out for yourself. Bhk. Bodhi does not get his say, because his translation cannot be posted because of copyright restrictions, but his translation of key terms is cited in the footnotes to my translation.
I have here suggested a significant change in the usual translation of 'moha' as 'delusion' (Hare's 'infatuation'). I am suggesting 'confusion'. In this sutta we can see that one is supposed to be able to recognize the presence or absense of 'moha' within ourselves. People are able to recognize when they are confused, they are not able to recognize when they are deluded or infatuated as those ideas are defined by the fact of the self being deceived.
[AN 6.48] Dutiya Sandiṭṭhika Suttaṃ the Pali
For This Life (b), the E.M. Hare translation.
To Be Seen for One's Self 2, the M. Olds translation.
A brahman asks Gotama to explain the idea of a Dhamma which is to be seen for one's self.
A variation of the previous, likely adopted to the different temperments of the wanderer and the brahman. The lesson: explaining and giving an example of 'Dhamma to be seen for one's self', is the same. The first term is changed from 'lobha' (greed) to 'rāga' (lust) and the last three terms are changed from Dhammas about lobha, dosa (hate) and moha (confusion), to bodily-, speech-, and mental-confusion. Hare has translated the last three as 'self-defilement in deed, word, and thought (so please note that it is acceptable here by one of the Oxford scholars to think of 'saŋ' as 'self', which is equal to my 'own-' for 'saŋkhāra'); Bhk. Bodhi has bodily, verbal and mental fault, following commentary. This leaves us wondering how for Hare 'dosa' becomes 'defilement' where it was previously 'infatuation', and for Bhk. Bodhi how it becomes 'fault' here where in the preceding paragraphs he has translated it 'delusion'. There seems to be some confusion here.
[AN 6.49] Khema, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Two bhikkhus come to the Buddha to declare Arahantship and the Buddha approves, praising the fact that they speak of the Goal without mentioning the self.
[AN 6.50] Indriya Saŋvara Suttaṃ the Pali
The Senses, the E.M. Hare translation.
A paticca-samuppada-like sutta showing how lack of restraint of the sense-forces destroys the possibility of knowing and seeing freedom while restraint of the sense-forces results in knowing and seeing freedom.
[AN 6.51] Ānanda, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Ananda speaks with Sariputta about hearing new doctrines, retaining and maintaining previously learned and understood doctrines and learning the unknown.
[AN 6.52] Khattiya Suttaṃ the Pali
The Noble, the E.M. Hare translation.
When asked by Brahman Janussoni, Gotama explains the intentions, dreams, means, wants, and ultimate goals of the warrior, the brahman, the householder, the woman, the thief, and the Samana.
This should be seen as a description of the general run of the class of person being described. He isn't saying that all persons of a type are bound always to conform to these descriptions. They are, however, the 'fate' or 'destiny' of the thoughtless or unaware individual entering these forms of being. The 'mould,' or 'form'. This is invaluable to know in order to break out of the mold.
This is a very difficult sutta to translate and I don't think anyone has really done it well. The table below is not so much a translation as an effort to get the idea across; to get the headings lined up with the details.

 

Noble Brahman Householder Woman Thief Samana
adhippāyā
intent on
bhogādhippāyā
wealth
bhogādhippāyā
wealth
bhogādhippāyā
wealth
purisādhippāyā
a male
ādānādhippāyā
taking
khantisoraccādhippāyā
gentle forbearance
upavicārā
dream of
paññūpavicārā
wisdom
paññūpavicārā
wisdom
paññūpavicārā
wisdom
alaṃkārūpavicārā
adornment
gahanūpavicārā
a hide-out
paññūpavicārā
wisdom
adhiṭṭhānā
by means of
balādhiṭṭhānā
power
mantādhiṭṭhānā
spells
sippādhiṭṭhānā
a trade
puttādhiṭṭhānā
sons
saṭhādhiṭṭhānā
cunning
sīlādhiṭṭhānā
ethical culture
abhinivesā
wanting
paṭhavibhinivesā
the whole world
yaññābhinivesā
sacrificial feasts
kammantābhinivesā
work
asapattībhinivesā
to have no rival
andhakārābhinivesā
to be invisible
ākiñcaññābhinivesā
to own no things
pariyosānā
ultimate goal of
issariyapariyosānā
domination
brahmalokapariyosānā
the Brahma World
niṭṭhitakammantapariyosānā
work's completion
issariyapariyosānā
domination
adassanapariyosānā
not being seen
nibbānapariyosānā
Nibbāna


[AN 6.53] Appamāda Suttaṃ the Pali
Earnestness, the E.M. Hare translation.
A brahman asks the Buddha if there is one thing which if properly cultivated can lead to welfare in both this life and the life hereafter. He is told that there is one thing that can do this: appamada, non-carelessness.
A PPAMĀDA = Not-Carelessness; APPA MADA: Little Madness; A PPA MADA: Don't Sputter Fat. Look it up.
See also for this term: SN 1.3.17, SN 1.3.18, Glossology: Appamada and other references there.
There is no other single word in the Suttas given more reverance than this word. It far exceeds in importance the importance that could be given to any translation of it. The word carries the weight of the world. If you are really interested in the supernatural and want a thrill of a lifetime, take Appamāda as a mantra together with a study of the Mulapariyaya Sutta, together with memorizing the Satipatthana sutta (in English will do).
[AN 6.54] Dhammika Suttaṃ the Pali
Dhammika, the E.M. Hare translation.
Dhammika, a short-tempered bhikkhu is making life so uncomfortable for other bhikkhus that they no longer wish to live with him. As a result the lay followers drive him away and goes to visit the Buddha. The Buddha, without chastizing him, leads him by parables to an understanding of the error of his ways.
Again the understanding of the nature of persons of the Buddha is amaizing. You can see that if this bhikkhu had simply been confronted with the fact that it was his own actions that brought about his banishment and the dislike of the other bhikkhus, he would never have been able to see or accept the fact. But hearing a story roughly paralling his behavior and seeing in that that there was forgiveness at the end, his fear and defenses must have left him and he could see his fault without losing face. He goes on to become an Arahant.
[AN 6.56] Phagguṇa Suttaṃ the Pali
Phagguna, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes six situations in which hearing Dhamma before dying can produce either non-returning or arahantship.
There is a Bhikkhu of some influence out there that has made two statements which are brought into question by this sutta (and by many others which I have mentioned here and there). The two statements are that there is no attaining Arahantship without the four jhānas, and that there is no thinking in jhāna.
Here in this sutta it is clearly stated that thinking and pondering over Dhamma prior to death by one who has previously broken the five yokes to the lower rebirths can produce Arahantship (no mention of jhāna). In this case either there is attaining Arahantship without jhāna, or there is thinking in the first jhāna and Arahantship is attainable from the first 'jhāna'.
I have previously stated that I believe the whole debate as to whether or not Arahantship is attainable with or without jhāna, is a matter of the name 'jhāna' having been sometimes put on stages in the end process of letting go and sometimes not. If the case is, in fact, that the process is described here and there without the name 'jhāna,' then it is not correct to say that the jhānas are required even though the process when described without that name, is identical with the jhānas.
There is another reason this issue is important to clarify: today there is no way outside comparing one's experience with the literal definitions of the jhānas in the suttas to verify with certainty their attainment. This leaves either accepting the literal definitions of the jhānas or forgetting about them as precise stages and just judging progress by way of what one can see one has let go. One needs to have confidence that one or the other of these two ways of viewing the situation will not lead one off-track or bring one to harm. This is done by comparing what is said by teachers with what is said in the suttas. Without the Buddha present to confirm as true the statement of some person that he is an Arahant, there is no trusting an individual's statement that he is such nor is there any basis for trusting such a one's statement that one has attained such and such a jhāna, or that such and such is or is not a characteristic of jhāna, or arahantship. Comparing one's experience against the literal rendering of the Dhamma, one can at least trust that in so far as one trusts Dhamma at all, one has attained, or has yet to attain what is described. When one's experience matches what is described in the sutta, one can then judge for one's self it's fruit or usefulness towards attaining the goal as one understands it. Conversely for one who has faith in the Dhamma the statements that are being made by individuals concerning what is stated in the Suttas must be examined and if found to be in contradiction with the suttas, must be clearly understood to be so to overcome doubt and/or to avoid being mislead.
[AN 6.57] Chaḷābhijāti Suttaṃ the Pali
The Six Breeds, the E.M. Hare translation.
When Ananda describes what a teacher of another sect calls 'the six classes of life', the Buddha responds with his own list.
It is very helpful to make conscious the difference in the two ways of thinking. Once you have it in front of you like this it seems obvious, but in fact the approach of the teacher of another sect is, even today, the more common, and almost always accepted without question. When the Buddha asks Ananda if 'the whole world' approves of Purana Kassapa's list, what he is asking is: "Is this a teaching which is timeless, universally aplicable, visible by the wise for themselves in this seen world?" Gotama's list conforms to this set of criteria. So what we get here, aside from the direct lession, is a concise way of seeing how the Dhamma is constructed. I say make this difference conscious because the tendency throughout is for people to read the Dhamma and say: "This is all just common sense," forgetting that this common sense has not previously been at the forefront of one's mind or used to guide one's thinking and behavior, and certainly has not been gathered together anywhere else in such mass. Making yourself aware of this will help to keep conscious the unique opportunity you have in access to Dhamma, and that will help you keep at it.
[AN 6.58] Āsava Suttaṃ the Pali
The Cankers, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha gives a detailed run-down of the sources of corrupting influences [āsavas] and how to deal with them.
[AN 6.59] Dārukammika Suttaṃ the Pali
The Wood-Seller, the E.M. Hare translation.
A layman who has been giving alms only to forest-gone and rag-robe wearing bhikkhus believing that these outer signs of austerity indicated arahantship is shown a better way to judge an alms-worthy bhikkhu.
[AN 6.60] Hatthisāriputta Suttaṃ the Pali
Citta Hatthisāriputta, the E.M. Hare translation.
Citta Hatthisariputta keeps interrupting the discourse of higher Dhamma by two elders and when told not to do so is defended by his friends who call him a wise bhikkhu capable of such a discussion. Maha Kotthita gently explains to them that although this bhikkhu has attained certain very high states of samadhi, he is nevertheless still world-bound and will soon leave the order. This happens and the bhikkhus are impressed and tell the Buddha who then tells them that Citta will soon tire of the worldly life and again join the order. And this too happens and Citta becomes an arahant.
Here we have an example of the psychic power of 'mind-reading', but another interesting thing about this sutta is the way Maha Kotthita approaches explaining the situation, that is in a highly indirect way. There is no mention of Citta, but only of 'some person' who may attain such and such a high state of mind, but because he is proud of this as a personal achievement and uses it to enhance his worldly situation this will result in the corruption of this achievement and his fall from the sangha. The fact that Citta does not recognize himself in the description and therefore takes no measures to correct himself tells the other bhikkhus why it is that he is not up to the discussion of higher Dhamma.
[AN 6.62] Purisindriyañāna Suttaṃ the Pali
The Solemn Utterance, the E.M. Hare translation.
A bhikkhu asks Ananda if the Buddha's statement that Devadatta was doomed to hell for a kalpa was made as a result of his encompassing Devadatta's mind with his own, or whether it was made as a result of being told this would happen by a deva. Gotama launches into a detailed account of encompassing a mind with the mind.
The subtle point arises to the curious mind as to why Gotama here makes the statement that this bhikkhu must have ben a beginner, or if an elder, a scatterbrain. Why should this be a conclusion he reached from this bhikkhu having made this statement? Because no Deva could have this sharp a vision. He is talking about being able to see the redeemability of an individual who has but a tip-end of a hair rising above the dung-heap which one could use to pull him out.
[AN 6.65] Anāgāmi-Phala Suttaṃ the Pali
The Nom-Returner, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things which must be givin up in order to experience the fruit of non-returning: lack of faith, shamelessness, having no fear of blame, sloth, forgetfulness, and stupidity.
The translation of 'duppañña' is certainly dupidity, but in American English we tend to think of stupidity as a birth defect. Here it is the case of the person who acts with insobriety, stupification.
[AN 6.66] Arahatta Sacchikaroti Suttaṃ the Pali
The Arahant, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things which must be givin up in order to experience Arahantship: thick-headedness, sluggishness, agitation, anxiety, faithlessness and carelessness.
[AN 6.67] Mitta Suttaṃ the Pali
Friends, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes how having good or bad friends affects higher behavior, proper training, the perfection of ethical behavior, and the abandoning of lust for sense pleasures, lust for forms and lust for the formless.
Hare finds this sutta confusing. It doesn't help that he so constructs the first concept, 'ābhisamācārikaṃ dhammaṃ,' (forms of higher-behavior) as 'the Dhamma-fore-course' thus making the series linear rather than circular. It is not that the first step is completed before the next step, but that as each step is partially developed it provides a foundation for advancement into the partial development of the next step. Aspiration and testing higher forms of behavior provides insight into the advantages of higher forms of behavior and the disadvantages of lower forms of behavior. Insight into higher forms of behavior provides motivation for further development of higher forms of behavior and the next step of taking up the recommended forms of training. Taking up the training results in insights into the advantages of training and the benefits of further developing higher forms of behavior and the advantages of further training and the taking on of the task of fully developing ethical behavior. Testing forms of ethical behavior leads to insights into the advantages of letting go of lust for sense-pleasures, forms, and the formless. With each step forward there is the recognition that a more fully developed foundation is an advantage, round and round. The end result is the fulfillment of each stage resulting in the fulfillment of the next stage, thusly: The fulfilment of higher behavior fulfills the training, the fulfillment of the training fulfills, ethical behavior, the fulfillment of ethical behavior fulfills the abandoning of lust for sense pleasures, lust for forms, and lust for the formless. As this is fulfilled, that is fulfilled, not when this is fulfilled go on to the next step and fullfill that, etc. Essentially this is saying that higher forms of behavior = training = ethical behavior = abandoning lust for sense pleasures, lust for forms and lust for the formless. I could probably figure out a fourth way of saying this if I worked at it. How about: "This being, that becomes; on the cessation of this, the cessation of that."
[AN 6.68] Saŋgaṇikārāma Suttaṃ the Pali
Company, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes how finding one's enjoyment in the pleasure of company spoils one's chances of attaining Nibbana and contrasts that with the way taking one's pleasure in the enjoyment of solitude smooths the way to Nibbana.
[AN 6.69] Devatā Suttaṃ the Pali
The Deva, the E.M. Hare translation.
A Deva visits the Buddha and describes six things that do not lead to a bhikkhu falling away. Gotama repeats the episode to the bhikkhus. Sariputta elaborates the detailed meaning. Gotama confirms and repeats what Sariputta has said.
All the charm of this sutta is missing in the abridged form. Here we can also see the importance attached to repetition. This world has been created and re-enforced by exactly such sort of programming since the time of birth ... and throughout eternity in the past. It is hard to change: good advice needs to be continually refreshed in the mind and we can see the awareness of this issue in the minds of the teachers in this sutta.
[AN 6.70] Samādhi Suttaṃ the Pali
Psychic Power, the E.M. Hare translation.
Without serenity (samādhi) developed to a high degree, it is not possible to obtain the various magic powers, arahantship or the three visions of the Arahant.
Here we have Serenity (samādhi) described without reference to the jhānas as consisting of making a resort of impassivity (paṭippassaddhiladdhena) and gaining concentration (ekodībhāvādhigatena).
[AN 6.71] Sakkhibhabba Suttaṃ the Pali
The Eyewitness, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes the six elements that go into being able to see a thing for one's self.
This is stated in such a generalized form that it could apply to any situation that is to be experienced as an eye-witness, but is especially important when it comes to the experience of magic powers, Arahantship, and the three visions of the Arahant.
[AN 6.72] Bala Suttaṃ the Pali
Strength, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things which give one ability in Serenity (samādhi).
[AN 6.73] Paṭhama Jhāna Suttaṃ the Pali
Musing, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things which are required to enter and abide in the First Jhāna.
Note these are a mixture of some, but not all of the usual Nivarana given as the things to be got rid of to enter the First Jhāna, plus a requirement that the dangers of lust be seen with consummate wisdom (seeing lust as a yoke to rebirth).
[AN 6.74] Paṭhama Jhāna Suttaṃ the Pali
Musing, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Second First Jhāna Sutta, M. Olds translation.
Six things necessary to let go of in order to enter and abide in the First Jhāna.
A different set of six. Hare has translated 'vitakka' as 'brooding over', and 'saññā' as 'conjuring up thoughts of'. 'Vicāra' might be 'brooding over' but not 'vitakka' which is in the place of our 'thinking' in huge numbers of contexts throughout the suttas. I object strongly to the translation of 'saññā' as 'thought'. I have done a translation for comparison. Bhk. Bodhi's translation of the two terms is the same as mine; his usual understanding of vitakka is, however, the Commentarial idea of 'initial thought'. But what does it mean to 'give up perception of sense-pleasures, etc.?' There is thinking about a thing, and then there is allowing the idea of a thing to be understood as having the potential to provide sense-pleasures, etc. It's at an earlier stage than 'thinking about'. You see an individual of the opposite sex and going beyond the perception of shape, you allow in the idea 'attractive', etc. That first 'allowing in' is perception and is a 'sign' of 'self'. "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder."
[AN 6.75] Dukkha Suttaṃ the Pali
Ill at Ease, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things which constitute living in Pain, and six which constitute living at ease.
A variation on the previous sutta, which is strange in that this sutta begins a new chapter.
[AN 6.76] Arahatta Suttaṃ the Pali
Arahantship, the E.M. Hare translation.
Unless these six things are given up, there is no attaining Arahantship.
Hare: Conceit, underrating, overrating, complacency, stubbornness, instability
Bhk. Bodhi: Conceit, an inferiority complex, arrogance, self-overestimation, obstinacy, and self-abasement. Bhk. Bodhi footnotes: "Conceit (māna) is conceiving oneself [to be better] based on birth, etc. The inferiority complex (omāna) is the conceit, 'I am inferior' (bīnassa hīno'ham asmī ti māno). Arrogance (atimāna) is the conceit of self-elevation. Self-overestimation (adhimāna) is imagining one-self to have attained [what one has not really attained]. Obstinacy (thambha) is due to anger and conceit. Self-abasement (atinipāta) is the conceit 'I am inferior' occurring in one who is actually inferior."
The translations of the last term seems to be open to doubt. Hare has the note "Atinipāta is 'excessive falling over.'" presumably from ati = nipāt. positioning it as a counter balance of thambha, the penultimate term, his 'stubbornness', Bhk. Bodhi's 'obstinacy'.
Bhk. Bodhi's is, as it is defined by the commentary, (per this and C.P.D.) as māno+omāma conceit+inferiority complex. If this were an evaluation of the self as inferior in one who was inferior that would be a true evaluation, not a conceit, and the fact would bar Arahantship without it being a conceit. If we allow that being inferior is a thing which can be corrected, awareness of the fact would even be an advantage in attaining Arahantship.
If the etymology is as per the commentary, I would tend to think the meaning was more along the lines of taking pride in humbleness or fake humbleness, but the simpler solution is Hare's, where I would suggest not instability, but a word meaning yielding, excessive defference, pandering, grovveling even, how about falling over backwards to be nice?
All of these states relate to subtle lingering manifestations of the belief in self.
[AN 6.77] Uttarī-Manussa-Dhamma Suttaṃ the Pali
Beyond, the E.M. Hare translation.
Unless one give up these six things one will be unable to realize states beyond those of mankind.
Looking at the items in the list, it seems reasonable to assume that this is referencing states beyond man including those of the deva realms; otherwise one would think that the wording would have been 'states beyond being'. I was going to say: "There are many out there that should take comfort in the fact that birth among men may still be had by those who are forgetful, lack self-possession, do not guard their sense experiences, lack moderation in eating, are deceitful and mealy-mouthed," but the fact is that this sutta does not say that. It only says that states beyond are not to be got by such a one. It could well be that rebirth among men was not to be had either. It probably depends on what else the person has done. Mankind is a mixed bag.
[AN 6.78] Sukhasomanassa Suttaṃ the Pali
Happiness, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six practices for living happily here and now which also set up the conditions for attaining Arahantship.
A very satisfying short little sutta for everyone but especially for those who are beginning and would just like to live happily while believing they are on the path to the goal.
[AN 6.79] Adhigama Suttaṃ, the Pali
Attainment, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six guidlines for getting and keeping things.
A very obscure sutta! I read it as close to a riddle, a teaching of the Dhamma constructed from the hugely broad general idea of getting and keeping. Dhamma here can be read by those concerned with the goal as: 'Dhamma' 'The Way'; by the ordinary person as 'dhamma' 'thing', or 'good form'.
[AN 6.80] Mahantatta Suttaṃ, the Pali
Greatness, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things that result in great achievement in things.
Another sutta which I believe must be understood as with the previous sutta, as multi-dimensional: having meaning for the general population hearing 'dhamma' in one way, and having another meaning for the Buddhist, hearing 'Dhamma' in another way. Hence the insertion of what is not in the Pali by Hare of 'in right things' and of Bhk. Bodhi of '[wholesome] qualities' [dhamma], distorts the sutta.
The key phrase to understand is: mahantattaṃ vepullattaṃ pāpuṇāti dhammesu [pre-eminant-self-attainment] [bountiful-self-attainment] [fruition] in things. Pre-eminant, bountiful, fruition of things for the self. Hare: "greatness and growth in right things"; Bhk. Bodhi: "attain to greatness and vastness in [wholesome] qualities." Neither Hare nor Bhk. Bodhi give 'atta' a double meaning here as 'attainment' and as 'self', but I think it is justified. Remember these suttas were delivered orally. I believe Gotama had such command of the language that he did not use words that could be misunderstood and used words which could be heard in multiple ways constructing his meaning to accommodate those multiple meanings.
[AN 6.81] Paṭhama Niraya Suttaṃ, the Pali
Hell (1), the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things that land one in Hell, and six things that land one in heaven.
[AN 6.82] Dutiya Niraya Suttaṃ, the Pali
Hell (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things that land one in Hell, and six things that land one in heaven.
A variation on the previous.
[AN 6.83] Aggadhamma Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Chief Thing, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things that if engaged in prevent and if abstained from enable attainment of Arahantship.
Hare has here translated the phrase 'kāye ca jivite ca sāpekho hoti' 'longing for body and life' as 'hankers after action and life' translating 'kāya' as 'action' which is difficult to justify. The idea is that both from the perspective of the current body and from that of the newly dead individual it is the desire to live in a body which is what makes all the trouble. It could be argued that there might be desire to live and act without a body in the arupa worlds, but the idea of 'kāya' would still apply to whatever it was that was identified as the individual by the individual. The word 'kāya' breaks down into 'k-kha-whatever.' or 'k-kha whatever entered.'
[AN 6.84] Ratatidivasa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Day and Night, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things which predict, as night follows day, decline not advancement; and six things which predict, as night follows day, advancement not decline.
[AN 6.85] Day and Night, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Six ways of managing things that prevent access to the cool, six which provide access to the cool.
Here we have the irresistable temptation to say this is a really cool sutta. OK. I give up. This is a really cool sutta. There is here a way of looking at the mind which frees one from the tendency to think that it must be just one way or another. In this sutta we can see that it is more like a horse that needs to be trained to do what we want, or a car that we must learn to drive properly. When you drop that piece of litter as you are walking along, the mind tells you instantly to pick it up. If you ignore that, you are not 'giving heed to the mind when it ought to be given heed to. When you slow down and come to a halt confronting some problem and give up and go on to the next thing, you are not exerting the mind when it ought to be exerted. When you see you are getting silly, going off in a wrong direction, the mind tells you right then that you should stop. If you do not heed the mind then and stop, you are not 'checking the mind when it ought to be checked. When you are getting discouraged and feel you are making no progress, and do not reflect on the progress that you have already made and on the magical way the Dhamma has of little-by-little inevitably irresistably eating away at the dullness of the mind, you are not gladdening the mind when it needs to be gladdened. And the converses: when you do, you are. Pay attention to that voice! It is not just that dreary moraliztic preacher known as the conscience. It is con-science: co-knower of your every action, and always has good advice if you listen when it has good advice and put a check on it when it is giving bad advice. (As long as there is the notion of self, it flips back and forth.)
[AN 6.86] The Stops, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Six obstructions in the way.
Here we have in the word 'āvaraṇa', 'obstruction, dam,' which is rare, a revelation of the much used term 'nīvaraṇā', most frequently translated 'obstruction' but which I have suggested means 'diversion'. The problems relating to, the tactics necessary to eliminate an obstruction are significantly different from those relating to a diversion. See next sutta where it is clear that the problems of 'āvaraṇas', are much more severe than those classified as 'nīvaraṇās'.
[AN 6.87] The Stop of Action, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Six cases under the heading of 'obstructions in the way resulting from deeds'.
Details of the first class of 'āvaraṇas',. See previous sutta. In the case of the first four of these, they are impossible to overcome in this lifetime, but require working out over the space of an aeon (or almost incalculably long time); in the case of the latter two they would require at least a rebirth.
[AN 6.88] No Desire to Listen, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Six cases under the heading of 'obstructions in the way resulting from lack of a sense of urgency'.
Details of the sixth category of 'āvaraṇas',. The other categories are not dealt with.
[AN 6.89] Appahāya Suttaṃ, the Pali
To Be Given Up, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things which must be given up in order to attain high view.
[AN 6.90] Appahāya Suttaṃ, the Pali
They Are Given Up, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things which are given up by one who attains high view.
A follow-up, probably originally given at the same time as the previous sutta.
[AN 6.91] Abhabba Suttaṃ, the Pali
Cannot Be Framed, the E.M. Hare translation.
A person of high view is one who is not of these six things.
Hare's title is misleading, in the text the sense is reasonable. The word Abhabba, is 'not-be-er', meaning 'one not of' such views or such passions.
[AN 6.92] Abhabbaṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Teacher, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things which are impossible for one who has attained high view.
Note that this sutta contains the categorical statement that one who has attained high view is not to be reborn subsequently for an eighth time. Previously I had questioned whether or not the idea of seven births remaining for the Streamwinner should be taken literally, as 'seven' is often symbolic of the idea of 'a finite number'. Good to know. See also on this my comment on the footnote to AN 6.89
[AN 6.93] Dutiya Abhabbaṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Teacher, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things which are impossible for one who has attained high view.
Hare's translation of the last item: "one who has achieved right view
cannot seek outside (the Order) for a gift-worthy" is misleading. In several places persons who have become streamwinners are urged to continue to give gifts to other teachers as previously, and we are told that even scraping the dinner scraps into the sewer with the idea of feeding the creatures living there will result in good kamma. The idea is 'to honor by way of a gift' with emphasis on the 'honoring'. In AN 5.175 referenced in a footnote here, where the same expression is used, it is preceded by the qualifier: 'first seeks,' which allows even honoring other teachers though not placing them in the highest position. This might even be translated 'placing in pre-eminance by honoring'. There is no reason not to honor good, knowledgable, wise people who are not on the path. It is just not wise, and is in fact dangerous relative to the goal, to place anyone above the Buddha. ... and this is just what is being done by those who propose a Mahā yana. How so? Someone made up that Mahā yana and by declaring it superior to what Gotama taught one is also saying that that someone is greater than the Buddha.
[AN 6.94] Tatiya Abhabbaṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, the Pali
His Mother, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things which are impossible for one who has attained high view.
A variation on the previous. The last item is similar and related to the last item in the previous sutta. Here it is said to be impossible to declare another teacher than the Buddha. A somewhat different matter than honoring but with a similar logic.
[AN 6.94] Catuttha Abhabbaṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, the Pali
Self-Wrought, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things which are impossible for one who has attained high view.
A variation on the previous. Here's one that will test your understanding of the idea of 'not-self' and the dependent origination of things. Can you balance all six of these ideas in your mind?
[AN 6.96] Pātubhāva Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Manifesting, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six things which are hard to come by in the world.
All you need to do to see the truth of this one is to think about how much easier faith would be if you had been born in such a way as to be able to see and hear the Dhamma from the Buddha and were able to appreciate it.
[AN 6.97] Advantages, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Six advantages gained by the Streamwinner.
See Bhk. Thanissaro's translation and notes for some interesting explanations.
[AN 6.98] Anicca Suttaṃ, the Pali
Impermanence, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha points out how viewing everything own-made as impermanent leads to synchronization with the world and patience and that that results in the behavior and mental attitudes that produce Streamwinning, Once-returning, Non-Returning and Arahantship.
[AN 6.99] Dukkha Suttaṃ, the Pali
Ill, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha points out how viewing everything own-made as pain leads to synchronization with the world and patience and that that results in the behavior and mental attitudes that produce Streamwinning, Once-returning, Non-Returning and Arahantship.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 6.100] Dukkha Suttaṃ, the Pali
Ill, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha points out how viewing all things as not self leads to synchronization with the world and patience and that that results in the behavior and mental attitudes that produce Streamwinning, Once-returning, Non-Returning and Arahantship.
A variation of the previous.

 

sabba saŋkhāraṃ aniccato sabba saŋkhāraṃ dukkhato sabba dhammaṃ anattato Sammattaniyāmaṃ

Olds

all own-made: not-stable all own-made: painful all things: not-self
not just what is own-made: all things.
delve into devine madness

Hare

phenomena/impermanence phenomena/ill all things/not-self enter the right way

Bhk. Bodhi

conditioned phenomena/impermanence conditioned phenomena/suffering all phenomena/non-self. the fixed course of rightness

Note well the distinction made in the construction between the first and the second and the third. It will become very important to understand when it comes to understanding the state of the Arahant and Nibbāna. Nibbāna is a dhamma. If all dhammas were unstable and painful, Nibbāna would not be Nirvana. If only own-made things were not-self, that would allow for the possibility of the not-own-made being the self. See the discussion: Is Nibbāna Conditioned Note there the reasons for objecting to the translation of saŋkhāra as conditioning. For discussion of the last term see AN 5.151, 2, 3 below.

[AN 6.101] Nibbāna Suttaṃ, the Pali
Nibbāna, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha points out how viewing happiness in Nibbana leads to synchronization with the world and patience and that that results in the behavior and mental attitudes that produce Streamwinning, Once-returning, Non-Returning and Arahantship.
An usual addition to the ideas in the three previous suttas. Essentially: if you don't view Nibbana as a happy goal, you'll never get there.
[AN 6.102] Advantages a, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Seeing the advantage of putting into practice six mental resolutions is sufficient to firmly establish certainty that all own-made things are unstable.
Hare has: 'perceive six advantages';
Bhk. bodhi has: 'considers six benefits';
but the six things are resolutions, 'let me perceive things in such and such a way'. So it is not that one sees these things and that establishes certainty concerning anicca, etc., but that if one sees the advantages of putting these resolutins into practice the result will be ...
[AN 6.103] Advantages b, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Seeing the advantage of putting into practice six mental resolutions is sufficient to firmly establish certainty that all own-made things are pain.
Similar to the previous but with different resolutions.
[AN 6.104] Advantages c, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Seeing the advantage of putting into practice six mental resolutions is sufficient to firmly establish certainty that all things are not-self.
Similar to the previous but with different resolutions.
[AN 6.105] Bhava Suttaṃ, the Pali
Becoming, the E.M. Hare translation.
The three spheres of existence (the sphere of sense-pleasures; the sphere of existence in form, and the sphere of existence without form) must be given up and one must train in higher standards of ethical conduct, higher development of the heart and higher wisdom before one can say one has eliminated thirst and then further one must completely elimiinate pride before one can say one has brought pain to an end.
[AN 6.106] Taṇhā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Craving, the E.M. Hare translation.
Three forms of thirst (for sense pleasures, for being and for ending) and pride, self-deprication, and arrogance must be let go and then further pride in this accomplishment must be got rid of before one can say one has brought pain to an end.
[AN 6.107] Rāga Suttaṃ, the Pali
Passion, the E.M. Hare translation.
Three disadvantageous states and the three methods to counteract them.
[AN 6.108] Duccarita Suttaṃ, the Pali
Doing Ill, the E.M. Hare translation.
Three disadvantageous states and the three methods to counteract them.
A variation on the style of the previous, but with different states and counter-measures.
[AN 6.109] Vitakka Suttaṃ, the Pali
Thinking, the E.M. Hare translation.
Three disadvantageous states and the three methods to counteract them.
A variation on the style of the previous, but with different states and counter-measures.
[AN 6.110] Saññā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Thoughts, the E.M. Hare translation.
Three disadvantageous states and the three methods to counteract them.
A variation on the style of the previous, but with different states and counter-measures.
Here Hare's choice to translate 'saññā' as thought breaks down in an obvious way when comparing this sutta with the previous. Read 'perception' where he has 'thoughts'.
[AN 6.111] Dhātu Suttaṃ, the Pali
Principles, the E.M. Hare translation.
Three disadvantageous states and the three methods to counteract them.
A variation on the style of the previous, but with different states and counter-measures.
Hare here translates 'dhātu' as 'principles' where the usual PTS and Bhk. Bodhi translation is 'elements' and I have used 'data' and 'characteristic'. It's worth a thought in any case. Try reading this with the translation of dhātu as 'fact.' And it is an interesting phenomena to note that where the translator has good intentions, the advice, no matter what the translation, is usually good.
[AN 6.112] Assāda Suttaṃ, the Pali
Complacence, the E.M. Hare translation.
Three disadvantageous states and the three methods to counteract them.
A variation on the style of the previous, but with different states and counter-measures.
[AN 6.113] Arati Suttaṃ, the Pali
Discontent, the E.M. Hare translation.
Three disadvantageous states and the three methods to counteract them.
A variation on the style of the previous, but with different states and counter-measures.
[AN 6.114] Asantuṭṭhi Suttaṃ, the Pali
Being Satisfied, the E.M. Hare translation.
Three disadvantageous states and the three methods to counteract them.
A variation on the style of the previous, but with different states and counter-measures.
[AN 6.115] Dovacassatā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Unruliness, the E.M. Hare translation.
Three disadvantageous states and the three methods to counteract them.
A variation on the style of the previous, but with different states and counter-measures.
[AN 6.117-132] Kāyānupassī — Ajjhattabahiddha Dhammesu Dhammānupassī Suttaṃ, the Pali
Contemplation (of Body — of Thoughts as Thoughts Both in Relation to Self and Outside), the E.M. Hare translation.
Without giving up six things it is not possible to master the four pastures of the masters of mind.
This is not worded as 'the settings-up of mindfulness', but it is the four variations of each of the four: body, sense-experience, heart, and Dhamma.
There is complete lack of agreement with regard to numbering of the suttas within and between the versions of the Pali text and within and between the versions of the translations. The PTS Pali has this numbered as 117 and 118; the PTS translation has it as 117 and 118-130 and omits three suttas. The BJT has the complete set of suttas (it has a completely different way of numbering suttas which I have not used anywhere). Bhk. Bodhi has this as two suttas 117 and 118 but omits the same 3 suttas as are omitted in the PTS text, and the Pali he follows has the same numbering and omition. The omitions must be incorrect although the Pali in the two cases is unclear; without the omitted suttas the usual and expected symmetry is missing. All this has resulted in the necessity of having duplicate numbers for some suttas. There should be no confusion when linking to suttas as there is no duplication in file names.
Essentially, the difference in the arrangement I have made here is that the suttas are grouped for ease of reading: they should all be read together and so are all included in one file. They are really one sutta and should have one number. It is highly unlikely that they were originally delivered as separate suttas. To get to the traditional number of 84,000 suttas however, they need to be numbered separately and include all the suttas.
Hare has translated 'Dhamma' here as 'thoughts,' which makes this, along with 'saññā' and 'vitakka' the third term he has translated as 'thought'. 'Dhammas' in the Satipatthana suttas were originally thought to be 'objects of the mind,' (Walshe, Horner, Ñāṇamoli/Bodhi) and translated 'ideas' (Rhys Davids) 'mental qualities' (Bhk. Thanissaro) (creating it's own confusion with the previous category of 'citta' translated 'mind' rather than 'heart' and meaning 'states of mind' or 'states of the heart'); where it should be thought of as either 'The Dhamma', meaning the essential teachings, or, as I believe, 'the viewing of 'things' through 'these Dhammas'.
[AN 6.152-154] Chakkanipāte Rāgādipeyyāla Sūttāni, [The PTS Pali Text has these numbered 121-123] the Pali
(For Full Understanding) of Passion, the E.M. Hare translation.
The first set in the concluding wheel of the Book of the Sixes: for the understanding of passion three sets of six things must be accomplished.
[AN 6.155-181] Chakkanipāte Rāgādipeyyāla Sūttāni, [The PTS Pali Text has these included in 124] the Pali
(For Full Understanding) of Passion, Continued, the E.M. Hare translation.
The continuation of the first set in the concluding wheel of the Book of the Sixes. This group is based on the first group and changes only the heading: from understanding, it goes to comprehension, exhaustion, abandoning, destruction, decay, freedom from, ending, quittance, and renunciation.
[AN 6.155-181] Chakkanipāte Rāgādipeyyāla Sūttāni, Continued. [The PTS Pali Text has these included in 124] the Pali
Of Other Conditions, the E.M. Hare translation.
The continuation and conclusion of the Wheel at the end of the Sixes.
This is completely unabridged, both in the translation and in the Pali. The first time these 500 +/- suttas will have been seen in their original form since this work was put into writing.
This completes the scanning, digitization, formatting and uploading of The Book of the Sixes and the Pali Text for the same. This also completes the uploading of the digitized and formatted edition of the entire five volumes of The Book of the Gradual Sayings and the Anguttara Nikāya text.

 


Saturday, September 27, 2014
Previous upload was Tuesday, August 19, 2014


 

new Saturday, September 20, 2014 5:57 AM [AN 6.1] Paṭhamā Huneyya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Worthy of Offerings (a), the E.M. Hare translation.
A bhikkhu that remains detached when contacted with the objects of sense is worthy of veneration, offerings, and represents a unique opportunity to make good kamma.
[AN 6.2] Dutiya Huneyya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Worthy of Offerings (b), the E.M. Hare translation.
A bhikkhu who experiences magic powers, is clairvoyant, knows the hearts of others, remembers past lives, sees the rebirth of beings according to their deeds and who has destroyed the corrupting influences is worthy of veneration, offerings, and represents a unique opportunity to make good kamma.
[AN 6.3] Indriya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Faculties, the E.M. Hare translation.
A bhikkhu who develops the forces of faith, energy, memory, serenity, and wisdom and who has destroyed the corrupting influences is worthy of veneration, offerings, and represents a unique opportunity to make good kamma.
[AN 6.4] Indriya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Faculties, the E.M. Hare translation.
A bhikkhu who develops the powers of faith, energy, memory, serenity, and wisdom and who has destroyed the corrupting influences is worthy of veneration, offerings, and represents a unique opportunity to make good kamma.
[AN 6.5] Paṭhama Ājānīya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Thoroughbred (a), the E.M. Hare translation.
The bhikkhu, who, like a king's thoroughbred horse, is able to withstand the assault of objects of sense is worthy of veneration, offerings, and represents a unique opportunity to make good kamma.
[AN 6.6] Dutiya Ājānīya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Thoroughbred (b), the E.M. Hare translation.
The bhikkhu, who, like a king's thoroughbred horse, is able to withstand the assault of objects of sense is worthy of veneration, offerings, and represents a unique opportunity to make good kamma.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 6.7] Tatiya Ājānīya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Thoroughbred (c), the E.M. Hare translation.
The bhikkhu, who, like a king's thoroughbred horse, is able to withstand the assault of objects of sense is worthy of veneration, offerings, and represents a unique opportunity to make good kamma.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 6.8] Anuttariya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Above All, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six ways of framing the idea of what is above all else.
This seems to me to be only a fragment of a sutta. Hare's footnotes give suttas where the idea is expanded, and see also below AN 5.170.
[AN 6.9] Anussatiṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ever Minding, the E.M. Hare translation.
Six objects that are bases for the development of expanded recollection.
The key word is Anussatiṭṭhāna. Anussati is not 'ever'-minding in that, as the Buddha explained concerning the idea of omniscience, one cannot be aware of (aka. remember) all things at all times, but only that one may be aware of whatever one wants to be aware of whenever one wants to be aware of it. 'Ever' means at all times. Further it is not the 'further-minding' that is being spoken of in this sutta but the things on which such further-minding stand (ṭṭhāna). Bhk. Bodhi's 'subjects' is an interesting translation, but then he translates 'anu-sati' as 'recollection' and this is not just the recollection of certain subjects, but the subjects/objects to be used for (on which to stand) a deeper, further development of the memory.
[AN 6.10] Mahānāma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Mahānāma, the E.M. Hare translation.
Mahanama asks the Buddha about the things that should be made a big thing of by the Streamwinner. He is told to establish recollection of the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha, his own ethical conduct, his generosity, and to reflect on the fact that it is by these means that the various Gods have become such as they are.
The keyword here is, as with the previous sutta, anussati, and both Bhk. Bodhi (who has Mahanama often dwelling recollecting) and Hare (who has him living abundantly ever-minding) have missed the idea that Mahanama is asking about what further development of memory is to be done by the Streamwinner.
There is, in this sutta the quite rare use of the term 'dhammasota', 'Dhamma-ear', a term for the Streamwinner. 20 times in all, six times, (most frequently) in AN 6, never in MN, DN, Vin.P., or Abhidhamma P. This is the ability to hear and understand Dhamma from the point of view of Pajapati after he has come to understand that he is not, after all, the creator of the world, that there is nothing that has come into existence that does not pass out of existence (and that consequently he is not responsible for that phenomena either), and that further, there is no thing there that can be called a self (of himself or of any other) onto whom to fix such responsibility. It is the understanding that beings individually subjectively experience the consequences of their deeds. This is also the ability to hear what is Dhamma whether found in a sutta or in ordinary conversation and to hear how any statement should be worded to make it conform to Dhamma. It's not: "A watched pot never boils;" it is: "A watched pot never boils over."
[AN 6.11] Paṭhama Sārāṇīya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
On Being Considerate (a), the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes six ways in which bhikkhus are considerate of one another.
[AN 6.12] On Being Considerate (a), the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes six ways in which bhikkhus are considerate of one another producing concord.
A variation of the previous sutta.
Hare translates 'eki-bhāvāya' here as 'singleness of heart'. 'Heart' is not found there. He was, perhaps, thinking of 'cetaso ekodi-bhāvaṃ' or samāhitaṃ cittaṃ ekaggaṃ a factor for the attainment of jhāna. It should be, as per Bhk. Thanissaro, 'Living in unity,' or 'Living at one,' [with one-another].
[AN 6.13] Amity, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha, by six different means, teaches how to achieve freedom of heart, how to recognize the presence or absense of freedom of heart, and how to advise someone who erroneously believes he has achieved freedom of heart.
[AN 6.14] Bhaddaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Lucky Fate, the E.M. Hare translation.
Sariputta teaches the way to an unlucky death through taking delight in worldly activities, talk, sleep, company, companionship and useless stuff and the way to a lucky death through taking no delight in worldly activities, talk, sleep, company, companionship and useless stuff.
[AN 6.15] Anutappa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Without Remorse, the E.M. Hare translation.
Sariputta teaches the way to a fate of burning remorse through taking delight in worldly activities, talk, sleep, company, companionship and useless stuff and the way to a fate free from burning remorse through taking no delight in worldly activities, talk, sleep, company, companionship and useless stuff.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 6.16] Nakula's Parents, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The story of how Nakula's Mother cured her husband of a grave illness by releaving him of all his possible worries about her.
[AN 6.17] Kusala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Right Things, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha attempts to inspire some novices to wakefulness by way of numerous examples of the energicic characteristics of great men.
[AN 6.18] Macchika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Fish, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha points out that in his day the various trades of the butcher did not pay off in living in luxory, or possessing wealth and social acceptance and that those engaged in such trades could look forward to rebirth in Hell.
The sutta is so worded that we can say that it is speaking of the material results of those trades in his day which is good, because today we can see that there are at least some of those who engage in those trades on a grand scale who have in fact become wealthy, though I am not sure how well accepted they are in society. How is this explained by kamma? Without claiming that I know precisely, I would speculate that it was a combination of some good kamma having been done in the past together with the mental focus not on the butchery but on the marketing and possibly even on the benefits of feeding people. There is also the fact, however grim, that one engaging in the mass marketing of animal flesh is also intentionally giving life (however short) to, sheltering, feeding, and medicating large numbers of animals. Kamma, according to the Buddhist understanding, would still entail experiencing the eventual consequences of the intent to kill or the intent to have another kill, that is necessarily bound up in this trade at any level.
There was, at one point in the recent past, an owner of a chicken ranch that distributed chickens throughout the eastern U.S. who personally appeared in television advertisements for his chickens. Anyone with vision, and children, could see his physical resemblance to a chicken and from there imagine a progression from chicken to king of the chickens to ruthless emperor chicken=human of millions of chickens while on their road to the slaughter-house while on his road to Hell for a very long ... um ... it is a pecularity of the Devil that he gives some really bad men 'enough rope to hang themselves' ... stretch. Not so different from being king, emporor, president of a bunch of humans on their way to the slaughter-house. There is some reward for managing the process.
[AN 6.19] Mindfulness of Death (a) the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to practice rememberance of death and a number of them come forward with the way they put this instruction into practice. The Buddha praises only those who practice such rememberance in the immediate present.
This sutta is difficult to get clearly into focus because the worst of the practices can easily be thought to be the best because it appears to be more comprehensive. But what is being pointed out here is the need to bear down on the present moment to really see the possibility that death can happen at any time. To be aware of the possibility that death can happen during the current day, half-day, or meal-time, and that therefore one should behave according to Dhamma is not much more focused on the problem than is the ordinary person's vague awareness that at some point in the future death is inevitable — it allows too much leeway for diversion.
[AN 6.20] Mindfulness of Death (b) the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes in detail the practice of remembering death.
[AN 6.21] Sāmagāmaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
At Sāmagāmaka, the E.M. Hare translation.
A deva reveals to Gotama three things that lead to the falling away of a bhikkhu in training. The Buddha relates the insident to the bhikkhus telling them that they should be ashamed that the devas know such things. Then he adds three other things that also lead to the falling away of a bhikkhu in training.
[AN 6.22] Aparihānīya-Dhamma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Unfailing, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha teaches six things that lead to the success of a bhikkhu in training.
It is almost certain that this sutta belongs as the conclusion of the previous sutta.
[AN 6.24] Himavanta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Himalaya, the E.M. Hare translation.
Breaking Up Mount Himalaya, Olds, trans.
Six components of samadhi.
An odd little sutta on the power of serenity or getting high. A person with these skills could break up Mount Everest but harder to do than that would be piercing the body of ignorance. Bhk. Bodhi and Hare have both translated 'samādhi' as 'concentration.' For sure to work the magic power of breaking up a mountain or piercing ignorance the thing that is needed is a high degree of focus or concentration, but the art of working a deed of magic is culminated by the act of letting go, so concentration in and of itself is not sufficient. Similarly to pierce ignorance it is not sufficient to have focused or concentrated insight, that insight must be acted upon, and that act is also letting go. The result in both cases is serenity based on detachment. Concentration or focus is the fulcrum that is used to lever the mind to where letting go results in serenity. So say I.
[AN 6.25] Anussatiṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ever Minding, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to establish recollection of the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha, one's own ethical conduct, one's generosity, and to reflect on the fact that it is by these means that the various Gods have become such as they are and further it is by these means some attain Nibbāna.
See discussion at #10 above; this is a variation of that sutta.
[AN 6.26] Mahā Kaccāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Kaccāna, the E.M. Hare translation.
Mahā Kaccāna praises the the Buddha's exposition of the six establishments of further memory: recollection of the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha, one's own ethical conduct, one's generosity, and to reflect on the fact that it is by these means that the various Gods have become such as they are and further it is by these means some attain Nibbāna.
Mahā Kaccāna's version of the previous sutta. Note the similarity here (as well as at A. iv, 426,) of the opening to that of the Satipatthana Sutta. This makes it difficult to accept the translation of 'ekāyano ayaṃ bhikkhave maggo' with ideas implying that the method described there is 'the only way'. However it is translated it should imply that it is one way among many ... another of which we have here. On the other hand! Careful examination of what is involved in any path to Nibbāna will show that it consists of basic elements which are equivalents.
[AN 6.27] Mahā Kaccāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Kaccāna, the E.M. Hare translation.
Visiting A Mind-Become One, Olds translation.
A bhikkhu asks the Buddha about when it would be appropriate for one to approach someone who has become mind (attained arahantship) and is told of the six occasions when such a visit is called for.
The six occasions are the harassment by lust for sense pleasures, the anger and hate resulting from deviance from the way, sluggishness, anxiety from remorse, uncertainty, and not knowing what indicates what such as to terminate the āsavas. Not happy with the existing tanslations I have done my own. Take it for what it's worth. I have given it elucidating footnotes.

 


Uttaruttariṃ||
paṇitapaṇitaṃ||
vāyamamānā||
anuttaraṃ vimuttisukhaṃ sacchikarissāmā
AN 5.180|| ||

From higher to higher,
from strength to strength,
we will strive
and will come to realize the liberation,
above which there is no higher.
AN 5.180, Hare

Higher-n-higher
Aspiration to aspiration
We will struggle on
to see with our own eyes
that sweet freedom none-higher
— Olds


 

new Wednesday, August 27, 2014 11:08 AM Vinaya Piṭaka
[VP MV 1.23.5] Upatissa's (Sariputta's) Question, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro, translation,
[VP MV 8.26.1-8] The Monk with Dysentery, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro, translation,
The Buddha, inspecting a vihara comes upon a bhikkhu prostrate with disentery, lying in his own filth, neglected by the other bhikkhus because he is no longer of any use to them. After personally helping to clean up the bhikkhu he delivers a teaching on attending to the sick.
A very moving story! Another item for a collection on health care.
[VP MV 6.40.1] The Innate Principles of the Vinaya, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro, translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the principles of extrapolating from an instance.
[VP MV 10.2.3-20] The Story of Prince Dighavu, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro, translation,
The Buddha relates a story of the old times to teach the idea of forebearance and forgiveness.
[VP CV 5] SBE: Vinaya Pitaka, Culla-Vagga 5.31: the Rhys Davids, Oldenberg translation; and
PTS: VP.CV. 5.31: The Horner translation.
Five advantages from using a tooth stick.
SBE: Chapter 3, Rhys Davids, Oldenberg, trans.
PTS: Chapter 3, Horner, trans.
About Dhamma Recitation in Sing-song or Plain-song or chanting. I have a personal bias against chanting Dhamma which tends to make me understand this as a rule against chanting as it is commonly practiced today throughout Asian Buddhist countries. The Pali is confusing or is clear and being misunderstood. On the one hand there was this rule made against āyatakena gītassarena dhammaṃ gāyanti. [long, extended, prolonged, kept up, lasting] [sung, recited, solemnly proclaimed, enunciated]-[sounding, voicing, intoning, accentuating] dhamma [singing]. Then, when some bhikkhus asked about sarabhañña. [sounding, voicing, intoning, accentuating]+[color] they were told that voicing with color was permissable. My persuasion is that this means giving life (a certain amount of appropriate emphasis to occasional phrases) to ordinary recitation, not the rhythmic chanting as it exists today. Going to the reasons makes my case even more dramatically. Both the Bhikkhus and the listeners are obviously being carried away by the sound. The chants are listened to like pop-music. The delivery is too fast and the words are not distinct. And there is in fact no color discernable where color would clarify meaning and this evidences the fact that this method of remembering is carrying forward the word without the spirit. I know this is a losing issue, but I think the practice needs to be questioned. See also here: AN 5.209
[VP CV 7] SBE: Chapter 1: Dissensions in the Order, Rhys Davids, Oldenberg, trans.
One version of the story of the renunciations of Bhaddiya the Sākya Rāga, and Anuruddha, and Ānanda, and Bhagu, and Kimbila, and Devadatta, all except Bhagu the barber, close relatives of Gotama and who all renounced the world together.

 

new Wednesday, August 27, 2014 11:08 AM Dhammatalk Forum:
Book Review: Carl Sandburg, Rememberance Rock.
Dhammatalk: AN 5.166, discssing the very obscure beginning of this sutta.

 

new Wednesday, August 27, 2014 11:08 AM Psalms of the Brethren
[THAG 202] Vaḍḍa Mrs. Rhys David's translation.
The Bhikkhu Vaḍḍa visits his bhikkhunī arahant mother alone and casually dressed, thereby breaking rules and showing disrespect and is rebuked. He takes it to heart and becomes arahant himself.
We can see here the transition Vadda makes between regarding his mother as 'his mother' and his mother as 'an arahant.'
[THAG 258] Phussa Mrs. Rhys David's translation.
When asked by a seer of another sect what he forecasts for the future of the Sangha Phussa paints a grim picture.
[THAG 247] Udāyin Mrs. Rhys David's translation.
Venerable Udāyin sings the Buddha's praises, likening him to a mighty elephant, and declares his own arahantship.
[THAG 153] Upavāna Mrs. Rhys David's translation.
The verses of one of the Buddha's early attendants. A simple request for medicine for Gotama at a time when he was ill.
[THAG 154] Isidinna Mrs. Rhys David's translation.
Isidinna's declaration of Arahantship which was a quote from the teaching that converted him.
[THAG 141] Uttara Mrs. Rhys David's translation.
Uttara declares arahantship.
[THAG 142] Bhaddaji Mrs. Rhys David's translation.
Bhaddaji becomes arahant and describes a previous life to the Buddha.
[THAG 143] Sobhita Mrs. Rhys David's translation.
Sobhita declares arahantship and his ability to recollect past lives in great numbers.
[THAG 259] Sāriputta Mrs. Rhys David's translation.
The declaration of Arahantship of Sāriputta and various other verses ascribed to him.
[THAG 63] Pakkha (The Cripple) Mrs. Rhys David's translation.
[THAG 64] Vimala-Kondañña Mrs. Rhys David's translation.
[THAG 220] Nhātaka-muni Mrs. Rhys David's translation.
[THAG 229] Kaccā[ya]na the Great Mrs. Rhys David's translation.

 


The Dream of a Shadow of Smoke

Man is born in vanity and sin. He comes into the world like morning mushrooms, soon thrusting up their heads into the air, and conversing with their kindred of the same production, and as soon they turn into dust and forgetfulness; some of them without any other interest in the affairs of the world but that they made their parents a little glad, and very sorrowful.

Life is short, death sweeps out one generation to make way for another, and measured by what went before you and what comes after you life is but an eyeblink of time ... Death reigns in all the portions of our time. The autumn with its fruits provides disorders for us, and the winter's cold turns them into sharp diseases, and the spring brings flowers to strew our hearse, and the summer gives green turf and brambles to bind upon our graves. Deliriums and surfeit, cold and ague, are the four quarters of the year, and all ministers to death; you can go no whither but you tread upon a dead man's bones."

- from a sermon by Jeremy Taylor chaplain to King Charles I of England, 1600-1649
plus or minus as retold by Carl Sandberg, Remembrance Rock.


 

new Sunday, August 24, 2014 2:40 PM [SN 5.46.52] Pariyāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Method, the Woodward translation,
The exact similarity in the outward form of the practices of a group of ascetics with one method of instruction used by The Buddha leads to the question of what is the difference between the two sects. The Buddha reveals an interpretation of the doctrine unique to the understanding of the awakened mind, inaccesable through any other source.
A very rich, complex sutta. A lesson in how a complete path to the goal can be constructed in unlimited ways by the fitting together of various individual components of the Dhamma: in this sutta the Diversions [nivāraṇa] and the Dimensions of Awakening [sambojjhangā]. Then the further flexibility of the system is shown by splitting in two the individual components of these Dhammas in various instructive ways.

 


The Four Causes of Error

1. The influence of fragile or unworthy authority.
2. Custom.
3. The imperfection of undisciplined senses.
4. Concealment of ignorance by ostentation of seeming wisdom.

— From Remembrance Rock by Carl Sandberg, attributed to Roger Bacon. Note the following from Encyclopaedia Britanica, Eleventh Edition, Vol. 3-4, AUS to CAL, Bacon, Roger (c. 1214-c. 1204) p 153: "Phyical science, if there was anything deserving that name, was cultivated, not by experiment in the Aristotelian way, but by arguments deduced from premises resting on authority or custom. Everywhere there was a show of knowledge concealing fundamental ignorance," words not attributed to Bacon.

Etha tumhe Kālāmā mā anusasavena,||
mā paramparāya,||
mā itikirāya,||
mā piṭakasampadānena,||
mā takkahetu,||
mā nayahetu,||
mā ākāraparivitakkena,||
mā diṭṭhinijjhānakkhantiyā,||
mā bhavyarūpatāya,||
mā samaṇo no garū ti||
yadā tumhe Kālāmā attanā va jāneyyātha:||
ime dhammā akusalā,||
ime dhammā sāvajjā,||
ime dhammā viññugarahitā,||
ime dhammā samattā samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya saṃvattantī ti —||
atha tumhe Kālāmā pajaheyyātha.
|| ||
Kesaputtiya Suttaṃ

Let not thy going, Kalamas, be by tradition
nor by reliance on conclusions
nor by hearsay
nor by that which is contained in the scriptures
nor by that which is driven by cranking out thought
nor that which is driven by method
nor by thoroughly thought through constructions
nor by just capitulating to some viewpoint
nor by appearance of reasonableness
nor by instruction of your teacher,
but, Kalamas, let thy going be
by knowing for thyself:
'this thing is unskillful',
'this thing is blameable',
'this thing gives rise to a fault'
'this thing undertaken, accomplished,
is harmful, painful in result' -
and going by that, Kalamas
rid thyself thereof.
— Olds, translation. See also translations of: Woodward Bhk. Thanissaro, Soma Thera.

 


 

new Friday, August 22, 2014 11:17 AM [SN 4.36.24] Pubbe Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Knowledge of the Past
The Buddha describes the precise knowledge of sense experience that arose to him that helped bring about his awakening.

 

new Wednesday, August 20, 2014 1:59 PM [SN 5.51.1] Neither Shore, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
For discussion of the title and it's use in understanding the goal of the Buddha's system see the note at Olds, SN 5.51.1 n1
[SN 5.51.2] Neglected, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
[SN 5.51.3] Ariyan, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
[SN 5.51.4] Revulsion, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
[SN 5.51.5] Partial, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
[SN 5.51.6] Perfectly, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
[SN 5.51.7] Monk, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
[SN 5.51.8] Enlightened or Arahant, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
[SN 5.51.9] Knowledge, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
[SN 5.51.10] Knowledge, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
Woodward's translations of the first suttas of the Iddhipada Samyutta, suttas connected with the development of magic powers. The last one is a version of the Buddha's renunciation of the remainder of his lifespan. Another, more detailed version of this story is found at Buddhist Suttas, I. The Book of the Great Decease.

Whoever, beggars,
fails to undertake the four power-paths,
also fails to undertake
the Aristocratic Way
to the consummate destruction of pain.

Whoever, beggars,
undertakes the four power-paths,
also undertakes
the Aristocratic Way
to the consummate destruction of pain.
From the Olds translation of SN 5.51.2

 

new Wednesday, August 20, 2014 1:59 PM [PUG 5.1] Puggala-Paññatti, Pañca Puggalā, Ī 1, the Pali
Designation of Human Types, Fives, Ī 1, the B. Law translation.
Five persons with various combinations of action and remorse.

 


Fair and softly goes far in a day.
English saying c. 1600 meaning 'pace yourself'. Not too hard, not too slow, and there will be energy to complete the day.


 

new Tuesday, August 19, 2014 7:47 AM [AN 5.138] Bhattādaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Eater of Eatables, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha likens the careless bhikkhu to a common elephant. 'Just taking up space.'
[AN 5.139] He Cannot Endure, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha contrasts the ability of a king's elephant to endure the sights, sounds, scents, tastes, and contacts of battle with the bhkkhu's ability to compose himself in the face of alluring sights, sounds, scents, tastes, and contacts.
[AN 5.140] The Hearers, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha contrasts the ability of a king's elephant to listen, destroy, guard himself, endure hardships and go where he has not gone before to the bhikkhu's ability to listen, destroy bad ideas, guard himself against alluring sense impressions, endure hardships, and go where he has not gone before.
[AN 5.141] Avajānāti Suttaṃ, the Pali,
He Gives and Despises, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha advises the bhikkhus on five sorts of people that exist in the world: the giver that dispises the one he gives to; one who on familiarity despises; the person who agrees with everything, the irresolute, and the scatterbrain.
[AN 5.142] Ārabhati Suttaṃ, the Pali,
He Does Amiss, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes five sorts of persons with various combinations of misdeeds and remorse and insight into freedom of heart and freedom of wisdom.
[AN 5.143] Ārabhati Suttaṃ, the Pali,
At Sarandada Shrine, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha encounters a number of Lacchavis who were discussing the five treasures of the Wheel-turning King. [see Be Not Afraid of Good Deeds or AN 7 59a] He turns them from this discussion of worldly things by describing the rarity of the appearance of an Awakened One, one who understands the Dhamma-Discipline, one able to teach the Dhamma-discipline, one who hearing the Dhamma-Discipline walks the walk, and the rarity of one who is grateful and gives thanks.
[AN 5.144] Ārabhati Suttaṃ, the Pali,
At Three-thorn Grove, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha praises the great benefit of periodic observation of the unpleasant in the pleasant, the pleasant in the unpleasant, both the pleasant and the unpleasant in the unpleasant, both the pleasant and the unpleasant in the unpleasant, and living detached from both the pleasant and unpleasant.
[AN 5.145] Niraya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Way to Hell, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five behaviors that lead to Hell, five that lead to heaven.
[AN 5.146] Bhikkhu Mitta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Friend, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha gives the bhikkhus some advice on the sorts of things to look for in a bhikkhu friend.
This is pretty much aimed at friendships between bhikkhus, but could be well taken into consideration by any layman who was strongly intent on the goal.
[AN 5.147] Asappurisa-Dāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Not a Good Man's Gifts, the E.M. Hare translation.
Not a Goodman's Givings, Olds translation [revised],
Negative and positive guidelines for giving in the way a good man gives.
[AN 5.148] A Good Man's Gifts, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro, and Olds translations.
Guidlines for giving in the way a good man gives and details of the results of such giving.
An expansion of the previous with the addition of details concerning the way each manner of giving is reflected in the results.
[AN 5.149] Occasional Release, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
Five things which lead to losing release that is attained and five things that lead to preserving release that is attained.
The term to understand in this sutta is 'samaya,' SAM = 'On' or 'With' AYA time, age, while. The 'Once upon a Time' or 'at one time' or 'once' of Nidana's. Once in a while. The contemporary Indian English: 'Once in a way.' VIMUTTI = Freedom. The thing itself is not a mystery: having let go of some attachment, after the unpleasant withdrawl symptoms have passed off, reflecting on the bondage one had to a past habit one experiences a sense of freedom. This is often a matter of a profound sense of freedom accompanied by a 'sigh of releaf.' If this is carefully examined, it is seen to be the whole process of attaining Arahantship in a nutshell. This has lead to problems. There are those who experiencing the more profound variety of these releases come to the conclusion they are Arahants. This leads to a second conclusion: that Arahants can fall back. This, according to Points of Controverys 2. Of Falling Away, (which I am not going to post here as it is a long argument concerning a special situation that is easily summarised as I am doing here) was a position taken at one point by the Sammitiyas, the Vajjiputtiyas, the Sabbatthivādans, and some of the Mahāsanghikas. The most likely explanation of the controversy is that there were, at the time, multiple definitions of the term Arahant. It was a term sometimes used as an honorific for ordinary persons of distinction. It was commonly used of any wandering ascetic. We see this here and there in the suttas in the terms used by outsiders. However in Gotama's system as defined in the Suttas the Arahant is an individual who has attained Nibbāna in this life in such a way as eliminates any possibility of sliding back. This term then is to be applied to and is a valuable instruction for those who have not yet attained Arahantship.
[AN 5.150] Occasional Release, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
Five things which lead to losing release that is attained and five things that lead to preserving release that is attained.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 5.151] Paṭhama Sammattaniyāma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Saddhamma Way (a), the E.M. Hare translation.
The High Measure of Madness Method (1), Olds translation,
The Buddha describes five factors which assure good results from hearing Dhamma.
[AN 5.152] Dutiya Sammattaniyāma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Saddhamma Way (b), the E.M. Hare translation.
The High Measure of Madness Method (2), Olds translation,
The Buddha describes five factors which assure good results from hearing Dhamma.
A variation on the previous sutta.
[AN 5.153] Tatiya Sammattaniyāma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Saddhamma Way (c), the E.M. Hare translation.
The High Measure of Madness Method (3), Olds translation,
The Buddha describes five factors which assure good results from hearing Dhamma.
A variation on the previous sutta.
These last three suttas strike me as being very unusual. The idea is simple enough and belongs to the Gotama of the rest of the suttas, but the vocabulary and syntax seem very different. The reader will note that there is considerable difference between my translation and that of Hare or Bhk. Bodhi. The key word to understand is 'Sammatta' This is one of those words that I say comes down from the oldest forms of Pali and is a Manta, or magic charm. PED has it broken into two forms, one as SAṀ+MATTA, meaning 'with madness' or intoxicated, delighted, etc., but also (unmentioned) 'with measure'; and the other as abstracted from SAMMĀ meaning 'correctness,' 'righteousness' (I say 'High' or 'Consummate') and then defining that as the Magga. I suggest the meaning is derived from an earlier form incorporating all those meanings: extatic (ecstatic) intoxication: "A High Measure of Madness," "Devine madness." The thing is that this word here stands alone and is otherwise undefined in the suttas and the method I have found to be most productive of insight when trying to understand suttas is to take them at face value. To insert, without justification the idea that this word means (rather than is something that results from) the Eightfold Path, seems to me to be going too far. We have too many suttas {e.g. SN 5.46.52) which teach methods for attaining arahantship which do not rely on the formal Eightfold Path. I see no problem with the idea that what is being spoken of is religious extasy (ecstasy) or, if you would prefer a measured entheusiasm.
[AN 5.154] Paṭhama Saddhammasammosa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Confounding of Saddhamma (a), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things relating to the bhikkhus that contribute to the decline and disappearance of True Dhamma, and five things that lead to it's preservation.
[AN 5.155] Dutiya Saddhammasammosa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Confounding of Saddhamma (b), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things relating to the bhikkhus that contribute to the decline and disappearance of True Dhamma, and five things that lead to it's preservation.
A variation on the previous sutta.
[AN 5.156] Tatiya Saddhammasammosa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Confounding of Saddhamma (c), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things relating to the bhikkhus that contribute to the decline and disappearance of True Dhamma, and five things that lead to it's preservation.
A variation on the previous sutta.
For more on the decline of the Dhamma see the discussion Sasana.
[AN 5.157] Dukkathā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ill Talk, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha explains why in five cases certain types of discussions are inappropriate and produce only anger, and why in five other cases the same discussions are appropriate and produce good will.
Really good information which should be taken as advice concerning understanding one's audience and tayloring one's discussion to fit.
[AN 5.158] Sārajja Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Fearful Heart, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five conditions giving rise to fear and five giving rise to confidence.
[AN 5.159] The Venerable Udāyin, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhkkhu Thanissaro translation.
Five things to be kept in mind by anyone who wishes to teach Dhamma.
Very difficult, but very rewarding, things to keep in mind when given an opportunity to teach.
[AN 5.160] Duppaṭivinodaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Hard to Make a Push Against, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five tendencies which are difficult to overcome.
If you have tried to put this system into practice you will have had to have dealt with tendencies within you that you had no idea were so strong because normally you just yielded to them at their first appearance. This sutta will be some help in that the most fundamental of these tendencies are here identified and acknowledged to be big problems: you are not alone facing your weaknesses!
[AN 5.162] The Putting Away of Malice (b), the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhkkhu Thanissaro translation.
Sariputta elaborates with similes the methods for ridding themselves of hate which should be used by persons of various degrees of freedom from bad behavior and attainment of liberation.
An extremely helpful sutta. The similies are invaluable. Sariputta shines here as a teacher.
In this sutta I put forward a suggested solution to the problem of suttas which begin 'Then ...' or 'There then ..." which is, simply enough, that these suttas should be considered continuations of the events of the previous sutta. A whole evening's discussions might, for example, consist of numerous 'suttas' which are presented to us in the collections as though they should be taken separately.
[AN 5.165] On Asking Questions, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhkkhu Thanissaro translation.
Sariputta describes the five basic mental states to be found in a person who is asking a question.
On the one hand his is valuable information to keep in mind when considering a reply to someone asking a question of one. On the other hand it is valuable to keep in mind when considering asking a question of someone.
[AN 5.166] Nirodha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ending, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha elicits the recitation of the five qualities that make a bhikkhu beloved amongst his fellow seekers.
Well this is the point of the sutta, but before it gets to this point there is a long very obscure story relating a debate between Sariputta and Udayin. For a discussion of the possible meaning of this debate see Dhammatalk Forum: Dhammatalk: AN 5.166.
[AN 5.167] Codanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Exhortation, the E.M. Hare translation.
and in conjunction with these:
[VP 5.09.05] Vinaya Texts, III: The Kullavagga, Ninth Khandhaka, Chapter 5 Sacred Books of the East, Rhys Davids, Oldenberg translation, and
Vinaya Texts, III: The Kullavagga, Ninth Khandhaka, Chapter 5, Horner translation.
Sariputta reviews factors that should be kept in mind by the bhikkhu who would correct another and by a bhikkhu that is corrected by another.
There is a wonderful conclusion to this sutta which is both humerous and instructive: a very long ... um ... description of those who would not understand this instruction, repeated by the Buddha. Along the lines of an old-time very-long-string-of-derogatory-comments curse. It also illustrates the conscious awareness on the part of these teachers of the need for constant repetition of important instructions.
[AN 5.168] Sīla Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Virtue, the E.M. Hare translation.
Sariputta outlines the progressive interdependence of ethical behavior, serenity, knowing and seeing, disenchantment and dispassion, and knowing and seeing freedom.
Identical to AN 5.24, but spoken by Sariputta.
[AN 5.170] Bhaddaji Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Bhaddaji, the E.M. Hare translation.
Ananda elevates Bhikkhu Bhaddaji's understanding of what constitutes the best of sights, sounds, joys, conscious states and lives.
[AN 5.171] Sārajja Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fearfulness, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which result in fearfulness for Buddhist lay followers and five things which result in a lay follower having confidence.
[AN 5.172] Visārada Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Confidence, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which result in living at home without confidence for Buddhist lay followers and five things which result in a lay follower living at home with confidence.
A variation on the previous.
[AN 5.173] Niraya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Hell, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which result in a layman bein thrown into hell and five things which result in a layman being thrown into heaven.
A variation on the previous.
[AN 5.174] Vera Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Hatred, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which result in hatred here and hell hereafter and five things that free one from hatred here and hell hereafter.
This is an expansion on the previous. Elsewhere termed 'the five-fold guilty dread' [AN 10 92], 'the five-fold dread and hatred' [AN 9.27]. So far no one's translation makes good sense. The five actions are not the five guilty dreads, they are the sources of the guilty dreads. For the obvious case: The man who 'goes to another man's wife' is the source of the hatred directed at him by the husband, going to another man's wife is not itself hatred. ... though there will be those practitioners of modern psychology who will say that going to another man's wife is subconscious hatred of the other man. So who knows? Bhk. Bodhi translates: 'five perils and enmities' which comes closer. The idea is 'fearful hate-makers'.
Since the end of World War II, the whole world has more or less abandoned belief in Heaven and Hell and the importance of ethical behavior as the means whereby these states are arrived at. People profess, go through the motions, but their behavior reveals their real lack of belief. How could it be otherwise in the face of the attrocities on both sides of that war, re-inforced by the atrocities of a dozzen smaller wars thereafter. What Creator God could withstand the cross-questioning of a high-school sophomore on this issue? Who would follow the dictates of a God that would allow such things? The key piece of thinking missing has been the idea of kamma. Individual responsibility for one's own destiny. With individual responsibility we can understand that the perpetuation of atrocities is the fearful hate-making deed of those directly involved in the making of the atrocities and the suffering of the victims is a matter of the repercussion of their past deeds. What sort of deeds could millions of people have in common that would result in the carnage they experienced? Since the beginning of history, millions of people have entered armies with the intent to kill, have killed and maimed, and have encouraged hate and actively supported ideas and actions that resulted in depriving others of life. Those intentions and acts come home.
In the face of such things as the holocaust, the dropping of the atom bomb, the bombing of Dresden, putting responsibility and blame off onto a Creator God destroyed it's own usefulness (the idea just breaks down under it's obvious absurdity at such magnitude; such deeds require small, blind minds, not the omnicience of a God). But much of the world was left without an alternative. The result is certainly a world led by a nation bereft of ethical practices, whole-heartedly devoted to making a buck and indulgence in sense-gratification. God is dead, there is no heavenly retribution. Even the Golden Rule (which is a corrolary of the idea of kamma) no longer makes sense because it was presented not as a matter of the impersonal workings of nature, but as the rule used in the judgments of this no-longer-believed-in God. Justice now is not a matter of punishing criminals for their deeds but is a matter of inflicting punishment arbitrarily on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. The result of that is life deprived of meaning beyond stimulation of the senses in the immediate here and now. Without the idea of Judgment by God and without the idea of kamma there is no thinking in ethical terms. Life has become a mere matter of amoebic-like reaction to pleasureable and painful stimulus.
Somehow, my friends, you have got to wake yourselves up to this issue. The alternative, without even considering heaven and hell, is lack of awareness of this stifflingly narrow atomatonic drugery we have here today and the blind following of blind leaders blindly following in their pursuit of votes polls telling them of the preferences of the blind as to the ways they wish to be lead into ever deeper degradation of life in the future.
You, who have a peripheral interest in Buddhism because it is the fad of the day need to overcome your resistance to understanding the fundamental importance of ethical behavior to access to the higher ideas found in this system. Buddhism here has hardly got into the practice of Loving Kindness. There is no practice of Loving Kindness where there is no understanding of ethical behavior. Without an understanding of ethical behavior Loving Kindness is the practice of Self-love. Whatever makes you feel good is 'loving kindness' and therefore 'right' and everything else is 'wrong'. That is the extent of your system of ethics and that is the limit of your ethical thinking. What is not seen is that this is the path of the psychopath where the most depraved behavior gives pleasure to the self and is, because of that, judged to be 'righteous'. Every experience of sense-pleasure deadens the ability to enjoy it at the same intensity in the future and that results in seeking ever more intense pleasures. The process inevitably leads to every sort of misbehavior and eventually to intentional cruelty. Is that the direction you really want to go?
What is stopping people from accepting kamma? Partly it is because a misunderstood idea of karma came along with the fruitless appearance of religious revival during the 60s. It was abandoned along with the spiritual revival when it became more interesting to make money, take advantage of the sexual revolution, and reach for power. What is needed for kamma to make sense is seeing the fact of rebirth and how rebirth is affected by kamma, or short of seeing, an intellectual consideration of the 'likelyhood' or 'probability' of rebirth, and how, logically, it would be affected by kamma.
If you do not 'see' rebirth, and you wish to at least see the rationality of belief in rebirth, start by asking yourself if you really believe your life is going to end at the death of your body. If you are honest with yourself you will see that no matter how much you are told differently, you believe you will live forever.
Look at your behavior. It is slow to change, as though you had 'all the time in the world.' Take a look! You act as though you are going to live forever. There is hardly any effort there to make every minute count as would be the logical thing to do if there were only this one life.
But deeper than that, think about consciousness. The study of psychology has focused on the phenomena as a matter of it's curious appearance in living beings. Consciousness as a physical phenomena is otherwise totally ignored by modern science. That is not the case with Buddhism. Consider that while you have been taught and can easily see that there are such things in the world, independent of yourself, that are 'solid', 'liquid', have heat and motion, there is also this thing there called 'consciousness.' In this system, that is an attribute of the world. Impersonal. External to the self. It attaches to or arises upon the conjunction of a will to live projected onto named shapes.
You can test this. Sit still. In a short time you will decide to do something and get up and do it. What has happened? Will to be has attached itself to named shapes and consciousness of named-shapes has arisen.

Where will to be has attached itself to named shapes and consciousness of named-shapes has arisen, the results of previous deeds are given passageways to manifestation in that 'circumstance'. What is largely out of your control is the precise named shapes that are the result of your intentional actions. That is the danger. Stuff coming back to you in ways you can't control. The only escape is to make sure nothing you intend to do is anything you would not like to experience, the burning off of old bad kamma by understanding, patient acceptance, and non-reaction to consequences out of your control, and the establishment by your intentions of such a mass of deeds done with good intentions that whatever bad thing may return is experienced as insignificant. What is required for that is thinking in ethical terms. What is required for that is a system of ethics based on kamma. That is what you get in this system.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

Next ask yourself if, at the time of death, you will have had enough of 'doing'.

This is enough to say that there is a 'likelihood', 'probability', 'possibility' of rebirth.

That is enough to give you a basis for understanding that that rebirth will be in accordance with your intents.

That will be enough for you to have concern about those intents.

That is the concern with ethical conduct as a matter of kamma.

That is the point of the Dhamma: To educate you, to clarify your thinking concerning your intents as they relate to ethical behavior and kamma.

The resistance to these ideas is coming from a resistance to the idea of morality as being imposed on one from the outside. It has been seen that morality has been imposed on the people by those in power for the personal benefit of those in power. The danger is that in giving up ethical behavior for the sake of self-indulgence one becomes addicted to self-indulgence and ethical behavior then appears to be in conflict with one's own interests. This must be overcome through clearly perceiving the danger and taking deliberate action.

Here you will find the tools you need to help you do that.

Here you find the idea of kamma and ethical conduct in its pure state, a matter of personal welfare having nothing to do with anyone but yourself. Deliberately adopting ethical behavior as described here as a matter of trial and error will in a very short time break the hold of self-indulgence and allow real vision of the freedom from the dangers of fearful hate-making.
[AN 5.175] The Outcast, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Five things which result in a lay follower to be dispised by other lay followers, and five things which result in his being cherished by other lay followers.
It should be noted that this sutta is directed to lay followers, not, as Hare, to laymen in general. Without keeping that in mind the last item, which deals with whether or not a person seeks 'outside' for recipients of gifts is unclear. Then, making it clear with '(the Order)' bracked to indicate 'implied', the statement, as applied to any layman, becomes untrue.
[AN 5.176] Zest, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha and Sariputta team up to teach Anathapindika and his retinue of 500 lay disciples the advantages of seclusion.
This sutta is interesting in that it points to the key factor that identifies the first jhāna: the appreciation (pīti) or enjoyment or zest for solitude. Bhikkhu Thanissaro has translated (pīti) as 'rapture'. This is not technically an incorrect translation in that the term covers a spectrum of meanings from 'mild interest' through 'excitement, entheusiasm, zest, love, passionate interest and 'rapture.' However as this is an instruction being given to laymen, and apparently being given to them for the first time, to suggest that such should 'from time to time' just, snap-fingers, enter rapture over being in solitude is not realistic and is unlikely to have been the intent. The practice of this system is going to be the most difficult thing anyone has ever attempted, there is no good served by making it appear more difficult than it is.
[AN 5.178] Rāja Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Rajahs, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha teaches the value of ethical conduct by asking the bhikkhus if they had ever heard of or seen the punishment of persons who had given up unethical conduct being punished because of their having given up unethical conduct. Then he asks if they had ever heard of or seen the punishment of persons who had engaged in unethical conduct being puhished because of their having engaged in unethical conduct.
This sutta is valuable because it throws some light on what is meant by the five basic rules of ethical conduct. For example, the harm of lying is shown to be a matter of the lie having caused material damage. There is considerable controversy concerning the meaning of the prohibition of 'drinks fermented and distilled'. This is clearly alcohols, but others today, concerned with 'the drug problem' argue that the drug which they are particularly against should be included. Here we see that the important factor to consider is not the substance but the behavior of one using the substance. If, under the influence of such and such a thing, one kills, steals, lies, or engages in misconduct in the pursuit of pleasure, then that thing should be given up. Probably we should include 'in the pursuit of obtaining, where it is illegal' — for some drugs, like heroin, inspire such fear of withdrawl that where the drug is not freely available the addict will engage in unethical behavior that is not evident when the drug is easily available — witness the 6% of Medical Doctors addicted to morphine whose behavior, because their drug of choice is easily available to them, is exemplary. From the Buddhist perspective this choice of behaviors, these 'rules' are a personal matter, 'good advice', not a matter of judging others or making laws.
Note that this advice is being directed to laymen. It is here a matter of living while evading the gross danger of worldly punishment. It does not yet reach up to the advantages of ethical conduct in avoiding rebirth in disagreeable states, avoiding unpleasant company, securing solitude, entering the jhānas, or attaining liberation. Anyone, whatever their beliefs, ought to be able to see the sense of these rules.
[AN 5.179] The Home-Man, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes the qualifications which if found in one by one's self, one, one's self may say of one's self that one has attained Streamwinning, is no longer subject to birth in any sub-human state and is destined to attain Nibbāna.
[AN 5.180] Gavesin, the Seeker, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha tells a tail of the old times of Gavisen, the lay disciple of Kassapa Buddha whose constant struggle to surpass his 500 followers and their constant struggle to keep even with him lead to their all becoming arahants.
[AN 5.181] Āraññaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Forest-Gone, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha enumerates five motives people have for living the forest life.
[AN 5.182] Paṃsukūlika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Rag-Clad, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha enumerates five motives people have for wearing dust-pile rags.
That is, robes made of rags found in dumps and charnal grounds and cleaned, dyed and stitched together. See: Make a Rag-robe.
[AN 5.183a] Paṃsukūlika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Alms-Round Only Men, in the manner of the E.M. Hare translations of the first sutta in this Chapter.
This sutta is included only in the BJT Pali. To retain the PTS numbering of the Pali this is given the number '183a.'
The Buddha enumerates five motives people have for practicing the begging-round only practice.
That is not accepting food from a community kitchen, gathered for a group meal, accepting invitations, and so forth.
[AN 5.183] Rukkhamūlika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Tree-Root Sitters, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha enumerates five motives people have for taking up the practice of making their dwelling at the foot of a tree.
They dwell in-doors during the three months of the rainy season.
[AN 5.184] Sosānika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Graveyard Haunters, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha enumerates five motives people have for taking up the practice of living in a charnal ground.
[AN 5.185] Abbhokāsika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Open-Air Lodgers, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha enumerates five motives people have for taking up the practice of living under the open sky.
[AN 5.186] Nesajjika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
One-Place Sitters, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha enumerates five motives people have for taking up the practice of sleeping in the sitting posture.
Hare has mistranslated this. It is not that this person only sits in one place, but that he only sleeps in the sitting posture. Since he has abridged the entire sutta down to his title, I have unabridged it using 'sitting man' for what would have been his 'one-place sitting man'.
[AN 5.187] Yathāsanthatika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Any-Bed Men, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha enumerates five motives people have for taking up the practice of sleeping on whatever surface comes to hand.
[AN 5.188] Ekāsanika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Lone Sitters, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha enumerates five motives people have for taking up the practice of one-sitting men, or lone-sitting men.
Hare has 'lone sitter'; Bhk. Bodhi has 'one-session-practice' and defines it as being one who eats his food in one sitting, when he gets up the meal is finished; P.E.D. has 'one who keeps to himself'. The Pe Maung Tin translation of the Visuddhimagga would favor Bhk. Bodhi's understanding. Both of these are recommended practices that are the hallmarks of extra effort.
[AN 5.189] Khalupacchābhattika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Never-After-Time-Eaters, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha enumerates five motives people have for taking up the practice of refusing food after one serving.
Bhk. Bodhi has 'later-food-refuser's practice' and defines it as being one who refuses any food that may be offered and made available after one has started one's meal. The Pe Maung Tin translation of the Visuddhimagga has this as the 'after-food refuser' and defines that as one who refuses any food after his first meal which leaves open the possibility of additional food being placed in the bowl during that first meal.
[AN 5.190] Pattapiṇḍika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
From-One-Bowl-Eaters, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha enumerates five motives people have for taking up the practice of eating only from the begging bowl.
This is as opposed to the practice at some tables of communal dishes, extra dishes for liquids, etc.
The thing to be kept in mind about all these practices is that the practice itself does nothing. They can, as these suttas illustrate, lead in precisely the wrong direction. The idea is that by the adoption of these practices as training tools one accustoms one's self to wanting little and one has the opportunity to experience the value of that. Upon experiencing that value the habit will thereafter be retained just simply because of that value.
[AN 5.191] Soṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Dog Simile, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes five noble behaviors that in the old days characterized both Brahmans and dogs but at a later time were to be found only in dogs.
Besides being a forceful way to encourage brahmans to reform their behavior, this sutta teaches one aspect of the art of 'seeing' and is also an example of what it means to be mindful of the appearance and disappearance of things.
[AN 5.192] Doṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Brāhman Doṇa, the E.M. Hare translation.
Brahman Dona comes to Gotama intending to criticize him for not rising up for Brahmins and is given an education as to various sorts of Brahmins.
In various places in the Suttas, brahmins approach Gotama telling him that they have heard that he does not rise up for elder brahmins. They, being old brahmins, see that he does not rise up for them, criticize him for his lack of courtesy and are usually given a lecture on what constitutes an 'elder' or the person who should be shown such veneration. That is, their criticism is answered directly. Here Dona, who is apparently not an old brahman, but simply brahmin born and educated, observes that Gotama does not rise up for him and concludes that what he has heard is correct and launches into his criticism. But here Gotama's response is very subtle. He speaks to Dona of the doctrines laid out by Dona's own authorities concering what constitutes brahmin worthy of veneration. Dona recognizes that he does not fit the description of the worthy sorts of Brahmins and he is so impressed with Gotama's subtlty and knowledge that he is converted. Another wonderful example of Gotama's skill as a teacher.
A very interesting fact revealed in this sutta is that the seer's of old mentioned by Gotama were apparently fully cognizant of all four jhānas in precisely the terms found in the suttas. There is also found in this sutta two statements which will strike the modern reader as belief in superstition: The statement that having intercourse with a pregnant woman will 'foul' the child; and having intercourse with a woman giving suck will in some way mess up the milk. In order to cut off the knee-jerk reaction likly on the part of some: read carefully: these statements are not of Gotama's beliefs, but of the seer's of old and the Brahmins of Gotama's time. On the other hand this would be no easy thing to prove one way or the other, and the fact these beliefs are now held to be false seems to me to be just as doubtful a position as to hold that they are true. Of course the one view serves those greatly attached to indulging in sense-pleasures and the other serves to help control that appetite, but I suppose that had nothing to do with the change in point of view.
[AN 5.193] Saŋgārava Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Brāhman Sangārava, the E.M. Hare translation.
Brahman Sangarava asks Gotama why it is that sometimes suttas are easily recollected and sometimes not. The Buddha explains that when the mind is clouded over with lust, anger, sloth, fear and doubt, things cannot easily be remembered, but when the mind is clear of lust, anger, sloth, fear and doubt things are easily remembered.
An important sutta because it gives similes for the Nivaranas (the diversions, hindrances) which should clear up any doubts as to their translations. There is also there a footnote which gives the methods for overcoming the diversions per the commentary.
[AN 5.194] Kāraṇapāli Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Brāhman Kāraṇapālin, the E.M. Hare translation.
Brahman Pingiyanin praises Gotama in such glowing terms that he converts Brahman Karanapalin.
The value to us of this sutta is that it eloquantly illustrates what it means to recognize what is well said when one hears it.
[AN 5.195] Piŋgiyānī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Brāhman Piŋgiyānin, the E.M. Hare translation.
Brahman Pingiyanin sings the praises of Gotama in verses upon seeing how he outshone the brilliance of an array of Licchavis dressed in all their finery.
Identical with AN 5.143 but with a different introductory story.
[AN 5.196] Dreams, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Before his awakening, Gotama has five dreams revealing the future: that he would become the Awakened One, that he would see and know and establish the Eight-Dimensional High Way, that he would bring many lay persons to refuge in the Dhamma, that he will bring people of all colors and status from the four courners of the world to complete awakening, and that he would receive the essentials without attachment.
[AN 5.197] Vassantarāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Rains, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five reasons for draught not seen with the eye.||
Hare has translated 'cakkhu,' the eye, here as 'seers' and has by that completely reversed the meaning of this sutta for surely it is by being a 'seer' that Gotama has seen what he is revealing in this sutta. This is another sutta with ideas similar to those found in AN 4.70 which will be dismissed without thought by most people. First, examining what is said in the sutta closely one can see that the first three explanations are now found in our science as unusual solar activity, the jet-stream, and water-spouts. The ideas that the rain-cloud gods being lazy and that men not following Dhamma are also reasons for drought are more difficult to explain, but I suggest that the prudent course is to allow for the possibility that there are things in this world that are beyond the knowledge of modern science. Somehow during the period of great re-thinking that was going on around 1600-1800 everything that came even close to the idea of superstition, with the exception of what was found in the Bible, was dismissed outright, with scorn and prejudice such that even venturing to suggest that there were things in this world which did not yield to 'scientific method' was a career-ender ... sometimes at the stake with a fire burning under one's feet, or on the rack with a kindly gentleman, with only the salvation of one's soul in mind, urging one to come to reason. The whole world is energy and all energy is inter-connected. That a deviation in the behavior of one sort of energy, say, human behavior/consciousness, would have an effect on other sorts of energy seems to be entirely within the realm of possibility to my eye. For those unable to accept even these arguments and the suggested possibilities, and yet who do not dismiss the Buddha entirely, the suggestion is, in stead of outright rejecting this sutta, simply put it to one side as a matter of personal doubt. At a later time you may come to a reconsideration.
[AN 5.198] The Word, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and Olds translation.
Five things that characterize what is well said.
This is so important in recognizing true Dhamma from false, distinguishing a speaker who understands what he is saying from one who does not understand, and in dealing intelligently with people during an ordinary conversation. Our biases tend to override our ears. Life is much more interesting and informative when we are able to listen and recognize what is well said as well said and what is not well said as not well said.
This is the thing: Both the con man and and the false prophet and the one who speaks truth say the same things. The con-man and the false prophet say the same things as the one who speaks truth because they recognize that those things exert a very powrful influence over the listener. It is because the con man or false prophet says the same things that the man who speaks the truth says, but says them to a person who is not able to distinguish what is well said from what is not, that the con man profits, that the false prophet cons a following and leads them to their doom. To automatically dismiss something which one has heard a million con men say, just because the words are the same (Trust me! This is for your own good!), is to guarantee that you will miss the time when it is said by the one who speaks the truth. Keeping in mind the five things said in this sutta about what is well said you will be easily able to distinguish between the true and false even when both consist of the same words. Listening with this sort of understanding is the way to allow in new knowledge and the only way we can think that our responses might also be well said.
We fortunately have multiple translations of this short sutta: a good one to compare translation with translation and with the Pali. Five words to understand. Not too much.
[AN 5.199] The Family, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha informs the bhikkhus about five ways in which when virtuous bhikkhus visit householders those householders have an opportunity to make great good kamma.
A good sutta for householders to listen to as well.
[AN 5.200] The Escape, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches a method for escape from a heart of lust, anger, cruelty, and obsession with shape and individuality.
This is a sutta that deals with a method we come across here and there but not very often: the idea of escaping one set of ideas by intentionally focusing on another set. Bhk Thanissaro has done a translation which is more readable than Hare's but which does not forcefully make the point that it is switching from one set of ideas to another set of ideas that is the way to 'set right' the heart. Bhk. Bodhi has also missed this point apparently misunderstanding the Commentary. One departs thoughts of lust by placing the mind on thoughts of giving up. It is not that one has thoughts of lust that do not satisfy and one has thoughts of giving up that do satisfy and when his mind departs from lust it is freed; it is noticing that when one has thoughts of lust they do not satisfy and when one has thoughts of giving up they satisfy and when thoughts of lust arise one escapes them by departing from the thoughts of lust by focusing on the thoughts of giving up.
[AN 5.202] On Hearing Dhamma, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Five advantages from hearing Dhamma.
[AN 5.203] Ājānīya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Thoroughbred, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five characteristics that make a horse worthy of a king that are the same characteristics that make a bhikkhu worthy of offerings.
[AN 5.204] Bala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Powers, the E.M. Hare translation.
Lists the five Powers, (balani).
Similar to AN 5.1, except there they are called 'learner's powers'.
[AN 5.207] Yāgu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Gruel, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five advantages of rice porrage (gruel).
What is this doing here? This is a system which teaches the best of every aspect of living. Remember the first lesson in life is understanding 'ahara' food, including solid food. Understanding food is one of the paths to liberation. Contentment with little could in the Buddha's time, come down to being happy just to receive a little rice gruel in the bowl. Being able to live happily on a bowl of porrage could save your life during hard times.
[AN 5.208] The Tooth-Stick, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
Also New relating to this sutta:
Vinaya Pitaka, Culla-Vagga 5.31: the Rhys Davids, Oldenberg translation; and
VP.CV. 5.31: The Horner translation.
Five advantages from using a tooth stick.
This subject came up concerning bad breath among the bhikkhus. Rhys Davids picks a nit, but an interesting one noting that this should not be translated 'toothbrush' and explaining the use of the toothstick. I wonder how healthy the toothbrush really is. It sits around damp and even if it is carefully cleaned itself after brushing it still tends to retain food particles. And then there is the question of wear and tear on the teeth from daily brushings for decade upon decade.
[AN 5.210] The Forgetful in Mindfulness, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
The disadvantages of going to sleep forgetful of mindfulness versus the advantages of going to sleep with mindfulness well set up.
Don Juan deals with sleep and dreaming from within, making the effort of his practice becoming conscious from within the dream; the Buddhist practice is to bring sleep down to the absolute minimum and to completely ignore dreaming with the result that waking life assumes at will the plasticity of dreams and in sleep one remains fully conscious. In the middle is the exercise of command over the sleeping mind through pre-sleep programming. "Let me retain full consciousness while sleeping and dreaming." "Let there be no erotic content, anxiety-provoking content, or evil thoughts in my dreams." "Let me waken at the first appearance of erotic content ... ." etc.
[AN 5.211] Akkosaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Abuse, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five bad outcomes to be expected from abusing those who have undertaken the holy life.
This is directed at bhikkhus. It definately not a good thing for anyone to abuse the bhikkhus, but it is particularly dangerous for bhikkhus to do so because they are held to a higher standard.
[AN 5.212] Bhaṇḍanakāraka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Strife, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five outcomes to be expected for a bhikkhu who causes srife within the Sangha.
[AN 5.213] Sīla Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Morals, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages of unethical conduct and five advantages of ethical conduct.
[AN 5.214] Bahubhāṇi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
A Man Full of Talk, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages of a big talker, five advantages of being a man of few words.
[AN 5.215] Paṭhama Akkhanti Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Impatience a, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages of being impatient, five advantages of being patient.
[AN 5.216] Dutiya Akkhanti Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Impatience b, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages of being impatient, five advantages of being patient.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 5.218] Dutiya Apāsādika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Troubled Mind (b), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages of the troubled mind; five advantages of the untroubled mind. It's like a crying baby, you do not first ask what the reasons are that it is crying, you first do what will calm it down, then you pretty much know what is the reason for it's crying and can take action. First still, calm, tranquillize the heart creating impassivity, that will clear the view and you will know what is needed to be done.
[AN 5.219] Aggi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fire, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages of the campfire.
Hare translates tiracchānakathāas 'tales of animals are told', but this is usually translated 'animal talk' meaning talk about just about anything other than Dhamma:
Talk of kings and ministers of state,
robbers and thieves,
the horrors of war and battle;
talk of food, drink, clothes, beds, garlands and perfumes;
talk of cities, towns, villages,
relationships, men and women,
heroes and villains;
gossip at the corner,
over the back fence,
or at the well
talk of those alive or of those who are departed;
talk comparing differences between this and that;
speculative talk about creation,
existence or non-existence.
[AN 5.221] Paṭhama Dīghacārika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Wandering Afield (a), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages from lengthy random meanderings, five advantages from purposeful travel.
[AN 5.222] Dutiya Dīghacārika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Wandering Afield (b), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages from lengthy random meanderings, five advantages from purposeful travel.
A variation on the previous.
[AN 5.223] Paṭhama Atinivāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Staying Too Long (a), the E.M. Hare translation.
The problems associated with living in the same place for a long time versus the advantages of spending equal amounts of time in various places.
Really good advice if you have any ambition to achieve non-returning or arahantship.
[AN 5.224] Dutiya Atinivāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Staying Too Long (b), the E.M. Hare translation.
The problems associated with living in the same place for a long time versus the advantages of spending equal amounts of time in various places.
A variation of the previous but aimed primarily at the specific problems of the bhikkhu.
[AN 5.225] Paṭhama Kulūpaga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Visitor of Families (a), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages for a bhikkhu that visits with families.
Hare has rendered his translation understanding that the bhikkhu is offending the family by various things; Bhk. Bodhi seems to have the more reasonable translation indicating that these are offences against the rules for bhikkhus.
The offense of teaching Dhamma to women in more than five or six 'vācāhi' [voicings] is interesting. First of all, Bhk. Bodhi translates 'vācāhi' as sentences whereas Hare has 'words'. Elsewhere I recall this being translated 'verses'. Neither translator explains or cites the Vinaya. The idea is, I believe, found in the phenomena we can observe at talks where the enrapturing power of eloquent speech acts as an aphrodisiac with certain women and where, consequently, the bhikkhu without great self-control might find himself in danger, or, as Hare might understand it, greatly upset a husband or father. The Buddha himself was exempt from the rule and the bhikkhus regularly taught the bhikkhunis, so perhaps this rule applies only to bhikkhus speaking to lay women. I wonder how this rule applies today when a bhikkhu speaks to a group that may include persons of both sexes.
[AN 5.226] Dutiya Kulūpaga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Visitor of Families (b), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages for a bhikkhu that visits with families.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 5.227] Dutiya Kulūpaga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Visitor of Families (b), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five worries steming from wealth and five things that make for gladness steming from wealth.
Another one for the wealth-management anthology.
[AN 5.228] Ussūrabhatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Meal, the E.M. Hare translation.
The advantages of serving the main meal before the noon hour has passed versus the disadvantages of serving it at a later time.
Ussūrabhatte. After the sun is fully risen, that is, noon to one o'clock. No food after the time when the shadow cast by an upright stick in India is two-finger-widths past where it makes no shadow (noon). In the U.S. that is called 'The Noon Hour' or 'Lunch Time.' At one time here, when farming still dominated the culture, it was the main meal of the day and was called 'dinner'. The evening meal was called 'supper' and ususually consisted of soup and bread or perhaps some cold meat or cheese and the rule for good health was 'breakfast like a king, dine like a farmer, sup like a pauper'. In my grandmother's day and in the first part of my mother's day (@1850 - 1940), in the U.S. in the upper classes or in those who immitated the English upper classes with adaptation for the working husband, the first meal was often very heavy, with porrage with butter and milk and sugar, bacon and eggs and chops and toast, and coffee; there was Elevenzes, a tea-break at 11:00 with cheese, small sandwitches, pastries and tea; Lunch which was soup and a sandwitch and fruit; Afternoon tea at 4:00PM, tea and crackers and cheese; and Dinner, a heavy meal of one or several courses of meat, potatoes, deserts, cheese, fruit, wines or beer, coffee and cigars; a cup of chocolate before bedtime; and a 'Midnight Snack' munching on whatever looked good in the 'ice-box' ... and wonder at indigestion, constipation, nightmares and bed-wetting not to mention the health problems resulting from obesity. Celebratory feasts (Thanksgiving, Christmas) were usually multi-course affairs held around 3:00 in the afternoon and were called 'Dinner'. Today [Friday, September 12, 2014 12:23 PM] breakfast, except on weekends, is a bagle or pastry and coffee, lunch and dinner are sometimes light and sometimes heavy.
[AN 5.229-230] The Snake (a) and (b), the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
Two suttas in which the Buddha likens the evil qualities of the black snake to the evil qualities of women.
Seems like a fair comparison to me.
[AN 5.231] Abhāvanīya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
In Residence, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which are not ways a bhikkhu in residence should live, and five ways in which he should live.
Hare translates 'a-bhāvanīyo hoti' as 'what he ought to become' leading to the construction: 'By following x he becomes what he ought not to become. What X? He becomes accomplished in neither this nor that.' What did he follow? One knows what it means but it is very awkwardly translated.
Bhk. Bodhi makes more sense with 'possessing x he is not to be esteemed' which makes very free with the Pali but which we might justify understanding it to mean 'possessing this X he ought not to be considered becoming'. We really need to dip into slang: 'He be not 'oughta-become-a' or 'ish'.
[AN 5.232] Piya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Pious, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which a bhikkhu in residence should cultivate to be pleasing and gain respect and the reputation of being pious.
[AN 5.233] Sobhana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Grace, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things possessed of which a bhikkhu graces his residence.
[AN 5.234] Bahūpakāra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Of Great Service, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things a bhikkhu should do if he wishes to be known as of great service to his residence.
[AN 5.235] Anukampaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Taking Pity, the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things a bhikkhu does that reflect his kindly feelings towards householders.
[AN 5.236] Paṭhama Avaṇṇāraha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Reward of Dispraise, the E.M. Hare translation.
Following five things the bhikkhu is cast into Hell; following the five opposite things he is cast into Heavon.
[AN 5.237] Dutiya Avaṇṇāraha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Stinginess (a), the E.M. Hare translation.
Following five things the bhikkhu is cast into Hell; following the five opposite things he is cast into Heavon.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 5.238] Tatiya Avaṇṇāraha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Stinginess (b), the E.M. Hare translation.
Following five things the bhikkhu is cast into Hell; following the five opposite things he is cast into Heavon.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 5.239] Paṭhama Cchariya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Stinginess (c), the E.M. Hare translation.
Following five things the bhikkhu is cast into Hell; following the five opposite things he is cast into Heavon.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 5.240] Dutiya Cchariya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Stinginess (d), the E.M. Hare translation.
Following five things the bhikkhu is cast into Hell; following the five opposite things he is cast into Heavon.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 5.242] Kāya-Duccarita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
One Who Has Walked in Evil (deed), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages to be looked for by one who has carried on badly in body; five advantages to be looked for by one who has carried on well in body.
[AN 5.243] Vacī-Duccarita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
One Who Has Walked in Evil (word), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages to be looked for by one who has carried on badly in speech; five advantages to be looked for by one who has carried on well in speech.
[AN 5.244] Mano-Duccarita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
One Who Has Walked in Evil (thought), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages to be looked for by one who has carried on badly in mind; five advantages to be looked for by one who has carried on well in mind.
[AN 5.245] Duccarita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
One Who Has Walked in Evil (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages to be looked for by one who has carried on badly; five advantages to be looked for by one who has carried on well.
A variation on AN 5.241.
[AN 5.246] Kāya-Duccarita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
One Who Has Walked in Evil (deed), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages to be looked for by one who has carried on badly in body; five advantages to be looked for by one who has carried on well in body.
A variation on AN 5.242.
[AN 5.247] Vacī-Duccarita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
One Who Has Walked in Evil (word), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages to be looked for by one who has carried on badly in speech; five advantages to be looked for by one who has carried on well in speech.
A variation on AN 5.243.
[AN 5.248] Mano-Duccarita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
One Who Has Walked in Evil (thought), the E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages to be looked for by one who has carried on badly in mind; five advantages to be looked for by one who has carried on well in mind.
A variation on AN 5.244.
[AN 5.249] Sīvathikā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Cemetery, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha compares the filth, stench, fearfulness, haunted and sorrow-making aspects of the cemetery to qualities found in a person of evil ways of body, speech and mind.
[AN 5.250] Puggala-Ppasāda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Devotion to One Person, the E.M. Hare translation.
The disadvantages of placing one's faith in an individual.
[AN 5.251] Upasampādetabba Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Acceptance, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes the situation where full acceptance should be granted whether or not the bhikkhu has undergone a period of training.
This tells us much about the state of the several persons accepted into the order directly from the state of being a layman or of being a wanderer, or of one belonging to another sect.
[AN 5.252] Nissaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Protection, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes the qualifications that should be found in one who assigns apprentices.
Hare's 'Protection' is Nissaya. Bhk. Bodhi translates 'dependence' and defines: A procedure prescribed in the Vinaya by which a junior bhikkhu apprentices himself to a qualified senior bhikkhu, normally his preceptor or teacher.
[AN 5.253] Sāmaṇera Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Service, the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes the qualifications that should be possessed by a bhikkhu who may have a novice attendant.
[AN 5.254] Stinginess, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhkkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha enumerates five forms of miserliness.
[AN 5.255] The Godly Life, the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhkkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha enumerates five forms of miserliness which must be given up to live the holy life.
[AN 5.256] Musing (first), the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhkkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha enumerates five forms of miserliness which must be given up to enter the first jhāna.
[AN 5.257] Musing (second), the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhkkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha enumerates five forms of miserliness which must be given up to enter the second jhāna.
[AN 5.258] Musing (third), the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhkkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha enumerates five forms of miserliness which must be given up to enter the third jhāna.
[AN 5.259] Musing (fourth), the E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhkkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha enumerates five forms of miserliness which must be given up to enter the fourth jhāna.
[AN 5.260] Sotāpattiphalaṃ Suttaṃ the Pali,
Untitled (Streamwinning), the E.M. Hare translation.
Stinginess 7 The Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Pali of this and the next three suttas were previously abridged and included as part of the preceding sutta.
The Buddha enumerates five forms of miserliness which must be given up to realize the fruit of Streamwinning.
[AN 5.261] Sakadāgamiphalaṃ Suttaṃ the Pali,
Untitled (Once-returning), the E.M. Hare translation.
Stinginess 8 The Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha enumerates five forms of miserliness which must be given up to realize the fruit of Once-returning.
[AN 5.262] Anāgāmiphalaṃ Suttaṃ the Pali,
Untitled (Non-returning), the E.M. Hare translation.
Stinginess 9 The Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha enumerates five forms of miserliness which must be given up to realize the fruit of Non-returning.
[AN 5.263] Arahattaphalaṃ Suttaṃ the Pali,
Untitled (Arahantship), the E.M. Hare translation.
Stinginess 10 The Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha enumerates five forms of miserliness which must be given up to realize the fruit of Arahantship.
[AN 5.264-271]
[Ī 264] Apara-Paṭhamajjhāna Suttaṃ the Pali
Another on Musing (first), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 265] Apara-Dutiyajjhāna Suttaṃ the Pali
Another on Musing (second), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 266] Apara-Tatiyajjhāna Suttaṃ the Pali
Another on Musing (third), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 267] Apara-Catutthajjhāna Suttaṃ the Pali
Another on Musing (fourth), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 268] Apara-Sotāpattiphalaṃ Suttaṃ the Pali
Another Untitled (The Fruit of Streamwinning), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 269] Apara-Sakadāgāmiphalaṃ Suttaṃ the Pali
Another Untitled (The Fruit of Once-returning), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 270] Apara-Anāgāmiphalaṃ Suttaṃ the Pali
Another Untitled (The Fruit of Non-returning), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 271] Apara-Arahattaṃ Suttaṃ the Pali
Another Untitled (Arahantship), the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. These are identical with the previous eight with one change. Except for one other change. Who see it?
All the suttas from Ī 254 to Ī 271 should be read in one sitting, or first, Ī 254, then Ī 255, then Ī 256, then Ī 257-263, then ĪĪ 264-271. We're getting towards the end of the Fives here and they want to build you up to handling one of those monster wheel suttas at the end.
The BJT pali has these arranged such that the suttas on the jhanas are followed by the 'anothers' on the jhanas and the suttas on the paths are followed by the 'anothers' on the paths, and it ends the Upasampada-Vagga here. I have followed the PTS arrangement which is also followed by Bhk. Bodhi. Bhk. Bodhi's version calls what follows to the end of the Fives "Discourses Extra to the Chapter, and divides the materials into three 'Repetition Series''; the PTS just continues as if all the remaining suttas belonged to the Upasampada-Vagga. I have inserted the headings used by Bhk. Bodhi into Hare's translation but include the remaining suttas in the Upasampada-Vagga.
[AN 5.272-277]
[Ī 272] Bhattuddesaka Suttaṃ the Pali
The Food-Steward (1), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 273] Dutiya Bhattuddesaka Suttaṃ the Pali
The Food-Steward (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 274] Tatiya Bhattuddesaka Suttaṃ the Pali
The Food-Steward (3), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 275] Catuttha Bhattuddesaka Suttaṃ the Pali
The Food-Steward (4), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 276] Pañcama Bhattuddesaka Suttaṃ the Pali
The Food-Steward (5), the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. Five things which characterize a bad food steward and five things which characterize a good food steward.
Hare has misnumbered this section. There is no #277. I have retained the numbering to eliminate possible confusion with references. Bhk. Bodhi has this whole section as one sutta, #272 which is probably the way it was originally intended. The Sutta numbering from here will not agree with the Wisdom Publications edition to the end of the Fives. Consult the Index to determine corresponding suttas.
[AN 5.278-282]
[Ī 278] Senāsana-paññāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Allots Quarters (1), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 279] Dutiya Senāsana-paññāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Allots Quarters (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 280] Tatiya Senāsana-paññāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Allots Quarters (3), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 281] Catuttha Senāsana-paññāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Allots Quarters (4), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 282] Pañcama Senāsana-paññāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Allots Quarters (5), the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. Five things which characterize an incompetant alloter of quarters and five things which characterize a competant alloter of quarters.
[AN 5.283-287]
[Ī 283] Senāsanaggāhāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Receives Quarters (1), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 284] Dutiya Senāsanaggāhāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Receives Quarters (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 285] Tatiya Senāsanaggāhāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Receives Quarters (3), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 286] Catuttha Senāsanaggāhāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Receives Quarters (4), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 287] Pañcama Senāsanaggāhāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Receives Quarters (5), the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. The PTS Pali omits this group, but Hare has included it in his translation. It is included in the Bhk. Bodhi translation and in the Pali he uses.
Five things which characterize an incompetant receiver of quarters and five things which characterize a competant receiver of quarters.
Bhk. Bodhi and apparently also Bhk. Thanissaro question the meaning of this group as compared to the previous. Hare has no explanation for his translation which does not make sense unless he was thinking of lodgings as being received from the lay community ... so and so many bhikkhus may reside in the kiln-shed of the layman so-and-so.
[AN 5.288-292]
[Ī 288] Bhaṇḍāgāriko Suttaṃ the Pali
The Store-keeper (1), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 289] Dutiya Bhaṇḍāgāriko Suttaṃ the Pali
The Store-keeper (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 290] Tatiya Bhaṇḍāgāriko Suttaṃ the Pali
The Store-keeper (3), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 291] Catuttha Bhaṇḍāgāriko Suttaṃ the Pali
The Store-keeper (4), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 292] Pañcama Bhaṇḍāgāriko Suttaṃ the Pali
The Store-keeper (5), the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. Five things which characterize an incompetant stores-keeper and five things which characterize a competant stores-keeper.
[AN 5.293-297]
[Ī 293] Cīvarapaṭiggāhako Suttaṃ the Pali
The Robes-receiver (1), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 294] Dutiya Cīvarapaṭiggāhako Suttaṃ the Pali
The Robes-receiver (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 295] Tatiya Cīvarapaṭiggāhako Suttaṃ the Pali
The Robes-receiver (3), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 296] Catuttha Cīvarapaṭiggāhako Suttaṃ the Pali
The Robes-receiver (4), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 297] Pañcama Cīvarapaṭiggāhako Suttaṃ the Pali
The Robes-receiver (5), the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. Five things which characterize an incompetant robes-receiver and five things which characterize a competant robes-receiver.
[AN 5.298-302]
[Ī 298] Cīvarabhājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Robes (1), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 299] Dutiya Cīvarabhājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Robes (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 300] Tatiya Cīvarabhājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Robes (3), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 301] Catuttha Cīvarabhājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Robes (4), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 302] Pañcama Cīvarabhājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Robes (5), the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. Five things which characterize an incompetant robes-distributor and five things which characterize a competant robes-distributor.
[AN 5.303-307]
[Ī 303] Yāgubājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Gruel (1), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 304] Dutiya Yāgubājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Gruel (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 305] Tatiya Yāgubājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Gruel (3), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 306] Catuttha Yāgubājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Gruel (4), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 307] Pañcama Yāgubājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Gruel (5), the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. Five things which characterize an incompetant gruel-distributor and five things which characterize a competant gruel-distributor.
[AN 5.308-312]
[Ī 308] Phalabhājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Fruit (1), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 309] Dutiya Phalabhājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Fruit (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 310] Tatiya Phalabhājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Fruit (3), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 311] Catuttha Phalabhājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Fruit (4), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 312] Pañcama Phalabhājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Fruit (5), the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. Five things which characterize an incompetant fruit-distributor and five things which characterize a competant fruit-distributor.
[AN 5.313-317]
[Ī 313] Khajjakabhājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Food (1), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 314] Dutiya Khajjakabhājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Food (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 315] Tatiya Khajjakabhājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Food (3), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 316] Catuttha Khajjakabhājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Food (4), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 317] Pañcama Khajjakabhājako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Food (5), the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. Five things which characterize an incompetant other-edibles-distributor and five things which characterize a competant other-edibles-distributor.
Hare translates 'food' which is redundant with AN 5.272 (the distinction should probably be 'meals' vs. edibles or food, individual edible items); Bhk. Bodhi translates 'cakes' which likely proceeds from experience; but PED has: 'eatable, i. e. solid food'.
[AN 5.318-322]
[Ī 318] Appamattakavissajjako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Small Things (1), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 319] Dutiya Appamattakavissajjako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Small Things (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 320] Tatiya Appamattakavissajjako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Small Things (3), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 321] Catuttha Appamattakavissajjako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Small Things (4), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 322] Pañcama Appamattakavissajjako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Metes Out Small Things (5), the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. Five things which characterize an incompetant small-things-distributor and five things which characterize a competant small-things-distributor.
[AN 5.323-327]
[Ī 323] Sāṭiyagāhāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
The Receiver of Undergarments (1), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 324] Dutiya Sāṭiyagāhāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
The Receiver of Undergarments (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 325] Tatiya Sāṭiyagāhāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
The Receiver of Undergarments (3), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 326] Catuttha Sāṭiyagāhāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
The Receiver of Undergarments (4), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 327] Pañcama Sāṭiyagāhāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
The Receiver of Undergarments (5), the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. Five things which characterize an incompetant allocator of under-cloth and five things which characterize a competant allocator of under-cloth.
P.E.D. also has 'bathing-garment'; Bhk. Bodhi has 'allocator of Rains-cloth.' 'Allocator' fits better with the requirement of knowing what has been 'taken' (or allocated) from what has not been taken.
[AN 5.328-332]
[Ī 328] Pattaggāhāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
The Receiver of Bowls (1), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 329] Dutiya Pattaggāhāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
The Receiver of Bowls (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 330] Tatiya Pattaggāhāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
The Receiver of Bowls (3), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 331] Catuttha Pattaggāhāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
The Receiver of Bowls (4), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 332] Pañcama Pattaggāhāpako Suttaṃ the Pali
The Receiver of Bowls (5), the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. Five things which characterize an incompetant allocator of bowls and five things which characterize a competant allocator of bowls.
[AN 5.333-337]
[Ī 333] Ārāmikapesako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Looks after the Park-Keepers (1), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 334] Dutiya Ārāmikapesako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Looks after the Park-Keepers (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 335] Tatiya Ārāmikapesako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Looks after the Park-Keepers (3), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 336] Catuttha Ārāmikapesako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Looks after the Park-Keepers (4), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 337] Pañcama Ārāmikapesako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Looks after the Park-Keepers (5), the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. Five things which characterize an incompetant supervisor of park attendants and five things which characterize a competant supervisor of park attendants.
[AN 5.338-342]
[Ī 338] Sāmaṇerapesako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Looks after the the Novices (1), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 339] Dutiya Sāmaṇerapesako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Looks after the the Novices (2), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 340] Tatiya Sāmaṇerapesako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Looks after the the Novices (3), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 341] Catuttha Sāmaṇerapesako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Looks after the the Novices (4), the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 342] Pañcama Sāmaṇerapesako Suttaṃ the Pali
He Who Looks after the the Novices (5), the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. Five things which characterize an incompetant supervisor of the novices and five things which characterize a competant supervisor of the novices.
[AN 5.343-360]
[Ī 343]Bhikkhu Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Monk, the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 344]344. Bhikkhunī Suttaṃ the Pali,
Nun, the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 345]345. Sikkhamānā Suttaṃ the Pali,
Those in Training, the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 346]346. Sāmaṇera Suttaṃ the Pali,
Male Novice, the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 347]347. Sāmaṇerī Suttaṃ the Pali,
Female Novice, the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 348]348. Upāsaka Suttaṃ the Pali,
Male Lay Disciple, the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 349]349. Upāsikā Suttaṃ the Pali,
Female Lay Disciple, the E.M. Hare translation.
[There is no PTS #350]
[Ī 351]351. Ājivaka Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Ascetic, the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 352]352. Nigaṇṭha Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Jain, the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 353]353. Muṇḍasāvaka Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Shaveling, the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 354]354. Jaṭilaka Suttaṃ the Pali,
Him with Braided Hair, the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 355]355. Paribbājaka Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Wanderer, the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 356]356. Māgandika Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Follower of Magaṇḍa, the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 357]357. Tedaṇḍika Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Follower of the Sect of the Tripple Staff, the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 358]358. Āruddhaka Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Follower of the Unobstructed, the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 359]359. Gotamaka Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Follower of the Sect of Gotama, the E.M. Hare translation.
[Ī 360]360. Devadhammika Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Follower of Deva Rites, the E.M. Hare translation.
All in one file. Five behaviors and land one in Hell, five that land one in heaven. Hare has abridged nearly the whole of this sutta, including the initial pattern referencing Ī 145, but there, in the Pali, the third item is "Kāmesu micchācārī hoti" (and for the opposite "kāmesu micchācārā paṭivirato hoti" where as the Pali for this sutta has "abrahmacārī hoti," and "abrahmacariyā paṭivirato hoti". Hare translates "brahmacāriya" as "Godly life." This is the difference between 'misbehavior in pursuit of sense pleasures' versus 'not leading the holy life' or not 'behaving like God', or, as it is most frequently (though I believe erroneously) translated elsewhere 'being celebate'. There is a wide spectrum of religious sects included in this set of suttas and one is tempted to think that this pretty much includes anyone who follows these behaviors. But it must be born in mind that what would rule out any person of any belief would be to hold the doctrine '[What I believe} is the truth and everyone else is wrong.' You see? You cannot believe the truth of this statement concerning so wide a spectrum of beliefs if you believe only your view is correct so you cannot claim the safety that this sutta offers holding that belief.
[AN 5.361-410] Rāgā Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Passion (Repetition Series).
#361-365. Rāgassa Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#366-370. Rāgassa Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#371-375. Rāgassa Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#376-380. Rāgassa Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#381-385. Rāgassa Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#386-390. Rāgassa Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#391-395. Rāgassa Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#396-400. Rāgassa Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#401-405. Rāgassa Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#406-410. Rāgassa Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5
PTS: #361-365. Full Understanding of Passion 1-5,
#366-370. Comprehension of Passion 1-5
#371-375. Exhaustion of Passion 1-5
#376-380. Abandoning of Passion 1-5
#381-385. Destruction of Passion 1-5
#386-390. Decay of Passion 1-5
#391-395. Freedom from Passion 1-5
#396-400. Ending of Passion 1-5
#401-405. Quittance of Passion 1-5
#406-410. Renunciation of Passion 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged. The PTS translation has misnumbered the section as #s 361-400.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of passion. A mind-twistu.
[AN 5.411-460] Dosa Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Hatred (Repetition Series).
#411-415. Dosassa Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#416-420. Dosassa Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#421-425. Dosassa Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#426-430. Dosassa Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#431-435. Dosassa Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#436-445. Dosassa Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#441-445. Dosassa Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#446-450. Dosassa Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#451-455. Dosassa Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
#456-460. Dosassa Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5
PTS: #411-415. Full Understanding of Hatred 1-5,
#416-420. Comprehension of Hatred 1-5
#421-425. Exhaustion of Hatred 1-5
#426-430. Abandoning of Hatred 1-5
#431-435. Destruction of Hatred 1-5
#436-440. Decay of Hatred 1-5
#441-445. Freedom from Hatred 1-5
#446-450. Ending of Hatred 1-5
#451-455. Quittance of Hatred 1-5
#456-460. Renunciation of Hatred 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of hatred.
Below, to save needless work I am not linking every sutta to this page. The first link is to the index, the other two are to the first sutta in the file.
[AN 5.461-510] Moha Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Illusion (Repetition Series).
#461-510. Mohassa Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mohassa Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mohassa Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mohassa Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mohassa Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mohassa Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mohassa Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mohassa Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mohassa Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mohassa Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5

PTS: #461-510. Full Understanding of Illusion 1-5,
Comprehension of Illusion 1-5
Exhaustion of Illusion 1-5
Abandoning of Illusion 1-5
Destruction of Illusion 1-5
Decay of Illusion 1-5
Freedom from Illusion 1-5
Ending of Illusion 1-5
Quittance of Illusion 1-5
Renunciation of Illusion 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of illusion.
[AN 5.511-560] Kodha Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Anger (Repetition Series).
#511-560. Kodhassa Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Kodhassa Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Kodhassa Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Kodhassa Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Kodhassa Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Kodhassa Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Kodhassa Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Kodhassa Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Kodhassa Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Kodhassa Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5

PTS: #511-560. Full Understanding of Anger 1-5,
Comprehension of Anger 1-5
Exhaustion of Anger 1-5
Abandoning of Anger 1-5
Destruction of Anger 1-5
Decay of Anger 1-5
Freedom from Anger 1-5
Ending of Anger 1-5
Quittance of Anger 1-5
Renunciation of Anger 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of anger.
[AN 5.561-610] Upanāha Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Enmity (Repetition Series).
#561-610. Upanāhassa Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Upanāhassa Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Upanāhassa Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Upanāhassa Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Upanāhassa Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Upanāhassa Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Upanāhassa Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Upanāhassa Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Upanāhassa Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Upanāhassa Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5

PTS: #561-610. Full Understanding of Enmity 1-5,
Comprehension of Enmity 1-5
Exhaustion of Enmity 1-5
Abandoning of Enmity 1-5
Destruction of Enmity 1-5
Decay of Enmity 1-5
Freedom from Enmity 1-5
Ending of Enmity 1-5
Quittance of Enmity 1-5
Renunciation of Enmity 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of enmity.
[AN 5.611-660] Makkha Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Hypocrisy (Repetition Series).
#611-660. Makkhassa Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Makkhassa Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Makkhassa Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Makkhassa Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Makkhassa Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Makkhassa Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Makkhassa Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Makkhassa Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Makkhassa Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Makkhassa Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5

PTS: #611-660. Full Understanding of Hypocrisy 1-5,
Comprehension of Hypocrisy 1-5
Exhaustion of Hypocrisy 1-5
Abandoning of Hypocrisy 1-5
Destruction of Hypocrisy 1-5
Decay of Hypocrisy 1-5
Freedom from Hypocrisy 1-5
Ending of Hypocrisy 1-5
Quittance of Hypocrisy 1-5
Renunciation of Hypocrisy 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of hypocrisy.
[AN 5.661-710] Paḷāsa Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Malice (Repetition Series).
#661-710. Paḷāsassa Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Paḷāsassa Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Paḷāsassa Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Paḷāsassa Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Paḷāsassa Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Paḷāsassa Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Paḷāsassa Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Paḷāsassa Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Paḷāsassa Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Paḷāsassa Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5

PTS: #661-710. Full Understanding of Malice 1-5,
Comprehension of Malice 1-5
Exhaustion of Malice 1-5
Abandoning of Malice 1-5
Destruction of Malice 1-5
Decay of Malice 1-5
Freedom from Malice 1-5
Ending of Malice 1-5
Quittance of Malice 1-5
Renunciation of Malice 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of malice.
[AN 5.711-760] Issā Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Envy (Repetition Series).
#711-760. Issāya Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Issāya Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Issāya Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Issāya Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Issāya Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Issāya Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Issāya Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Issāya Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Issāya Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Issāya Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5

PTS: #711-760. Full Understanding of Envy 1-5,
Comprehension of Envy 1-5
Exhaustion of Envy 1-5
Abandoning of Envy 1-5
Destruction of Envy 1-5
Decay of Envy 1-5
Freedom from Envy 1-5
Ending of Envy 1-5
Quittance of Envy 1-5
Renunciation of Envy 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of envy.
[AN 5.761-810] Macchariya Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Avarice (Repetition Series).
#761-810. Macchariyassa Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Macchariyassa Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Macchariyassa Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Macchariyassa Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Macchariyassa Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Macchariyassa Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Macchariyassa Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Macchariyassa Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Macchariyassa Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Macchariyassa Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5

PTS: #761-810. Full Understanding of Avarice 1-5,
Comprehension of Avarice 1-5
Exhaustion of Avarice 1-5
Abandoning of Avarice 1-5
Destruction of Avarice 1-5
Decay of Avarice 1-5
Freedom from Avarice 1-5
Ending of Avarice 1-5
Quittance of Avarice 1-5
Renunciation of Avarice 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of avarice.
[AN 5.811-860] Māyā Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Deceit (Repetition Series).
#811-860. Māyāya Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Māyāya Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Māyāya Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Māyāya Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Māyāya Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Māyāya Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Māyāya Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Māyāya Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Māyāya Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Māyāya Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5

PTS: #811-860. Full Understanding of Deceit 1-5,
Comprehension of Deceit 1-5
Exhaustion of Deceit 1-5
Abandoning of Deceit 1-5
Destruction of Deceit 1-5
Decay of Deceit 1-5
Freedom from Deceit 1-5
Ending of Deceit 1-5
Quittance of Deceit 1-5
Renunciation of Deceit 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of deceit.
[AN 5.861-910] Sāṭheyya Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Craftiness (Repetition Series).
#861-910. Sāṭheyyassa Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sāṭheyyassa Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sāṭheyyassa Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sāṭheyyassa Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sāṭheyyassa Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sāṭheyyassa Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sāṭheyyassa Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sāṭheyyassa Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sāṭheyyassa Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sāṭheyyassa Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5

PTS: #861-910. Full Understanding of Craftiness 1-5,
Comprehension of Craftiness 1-5
Exhaustion of Craftiness 1-5
Abandoning of Craftiness 1-5
Destruction of Craftiness 1-5
Decay of Craftiness 1-5
Freedom from Craftiness 1-5
Ending of Craftiness 1-5
Quittance of Craftiness 1-5
Renunciation of Craftiness 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of craftiness.
[AN 5.911-960] Thambha Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Obstinacy (Repetition Series).
#911-960. Thambhassa Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Thambhassa Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Thambhassa Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Thambhassa Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Thambhassa Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Thambhassa Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Thambhassa Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Thambhassa Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Thambhassa Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Thambhassa Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5

PTS: #911-960. Full Understanding of Obstinacy 1-5,
Comprehension of Obstinacy 1-5
Exhaustion of Obstinacy 1-5
Abandoning of Obstinacy 1-5
Destruction of Obstinacy 1-5
Decay of Obstinacy 1-5
Freedom from Obstinacy 1-5
Ending of Obstinacy 1-5
Quittance of Obstinacy 1-5
Renunciation of Obstinacy 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of obstinacy.
[AN 5.961-1010] Sārambha Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Impetuosity (Repetition Series).
#961-1010. Sārambhassa Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sārambhassa Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sārambhassa Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sārambhassa Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sārambhassa Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sārambhassa Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sārambhassa Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sārambhassa Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sārambhassa Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Sārambhassa Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5

PTS: #961-1010. Full Understanding of Impetuosity 1-5,
Comprehension of Impetuosity 1-5
Exhaustion of Impetuosity 1-5
Abandoning of Impetuosity 1-5
Destruction of Impetuosity 1-5
Decay of Impetuosity 1-5
Freedom from Impetuosity 1-5
Ending of Impetuosity 1-5
Quittance of Impetuosity 1-5
Renunciation of Impetuosity 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of impetuosity.
[AN 5.1011-1060] Māna Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Pride (Repetition Series).
#1011-1060. Mānassa Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mānassa Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mānassa Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mānassa Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mānassa Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mānassa Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mānassa Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mānassa Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mānassa Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Mānassa Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5

PTS: #1011-1060. Full Understanding of Pride 1-5,
Comprehension of Pride 1-5
Exhaustion of Pride 1-5
Abandoning of Pride 1-5
Destruction of Pride 1-5
Decay of Pride 1-5
Freedom from Pride 1-5
Ending of Pride 1-5
Quittance of Pride 1-5
Renunciation of Pride 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of pride.
[AN 5.1061-1110] Atimāna Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Arrogance (Repetition Series).
#1061-1110. Atimānassa Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Atimānassa Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Atimānassa Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Atimānassa Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Atimānassa Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Atimānassa Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Atimānassa Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Atimānassa Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Atimānassa Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Atimānassa Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5

PTS: #1061-1110. Full Understanding of Arrogance 1-5,
Comprehension of Arrogance 1-5
Exhaustion of Arrogance 1-5
Abandoning of Arrogance 1-5
Destruction of Arrogance 1-5
Decay of Arrogance 1-5
Freedom from Arrogance 1-5
Ending of Arrogance 1-5
Quittance of Arrogance 1-5
Renunciation of Arrogance 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of arrogance.
[AN 5.1111-1160] Mada Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Intoxication (Repetition Series).
#1111-1160. Madassa Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Madassa Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Madassa Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Madassa Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Madassa Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Madassa Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Madassa Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Madassa Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Madassa Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Madassa Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5

PTS: #1111-1160. Full Understanding of Intoxication 1-5,
Comprehension of Intoxication 1-5
Exhaustion of Intoxication 1-5
Abandoning of Intoxication 1-5
Destruction of Intoxication 1-5
Decay of Intoxication 1-5
Freedom from Intoxication 1-5
Ending of Intoxication 1-5
Quittance of Intoxication 1-5
Renunciation of Intoxication 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of intoxication.
[AN 5.1161-1210] Pamāda Peyyālaṃ
PTS: Indolence (Repetition Series).
#1161-1210. Pamādasssa Abhiññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Pamādasssa Pariññāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Pamādasssa Parikkhayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Pamādasssa Pahānāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Pamādasssa Khayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Pamādasssa Vayāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Pamādasssa Virāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Pamādasssa Nirodhāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Pamādasssa Cāgāya Suttaṃ 1-5
Pamādasssa Paṭinissaggāya Suttaṃ 1-5

PTS: #1161-1210. Full Understanding of Indolence 1-5,
Comprehension of Indolence 1-5
Exhaustion of Indolence 1-5
Abandoning of Indolence 1-5
Destruction of Indolence 1-5
Decay of Indolence 1-5
Freedom from Indolence 1-5
Ending of Indolence 1-5
Quittance of Indolence 1-5
Renunciation of Indolence 1-5, E.M. Hare, translation.
All of the Pali Suttas and all of the translations are each on a single file. Each sutta translation is linked to it's Pali text. Completely unabridged.
Five conditions are listed in each of five different suttas in each of ten different groups: higher understanding, comprehension, thorough destruction, letting go, destruction, wafting away, dispassion towards, ending of, giving up of, and all-round-abandoning of indolence.

This completes the digital conversion and formatting of the Pali Text Society translation of the Anguttara Nikaya: The Book of the Fives. All the translations and the Pali have been completely unabridged, including the last 1000 suttas of the monster wheel sutta that concludes this book. (That's 1000 suttas that have not been seen fully rolled-out since the suttas were first set into writing! There is no way the beauty of this creation can be appreciated without seeing something like this. Nobody could possibly say that the suttas are repetitious reading this. There are 1000 suttas there all saying the same thing and not one of them is an exact duplicate of any of the others.) Every sutta is linked to it's Pali text and wherever possible to other translations. Both the translation and Pali have been formatted keeping ease of reading and comprehension in mind. The Pali text was read through once by me, comparing it to the PTS Pali and adjusting the text in most cases to that of the PTS Pali. It should all be proofed again. All of The Book of the Gradual Sayings is now uploaded with the exception of The Book of the Sixes.

 

Repetition Series Vocabulary

Abhiññāya Higher Understanding
Pariññāya Comprehension
Parikkhayāya Thorough Destruction
Pahānāya Letting Go
Khayāya Destruction
Vayaya Blowing Away
Viragāya Dispassion Towards
Nirodhāya Ending
Cāgāya Giving Up
Paṭinisaggāya Renunciation

Rāga Lust
Dosa Hatred
Moha delusion
Kodha Anger
Upanāha Enmity
Makkhassa Slandering (lit. sliming)
Paḷāsa Ruthlessness
Issāya Envy
Macchariya Avarice
Māyāya Deceit
Sātheyya Craftiness
Thambha Stubbornness
Sārambha Impulsivity
Māna Pride
Atimāna Arrogance
Mada Insobriety
Pamāda Carelessness

Asubha-saññā, the perception of the unpleasant,
ādīnava-saññā, the perception of the danger
āhāre paṭikkūla-saññā, the perception of the repulsiveness of food
sabbaloke anabhirata-saññā, the perception: whole-world no fun,
Anicca-saññā, the perception of instability
anatta-saññā, the perception of non-self
anicce dukkha-saññā, the perception of pain in instability
dukkhe anatta-saññā, the perception of non-self in pain
pahāna-saññā, the perception of letting go
virāga-saññā, the perception of dispassion
Saddhindriyaṃ, the force of faith
viriyindriyaṃ, the force of energy
satindriyaṃ, the force of memory
samādhindriyaṃ, the force of serenity
paññindriyaṃ, the force of wisdom
Saddhābalaṃ, the power of faith
viriyabalaṃ, the power of energy
satibalaṃ, the power of memory
samādhibalaṃ, the power of serenity
paññābalaṃ, the power of wisdom.

 


Tuesday, August 19, 2014
Previous upload was Tuesday, July 15, 2014


 

new Thursday, August 14, 2014 5:57 PM Designation of Human Types: Index of Contents. An Index of Contents for Abhidhamma: Designation of Human Types listing the contents of the Pali and Pali Text Society translation. There are a few entries that are up on this site and they are linked and it is just for that purpose that this index exists. There is no plan at this time to do more than upload the occasional interesting entry that is referenced in the notes to the suttas.

 

new Saturday, August 09, 2014 7:09 AM [SN 3.22.59]
The Five, Woodward translation,
The Group of Five, M. Olds translation,
Linked to the Pali, Warren, Bhikkhu Thanissaro, Ñanamoli Thera, and N.K.G. Mendis translations.
The second discourse given by Gotama, the Buddha, to his first five disciples, on the subject of not-self. This discourse resulted in the five attaining arahantship.
This is the basic reasoning behind the idea of not-self and follows logically from the doctrines laid out in the first sutta on the idea that the seeker should not go down either the path of self-indulgence or the path of self denial; seeing that that which has become is subject to ending; seeing that ending is a word for Pain; seeing that the source of this pain is thirst; that the way to end the pain is to end the thirst; and the way to end the thirst is to understand, to conform one's behavior, and to make real the peramaters outlined by the Aristocratic Multi-dimensional Way.

 

Vicara

The word for Vicara has been found! No one can deny this! It is 'Reverie' ('Revery'). The fact, state, or condition of being lost in thought or engaged in musing (Oxford Shorter). From Middle French rever, to wander as in delirium, related to French réver, to dream. More commonly known in English as 'day-dreaming'. Thanks to:

A certin amount of dreaming is good, like a narcotic in discreet doses. It lulls to sleep the fevers of the mind at labor, which are sometimes severe, and produces in the spirit a soft and fresh vapor which corrects the over-harsh contours of pure thought, fills in gaps here and there, binds together and rounds off the angles of the ideas. But too much dreming sinks and drowns. Woe to the brain-worker who allows himself to fall entirely from thought into revery! He thinks that he can re-ascend with equal ease, and he tells himself that, after all, it is the same thing. Error!
Thought is the toil of the intelligence, revery is the volupuousness. To replace thought with revery is to confound a poison with a food.

— Les Misérables, Volume II, by Vicor Hugo, translated by Isabel F. Hapgood

The only problem with this word is it is often narrowly understood as meaning exclusively a sentimental wishy-washy state of mind. The word includes this but is not exclusive to that meaning. There is exalted reverie. Without outside influence predominantly from the commentary and secondarily from intelectual speculation, all it takes to see the reasonablness of this translation is to sit down to meditate for an hour. There it will be seen that to 'think about' a specific subject requires effort. This is 'vitakka'. This is modern psychology's 'effortful thinking' as opposed to 'intuitive thoughts' which arise without effort (and usually are, but should never be taken for infallable) which is not accounted for in the 'vitakka/vicara' classification of thought.

There can be Vitakka with Vicara, Vitakka without Vicara, and Vicaara without Vitakka, and awareness without either.

What happens when an effortful train of thought runs out of threads (exhosts the energy which initiated it; has run the limits of it's scope) is daydreaming. As common experience shows, one can apparently enter daydreaming directly but this will be seen to be the result of effortful thinking which has been going on with minimal awareness. Daydreams take off from what one has been thinking. Daydreaming requires only paying attention. When effortful thinking has lead to the 'yoni,' 'womb' or taproot of some issue which arouses a high degree of interest the result is a daydreaming of a higher order: the cruising over, or 'cara', 'carring-on' of the thought in the form of the various implications of perception from that recovered perspective.

This I believe is the intended meaning of the commentarial description of 'vitakka and vicara' translated, 'initial thought and sustained thought' which was interpreted (originally by the PTS translators) on the one hand in too exclusively rigorous (idealized) a fashion and which, on the other hand, must be understood to have both a lax and a rigorous aspect. When daydreaming is of the higher sort it has the appearance of being self sustained, but this is more in the nature of coasting down-hill on a bicycle. It reaches a limit and to be sustained must be fueled with further effortful thinking or the arising of intuitive thought. The trick at this point, to enter the second jhana, is to bring one's self to conscious awareness of the fact that thinking, of either form, however thrilling, is transient, does at least require the effort of attention, and is interfering with the pacification of the body and heart, and to let it go.

 

God delivers over to men his visible will in events, an obscure text written in a mysterious tongue. Men immediately make translations of it; translations hasty, incorrect, full of errors, of gaps, and of nonsense. Very few minds comprehend the devine language. The most sagacious, the calmest, the most profound, decipher slowly, and when they arrive with their text, the task has long been completed; there are alredy twenty translations on the public place. From each remaining springs a party, and from each misinterpretation a faction; and each party thinks that it alone has the true text, and each faction thinks that it possesses the light.

— Les Misérables, Volume II, by Vicor Hugo, translated by Isabel F. Hapgood

What Hugo is speaking of is kamma, what I am thinking of is Gotama's Suttas.

 

new Friday, August 01, 2014 9:23 AM The Edicts of King Asoka An English rendering by Ven. S. Dhammika
This is an editing of various translations of the full set of Asoka's edicts with an introduction and footnotes by Ven. S. Dhammika.

 

new Saturday, July 26, 2014 2:51 PM Index of Names for Kuddhaka Nikāya, Thera-Gāthā. A table of contents for the collection of gāthās. The entry for the Pali indicates verse numbers for the PTS text. At present this has the Pali and the miscellaneous translations of Bhk. Thanissaro, Helmuth Hecker and a couple of others linked to it. The verses and introductory stories from the PTS translation by Mrs. Rhys Davids (and any other translations we come across that can be published gratis) will be added from time to time as they come up in footnotes, discussions, etc. and will be linked to from this page.
In this collection of short verses by the Elder Bhikkhus contemporary with Gotama we find the beginnings of the Tanka, Renga and Haiku and the aphorisms found in Chinese and Japanese Buddhism. Many interesting windows into the life of that time and thoughts of Arahants other than the more familiar ones.
[THAG 1-264 Index] Thera-Gāthā, The Complete Pali Text.
This has been formatted but has not yet been carefully proofed, but the version of the BJT text comes from that published by the Journal of Buddhist Ethics, which I believe has been checked at least somewhat. There is a big mess-up in the numbering between all versions starting at Verse 995. The verse numbers on this file agree with the verse numbers of the PTS, 1999, Thera-and-Therī Gāthā edited by H. Oldenberg, and R. Pischel. It is not correct but is being left this way for the sake of the references throughout the PTS editions. It is noted on the Pali text.
[THAG 255] Angulimāla Mrs. Rhys David's translation.
The verses of Angulimala, a fierce bandit/murderer who was converted by Gotama.
There is one very interesting point to be found in these verses, that is the statement (Mrs. Rhys Davids translation):

[882.] Me who had wrought such direful deeds,
Fast going to my place of doom,
Me all that doing's aftermath,
Hath touched e'en here — and freed from debt
Now take I my allotted share.

We hear throughout the suttas the statement being made by newly-become Arahants that their debt is paid or that they are debtless. This is a statement that they have become Arahant, and also that they have brought kamma to an end — that is, insofar as identified-with personal experience is concerned. Sometimes this happens very quickly, as within half a day. Here we get a tiny glympse of what process has brought about this debtlessness. It is by way of bringing the mind into contact with that debt, so openeing the mind, so refusing to allow evasion and rationalization of badly done deeds that the experience of the consequences of former deeds are allowed to come forward and vent their full weight and thus expire. Seen in the inverse, what is preventing the freedom of Nibbana is maintaining a guard against experiencing the consequences of former deeds by evasion and rationalization. In other words, all it requires, to attain Nibbana is to let that stuff go and ride out whatever storm is the result. It is also interesting to see in this episode the statement by Gotama to Angulimala that he should 'bear-up'. Does this tell us that there is still, while the body remains some chance of not bearing up? Elsewhere we are told that the distinction between the still-living arahant and the ordinary person is that while pain occurs to both, for the arahant there is no anguishing over the pain, no mental suffering.
There is another interesting thing that goes on in this sutta when the Buddha suggests that Angulimala do an 'act of truth' for the woman experiencing difficult labor. He tells Angulimala to say that from the time he was born he was not aware of having done any harm to any living being. Angulimala responds by questioning Gotama about how it would be possible for him to say this given his history. The Buddha then tells him to say that from the time he was born as an Ariyan (Aristocrat) he was not aware of having done any harm to any living being. One wonders if this were a test of Angulimala. He was not yet Arahant at this point.
[THAG 246] Añña-Koṇḍañña Mrs. Rhys David's translation.
The verses of Anna-Kondanna, the first disciple to have become a streamwinner and Arahant.
[THAG 253] Sela Mrs. Rhys David's translation.
The verses of Sela, a teacher of 300 brahmin youths who was converted along with his entire following and who, along with his following attained Arahantship in the seven days thereafter.

 

new Friday, July 25, 2014 7:24 AM King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha. Some biographical information on this king who was a conemporary of Gotama.
Angulimala, "Garland of Thumbs" a page of biographical information on one of the most famous stories in the suttas: that of a man born of good family, at one time a student with Gotama, who turned murderer as a result of his teacher predicting for him that he would attain awakening after having killed 1000 persons. He went right at it. He had managed to kill 999 people, (stringing their right thumbs on a garland for the record,) before Gotama was able to intervene and convert him. He became arahant. It is remarkable to compare the justice system of the time with that of ours today [Friday, July 25, 2014 9:04 AM]. After having murdered 999 people, because he had been converted by Gotama, on Gotama's word, no legal action was taken against him.

 

new Thursday, July 31, 2014 9:27 AM [MN 86]
Discourse with Aŋgulimāla, Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, Albert J. Edmunds 1900 translation, Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and Sister Upalavana translation.
The Majjhima Nikaya version of the story of Angulimala, the bandit/murderer who, after killing 999 people, was converted by the Buddha and became an Arahant.

 

new Thursday, July 24, 2014 8:38 AM [MN 54]
Discourse to Potaliya, Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha explains in detail what it means to have given up all avocations in this Dhamma.
This sutta contains the details for the similes for the pleasures of the senses, that is that the pleasures of the senses are like a meatless bone, carrion attacked by vultures, a blazing torch carried against the wind, falling into a pit of glowing charcoal, a loan, having climbed a tree to enjoy the fruit while another man is chopping it down.

 


 

Sonnets
CXXIX

The expense of spirit in a waste of shame
Is lust in action; and till action, lust
Is perjured, murderous, bloody, full of blame,
Savage, extreme, rude, cruel, not to trust;
Enjoy'd no sooner but despised straight;
Past reason hunted; and no sooner had,
Past reason hated, as a swallowed bait,
On purpose laid to make the taker mad:
Mad in pursuit, and in possession so;
Had, having, and in quest to have, extreme;
A bliss in proof, and proved, a very woe;
Before, a joy proposed; behind, a dream.
  All this the world well knows; yet none knows well
  To shun the heaven that leads men to this hell.
— The Complete Works of William Shakespeare, The Cambridge Editin Text, as edited by William Aldis Wright

 


 

new Tuesday, July 22, 2014 9:36 AM Psalms of the Sisters, Canto VII. Psalms of Seven Verses,
[THIG 58] Uttarā, the Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
The declaration of Arahantship of Bhikkhuni Uttarā.

 

new Friday, July 18, 2014 8:16 AM [SN 4.37.34]
Growth, Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Five ways in which female disciples attend to the essential and reach growth thereby.

 

new Tuesday, July 15, 2014 8:55 AM [AN 5.55] Mātā-Putta Suttaṃ the Pali,
Mother and Son The E.M. Hare translation.
A mother and son bhikkhu and bhikkhuni engaging in incest is the occasion for a lecture on the dangers of womankind.
See on this the very similar opening to the Book of the Ones.
[AN 5.57] Things To Be Contemplated The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha urges everyone interested in their own salvation to give contemplation to aging, being subject to sickness and death, changeability and separation from the things we love, and the idea that what you experience is a consequence of your own deeds. He further explains why it is important to think of these things and the way to think of these things that will bring about escape from them.
[AN 5.58] Licchavi Kumāra Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Licchavi Young Men The E.M. Hare translation.
A gang of young toughs out hunting come upon the Buddha and are inspired to pay reverence. An elder of their clan is astounded and remarks as to how they will become like a neighbouring clan of gentle manners. The Buddha then, within earshot of the youths, teaches him about the advantages of paying reverance to mother and father, wife and children, workers, gods and holy men.
[AN 5.59] Paṭhama Vuḍḍhapabbajita Suttaṃ the Pali,
Hard to Find (a) The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha lists five attributes hard to find in a bhikkhu who has joined the order when old.
[AN 5.60] Dutiya Vuḍḍhapabbajita Suttaṃ the Pali,
Hard to Find (b) The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha lists five attributes hard to find in a bhikkhu who has joined the order when old. A variation on the previous.
We must take these not as a put down of old men, but as encouragement to the young to take advantage of their youth. Habits are hard to change and take a long time, starting when old is either going to require extraordinary effort or will end in very little being accomplished. There are a number of cases where an older person (male and female) have left the world and almost immediately become arahant. These are often obviously people who have been working on themselves for a long time as laymen or ascetics of other cults.
[AN 5.61] Paṭhama Saññā Suttaṃ the Pali,
Thoughts (a) The E.M. Hare translation.
First Perceptions Sutta, The M. Olds translation.
Five things which if they can be well perceived are very helpful in attaining the deathless.
Hare says of 'saññā' "as vague a term as is popularly our 'thought.'" But the idea is not 'thinking about' a thing but seeing these qualities in things. Read Hare's translation in conjunction with my own to see the difference in direction. Thinking about these things will result in 'knowing and seeing' (intellectual understanding; seeing the water at the bottom of the well, but without the means to drink) whereas perception of these qualities in things will result in 'knowing in body'. Release, or Freedom is only attained on knowing in body.
[AN 5.62] Dutiya Saññā Suttaṃ the Pali,
Thoughts (a) The E.M. Hare translation.
Second Perceptions Sutta, The M. Olds translation.
Five things which if they can be well perceived are very helpful in attaining the deathless.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 5.63] Paṭhama Vaḍḍhī Suttaṃ the Pali,
Growth (a) The E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which if they are developed are very helpful to growth in the Buddhist system.
[AN 5.64] Growth (a) The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Five things which if they are developed are very helpful to growth in the Buddhist system.
Identical to the previous but addressed to women disciples.
[AN 5.65] Alaṃsākaccha Suttaṃ the Pali,
Talk The E.M. Hare translation.
Qualifications for giving dissertations on five topics of Dhamma: ethical conduct, serenity (samādhi), wisdom (paṇṇā), freedom and knowing and seeing freedom.
This comes down to the fact that one should have the experience one is talking about, be able to explain that experience and be able to answer questions in response to issues that arise in relation to that experience.
[AN 5.66] Alaṃsākaccha Suttaṃ the Pali,
An Example The E.M. Hare translation.
Five qualifications for setting a good example to one's fellows in the holy life.
A twist on the previous sutta.
[AN 5.163] Alaṃsākaccha Suttaṃ the Pali,
Talk The E.M. Hare translation.
Qualifications for giving dissertations on five topics of Dhamma: ethical conduct, serenity (samādhi), wisdom (paṇṇā), freedom and knowing and seeing freedom.
Identical with AN 5.65 above, but spoken by Sariputta.
[AN 5.164] Alaṃsākaccha Suttaṃ the Pali,
An Example The E.M. Hare translation.
Five qualifications for setting a good example to one's fellows in the holy life.
Identical with AN 5.66 above, but spoken by Sariputta.
[AN 5.67] Paṭhama Iddhipāda Suttaṃ the Pali,
Psychic Power (a) The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha states that anyone making an extraordinary effort to develop and make a big thing of the four bases of magic power can expect either awakening here or non-returning.
[AN 5.68] Dutiya Iddhipāda Suttaṃ the Pali,
Psychic Power (b) The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha relates his efforts to develop and his successful experience of psychic power when he was still a bodhisat.
This is but one of several different descriptions The Buddha relates of the method he used to attain arahantship. Is there contradiction in this? No. There is overlap. These are different ways of describing the same events. For example, see if you can see how understanding the satisfaction, the danger, and the escape from the six-fold sense sphere is the same thing as developing and experiencing psychic power culminating in the destruction of the asavas. Then do the same thing with the experience of the Paticca Samuppada, the Four Aristocratic Truths, the Four Settings up of Mind, the Seven Dimensions of Self-Awakening, etc.
[AN 5.69] Disgust The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and M. Olds translation.
If a person can develop and make a big thing of the idea of their being nothing attractive in the body, the disgusting nature of food, the thought of distaste for the world, the perception of impermanance in everything that has been own-made, and has established in his mind the thought of death, he may expect Arahantship even in this life.
The final phrase: maranasanna kho pan'assa ajjhattam supatthita hoti, translated by Hare: "...and the thought of death is by him inwardly well established," accords with the usual understanding. My interpretation is that this term "ajjhattam" is used to avoid the term "his own" or "own" "personal". But here it may have lead to a misunderstanding of the intent, which I believe is the fact that one has come to see that "My own body" too will die, has not risen above that state, is subject to such an end as that. See: Satipatthana, Charnal Ground.
[AN 5.70] Āsavakkhaya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Destruction of the Cankers The E.M. Hare translation.
The development and making a big thing of the idea of their being nothing attractive in the body, the disgusting nature of food, the thought of distaste for the world, the perception of impermanance in everything that has been own-made, and the establishment in mind of the thought of death leads to the destruction of the corrupting influences.
[AN 5.71] Paṭhama Ceto-Vimutti-Phala Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Fruits of Mind-Emancipation (a) The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes how the development and making a big thing of the idea of their being nothing attractive in the body, the disgusting nature of food, the thought of distaste for the world, the perception of impermanance in everything that has been own-made, and the establishment in mind of the thought of death has its fruition in freedom of heart and the advantages of freedom of heart and freedom of wisdom and the advantages of freedom of wisdom.
In this sutta similes are given for such fruit and advantages: lifting the barrier (for letting go blindness), filling the moat (for ending rebirth; you need to see this from the point of view of a conqueror), pulling up the piller (for getting rid of thirst; the piller that supports the structure), withdrawing the bolts (for having broken the five fetters that bind one to the lower births; the bolts that lock the door of escape), being an Aristocrat that "lowered his standard" (dipped his battle flag as a sign of surrender) and dropped the burden (an image that goes against the grain but here standing for giving up the battle to asert a self, for he has let go of the mental derangement: 'I am!').
An interesting thing to note about this sutta is that these are all things which are to be 'pahīnā', 'let go'. Letting go is a thing that is accomplished by no longer keeping a grip on. It just requires stopping. Not-doing. Hold an egg in your hand and then relax all the muscles of your arm and hand. What struggle is involved is not a matter of acquiring something, it is a matter of dealing with one's reluctance to stop indulging in participation. The implication is virtually identical to the Buddha-nature of the Zen Buddhists and Mahayanists, that is, that awakening occurs at the point when one is rid of obstructions, but with the all-important difference that in the Zen/Mahayanist way of thinking this is a state that is achieved, and by an individual, rather than a state revealed by abandoning individuality, and consequently it is a state that has become and therefore it is a state which will come to an end. Said another way the pure mind is held to be a possession of the individual by the Zen/Mahayanist, whereas here the pure mind is obstructed by individuality. One can see the difference in the thinking of the two if one looks at the behavior of the individuals. The Zen/Mahayanist sees no conflict with Awakening in breaches of morality, self-control or holding on to ideas of existence and non-existence whereas Gotama's emphasis on training in these areas reflects the fact that it is with breaches of morality and self control that points of view manifest themselves as individualities.
[AN 5.72] Dutiya Ceto-Vimutti-Phala Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Fruits of Mind-Emancipation (b) The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes how the development and making a big thing of the idea of impermanence, the idea of pain in impermanence, the idea of not-self in pain, the idea of giving up, and the idea of dispassion have their fruition in freedom of heart and the advantages of freedom of heart and freedom of wisdom and the advantages of freedom of wisdom.
A variation on the previous sutta.
[AN 5.121] The Sick Man The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
If a sick person can keep in mind the idea of their being nothing attractive in the body, the disgusing nature of food, the thought of distaste for the world, the perception of impermanance in everything that has been own-made, and has established in his mind the thought of death, he may expect Arahantship even in this life.
[AN 5.74] Dutiya Dhamma-viharin Sutta the Pali,
Living by Dhamma (b) The E.M. Hare translation.
Walk'n the Talk, The Second, The M. Olds translation. The Buddha explains the meaning of 'living in the Dhamma'.
It is not enough to study the suttas, teach the Dhamma, repeat the suttas, think about the Dhamma, but one must also have the wisdom to grasp the attainment of the goal itself.
My version of this incorporates the idea of going-apart found in the AN 5.73 variation on this sutta and summarizes including all the steps. This appears to me to be the way it was intended to have been presented because of the way the final paragraph is worded in the Pali, which looks like an incomplete unabridgment. I have therefore called this, and my version of AN 5.73 'retellings'.
A significant feature of this sutta is the fact that the attainment of the goal is through the application of wisdom (paññā). Wisdom is a matter of taking known knowledge and experience and coming up with a solution to a problem, answer to a question, method for attaining a goal; knowing what to do. It isn't really the discovery of anything new, such as with insight. It is more a matter of having the heart for the attainment. The use of will-power and resolution to overcome reluctance to attain what one already knows can be attained and how it can be attained. Here we have an explanation for the idea of 'sudden awakening' for which we have an example in Ananda's awakening at the last minute before he is called upon to recite Dhamma at the first council where he thinks to himself that he himself ought to become Arahant before joining this auspicious assembly of arahants, and he becomes arahant there and then.
[AN 5.75] The Warrior (a) The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha likens the struggle to awaken to a battle, and enumerates five sorts of warriors and their parallels in the community of bhikkhus.
Bhk. Thanissaro notes that this discourse is directed at the bhikkhus and speculates that the image of the warrior was designed to appeal to masculine pride and that perhaps some other approach would have been taken with the bhikknuni's. I would point to the way the members of Don Juan's group, so closely aligned with the ancient tradition of the warrior, male and female alike all took pride in the warrior image. History, from ancient times down to gang warfare in New York City in the early 1900s, gives us plenty of examples of women warriors. Here this struggle for awakening is as much a battle for women as for men. The appeal, in the use of the warrior image, is to the courage of the warrior, not his masculinity. The appeal to feminists as well as to male chauvenists is to put sexual identification to the side. Both sexes are the devil to the other.
[AN 5.76] The Warrior (b) The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha likens the struggle to awaken to a battle, and enumerates five sorts of warriors and their parallels in the community of bhikkhus.
A variation on the idea of the previous sutta but constructed differently.
[AN 5.77] Fear in the Way (a) The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes five fearsome dangers of the forest-gone bhikkhu that should inspire him to make great effort.
The Pali for Hare's 'in the way', and Bhks. Bodhi and Thanissaro's 'Future' is 'anāgata', non-got, which the passages in this sutta suggest might be better translated 'possible.'
[AN 5.78] Fear in the Way (b) The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes five fearsome dangers for the bhikkhu that should inspire him to make great effort.
In the previous sutta the dangers described were for the forest-gone bhikkhu; here the dangers are ones common to all bhikkhus ... all of us, for that matter.
[AN 5.79] Fear in the Way (c) The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes five fearsome dangers for the bhikkhus that will arise in the future that should inspire them to make great effort.
Here the dangers are distinctly future dangers. (And we can see for ourselves the accuracy of the prediction. It's not too late bhikkhus! Today [Saturday, August 02, 2014 6:48 AM]) we are seeing the Dhamma as it really is being published abroad in every language in easily accessible, free, digital form for all to see. The world is now able to see your behavior and your doctrines through the lens of Dhamma as it was actually taught. Take a care for your destiny! Make effort. Re-establish the old ways that are intent on the goal, grounded in Sutta, grounded in Vinaya.)
[AN 5.80] Fear in the Way (d) The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes five fearsome dangers for the bhikkhus that will arise in the future that should inspire them to make great effort.
A variation on the previous sutta.
[AN 5.81] Rājaniya Suttaṃ the Pali
Enticing The E.M. Hare translation.
Five pairs of opposites which determine whether or not a bhikkhu is found likeable, pleasant, respectable and becoming.
[AN 5.82] Vītarāga Suttaṃ the Pali
Free of Passion The E.M. Hare translation.
Five pairs of opposites which determine whether or not a bhikkhu is found likeable, pleasant, respectable and becoming.
A variation on the previous.
[AN 5.83] Kuhaka Suttaṃ the Pali
The Trickster The E.M. Hare translation.
Five pairs of opposites which determine whether or not a bhikkhu is found likeable, pleasant, respectable and becoming.
A variation on the previous.
[AN 5.84] Assaddha Suttaṃ the Pali
Faith The E.M. Hare translation.
Five pairs of opposites which determine whether or not a bhikkhu is found likeable, pleasant, respectable and becoming.
A variation on the previous.
[AN 5.85] Akkhama Suttaṃ the Pali
He Cannot Endure The E.M. Hare translation.
Five pairs of opposites which determine whether or not a bhikkhu is found likeable, pleasant, respectable and becoming.
A variation on the previous.
[AN 5.87] Sīla Suttaṃ the Pali
Virtue The E.M. Hare translation.
Five things possessed of which a bhikkhu is found likeable, pleasant, respectable and becoming.
[AN 5.89] Paṭhama Sekha Suttaṃ the Pali
The Monk in Training (a) The E.M. Hare translation.
Five pairs of opposites which determine whether or not a bhikkhu still in training will decline or prosper.
[AN 5.90] Dutiya Sekha Suttaṃ the Pali
The Monk in Training (b) The E.M. Hare translation.
Five pairs of opposites which determine whether or not a bhikkhu still in training will decline or prosper.
A variation on the previous.
[AN 5.91] Paṭhama Sampadā Suttaṃ the Pali
Achievements (a) The E.M. Hare translation.
Five perfections: of faith, ethical behavior, learning, generosity, and wisdom.
The key term here is 'sampadā'. PED has: 1. attainment, success, accomplishment; happiness, good fortune; blessing, bliss ... in its pregnant meaning is applied to the accomplishments of the individual in the course of his religious development.
The literal meaning is 'on track' which I think reveals the intent. The term must allow for a dual — worldly, unworldly — understanding; there is that which is perfection/success/accomplishment/good fortune in worldly matters and there is that which is perfection, etc. in accordance with the Dhamma. Here Gotama is saying that the measure of what is perfection is whether or not the practice accords with (or is on track with) Dhamma.
[AN 5.92] Dutiya Sampadā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Achievements (b), The E.M. Hare translation.
Five perfections: of ethical behavior, serenity, wisdom, freedom, knowing and seeing freedom.
[AN 5.93] Aññavyākaraṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Avowal, The E.M. Hare translation.
Five ways in which knowing is declared.
[AN 5.94] Phāsuvihāra Suttaṃ, the Pali
Comfort, The E.M. Hare translation.
Five abodes where comfort can be found.
[AN 5.97] Talk, The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro Translation
Five things which should be cultivated along with minding the breaths.
[AN 5.98] Forest, The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro Translation
Five things which should be cultivated along with minding the breaths.
A variation on the previous.
[AN 5.99] Sīha Suttaṃ, the Pali
Lion, The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha teaches the need to act skillfully in even the smallest things by way of comparing the way he teaches Dhamma with the way the Lion strikes at even the smallest game, that is, with consummate skill.

"Sir Joshua Reynolds once asked him [Johnson] by what means he had attained his extraordinary accuacy and flow of language. He told him, that he had early laid it down as a fixed rule to do his best on every occasion, and in evey company: to impart whatever he knew in the most foceible language he could put it in; and that by constant practice, and never sffering any careless expressions to escape him, or attempting to deliver his thoughts without arranging them in the clearest manner, it became habitual to him."
Boswell, The Life of Dr. Johnson, London, 1791.

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A short sutta but one that teaches an extremely helpful discipline. Hare translates the Lion's reason for his care no matter what the prey by 'Let not my skill fail me!' but it would be better as 'Let not my skill deteriorate!'. The lesson is that the important thing is the skill with which one acts, not the circumstances in which one acts. Lazy habits infect one's entire practice. This world is like a vast swiftly-flowing river; a slight change in a small object may not appear to have an immediate effect, but in a short time it will have exerted some influence on every molecule of that on-going flow. Beings are the inheritors of their deeds.
[AN 5.100] Kakudha Suttaṃ, the Pali
Kakudha, The E.M. Hare translation.
Mahā Moggallāna is visited by a deva who tells him of Devadatta's secret ambition to rule the sangha. When he relates this to the Buddha, the Buddha discourses on the various sorts of teachers that need the protection of their disciples and he declares himself not to need such protections.
This is a deep sutta. First Mahā Moggallāna is told to guard his words; that is to say to not reveal this episode further. How come? And what is the relationship between what Mahā Moggallāna reveals and the dissertation on the various sorts of teachers who are guarded by their disciples?
What the Deva has revealed to Mahā Moggallāna is likely the very first formation of Devadatta's deviation. At such a point it is possible for a person to give up his corrupt idea. Should his inner thinking become widely known the tendency would be to stick to it rather than give it up. Thus the compassionate thing to do under these circumstances would be to keep quite and hope for the best. The sutta is deeper than this. The second half explains Gotama's warning in the first. It is a masterpiece in the art of the extremely subtle message. Such art is very handy in the case of a group of people whose skill set includes that of mind-reading. Such teachers as are incomplete have tempers. They may get angry at having their flaws exposed. They have benefactors and their disciples guard them. Those benefactors may be powerful and become instruments of revenge. Alternatively, no matter the feebleness of the kamma, they are doing good by giving and they might stop. Further, the disciples count on gifts from their teacher. There is the danger that a pre-mature revelation of a flaw could be seen as a false accusation. And who is who to damage the reputation of another? The true nature of a person will out through his behavior without need of any external prompting. For some of the devices of the evil bhikkhu, see AN 5.103. There will be those who find this construction impossible to accept. I welcome their understanding of this sutta.
[AN 5.101] Sekhavesārajja Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Fearful, The E.M. Hare translation.
Five things that overcome fear in the beginner.
A simple but powerful message. What is being spoken about is the eradication of all fear whatsoever.
[AN 5.102] Saŋkita Suttaṃ, the Pali
Suspected, The E.M. Hare translation.
Five places which if habitually visited by a bhikkhu lead to him being suspected of having an evil nature regardless of his real accomplishments.
[AN 5.103] Mahā Cora Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Robber, The E.M. Hare translation.
Five devices of the great robber compared to five devices of the evil bhikkhu.
Nit: Hare translates 'Mahā Cora' as 'Robber Chief' in the text. This is not a description of the ways a robber becomes chief of the robbers, but of the ways a robber makes himself powerful. The simile needs to parallel the thing it is illuminating. Also it is misleading to beginning students of the Pali to translate 'mahā' 'Chief' where this is not the meaning anywhere else.
[AN 5.104] Samaṇa Sukhumāla Suttaṃ, the Pali
He Who Graces, The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha lists five things which make a bhikkhu one who is a garland for bhikkhus.
In this sutta Gotama uses himself as an example of a bhikkhu who embodies various qualities which make a bhikkhu a garland for bhikkhus. Self-praise is not a quality which is held in high esteem, so how do we excuse this in the Buddha? By understnding the realization of not-self as having been truly accomplished in him, hence it is not self-praise, it is the praise of the phenomena of 'Buddha', Awakening. He speaks of himself as though of another person. A sutta like this should be used to inspire faith in the reader. Think of how difficult, stupid and transparently phoney (uninspiring) it would be for one to make statements like this if this were not the case of an individual speaking of himself like this without being completely without ego. This is also a good example of how naturally 'conventional speech' is to be used.
[AN 5.105] Phāsuvihāra Suttaṃ, the Pali
Comfort, The E.M. Hare translation.
Five things that make for comfortable living for the bhikkhu.
[AN 5.106] Ānanda Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Venerable Ānanda, The E.M. Hare translation.
Ananda inquires about the conditions that make for comfortable living in monastery life.
The message is essentially that when the bhikkhus attend to their own development and otherwise mind their own business the bhikkhus dwell in comfort.
[AN 5.107] Sīlasampanna Suttaṃ, the Pali
Virtue, The E.M. Hare translation.
Five things that make a bhikkhu worthy of reverence: accomplishment in ethical conduct, serenity, wisdom, freedom and knowledge and vision of freedom.
[AN 5.108] Asekha Suttaṃ, the Pali
No Need to Train, The E.M. Hare translation.
Five things that make the adept worthy of reverence: having mastered the whole body of ethical conduct, serenity, wisdom, freedom and knowledge and vision of freedom.
I don't think this is, as Hare would have it, not needing to train; this is the situation of one who has already mastered the training. Contrasted to the previous the idea is that the bhikkhu that is earnestly studying is worthy as here one who is an adept is worthy. Being in the condition of beggars, the bhikkhus are constantly being reminded by Gotama to be worthy of accepting their sustanance from those who labor for their living. There is a huge respect for the weight, that is to say, difficulty, of sustaining life, which is to say, the bearing of pain for life's sake. It is enough to do it for one's self and family; to do it for an unworthy stranger is heroic. 'Worthy' meaning that the kammic rebound should greatly exceed that of an ordinary person; a thing which is effected by detachment, which is the result of virtue, etc. For the unworthy, bumming off the labors of others is a swift road to helland is especially so for the bhikkhus of Gotama's Sangha because in this case there is a high expectation of bountiful return (one gets to see and experience the pain and disappointment one has allowed another to suffer for one ... multiplied a few hundred thousand fold).
[AN 5.109] Cātuddisa Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Four-Regioner, The E.M. Hare translation.
With five things one can be said to have such complete freedom of movement as to be termed 'A Four-Directioner': perfect ethical conduct, much learning, contentment with the essential, attainment of the four jhānas, and having destroyed the corrupting influence of lust, being and blindness.
[AN 5.110] Arañña Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Forest, The E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which are requisites of one who would live alone in the woods.
A variation on the previous substituting energy for being content with the essentials. Presumably the sort of individual who inclines to live alone in the woods is one who can handle deprivations.
[AN 5.111] Kulupaga Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Clan-Goer, The E.M. Hare translation.
Five sorts of behavior that should be avoided by the bhikkhu that wishes to endear himself to householders.
A few pointers on etiquette for the bhikkhus that will also profit the householder to know.

Bhk. Thanissaro
Bhk. Thanissaro and the bhikkhus of the Metta Forest
Monestary walking in line for alms.

[AN 5.112] Pacchāsamaṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Recluse Who Walks Behind, The E.M. Hare translation.
Five characteristics recommended for bhikkhus who would walk behind their teacher on his begging round.
Presumably this serves at least two functions: the popularity of the teacher inspires the giving of more and better food, and the disciple becomes known as a follower of the popular teacher. I am not familiar with all the details of this practice and would welcome more information. The requirement to take the laden bowl looks as though there was some routine for collecting food for the group. How did that work? Is it a requirement for going on the begging round to walk in such a line? We hear of elders going on their rounds alone, at what point can a bhikkhu elect to go alone? Note the hair on these bhikkhus heads. The Bhikkhu is to shave his head only when the hair has grown two finger-widths in length.
[AN 5.113] Sammā-Samādhi Suttaṃ, the Pali
Concentration, The E.M. Hare translation.
One who would get high needs to be able to overcome his reactions to the impact of stimuli on the five senses.
The key word here is 'khama'. PED: (a) patient, forgiving. (b) enduring, bearing, hardened to. To have patience with, etc. For example it is not conducive to getting high to be imagining machine-gunning a dog which has been barking for the past hour non-stop. One needs to overcome one's reactions to the sight of an attractive person of the opposite sex. The scent of food cooking on the bar-b-que next door. We need to be calm, cool, collected, impassive. Note that this list does not include stimulation of the mind. Why would this not be a problem? Because that which does not pertain to reactions to stimulus of the five senses is not a barrior to high serenity. As usual I object to the translation of Samādhi as 'concentration.' Here the discussion is of High Samādhi (Sammā Samadhi) where what is being spoken of is the serenity that is a result of concentration among other things.
[AN 5.114] Concentration, The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches Ananda five things which he should teach to beginners.
[AN 5.115] Macchari Suttaṃ, the Pali
Begrudging, The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha warns against five things that result in a bhikkhuni being thrown into hell.
[AN 5.116] Vaṇṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Praise, The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha warns against five things that result in a bhikkhuni being thrown into hell.
A variation on the previous based on thinking before one speaks.
[AN 5.117] Issuki Suttaṃ, the Pali
Jealousy, The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha warns against five things that result in a bhikkhuni being thrown into hell.
A variation on the previous substituting jealousy and meanness for showing faith in the unbelievable and disbelief in the believable.
[AN 5.118] Micchā-diṭṭhika Suttaṃ, the Pali
Views, The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha warns against five things that result in a bhikkhuni being thrown into hell.
A variation on the previous substituting views and principles for showing jealousy and meanness.
I object to Hare's (and most other translators') 'right' for 'sammā' because it's meaning as 'upright' or 'straight' is misunderstood to be 'the only correct thing' whereas the meaning is 'the best' or 'highest' or 'consummate' thing. The opposite of that 'micchā' is misguided, low, contrary. Hare's use of 'wrong' shows exactly that his thinking is 'this is the right and all else is wrong'. And that is the problem, for it is that idea which has plagued mankind and especially religious freedom since forever. 'Sammā' and 'micchā' are concepts of efficacy relative to the Buddhist goal. There is no claim to absolute truth being made by the Magga. See the wording of the First Sutta: "...are ends not to be gone after by one embarking on the seeker's life." Dve me bhikkhave, antā pabbajitena na sevitabbā. See: discussion and Glossology: Sammā. It's not a small irrelevant issue, it has to do with orientation. You can't get there going the wrong direction. (That's a statement relative to the goal!) If you believe 'this Way' is right and all other ways are wrong, you are attached to both the wrong and the consummate and misunderstand both and unless you let that position go you cannot achieve the detachment needed for freedom and the goal. Period. Words have power. The pen is mightier than the sward. Etc. "Right" and "Wrong" as absolutes have dealt nothing but grief to this world. Their use in Buddhist translations is out of place and entirely a consequence of the Early Christian-biased translations of the PTS such as this. Correcting the error is a matter of overcoming misplaced fear of and respect for the authority of the Oxford scholars. The Oxford scholars themselves would be the first to say they were fumbling in the dark and 2. we have evidence enough right here to see that they were all too human, not arahants, and subject to human error. The other hinderance to getting this ... um ... going in the optimal direction is that translators wish to avoid controversy and to find acceptance but this is nothing but pandering to the low minded and is no way to 'guide the flock'. We need to let these terms go!
[AN 5.119] Micchā-vācā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Speech, The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha warns against five things that result in a bhikkhuni being thrown into hell.
A variation on the previous substituting speech and works for views and principles.
[AN 5.120] Micchā-vāyāma Suttaṃ, the Pali
Effort, The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha warns against five things that result in a bhikkhuni being thrown into hell.
A variation on the previous substituting self-control and memory for speech and works.
Note that with these last three suttas we have the 8-dimensional High Way minus Sammā Ajiva (lifestyle) and Sammā-Samadhi (serenity). Independantly conceptualized categories without mention of the Magga.
[AN 5.122] Satisūpaṭṭhita Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Arising of Mindfulness, The E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which result in either arahantship here or non-returning for the one who fully develops them.
[AN 5.123] Dūpaṭṭhāka-gilāna Suttaṃ, the Pali
On Helping (a), The E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which make a person helpful to himself when sick.
I have always found this sutta helfpful as my rationalization for the occasional use of a simple.
[AN 5.124] Gilānūpaṭṭhāka Suttaṃ, the Pali
On Helping (b), The E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which make a person helpful to others who are sick.
[AN 5.125] Paṭhama Āyussa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Health Shall Spring Forth (a), The E.M. Hare translation.
Five things that contribute to ill health, five that contribute to good health.
[AN 5.126] Dutiya Āyussa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Health Shall Spring Forth (b), The E.M. Hare translation.
Five things that contribute to ill health, five that contribute to good health.
A variation on the previous.
[AN 5.128] Samaṇa-dukkha-sukha Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Ills of a Recluse, The E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which are the special pains of a bhikkhu and five things which are the special pleasures of a bhikkhu.
[AN 5.129] Festering, The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Five deeds which result in rebirth in hell for the duration of a world cycle.
[AN 5.130] Profit, The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Five losses experienced by people in the world: loss of relatives, loss of wealth, loss through sickness, loss of ethical conduct, loss of perspective. Only loss of ethical conduct and perspective land one in Hell.
The suttas of this chapter [Suttas AN 5.121-130] would make a good basis for an anthology dedicated to those in the healthcare professions. "Buddhist Sayings for Healthcare Professionals"
[AN 5.131] Paṭhama Cakkānuvattana Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Onward Roll of the Wheel (a), The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha compares the rule of a monarch and the Teacher to the rolling of wheels. The factors that make for the lasting rule of a monarch are similar to those that made for the lasting of the Dhamma.
Hare has both the monarch and the Tathagata knowing Dhamma with a capital 'D'. This is probably the way this should be done throughout. We capitalize 'Tao.' Both the King and the Tathagata follow 'good form', which was known as 'the Dhamma'. What Gotama taught was that Dhamma as he saw it hense it came to be known as 'the Dhamma'. We should probably say 'The Dhamma according to Gotama' when speaking specifically of the teachings, but reverence for Gotama as well as appreciation for the perfect conformity of the Teachings with Good Form have blurred the difference. Otherwise when the meaning of the term is an ordinary thing, we should use lower case.
Hare cites the commentary when explaining the understanding of what 'knowing times' means. This needs to be understood in the case of the Monarch as knowing the appropriate time to speek or maintain silence (when an idea will best be received), knowing the time for military or diplomatic action or when to remain inactive, when to bestow gifts and honours, and so forth.
[AN 5.132] Dutiya Cakkānuvattana Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Onward Roll of the Wheel (b), The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha compares the succession of rule of a monarch by his eldest son and the role of Sariputta as the foremost of teachers after Gotama to the rolling of wheels. The factors that make for the lasting rule of a monarch are similar to those that made for the lasting of the Dhamma.
[AN 5.133] Dhammarāja Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Onward Roll of the Wheel (c), The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha compares the rule under Dhamma of a Wheel-turning king to the rule under Dhamma of the Tathagata.
[AN 5.134] Khatatiya-Rāja Suttaṃ, the Pali
In Every Quarter, The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha compares the attributes of a king that give him confidence with the attributes of a bhikkhu that give him freedom of heart.
[AN 5.135] Paṭhama Patthanā Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Aim (a), The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha likens five things that inspire a king's son to rule to five things that inspire a bhikkhu to attaining destruction of the corrupting influences.
[AN 5.136] Dutiya Patthanā Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Aim (b), The E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha likens five things that inspire a king's son to viceroyalty to five things that inspire a bhikkhu to attaining destruction of the corrupting influences.
[AN 5.137] They Sleep Little, The E.M. Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
The Buddha lists five persons so greatly preoccupied that they sleep very little.
[AN 5.217] Paṭhama Apāsādika Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Troubled Mind (a) The E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages of the troubled mind; five advantages of the untroubled mind.
An encouragement to straighten up your act to put your mind at ease.
[AN 5.241] Duccarita Suttaṃ the Pali,
One Who Has Walked in Evil The E.M. Hare translation.
Five disadvantages to be looked for by one who has carried on badly; five advantages to be looked for by one who has carried on well.

 


Tuesday, July 15, 2014
Previous upload was Tuesday, May 27, 2014


 

new Monday, July 14, 2014 4:37 AM [SN 5.47.5] Kusalarāsi Suttaṃ the Pali,
A Heap of Merit Woodward translation,
The Buddha contrasts the Hindrances with the Four Settings-up of Mind.

 

new Sunday, July 13, 2014 8:56 AM [SN 5.46.40] Nīvaraṇa Suttaṃ the Pali,
Hindrance, Woodward translation,
The Buddha contrasts the Hindrances with the Dimensions of Self-Awakening.

 

new Friday, July 11, 2014 7:21 AM Bārāṇasī, Benares. The complete D.P.P.N. article on Benares, the city where Gotama first taught Dhamma.

 

new Thursday, July 10, 2014 7:59 AM [SN 2.12.16] Dhammakathiko Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Norm-Teacher C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation,
Dhamma Teacher, Olds translation,
The Buddha describes how if one teaches even only one link in the Paticca Samuppada one may be called a Dhamma Teacher; if one practices only one link one may be called one who lives the Dhamma of the Dhamma; if one experiences freedom as a consequence of the experience of only one link one may be said to have won Nibbāna in this life. He repeats this three-fold formula for each of the links.
There is a strong hint in this sutta that each of the links in the Paticca Samuppada, if fully understood, encompass each of the other links.
[SN 2.12.67] Dhammakathiko Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Norm-Teacher C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation,
Sheaves of Reeds, Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Mahā-Koṭṭhita puts questions about the Paticca Samuppada to Sāriputta. He frames his questions in the form of the four basic propositions about existence put into questions about whether or not the links in the Paticca Samuppada are created by the self or other or both or neither.
Sāriputta's responses are followed by the 36 statements made in SN 2.16.
Rather than dispute with the other translations item by item, I have taken Mrs. Rhys Davids' translation and completely reworked it closely following the Pali. It amounts to almost a completely new translation but taking less than half the time of doing a complete new translation. This confirms to me the thought that with careful use of search and replace a complete collection of the suttas using a uniform 'best translation' vocabulary is within the realm of possibility.
The interesting and important thing in this sutta is the simile, which if given careful thought clears up any doubt as to what it is that the Paticca Samuppada is really saying. It is important to understand that this is not a simile about the coming into existence of the sheaves of reeds. In the simile the sheaves of reeds already exist. The simile is about the ability of the two sheaves of reeds to stand upright only insofar as they are supported by one another. We are here given insight into the meaning of the term 'paccaya', that is, that it means to lean on, support, or to be depended on. (Also, Bhk. Thanissaro's 'requisite condition') Here: 'supported by birth is aging and death' or 'depending on birth is aging and death'. This pretty much fundamentally changes all previous translations of the Paticca Samuppada that ... support the idea of creation or cause. I have used dependence, but also 'result' which is not quite correct and which I will as time and opportunity allows alter throughout this site to conform with this more precise understanding. Some persons are brought to understanding through similes.
[SN 2.12.68] Kosambi, Mrs. C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Venerable Savittha questions the Venerable Musila about whether or not apart from belief, inclination, hearsay, argument as to method, reflection on and approval of an opinion, he has, as his very own, the knowledge of the various steps of the Paticca Samuppada and of the knowledge that the ending of becoming is Nibbana. In all cases he states that he has such knowldge. And when the Venerable Savittha declares him an arahant he remains silent. Then the Venerable Narada, who has overheard this dialogue asks that the same questions be asked of him and when asked he responds in the same way. But when Savittha pronounces him too an arahant, Narada explains that while he has personal knowledge of these things, he has not attained them. And he gives the simile of the thirsty man who comes across a well with no means to retrieve the water.
It is an interesting mystery here as to what exactly Narada has accomplished. Has he just made the fact known that it is possible to know and see the goal without having achieved it, or is he making some statement concerning Musila's attainment and Savittha's understanding of what constitutes arahantship? Ananda, who is present during this dialogue makes a statement which seems to point to the latter case.
Mrs. Rhys Davids translates 'bhava' as 'becoming' which is not incorrect, but in it's place in the Paticca Samuppada it has more to do with the potential for being such and such a sort of so and so in some place of being, rather than the process of becoming such. Elsewhere she objects strenuously to the statement that the ending of becoming is Nibbāna as her whole position is that the Buddha's doctrine is the teaching of an on-going becoming. But this misses the point of the Paticca Samuppada which defines being as a matter of blindness to the fact that personal identification with acts intended to create the experience of being result in Pain.

 

You can lead a horse to water,
but you can't make her drink.

H: "Isn't the Boddhadamma an attempt to explain the nature of existence — If the Buddhadhamma is doing this "background" stuff, why shouldn't we do the same?"

There is a simile for the attitude that one must know the nature of existence before attempting to solve the problem of the pain associated with existence: The simile of the man shot with a poison arrow who demands to know who shot the arrow, what sort of poison was used, the wood used for the shaft, etc. before he will allow the doctor to treat the wound.

For most people, death, whether one's own or experienced in reaction to the deaths of others does not really seem to strike home as a sufficient reason to fear life. Further there is at work in this a disbelief (as contrasted to an open mind) in rebirth and without that the full impact of Dukkha cannot be comprehended.

And the reality in this case is that without this awareness of 'dukkha' as it really is one has no motivation to understand the reasons for the Buddha's practices beyond those that yield beneficial results in terms of worldly life (giving, the respect of men for ethical behavior and self-control). In other words, no one can make you understand the doctrine. There is no logical reasoning that will bring about what must be a gut feeling in reaction to seeing pain as it really is.

Buddhism can only be understood as a solution to this problem of dukkha. If one does not even acknowledge the problem of dukkha as the underlying reason people seek God or answers to the issues of existence and non-existence, there is nothing further to be done until this issue ripens into this perspective.

To say: "Isn't the Boddhadamma an attempt to explain the nature of existence"; and then: "If the Buddhadhamma is doing this "background" stuff, why shouldn't we do the same?" is to ignore the fact that again and again this issue has come up and been explained in exactly the opposite way:

"In the past and now I teach Dhamma only for the ending of pain."

And all the thousands of words concerning the so-called questions that Gotama would not answer are all this very issue.

All those questions are the questions of people who want to know the nature of existence: 'Is it?', 'Is it not?' 'Is one conscious after death?' 'Does one have form after death?' and all the rest of the 64 generic ways people struggle to pin down the nature of existence in the past, in the future and here and now.

When asked about the nature of existence, Gotama either states that he has no opinion on the matter, or if the question is put properly:

"What, then, Good Gotama, does the Good Gotama hold?"

he responds with the paticca samuppada:

Avijja. Blindness. Existence depends on ignorance of pain, the way pain arises, the way pain is brought to an end and the way to do it which is the path of intentional not-doings; (The problem is to recognize one's self in this and see that one who insistes on understanding the nature of existence before tackling the solution to the problem of pain has a completely upside down misunderstanding of what Gotama taught and why he taught it.

At the least this must suggest that one should abstain from declarations of what the Buddha taught and then using what is in fact one's own speculative opinion as the basis for further conclusions about what the Buddha suggests.

Sankhara: Ignorance results in identifying with acts of thought, word and body intended to create personal existence

Viññāṇā/nāma-rūpa: identificaion with acts of thought, word and body intended to create personal existence results in identification with consciousness of named shapes;
identification with consciousness of named shapes is the conscious awareness of existence identified with the six senses;
the sensations that arise from the contact of the six senses with their sense-objects;
Taṇhā: the hunger and thirst for re-experience of existence that arise from the sensations arising from sense experience.

This is the fuel feeding the impulse to act identifying with thoughts, words and deeds intended to create personal existence.

Acting in this way re-creates the personal world.

This is the 'nature of existence'.

This is as far as it can be explained without going into error.

It has nothing to do with 'it is' or 'it is not'.

As soon as one tries to push it into that construction one has split the totatality of it into opposing factions none of which can possibly be the whole truth.

Even when one tries to put the both sides together as with: 'it both is and is not' what one has done is to speak of two separate non-coexistent incompatable points of view as one unified point of view which is just to put that point of view into opposition with the two points of view from which it was formed and also into opposition with the opposite of that which is that it neither exists nor does not exist.

So it is a futile endeavour and is hanging on to the belief that one or another of these ways of seeing things is the "Truth", that is at the root of all the evil in the world. And that, that is, the force of evil, is what one becomes, insisting on adherance to a point of view.

And it is for that reason that one tackles the problem of pain in existence before trying to understand the nature of existence.

Look at the Four Truths: Is there anything there that says: "First we determine the nature of existence and then we tackle the problem of pain? No. The first truth is recognition that 'This' (whatever) is Pain. This, the ultimate doctrine of Buddhism begins and ends with the issue of pain.

Look at the first sutta where Gotama's very first instruction to his very first disciples is: avoiding the path of self indulgence and avoiding the path of self-mortification go up the path that is the four truths.

The path of self-indulgence is the path defined by those who hold that the self does not exist (eat drink and make Mary for tomorrow we die). The path of self-mortification has it's origin in the view that the self does exist (and it's evil impulses inspired by the devil must be supressed).

These two forms of behavior are the ultimate expressions of those points of view.

Neither of these two points of view end Pain, hense they are said to be pain.

And there is no taking one side or the other without setting rolling the impulse which eventually takes one to the ultimate expression of a point of view. It's the nature of mind. It pursues every idea to it's conclusion. This is why the Buddha says that holding wrong view ends in one of two results: in rebirth in hell or in one or another of the sub-human states such as as a deamon or as a ghost or as an animal. You either recognize this with your mind and struggle to escape or you go with the flow. The escape is what Gotama teaches.

To say that knowing this (settling in one's mind on some one or another speculative conclusion), which one in fact does not 'know' (it has no more substance than the faith in God), and which one cannot know because it is not a real thing and does not describe things the way they are, allows one to let go of concerns about 'self' and focus on concerns relating to the problem of pain is just deceiving one's self. Look at that argument.

Since one has not actually achieved the former how could one know that the latter is the result of such knowledge?

The problem of pain is the problem of concerns about one's self. This Dhamma is reality based. We do not concern ourselves with Pain as an abstract concept. It is a matter of personal concern. It is a matter of the pain of sickness and death in this life and re-birth leading to sickness and death in the next. Personal Pain. It is personal pain even in the case of these pains occurring to others. Compassion and sympathy and empathy are all based on the awareness of the (selfish) pain experienced by the self at the sufferings of others. Until one is free from the self altogether, it's all about the self.

Putting the order of priorities the other way around is having to know all about the arrow and it's maker before treating the poison and it's effects: you never get there. The nature of existence (seeing the paticca samuppada) cannot be seen before the solution to the problem of pain is seen. Intellectual understanding does not produce motivation to actually accomplish the fact of ending pain.

This mental attitude is understandable. We all take this position initially. But it is insane. The difference for the Buddhist is in the ability to recognize that the position is a result of fear of annihilation and to a lesser extent the fear of punishment for the guilt of existing and causing existence. The Buddhist recognizes that he is insane and takes steps to become sane.

Opening the eyes what first greets the eye is the impersonality of not existing in the world. It appears to be unbearable. But it is not the impersonality of not existing in the world that is unbearable. That fear is just a reflection of the intuitive knowledge that this world itself is of that same impersonal nature. The commradery of man is an illusion. What is unbearable is to see that having adopted sense-existence as a solution to impersonality has resulted in endless pain back to the beginning of Time and will result in endless pain down through Endless Time in the future and is a moan [om] of pain in the present and on top of all that has not resulted in the commradery of man that one wished for.

If one can recognize that the struggle to confirm existence in some form or another ia a matter of personal fear of non-existence, then one can view this as a personal weakness. Then, with what may be no better than desperate hope that there is some escape, one can adopt Gotama's system on a try-it-and-see basis rather than both pretending that you undersand it and arguing with it tooth and nail.

The thing is to try it.

This means, for example, with the understanding that ethical behavior is a matter of not-doing, that you notice when you are tempted to speak what you do not know,
and you do not say what you do not know;
or injure a living thing,
and you do not injure that living thing;
or take some thing that has not been given to you,
and you do not take that thing that has not been given to you;
or engage in a sensual indulgence at the expense of some aspect of your ethical standards,
and you do not engage in that sensual indulgence;
that you notice and make conscious to yourself the fact that you are aware that you will not experience the consequence of that breach of your ethical standards.

When you have noted and made conscious to yourself the fact that you will not experience the consequence of what would have been a breach of your ethical standards,
you then need to recognize that this is a freedom from pain,
and that that freedom from pain is not dependent on sense-experience,
that it is, in fact, dependent on not indulging in sense-experience,
and that that state of being free
is the state of impersonality you previously feared
and that it is not fearful at all.

This is also the knowledge that the pain you have avoided is of the same nature as the pain associated with all sense-existence and that it is that that is the real fear you feel when you contemplate annihilation.

This freedom from that fear is the freedom promised by Gotama that you have been seeking.

That is one proof to you that Gotama's system works.

Having that one proof you can argue with your fearful self that a second trial is in order.

Enough trials will form the basis for a stronger faith and greater effort and you will have set rolling a benevolent cycle which leads inevitably to ultimate freedom.

 


 

H: I don't think that knowing (seeing) that the self both exists and does not exist is necessarily a theory. The distinction, it seems to me, is whether one "sees," in which case it is not a theory, or whether one is only aware of this conceptually.

OBO: To see that it is not possible to see that a thing exists or does not exist and that therefore any belief or statement that one knows and sees that a thing exists or does not exist is self-deception based on a theory or conclusion one has reached with regard to what one has perceived at the senses:

First acknowledge that to see the nature of a thing one must first see that thing.

Then look at the process of perception through the senses: An object comes into contact with an organ of sense and sense-consciousness arises. Visual consciousness, auditory consciousness, consciousness of smell, taste, touch and ideas are the sense-objects of mind.

Mind takes sense-consciousnesses and forms an image in the mind of an object. This image is then woven into the individual's world of existing things and it is mistakenly believed to be being directly perceived in that world. It is not being directly perceived. What the individual sees is an imaginary construction. And it may or may not have anything to do with a real object in the world. There are demonstrations gallor in the world of psychology that show that perception is highly selective and often completely erroneous.

That's the first thing to realize.

Then examining a thing as perceived, note that there is no point in time or space where that thing is static. Down to the atomic level and below things are in constant flux; sensations, mental states, and ideas are in constant flux. A thing is a thing in the world strictly as a matter of a consensual acceptance of a name placed on a moving target.

It is for these reasons that one is not able to state, based on perception or reason, that a thing has any real existence.

On the other side, Gotama refused to state that the self does not exist because in the consensual reality a thing is said to exist. There is no denying the consensual reality, the subjective reality.

Further it cannot be said that a thing both exists and does not exist because the basic requirement of that statement is that the thing exists. We have shown, and it can be seen, that this is not a valid conclusion about what is there: from either side of the statement the other side is incorrect. To say that it is both things simultaneously is to claim to be able to see what one cannot see or to admit that one is not able to directly perceive the existence or non-existence of a thing and that what one is saying is valid only as a consensus name.

And again it cannot be said that a thing neither exists nor does not exist because the basic requirement of that statement is that the thing does not exist. And again we have shown, and it can be seen, that this is not a valid conclusion about what is there: from either side of the statement the other side is incorrect. To say that it is both things simultaneously is to claim to be able to see what one cannot see or is to admit that one is not able to directly perceive the existence or non-existence of a thing and that what one is saying is valid only as a consensus name.

The claim that one has directly perceived the reality of any statement concerning existence or non-existence of things is mistaking consensus name with direct seeing.

OBO: The result, when the last of an individual's already-set-rolling sense-experiences are used up or abandoned, is sensation, perception, and consciousness outside of the senses. The sensation is the sensation that arises from not-doing existence, or sensation that is neither unpleasant nor pleasant. Perception and consciousness are entirely devoid of ideas of self or ownership.

H: For me, as you have explained It above, the not-doing existence which results from "seeing" directly, when the nature of the ego self is seen as a fiction, does one come [Edit: amounts to?] to a not-doing existence. Resting there, one can deal with the existence of pain, by asking "existence questions" like What is pain, how is it caused, how is it stopped, and how to go about stopping it. Dealing with the existence of pain successfully seems to require a host of other questions which delve into the nature of pain. The Buddha has done this for us, but without following his thinking here (thinking about existence questions) we would be unable to successfully deal with the existence of pain as he understood it.

OBO: This is the problem with tackling understanding strictly through the intellect. There is no attaining the final result of not-doing existence, or Nibbāna without first having solved the problem of pain by abandoning (not just knowing and seeing) all that which is related to self.

The construction of your statement shows the fact that you conceive this state as being one which is attained by a self thus rendering your argument 'self'-contradictory. And it is in fact not a correct perception of the method.

It is not necessary to solve the problem of pain by delving into the nature of pain. It is necessary only to see that ending is built into the idea of existence and it is not the intent of the individual seeking existence to be experiencing endings.

In fact, it is not even necessary to have seen this much if one has an adventurous enough spirit to tackle the problem blindly. All that is needed is a willingness to experiment. As described earlier in the thread, one trial with not-doing, carefully examined for the results, will show the nature of the whole process. Insight is a result. Wisdom is a result of numerous insights. One does not pursue insight and wisdom by directly pursuing insight and wisdom. One pursues insight and wisdom by engaging in trial and error based on a thesis aimed at solving a problem.

Here the thesis, or working hypothesis, is the Four Truths. The nature of the Four Truths, as a thesis, is not the same as the thesis: 'It is'. The Four Truths do not engage in the discussion of existence and non-existence. The Four Truths is a thesis that is aimed at a specific problem which, when solved, results in the abandoning of the thesis.

The difference is that theories of existence and non-existence do not allow of abandoning; whereas the Four Truths is the use of theory to abandon theorizing.

H: I see no contradiction in having ideas of self, which are seen as false, and having a consciousness which is devoid of these ideas of self.

Exactly. You see no contradiction there. This is a result of living in the intellect. What you are saying is that there is no difference between a man sitting down to a meal and one imagining sitting down to a meal. That second man, if he does not give up that idea that there is no difference will soon enough starve to death.

 

new Saturday, July 05, 2014 8:13 AM [SN 5.52.8] Salaḷāgāra Suttaṃ the Pali,
Sāl-tree Hut, Woodward translation,
Venerable Anuruddha compares the difficulty of those who would try to persuade a long-time practitioner of the four settings-up of memory to give up his practice to the difficulty of trying to change the direction of the Ganges from flowing east to flowing west.

 

new Friday, July 04, 2014 7:38 AM Paṭibhāna, and translating AN 4.132. New discussion thread in Give Ear the translator's forum.
This is just a pick up from the discussion below. It seems to come up with every translator so some more permanent location for this discussion seemed needed.

 

new Wednesday, July 02, 2014 9:37 AM Psalms of the Sisters, Canto I. Psalms of Single Verses,
[THIG 13] Visākhā
There is no history of this bhikkhuni given, and both Warren and Hare assume this is Visākhā Migara's Mother, granddaughter of Uggaha, who is elsewhere documented to have been a lay follower her entire life. Cited at AN 5.32 n 1.
[THIG 16] Sumanā
The story of Sumanā, sister of King Pasenadi, who became a bhikkhuni when very old. She became an Arahant prior to her entering the order and also apparently without attaining the jhānas. A companion piece to AN 5.31.

 

new Sunday, June 15, 2014 3:53 PM [SN 4.40.1] Savitakka Suttaṃ the Pali,
Together with Thought Directed, Woodward translation,
With Thought, Olds translation.
Moggallāna, one of the two most powerful of the Buddha's followers, and the one whose strong point was magic power, describes his first attempts to master the the level of meditation practice called the First Jhāna.
The problem with Woodward's translation/conception of jhāna is his use of the term 'trance'. The jhānas, at a certain point definately resemble or might as well be called trances, but the implication of the word distorts the reality. What these states are is wide-awake, fully conscious awareness of higher than ordinary states of reality. The word 'jhāna' is the root of our word 'knowing' and it would be best to emphasize that aspect of jhāna over the fact that from the outside the individual highly concentrated in jhāna seems to be in a trance state. In later translations he uses the term 'musing' which is somewhat closer to what is happening.
I have pointed out in notes in and through my translation where I believe commentarial explanations have distorted the understanding of the first jhāna. The importance of this sutta is that it is being related by a master of the subject about the very beginning of his practice where he is, in theory at least, no more knowledgable about the subject than any beginner then or now. That this is an instruction for very beginners is the whole point of this sutta. So I think it is not unreasonable to state that the teaching should be taken at face value. In addition, supporting the idea that this is an instruction that if followed brings the promised result (the getting a grip on the first jhāna) the Buddha's private instruction to Moggallāna is also brought to bear on the subject. What is needed to be understood about the subject is said, no more, no less.
Because there is doubt surrounding the idea that the jhānas are necessary for full practice of Gotama's system, and where it is also clear that, push come to shove, the first jhāna will do, it is essential that any serious practitioner come to grips with what is reqired for this attainment. Here is the rulebook. There is the Pali and three translations. Dig in!
Speaking of which, there are those out there that have gone out on a limb and dug himself into a pit stating in no undertain terms that it is impossible, and ridiculing the idea, that there is thinking in the first jhāna. Take a look at the Pali. Just before Moggallāna recalls the formula for the first jhāana,before he has entered the first jhāna, — in which is found the terms 'sa-vitakka' and 'sa-vicāra' (my 'with thinking, with pondering', Woodward's 'accompanied by thought directed and sustained', Bhk. Bodhi's 'accompanied by thought and examination') he states that he has been 'parivitakka'-ing about the meaning of the term 'The First Knowing'. Parivitakka: 'Thinking about.' If these terms meant something other than the ordinary understanding of them, to avoid confusion here some distinction would need to be made concering their use in the one case and their use in the other. But in stead we have what is actually an emphasis on the idea that these terms are to be understood in the ordinary way by the use of the prefix: 'sa-', 'with.'
The jhānas are a progression of detachments. "The attaining of one state by the letting go of another." (Sāriputta). One begins by letting go of the rough worldly-bound obstructions known as the Nivaranas. That does not include all thinking. We need some stepping stone to the point of even greater detachment wherein there is no thinking (the second knowing): a place where we are able to clearly think and ponder over the Dhamma. That is the first knowing. This is something the layman is frequently described as being able to attain without a great deal of labor. You can do it! Do not listen to those who say it cannot be done!
[SN 4.40.2] Avitakka Suttaṃ the Pali,
Without Directed Thought, Woodward translation,
Without Thought, Olds translation.
Moggallāna, one of the two most powerful of the Buddha's followers, and the one whose strong point was magic power, describes his first attempts to master the the level of meditation practice called the Second Jhāna.
Most of the remarks regarding the previous sutta apply also to this one. With regard specifically to the second jhāna is my objection to translating the word 'samādhi' as concentration. Samādhi is not just concentration, it is the serene state of one who has developed the whole spectrum of attainments from giving to ethical conduct to self-control to development of mind and the factors as described within the jhānas, and characterized by the individual having no ambitions, having no sign of lust, hate or ignorance, and being empty of lust, hate and ignorance. In the first and second jhāna samādhi is only just beginning it's higher development.
[SN 4.40.3] Sukha Suttaṃ the Pali,
By Happiness, Woodward translation,
The Pleasant Abiding, Olds translation.
Moggallāna, one of the two most powerful of the Buddha's followers, and the one whose strong point was magic power, describes his first attempts to master the the level of meditation practice called the Third Jhāna.
[SN 4.40.4] Upekkhako Suttaṃ the Pali,
Balanced, Woodward translation,
The Pleasant Abiding, Olds translation.
Moggallāna, one of the two most powerful of the Buddha's followers, and the one whose strong point was magic power, describes his first attempts to master the the level of meditation practice called the Fourth Jhāna.
Woodward has for Upekkhā-sati-pārisuddhiṃ. "a state of perfect purity of balance and equanimity," which either ignores 'sati' or (unlikely) translates it as 'balance.' I argue that 'upekkhā', usually translated 'equanimity' should be translated 'detachment'. PED: "looking on", hedonic neutrality or indifference, zero point between joy and sorrow ... disinterestedness, neutral feeling, equanimity. Sometimes equivalent to adukkham-asukha-vedanā "feeling which is neither pain nor pleasure". (Which is the 'vedanā' of the Arahant, or the equivalent of Nibbāna.'Upekkhā' is also the equivalent of 'vimutti', 'freedom,' which is also the equivalent of Nibbāna.) I except "equanimity". Equanimity is a state of impassivity which is a precurser to detachment (see the Sixth Sambojjhanga) and is a state which is still involved with the world. The goal is a state that is at least temporarily not involved with the world.
[SN 4.40.5] Ākāsānañcāyatana Suttaṃ the Pali,
Space, Woodward translation,
The Realm of Endless Space, Olds translation.
Moggallāna, one of the two most powerful of the Buddha's followers, and the one whose strong point was magic power, describes his first attempts to master the the level of meditation practice called the The Realm of Endless Space.
[SN 4.40.6] Viññānañcāyatana Suttaṃ the Pali,
Consciousness, Woodward translation,
The Realm of Endless Consciousness, Olds translation.
Moggallāna, one of the two most powerful of the Buddha's followers, and the one whose strong point was magic power, describes his first attempts to master the the level of meditation practice called the The Realm of Endless Consciousness.
[SN 4.40.7] Ākiñcaññāyatana Suttaṃ the Pali,
Nothingness, Woodward translation,
The Realm of Naught Whose-Whatever, Olds translation.
Moggallāna, one of the two most powerful of the Buddha's followers, and the one whose strong point was magic power, describes his first attempts to master the the level of meditation practice called the The Realm of Naught Whose-Whatever.
My translation of this is just a stab in the dark. The current translation based on the idea of nothingness seems to miss the point: the idea is not that there is nothing, but that there is nothing there that can be had, or owned; or alternatively that there is nothing there that causes the obstructions lust, hate and delusion or that there is nothing there of the obstructions lust, hate and delusion. The one thing that is reasonably certain is that the meaning is not 'nothingness'.
[SN 4.40.8] N'evasaññānāsaññāyatana Suttaṃ the Pali,
Neither-perceiving-nor-non-perceiving, Woodward translation,
The Realm of Neither-perception-nor-non-perception, Olds translation.
Moggallāna, one of the two most powerful of the Buddha's followers, and the one whose strong point was magic power, describes his first attempts to master the the level of meditation practice called the The Realm of Neither-perception-nor-non-perception.
[SN 4.40.9] Animitta Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Unconditioned, Woodward translation,
Signless Serenity of Heart, Olds translation.
Moggallāna, one of the two most powerful of the Buddha's followers, and the one whose strong point was magic power, describes his first attempts to master the the level of meditation practice called Signless Serenity of Heart.
Still another term translated 'conditioned'. So when you see this word you need to look up the Pali. If it is 'Nidāna' it means 'tied to' 'bound up with'; if it is 'paṭicca' it means 'depending on', if it is 'sankhara' it means 'own-made or constructed' if it is 'nimitta' it means 'signs, signatures, marks'. 'The Unconditioned' is also the mistranslation used to describe Nibbāna, and the Signless is not yet Nibbāna. Bhk. Bodhi: 'signless concentration of mind'. What signs does one not dwell on? Pleasant or unpleasant features of things. The idea is not non-perception of objects, it is the state arrived at when not dwelling on the pleasant or unpleasant features of objects to the extent that lust, hate, or delusion arises. Lust, Hate and Delusion leave signs so the state arrived at is one in which no signs of these things are left. And that doesn't mean one covers one's tracks well, it means one leaves no track because those things do not exist in one there!)
[SN 4.40.10] Sakka Suttaṃ the Pali,
Sakka, Woodward translation,
Moggallāna visits the Tāvatiṃsa Realm and delivers an hypnotic spell in praise of the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha to Sakka and five hundred other devas. Sakka replies repeating the spell back to Moggallāna. Sakka then returns four more times with incresing numbers of devas. The same events are repeated with a variation on the spell.
As far as I am concerned there is no longer any doubt that these long repetititititive suttas at the conclusion of chapters are genuine hypnotic spells constructed to be delivered in full and which result in transporting the mind of the listener into higher dimensions. An invaluable glympse into old-time magic spells and dhamma teaching techniques. The translation is fully rolled out, the Pali I have left abridged but formatted for greater clarity.
[SN 4.40.11] Candano Suttaṃ the Pali,
Candana, Woodward translation,
Moggallāna visits the Tavatiṃsa Realm and delivers an hypnotic spell in praise of the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha to Candano, Suyāmo, Santusito, Sunimmito, and Vasavatti.
This should probably be 5 different Suttas, each identical to SN 4.40.10 with only the name of the deva changed. This is represented in the Pali only by the names of the devas and an indication that the previous sutta should be repeated with changes. As this is a separate file, I have reconstructed the first set with the changed name. With only my patchwork knowledge of Pali I may not have got the proper endings for the names in all cases in the Pali.
This concludes the formatting and uploading of the Moggallāna chapter (#40) of Samyutta Nikaya, Salayatanavagga.

 


 

For the accomplishment of knowledge and insight it is necessary to be energetic. Right on up to the point of achieving Arahantship there will be an energy-consuming effort to end bad habits that are present in one, prevent bad habits that are not yet present, acquire good habits that are not yet present and retain good habits that are present. Even the jhānas, which in theory require less energy than sleep, will require an enormous struggle with bad habits of body and mind before any lasting success at entering them can be expected. Energy is not acquired by eating more energy-producing food. Energy is acquired by the expendature of energy in ending bad energy wasting habits that are present in one, preventing bad energy wasting habits that are not yet present, acquiring good energy-conserving habits that are not yet present and retaining good energy-conserving habits that are present. This is a way of saying that what is required is a re-organization of one's energy allocations. Two areas where energy is commonly mis-deployed and can be usefully re-allocated are food consumption and sleep.

If you notice you are putting on weight in the form of fat, you are eating more than your body needs to produce the energy required to accomplish what needs to be accomplished by the body during the day: you are wasting energy.

Energy is being wasted on the expense of the wasted food. Energy is being expended in the digestion of the surpulus food. Energy is being expended in the storage and management of the extra nutrients (fat). The body is expending extra energy in carrying around the extra weight. Consuming more food than the body needs to produce the energy required to accomplish what needs to be accomplished by the body during the day results in fatigue. Feeling fatigue one sleeps or dozes or passes time in a daze. This is not helpful in attaining knowledge and insight. Sleep, beyond what the body needs to restore the alertness of the mind to accomplish what needs to be accomplished by the body during the day is a waste of valuable time that could be used for ending bad habits that are present in one, preventing bad habits that are not yet present, acquiring good habits that are not yet present and retaining good habits that are present. At the onset of fatigue, before stored energy is used, the body indicates a need for extra energy in the form of desire to eat. Acting on that desire is the fueling of the activities of the body that result from consuming more food than your body needs to produce the energy reqired to accomplish what needs to be accomplished by the body during the day, and not only does not consume previously stored nutrients, but adds to the storage burden. Noticing the burden (you see you are getting fat) and resorting to exercise is the addition of extra energy consuming activity to the daily routine, results in additional demands for nutrients to support that new activity which creates a completely useless energy-consuming cycle and does nothing to add to the energy supply or time needed to develop knowledge and insight. If unnecessary exercise does result in a healthy-appearing body, it will also result in the need to maintain that level of activity (and thereby reduce by that much time over time the time one could be using to develop knowledge and insight) and the result of that will be a habit of consumption of food based on that higher level of activity and should there come a time when that exercise is no longer possible or desirable, the consequence will be energy-consuming and mentally disturbing fatty flab. To bring the consumption of food down to the non-useless-exercise level is the same task as would be required to cut down on the original level of over-consumption that resulted in the overweight that resulted in the exercise in the first place.

Consumption of energy stimulants (herbs, pills, powders, caffinated drinks) work by combining a draw-down on emergency energy supplies (by stimulating adrenalin production) and the supression of the appetite that results in consuming more food than your body needs to produce the energy reqired to accomplish what needs to be accomplished by the body during the day and the result of that in fatigue. This is the left hand stealing from the right hand. What goes up must come down. If this artificial energy boost is used productively, the knowledge and insight gained will be that the habit of using energy stimulants is a hinderance to further knowledge and insight and will need to be eliminated. Back to square one.

We say nothing here about the danger to the quest for knowledge and insight that the danger that extra weight poses to the health of the body creates, including the time, energy and expense (and the time and energy expended in acquiring the funds to meet those expenses) consumed in battling disease caused by being overweight and of slothful habits.

Part of knowledge and insight is recognizing where we are behaving like a fool and eliminating those behaviors.

 

new Friday, June 13, 2014 9:52 AM [DN 25] The Lion's Roar to the Udumbarikans: On Asceticism, T.W. and C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Linked to the Pali.
Gotama instructs a group of ascetics on the way to bring the ascetic practice to it's highest perfection.
This is a rare case where the Buddha, even after making an heroic effort fails utterly. This is also a sutta which shows the absolutely vital role repetition plays in the suttas. This was a spell which was designed to bring a group of committed ascetics step-by-step to the topmost peak of their discipline with the intent of bringing them, from that point, over to Gotama's system. It worked as far as bringing the group to their highest development, but failed to bring them across. If you even just read this sutta and wake up at those points where you want to skip the repetition and make yourself conscious that it is exactly at these points where the sutta takes one into a higher dimension, then this sutta has the potential to deliver one a view of infinity. I would love to hear this one given by an old-time black broad-brim hat, fire and brimstone preacher man, circa 1770s (or even of today in some places in the S.E. USA). A real masterpiece.
[DN 28] The Faith That Satisfied, T.W. and C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Linked to the Pali.
The venerable Sāriputta makes an apparently unsupportable claim as to the Buddha's greatness. When he is called on it by the Buddha he makes good.
The challenge for the reader is to see how the venerable Sāriputta's defense is reasonable. Don't just accept that Sāriputta's arguments are reasonable because they are supported by a long list of Dhammas that are in their turn claimed to be unsurpassable. See how these dhammas are unsurpassable. See also how Sāriputta's defense has constructed a Dhamma lesson that has the potential to thoroughly establishe the doubter in Faith.

This roughly completes the formatting, and uploading of the digital edition of Volume III of the PTS translations of Dīgha Nikāya. Some of these were uploaded early and may be in abridged form or otherwise need a re-proofreading, but there is something there for each of the suttas in this volume. Volume I is also complete (although it is mostly without unabridgment and has not been carefully proofed. Many of the suttas are the versions found in Rhys Davids early translation collection 'Buddhist Suttas' and have not been compared to the SBB edition. Further, the Pali may be in the original state of the BJT edition). Still outstanding is Volume II.

 

new Tuesday, June 10, 2014 12:12 PM [MN 6] If a Bhikkhu Should Wish Horner translation.
Linked to the Pali, Warren's translation, Bhks' Ñanamoli/Bodhi Translation, and the translation of Sister Upalavana
Gotama emphasizes again and again the importance of perfecting ethical behavior, internal tranquillity of heart, not dispising jhāna practice, penetrating insight, and the making much of empty places for the gaining of every stage in his system from the very most elementary to the most advanced.
[MN 7] Discourse On the Simile of the Cloth Horner translation.
Linked to the Pali, Bhks' Ñanamoli/Bodhi Translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the translation of Sister Upalavana
The Buddha likens a dirty cloth incapable of taking dye to the mind corrupted by greed and covetousness, malevolence, anger, malice, hypocrisy, spite, envy, stinginess, deceit, treachery, obstinacy, impetuosity, arrogance, price and conceit — incapable of attaining a good rebirth. He then likens the cleansing of a dirty piece of cloth that renders it capable of taking dye to the process of cleansing the mind of these corruptions, and he describes this cleansing process.
[MN 16] Discourse on Mental Barrenness, Horner translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Rhys Davids Buddhist Suttas translation, and the translation of Sister Upalavana
Five things that are like spikes through the heart.
[MN 39] Greater Discourse at Assapura Horner translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the translation of Sister Upalavana
The Buddha gives the bhikkhus a full curiculum for the realization of Nibbāna.
This sutta presents the descriptions of the jhānas together with similes for each. [see also for these: AN 5.28, DN 2, MN 77] These similes are very helpful when it comes to the subjective judgment as to one's attainment of the jhāna. You should be able to see in what is happening in your own body the exact parallel with the simile.
It is significant that the terms used to indicate the way the jhāna is to be cultivated change at the fourth jhāna. There is an internal parallel within these terms between them and the similes which should be reflected in their degree and order. Again, the idea is of a progression in degree of wetness. Here from wetting dry soapflakes to the total immersion of the flowering lotus. These 'wettings' apply with regard to pleasant sensations from the first to the third jhāna. Entering the fourth jhāna requires that these sensations be let go, and the simile is a dry image characterized by the idea of purity, cleanliness, and a stationary posture.
PED's definitions vaguely hint at the idea of progressive saturation.
So for the similes, the progression is: first a wetting, second a penetrating injection, third a flowering in total immersion, and fourth a dry image which suggests a view detached from the completely encompassed body which in turn suggests that the idea may be more of an objective view of what is happening to the body than the subjective view being implied by the terms indicating how the first three jhāna are to be cultivated.
Done properly the result should be a dual progression from the point of first attaining to the first jhāna to the point where it can be abandoned, to the point of first attaining the third jhāna to the point where it can be abandoned, to the point where by abandoning the third jhāna one emerges from the wetness by abandoning the totally encompassed body altogether. Or stated another way: from jhāna to deeper into the jhāna and from jhāna to jhāna. To the end of making this more evident in the terms, the following new translations are suggested here:

Pali Abhisandeti1 Parisandeti2 Paripūreti3 Parippharati4
New Suggested Translation permeates pervades submerges encompasses
Olds [course] soak permeate suffuse saturate
Rhys Davids [DN 2] pervade drench permeate suffuse
Horner [MN 39] drenches saturates permeates suffuses
Hare [AN 5.28] steeps drenches fills suffuses
Bhk. Thanissaro [MN 39] [DN 2] permeates pervades suffuses fills
Bhk. Bodhi [AN 5.28] drench steep fill pervade

[1] Abhisandeti. PED: to make overflow, to make full, fill, pervade

[2] Parisandeti. PED: to make flow round, to make overflow, to fill,

[3] Paripūreti. PED: to fulfil; to fill (up), make more full, supplement, fill out, add to

[4] Parippharati. PED: to pervade

In addition to the similes for the jhānas, similies are also given for the 'three knowledges' of the Arahant: Seeing past lives, seeing the outcome of kamma (which is also given as the Buddhist understanding of forseeing the future), and knowledge of the Corrupting Influences (āsavas).
All these similes are emensely helpful when it comes to 'bending down the mind' to understanding. The concluding simile, for the state of having got rid of the assavas, is one of the most revealing images of the Arahant one could ask for:

Seyyathā pi, bhikkhave,||
pabbatasankhepe udakarahado accho vippasanno anāvilo,||
tattha cakkhumā puriso tīre ṭhito passeyya||
sippisambukam pi,||
sakkharakaṭhalam pi,||
macchagumbam pi,||
carantam pi,||
tiṭṭhantam pi,||
tassa evam assa:
|| ||

"Ayaṃ kho udakarahado accho vippasanno anāvilo,||
tatir'ime sippisambukā pi||
sakkharakaṭhalā pi||
macchagumbā pi||
caranti pi||
tiṭṭhanti pī' ti.
|| ||

Just as though there were, beggars,
at the consummation of a rugged mountain range,
a waterhole,
translucent, pure, tranquil,
standing on the edge,
a man with eyes, seeing
just oyster-shells
just potsherd-fragments
just schools of fish
just meandering around
just remaining still.

Thus it would be for him:

"This then is a waterhole,
translucent, pure, tranquil,
and these are just oyster-shells
just potsherd-fragments
just schools of fish
just meandering around
just remaining still."

 

... what more cool, utterly devastating way could you put it?


[MN 77] Greater Discourse to Sakuludāyin Horner translation.
Linked to the Pali, the translation of Sister Upalavana
A comprehensive exposition of the Buddha's system with all the very helpful similes for the jhānas, magic powers, seeing past lives, seeing the outcome of deeds and having got rid of the corrupting influences.
[see also for these: AN 5.28, DN 2, MN 39]The final stage, getting rid of the corrupting influences [āsavas], (or the stage describing attainment of arahantship) is an abridged version. It is so abridged in the Pali, and it looks as though it were abridged because those wanderers that were in the audience did not get that far at this time. Just a guess.

 

new Monday, June 09, 2014 7:50 AM A new exercise which will be added to the Exercises section. A synthesis of Don Juan's 'Recapitulation' and the Satipaṭṭhāna practice.

Katamañ ca bhikkhave sati-balaṃ?|| ||

Idha bhikkhave ariyasāvato satimā hoti||
paramena sati-nepakkena samannāgato||
cirakatam pi cirabhāsitam pi saritā anussaritā.|| ||

"And what, beggars, is Mind-Power?

Here the student of the Aristocrats has memory:
with accomplished, superior mastery of mind,
the long-ago-done, the long-ago-said long-ago recollected.

— Olds, trans. See also AN 5.14 Hare

Recapitulation

A practice for Development of the Memory,
Stimulating Insight and Releasing Energy

A Buddhist Memory-building Exercise
combining Satipaṭṭhāna Practice
and the Recapitulation Practice of Don Juan Matus.

 

First ThingStep 1: Write down the names of every person you have known in your entire life. If you cannot remember a name use some descriptive term as a place-holder. This is not the impossible task it appears to be at first. By 'known' is meant any person with whom you have had any direct, person-to-person interaction that carried emotional impact or stimulated the mind. You should include 'unknown friends', that is friends you have interacted with although you have not actually met them, such as persons you have met on the internet, pen-pals, etc.

Second ThingStep 2: Arrange the list in chronological order. The list will grow over time.

Third ThingStep 3: In sit down practice, focus your mind on your mouth and then additionally on your in-and-out breaths. Then, work down the list from the present, one individual at a time concentrating on remembering every interaction with this person from the first time you met to the last encounter. Recollect down to the smallest details all the surroundings (follow the instructions for minding the body in the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta), all the sensations experienced, the mental/emotional states that occurred reviewing all through the lens of the Dhamma as found at the end of the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta. As you call this person to mind, breath in penetrating knowledge (comprehension and awareness of the details) and breath out release from any tension you notice connected with the recollection. Do this again and again with each person on the list to the point of satisfaction: where there is no content in your memory of this person that is a mystery or which arouses pleasant or unpleasant sensations or mental states reflecting anything other than complete objective detachment. To the point where there is no wishing or wanting whatsoever connected with this person. You will know when this has been accomplished by attention to the breathing. Initially there will be a deep exhalation which will be clearly seen as a release of tension ("a sigh of relief") followed by smoothness of breathing. When the breath is completely free of disturbance you have liberated the energy locked up in the memory of this person.

This will be a life-long exercise. The practice is expanded by adding new categories to be recapitulated: e.g., dwellings, cities, countries, jobs, illnesses, clothing, food, books, movies and any other thing that may have trapped one's attention.

This practice is completely encompassed by the four settings-up of mind [satipaṭṭhāna]. This presentation in specific terms is not a statement that this is the entire scope of the Satipaṭṭhāna practice. It is just one exercise within it which I have personally used and found very helpful with results that are both swift and are easily seen to strenthen the memory, release energy and bring progress towards the goal of objective detachment.

The same caution holds for the Recapitulation practice of Don Juan. This is only the beginning practice in a very complex system.

Don Juan's breathing practice is different than that used in the Satipatthana technique. In his practice one synchronizes the in-breath with a smooth movement of the head from right to left, inhaling, as with the Satipatthana technique, penetrating knowledge of what has been visualized; and again synchronizing the out-breath with a smooth movement of the head from left to right expelling all attachment to the visualized object. At the point where the breath is smooth and detachment is clear, the head is moved rapidly but smoothly to the right and left without breathing in a jesture of closure and dismissal of any futher attachment to the object in the future. This involves intentional movements of the body which are not consistant with the later developments in the Buddhist Practice, but in that the technique is effective, it might be adopted in the interum with the intent that as practice becomes perfected the 'sweeping' movements of the head and the jesture of closure will be done mentally.

Note that there is an important distinction between the ordinary way we reminisce about the past and and 'remembering or recapitulting a episode from the past'. Reminiscing is recalling the events of the past and re-living them with the mind-set of the present. The job of recapitulation, the task that will free-up energy tied up in past situations, is to recollect the sensations and perceptions that were present and being experienced by one in the past situation.

Further, it is my experience that there are multiple levels of perception which will come to bear on the various objects of examanation. A person who may have been seen as having been of little importance at one level will, at a later time be seen as pivotal to very important later developments. Therefore in the act of dismissal one should not incororporate the intent that this object will never be revisited again. Attachment at a certain level is dismissed while alowing that one might not yet have seen the whole picture.

obo

 

new Friday, June 06, 2014 12:23 PM [AN 5.11] Tathāgata Bala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Things Unheard Of, Hare translation.
Five powers of the Tathāgata. (One who has 'got it,' but in this case, The Buddha, who often refers to himself in this way.)
[AN 5.12] Kūṭa Suttaṃ aka Sekhabalaagga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Peak, Hare translation.
Between the powers of faith, conscientiousness (sense of shame), fear of blame, energy and wisdom, wisdom is considered the peak. Hare translates 'paññā' as 'insight.'
[AN 5.13] Bala-Saŋikhitta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Powers In Brief, Hare translation.
The five Powers: faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom. Hare translates: faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration and insight.
[AN 5.14] Bala-Vitthata Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Powers In Detail, Hare translation.
The Buddha defines faith-power, energy-power, mind-power, serenity-power and wisdom-power.
[AN 5.15] Bala-Daṭṭhabba Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Where To Be Seen, Hare translation.
Practices and accomplishments where faith-power, energy-power, mind-power, serenity-power and wisdom-power may be seen as they actually are. The word used here is 'daṭṭha' which is the seeing of one who sees, not the seeing of one who understands just the theory. Do these things and you will see the powers. Not things that are evidence of the powers.
[AN 5.16] Bala Agga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Peak, Hare translation.
Between the faith-power, energy-power, mind-power, serenity-power and wisdom-power, wisdom-power is considered the peak.
[AN 5.17] Attahita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
For Whose Good? (a), Hare translation.
By perfecting ethical behavior, serenity, release and knowledge and vision of release in himself, but not working to perfect these things in others one is working for one's own good, but not that of another.
[AN 5.18] Parahita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
For Whose Good? (b), Hare translation.
By striving to perfect ethical behavior, serenity, release and knowledge and vision of release in others, but not in himself, one is working for the good of others, but not for his own good.
[AN 5.19] N'eva Attahita-no Parahita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
For Whose Good? (c), Hare translation.
By neither striving for the perfection of ethical behavior, serenity, release and knowledge and vision of release in himself nor in others one is working for neither the good of himself nor of others.
[AN 5.20] For Whose Good? (c), Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
By both striving for the perfection of ethical behavior, serenity, release and knowledge and vision of release in himself and in others one is working for the good of himself and of others.
[AN 5.21] Paṭhama Agārava Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Without Respect (a), Hare translation.
A Paticca Samuppada-like sutta showing the progressive interdependence of living respectfully and harmoniously with others, keeping the minor precepts, adhering to the seekers training, living ethically, understanding high views, and attaining serenity.
[AN 5.22] Dutiya Agārava Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Without Respect (b), Hare translation.
A Paticca Samuppada-like sutta showing the progressive interdependence of living respectfully and harmoniously with others, keeping the minor precepts, adhering to the seekers training, fully developing ethical behavior, attaining every degree of serenity, and fully developing wisdom.
[AN 5.23] Upakkilesa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Debasements, Hare translation.
The Buddha likens the process of purifying the mind to the process of purifying gold. Then he describes five super-normal powers attainable with the purified mind.
[AN 5.24] Dussīla Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Debasements, Hare translation.
The Buddha outlines the progressive interdependence of ethical behavior, serenity, knowing and seeing, disenchantment and dispassion, and knowing and seeing freedom. Hare who previously used 'insight' for 'paññā,' 'wisdom' here uses 'insight' for 'dassana,' seeing, so it is necessary to discover which he is referring to when you encounter this term in his translations. He has translated the final step, 'vimutti-ñāṇa-dassana' 'emancipated knowledge and insight.' Bhk. Bodhi (I believe more correctly) here has: 'knowledge and vision of liberation.' Where having known and seen freedom as freedom does result in emancipated knowledge and freedom, what is being spoken of in this sutta is the consequence of having dispassion and disenchantment. The immediate result of that is knowing and seeing freedom. It is not sufficient to attain freedom. One must know that one is free and know that this freedom is the freedom one has been seeking. Otherwise there will be nothing to prevent recrudescence of existence and birth. The earlier 'knowing and seeing' is the knowing and seeing of the Four Truths or the seeing of and approval of the theory, an achievement of the Streamwinner.
[AN 5.25] Helped On, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Five things of great assistance in the development of freedom of heart and mind and the things that result from freedom of heart and mind.
[AN 5.26] Vimuttāyatana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Release, Hare translation.
Five detailed descriptions of situations that result in freedom.
There is confusion throughout the translations and within the translations of individual translators between the translations of 'vimutti' and 'vimokkha'. The distinction is that 'vimokkha' is a temporary state, 'vimutti' is a synonym of Nibbāna.' I suggest 'Release' is better for 'Vimokkha' and 'Freedom' be used for 'Vimutti.'
[AN 5.27] Concentration, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Five knowledges that arise in one who developes immeasurable serenity.
[AN 5.28] Concentration, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Consummate Samādhi described as consisting of five dimensions (the four usual jhānas and observation of the sign) and yielding skill in the higher knowledges.
This description of the jhānas has with it the similes which are very helpful in visualizing the progression of the jhānas. [see also for these: DN 2, MN 39,MN 77] However this translation reflects neither vision nor a close adherance to the Pali and messes up the imagry to the point of uselessness. Hare has especially botched up the simile for the fourth jhāna, and to complicate that either he has translated it backwards or there was an editorial error which reverses the meaning. The descriptions of the jhānas and the similes that accompany them are not simply descriptions or recipes, they are also hypnotic suggestions which draw one into the jhāna. All their magic is lost if the repeated phrases are not repeated exactly and if the ordering of the words does not reflect the progressive deepening of the experience. See 'The First Burning' and following for my version.
In this sutta the fifth item (observing the sign) is one that is not seen elsewhere connected with sammā samādhi or the mastery of higher powers and it's meaning here is subject to question. There is no support in the sutta itself for the idea that this is paying attention to a concentration device, or the so called 'reflex image,' or to the subject of one's meditation. I believe the key is in the simile which is of a man observing another man while standing, observing while standing another man who is sitting, and sitting observing another man who is lying down. I believe what is being observed is the body and it's state of serenity and that there is, in the idea of 'a man', a symbolic imagry for memonic purposes which is humorous. Note that the final, always the highest state, is supine.
[AN 5.29] The Alley-Walk, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Olds [revised] translation, and to theAggacitta Bhikkhu and Kumara Bhikkhu translation.
Five advantages from using the Place to Pace.
[AN 5.30] The Venerable Nāgita, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha explains to his attendant Nāgita why he will not accept the food-gifts of a large number of people who have gathered together to do him homage on hearing of his arival in their town.
It is interesting to try and understand the reasoning here as elsewhere the Buddha goes to great lengths to encourage giving. The distinction appears to be that these people have not arrived to hear Dhamma, but only to 'see' the Buddha and make merit by giving their gifts.
The key word to understand in this sutta is samāgama. Hare: 'homage'; Bhk. Thanissaro: 'honor'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'fame', PED: 'intercourse. saŋ= own, with, con; āgama = to cause to come. In the text Gotama indicates that it is a word for gains, honors, and fame. I think 'homage' covers more of this territory than 'honor' or 'fame.' Gotama apparently perceives the motives of the group as consisting of empty homage.
We know from the fact that Nāgita was at this time Gotama's attendant, that this is an early event, so this supports the idea that in the early stages of the Buddha's career the meditation practice of choice was apparently the contemplation of the unpleasant and the disadvantages of existence rather than minding the breathing.
We don't know much about Nāgita except that he was supposed to have been fat and lazy. See also: AN 6.42 and AN 8.86
[AN 5.31] Sumanā, the Rajah's Daughter, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
Sumanā, Raja Pasanadi's sister, has waited a long time to join the order as she first felt the need to take care of her grandmother. Before even she is initiated she becomes a non-returner and then an arahant. In this sutta she asks the Buddha about the results of making gifts.
[AN 5.33] Uggaho Meṇḍakanattā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Uggaha, a Householder, the Hare translation,
Uggaha invites the Buddha to a meal to instruct his daughters in the behavior that will profit them in this life and the life hereafter.
This is one all women should read and take to heart. I suggest reading it keeping in mind it's framework: There was a general belief in kamma at the time and where there is a belief in kamma the emphasis is on one's behavior, not on where in the pecking order one is located. However it came about there was a belief at the time that women belonged in the kitchen and were subserviant to their husbands. Consequently the Buddha's advice to these girls would be such as would, if followed, result in the best outcome in terms of kamma. Believing in kamma, fighting for equality rather than directing one's energies to the perfecting of one's role as fated by one's kamma and making good kamma, results in bad kamma. Take a look. It's fighting. Complaining. Resisting. Argument and contention. Angry emotions and hateful thoughts, words, and deeds.
Everyone who believes they believe in the teachings of the Buddha would be well to think about their reactions to this issue. The difference is in seeing injustice versus fighting for justice. Fighting for justice in any other way than by being a good example and by explaining matters with compassion for all is an indication that one does not understand/believe in kamma. If one does not understand kamma, one does not understand the point of the Buddha's teachings. Not understanding one will hold opinions about suttas like this which will amount to thinking that the Buddha did not know what he was talking about or doing. Holding such opinions one will make statements to that effect and the result of that will not only be bad kamma for one's self but will also be leading other people astray.
Now get back in that kitchen and rattle those pots and pans!
[AN 5.34] Sīha the General, the Hare translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Olds, and Bhk. Thanissaro translations.
Sīha the General asks the Buddha if there is any visible result of giving. He is given five examples.
[AN 5.35] The Advantages from Gifts, the Hare translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Olds, translation.
Five advantages to be gained as a result of giving.
[AN 5.36] The Timely Gift, the Hare translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Olds, and Bhk. Thanissaro translations.
Five occasions when it is the right time to give.
[AN 5.37] The Gift of a Meal, the Hare translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Olds, and Bhk. Thanissaro translations.
Five benefits from giving food to a bhikkhu.
[AN 5.38] The Gift of a Meal, the Hare translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
Five advantages of faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha.
[AN 5.39] Putta Suttaṃ, the Pali
They Desire a Son, the Hare translation,
Five thoughts in the minds of those who wish for a son.
It is interesting that 'carrying on the family's name,' the reason given for such a wish one hears most frequently here today [USA Saturday, July 05, 2014 4:57 AM] is not one of these. I wonder where and why the idea of giving the names of both male and female lines fell off. Ancient India and some cultures, and the ancient European aristocracy preserve this system. There was a movement here for a while to use hyphonated names, but I believe this was more a desire to appear aristocratic than to restore gender equality and for that reason it seems to have been a passing fad.
[AN 5.40] Mahā Sāla Suttaṃ, the Pali
Sal Trees, the Hare translation,
Supported by a clan chief that has faith, a family grows in five ways.
[AN 5.41] On Getting Rich, the Hare translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Olds and Bhk. Thanissaro translations.
Wealth management for the Buddhist. Five steps to take to enjoy and protect one's wealth that leave one satisfied that one has done the best one could whether wealth increases or is lost.
[AN 5.42] Sappurisa Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Good Man, the Hare translation,
When a good person is born into a family it brings advancement, benefits and happiness to many people.
[AN 5.43] What is Welcome, the Hare translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha tells Anāthapiṇḍika, that long life, beauty, happiness, honor and rebirth in heaven hereafter is not to be got by prayers or wishing — one must walk the walk-to-walk ('paṭipadā') to get these things.
Hare quotes the Commentary: living a generous, ethical life guided by wisdom. Elsewhere in the suttas themselves long life is said to be got through harmlessness, beauty through being good tempered, honor through non-envy and respect of others, and rebirth in heavon through giving and mental culture. Generosity alone is also mentioned as yielding all these results. And wisdom would guide one to doing all these things if for no other reason than covering one's bets.
[AN 5.44] Manāpadāyī Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Giver of Good Things, the Hare translation,
A sutta about Ugga the Housefather of Vesali who is a giver of good things in a very gracious manner.
Here is a good model of how to give and receive.
[AN 5.46] Pañca Sampadā Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Perfectings, the Hare translation,
Five things which are real achievements when brought to perfection.
[AN 5.47] Pañca Dhana Suttaṃ, the Pali
Treasures, the Hare translation,
Five things which should be considered treasures.
[AN 5.48] States Not To Be Got To, the Hare translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Pali and Olds translation.
The distinction between the disciples of Gotama and the commoner in facing aging, sickness and death, passing away, and dissapearance.
[AN 5.49] The Kosalan, the Hare translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Helmuth Hecker and Sister Khema translation.
Pasenadi, king of Kosala is visiting the Buddha when he is told of the death of his chief Queen, Mallika. He is very upset and Gotama instructs him with the distinction between the disciples of Gotama and the commoner in facing aging, sickness and death, passing away, and dissapearance.
The instruction is identical with the previous sutta. It is very difficult for us in the West to see how this sort of response to a person in grief could be understood as compassion. I have personally faced the situation and not been able to respond as directly as in this example. The best I could come up with was to say that "In the ancient system of the Buddha the response to a person in grief was to say something like 'It is the destiny of all personal things to come to an end.' And then explain that however much grief might be being felt, what it came down to was that this was not grief for the dead person, but grief for the self missing the companionship of the dead person, and that by letting go of this display of grief he would be saving himself useless and embarassing display of self-pity. The idea that the display of grief is a joy to one's enemies and a pain to one's friends is also a strong argument in this situation.
[AN 5.50] Nārada Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Venerable Nārada, the Hare translation,
The Venerable Nārada instructs rajah Muṇḍa with a sutta that draws the distinction between the disciples of Gotama and the commoner in facing aging, sickness and death, passing away, and dissapearance.
The sutta that is given to rajah Muṇḍa is identical to that of the previous two suttas, and the circumstance is similar to the previous sutta, but this is happening many years later and the king is the great grandson of Ajātasattu. In SN 2.12.68 we see Bhk. Nārada before he became arahant.
[AN 5.51] A Check, the Hare translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
The Buddha likens a person mastered by wishing for sense pleasure, hate, lazy ways and inertia, fear and trembling, and doubt and vacillation (the Nivaranas — diversions) to a stream which has been diverted and no longer has it's original strength or free will. Then he likens a person who has mastered desire for sense pleasures, hatred, lazy ways and inertia, fear and trembling and doubt and vacillation to a stream whose diversions have been closed off and which has regained its strength and free will.
Once again the simile points the way to the correct translation of 'nivarana', that is, 'diversion' or that which diverts. The majority of translators use 'hindrance', but it can be seen from the simile that what is being spoken of is not an obstruction (another translation that has been used) but something that is syphoning off the forward momentum of the stream. I think we can see here a difference in the mentality of this day and age [USA, Sunday, July 13, 2014 11:47 AM A.D.] from that of the followers of Gotama in his day and age [c.500 B.C.], that is the tendency to put off our problems onto the world or others. That which obstructs does not involve the will of the individual or necessarily reduce his strength and freedom, whereas diversions are by their nature participated in by the individual and to whatever degree that is so weaken his strength and diminish his individual willpower.
[AN 5.52] Akusalarāsi Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Heap, the Hare translation,
The Buddha declares the diversions as a constillation of the unskillful. See also for this: SN 5.47.5
[AN 5.53] The Limbs, the Hare translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
The Buddha describes five personal dimensions to making effort.
[AN 5.54] Asamaya - Samaya Suttaṃ, the Pali
Times for Striving, the Hare translation,
The Buddha describes features of the seasonable and unseasonable time for making effort.
This is a discouraging sutta for these times and this old man. What can it mean that Gotama who is always so encouraging is here saying that there are times which are just no good for making effort? I believe what is being spoken of is better thought of as 'all-out effort' directed at attaining nothing less than arahantship as opposed to the home life where realistically the highest one can hope to attain is non-returning (arahantship for the layman is possible, but extraordinarily difficult to manage). For all out effort what is needed is a the complete, virtually unretrievable renunciation of one's worldly goods and the total dependence on one's kamma. Complete abandoning of every tie to the world. This is not going on retreat for two weeks on one's vacation. This is not even retiring into a monestary as they are set up today where one can count on one's food, cloting, medicine and shelter and the politics of monestary management. Think about what 'total renunciation' would mean here today. [USA, Tuesday, July 15, 2014 3:24 AM]. Step out into this land without money with only one set of cloths and a bowl and in all likelihood one would be in jail before nightfall. It isn't that people are not generous. I have seen people survive on the streets of New York for five years and more with the assistance of the antifreeze alcohol. But their's is a life of misery and endless fear an harassment. The people here are the most generous in the world, but there are also very many that are so intollerant or fearful of poverty that they are easily persuaded to act violently towards any person projecting an image of what can happen to them too should their flimsy supports dry up. To voluntarily jump into that fire would be to risk everything for a situation that would not be conduscive to serenity, methinks. And I think that it is this degree of commitment that is intended in this sutta, not the abandoning altogether of the quest. Again the seeker who begins the journey in old age is not only faced with the disagreeable effects that result from the giving up of old habits, but he must also face the continual unpleasantness of a body in decay. There are a number of cases in the suttas where those who have just started in old age have even attained arahantship, but the case with the better prognosis would be the one where in youth one got a running start so as to establish control over the mind before the onset of the painful decay of the body. So again I think in this case the ideas is the encouragement of the young to take advantage of their youth when that is possible more than the idea of discouraging the elderly from any idea of effort. Again, imagine attempting the life in places in Mexico where there are violent drug gangs kidnapping anyone with the least prospect of bringing in a ransom and murdering seemingly at random, a peaceful people in fear and suspicious of any abnormal behavior, and violent and corrupt vigalantes and police. Or think about becoming a beggar in one of those African countries continually plagued by famine. Do you have enough personal power to be able to assure yourself that food given to you is of more benifit to the giver than eating it himself? There are things that one faces in the highly sensitive state of one near starvation and without the assurance of conventional resources that can drive one mad. I think the advice given in this sutta can be seen not as discouragement but as a warning to those whose faith might lead them into taking useless action.

 


 

[Florinda Donner is speaking with Isidoro Baltazar:] "Sorcerers," he went on, "make one see that the whole nature of reality is different from what we believe it to be; that is, from what we have been taught it to be. Intellectually, we are willing to tease ourselves with the idea that culture predetermines who we are, how we behave, what we are willing to know, what we are able to feel. But we are not willing to embody this idea, to accept it as a concrete, practical proposition. And the reason for that is that we are not willing to accept that culture also predetermines what we are able to perceive.

"Sorcery makes us aware of different realities, different possibilities, not only about the world but also about ourselves, to the extent that we no longer are able to believe in even the most solid assumptions about ourselves and our surroundings."

I was surprised that I could absorb his words so easily, when I didn't really understand them.

"A sorcerer is not only aware of different realities," he went on, "but he uses that knowledge in practicalities. Sorcerers know — not only intellectually but also practically — that reality, or the world as we know it, consists only of an agreement extracted out of every one of us. That agreement could be made to collapse, since it's only a social phenomenon. And when it collapses, the whole world collapses with it."

Seeing that I couldn't follow his argument, he tried to present it from another angle. He said that the social world defines perception to us in proportion to its usefulness in guiding us through the complexity of experience in everyday life. The social world sets limits to what we perceive, sets limits to what we are capable of perceiving. "To a sorcerer, perception can go beyond these agreed-upon parameters," he stressed. "These parameters are constructed and buttressed by words, by language, by thoughts. That is, by agreement."

"And sorcerers don't agree?" I asked tentatively, in an effort to understand his premise.

"They do agree," he said, beaming at me, "but their agreement is different. Sorcerers break the normal agreement, not only intellectually but also physically or practically or whatever one wants to call it. Sorcerers collapse the parameters of socially determined perception, and to understand what sorcerers mean by that, one has to become a pracitioner. That is, one has to be committed; one has to lend the mind as well as the body. It has to be a conscious, fearless surrender."

Florinda Donner, Being-in-Dreaming

 


 

new Wednesday, May 28, 2014 3:22 PM Mallikā, New Personality Page.
Some biographical information on Queen Mallikā. A great love-story.

 

new Wednesday, May 28, 2014 7:55 AM [AN 4.196] Sāḷaha Suttaṃ the Pali,
Sāḷha, Woodward translation.
By way of similes the Buddha shows general Sāḷha, that so called purification by way of self-mortification is a useless outward practice and cannot lead to overcoming blindness and the freedom gained through knowledge and vision and that what is needed is purification by both external and internal perfection.
[AN 4.197] Mallikā Suttaṃ the Pali,
Mallikā Woodward translation.
Linked to the Warren translation.
Queen Mallikā asks Gotama about the reasons some women have beauty, wealth, and power while others do not.
[AN 4.198] Tapa Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Self-Tormentor Woodward translation.
Four persons found in the world: One who torments himself, one who torments others, one who torments both and one who torments neither himself nor others. A very long, detailed sutta.
[AN 4.200] Affection Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
Four ways liking and disliking arise and the way that jhāna and the destruction of the corrupting influences bring about a condition where there is neither liking nor disliking. One who has attained such a state is said neither to attract nor to repel, neither to smoulder nor to blaze up, and is not burnt-up. The Pali is full of play on the root = to burn, to be born, and to know.
[AN 4.201] Sappurisa Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Precepts Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the attributes of the good man and the good man of good men and the bad man and the bad man of bad men. Based on ethics.
[AN 4.202] Dutiya Sappurisa Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Believer Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the attributes of the good man and the good man of good men and the bad man and the bad man of bad men. Based on his development of various powers.
[AN 4.203] Tatiya Sappurisa Suttaṃ the Pali,
Destroyer of Beings Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the attributes of the good man and the good man of good men and the bad man and the bad man of bad men. Based on ethics. An expansion of AN 4.201, omitting the use of alcohol and adding three on speech.
[AN 4.204] Catuttha Sappurisa Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Ten Deeds Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the attributes of the good man and the good man of good men and the bad man and the bad man of bad men. Based on ethics. An expansion of the previous adding covetousness, deviance, and view.
[AN 4.205] Pañcama Sappurisa Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Eightfold Way Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the attributes of the good man and the good man of good men and the bad man and the bad man of bad men. Based on the Eightfold Path.
[AN 4.206] The Tenfold Way Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.
The Buddha describes the attributes of the good man and the good man of good men and the bad man and the bad man of bad men. Based on the Tenfold Path.
[AN 4.207] Paṭhama Pāpa: Kalyāṇa Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Wicked (a) Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the attributes of the bad man and the bad man among bad men and the nice man and the nice man among nice men. Based on ethics. A variation of AN 4.203 (above).
[AN 4.208] Dutiya Pāpa: Kalyāṇa Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Wicked (b) Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the attributes of the bad man and the bad man among bad men and the nice man and the nice man among nice men. Based on the tenfold way. A variation of AN 4.206 (above).
[AN 4.209] Paṭhama Pāpa Dhamma - Kalyāṇa Dhamma Suttaṃ the Pali,
Of Wicked Nature (a) Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the attributes of bad form and the bad form of bad forms and the attributes of nice form and the nice form among nice forms. Based on ethics. A variation of AN 4.207 (above).
[AN 4.210] Dutiya Pāpa Dhamma - Kalyāṇa Dhamma Suttaṃ the Pali,
Of Wicked Nature (b) Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the attributes of bad form and the bad form of bad forms and the attributes of nice form and the nice form among nice forms. Based on the tenfold path. A variation of AN 4.208 (above).
[AN 4.211] Parisa Sobhana Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Company Woodward translation.
Four who corrupt a group and four who lite up a group.
[AN 4.212] Paṭhama Niraya - Sagganikkhitta Suttaṃ the Pali,
View Woodward translation.
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavonly rebirth.
[AN 4.213] Dutiya Niraya - Sagganikkhitta Suttaṃ the Pali,
Ingratitude Woodward translation.
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavonly rebirth. A variation on the previous, substituting gratitude for view.
[AN 4.214] Tatiya Niraya - Sagganikkhitta Suttaṃ the Pali,
Taking Life Woodward translation.
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavonly rebirth. A variation on the previous with different terms.
[AN 4.215] Catuttha Niraya - Sagganikkhitta Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Way (a) Woodward translation.
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavonly rebirth. A variation on the previous using the first four dimensions of the eight-dimensional way.
[AN 4.216] Catuttha Niraya - Sagganikkhitta Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Way (b) Woodward translation.
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavonly rebirth. A variation on the previous using the second four dimensions of the eight-dimensional way.
[AN 4.217] Chaṭṭhama Niraya - Sagganikkhitta Suttaṃ the Pali,
Modes of Speech (a) Woodward translation.
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavonly rebirth. A variation on the previous using statements about what one has seen, heard, sensed and cognized.
[AN 4.218] Sattama Niraya - Sagganikkhitta Suttaṃ the Pali,
Modes of Speech (b) Woodward translation.
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavonly rebirth. A variation on the previous using the opposite statements about what one has seen, heard, sensed and cognized.
[AN 4.219] Aṭṭhama Niraya - Sagganikkhitta Suttaṃ the Pali,
Shameless Woodward translation.
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavonly rebirth. A variation on the previous using belief, ethics, sense of shame, and fear of blame.
[AN 4.220] Navama Niraya - Sagganikkhitta Suttaṃ the Pali,
Of Weak Wisdom Woodward translation.
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavonly rebirth. A variation on the previous using belief, ethics, energy and wisdom.
[AN 4.221] Vacī-Sucarita Suttaṃ the Pali,
Good Conduct Woodward translation.
Four bad and four good habits of speech.
[AN 4.222] Paṭhama Bāla-Paṇḍita Suttaṃ the Pali,
View Woodward translation.
Four characteristics of the foolish, incompetent, unworthy person that result in him having uprooted and spoiled his self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and four characteristics of the wise, competent, worthy person which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma.
[AN 4.223] Dutiya Bāla-Paṇḍita Suttaṃ the Pali,
Ingratitude Woodward translation.
A variation on the previous, substituting gratitude for view.
[AN 4.224] Dutiya Bāla-Paṇḍita Suttaṃ the Pali,
Taking Life Woodward translation.
A variation on the previous with different terms.
[AN 4.225] Dutiya Bāla-Paṇḍita Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Way Woodward translation.
A variation on the previous using the first four dimensions of the eight-dimensional way. Note that in the PTS Pali and Woodward's translation this is not followed by another sutta with the second four dimensions. This appears to be a mistake as it occurs in BJT and CSCD as well as Bhk. Bodhi and so to include it, while preserving the sutta numbers of the PTS I have included it as the second half of this sutta using Woodward's translation of AN 4.116.
[AN 4.226] Chaṭṭha Bāla-Paṇḍita Suttaṃ the Pali,
Modes of Speech (a) Woodward translation.
A variation on the previous using statements about what one has seen, heard, sensed and cognized.
[AN 4.227] Sattama Bāla-Paṇḍita Suttaṃ the Pali,
Modes of Speech (b) Woodward translation.
A variation on the previous using the opposite statements about what one has seen, heard, sensed and cognized.
[AN 4.228] Aṭṭhama Bāla-Paṇḍita Suttaṃ the Pali,
Shamelessness Woodward translation.
A variation on the previous using belief, ethics, sense of shame, and fear of blame.
[AN 4.229] Navama Bāla-Paṇḍita Suttaṃ the Pali,
Weak in Wisdom Woodward translation.
A variation on the previous using belief, ethics, energy and wisdom.
[AN 4.230] Kavi Suttaṃ the Pali,
Poets Woodward translation.
Four types of poet. See also the discussion at AN 4.132 below
[AN 4.231] Paṭhama Kamma Suttaṃ the Pali,
In Brief Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes kamma in terms of dark and light deeds.
[AN 4.232] Dutiya Kamma Suttaṃ the Pali,
In Detail Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes kamma in terms of dark and light deeds. An expansion of the previous sutta. Very useful in clarifying the nature of the deed that ends kamma, that is, that it is the intentional not-doing of intentional deeds.
[AN 4.233] Tatiya Kamma Suttaṃ the Pali,
Soṇakāyana Woodward translation.
A brahmin questions Gotama about Soṇakāyana's misunderstanding of the meaning of Gotama's teaching about kamma that ends kamma. Gotama repeats what he has actually said about dark and light deeds and deeds that are neither dark nor light that result in the ending of kamma.
An important sutta for underscoring the idea that the Buddha is not teaching by this doctrine ineffectivness of kamma. Many in a certain dhamma study group on the internet would benefit greatly in seeing this sutta and understanding its point. Many others would benefit greatly in understanding how easily very dangerous ideas can arise from not paying careful attention to what Gotama is actually teaching. The view that kamma is ineffectual was taught by a contemporary of Gotama named Mikkhali, and was called the most pernicious of man-traps. (PS: anyone who recognizes this group and would bring benefit to it's members by showing them this sutta should do so with heightened wariness, careful crafting of his words, conscious compassion, complete supression of any tendency to anger, and preparedness for a swift but dignified termination of the discussion when attacked. One can but give them the information, they must arrive at understanding on their own. They are heavily invested in their point of view.)
[AN 4.234] Catuttha- Pañcama Kamma Suttaṃ aka Sikkhapada Suttaṃ (1 and 2) the Pali,
Precepts Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes kamma in terms of dark and light deeds.
This is two suttas inexplicably (and awkwardly) combined into one in the PTS Pali, and Woodward's translation follows. It substitutes two different sets of behaviors/beliefs for the first two types of deeds in each of the two suttas but it does not provide the outcomes of these deeds. It looks to me as though the outcomes should have been picked up from the previous suttas. As it is it leaves the names of these deeds making only partial sense.
[AN 4.235] Chaṭṭha Kamma Suttaṃ aka Ariya Magga Suttaṃ the Pali, the wrong sutta was previously listed
The Ariyan Way Woodward translation.
Linked to Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes kamma in terms of dark and light deeds.
A variation on AN 4.232 above using the Eight Dimensional Path for the kamma that is neither dark nor bright, with a result that is neither dark nor bright, kamma that ends kamma.
[AN 4.236] Sattama Kamma suttaṃ aka Bojjhaŋga Suttaṃ
Limbs of Wisdom Woodward translation.
A variation on AN 4.232 above using the Seven Dimensions of Awakening for the kamma that is neither dark nor bright, with a result that is neither dark nor bright, kamma that ends kamma.
Note that this sutta (and similarly for the previous sutta the Eight Dimensional Way) is saying that the Seven Dimensions of Awakening is constructed of intentional not-doings. That includes 'Sati' (recollection, memory, attention) and 'Samādhi' (serenity). It is not too difficult to see that 'Samādhi' is constructed of a series of abandonings, each higher state being attained not by 'getting' but by 'letting go of the previous state,' but how do we understand 'Sati' to be intentional not-doing? Sati in this case is recollection of body, sensation, mental-states and things seen through the lens of Dhamma with the idea of observing how they come to be, are maintained, and come to an end with the further idea of becoming thoroughly objectively detached from them. The intentional not-doing is the not becomming attached or identified with such things as they come into awareness (or are recollected). Woodward and Mrs. Rhys Davids have both remarked how it must be a distortion of the system originally taught by Gotama that all virtues are negative ones (i.e., 'abstaining from'). This is the fact and it is an essential orientation required by anyone who would understand this system. The entire point of this series of suttas is that there is kamma which perpetuates kamma and living in the world and there is a sort of kamma which is the key to escaping kamma and that is intentionally not doing the sort of kamma that perpetuates kamma and living in the world. The Buddha's Methods always result in a good outcome, and on occasion and when asked Gotama does directly teach kamma that has positive worldly results (attaining beauty, wealth, health, long life, heavonly rebirth), but when the result is worldly gain, this is to be seen as a sort of failure in terms of the goal of his system...a falling short of that which is higher and better.
[AN 4.237] Sāvajja - Anavajja Kamma Suttaṃ the Pali,
Blameworthy Woodward translation.
Blameworthy things that land one in Hell, praiseworthy things that land one in a good rebirth.
Note that the last factor, 'view' is not 'sammā-' (high) but 'anavajjāya-' (blameless). The former would end kamma, the latter is belief in kamma and related worldly things (see discussion at AN 3.115)
[AN 4.238] Savyāpajjha - Avyāpajjha Kamma Suttaṃ the Pali,
Harmful Woodward translation.
Harmful things that land one in Hell, harmless things that land one in a good rebirth.
Note that the last factor, 'view' is not 'sammā-' (high) but 'Avyāpajjha-' (harmless). The former would end kamma, the latter is apparently belief in kamma and behavior in accordance with kamma that is light with light result.)
[AN 4.239] Samaṇa Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Recluse Woodward translation.
Gotama teaches the bhikkhus a 'lion's roar' and describes the four sorts of ascetics found in this Dhamma and Discipline.
[AN 4.240] Samaṇa Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Recluse Woodward translation.
Four benefits from associating with the good man.
[AN 4.241] Saŋghabhedaka Suttaṃ the Pali,
Offence (a) Woodward translation.
Four reasons a bad bhikkhu might think to profit from creating dissention in the order.
[AN 4.242] Āpattibhaya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Offence (b) Woodward translation.
The Buddha extols the benefits of fear of punishment using a comparison between the fear of worldly persons of the punishments of evil-doers in the world with the awareness of bhikkhus and bhikkhunis of the punishments of recalcitrant members of the Order.
An interesting view is given in this sutta of the behavior of at least a portion of the society with regard to guilty deeds. That is that the guilty volunteer themselves for punishment. There was a similar practice in ancient China. There was apparently no expectation of leniancy because of volunteering in this way, nor was leniancy given. The issue was considered to be that by this behavior the honor of the individual was redeemed. Consider the state of affairs here today (USA Wednesday, June 04, 2014 5:48 AM) where the guilty are always advised to plead "not guilty" and to fight to evade punishment to the end. After all, why should the common criminal behave differently than the king and the ministers of state? After all, why plead guilty to having broken unjust and irrational laws? Perhaps following the example of the Japanese politician and high-ranking business executive, in the past few years there has been a tendency for persons of note to publicly apologize for misbehavior after being caught. That's not quite the same thing, and the motive is always seen to be self-serving rather than honor-redeeming.
[AN 4.243] Sikkhānisaṃsa Suttaṃ the Pali,
Profit of the Training Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that this holy life is lived for the sake of the advantages of the training, for higher wisdom, for the highest freedom, and for mastery of mind, and he describes how each of these things is arrived at.
[AN 4.247] Anariya Vohāra Suttaṃ the Pali,
Modes of speech (a) Woodward translation.
The Buddha lists four ignoble forms of speech.
[AN 4.248] Ariya Vohāra Suttaṃ the Pali,
Modes of speech (b) Woodward translation.
The Buddha lists four noble forms of speech.
[AN 4.249] Anariya Vohāra Suttaṃ the Pali,
Modes of speech (c) Woodward translation.
The Buddha lists four ignoble forms of speech.
[AN 4.250] Ariya Vohāra Suttaṃ the Pali,
Modes of speech (d) Woodward translation.
The Buddha lists four noble forms of speech.
[AN 4.251] Abhiññā Suttaṃ the Pali,
Higher Knowledge Woodward translation.
Things to be comprehended, abandoned, developed, and realized through higher knowledge.
[AN 4.252] Higher Knowledge Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha's message in terms of quests: being yourself subject to aging, sickness, death and besliming seek that which is not subject to aging, sickness, death and besliming.
[AN 4.253] Saŋgahavatthu Suttaṃ the Pali,
Sympathy Woodward translation.
The four fundamentals for gathering together a group.
[AN 4.254] Māluŋkyaputta Suttaṃ the Pali,
Mālunkyā's Son Woodward translation.
The elderly Mālunkyā's Son asks The Buddha for a teaching in brief and receiving it shortly thereafter becomes Arahant.
This is a good example of a teaching in brief. Essentially it amounts to get rid of any sort of wanting. If the whole mass of the Dhamma is confusing or overpowering or if there is just no time to deal with it all, it is helpful to remember such a teaching and focus down on the essential problem.
[AN 4.256] Paṭhama Ājānīya Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Thoroughbred (a) Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens the qualities of a worthy bhikkhu to the qualities of a king's thoroughbred horse.
[AN 4.257] Dutiya Ājānīya Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Thoroughbred (b) Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens the qualities of a worthy bhikkhu to the qualities of a king's thoroughbred horse. For 'speed' substitutes destruction of the asavas for the Four Truths.
[AN 4.258] Bala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Powers Woodward translation.
Four powers: energy, memory, serenity, and wisdom. This is just a list. It should be remembered that these are powers than enable control of forces in the world.
[AN 4.259] Forest-Dwelling Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Four things that make a bhikkhu fit for living alone in the forest.
[AN 4.260] Sāvajja - Anavajja Suttaṃ the Pali,
Action Woodward translation.
Four things that characterize the fool and four that characterize the wise man.
[AN 4.261] Pāṇātipātī Suttaṃ the Pali,
Approving (a) Woodward translation.
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of taking life lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from taking life lands one in a heavonly birth.
[AN 4.262] Adinnādāyī Suttaṃ the Pali,
Approving (b) Woodward translation.
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of stealing lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from stealing lands one in a heavonly birth.
[AN 4.263] Kama Micchācārī Suttaṃ the Pali,
Approving (c) Woodward translation.
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of sense-pleasure-indulgence misbehavior lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from sense-pleasure-indulgence misbehavior lands one in a heavonly birth.
[AN 4.264] Musāvādī Suttaṃ the Pali,
Approving (d) Woodward translation.
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of lying lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from lying lands one in a heavonly birth.
[AN 4.265] Pisuṇavācā Suttaṃ the Pali,
Approving (e) Woodward translation.
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of slander lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from slander lands one in a heavonly birth.
[AN 4.266] Pharusavācā Suttaṃ the Pali,
Approving (f) Woodward translation.
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of bitter speech lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from bitter speech lands one in a heavonly birth.
[AN 4.267] Samphappalāpa Suttaṃ the Pali,
Approving (g) Woodward translation.
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of idle babble lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from idle babble lands one in a heavonly birth.
[AN 4.268] Abhijjhālu Suttaṃ the Pali,
Approving (h) Woodward translation.
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of covetousness lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from covetousness lands one in a heavonly birth.
[AN 4.269] Vyāpannacitta Suttaṃ the Pali,
Approving (i) Woodward translation.
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of malicious mindedness lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from malicious mindedness lands one in a heavonly birth.
[AN 4.270] Micchādiṭṭhi Suttaṃ the Pali,
Approving (j) Woodward translation.
Engaging in, encouraging others in, approving of, and speaking in praise of contrary views lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others in, approving of, and speaking in prise of high view lands one in a heavonly birth.
[AN 4.271] Rāgādipeyyālaṃ the Pali,
Passion (and the Rest) Woodward translation.
The concluding Wheel style sutta of the Book of the Fours in which to gain higher knowledge, thorough understanding, utter destruction, letting go, eradication, fading away, dispassion, ending, giving up, and renunciation of lust, anger, stupidity, malevolence, hostility, hypocrisy, spite, denegration, deceit, treachery, obstinacy, vehemence, pride, arrogance, intoxication, and negligence, the practices of the Four Settings-up of Memory, the Four Consummate Efforts and the Four Power-Paths are to be applied. Got that?
The PTS has this as one sutta. Following the pattern set for other occurances of this conclusion to a book, it could also have been seventeen suttas, or five-hundred-and-ten suttas. I have left it as one. It does not seem reasonable that it would have been given in separate suttas. It's power is entirely in the challenge to remember the whole. The translation has been completely rolled out; for ease of reference, I have left the Pali abridged but formatted it for easy comprehension.

This completes the formatting and uploading of The Book of the Fours in translation and in the Pali.

 


Tuesday, May 27, 2014
Previous upload was Monday, April 28, 2014


 

new Thursday, May 01, 2014 7:08 AM Puggala-Paññatti, Chapters of Designation of Human Types, Division of Human Types by Four, translated by B.C. Law
Chapters 16, 17: Praise and Dispraise
Chapters 19, 20: Dark and Light (same file contains Chapter 20, abridged which is the same as 19 but with headings 'stooping and progressing').
Chapter 21: Persons like trees.

 

new Tuesday, April 29, 2014 9:05 AM [SN 5.56.1] Samādhi Suttaṃ, the Pali
Concentration, Woodward translation
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to develop serenity because the serene individual knows things as they really are and this is essential for seeing the Four Truths.
[SN 5.56.41] Cintā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Reasoning, Woodward translation
This sutta deals with the thoughts one should and should not dwell on. It should be read when the issue of what the Buddha did not discuss comes up (see discussion below), because here by the juxtaposition of the issues not to be considered with those which should be thought about it is made clear that this is not a case of keeping things a mystery but of what is and what is not a matter pertaining to the goal.

 

new Monday, April 28, 2014 6:16 AM [AN 4.75] Paṭhama- Dutiya Agga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Perfections, Woodward translation.
2 sets of four things to be perfected. This should be two suttas.
[AN 4.76] Kusinārā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Kusinārā, Woodward translation.
In the final moments of Gotama's life he asks the bhikkhus if there is any one of them that is in doubt about him or his teaching. There is no one in the assembly that has any doubts.
[AN 4.77] Unthinkable, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha lists four topics which are imponderable, whose scope is so vast as to cause madness in anyone who allowed them to obsess the mind. A good sutta to read alongside this one is SN 5.56.41 where pondering the world is defined and contrasted with pondering the four truths and where it becomes clear that when the Buddha does not respond to requests for opinions on these subjects it is not a case of keeping things a mystery, but a matter of retaining one's sanity or at least not giving others good reason to doubt of it. The important phrase to understand in this sutta is 'na cintetabbāni.' Woodward's 'unthinkable', Bhk. Thanissaro: 'unconjecturables'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'inconceivable. Childers: 'regard'. Cinteti is the idea of thinking when the mind is conceived of as 'the heart'. "You see?" + abbāni, meaning ? to draw out. To draw out from the heart? That is actually what one does when one does this. You sit down with the intent to see the full scope of a topic and drag out first one train of thought then another.
[AN 4.78] Dakkhiṇā-Visuddhi Suttaṃ the Pali,
Gifts, Woodward translation.
The four states of purity of gifts. The idea here is that the returning good kamma from a gift depends not only on the character of the giver and the nature of the gift, but also on the character of the receiver. Think of the difference between the result of a wet rag thrown by a weak man against a hanging blanket versus a rubber ball thrown by a strong man against a smooth hard wall. 'Purity' is fundamentally a matter of detachment. 'Virtue' is the not-doing of unvirtuous deeds. Detachment allows the force of the deed to be fully discharged on the part of the giver and returned with amplified force to the giver by the receiver.
[AN 4.79] Trade, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
The explanation in terms of Kamma of why the enterprises of some individuals fail, while others turn out differently than expected, others turn out as expected and still others turn out beyond their expectations. In the Pali, Sariputta asks "Ko nu kho bhante hetu ko paccayo ~" Woodward translates "what is the reason what is the cause" (usually 'hetu' is translated 'cause'; when you read 'cause' in translations, look up the Pali, if the Pali is 'hetu' think 'driving force' 'engine'; if it is 'nidana' think 'bound up with' or 'bound down by'; if it is 'paccaya' think [Edit, see paccaya above] 'dependence', 'condition'.); Bhk. Bodhi just has "why", or "the reason why". A translation more helpful in understanding the meaning would be "What is the driving force, what results in these various experiences?" Of the many factors that go into success and failure in one's occupation, what is the one which is most determinant of the outcome? The Buddha uses a gift to a shaman or brahmin as the example, but the same dynamics are at work with any person. Be careful of what you promise! Don't make promises you cannot keep. Make every effort to fulfill promises you have made and if you can see you will be unable to do so, get back to the person to whom the promise was made and make an explanation. Take a care for your future happiness! The feelings of the person expecting the fulfillment of a promise you have made are your feelings later. Woodward footnotes Points of Controversy where an objection is made to the whole proposition that there is such a tie between the giver and receiver based on the notion that since the individual is continuously changing, he cannot be said to be the same person from one minute to the next so that for him there is no return on a gift. A sort of madness that comes from getting high understanding only half the picture. In this case the person has understood the idea that there is no thing there that can be called the self and has come to the conclusion (formed the opinion, arrived at the point of view) that there is no self. It is vital to understand the Buddha's position with regard to subjective experience in order to understand why it is not correct to say that there is no self. There is the subjective experience of a continuing self. Until liberated from that by the understanding that it is not a true perception, that it is only identification with a point of view, that subjective self experiences suffering. ḌIf that were not the case, what would be the point of Buddhas or their Dhamma?! The Buddha's teaching is for the relief of that subjective suffering as well as for the complete liberation from it. Gotama's teaching is for the liberation from Pain. All Pain. Real or imagined.
[AN 4.80] Kamboja Suttaṃ the Pali,
Essence of the Deed, Woodward translation.
Off to Kamboja, Olds translation.
Four reasons women do not occupy stations of importance, engage in commerse or trade. Both Woodward's and Bhk. Bodhi's translations have problems which will put women's backs up. I have done my translation hoping to show an alternative way the sutta can be read. The common problem is the categorical statement "Women are ... x,y,z bad trait. Which is why they do not do x,y,z, manly things." The Pali must be 'heard' without the implication that these are absolute states. The construction is: "Wrath Ananda womenfolk" etc. To translate: "Women are wrathful" must be heard as 'women being ~' or 'if a woman be', or 'are for the most part', 'are generally', 'some women are' etc. Bhk. Bodhi has attempted to mitigate the issue by inserting the words 'are prone,' but 'prone' is not in the Pali and his translation still comes across as an irrational statement on the part of the Buddha. Separately, Woodward has changed the statement 'go to Kamboja' to 'reach the essence of the deed' reading 'kamm'ojaṃ' for 'Kambojam'. The original PTS Pali (since changed), the BJT and the CSCD, the commentary and whatever Pali is being used by Bhk. Bodhi all have 'Kamboja.' Woodward has footnoted the commentary statement that this is to be understood as an idiom standing for 'foreign trade,' but he cannot see the sense of that. But there are too many examples in the suttas of women who have become Arahant to think that the meaning could be that women do not penetrate through to the essence of the deed. The bias of his translation has blinded Woodward to this contradiction in his understanding. As it stands to defend these translations would be to say that Gotama did not forsee the state of women in future time, or even outside the local area at that time and, additionally, or, to put it another way, this would be to say that this sutta was not 'timeless'. I believe my translation overcomes these drawbacks.
[AN 4.81] Pāṇātipātī Suttaṃ the Pali,
Stealing, Woodward translation.
Four behaviors that land one in Hell; four that land one in heaven. Identical to AN 4.64.
[AN 4.82] Musāvādī Suttaṃ the Pali,
Lying, Woodward translation.
Four behaviors that land one in Hell; four that land one in heaven. A different set of four from the previous.
[AN 4.83] Vaṇṇa Suttaṃ the Pali,
Praise, Woodward translation.
Four behaviors that land one in Hell; four that land one in heaven. A different set of four from the previous two.
[AN 4.84] Vaṇṇa Suttaṃ the Pali,
Praise, Woodward translation.
Four behaviors that land one in Hell; four that land one in heaven. A different set of four from the previous two. Identical to AN 4.43 but without the verses.
[AN 4.85] Darkness, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Four sorts of persons characterized with the terms 'dark' and 'light': one born with all the advantages who is of bad behavior, one who is born with all the advantages who is of good behavior; one born with all the disadvantages who is of bad behavior, and one born with all the disadvantages who is of good behavior. A good sutta to remember if you find yourself 'judging a book by it's cover' or if you find yourself being complacent, thinking things will always be as they are. Outward circumstances depended on past behavior, future circumstances depend on current behavior. You know if you're being bad or good — so be good for goodness sake!
[AN 4.86] Oṇatoṇata Suttaṃ the Pali,
Of Low Estate, Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons characterized with the terms 'high' and 'low': one born with all the advantages who is of bad behavior, one who is born with all the advantages who is of good behavior; one born with all the disadvantages who is of bad behavior, and one born with all the disadvantages who is of good behavior.
The PTS Pali and translation omit the definitions which I have included in italics and indented. It appears in full in BJT, abridged in CSCD, and abridged by Bhk. Bodhi.
[AN 4.87] Samaṇa-m-acala-Putta Suttaṃ the Pali,
Kinds of Recluses (a), Woodward translation.
Gotama takes the names commonly given at the time to various sorts of shaman and re-defines them in terms of his Dhamma-Vicaya.
[AN 4.88] Samaṇa-m-acala-Saññojana Suttaṃ the Pali,
Kinds of Recluses (b), Woodward translation.
Gotama takes the names commonly given at the time to various sorts of shaman and re-defines them in terms of his Dhamma-Vicaya.
[AN 4.89] Samaṇa-m-acala-Diṭṭhi Suttaṃ the Pali,
Kinds of Recluses (c), Woodward translation.
Gotama takes the names commonly given at the time to various sorts of shaman and re-defines them in terms of his Dhamma-Vicaya.
[AN 4.90] Samaṇa-m-acala-Khandha Suttaṃ the Pali,
Kinds of Recluses (d), Woodward translation.
Gotama takes the names commonly given at the time to various sorts of shaman and re-defines them in terms of his Dhamma-Vicaya.
If the four suttas were intended to be taken together as a puzzle, there seem to be errors in Blue-Lotus 1 and White-Lotus 1. Both should have been that 'he weakened the asavas', not destroyed them. I recollect that the releases are attainable by even the Streamwinner but still there is a distinction there that would make the relationship rational. Then all four groups would have the structure: Streamwinner, Once Returner, Non-returner, Arahant. Blue Lotus 3 could be experiencing temporary release. Otherwise perhaps Woodward's speculation that the first group only was original and the others made up (carelessly) to form the usual group of four pairs of men (those on the four paths). Or there is also the (doubtful) possibility that there was no intention of making the four sets parallel each other.
Then there is the problem with the translation of 'appattamānaso' (appatta-mānaso) in the situation in Immovable Shaman 4. Woodward translates: 'has not made up his mind', Bhk. Bodhi: 'has not attained his mind's ideal'. Both of these appear to me at least as highly shakable. I sugest taking the word back a step: appa pa atta māmaso 'a little past mastering his mind'. Or 'mastering the mind' could be understood as a higher state than the certainty of attaining the goal of the Streamwinner. To be 'unshakable' he mist have got at least this far.
Bhk. Bodhi argues from an assumption that Blue-Lotus 1 and White-Lotus 1 are correct that there appears to be a weakening of the standards for Arahantship involved. It could be that or it could be an error in the understanding of the situation on the part of the commentator or as I suggest, an error in the recollection of the sutta.

 

Samaṇa-m-acalo
The Immovable Shaman
Samaṇapuṇḍarīko
The Blue-lotus Shaman
Samaṇapadumo
The White-lotus Shaman
Samaṇesu samaṇasukhumālo
The Sweet-faced Shaman among Shaman
1 He aspires to the goal of ultimate release. He has destroyed the āsavas; is released in heart, released by wisdom; but does not attain the eight releases. He has destroyed the āsavas; is released in heart, released by wisdom; and does abide in the eight releases He receives the necessities, good health, and good will when desired and not when not desired; he attains the jhānas; has destroyed the āsavas; and is released in heart, released by wisdom.
2 He has broken the three saŋyojana and has become a Streamwinner He has broken the three saŋyojana and warn down lust, hate and stupidity and has become a Once-Returner. He has completely destroyed the five yokes to lower births will re-appear where he will attain Arahantship without returning to this world. He has destroyed the āsavas; is released in heart, released by wisdom
3 He lives following the eight dimensional way [not so named] He lives following the ten dimensional way [not so named] He lives following the ten dimensional way [not so named] and abides in the eight releases He receives the necessities, good health, and good will when desired and not when not desired; he attains the jhānas; has destroyed the āsavas; and is released in heart, released by wisdom.
4 He is a little developed in mind and aspires to the goal of ultimate release. He lives observing the appearance and disappearance of the stockpiles, but does not experience the releases. He lives observing the appearance and disappearance of the stockpiles, but does experience the releases. He receives the necessities, good health, and good will when desired and not when not desired; he attains the jhānas; has destroyed the āsavas; and is released in heart, released by wisdom.

[AN 4.91] Asura Suttaṃ the Pali,
Asuras, Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons and their followers likened to Monsters and Dieties in four combinations.
[AN 4.92] Paṭhama Samādhi Suttaṃ the Pali,
Concentration (a), Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons classified according to their attainment of calm of heart and the higher wisdom of insight into things. Note that niether of these things by itself is termed 'samādhi'.
[AN 4.93] Dutiya Samādhi Suttaṃ the Pali,
Concentration (b), Woodward translation.
An expansion of the previous sutta. The Buddha describes four sorts of persons classified according to their attainment of calm of heart and the higher wisdom of insight into things and then urges the bhikkhus to make effort to establish their accomplishments and eliminate their deficiencies and further to press on to the elimination of the corrupting influences. Note that neither is calm the goal nor is insight the goal nor are the two together the goal, but that with the two together the corrupting influences may be eliminated and the goal attained. Calm of heart is not exclusively the jhānas. Consummate 'samādhi' is the jhānas, but along the way a serene calm should be the goal throughout the day in every activity. If one's practice is to create insight over here and practice creating serenity over there between the hours of x and y, or while a candle burns down one inch, or during the time a stick of insense burns down, or the effects of a joint wear off, by the sole technique of jhāna, it is likely that the whole practice will suffer. Whether walking or standing still or sitting or lying down, still, calm, tranquillize the entire experience of embodied living.
[AN 4.94] Concentration (c), Woodward translation.
The Third Serenity, Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha describes four sorts of persons classified according to their attainment of centered internal calm and insight into things of higher wisdom. A variation on the previous sutta. This one points to the lines of investigation which should be pursued to overcome deficiencies. The difference in the descriptive paragraph given here compared to the previous two follows my new translation. I do know that the title should be: 'Serenity, the Third'.
[AN 4.95] The Firebrand, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha ranks four persons according to their pursuit of personal profit and the profit of others. The one who pursues neither his own profit nor the profit of others is likened to a stick burning at both ends, smeared with dung in the middle: no good for nuth'n. The one who pursues both his own profit and the profit of others is likened to 'the cream of the cream.'
[AN 4.99] The Precepts, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Types of individuals classed according to whether they are of benefit to themselves only or others only or to both or neither. Continuing the series begun above (the intervening suttas were previously posted). This sutta defines what is of benefit as being the five precepts.
[AN 4.100] Potaliya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Potaliya, Woodward translation.
Gotama convinces Potaliya that of four sorts of persons who speak or withhold praise and dispraise the one who speaks timely, truthful praise of the praiseworthy and timely, truthful dispraise of what deserves dispraise is the most excellent of the four. I have edited this sutta somewhat to eliminate ambiguities in several places in Woodward's translation. The final result follows the Pali and comes closer to Bhk. Bodhi's translation which is clear. The very interesting thing in this sutta (once it is unabridged and straigtened up) is the visibility here of the way in which at least one style of dialog was conducted (there are many examples of this style in the suttas). Gotama lays out four cases and asks Potaliya to say which he thinks is best. Potaliya chooses one which is not the one which Gotama thinks is best. Gotama states that of the choices, a certain one is best. (No "you are wrong, I am right", but no waffling either. He makes the statement "This is the best, and for such and such a reason." In response Pataliya does not say "you are right, I am wrong," but indicates his acceptance of Gotama's case by stating it as Gotama has stated it explaining it as Gotama has explained it. This is the combat of two ideas without bringing in the personalities. Potalia might have disagreed up to three times and Gotama repeated the case up to a third time before Potaliya's head split into seven pieces.
[AN 4.101] Paṭhama Valāhaka Suttaṃ the Pali,
Rain-Cloud (a), Woodward translation.
Gotama likens four sorts of persons to four sorts of rain-clouds: one that thunders but doesn't rain, one that rains but doesn't thunder, one that neither rains nor thunders, one that both rains and thunders.
[AN 4.102] Rain-Cloud (a), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Gotama likens four sorts of persons to four sorts of rain-clouds: one that thunders but doesn't rain, one that rains but doesn't thunder, one that neither rains nor thunders, one that both rains and thunders. He defines mastery of Dhamma as thundering, understanding the Four Truths as raining.
[AN 4.103] Kumbha Suttaṃ the Pali,
Rain-The Pot, Woodward translation.
In this sutta Gotama compares four sorts of persons to the conditions of four waterpots: one that is covered and empty, one that is uncovered and full; one that is both uncovered and empty; and one that is covered and full. He defines 'covered' as charming comportment, 'full' as knowledge of the Four Truths.
The Pali has:
Tuccho pihito,||
pūro vivaṭo,||
tuccho vivaṭo,||
pūro pihito.|| ||

empty and covered
full and uncovered
empty and uncovered
full and covered,
which is followed by Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi:
In the first case the person is charming but has no knowledge,
in the second case he is not charming but has knowledge,
in the third case he has neither charm nor knowledge
and in the fourth case he has both charm and knowledge.
The two good qualities are (according to the order of the details as we find them in the Pali): 'full' of water which stands for charming comportment; and 'covered' which stands for comprehension of the Four Truths.
In the case of water-pots, 'empty' and 'uncovered' are not good things.
So following the details as they are presented, the order should have been:
Pūro vivaṭo,||
tuccho pihito,||
tuccho vivaṭo,||
puro pihito,
||
full and uncovered,
empty and covered,
empty and uncovered,
and full and covered.
If we take it that the headings as they are found are correct and the details have been reversed, we would have comportment standing for 'covered' and knowledge standing for 'full'. This would more closely parallel the thinking in the previous two suttas where 'thunder' stands for speech in the one case and superficial book knowledge in the second, and rain (which, do I need to point out? is water) stands for understanding. This would also better satisfy the mind as indicating that 'full' points to the more significant aspect and 'covered' to the more superficial aspect.
But there is a further complication: The pattern in the previous suttas is that the first person's first quality is a positive one. The second person has the deeper quality but lacks the quality of lesser importance. And considering that, we cannot put understanding of the Four Truths in the place of the second place.
One way or the other the Pali is incorrect and Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi follow and to make the sutta make sense either the headings need to change or the order of the details needs to change. What to do? I have chosen to change the order in the headings from first full, second covered, to first covered and second full (using Woodwards terms 'closed' and 'open', 'full' and 'empty'.)
Pihito tuccho,||
vivaṭo pūro,||
vivaṭo tuccho,||
pihito pūro.|| ||

covered and empty
uncovered and full
uncovered and empty
covered and full,
This allows the details to remain in their current order and puts The Four Truths in the position given most respect.
Long explanation for a simple change, but in this case the Pali and all the translations agree but all are in error and in such as case I need to present all the reasoning in back of a change. I have not changed the Pali.
[AN 4.104] Paṭhama Udakarahada Suttaṃ the Pali,
Pools of Water (a), Woodward translation.
[AN 4.105] Dutiya Udakarahada Suttaṃ the Pali,
Pools of Water (b), Woodward translation.
These two should be one sutta as in the previous and the following; the first is incorporated in the second. Otherwise we have The Buddha teaching people about pools of water. The Buddha compares four sorts of persons to the conditions of four pools of water: one that is shallow but looks deep, one that is deep but looks shallow, one that is shallow and looks shallow, and one that is deep and looks deep. This sutta is a twist on the use of the two sets of terms. Here deepness is a matter of understanding the Four Truths or not, appearing deep or not is a matter of having charming comportment or not.
[AN 4.106] Amba Suttaṃ the Pali,
Mangoes, Woodward translation.
The Buddha compares four sorts of persons to conditions of mangoes: one that is unripe and looks ripe, one that is ripe and looks unripe, one that is unripe and looks unripe, and one that is ripe and looks ripe. Bhk. Bodhi's version of the Pali has two of these suttas on Mangoes one of which is in brief as per the "Pools of Water" suttas above where his text has only one of those. Both probems seem to arise from the summary index at the end of the chapter (uddāna) and are likely the result of an attempt to make the chapter have the usual ten suttas. But there is no sense to the brief versions of either of these suttas. When the Buddha teaches in brief, the brief teaching still makes good Dhamma.
[AN 4.107] Mūsikā Suttaṃ the Pali,
Mice, Woodward translation.
The Buddha compares four sorts of persons to the manners in which mice abide: one that digs a hole but does not live in it, one that lives in a hole it has not dug, one that neiter digs a hole nor lives in one, and one that lives in the hole it has dug.
I tend to think this is another sutta where the headings should be reversed and inverted as per 103 above, but a case can be made either way, so I have left it as it is.
[AN 4.108] Balivadda Suttaṃ the Pali,
Oxen, Woodward translation.
The Buddha characterizes the behavior of leaders of sects as resembling the behavior of bulls leading herds of cattle: one is a terror to the cattle of another herd, not to his own; one is a terror to his own herd but not to other herds; one is a terror to both; and one is a terror to neither.
[AN 4.109] Rukkha Suttaṃ the Pali,
Trees, Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens persons to trees of sapwood or heartwood.
[AN 4.110] Āsivisa Suttaṃ the Pali,
Snakes, Woodward translation.
The Buddha likkens persons to snakes in the matter of their possession of venom and the potency of that venom. This one appears to rely on word-play similar to our double meaning for venom: poison and poisonous temperment. But the word for poisonous temperment means 'terribly-poisonous', which leaves us with the best case being 'not terribly poisonous' which is still poisonous. Bhk. Bodhi probably has the best solution to this one: 'one who'se venom is quick to come up but not virulent', etc. where the best case becomes 'neither quick to come up nor virulent.' But we still end up with a sutta that deals with sorts of people with anger.
[AN 4.111] Kesi, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro Translation.
The Buddha compairs his training methods with those of Kesi the horse trainer.
[AN 4.112] Assājānīya-java Suttaṃ the Pali,
Speed, Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens the straightness, speed, patience and docility of the bhikkhu worthy of offerings to the qualities of a king's thoroughbred horse.
[AN 4.114] Nāga Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Elephant, Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens the qualities of a worthy bhikkhu to the qualities of a king's elephant.
[AN 4.115] Occasions, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro Translation.
The Buddha delineates the peramaters of the four choices one has on the occasion where action is contemplated. Another really handy piece of information, especially if you don't like thinking of your self as a fool and you do like thinking of yourself as one of manly strenth, manly vigour and energy.
[AN 4.117] Ārakkha Suttaṃ the Pali,
On Guard, Woodward translation.
Four occasions when one's guard should be up: when the mind is harassed by lust, hatred, stupidity, and intoxicating pride.
[AN 4.121] Bhaya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Self-Reproach, Woodward translation.
Four reasons based in fear that make people resolve on good behavior. This sutta has that wonderful list of tortures it is always so inspiring to think about during meditation and contimplation of rebirth.
[AN 4.122] Udakoroha Bhaya Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Wave, Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four fearful challenges that face the newly ordained bhikkhu who has gone forth in faith: the need to overcome anger at being instructed in proper forms of behavior for a bhikkhu; the need to overcome desire to indulge the appatite for food in ways that are not suitable for a beggar, the need to over come envy of householders enjoying the pleasurs of the senses; and the need to overcome lust on the sight of attractive members of the opposite sex.
[AN 4.125] Amity (a), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali, Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and Ñanamoli Thera translation
The Buddha describes four paths to deva worlds based on the four devine lifestyles: friendliness, sympathy, empathy and detachment. Then he points out that the destiny of those who are students of the Dhamma is non-returnering while that of those of other beliefs is returning to the round of rebirths. Here is a case where it is clearly stated that practice of even just one of the devine states, as long as it is combined with an understanding of the goal of the Dhamma, leads to non-returning.
[AN 4.126] Amity (b), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali, Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and Ñanamoli Thera translation
The Buddha describes four paths to the Pure Abodes based on the four devine lifestyles: friendliness, sympathy, empathy and detachment in combination with seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self.
These are the Paths described in these two, together with the previous two (already posted):

Practice Co-factor Immediate Destiny Subsequent Destiny
1st Jhāna Non-believer Brahmā-world.
Lifespan 1 kappa.*
Return to the Round of Rebirths
1st Jhāna 'Hearer' of the Buddha† Brahmā-world.
Lifespan 1 kappa.
Arahantship there
2nd Jhāna Non-believer Ābhassara-world (Radiant Ones).
Lifespan 2 kappas.
Return to the Round of Rebirths
2nd Jhāna 'Hearer' of the Buddha Ābhassara-world (Radiant Ones).
Lifespan 2 kappas.
Arahantship there
3rd Jhāna Non-believer Subhakiṇha-world (Luminous Ones).
Lifespan 4 kappas.
Return to the Round of Rebirths
2nd Jhāna 'Hearer' of the Buddha Subhakiṇha-world (Luminous Ones).
Lifespan 4 kappas.
Arahantship there
4th Jhāna Non-believer Vehapphala-world (Fruit of the Sky).
Lifespan 500 kappas.
Return to the Round of Rebirths
4th Jhāna 'Hearer' of the Buddha Vehapphala-world (Fruit of the Sky).
Lifespan 500 kappas.
Arahantship there
1st Jhāna seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there
2nd Jhāna seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there
2nd Jhāna seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there
4th Jhāna seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Friendliness Non-believer Brahmā-world.
Lifespan 1 kappa.*
Return to the Round of Rebirths
Abiding with a heart of Friendliness 'Hearer' of the Buddha† Brahmā-world.
Lifespan 1 kappa.
Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Sympathy Non-believer Ābhassara-world (Radiant Ones).
Lifespan 2 kappas.
Return to the Round of Rebirths
Abiding with a heart of Sympathy 'Hearer' of the Buddha Ābhassara-world (Radiant Ones).
Lifespan 2 kappas.
Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Empathy Non-believer Subhakiṇha-world (Luminous Ones).
Lifespan 4 kappas.
Return to the Round of Rebirths
Abiding with a heart of Empathy 'Hearer' of the Buddha Subhakiṇha-world (Luminous Ones).
Lifespan 4 kappas.
Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Detachment Non-believer Vehapphala-world (Fruit of the Sky).
Lifespan 500 kappas.
Return to the Round of Rebirths
Abiding with a heart of Detachment 'Hearer' of the Buddha Vehapphala-world (Fruit of the Sky).
Lifespan 500 kappas.
Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Friendliness seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Sympathy seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Empathy seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Detachment seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there

*One complete evolution and devolution of the World-system.

†There is no specification as to the nature of the 'hearer' (Bhagavato sāvaka), but presumably this would at least require the individual to have unshakable faith or to have conceived the yearning to bring rebirth to an end or the idea of Arahantship would not occur to him ... and it would not happen unawares.

Except for the cases of the non-believer, all of these are Non-Returner paths. Note that except where the practice of jhāna leads directly to the Pure Abodes, the implication is that the full lifespan of the destination is to be lived Ḷ. There is a definate progression with regard to rebirth of each succeeding devine abiding, with that of upekha, rebirth in the Vehapphala-world being the most pleasant and long lasting, but that if the time it takes to achieve Arahantship is considered, the heierarchy is reversed. This accords with a theme that runs throughout the suttas that it is better to 'take one's medicine' here — that though the life in lower worlds may be more unpleasant, it is also more conducive to achieving the goal. A note of caution not to take this to extremes! The situation again reverses at the point below human birth where each succeeding lower rebirth is more difficult to escape. For more on this see discussion of AN 3.88 and discussion of AN 3.92 below).

[AN 4.127] Tathāgata Acchariya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Marvels (a), Woodward translation.
A Wonderous light appears when a Buddha descends into his mother's womb, at his birth, at his awakening and upon his first setting to roll the wheel of Dhamma. I wonder if this is not a distortion of what Gotama actually said, maybe a subtle wording misunderstood. At other points he is said to have spoken metaphorically of his appearance as being a light brought into the world, which it certainly was, and that was certainly marvel enough. Also, this light that he brought is said to make it possible for beings living in darkness to see that there are other beings there. This is a remark very frequently made by those who have become converts. I suggest this is a reference to the breaking of Pajapati's problem which unbroken makes it impossible to prove to one's self that there are other beings there. The breaking of this problem does release a sort of vision which could be understood as light making visible other being here.
[AN 4.128] Dutiya Tathāgata Acchariya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Marvels (a), Woodward translation.
The appearance of a Buddha results in the miracle of an open mind and ready ear in beings overcome by habit, pride, excitement, and blindness. This is more in the nature of the sort of miracle praised by Gotama.
[AN 4.129] Ānanda Acchariya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Marvels (c), Woodward translation.
The Buddha points out the marvelous way bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, laymen and lay women take delight when Ananda approaches and teaches.
[AN 4.130] Cakkavatti Acchariya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Marvels (d), Woodward translation.
The Buddha points out the marvelous way nobles, brahmins, householders and ascetics take delight when a Wheel-turning King approaches and speaks and then he compares this phenomena with the similar thing that happens when Ananda approaches and teaches bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, laymen and lay-women.
With this sutta one can see the nature of seeing into the future. At another point Gotama says of Ananda that if he did not attain to Arahantship, he would become a Wheel-turning King. Although for most of us the memory of the last wheel-turning King will be somewhat faint, the mechanism is the same for seeing into the future by way of comparison with past events that are more easily called to mind. This is not the same thing as predicting the future from past events as it is practiced by the weatherman or the general or the political scientist. That is an intellectual exercise which is frequently incorrect. This is 'seeing' in a moment of intuition, the correspondence of two events and 'knowing' the significance. So after three suttas giving us marvels, we have a fourth telling us how to see such things for ourselves. That is, if you have an open mind and a ready ear. Otherwise you are, of course, free to think 'he is just talking through his hat.'

hatta

[AN 4.131] Saŋyojana Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Fetters, Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four sorts of persons in relationship to the sorts of yokes to rebirth [saŋyogana] they have or have not yet got rid of.
This sutta raises important issues. First is an unusual breakdown of the saŋyoganas:
1. those yoking one to rebirth in the lower worlds Woodward translates 'this World' and then, for the Once Returner translates in a way that can be misunderstood as indicating that he has not broken any of the first five fetters (this, apparently, an opinion derived from commentary). But these are yokes to any 'kama-loka' which includes the deva-worlds up to the Tusita Realm — see the Buddhist cosmology here — These first five yokes are: 1. The One-truth (own-body) view, 2. Doubt about kamma, the Awakening of the Buddha, etc., 3. Belief that good deeds, ethical conduct or rituals can bring an end to Pain, 4. Wishing for pleasure, 5. Deviant thinking. When the first three of these are broken by the Streamwinner, he is no longer subject to rebirth lower than the world of humans. He is able to see when he is hanging on to a way of viewing his individuality that will lead him to hell or some other low state and is able to let that go without having the strength to let go of every sort of being. The Once-returner is also a Streamwinner, so he will have at least broken the first three yokes. The Buddha is in this case speaking of the category as a whole, not it's individual components. He does not say 'has not broken any fetters' he says 'has not broken the 'orambhāgiyāni saŋyojanāni.' All five.
2. those yoking one to rebirth
3. those yoking one to existence.
Bhkkhu Bodhi cites the commentary for definition of the last two and the result is a restatement of the terms with nothing informative added.
You are welcome to disagree, but I suggest we do not need to go off into bizarre speculations relying on the commentary to understand these last two categories. It is sufficient to carefully examine the nature of the 10 saŋyojanāni that we are given.
First, to understand the latter two categories, one must understand fetter #1: sakkāyaditthi. The usual understanding is that this means 'view of self' understanding that to mean the idea one has that one has an eternal self, etc. Actually the usual understanding is to flip to the view that there is no self which is why this yoke must be understood in broader terms than 'own-self'. The emphasis should be on the 'view' part of the compound. The holding onto points of view concerning individuality with the idea: 'This alone is the truth, all other views are stupidity.' The Streamwinner who has freed himself from this yoke will have understood that the problem of pain arises as a result of the holding on to a view concerning his having an eternal self, but he will not necessarily have actually abandoned the identification, thoughts, and so forth that arise from having had that point of view in the past. Its like the phantom limb phenomena. He is likened to the person who has come across a well without a bucket to retrieve the water. [see SN 2.12.68] He can see the solution (as it were) but has not got the means to drink.
In a similar way all the first five fetters have to do with orienting the intellect to the goal and focusing the individual's behavior on elimination of various gross obstructions to perception of his inner workings. These first five do not constitute having uprooted the underlying drive to be. The next two fetters are lust for form and lust for immaterial existence: the underlying drives to be, aka: yokes to actual rebirth.
The final three yokes are pride, a fear-ridden-anxiety, and being subject to misunderstanding (aka blindness). Here we have the case of the person who has sufficient experience to prevent him from behavior that would result in rebirth in any realm of being, but for whatever reason (long habit, experience, difficult circumstances) there remain these subtle states of mind. This is the case of the Non-Returner who no longer own-makes (sankharams) and who obtains final release at some point after the death of the body but before assuming any rebirth.
There is much discussion back and forth concerning the precise state this individual is in caused by trying to imagine a state of existence which does not require rebirth. A between-births. But this is not necessary if one examines AN 11.7 and similar suttas where it is stated that there is the possibility of perception without perception of 'being' in any realm of 'being'. 'Existence' is a matter of perception, rebirth is a matter of having acted upon perception to the effect of having set rolling identification with form or the formless. The Paṭicca Samuppada differentiates between bhava and jāti: existence and rebirth. This person is percipient of these subtle mental states. That is what remains for him of existence. That is what he gets rid of, without assuming rebirth, to become Arahant.
Say I.
[AN 4.132] Paṭibhāno Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Reply, Woodward translation.
Orators, Olds, translation.
A little four-liner about the facility and precision with which persons utter speech or engage in banter or repartee.
The three terms to understand are: paṭibhāna, yutta-paṭibhāno and mutta-paṭibhāno. Yutta = yoked; mutta = free. paṭibhāna = paṭi + bhāna = re(flect back on) + bhāna.
The trouble starts with the meaning of 'bhāna'. PED does not list this term. Points of Controversy has it coming from 'bhā' 'to become apparent'; possibly it comes from 'bhāṇaka' reciting, or 'bhaṇati, to speak, say, tell, recite, preach.
Woodward translates paṭibhāna 'reply'. Bhk. Bodhi translates 'discernment'. In their discussion of terms in Points of Controversy pg. 377, Shwe Zan Ang and Mrs. Rhys Davids describe the meaning as being 'that by which things knowable become represented, are present'. (Which requires some paṭibhāna to understand.) Or 'analytic insight'. A footnote there translates the term 'rhetorical gift'. My reading says this term refers to the product of discernment in speach, not the thinking processes that precede speech. Also it looks to go beyond mere reply and include spontaneous recitation. So I would settle on re-citation. That would result in the 'literal' translation:
One has yoked-recitation not free-recitation;
one has free-recitation not yoked-recitation;
one has yoked-recitation and free-recitation;
and one has neither yoked-recitation nor free-recitation.
Now is that 'yoked to the topic,' 'speaking precisely,' or yoked in the sense of restrained, constrained; or is that 'speaking concisely'? Is 'free recitation' unrestrained recitation or easily flowing recitation and in either case is the negative 'constrained recitation' and does that mean 'constrained to the topic' or 'speaking concisely'? Obo say!
Both Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi appear to be following their understanding of the commentary. Woodward has 'to the point' and 'diffuse'. He has abridged person #3 to: 'he who does both'. Unabridged this becomes 'to the point and diffuse'. At best, this needs to be heard as 'on point and in detail.' Person 4, who is neither, would be one who was 'neither to the point nor difuse' for which we might be thankful at least for the brevity.
Bhk. Bodhi has translated 'incisive and 'free-flowing'. Incisive, in meaning number 2, (not as in #1, cuttingly): precisely and with exactitude. Yoked to the topic, free in terms of readiness of wit. Bhk. Bodhi's translation of 'paṭibhāno' as 'discernment' makes these aspects of 'discernment'. But reciting or discerning, it is at least possible to be both precise and have free-flowing thoughts or speech or to be neither precise nor have free-flowing thoughts or speech.
Woodward complicates the issue noting the commentary on the Puggalapaññatti as suggesting the meaning for 'yutta' as 'succinct'; 'mutta' as 'rambling'. This would alter the meaning to:
One has succinct speech/discernment not rambling speech/discernment;
one has rambling speech/discernment not succinct speech/discernment;
one has succinct speech/discernment and rambling speech/discernment;
one has neither succinct speech/discernment nor rambling speech/discernment.
Between Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi, Bhk. Bodhi's solution works the best if read without discernment. (Sorry, couldn't help myself. To be precise, I was feeling unconstrained.)
I dipped my oar in with my own solution which takes a little from here and a little from there.
[AN 4.133] Neyya Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Quick Witted, Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons: one who grasps a matter intuitively, one who understands hearing the details, one to whom things must be explained and one who is only able (at best) to remember the text.
These are all learners, there is another sort of person who cannot even remember a thing from one minute to the next.
[AN 4.134] Phalupajivī Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Effort, Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons differentiated by whether or not they live depending on the fruit of their prior deeds or on present effort.
[AN 4.135] Vajja Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Blameworthy, Woodward translation.
Four persons differentiated by the degree to which they are subject to blame.
[AN 4.136] Paripūrakāri Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Virtue (a), Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons distinguished by the thoroughness of their mastery of ethical conduct, concentration and wisdom.
[AN 4.137] Garu Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Virtue (b), Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons distinguished by the thoroughness of their mastery of and respect for ethical conduct, concentration and wisdom.
[AN 4.138] Nikaṭṭha Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Subdued, Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons sorted out according to their having mastered their body or their mind or neither or both.
It is interesting to note that mastering the body is put only in terms of living alone in the forest. This makes it probable that this was an early sutta. Later control of the body would have been phrased in broader terms of living in solitude. Bhk. Bodhi translates the term 'nikaṭṭha,' rendered by Woodward as 'subdued,' as 'retreat'. "gone on retreat by" PED: brought down, debased, low. NI = down; KAṬṬHA= plowed. Plowed under.
[AN 4.139] Dhammakathika Suttaṃ the Pali,
Dhamma-Talk, Woodward translation.
Four sets of speakers and the ways they are judged to be Dhamma-talkers by their gatherings. Bhkkhu Bodhi's reading of this sutta is much better:
One that talks little and that is off point with a following that is incompetent to judge and so considers him a Dhamma-talker;
one that says much and that is off point with a following that is incompetent to judge and so considers him a Dhamma-talker;
one that says little but that is on point and his company is competent to judge and so considers him a Dhamma-talker;
one that says much and that is on point and his company is competent to judge and so considers him a Dhamma-talker.
Woodward would have the competancy of the company judged by the competancy of the speaker.
[AN 4.140] Vādī Suttaṃ the Pali,
Expounder, Woodward translation.
Four persons: one able to convey the intent but not the letter; one able to convey the letter but not the intent; one able to do neither and one able to do both.
The Buddha concludes this sutta with the statement that one who has the four paṭisambhidā could not falter in both the conveyance of the intent and the conveyance of the letter. Paṭisambhidā PAṬI: (reflect back on) + SAM = co, con, with; + BHIDA break apart, analyze. That which is reflected back upon analysis ... in this case of the intent, the form, the roots, and the manner of rethorical exposistion of a teaching. (Woodward: the Four Analytical Powers; Bhk. Bodhi: The Four Analytical Knowledges) These are: attha, the spirit or intent of word, phrase or complete exposition; dhamma, one authority (U. Pandi, pg. 377 Points of Controversy) says this is understanding the word, another (the Abhidhamma) understanding the logic behind an expression — it is possible to merge these two sets of ideas ('this is said this way (the word) because people hear this expression thus (the reason)', 'this is said in this order (the word) because in this way it has such and such an effect on the mind (the reason)' 'this is said this way (the word) because this is the order in which the idea expresses its evolution and logical basis (the reason); etc.), but this may be a confusion of this term with the next, and the meaning of 'dhamma' is 'thing', 'form' or 'the Word' and the Abhidhamma always tries to make things appear more obscure than they are and in this case they are trying to make this into knowledge of Dhamma. But that would make this not a universal set of tools of analysis, but one directed at this Dhamma only and usually when Gotama is speaking about his Dhamma he makes it clear that that is what he is doing; nirutti, the knowledge and intuitive knowledge of the roots of both word and phrase and the proper grammatical construction thereof (for example, etymology, or understanding the origin and meaning of an idiomatic expression); (to digress: in what I have called 'Old Pali' where the letter is a syllable, a syllable is a word, and a word is a sentence, the explanation of the word in the science of Nirutti is more along the lines of the explanation of the origins and meaning of the idiomatic expression than the construction of a 'word' from the meaning of it's 'syllables'. A Pali 'word' is something like a Chinese pictogram. And like such, a Pali word can be read forwards and backwards and assumes different meanings with different inflections (rather than being a separate word with 'different' spelling, long ā, etc.) and is to be understood in multiple ways — that is, not in many separate ways but in many ways simultaneously. (the same thing happens in English even today, but the phenomena goes mostly unnoticed ... except in certain cases of madness Obo say! What we have in the dictionaries is a selection from the possibilities, not the entire scope. Not understanding this is the source of many misunderstandings made by modern linguistic analysis. It is a form of linguistic imprisonment constraining us to one reality. ... and it is always breaking down.) and paṭibhāna (see discussion at 132 above), the knowledge of (and inspired access to) retorical expression, enrapturing turn of phrase, tactics in the conveyance of an idea. Ahum.
[AN 4.146] Kāla Suttaṃ the Pali,
Seasons (a), Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens stages of progress towards the goal (hearing Dhamma, Discussing Dhamma, calming down, and insight) to four seasons.
[AN 4.147] Dutiya Kāla Suttaṃ the Pali,
Seasons (b), Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens stages of progress towards the goal (hearing Dhamma, Discussing Dhamma, calming down, and insight) to four seasons. An expansion of the previous sutta.
Note the order, first after hearing Dhamma is discussing it which is dhamma research. Then is developed all those practices under the heading of calming down: giving, developing ethical practices, developing self-control, and developing the jhānas. The final season is the development of insight. There is no problem with beginning any or all of these practices at the start, but one should understand how progress will unfold.
[AN 4.148] Vacī Duccarita Suttaṃ the Pali,
Wrong Practice, Woodward translation.
Painful practice of speech. Note: not 'miccha vācā', 'vacī duccarita' painful vocal carrying on.
[AN 4.148] Vacī Succarita Suttaṃ the Pali,
Right Practice, Woodward translation.
Pleasant practice of speech. Note: not 'sammā vācā', 'vacī succarita' pleasant vocal carrying on.
[AN 4.150] Sāra Suttaṃ the Pali,
Essences, Woodward translation.
Four essentials: ethical practice, serenity, wisdom and freedom.
PED: Sāra 1. essential, most excellent, strong 2. the innermost, hardest part of anything, the heart or pith of a tree 3. substance, essence, choicest part
[AN 4.151] Indriya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Controlling Powers (a), Woodward translation.
Four forces: faith, energy, mind, serenity.
[AN 4.152] Bala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Controlling Powers (b), Woodward translation.
Four enabling powers: faith, energy, mind, serenity.
The distinction between the 'Indriyāni,' (forces) and the and the 'Balāni,' (enabling powers) is that the forces are impersonal external energy-fields, the enabling powers are personally cultivated uses of forces. When faith, energy, mind, and serenity are 'Indriyāni,' they are forces. When they are put to work, they are controlled by the 'balani'.
[AN 4.153] Dutiya Bala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Powers (a), Woodward translation.
Four enabling powers: faith, energy, faultlessness, and tenacity.

The Blind Leading the Blind

The meaning of the fourth one 'saŋgāha-balaṃ' here is uncertain. Woodward has 'collectedness', Bhk. Bodhi: 'the power of sustaining a favorable relationship'. It has something to do with grouping together by way of attachment or association. Where is the commentator when you need him? Oh, he's over here. He says it is mispelled and should be sangaṇha, 'showing kindness'. PED spells it sanga. If we just go by the word itself, it means SAṂ = with, own; GĀHA = grip as in 'in the grip of passion'; 'own-grip'. Get a grip on yourself mon! Stick-to-it-iveness?
[AN 4.154] Tatiya Bala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Powers (b), Woodward translation.
Four enabling powers: mind, serenity, faultlessness, and tenacity. Everyone is sticking to their previous version of sangaṇha, for this one.
[AN 4.155] Catuttha Bala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Computation, Woodward translation.
Four enabling powers: reconsideration, development, faultlessness and tenacity.
PED spells the first one 'Paṭisankhāna' and defines it along the lines of reflection, judgment, consideration. This is the obvious meaning in the sutta noted by Woodward who nevertheless translates as 'computation'. Bhk. Bodhi: reflection.
[AN 4.162] Computation, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Four paths to the eradication of the corrupting influences: the unpleasant slow path to higer knowledge; the unpleasant fast path to higher knowledge, the pleasant slow path to higher knowlege, and the pleasant swift path to higher knowledge. In detail.
Woodward characterizes these as 'modes of progress', but the word is 'paṭipada' which is 'path-stepping', or the practice itself. Bhks. Thanissaro and Bodhi both use 'practice'. The shift in meaning is necessary to understand that the emphasis is on the description of method not how the practice is experienced. The details in this case are the details of how each mode of practice works. Mechanism of action.
[AN 4.163] The Unlovely, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Four paths to the eradication of the corrupting influences: the unpleasant slow path to higer knowledge; the unpleasant fast path to higher knowledge, the pleasant slow path to higher knowlege, and the pleasant swift path to higher knowledge.
A variation on the previous, with this sutta providing the methods of practice used by those following each path. Of note here is something that could be used to support the idea of arahantship without the jhānas. The first two modes of pratice do not use the jhānas as their samādhi practice; they use meditation on the foul. (If we stretch our minds all the way over to SN 5.54.9 we can see that it appears that meditation on the foul was at an early point the main practice employed by the bhikkhus to establish serenity (samādhi).) The distinction is clear. The difference is that by using the jhānas the practice is pleasant. All four paths depend on the practitioners powers (balāni) of faith, modesty, self-restraint, energy, and wisdom. Speed of insight depends on the degree to which the forces (indriya) of faith, energy, mind, serenity and wisdom are found in him. These latter are characterized (in the previous sutta) as 'givens' depending on the individual's basic nature in terms of the degree to which he is passionate, malicious, infatuated. ('Given' does not mean unalterable. It's just what you start with.)
So the method described here is that one who works at reducing his passionate, malicious, infatuated nature, controlling himself by way of faith, modesty, self-restraint, energy, and wisdom, would experience a proportionate rise in the forces of faith, energy, mind, serenity and wisdom and by that an increase in the speed of his attainment of higher knowledge, if he is indifferent as to whether or not his path is pleasant, he uses the meditation on the foul, if he wishes his path to be pleasant he uses the jhānas. Who would choose the unpleasant path? Maybe it is that jhāna practice requires great long stretches of solitude, calm, peace, quiet to develop. Such things are not always easy to come by. Meditation on the foul is a practice which can be worked into a more turbulant life situation.
[AN 4.164] Patient (a), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Four paths of practice: marked by intolerant irritation, marked by endurance, marked by self-control, marked by calming down.
[AN 4.165] Patient (b), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Four paths of practice: marked by intolerant irritation, marked by endurance, marked by self-control, marked by calming down. A variation on the previous sutta. The word translated 'patience/impaience' by Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi, and 'tolerance' by Bhk. Thanissaro is 'Khamā/Akkhamā.' What is needed is a word for the impatience/intollerance/inability to endure things that give rise to emotional reactions. None of these quite works. The word also means 'earth' which in the simile does not react when filth is thrown at it, etc. Good/ill humored? Forgiving/unforgiving? Indulgent/unindulgent?
[AN 4.166] Chaṭṭha Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, The Pali,
In Further Detail, Woodward translation.
Four paths to the eradication of the corrupting influences: the unpleasant slow path to higer knowledge; the unpleasant fast path to higher knowledge, the pleasant slow path to higher knowlege, and the pleasant swift path to higher knowledge. The factors of unpleasantness and slowness are considered less than advantageous while those factors of pleasantness and speed are considered advantageous. A development of AN 4.162 above.
[AN 4.167] Moggallāna Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Sāriputta and Moggallāna (a), Woodward translation.
Questioned by Sariputta, Moggallana reveals that of the four paths to the eradication of the corrupting influences his was the one that was unpleasant but with speedy attainment of higher knowledge.
[AN 4.168] Sāriputta Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Sāriputta and Moggallāna (b), Woodward translation.
Questioned by Moggallana, Sariputta reveals that of the four paths to the eradication of the corrupting influences his was the one that was pleasant and with speedy attainment of higher knowledge.
[AN 4.169] Kilesa-Parinibbāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
With Some Effort Woodward translation.
Afflicted Extinguishment, Olds translation.
The Buddha distinguishes between two sorts of persons in accordance with their path: one pair meditates on the foul and one pair uses the jhānas. Of each pair one attains extinguishment here and one hereafter. In the case of the first pair, meditating on the foul, extinguishment either here or hereafter comes after own-making (saŋkhāra). In the case of the second pair, using the jhānas, extinguishment either here or hereafter comes without own-making.
In the description of the type of person Woodward translates 'saŋkhāra' as 'with- and without effort'; but in the list of contemplations, he translates it 'activities'. Bhk. Bodhi does a similar thing using 'exertion' and 'conditioned phenomena'. 'Saŋkhāra' does have the dual meaning of the activity used to create personal existence and the identified-with existing thing, but the translation should make it more obvious that it is the two sides of this one idea that are being spoken of. 'Confounding' and 'the confounded' or 'fabricating' and 'the fabricated'. And it is not 'conditioned'! (see the discussion: Is Nibbana Conditioned) And the idea is not just 'activity' but 'identification with the intent to create the experience of pleasure through action of thought, speech, and body; and the identified with result. It is essential to grasp this idea in order to understand how the Buddha is distinguishing the two sets of individuals. The contemplation of the unpleasant involves saŋkhāra (it involves personal, identified-with perceptions and thoughts and intentions and behavior), where the jhānas do not (or, at least they evolve towards and culminate in detachment precluding own-making). In other words both paths get one there, but the one using contemplation of the foul involves a battle with issues of the self which must be resolved first. This is a very important sutta to read when trying to understand the meaning of saŋkhāra. If you do not have the concept correctly, the sutta makes no sense.
[AN 4.170] Coupled Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Ananda describes four ways Arahantship is arrived at, stating that all those who declare Arahantship do so having followed one or another of these courses.
This sutta seems strangely out of context. It must have been spoken by Ananda some time after the Buddhas's death. Another sutta which points out the need to develop both calm and insight.
[AN 4.171] Sañcetanā Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Intention Woodward translation.
Intentions (a), Olds translation
The Buddha describes how it is intent that is the mechanism of action of kamma of body, speech and mind that results in the personal experience of pleasure or pain in body, speech, or mind. Intent, in turn, is shown to be impersonal. The intent driving a deed can arise in the self or in another. Further, the groundwork for action can be known or unknown. In whatever combination of factors it is blindness that is at the bottom of it and the elimination of blindness that ends kamma.
An example of other-instigated (or motivated) intent and preparation for action would be the case of the soldier being commanded to act by the general, the employee by the boss, etc. In the case of an other-instigated intent, both the instigator and the one who is instigated experience the consequences in accordance with the intent. There is no escape by saying 'I was just following orders.' Better to refuse to act when the action (e.g., killing, lying, theft, etc., for whatever reason) deviates from one's own perspective on the kammic outcome and take the consequences than to follow orders and take consequences resulting from another's intent (e.g., to inflict pain from motives based in lust, hate, delusion)! At least you won't end up in hell from refusing to do some foul deed.
This sutta is, in some versions of the Pali and in Bhk. Bodhi's translation, combined with the next sutta. Whether or not it was at one time a single sutta, it should be read in conjunction with that sutta.
[AN 4.172] Sañcetanā Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Intention, Woodward translation.
Intentions (a), Olds translation
The Buddha describes how it is intent that is the mechanism of action of kamma of body, speech and mind that results in the personal experience of pleasure or pain in body, speech, or mind. Hearing this exposition, Sariputta explains the details of how this works for the self-instigated action that results in rebirth, the other-instigated action that results in rebirth, the both self and other-instigated action that results in rebirth and asks the Buddha for an explanation of how there can be rebirth or not in the case where there is neither self-instigation nor other instigation. Gotama explains.
[AN 4.173] Sāriputta - Paṭisambhidā Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Analysis, Woodward translation.
Sāriputta explains to the bhikkhus that although he early-on grasped both the spirit and the letter of logical analysis and teaches it in detail, still, if, while the Buddha is face-to-face with them, if any of them have doubts, they should ask the Buddha.
[AN 4.175] Upavāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Upavāna, Woodward translation.
Upavāna questions Sāriputta about making an end of Pain. Sāriputta makes the point that it is not by conduct or vision that and end of Pain is to be reached, but that it is by conduct resulting in knowing and seeing things as they really are that brings one to the end of Pain. Perfect theoretical knowledge, behavior that is in accordance with the Magga, and insight into the Four Truths is not sufficient to achieve the end of pain. This behavior and vision must be directed at and result in actual knowledge and actually seeing these things at work in the world. It is only upon this actually seeing that there can be the repulsion that results in letting go, freedom, and seeing freedom in freedom being free. See AN 4.177 (next) for how this is put by Gotama.
[AN 4.177] Rāhula Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Rāhula, Woodward translation.
The Buddha instructs his son Rāhula to regard the characteristics of solidity, liquidity, heat and motion, whether internal or external as not his, not an aspect of himself, not his real self so that seeing things as they really are, he will be repulsed, let go, and by that attain freedom and seeing freedom in freedom be free.
[AN 4.178] The Village Pond, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes two pairs of individuals. One pair is striving to get rid of 'own-body', the other is striving to break up 'blindness'. In each of the pairs the persons have attained peaceful states of mind and liberation of heart and work at their objective but in one case there is no excitement at the task while in the other there is. The Buddha states that where this excitement is missing, the task is unlikely to be accomplished.
The task of the first individual is said to be to eliminate 'own-body' (sakkāya-nirodha). Not 'own-body-view' (sakkāya-diṭṭhi). But there is no 'own-body' there to get rid of. How are we to understand this? Bhk. Thanissaro translates it: 'cessation of self-identification', Bhk. Bodhi: 'cessation of personal existence', but Woodward translates it more closely to what is found in the Pali: 'ending of the person-pack'. The task has two parts: breaking the hold of the view that the way one sees the self is 'the one true view' concerning the self (e.g., that body is the self, or belongs to the self or is a product of the self or has the self within it); and actually attaining liberation from that body. It looks as though what is being spoken of is the latter task, but the wording is not so clear as to allow certainty. If the meaning is breaking the view, what we have here is advanced meditators who have gained liberation of heart working on the attainment of Streamwinning. (Not an impossibility, but it adds a dimension of complexity to the situation which is confusing.) Similarly confusing is the second set of persons, those working on 'breaking up blindness' (avijjāppabheda). (PED: breaking or splitting up, opening. Giving the example of analyzing a word by way of breaking it into syllables). (Bhk. Thanissaro: 'the breaching of ignorance'; Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi: 'the breaking up of ignorance') This also can be divided into two tasks: the first is intelectual comprehension of the truth of the four truths or the seeing that 'all that which has come to be comes to an end' (which would be 'breaching of ignorance'), the second is the actual seeing of the truths at work (or the no longer seeing of things as working in accordance with the previously held view one believed was the 'one true view' because one is now able to know and see 'the dependence of this on that') as in the Paṭicca Samuppada (which would be the breaking up of ignorance). And again here if the first task is being referred to we would have the case of an advanced meditator working on Streamwinning. If it is the second case, the task has gone beyond seeing the truth of the four truths (which is necessary to break through the sakkāya-diṭṭhi) and is now focused on all the peripheral or collateral misbegotten beliefs that accompany holding on to a view of self and things. Since the term in the second group is 'breaking up' as in analyzing (where Bhk. Thanissaro has used a misleading term here that points to the attaining of Streamwinning) we have grounds for understanding the intent of the sutta to be the second stage in both sets of persons, that is that they are Streamwinners working on the higher accomplishments (Arahantship): ending self-view, all-round or complete detachment from body, or any sort of self-identification (we could say: 'the ending of 'own-body' in quotes, meaning not just the ending of the view, but the ending of the experience itself), and breking up blindness.
[AN 4.179] Nibbāna, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Elder Ānanda asks the Elder Sāriputta the reasons that some beings attain Nibbāna in this life when others do not and is told that it depends on their awareness or the lack of awareness upon perception that a thing is or is not connected to deterioration, stability, advance, or attainment. See: How to Judge from Personal Experience where there are only two criteria: "Doing this will result in good conditions increasing and bad conditions decreasing," etc. One of the most handy bits of guidance you will ever find.
[AN 4.180] Nibbāna, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali.
A well-known (and too little used) sutta. The Buddha tells the bhikkhus to determine whether or not a saying is to be considered as his word by comparing the phrases and their construction (padavyañjana: pada: phrase; vyañjana, lubrication, component parts; Woodward: 'words and syllables'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'words and phrases'. The precise meanins of this phrase is worth a deeper look. 'Pada' is literally 'foot', Pāda 'footstep' or 'path'. In the spoken language the 'letter' was a syllable, and the bhikkhus were on occasion remarked to take pride in repeating Gotama's word 'down to the syllable', but vyañjana means 'letter' only in the sense of 'as opposed to the spirit'. It does mean component part and derives from the idea of lubricant (enabling the letters to work together and make sense) and streatching out, drawing out or erecting, i.e. the construction of the phrase) with the phrases and their construction as found in the Suttas and in the Vinaya. This is to be done even in the case of four great authorities: Someone who has reportedly heard a saying face-to-face with the Buddha; some Sangha with a reportedly learned elder; some reportedly learned Sangha; a single reportedly learned monk.
Today this is taught with the idea that we are to accept it as the word of the Buddha if it comes from any of these four 'authorities'. This is exactly the opposite of the meaning found in the sutta. We should also add that this work of comparison should be done with any reportedly true saying heard from any 'authority' or read about (including any translation from the Pali) in any book or anywhere on the internet. 'Any' includes 'is'sef 'ere. p.p. explains it all
[AN 4.181] Fighting Man, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha likens the skills of the bhikkhu to those of a King's Warrior.
[AN 4.182] Pāṭibhoga Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Surety, Woodward translation.
The Buddha states that there is no one, no shamen, no preacher, no god, no devil, no God, who can promise that that which is subject to aging, sickness, death and the consequences of deeds will not suffer aging, sickness, death and the consequences of deeds.
And what is subject to aging, sickness, death and the consequences of deeds? Any being whatsoever that has come into existence.
[AN 4.183] Hearsay, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha explains that a statement should not only be true but should be profitable and not lead to trouble.
Another sutta using the logic found in See: How to Judge from Personal Experience. See also: AN 4.179.
[AN 4.184] Fearless, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha shows Brāhmin Jāṇussoni that not everyone is afraid of death. Those who have overcome desires and lusts, those who have overcome passion for living in a body, those who have done good deeds and abstained from bad deeds, and those who have no doubts as to Dhamma do not fear death.
[AN 4.185] Samaṇa- aka Brāhmaṇa-Sacca Suttaṃ aka Catukoṭika-Suññatā Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Brāhmin Truths, Woodward translation.

Sacca: Maxim. 2a. A general truth, fundamental principle, or rule of conduct, especially when expressed in sententious form, a saying of proverbial nature. Sententious: full of meaning or wisdom. Websters

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

The Buddha approaches some eminant Wanderers and teaches them Four Brahmin maxims: 'All living things are not to be harmed'; 'all sense pleasures are impermanent, painful, changeable'; 'all lives are impermanent, painful, changeable'; and 'I have no part in anything anywhere and here for me there is no attachment to anything'.
[AN 4.186] Ummagga Suttaṃ, aka Bahussuta Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Approach, Woodward translation.
A lucky bhikkhu asks the Buddha a number of questions and gets answers that satisfy him.
[AN 4.187] Dutiya Vassakāra Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Vassakāra, Woodward translation.
Gotama states that it is impossible for a bad man to be able to recognize a bad man or a good man, but that it is possible for a good man to do so. A story follows which illustrates the meaning.
Pay attention! The sutta is subtle. It illustrates all four cases although it appears to illustrate only one.
[AN 4.188] Upaka Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Upaka, Woodward translation.
Upaka, tries to trap Gotama and ends up caught in the trap himself. Gotama then explains that what he teaches is simply what is profitable and what is not.
He tries to get Gotama to agree to the statement that having uttered abusive speech that one cannot back up, one is blameworthy. He is thinking that Gotama's having stated that Devadata was going to Hell was abuse whereas it was simply a statement of fact. But Gotama does not fall into the trap and in stead points out that by approaching him with the intent to trap him Upaka has himself uttered abusive speech which he cannot back up. There is a further twist in the story when Upaka tries to tell the story to King Ajatasattu, a former supporter of Devadata's, but who had recently been converted by Gotama. The King is not pleased to be associated with someone who thinks he can get the better of Gotama.
[AN 4.189] Sacchikaraṇiya Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Realization, Woodward translation.
Make it Real, Olds, translation.
The Buddha describes four things that are to be realized by way of making them real. He describes how in the simplest most direct terms possible.
We do not see what is in front of our eyes and would not believe it if we were told so we must be told in words that excite our curiosity and yet directly reveal the method for seeing for ourselves. An invaluable sutta! There are more things under heaven than are acounted for in your vision of the world, my friends.
[AN 4.190] Uposatha Suttaṃ aka Bhikkhu-Saŋghatho-Mana Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Sabbath, Woodward translation.
The Buddha praises the Sangha on a Full Moon Day observance.
[AN 4.191] Sotānudhata Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Heard with the Ear, Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four advantageous situations that result in the future just from concentrated study of Dhamma.
Hope for those whose practice of Buddhism is lopsided concentration on study of the Suttas!p.p. explains it all
[AN 4.194] Sāpūgiya Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Sāpūgyans, Woodward translation.
Ānanda instructs the men of the Tiger's Path Clan in four ways to exert energy to bring about perfection in ethical conduct, heart, point of view and freedom.
It is interesting that the four practices are introduced in words highly reminiscent of those used for the introduction of the Four Satipatthanas. Why was the Satipatthana not used in stead? It is also curious (as Woodward remarks) that this is a sutta which is a little advanced for laymen and is internally directed at bhikkhus. It seems out of place and awkward. Maybe it is an early attempt by Ananda to construct a sutta.

 


Monday, April 28, 2014
Previous upload was Monday, March 24, 2014


 

new Friday, April 18, 2014 9:23 AM [DN 24] Pāṭika Suttanta, the Pali, (not really 'new', but for the first time proofed against the PTS Pali, and formatted for easy reading.)
Mystic Wonders and the Origin of Things, Rhys Davids translation.
Another suttanta delivered by Gotama towards the end of his life. We have a cross link in this sutta to the events described in MN 12. (see also below) This sutta describes events leading up to the resignation of Sunakkhatta from the order. Sunakkhatta has complained that Gotama works no feats of magic for him nor does he tell him about the origins of the world. But Gotama tells of several events where he worked feats of magic right in front of Sunakkhatta which were acknowledged by him as feats of magic. Then he describes several ways theories of the origin of the world are arrived at. I find this one of the most humorous suttas in the entire collection. This puts me in the class of a schoolboy on holiday in the opinion of Rhys Davids. All things considered that is probably not an insult to me. There are, however, things in this sutta which are extraordinary and worthy of deep thought. The major problem in formatting the sutta was getting the quotation marks correctly. What is at work is a hypnotic technique which does one of two things: throws the listener right off track or raises such a state of concentration as allows virtual transportation to the events being described. That was the point: that is, to create belief in the listener by bringing him to the position of eye-witness. It does this on multiple levels within the range of the contemporary scene and then it juxtaposes all those with visions of the ancient past right back to the origins of the world cycle. It has quotations within stories within quotations within stories within stories with quotations. I have tried to make the sequences more apparent by the use of indentations as well as the progression of quotation marks. There is one passage which is left abridged as it is not clear how Rhys Davids would have translated it. He summarizes which is not helpful. The possibility exists that I have not got the quotation marks perfectly correctly.
[DN 29] Pāsādika Suttanta, the Pali, (not really 'new', but for the first time proofed against the PTS Pali, and formatted for easy reading. This one was mind-boggling to untangle as the bulk of it was in the form of "...pe..." and sometimes the abridgments were not even so noted, and the BJT had omissions and numerous differing readings. I have no great confidence I have got it completely correctly.)
The Delectable Discourse, Rhys Davids translation.
Gotama responds to the news that the death of Nāthaputta the Nigantha has resulted in the break-up and general disorder of his followers by outlining in great detail the solid foundation on which the Sangha has been constructed. This is another sutta given towards the very end of Gotama's life. (see below for another) This is a 'suttanta' or a compilation. In this case there seems no reason to think that it was not 'compiled' by Gotama himself. At one point, one of the themes being discussed is in the form of what is known in old-time religion as a 'devil-downer': a series which gets progressively more complex as it is developed. (The devil, not being so bright, cannot follow ... if you ever are being tracked closely and need to escape.) It takes the form of: If not A, then not 1; if A then 1; but if A and not B, then not 1, but if A and B, then 1; but if not A and B and C, then not 1... X19. Totally lost, as was so much else in this sutta, by abridgment. There is much in this sutta when unabridged as it is here which will tempt one to skip, and this is one of them, but I highly recommend you give it a chance. If you give it alert attention all the way through, or better yet, try to repeat it from memory, you will come close to the concentration it needs to have had to be delivered in the first place. If you do this and note the point where you no longer have an underlying tendency to get on with it or go to sleep, you will have firmly entered into the first jhāna. There is also the possibility in making this effort that you will have insight into and respect for the power of the mind that is giving us this doctrine. You can safely think that whoever this person was, he was something extraordinary.
The translation of this suttanta by Rhys Davids has likely gone a long way towards incresing the confusion over the issue of things the Buddha "did not reveal". [see pg 128 text pg 136] Where Rhys Davids has "Brother, this hath not been revealed by the Exalted One." (Why Rhys Davids makes this error is a mystery, as he seems to have understood the issue clearly elsewhere. It seems the differentiation between a doctrine based on a point of view and one based only on what can be seen directly is not yet clear in his mind.) The Pali is "Etam pi kho āvuso Bhagavatā avyākataṃ:" "Avyākata" would be better translated 'not-explained' or 'not responded to'. The Pali repeats the question: 'This has not been responded to; that is: The Question" The word 'revealed' implies that there is something to reveal that has not been revealed. The meaning is that Gotama has not made any response to this question. It is not that he has not dealt with the issue. He has. It is thoroughly dealt with by the explanation that the khandhas are not the self. The questioner is really asking if the khandhas of one who has attained the goal are reborn and in what condition. Since the one who has attained the goal is no longer defined by the khandhas, the question does not apply. Further, it is not a mystery as to why he does not respond to the question. He explains his reason clearly: it is because for those who do not see the situation as it really is, it is possible to form directly opposing opinions on such an issue. Not knowing, the issue is a matter of speculation, a matter of viewpoint. Debating or offering opinions on matters of viewpoint does not conduce to dispassion or to the attaining of the goal. The Buddha sticks to the goal. Elsewhere in the suttas the same situation is put in the form of the questioner asking: "Do you say ~" or "hold" and the Buddha answering "Not that." He does not say such a thing or hold such a point of view. When asked what he does say, he responds. The idea that there is some mystery there that is to remain unrevealed serves those who would use such a mystery to cloak their own lack of understanding and promote their own agendas — They know the secret, if you want to know it, then it will cost you in one way or another.

The more we see of this whole business of writing down the suttas and translating what has been written down the clearer it becomes as to why Gotama did not want it to be written down or translated: it becomes a matter of endlessly putting out fires that arise as a consequence of misinterpretation. And fires that are written down have a greatly extended persistence. Similarly translations are highly subject to error and quickly get out of control. And "fires" are ideas that have already lead countless beings astray in a matter of importance beyond calculation in terms of misery. Left in the hands of those who had them in memory, the difficult doctrines would be preserved by those with strong, well disciplined minds where the highly motivated could seek them out and be sure of getting the doctrine in a form closely adhering to the original and the populous would be better off with the basic training in giving and the development of higher standards of behavior. Even if the major doctrines quickly vanished and all that remained was the basic training that would have been better for the majority than the propagation of the false doctrines that have arisen through misunderstandings created by the limitations of expression in the written word and through the misundestandings 'caused' by translation. There would have been frauds and the deluded, but they would not have had the ability to point to 'an authoritative body of original documentation' to support misconceptions.

As it is, there is no escaping doubt as to the correctness of any translation. And consequently, with every new translation the true Dhamma becomes more and more difficult to find. Can we justify further translations or the further dissemination of the translations we have? I ask myself this with every new upload.

The remedy for doubt of the correctness of a translation is to turn to the Pali, and because even there are found reasons for doubt, the only reasonable resort is putting the system as it is found and understood (whether in translations or the Pali or from a teacher who has learned it from the translations or the Pali) into practice. There is no knowing for sure until you do it. For those whose interest is in freedom, and who understand that freedom means the freedom from any sort of pain and that that includes birth in any form of existence, the thing that needs to be listened to is the liberating aspect of any statement. That seeing, that there is no bondage whatsoever in a result, is the true guide.

As for writing and translation, that rabbit is out of the hat, the milk has been spilt, the water has passed under the bridge and over the dam, the fly is in the ointment and the hair is in the soup, there is no sense in beating a dead horse, but have too many cooks spoiled the broth? The only thing for us here at this time [Saturday, April 19, 2014 7:10 AM] is to make the best of a poor situation. It was easy, before printing and before the digital age for individuals to claim an understanding of what the Buddha taught that was no more than their pre-conceived notions. Now the essence, the real truth, of what Gotama taught can be found in most of the translations we have if they are read very carefully and cross checked with each other and the Pali and against the wisdom of long personal experience tempered with good sense and the criteria raised by the goal of freedom and altered accordingly. So it seems like the best course is to get at least one or two translations of every sutta out there, free, and in digital form so that the influence of any one translation or unpublished sutta or point of view on what is being said is diminished and the small errors and weighty false doctrines can be countered by placement along side available evidence.

It appears that it is human nature that newcomers will form hasty opinions as to the goal and as to their attainments. These, because of the temptations of fame or profit will be easily persuaded to propagate their notions. There will be those who follow. There will be for some of these the desire to find out more. Where the full scope of the suttas is not easily available there is little hope that these lost sheep will find the path, where, as now, the suttas are completely available, in multiple versions along with the Pali, there is for the mislead at least some hope. To make access to the full spectrum of teachings even more easily accessible is the best justification for dealing with the present situation by the effort to get all available existing suttas on line and available without cost.

 

new Tuesday, April 15, 2014 8:28 AM [SN 3.22.29] Abhinandanaṃ Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Taking Delight In, F.L. Woodward translation,
In Pain, Olds translation.
The Buddha declares that whoever takes delight in the Stockpiles of Existence (khandhā) takes delight in Pain, but whoever takes no delight in them is free from pain. See especially for this, SN 2.14.35.

In putting the translation of this sutta together I came upon the problem of rendering the term 'vedana' (for which issue see the discussion below). I decided the best option in this case would be to render the term 'sense-experience' as when this term is used in the khandhas it implies the experience of the senses of the individual. Then, seeing there also the terms for perception, and consciousness it occurred to me that the same issue applies to these terms as well, that is that they are used for both the Arahant and the Individual but are to be understood differently for each, and that the solution applied to 'vedana' would also be helpful if applied to 'sañña' and 'viññāṇa': that is, to distinguish the term 'consciousness' where it is being used of the consciousness of the ordinary person we should translate it 'sense-consciousness', and similarly for 'perception', 'sense-perception'. Where the terms apply to the Arahant (see discussion of viññāṇa anidassana and AN 11.8 and others there like it) we can just leave them un-augmented. Previously I have tried to point out this distinction with regard to 'consciousness' by translating 'individualized consciousness' which is what it is. It is difficult to understand why there were in these cases no new terms invented to distinguish the ordinary person and the Arahant, but it may have been that in the creation of a new set of terms there would have been seen to be the implication that where they were the states of the Arahant they were 'states of existence' which would be exactly wrong. Or may be it just did not seem important as the ordinary person would not be concerned and the student of this Dhamma would be taught. Or maybe it was thought wise to leave it as a challenge to figure out as bearing down would be needed to comprehend the issue anyway. The best I can do to offer a distinction for the reader is something like: The Arahant has the consciousness of the not-consciousness of sense-consciousness. His consciousness depends on freedom from sense-consciousness as it's basis and by that cannot be said to 'be in existence'. It has not crossed over into personal identification with rūpa, 'matter.' One can experience the idea of 'extra-sensory' sight simply by recollecting an image from a dream or noting the fact of 'seeing' objects in daydreams or jhāna. This is 'seeing' an object other than by way of the eye.

 

new Friday, April 11, 2014 8:16 AM [SN 2.14.12] With Causal Basis C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes how sensual desire, deviance, and cruelty and their opposites arise from perception of information about things of a like nature. Mrs. Rhys Davids uses 'cause' for her translation of 'nidana', tied-to, bound up with or down to. This idea pervades most people's thinking about Buddhism but it needs to be re-examined.

"The era of big data challenges the way we live and interact with the world. Most strikingly, society will need to shed some of its obsession for causality in exchange for simple correlations: not knowing why but only what."

"The ideal of identifying causal mechanisms is a self-congratulattory illusion..."

— quotes coinsidentally found in Mayer-Schönberger and Cukier, Big Data Once again modern science catches up to Buddhsim. But I would say "Most strikingly, society will have to stop calling correlations causes."

Evil does not cause evil. It is through perception of evil - the cognizance of information conveying the idea of evil - that the idea of evil arises in the mind but the evil information did not 'cause' that idea, it came up in association with, bound up in that information. A thing that causes another thing always causes that other thing. That being the case there could be no escape from what that thing caused. But there is escape. Through the analysis of a thing into it's component parts one is able to separate out the information that is giving rise to any specific idea and take measures to counteract it's tendency to arise.
The idea of 'cause' is a sublimation of the idea of self. It requires that there be a force there independent of any given thing which is the 'cause' force. That is the idea of the ultimate existence of a thing and that is a sublimation of the idea of self. That is also at the root of the idea of a Creator God. This is also the problem with the translation of 'dhatū' as 'element': it implies an on-going ultimate existence of a thing.
Elsewhere the word most consistently translated 'cause,' 'hetu', is also being translated so carelessly. The word actually means 'driving force' which is a much clearer idea of what is actualy happening in almost every case where 'cause' is used today in whatever field. The distinction is most helpful when trying to figure out the Paticca Samuppada. The idea is that among factors that result in each phase, there is one which if missing, will prevent the arising of the next phase. The existence of forms of being (bhavas) does not 'cause' living in a form of being, but without forms of being there would be no living in any form of being.
[SN 2.14.13] Brick Hall C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Brick House, Olds translation.
The Buddha teaches that it is because of data, the available information, that perceptions, views and thoughts arise. Mrs. Rhys Davids translates 'dhatū' as 'element'. I have used 'information'. The question is: Is 'dhatū' a thing or material object, or is it that which can be known about things or material objects — A property or characteristic?
Here what would be understood using 'element' is that there is a big mass of 'blindness-element' out there that plops down on someone to cause him not to see what is there to see. This is no more the case than it is the case that there is a chariot there apart from it's constituent parts. Solidity is a dhatū, but in a body of water that has become frozen, there is no 'thing' there that is the solidity of that water. The idea that it is 'solid' is generated within the perceiver through comprehension of the properties of resistance, impenatrability, etc. So here in this sutta the idea is that there is information there which can be resorted to or not; that the individual, reacting to sense experience with liking or disliking, blinds himself to information that would otherwise inform him with a more neutral view.
In the previous suttas in this series, beginning at SN 2.14.1 we learn one of the most important things there is to know about how to set the mind upright: that the diversity in perceptions comes from the diversity in data (my then translation of 'dhatū') and not the other way around. The eye comes into contact with a visible object and visual consciousness arises. To the mind, Eye, visible object and visual consciousness are all received as 'dhatū': information.
The individual begins with the belief at heart that he is the creator of the created. He thinks therefore he is. Things enter his world upon his perception of them. With the information that perception arises from objects and not the other way around, the tendency is to say that one's world is created by an external force. But the Buddha tells us that it is 'within this fathom long body that the beginning of the world, the end of the world and the escape from the world is to be found.' [AN 4.45] What has happened? Without noticing it the idea of self has, in it's effort at 'self'-preservation, switched sides. A visual object comes into contact with my eye and creates my visual consciousness of that object. Put a billion or so of those perceptions together and snap fingers or breath into a lump of clay and there I am. "I did not create the world", "The world created me." But all that has happened in reality is that the properties of sensations, perceptions and consciousness have arisen from contact in conjunction with the view-property "I am this way" or "I am that way." A little information is a dangerous thing!
[SN 2.14.14] Low Tastes C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Inclined to Flow Together or Birds of a Feather Flock Together, Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali. In the past, the future and the present beings gather together in groups based on similarities in their beliefs.
Here the idea that 'dhatū' is information or characteristic or property, not 'element' should have become clear. People do not go with the flow as though the flow were some river which carries them off, they flock together with those of characteristics similar to themselves.
[SN 2.14.15] Conduct, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. Many of the outstanding leaders under Gotama are walking back and forth followed by great numbers of disciples and the Buddha points out to the bhikkhus sitting around him that each is following a leader whos disposition is similar to their own. He then states that in the past, the future and the present beings gather together in groups based on similarities in their beliefs. This is an expansion of the previous sutta. There are links to biographical information on each of the leaders mentioned.
[SN 2.14.16] [Sutta] with Verses, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that just as muck blends with muck and milk blends with milk in the past, the future and the present beings gather together in groups based on similarities in their beliefs. A variation on the theme of the previous suttas.
[SN 2.14.17] Unbelievers, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha Points out that in the past, the future and the present people gather together in groups bsed on similarities in their beliefs: those with no faith in the Dhamma with those of no faith, those with faith in the Dhamma with those of faith. A variation of the previous suttas. The PTS Pali inserts the description of those with faith into the section on those without faith. It could be that this represents another way the sutta was to have been organized, but it is not developed that way in the rest. I have followed the BJT and CSCD. Mrs. Rhys Davids abridges in such a way as to obscure the way the sutta is organized. Both the Pali and Mrs. Rhys Davids translation have been properly unabridged here.
[SN 2.14.18] The Five Based on Unbelievers, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali.
[SN 2.14.19] The Four based on 'The Unconscientiousness', C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali.
[SN 2.14.20] The Three based on 'The Indiscreet', C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali.
[SN 2.14.21] The Two by the term 'The Uneducated,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali.
[SN 2.14.22] The Lazy,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali.

Suttas 18-22 develop the theme begun in the previous suttas that in the past, future and the present people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics in the form of a 'wheel' according to the following scheme (using Mrs. Rhys Davids Vocabulary):
18.: Unbelievers, unconscientious, unwise;
believers, conscientious, wise:
Unbelievers, indiscrete, unwise;
believers, discrete, wise;
Unbelievers, uneducated, unwise;
believers, educated, wise;
Unbelievers, lazy, unwise;
believers, energetic, wise;
Unbelievers, muddleminded, unwise;
believers, levelheaded, wise.
19.: Unconscientiousness, indiscrete, unwise;
conscientiousness, discrete, wise;
Unconscientiousness, uneducated, unwise;
conscientiousness, educated, wise;
Unconscientiousness, lazy, unwise;
conscientiousness, energetic, wise;
Unconscientiousness, muddleminded, unwise;
conscientiousness, levelheaded, wise.
20.: Indiscreet, uneducated, unwise;
Discreet, educated, wise;
Indiscreet, lazy, unwise;
Discrete, energetic, wise;
Indiscrete, muddleminded, unwise;
Discreet, levelheaded, wise.
21.: Uneducated, lazy, unwise;
Educated, energetic, wise;
Uneducated, muddleminded, unwise;
Educated, levelheaded, wise;
22.: Lazy, muddleminded, unwise;
Energetic, levelheaded, wise.

All this in the PTS translation is abridged down into one paragraph giving the titles and a description of the formula from which it would not be possible using it alone to figure out the actual scheme.

I don't know why people are not jumping up and down with delight at seeing these. Except, of course, that we are cool, and do not display our emotions in such a crude way. This is like looking back 2500 years and seeing the way people's minds were working and what they were taking delight in. There just is not anything even approaching this intimate view of another time in any other literature in the world. Simply marvelous!

[SN 2.14.23] The Unconcentrated,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics. He identifies two groups with opposing characteristics that gather together.
[SN 2.14.24] The Vicious,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics. He identifies two groups with opposing characteristics that gather together. Identical to the previous substituting 'vicious/virtuous' for 'unconcentrated/concentrated.'
[SN 2.14.25] The Five Moral Precepts,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that in the past, future and the present people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics. Identical in structure to the previous but substituting the five precepts for the terms.
[SN 2.14.26] The Seven Course of Action,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics. He identifies two groups with opposing characteristics that gather together. Identical in structure to the previous but substituting the last term for three on speech.
[SN 2.14.27] The Ten Courses of Action,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics. He identifies two groups with opposing characteristics that gather together. Identical in structure to the previous but adding three additional characteristics.
[SN 2.14.28] The The Eightfold, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics. He identifies two groups with opposing characteristics that gather together. Identical in structure to the previous but using what we have come to know as The Eightfold Path but which here is simply identified as 'Eightfold' or 'eight-dimensioned'. No 'Magga', no 'Ariya ~ Magga'.
[SN 2.14.29] Ten Factors, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics. He identifies two groups with opposing characteristics that gather together. It is interesting to note that although this sutta is, in the Pali, named 'Dasaŋgika' 'ten-aŋgika' and the previous sutta is 'Aṭṭhaŋgika' 'eight-aŋgika' (no 'magga') Mrs. Rhys Davids translates 'eightfold' and 'ten factors' while Bhk. Bodhi translates 'eightfold path' and 'ten factors'. I believe that in the same way we do not go around putting titles on the various conversations we have with people, that the suttas and such various lists as we find throughout the suttas were only given names when repeated reference to them made naming them a convenience. So it is a reasonable conclusion to think that what we have here is early relative to those places where the Eight-Dimensional Way or the Ariya Eight Dimensional Way and the (Ā)Sikkhāpada are referred to by those names. Again to my mind this would tend to suggest that these 'tedious repetitions' were early, not later 'monkish' additions. This theory is confounded by the fact that in the first sutta (also found in the Saŋyutta Nikāya) the 'Aṭṭhaŋgika' is called ariyo aṭṭhaŋgiko maggo. Could it possibly be that the first sutta was subject to 'monkish' tampering? To attain the Eye of Dhamma it is necessary only to have the first three of the Four Truths (to hear that 'this' is pain, that this pain has it's origin in thirst, and that it can be brought to an end by ending thirst), but the fourth truth, being the Way to do it, is not explained in detail sufficient to make it comprehensible. Even allowing that aŋgikas 2-8 could be guessed at thinking the intent was 'the highest form in which these things are practiced) the first aŋgika, 'ditthi' or 'view,' was unique to Gotama and would not have been known in any way prior to this utterance. But the fact is that the Magga is, in it's details, carefully and uniquely contstructed in units of intentional not-doing. No other contemporary set of instructions for attaining the goal of solving the problem of rebirth and pain in existence was constructed in this way. The Magga without knowledge of it's details is, if not useless in attaining the goal, almost as difficult a task as becoming self-awakened without a teacher. It leaves up to the individual to determine what, exactly is 'sammā' 'consummate' this and that. And while that will in fact be helpful, it will not likely result in the intentional not-doing of all behavior intended to cause personal existence that is required for the goal. So this problem reaches another aŋgika dimension: those places where it is given without the details look to be places where the details were assumed to be known or where it was assumed that they would be explained by the leaders of groups. Those places in the suttas where the details are given are relatively infrequent. All sorts of questions arise when thinking about this. Where were the details first introduced? Was the Magga itself a later compilation from the various aŋgikas as developed individually or in groups? Why is there so little emphasis on the details of the Magga as a unit? Why the distinction between the eight-dimensioned and the ten-dimensioned? And why the change from 'fold' to 'factor'? What was the impulse that lead Bhk. Bodhi to insert 'Path' where it was not in the Pali? But as to that, just remember: 'a rose by any other name will smell as sweet.' This is all just a matter of curiosity.
[SN 2.14.30] The Four,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha introduces the four basic bits of information we receive about things in the world: that things are Earth-like, Water-like, Firelight-like and Wind-like. PED gives one of the ideas in back of this term as dhātū, being the equivalent of 'dom' as in surf-dom. A footnote in the next sutta references the commentary in explaining the meaning as 'solidity, liquidity, heat, and motion.' Properties, characteristics, bits of information, not 'elements.' (Mrs. Rhys Davids use of 'elements' is here most easily explained but it should be seen, and will be shown in the following suttas that what is being spoken of here is not a thing in and of itself, but a property of things, and that using the translation 'element' points in the wrong direction.) Here I return to the issue of translating 'dhatū' as element to point out to the reader that he should be aware that in Volume 3 of the Samyutta, the Khandha Vagga, Woodward has used 'element' for his translation of 'khandha'. We need to be on the alert and allow for this sort of inconsistency at this point in the progress towards a translation with a uniform vocabulary which, if it ever is to be, is still some time in the future.
One more thing: Mrs. Rhys Davids translation of 'vāyodhātū' as 'air ~' is just wrong. It is 'wind' or 'wave-form' or 'motion' or the like. Air does not convey the idea of motion which is necessary for understanding this property. The 'vāyo' concentration device, for example, is to look on the motion of leaves blown in the wind. One determines if there is life in a living being through the presence of the tejo and vāyo dhātū. Air exists in dead things.
[SN 2.14.31] Before, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes how it was through perception of the satisfaction in, problems with and escape from the characteristics of solidity, liquidity, heat and motion that he was assured that he had attained awakening and was no more to be subject to rebirth.
[SN 2.14.32] I Walked, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes how it was through seeking, finding and gaining insight into the satisfaction in, problems with and escape from the characteristics of solidity, liquidity, heat and motion that he was assured that he had attained awakening and was no more to be subject to rebirth.
[SN 2.14.33] If There Were Not This, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes how if there were no satisfaction to be got from the properties of solidity, liquidity, heat, and motion, there would be no lust for them, how if there were no pain associated with them there would be no dissatisfaction with them, how if there were no way to escape from them there would be no escaping from them, but since there is, there is, and that it is only insofar as one has understood these things as they are that there is any living of the religious life and attaining to freedom. An apparently simple idea but one which is essential to understand to keep from swinging from the lust for the world that makes one blind to the problems of life to a hate for the world that makes one blind to the reasons one gets attached and bound up.
[SN 2.14.34] Pain, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes how if there were no pleasure to be got from the properties of solidity, liquidity, heat, and motion, there would be no lust for them, how if there were no pain associated with them there would be no repugnance for them, but since there is, there is. If you didn't get it the first time, here it is expressed in another way.
[SN 2.14.35] Taking Delight In, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Free From Pain, Olds, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha declares that he who takes delight in the earthly, the watery, the fiery, and the windy is not free from pain, but he who is free from such delight is free from pain. For my translation of this sutta I have taken advantage of the PED mention of the fact that the term 'dhātū' acts almost as the suffix 'dom' which I have extended to 'y' = 'iness', etc. and which it looks to me now to be for at least some cases where this term is used the best of all solutions. See also: SN 3.22.29
[SN 2.14.36] Uprising, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha states that whatsoever is the arising of the Earthy, Watery, Fire-like, and Windy is just simply the arising of Pain and that whatever is the ending of such is simply the ending of pain.
[SN 2.14.37] Recluses and Brahmins (1), C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha defines what it means to be a shaman or a Brahmin in terms of understanding the satisfaction, pain, and escape from the Earthy, Watery, Fire-like, and Windy. The definition of the 'recluse and brahmin' is a recurring theme ending many chapters and books.
[SN 2.14.38] Recluses and Brahmins (2), C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha defines what it means to be a shaman or a Brahmin in terms of understanding the rise and fall of the Earthy, Watery, Fire-like, and Windy.
[SN 2.14.39] Recluses and Brahmins (3), C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha defines what it means to be a shaman or a Brahmin in terms of understanding earth, water, firelight and wind, understanding the way they arise, understanding the way that they end, and understanding the way to go to bring about their ending. This is The Four Truths verbatum except for the specific reference to the four dhātū. In other words what this is saying is that the four dhātū. is another way of describing everything that exists.

This brings to a conclusion the uploading of Saŋyutta Nikāya, Nidāna Vagga, 14. Dhatu Saɱyutta, in the Pali and the PTS Rhys Davids translation.

 

new Thursday, April 10, 2014 1:11 PM [SN 5.49.001-012] Pācīna: 1: Gaŋgā + 2-12 all in one file. (all untitled) The Pali
1. Ganges — Flows to the East, + 2-12, all in one file. (all untitled), the Woodward translation.
12 for the price of one! The Cattāri Sammā Padhāna (Four Consummate Efforts) lead to Nibbāna in the same way as the Ganges, Yamunā, Acīravatī, Sarabhū, Mahī Rivers flow to the East; and in the same way as the Ganges, Yamunā, Acīravatī, Sarabhū, Mahī Rivers flow to the Ocean. These constitute the first chapter of the Samyutta Nikaya book on the Consummate Efforts.

 

new Monday, April 07, 2014 5:37 AM [SN 5.55.39] Kāḷigodhā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Kāḷi, The Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches The Four Dimensions of Streamwinning Cattāri Sotāpattiyaŋgāni to Kāḷigodhā, the Sakyan lady, who declares that she is possessed of these four. The Buddha congratulates her and tells her she has declared Streamwinning.

 

new Wednesday, April 02, 2014 5:31 AM The Book of the Gradual Sayings, Vol. II, Introduction, by Mrs. Rhys Davids, and Translator's Preface, by F.L. Woodward. Mrs. Rhys Davids Introduction and F.L. Woodward's Preface to The Book of the Gradual Sayings, Volume II: The Book of the Fours. I recommend you stay away from this Introduction until such a point as the tendency to anger, tearing your hair out, pounding your desk and throwing a brick at your computer is well under control. The arrogance and 'superiority' of this woman is beyond comprehension. If she had stuck to her own discipline she would have emerged a hero, but she has felt a need to 'explain Buddhism' to the world and has by that ventured into territory where she is simply an incompetent. She has passionately embraced her own view of what Gotama's teaching 'must' have been all about and is defending that view against all comers. What she has done is explained from a theoretical intellectual viewpoint based on her own experience and preconceptions what can only be explained properly by a practitioner. It's like a lawyer, untrained and inexperienced in any aspect of medicine, who writes an introductory text on medicine. For her, everything that does not agree with her view is a later 'monkish' construction (she want's Gotama, who spent most of his time addressing bhikkhus, to have directed his teaching pimarily to the less interested common man), and by that she manages to ignore incalculably more than is accommodated by her view.
I include this work here because it is both the basis of controversy and of historical interest and it has been referenced by Woodward in a sutta in his translation of this volume.

 

new Friday, March 28, 2014 6:53 AM Gati. New Glossology entry.

 

new Tuesday, March 25, 2014 7:02 AM [AN 4.11] Deportment, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Whether walking, or standing, or sitting, or lying down, a bhikkhu who does not wish to be known as a slacker, who does not wish to deprive himself of his opportunity for attaining the goal, should rid himself of lustful, deviant, or cruel thoughts.
In the Satipatthana Sutta we learn to pay attention to the four postures. Here we see what we should be observing and doing as we make ourselves aware of the postures. I harp on the mistake of thinking this is a practice intended to focus solely on observation of the posture (or sensations, mental states and Dhamma) and noting 'standing, standing, standing' etc. but this is the extent of the practice as taught by huge numbers of followers of Mahasi Sayadow. We have to acknowledge such persons as pioneers in bringing us Dhamma, but simultaneously we must avoid blindly following what they have taught when the shortcomings of what they have taught become obvious when compared to the greater body of information available later. The goal is not observation of the present moment, it is freedom from identification with the existing. One notes the body, etc., (what is there in front of the eyes) but in context (internal, one's own and what is thought of as one's own, and external, what does not pertain to the self or comes from the outside the 'whole body of available information') relative to sensation, mental state and Dhamma, and all this, even, only to the extent (i.e., not to be made the point of the practice) that it serves the purpose of calming down to such a degree as enables attaining insight through the lens of the Dhamma into the validity of the Four Truths or the Paticca Smuppada, and further to that insight, to determine what needs to be done to attain the freedom from the existing moment that is the ultimate goal.
[AN 4.12] Virtue, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Whether walking, or standing, or sitting, or lying down, a bhikkhu who has trained himself in ethical practices has overcome the hinderances. Then, to become one known as energetic, careful and resolute, he must develop energy, establish his memory, calm his body and concentrate and tranquillize his mind.
This sutta builds on the previous sutta further developing the satipatthanas by way of the postures.
[AN 4.15] Types, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha lists the Four major types of chiefs of beings in the world.
Woodward translates 'chief types', but these are not the chief types of beings, but the four major chiefs of beings.
[AN 4.16] The Subtle, Woodward translation.
Exqisites, Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes four 'exquisites.' The meaning possible to draw from the three translations (including Bhk. Bodhi's) is different in ... um ... exquisitely subtle ways each of which will yield a radically different form of practice. At a certain point in your studies it will be vital, at the least, to understand that there are differences of opinion as to what is being said. I will try and be helpful.

Four of the five 'stockpiles' (rūpa, vedanā, saññā, saṃkhāra) (khandhas) are to be dealt with:

Per Woodward: A monk is possessed of the power to penetrate the subtlty [sokhummāni] of body, feeling, perception, activities; he beholds no other power more excellent, he aspires for no other power.

Per Bhk. Bodhi: A bhikkhu possesses supreme exquisitness [sokhummāni] of form, feeling, perception, volitional activities, he perceives no exquisiteness more excellent, and does not yearn for any other exquisiteness.

Olds: A beggar has beheld a most exquisite [sokhummāni] shape, experience, perception, own-making, cannot conceive of a higher exquisite shape, etc., and aspires to no higher exquisite shape, etc..

The problem with Woodwar's translation begins and ends with the fact that there is no mention of any sort of power in the pali. He is giving us an interpretation in reliance on his understanding of what is said in the commentary: [Per footnote: "Comys. read sukhumāni and define as: 'knowledge of how to penetrate the subtle characteristics.] By this he has, I believe, short-circuited the intent of the sutta and deprived the reader of the little itty bit of visibility of the absolutely essential piece of knowledge it provides. (I'll get to that in a minute and you can judge for yourself.)

The problem with Bhk. Bodihi's translation is that he has the bhikkhu possessing (having become in himself, most exquisite in) these forms, etc. which perceptions would justly be called vanity, self-deception and manifestation of a belief in self. He footnotes; My [insert in italics]:

"Mp's explanation [see quote above] seems to me problematic. I would identify exquisiteness of form with the form perceived in the fourth jhāna, exquisiteness of feeling with the neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling occurring in the fourth jhāna and the formless attainments, exquisiteness of perception with the perception in the base of nothingness, and exquisiteness of volitional activities with the residual volitional activities in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception."

Putting aside that these are just guesses (he says "I would identify" not "These are"), Bhk. Bodhi is trying to identify what is the exquisite form, etc. being spoken of. If the attainment of a certain state had been the point of the sutta, it is certain that that would have been stated. There are much more direct and less uncertain ways to get the states Bhk. Bodhi mentions than leaving it up to the subjective judgment of the individual. But the Buddha says: These are the exquisites. In some way what we have in front of us must be made to be those exquisites. The meaning of a sutta needs to be found in the wording as it is found ... for the most part, except where there is an obvious connection between suttas, a sutta will have been delivered to an audience which might in it's lifetime hear that sutta and only that sutta. Further, if the prose part of the sutta is to be taken alone, Bhk. Bodhi's translation is making the Buddha say that these four exquisites, attained by the bhikkhu, are the most exquisite exquisites, which is not the case. The most exquisite form of a bhikkhu does not compare to the most exquisite form of the Buddha, for an example. The most exquisite form of a bhikkhu at one minute will not be the same as his form will be in the next minute so it will not be possible for him to form the non-desire to have any other exquisiteness since he doesn't have the one he thinks he has in the first place. ... and for many other similar reasons this cannot be the meaning.

My suggestion is that the prose part of the sutta is an instruction in how to identify when one has perceived forms, etc., in a way which requires no further exploration of form to know that one has seen sufficient to understand form as it is. "Having seen the best, I can leave the rest." It is not necessary to have seen the most exquisite (the absolute best) form of all forms, and it is not necessary to have perceived form in any particular state, and it is not necessary to have become form in any particular state, to have reached the point where a form is perceived as exquisite, it is simply necessary to have seen such a form as satisfies. That is, to re-interpret the quote from the commentary: having seen forms in a way that satisfies provides a basis for insight into the characteristics of forms. Or one might say gives the power to penetrate the subtlties of form.

That is the sum total of the sutta, but there is a verse that follows which possibly clarifies and certainly confuses the meaning. It says:
Per Woodward: If he knows the subtlty of form, and sees various things about feelings, perceptions and activities, the monk lives in peace in his final body having conquered Mara.
Per Bhk. Bodhi: Having known the exquisitness of form, and seeing various things about feelings, perceptions, and volitional activities, the bhikkhu lives in peace, bears his final body, having conquered Mara.
Olds: Knowing exquisite form, and understanding certain things about experience and perception he knows that the own-made is painful and not self and aspires to peace, to bearing his final body and to conquering Mara.

Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi essentially agree, I dispute. But the real problem here is that this is only one case of what should be four. We should be finding here that: Knowing exquisite form, exquisite experience, exquisite perception and exquisite own making, and seeing certain things about experience and perception (and I would add 'form') he understands that the own-made is not self and he aspires to peace, bearing his final body and to conquering Mara ... or ... there should be four separate stanzas, one each for exquisite form, exquisite experience, exquisite perception, and exquisite own-making, each with a concluding set of factors.

My guess? The commentator who invented the explanation used by Woodward and objected-to by Bhk. Bodhi (but actually accepted by him in the form of the verses) inserted the verses intending to reveal the meaning, (that is, the verse is the original commentary). As commentary he would not necessarily need to work out all the variations.

[AN 4.17] No Bourn, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes four ways of going wrong. In this and the next three suttas Woodward translates 'gati' as 'bourn' which has the effect in these cases, where the term is 'agati' of turning these suttas upside down. One way of describing the aim of the system is to say that it is to achieve the state where there are no further 'bourns' and one sure way not to achieve that goal is to take hold of desires, hatred, stupidity and give reign to fear. But by Woodwards phrasing this is just what one is to do. Of course the meaning is that these are the four ways of going wrong or getting things or behaving incorrectly or the acting against 'good form' that is mentioned in the gāthās.
If the gāthās were eliminated, the possible meanings for each sutta are dual and opposite depending on whether one understands the intent to be pointing to the goal of the arahant or a worldly goal and whether one is to understand the subject as 'ways of going wrong' or 'what you get from going wrong' i.e., destinies. Aside from the gāthās there is no reason to think that these double meanings were not deliberate, if not, perhaps, hidden to most under the meaning as we hear it now. This sutta paints half of a picture. The other half is in the next sutta, and the sutta following that combines the two. I have translated that sutta just to put in my thought about how it should be read. Otherwise Bhk. Thanissaro's translation would do. The fourth in the series gives a variation which looks to my eye as though it was intended to point to what is to be understood in the lot as it gives an every-day example. (see also on this subject, Ms. Horner's translation of MN 12 just below)
[AN 4.18] Bourn, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes four ways one does not go wrong.
[AN 4.19] Bourn and No-Bourn, Woodward translation.
Going Wrong and Not Going Wrong, Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes four ways of going wrong and four ways one does not go wrong.
[AN 4.20] The Food-Steward, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali The Buddha describes four ways the distributor of food in the Sangha goes wrong whereby he ends up in Hell and four ways that he does not go wrong and thereby ends up in Heaven.
[AN 4.23] The World, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali The Buddha declares his freedom from all things worldly and lists the attributes of the Tathagata. Followed by verses of admiration which have been added to the Renga.
[AN 4.24] Kāḷaka Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha explains that his statement that he knows and understands whatsoever in the world, with its Maras, Brahmas, hosts of recluses and brahmins, devas and mankind, is seen, heard, sensed, cognized, attained, searched into, pondered over by the mind, is to be understood as a simple statement of fact and is not a brag and that because he does know these things, to say otherwise would be a lie.
[AN 4.25] The God-Life Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali The Brahmacariya or Holy Life is lived for the sake of finding the self-control, letting-go, detachment, and bringing to a conclusion to the problem of pain in existence not for the worldly advantages of fame, gains and favors.
[AN 4.26] The Cheat Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali The Buddha states that pretend bhikkhus, stubborn persons, gosips, crafty and undisciplined individuals are not followers of what he has taught and have no chance to gain, grow, or prosper in this system, but those whose interest is genuine, who are open-minded, wise, flexible, not gosips, who exercise self-control are followers of what he has taught and will gain, grow, and prosper in this system.
[AN 4.27] Contented Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali The Buddha praises contentment with basics of clothing, food, shelter and medicine that are worthless, easy to obtain, and blameless.
[AN 4.28] Lineage Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali Among the ancient story-lines running down through the history of mankind — The Warrior's path, the practitioner of the holy life, ordinary people, shaman (sorcerers, wisemen, witch-doctors, curers), powerful families, and Kings — there is also the lineage of the Ariyan, a warrior, holy man, ordinary man, shaman, powerful person, and king all wrapped up in the seeker after the solution to the problem of pain in existence. Here Gotama speaks of the four ancient practices of this latter group. Woodward speaks of four lineages, but what is being spoken of is four practices of one lineage.
[AN 4.29] Factors of Dhamma Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali Four paths of good form that are ancient, long standing, traditional, primeval, pure and unadulterated, unconfused, respected by the wise.
[AN 4.30] Wanderers Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali The Buddha visits a Wanderer's park and teaches the four paths of good form that are ancient, long standing, traditional, primeval, pure and unadulterated, unconfused, respected by the wise. And in this case he adds emphasis by showing that disparaging these four subjects one to ridicule.
We may have in this sutta a valuable opportunity to clarify our understanding of some important terms by their comparison with the factors said to be present when they are absent.
'Sammā-sati' for example, is contrasted with forgetfulness 'muṭṭhassati' and 'asampajāna' 'non-cognizance' (lack of understanding), but also, according to PED, lack of mindfulness and attentiveness. We do have one word that means 'remember', 'mind', and 'pay attention to' in the word: 'mind' — (The mind, mind your manners, mind the children). We should probably use that in spite of the fact that it sounds somewhat old fashioned. Old fashioned is sometimes more clear than the modern, and this is especially important in this system which is so mathematically constructed. 'Sammā-samādhi' is contrasted with 'asamāhitaṃ' literally 'non-confligration' which might seem like a good thing, but the meaning is 'not-kindled,' 'not lit,' (for which remember that one meaning of 'jhāna' is 'to burn') but also not-gathered together, composed, concentrated, collected, and 'vibbhantacittaṃ' 'a roving heart'.
I have spoken out against the translation of 'samādhi' as concentration which is only one factor of samādhi and suggested 'serenity:'

From Latin sernus, clear, fair, calm (of weather) peaceful, cheerful; akin to OHG serawēn, to become dry; GK: xeron, dry land. 1. completely clear, fine, or balmy suggesting or conducive to calm peacefulness free of storms or unpleasant change. Shining bright and steady and unobscured. 2. marked by or suggestive of utter calm and unruffled repose or quietude without suggestion of agitation, trouble, fitful activity, or sudden change. — Websters

After consideration of these contrasting terms, I still believe serenity is the better choice. It contains the germ of concentration while it encorporates ideas such as clarity and calm and lack of disruption caused by activities all of which are aspects of samādhi. One might raise the argument against this choice that there is the existence of 'miccha-samādhi'; or 'low' or 'contrary' or 'mistaken' (but not wrong!) -samādhi, and that where there can be misdirected concentration, how is it possible to have misdirected serenity? My response is that it is possible, as in the case of the serenity that sometimes occurs to those in battle and those engaged in highly worldly activities ... I'm thinking of painting, what were you thinking of? Gotama is in this sutta speaking of 'Sammā-samadhi'. That which is less than perfect serenity could easily be characterized as being less than perfectly composed and subject to a roving heart.
[AN 4.31] The Wheel Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro Translation.
The Buddha describes the four wheels on which rolls prosperity for gods and men.
[AN 4.32] Sympathy Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro Translation.
The four bases for making friends. Woodward translates 'Saŋgaha' as 'sympathy' in the sense of 'being of the same mind', 'in sympathy', 'simpatico'. Bhk. Thanissaro: 'fellowship.' See also: DN 33.4.40
[AN 4.33] The Lion Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali The Buddha compairs the fear and trembling inspired in animals by the lion's roar to the fear and trembling inspired in beings when the teaching of impermanence is heard taught by the Tathagata.
[AN 4.34] Faiths Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali A good word for those who go by faith. Four ways in which faith is placed in the best of things and having been placed in the best yield the best of results.
[AN 4.35] Vessakāra Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Brahman Vassakara visits Gotama and describes what the brahmins call a great man and Gotama replies with what is called a great man in his Dhamma-discipline.
[AN 4.36] As to the World Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Brahmin Dona is walkiing along behind the Buddha when he notices the mark of the Wheel in Gotama's footprints. Drawing near he asks Gotama about what sort of being he may be and is told that he is beyond 'being' and is Buddha.
There are a couple of interesting things about this sutta aside from the lesson. First: though the Arahant is said to be 'trackless' here Dona is able to see his footprints. The commentary aparently attempts to explain that the footprints are invisible, but that this Brahman can 'see'. This is exactly backwards of the essence of the meaning of 'trackless'. Trackless should be understood as a matter of leaving no traces indicating that anything that was done by the 'trackless' one has been done from lust, hate, or stupidity. It is not a matter of leaving no footprints. The need to make Gotama into a supernatural being is to miss the real magic in what Gotama realized.
The other thing is that Woodward speculates that this is the Dona to whom was given the Buddha's bowl on his death. I wonder what happened to this bowl?
[AN 4.37] Incapable of Falling Away Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha enumerates four practices which ensure that one will not fall back.
[AN 4.39] Ujjaya Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Brahmin Ujjaya asks if Gotama praises sacrifices and is told that he does not praise bloody sacrifices and that they are of little worth but that he does praise traditional charitable sacrifices and that they are of much worth. Woodward footnotes the commentary describing a time previous to the Buddha in which sacrifices were not bloody, a story told in KD.SNP.2.7: Brāhmaṇadhammika Sutta.
[AN 4.40] Udayi Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Brahmin Udayi asks if Gotama praises sacrifices and is told that he does not praise bloody sacrifices and that they are of little worth but that he does praise traditional charitable sacrifices and that they are of much worth. Identical to the previous sutta but with different concluding verses.
[AN 4.42] Questions Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. The four ways of dealing with questions. See also on this subject: AN 3.67. Just one of thousands of seemingly simple ways of dealing with ordinary situations that we are not usually taught but which are very helpful in clarifying one's thinking.
[AN 4.43] Wrath (a) Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Eight sorts of persons. Those governed by wrath, hypocrisy, gains, and fame, and those governed by Dhamma. These lists of persons found throughout the suttas are very helpful when it comes to controlling one's reactions to what feels like unreasonable behavior. Not everyone is governed by the reasonableness of the Dhamma. It is not likely, for example, that one will find success in dealing with a person governed by wrath by responding directly to any given episode of wrath. One must approach strategically, understanding the basis from which the person operates, and making one's response appear rational from that perspective.
[AN 4.44] Dutiya Kodhagaru Suttaṃ, the Pali
Wrath (b) Woodward translation.
Eight sorts of respect; respect for wrath, hypocrisy, gains, and fame; and respect for true good form as opposed to each of these.
[AN 4.45] Paṭhama Rohitassa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Rohitassa (a) Woodward translation.
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Gotama converses with the Deva Rohitassa who asks if it is possible to reach the end of the world where there is no more birth and aging and death and rebirth. Gotama explains that it is not possible to get to that end of the world by 'going' but it is not possible to make an end of birth and aging and death and rebirth without reaching the end of the world. The world, he says, the origin of this world, the end of this world, and the way to go to go to the end of this world is to be got by understanding this body with it's perceptions and thoughts.
[AN 4.46] Dutiya Rohitassa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Rohitassa (b) Woodward translation.
Gotama relates to the bhikkhus his conversation with the Deva Rohitassa who asks if it is possible to reach the end of the world where there is no more birth and aging and death and rebirth. Gotama explains that it is not possible to get to that end of the world by 'going' but it is not possible to make an end of birth and aging and death and rebirth without reaching the end of the world. The world, he says, the origin of this world, the end of this world, and the way to go to go to the end of this world is to be got by understanding this body with it's perceptions and thoughts.
This sutta looks like it should just be the second half of the previous sutta. It might be interesting to some to note that in the Pali there is an unusual effort made to make this repetition of the sutta read like a modern narative. Where usually what we find in such cases is an exact repetition of the events as they were previously told, here there is inserted such transitional phrases as: "When he had said that, I responded ..." So now we have three ways repetitions are found: strict repetition, encapsulation ('and they repeated all that had happened') and this narative form.
[AN 4.47] Suvidūra-vidūra Suttaṃ, the Pali
Very Far Away Woodward translation.
Farther apart than the earth and the sky, the two shores of the oceans, the place of the sun's rise and it's setting are the values of the good from those of the bad.
[AN 4.48] Visākha Suttaṃ, the Pali
Visākha Woodward translation.
The Buddha bestows high praise on Visākha for teaching Dhamma with great skill.
[AN 4.49] Vipallāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Perversions Woodward translation.
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha teaches that holding that the changing is not changing, that pain is not pain, that not-self is self, that what is foul is fair is a perversion of perception, the heart, and point of view, but that to hold that the changing changes, that pain is pain, that what is not-self is not-self, and that what is foul is foul is not a perversion of perception, the heart, and point of view. Seems straight-forward enough ... until you start to examine what you are being told in the news, in ads, by teachers and by example of the leaders of men and of nations. Then you can see that without being taught such basic ideas as are found in this sutta sorting out without bias what is and what is not worth listening to and following is no easy task.
[AN 4.50] Stains Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali, and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Four slimes that slime the life of the recluse, preventing it from blazing up and shining forth: drinking alcohol, sexual indulgence, handling money, and earning a living other than by begging. Kilesa, slime; as in the slime left by a snail.
[AN 4.52] Dutiya Puññābhisanda Suttaṃ, the Pali
Flood of Merit (to Laymen) (b) Woodward translation.
Unwavering confidence in the awakening of the Buddha, the teachings of the Buddha, and respect for the followers on the four stages of progress along with possession of high standards of ethical behavior — each of these things produces a flood of good kamma.
[AN 4.53] Paṭhama Saṃvāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Living Together (a) Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four sorts of couples found in the world: a bad man living with a good woman, a good man living with a bad woman, a bad man living with a bad woman, and a good man living with a good woman.
[AN 4.54] Dutiya Saṃvāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Living Together (b) Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four sorts of couples found in the world: a bad man living with a good woman, a good man living with a bad woman, a bad man living with a bad woman, and a good man living with a good woman. Identical with the previous sutta with one term changed in the descriptions.
[AN 4.56] Dutiya Samajīvina Suttaṃ, the Pali
Well matched (b) Woodward translation.
Matched Lives (2) Olds translation.
The Buddha describes the way a couple that desires to find each other in the next life may do so. This sutta was prompted by the events described in the previous sutta, AN 4.055 where a perfectly matched couple ask Gotama how this may be done.
[AN 4.57] Suppavāsā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Suppavāsā Woodward translation.
Suppavasa of the Koliyans gives a meal to the Buddha and is told that the food giver both gives and gets, life, beauty, happiness and ability. Think of it this way: 2500 years later we are still hearing about this woman because of her carefully prepared acts of charity.
[AN 4.58] Sudatta Anāthapiṇḍika Suttaṃ, the Pali
Sudatta Woodward translation.
Anāthapiṇḍika visits the Buddha and is told that the food giver both gives and gets, life, beauty, happiness and ability. Similar to the previous but with different verses.
[AN 4.59] Bhojana-Dāyaka Suttaṃ, the Pali
Food, Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that the food giver both gives and gets, life, beauty, happiness and ability. Identical to the previous but addressed to the bhikkhus.
[AN 4.60] Gihī Sāmīci-Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Householder's Duty, Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells Anāthapiṇḍika serving the Order is a layman's path to a good reputation here and a good rebirth hereafter. Gihī-sāmīci-paṭipadā, Householders High Road, Consummate Path to Walk. Not 'Duty.'
[AN 4.61] Pattakamma Suttaṃ, the Pali
Four Deeds of Merit, Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches Anāthapiṇḍika a wise way to manage accumulated wealth such that at the end it will be seen to have been well used.
[AN 4.62] Debtless, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches Anāthapiṇḍika four sorts of joy to be experienced by a householder: The joy of ownership, the joy of wealth, the joy of debtlessness, and the joy of blamelessness. So in these last three suttas we get a whole course in money management ... completely untained by guilt or fear.
[AN 4.63] Sabrahma Suttaṃ, the Pali
Equal with Brahmā, Woodward translation.
Four terms of admiration applied to families where mother and father are honored and treated with respect: "With Brahma", "with the First Teachers", "with the First Gods", and "Worthy of Offerings."
The veneration given to parents in the Buddha's time is almost unimaginable today — to our great disadvantage when it comes time to review one's life and think about those who have been of great service to us ... not to mention the guilt eminating from neglect or actual mistreatment. The names for mother and father given here are of deep psychological importance. For the infant, the parents are indeed the Creator, the first teachers, the first gods and for the service they do for their child when it is young and helpless they are indeed worthy of offerings. Even the most neglectful parents have given their child life, food, clothing and much else. Most parents will have done more for their child than anyone else in the world will ever do. Those ideas which were not well articulated in infancy do not abandon the individual but underlie and support his entire relationship with the world throughout his life and returning again in old age they ask for their due and for the one who has neglected his parents this is a heavy debt to pay. If you have living parents now, make an effort now. Do not regret hereafter.
[AN 4.64] Niraya Suttaṃ, the Pali
Purgatory, Woodward translation.
Four behaviors that land one in Niraya. Hell. Woodward's translation 'Purgatory' reflects his understanding that Hell is permanent and endless where Purgatory is temporary. For the Buddhist all states are temporary including rebirth in Hell.
[AN 4.65] Rūpappamāṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Outer Form, Woodward translation.
Four ways people take measure: those who judge by outer appearances and trust in outer appearances; those who judge by hearsay and trust in hearsay; those who judge by self-abjigation and trust in self-abjigation; those who judge by good form and trust in good form.
Also new is a chapter of Designation of Human Types, Division of human Types by Four, Chapter 22 which is referenced by this sutta as an explanation of the terms. I question the definitions for the latter two types. In the first of those two, what is being spoken about is the sort of person who looks for humility, modesty, self-deprication, and such sorts of traits and where finding them judges the person to be a good person; for the second type as Woodward points out the Abhidhamma is focused too closely on "Dhamma" with a capital "D" where what is being spoken of is 'Good Form' which absent Dhamma would be based roughly on a refined view of the prevailing morality, not, as Woodward would have it on one's personal standard (though it would be one's personal standard, that personal standard would have a basis in some sort of common agreement as to right and wrong. All of these are in the end judging by personal standard. Standard that has been made personal.)
[AN 4.66] Sarāga (puggala) Suttaṃ, the Pali
Lustful, Woodward translation.
Four types of persons: the lustful, the hateful, the deluded, and the proud.
Also new is a chapter of Designation of Human Types, Division of human Types by Four, Chapter 22 which is referenced by this sutta as an explanation of the terms.
[AN 4.67] Lord of Snakes, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali, Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and Piyadassi Thera translation.
A bhikkhu has died of snake-bite so the Buddha gives the bhikkhus a 'charm' to project friendliness towards snakes. Footnote 4 in Ms. Horner's Vinaya version (below) gives a good idea of what is at work:

Loving-kindness or love, mettā, and the three other modes of the brahmavihāras are transferred from the mind of the suffuser to that of the being who is suffused or infused.

This is a phenomena that is the inverse of mind-reading: Thought projection. Ideas are things. They float around out there available to everyone and only become 'one's own' with identification. If a thought is strongly generated by one person (being) it can be identified with by others. Think of the universe as a gigantic brain in which signals are ever-present and where beings are like signal-receiving, but also signal-boosting stations.
I recommend reading this sutta in the Pali even if you do not understand the Pali ... though having the translation right there it is a simple matter to see what is what. The actual charm is the centered verses below the short introductory story. I also believe this 'charm' will be much more effective if said with comprehension in the Pali if only because it is really 'charming' to the ear. Relax and you can see how a snake would find it so.
And also new Vinaya-Pitaka, Cullavagga 5 #6 the Vinaya version of this story which was (apparently) the reason for allowing bhikkhus to shed (let) blood in order to cure snake bite.
See also: DN 32, Jat. #203
[AN 4.68] Devadatta Suttaṃ, the Pali
Devadatta, Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens the fate of Devadatta to several things that bear fruit to their own destruction and the destruction of others.
There seems to me to be a problem here with Woodward's translation of 'parābhavāya'. The plantain, bamboo, reed and mule are said to 'attavadhāya' 'destruction of self' and 'parābhavāya' which Woodward translates 'destruction of others'. That Devadatta brought about problems for others is obvious, but not so obvious is the harm done to others by these other things. PED just has 'destruction.' 'Others' is not found in the word or outside it. Bhk. Bodhi has 'to his own ruin and destruction' which looks to be the better translation. Maybe 'to his own ruin and general (para) destruction. The problem here is holding on to 'atta' as 'self'. (little joke).
[AN 4.69] Padhāna Suttaṃ, the Pali
Effort, Woodward translation.
The Buddha defines the four best ways of making effort. Here is a good opportunity to see the way Gotama has constructed his system so as to make it 'helpful in the beginning, helpful in the middle and helpful at the end'. What he has done is worded the formula so as to make it generic. Taken as it is, in the beginning, the idea of what is an 'unprofitable state' and what is a 'profitable state' is left undeclared so that it applies to each individual as he himself defines it. That in turn will be a value which is under a constant state of upward revision because no matter how low the individual begins, by pointing himself to what he believes at that point is a profitable state, he moves himself forward to some degree. That is true even in the case of very low ideas of 'profit' such as increase in pleasure or wealth. In no long time success in the pursuit of a low level profit will be seen as the pursuit of the unprofitable. It is a natural course of things, for example, that the sensualist will discover that sensual pleasure is enhanced by abstinance. And if initially only to increase his pleasure he will turn to letting go and the track from there is steadily in the upward direction. It is also the natural course of things that the acquisition of wealth leads to the perception that there are higher degrees and forms of wealth. Because making the effort will result in the gain of profit or the elimination of the unprofitable, etc. there will be instilled faith in the formula and further effort, and so on. Just by beginning a benevolent cycle is set rolling. At a later point one will discover that what is considered 'profitable' in this system is the further set of generic instructions found in the Eightfold Path and later still in the Seeker's Path. Always the particulars will be left to the perception of the indiviual even when these latter are given in detail: the details are themselves generic in form.
[AN 4.70] Effort, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Olds translation.
A wonderful sutta though of a sort likely to be discredited by many of 'modern' thought. The Buddha outlines the effects of leaders of men both good and bad. It has been pointed out here a few times that what needs to be seen is that this world is a work of the collective imagination and the laws of physics that govern it are, so far from being immutable, highly subject to agreement as to what is and what is not possible. Somewhere else here it has been pointed out that however much there is currently disagreement that there is such a thing as the influence on natural events of the behavior of men, what we have today is a corrupt leadership leading a corrupt populace into further corruption while at the same time there is drastic weather alteration, alteration of the position of the earth's pole and the manner in which that alters perception of the courses of the moon and sun, stress on food production and a deterioration of over-all health in the populous. (Some will argue with that last, but I would say that what we have, in so far as there is an increase in longevity, is the prolongation of the lives of a much weaker people through mechanical means. Left to nature, the lifespan of people would be decreasing. People are for the most part trading quality of life for length of life.)
[AN 4.71] Padhāna - Apaṇṇaka Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Effort, Woodward translation.
Four things indicating assurance that one is on the way to Nibbana: being of high ethical behaior, learned, energetic and wise. See also: Points of Controversy IV.8, Of entering on the Path of Assurance
Points of Controversy Appendix 6a: Niyama, Niyāma: 'Assurance.'
[AN 4.72] Diṭṭhi - Apaṇṇaka Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, the Pali
View, Woodward translation.
Four things indicating assurance that one is on the way to Nibbana: thoughts of giving up, non-deviant thought, thoughts of harmlessness, and High View.
[AN 4.73] Worthy, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes four modes of speaking about the self and others which lead to a reputation as a 'fellow man' and four that lead to the reputation of not being a 'fellow man'. The word for the 'fellow man' is 'sappurisa'. Woodward: Worthy; Bhk. Thanissaro: Person of integrity. Bhk. Bodhi: Good person. I have used 'good man' and also 'wiseman, shaman, preacherman, etc.' where the context seemed to speak of a person of more than ordinary good qualities.
[AN 4.74] Vadhukā Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Young Wife, Woodward translation.
The bhikkhus are told to train themselves in sense of shame and fear of blame like the newlywed bride when she is first brought home to the family. This was in the days when several generations of a family might be living together in one home and where the parents of the groom would be the actual heads of the household. This was at a time when there was a lively sense of the respect due to elders. Further, the bride might be almost a stranger to her husband and if she were found unacceptable could be sent home which would bring great shame on her family.

 

§

 

As cattle when the lead bull swerves,
All of a mind to follow, swerve as well,
So with men, if he who is the leader be corrupt,
so much the more will those who follow be.
 
Th'unrighteous king to all the realm brings pain.

 

As cattle when the lead bull's course is straight
All of a mind to follow, go straight as well,
So with men, if he who is the leader be upright,
so much the more will those who follow be.
 
The righteous king to all the realm brings peace.

AN 4. 70 Olds

 


Monday, March 24, 2014
Previous upload was Saturday, February 01, 2014


 

new Sunday, March 23, 2014 5:32 AM [MN 12] Greater Discourse on the Lion's Roar, Horner, translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Ñanamoli Thera translation and the Sister Upalavana translation.
This is a hair-raising sutta. It was delivered by Gotama towards the very end of his life. It is jam-packed with interesting information. And it is a first rate work of literary/oratory art by any standards. A bhikkhu who left the order is going around saying that there is nothing extraordinary about Gotama or his doctrine. Gotama, hearing of this person's opinion replies with a wide-ranging rebuttal listing the wonderous aspects of his awakening and the scope of his knowledge.
There is one statement made in this sutta which has the potential to cause great confusion caused by the current translations including my own. In the section where Gotama is describing his ability to see the destinies [literally 'gettings'] of persons (Ms. Horner translates gati as 'bourn' which is, as they said in those days, an 'unfortunate' translation as it relates to the Arahant who's entire purpose is to escape 'bourns'), the final sort of person he describes is the one who destroys the corrupting influences [see here] [āsavas], that is, the Arahant, and who by that enjoys feelings that are exclusively pleasant. The term translated 'feelings' is 'vedana'. This is the translation most often used. I have translated this 'sensation' and 'sense experience' because 'vedana' is most frequently associated with sense-experience. It is the term between 'touch' (or contact) and 'thirst' in the Paticca Samuppada, and consists of the experience of pleasure, pain, or not-pain-but-not-pleasure, and in the case of the first two it is something which must be let go to attain Arahantship. So what is being spoken of here? The explanation is that 'vedana' is of two sorts: that which is downbound to the world, which would be sense-experience or experience through the senses, and that which is a consequence of letting go (actually 'nirāmisa' meaning putting down meat, or 'carnal-free'). (These two modes of 'vedana' are to be found in the Satipatthana sutta and elsewhere.) So in the case of the use of this term in this sutta the translation 'sensation,' implying experience through the senses, would be ... um ... 'unfortunate'. 'Feeling' with an even stronger association with contact, is also not good. The better translation would be, in all cases, just 'experience' (e.g.: contact of the eye with a visible object gives rise to pleasant experience, unpleasant experience, experience which is neither unpleasant nor pleasant). The word 'vedana' itself means 'the given experience' or the 'thrill-given' or 'the given thrill' associated with the experience of life, especially that experienced by one who attains awakening. This is the only case that I am aware of where the experience of the Arahant is directly put in terms of 'vedana'. It is helpful that we do have this one case at least, in that it clarifies the understanding of the carnal-free sort of ... experience. When the 'vedana' are numbered as eighteen, [see SN 4.36.22] the 'six forms of detachment [upekkha] relating to giving up [of each of the six senses] would be the experiences of the Arahant (or one experiencing temporary release); when the vedanas are numbered as thirty-six, the eighteen related to giving up include six each of pleasure, pain, and detachment. In this latter case, understanding this through MN 12, the experience of the Arahant would be exclusively the experiences of pleasure because he no longer is in danger of the experience of pleasure associated with detachment turning into the experience of pain (which is the case of temporary release) because of it's ending, and he is at all times and in all ways detached. ... or so I understand this. I see this very much as one might imagine the case of living in anti-matter. The Arahant has the not-experience of all that which exists in the world. Because he is free from the hazard of the matter world, which is ending, his experience is endlessly pleasant.
See AN 6.64, AN 4.8 listed below.
I will be changing this translation as I go around. ... well, since writing this I have made some changes and have also found that this is easier conceived of than accomplished. We use the term 'experience' far more broadly than to indicate sensations at the senses and the context often requires this to be made clear. If there is a word that will serve here I do not yet have it and meanwhile I will likely tend towards the use of 'sense-experience' where it is the sensations experienced through the senses that is intended.

 

new Friday, March 21, 2014 1:21 PM [AN 6.64] The Lion-Roar, Hare translation.
Sīhanāda Suttaṃ, the Pali.
Six powers of the Buddha by which he claims leadership, has confidence in addressing any group, and rolls on the wheel of Dhamma.
The key to getting the real feel for this sutta is in understanding the term 'yathābhūta. ' 'suchas-it lives' Hare: 'knows as fact'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'understands as it really is'; Bhk. Thissaro: 'as actually present'. PED: bhūta grown, become; born, produced; nature as the result of becoming. I suggest 'such as it is/was'. We only need the 'really, in fact, actually' because we do not believe the statement on it's face. This emphasis is not in the term itself. And this is the point of this sutta, that is that in three sets of six heavily emphasized statements the Buddha is saying that the powers he is claiming for himself here are things he sees in the same way as any other phenomenon observable in the world is seen. That is why this is called a 'Lion's Roar'; it is a public declaration of some virtue in one's self for the sake of eliminating doubt. Like the Lion's roar as it leaves it's den in the evening to go out into the jungle to take the evening air, it is a strong reminder to creatures large and small as to what they are dealing with and to make themselves safe. In our world where the lie is so commonplace that we no longer believe anything, it is hard to see that in Gotama's time, where even most criminals if asked if they committed a crime would admit it for shame at lying, to make a false asertion, or even a self-deceptive asertion (saying something that is not true), so many times in succession without going crazy on the spot would be a virtual impossibility. This sutta, and those of this type, are close relatives to the magic command/wish/demand made by an 'act of truth'; 'Let lightening strike me dead if such and such is not the truth, or let my people go.' ... usually requiring the public revelation of some deep personal secret.
See MN 12, above and AN 4.8 listed below.

One of the powers as translated here is that the Buddha: ...knows the stain, purity and emergence in musing, deliverance and concentration attainments." This (italicized phrase) is, in the Pali: jhāna-vimokkha-samādhi-samāpattinaṃ. No hyphens. Does this mean, in stead: "jhāna-deliverance-samādhi-attainments" — one compound term? ("jhāna-release-serenity-attainment"), a single idea, not three? The problems in attaining, clarification of, and emergence from a state of release in serenity attained through jhāna? If not, what is the implied distinction between 'jhāna' and 'samādhi'? See also in this regard: MN 12. Bhks. Ñanamoli/Bodhi have this there as here, 3 ideas. Bhk. Bodhi's note there apparently relying on commentary ignores 'samādhi' and explains the releases as liberations (the vimokkha, 'releases' include the four immaterial jhanas and the attainment of the ending of the perception of experience) and samāpatti as 'the attainments': of jhāna, the four immaterial attainments and the cessation of perception and vedana (the cessation of the perception of experience or is this 'ending-perception-experience' that is, ending the experiences arising from perception?). In any case, this translated as three concepts amounts to a heap of confusion.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

Another interesting thing to note in this sutta (ignoring Hare's translation of samādhi as 'concentration') is the statement that these powers, which include the three 'visions' associated with Arahantship, are attained only by those who have (or who 'are') 'samādhi.' Depending on how one understands this term this can be problematic. Samādhi defined as the four jhānas, (but the term was not 'sammā samādhi') it is saying that the four jhānas are necessary for arahantship. Defined as serenity, the highest form of which is the jhānas, and the three modes of which are ambitionlessness, signlessness and emptiness, attainment of the four jhānas, or all four, might not be absolutely required. The first jhāna would certainly qualify as samādhi or serenity.

 

new Wednesday, March 19, 2014 3:41 PM [AN 4.3] Uprooted (a), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Four types of action which amount to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and four types of action which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma. See also: AN 3. 145, 146, 147 148 and many others.
[AN 4.4] Uprooted (b), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Poor behavior towards four persons amounts to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which results in much bad kamma; while good behavior towards four persons does not uproot, does not spoil the self, surrounds one with purity, brings praise by the wise, and results in much good kamma.
[AN 4.5] Uprooted (c), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha describes the commoner, the Streamwinner, the Non-returner and the Arahant in terms of their relationship to the stream or natural flow of life.
[AN 4.6] Uprooted (d), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Whether one's learning be great or small it profits not if one does not understand either the words or the point or if one does not follow the teachings within the Dhamma, but whether one's learning be great or small it profits well if one understands the words and the point and one follows the teaching within the Dhamma. This sutta has in it an unmistakable work of later editing in the list of works that are supposed to be read by one who is to be called well read (having 'heard much'). The list includes books known to be much later in origin than the Suttas. This is both discouraging and hopeful. It is discouraging because seeing work of this sort it is clear that there was some tampering with even the suttas. It is discouraging because it has tainted this work with bias (the desire to have works that are not original documentation considered as original documentation) and allowed in doubt. It is hopeful because it shows the childish stupidity of the tamperers. They could not see that it would be easy to see what they have done. What they do is always clumsy and obvious and consequently if one keeps alert they will not lead one astray. (But clearly they have already lead many astray!).
[AN 4.7] Illuminates (the Order), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Four who are accomplished in wisdom, disciplined, confident, deeply learned, Dhamma-bearers, who live according to Dhamma, that illuminate the Order.
[AN 4.8] Confidence, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Being able in mind to answer four charges of self-deception that could be made against him the Buddha is confident he is Awakened and teaches a doctrine that will lead those who follow it to the end of Pain. See MN 12, AN 6.64 listed above.
[AN 4.9] Craving, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. If craving arises in a bhikkhu it arises from one or another of these four sources.

 

new Friday, March 14, 2014 10:56 AM [SN 2.19.1] A Lump of Bones, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Aṭṭhīpesi Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.2] Cattle-butcher, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Gāvaghāṭka Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.3] Morsel and Fowler, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Piṇḍasakuṇiyam Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.4] The Flayed Sheep-butcher, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Nicchavorabbhi Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.5] Sword-pig-butcher, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Asi-sūkariko Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.6] Javelin-deer-hunter, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Satti-māgavi Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.7] Arrow-judge, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Usu-kāraṇiyo Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.8] Sharp-point-driver, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Sūci-sārathi Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.9] The Spy, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Sūcako Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.10] The Corrupt Judge, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Aṇḍabharī-Gāmakuṭako Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.11] The Adulterer Sunk in the Pit, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Kupe Nimuggo Paradāriko Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.12] The Dung-eating Wicked Brahmin, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Gūthakhādi - Duṭṭhabrāhmaṇo Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.13] The Flayed Adultress, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Nicchavitthi-aticārini Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.14] Ugly Woman, Fortune-Teller, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Maɱgulitthi Ikkhanitthi Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.15] The Dried-up Woman, Scatterer of Coals Over One of Her Fellows, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Okilini-Sapattaŋgārakokiri Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.16] The Headless Man, the Bandit, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Sīsachinno-coraghātako Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.17] The Almsman, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Bhikkhu Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.18] The Almswoman, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Bhikkhunī Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.19] The Sister-in-training, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Sikkhamānā Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.20] The Novice, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Sāmaṇera Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.21] The Woman-novice, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Sāmaṇeriyo Suttaṃ, The Pali.
Both the Rhys Davids translation and the Pali are fully unabridged ... for the first time since they were first set down in writing or maybe even earlier. A series of nearly identical suttas in which Lakkhana asks the venerable Mahā-Moggallāna to explain the reason that he smiled on their way to Rajagaha. Mahā-Moggallāna tells of having seen a ghost suffering great torments. The Buddha says that he too has seen this ghost and reveals the reason it is experiencing such a fate.
Mrs. Rhys Davids notes the commentary as stating that the bodies of these ghosts were very large. I have heard the same thing by way of a Jamaican seer who said they were as large as football fields or even larger and that they sometimes took days to pass through and during that time many people would enter strange moods they couldn't explain. [Edit: see AN 5.100 n.5 for a case like this but of a higher sort of birth than the Ghost and which did not cause any disturbances in this world when it passed.]
Imagine the effect on the bhikkhus there as this routine was carried out day after day for 21 days. The Buddha notes that had he told of these things himself he might not have been believed, but by being spoken of by Mahā-Moggallāna and confirmed by Gotama in front of Lakkhana and (probably a growning number of) others that were likely present, there is a triangulation set up which makes doubt very difficult.

 

new Friday, March 14, 2014 6:47 AM [SN 4.35.28] On Fire, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali, Bhikkhus Thanissaro, Ñanamoli Thera and Olds translations.
The Woodward translation is fully rolled out as is the Pali. My translation of this was very early (for me) and was going for drama. None of the other translations is complete. Delivered by someone who can be taken seriously it is enough to make one get busy. Originally delivered to 'the Three Kassapas' and their followers, it resulted in the entire group of one thousand becoming Arahant on the spot. A really good case for those who argue that Arahantship can be had without going through the four jhāanas. This was the third sutta delivered by Gotama.

 

new Friday, March 14, 2014 6:47 AM Lakkhaṇa Thera, new biographical entry in the Personalities section.

 

new Wednesday, March 05, 2014 6:25 AM [AN 4.176] Aspiration, Woodward translation
Āyācamāna Suttaṃ, the Pali. The Buddha points out role models for bhikkhus, bhikkhunīs, upāsakos and upāsikās. The individuals named are linked to pages giving some biographical material and additional links.

 


'Monks, there are gross impurities in gold,
such as dust
and sand,
gravel
and grit.

The dirt-washer
or his prentice
heaps it into a trough
and washes it,
washes it up and down,
and runs the dirt out.

When this process is abandoned and ended,
there still remain moderate impurities in the gold,
such as fine grit
and coarse sand.

The dirt-washer
or his man
repeats the process.

When this is abandoned and ended
there still remain trifling impurities
such as fine sand
and black dust.

The dirt-washer
or his man
repeats the process.

Thereafter the gold-dust alone remains.

2. Then the goldsmith
or his man
heaps that sterling gold
into a crucible
and blows it,
melts it together
but does not run it out of the crucible.

That sterling gold is then blown till it melts:
it is molten but not flawless,
it is not done with yet,
its impurities are not yet strained off.

It is not pliable
nor workable
nor glistening.

It is brittle,
not capable of perfect workmanship.

But a time comes, monks,
when that goldsmith
or his man
blows that gold till it melts,
melts it down
and runs it out of the crucible.

Then that sterling gold is melted,
molten,
flawless,
done with,
its impurities strained off.

It is pliable,
workable,
glistening,
no longer brittle;
it is capable of perfect workmanship.

For whatsoever sort of ornament one wishes,
be it a gold plate,
or a ring
or necklace
or golden chain,
he can make use of it for that purpose.

AN 3.100-Woodward


 

new Wednesday, March 05, 2014 6:25 AM [SN 5.46.54] Metta Suttaṃ, the Pali
Goodwill, Woodward translation.
The Buddha develops the four Brahma Viharas by way of the Seven Dimensions of Self-awakening showing the scope and maximum accomplishment successively of the thorough practice of projecting friendliness, compassion, empathy and detachment while developing memory, Dhamma-investigation, energy building, entheusiasm, impassivity, serenity, and detachment. A very informative sutta as regards technique and the way aspects of the Dhamma integrate with each other. It is a wide-spread practice today [Wednesday, March 05, 2014 6:39 AM] to teach 'loving kindness' without the other three Brahma Viharas and with little or no reference to the other important doctrines of the system. Here it is made clear that however much this is a beneficial practice, it's final result is limited. One should not rest contented at this level! Here is a method for going deeper.
The BJT Pali text beginning at §12 where the Brahma-viharas are linked to the Sambojjhangas, is completely unrelated to this sutta as found in the PTS Pali, the CSCD or the Pali text used by Bhk. Bodhi.

 

new Saturday, March 01, 2014 6:37 AM [MN 22] The Parable of the Water-snake, Horner translation.
Linked to the Pali, Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and Sister Upalavana translation
A wide-ranging very famous sutta that begins with a forceful teaching on the dangers of indulgence in sense pleasures. This sutta contains two famous similes: the simile of the snake illustrating how a wrong grasp of the Dhamma is like taking hold of a poisonous snake from the wrong end; and the simile of the raft illustrating how the Dhamma should be used to attain it's ends and then be let go. The sutta concludes with a thorough examination of the way 'not self' should be considered.
The interesting question here is why would Arittha hang on so stubbornly to his view about the harmlessness of sense-pleasure indulgence? It is possible of course that he was just a fool (but he was not unskilled in meditation, see: SN 5.54.6 where Gotama thought enough of him to give him special instruction on the in-and-out-breathing practice). But the likelihood is that he was trapped by a perception that befalls one who holds the view that there is no self. In this view a number of very dangerous conclusions can be reached because there is perceived to be no individuality there to experience the consequences of deeds. This would justify the simile of the snake and would explain the long dissertation that follows concerning the 'not-self' position. The presence here of the simile of the raft might also be explained as a hint to Arittha that if even the Dhamma could be let go, he could certainly let go his view. There is also in this sutta a very interesting remark made by Gotama as to constructing theories about the self where he states that even if there were a self that was incomprehensible, it would be foolishness to form theories about it. This statement is a little obscure and is made only in this sutta and has caused some confusion. Ms. Horner's translation is the most potentially misleading. The idea is that it is shown that examining things as they really are, there is no comprehension of a self possible, BUT even if there were a self that was incomprehensible, it would be foolish to speculate about it because it's paramaters could not be encompassed by speculations made within the scope of comprehension. This is not, as Ms. Horner's translation would indicate, an asertion that there is a self.

 


The profession of amity, according to Buddhist doctrine, was no mere matter of pretty speech.

It was to accompany and express a psychic suffusion of the hostile man or beast or spirit with benign, fraternal emotion — with mettā. For strong was the conviction, from Sutta and Vinaya to Buddhaghosa's Visuddhi-Magga, that 'thoughts are things,' that psychical action, emotional or intellectual, is capable of working like a force among forces.
— From C.A.F. Rhys David's Introduction to DN 32: Āṭānātiya Suttanta


 

new Saturday, February 08, 2014 4:50 AM [DN 32] The Ward Rune of Āṭānāṭa, Rhys Davids translation
Linked to the Pali, and Grimblot and Piyadassi Thera translations. This does not look like a 'ward-rune' to me. It is a magic spell, but in and of itself it is not a 'ward-rune'. One is first to memorize a lengthy poetic homage (or if not homage, 'statement of recognition') to the Four Kings of the Four Directions. That memorized then if a bhikkhu or bhikkhuni or male or female lay disciple is harassed by some monster, an appeal for help to a number of powerful gods will be answered. An Appendix is added giving references to other places in the Suttas where the various gods to be appealed to are mentioned.
[Edit: See JAT #203: Khandha-Vatta-Jātaka
AN 4.67.]

 

new Tuesday, February 04, 2014 7:19 AM [AN 3.51] Two People (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Two old brahmins panicked by impending death seek comfort from Gotama.
[AN 3.52] Two People (b), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Two old brahmins panicked by impending death seek comfort from Gotama. Slightly different than the previous.
[AN 3.53] The Brāhmin, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha explains the meaning of 'Seen in this life is Dhamma'. Something so transparent it is invisible to many.
[AN 3.54] The Brāhmin Wanderer, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha explains the meaning of 'Seen in this life is Dhamma'. Slightly expanded version of the previous. This Dhamma is not a 'wait-and-see' thing, not a system promising benefits for following it's rules only at some future time. When you eliminate some low way of behaving the fear and dread of the consequences of that deed is let go right there. This is not to say that the results are not long lasting, or that some of the promised benefits of following the system do not take working at or arrive later in Time, but the sage will see in the mechanism of action that there is benefit in the beginning, benefit in the middle and benefit at the end and that even the benefit at the beginning is worth the effort.
[AN 3.55] Nibbāna, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha explains the meaning of 'Seen in this life is Nibbāna'. Except for the change to Nibbāna from 'Dhamma', identical with the previous sutta, but the meaning is on an entirely different level. The previous question points out the immediate advantage of acts of not-doing. Here what must be seen is that Nibbāna is the perception of the not-happening of the consequences of those deeds.
[AN 3.56] The Rich Man, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. A wealthy brahmin has heard the story told by the ancients of a time when this world was densely populated and villages and towns and cities grew up right next to each other. He asks Gotama why it is that this is no longer the case and is told that it is because at this time the people are obsessed with lusts, depravities and wrong views resulting in a number of calamaties that depopulate the earth.
A tough sutta for modern man to digest for several reasons. Nobody I think will argue that the people today are not as depraved as described, and that that results in wars, but that this depravity affects the weather and crops and causes the unleashing of demonic beings will be harder to see. And then there is the issue of feeding such a dense population ... and this was speaking of a time when the lifespan of man was in the tens of thousands of years.
How can this be seen? This world is a work of the imagination, individual and collective. The individual has no way to know the nature of 'the real world', what he can know is simply the three experiences through the senses, what he 'sees' and 'hears' and 'tastes' and 'touches' has no more concrete reality to it than a dream, but because man desires to live collectively he agrees to believe the world is of a certain nature, possesses certain properties beyond solidity, liquidity, heat and light, motion, space and consciousness. Thus the apparent world is one which is arrived at by consensus*. That consensus changes over time. That's how. *Actually that concensus is a concensus that this world is one which is arrived at by concensus; examined closely it will be seen that outside the sangha there are hardly two people in the world that agree with each other about almost anything.
[AN 3.57] Vacchagotta, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha sets straight a rumor that he teaches that it is only to him and his followers that gifts should be given; that it is only gifts to him and his followers that are of great fruit.

 


If one should throw away pot-scourings
or the rinsings of cups
into a pool
or cesspit,
even with the idea of feeding
the creatures that live therein,
I declare it would be a source of merit to him;
to say nothing of his feeding beings that are human.

Nevertheless I say, Vaccha,
that a gift given in the case of the virtuous
is of great fruit,
not those given in the case of the wicked.
AN 3.57 - Woodward


 

[AN 3.59] Jāṇussoṇi, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Brahmin Jāṇussoṇi tells Gotama that those who would make offerings to the dead should give them to brahmins who have the threefold lore. Gotama responds describing the 'three-fold-lore' of the Aristocrats: seeing past lives, seeing the outcomes of kamma, and seeing that one has destroyed the corrupting influences. Almost identical to AN 3.58.
[AN 3.60] Saŋgārava, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Sangarava approaches Gotama with the idea that those who perform sacrifices do more good for more people than those who leave the household life for the homeless state. Gotama then raises the case of a Buddha arising in the world, one who teaches multitudes, gods and men. There follows discussion of the merits of various magic powers. Well it's more than just a discussion. Gotama performs an act of magic power which it is a challenge for the reader to see and which converts Sangarava, and there is also here a direct statement as to Gotama's possession of varous sorts of magic powers. There is enough detail here, in the description of mind-reading, to learn this art.
[AN 3.62] Terror, Woodward translation
Terror, Olds translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Gotama speaks of three terrors of the common people and then shows how their fears go too far in that sometimes there is a happy ending; he follows that by speaking of three terrors not subject to remediation through wishes; and then he points the way to overcome terrors.
This sutta speaks to a deep psychological terror, not simply to the fears caused by natural calamity, but the fears that arise facing death of the self or a loved one; twin drives which underlie the search for rebirth driven by the great bond between mothers and sons.
There are a couple of very difficult terms to understand in this sutta and Woodward, Bhk. Thanissaro and Bhk. Bodhi and myself have as a result each got the intent of it and the construction of the logic differently. To my mind the greatest danger comes from Woodward's understanding of the conclusion which points to the idea as being a way for mother's and sons to be united. This is not the idea of the sutta. The idea is the overcoming of the terror, not the happy solution to the disunity. Bhk. Thanissaro and Bhk. Bodhi and I are at least in agreement concerning this aspect.
I have done a translation which I believe evades the pitfalls of this sutta and shows the way Gotama developed his idea.
[AN 3.63] Venāga, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes how his seat on a pile of leaves at the root of a tree is celestial, sublime and Aristocratic.
[AN 3.64] Sarabha, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali.
Sarabha has quit the sangha believing he understands the Dhamma. He goes around boasting that it is because he understands the Dhamma that he rejects it. The bhikkhus ask the Buddha to set him straight, out of compassion. After repeatedly giving Sarabha an opportunity to explain himself which he is unable to do, not even being able to respond at all, the Buddha departs through the air. Sarabha's friends have a great time at his expense as a result.
[AN 3.66] Sāḷha Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A variation on the teaching given in AN 3.65: The Kesaputtiya (Kesamutti) Suttaṃ aka The Kalama Sutta. Here, Old Man Nandako teaches two young brahmins not to go by what is accepted tradition, by hearsay, or great learning, not to go by logic and inference, the appeal of some theory, or because it is held by a venerated teacher, but only when a thing is understood for one's self to be beneficial, blameless, approved of by the wise, things that when done result in happiness and well-being undertake them and live by them. Examples of knowing for one's self are given.
The sutta ends with the phrase: 'brahmabhūtena attanā viharatī' Which Bhk. Bodhi ("having himself become divine") and Bhk. Thanissaro: ("he abides [for the remainder of his last life-span] divinely pure in himself") are attempting to avoid translating as per Woodward: "...abides in experience of bliss, by becoming Brahma.' "Becoming Brahma" is problematic because of it's implication of a self having attained an individualized rebirth as 'a Brahma God' as this phrase is understood today by Hindu's. See on this: AN 3.070 n.10
What we have here is a good example of the difference between literal translation and interpretive translation. It is where the translator feels the need to interpret that bias can enter the picture and it is for this reason that the Pali Text Society translations are invaluable in that the predominant effort of these translators was in the direction of the literal because their primary interest (and measure of excellence) was in the usefulness of the translation in elucidating the language. Interpretation at some level can't be avoided in translation. This is just something to keep in mind as you read. Check back to the Pali where something doesn't feel right, where you suspect you are being molly-coddled, or where translators differ widely or where there is a suspicion that one is being pushed in a certain direction, especially towrads known biases, such as "There is no self."
[AN 3.68] Those of Other Views, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Under the pretext of teaching the bhikkhus how to respond to questions of wanderers of other views, Gotama teaches them the distinguishing features, origin and the technique for preventing lust, hate and delusion from arising, or getting rid of them if they have already arisen.
[AN 3.69] Roots of Demerit, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Lust, hatred and stupidity are shown to be at the root of all deeds producing unprofitable outcomes both here and hereafter while letting go of lust, hatred and stupidity are shown to be the roots of all deeds producing profitable outcomes both here and hereafter.
Gotama wearing his Fire and Brimstone preacha-man hat.
[AN 3.70] Sorts of Sabbath, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Not really new, but unabridged, and the Pali was read against the PTS Pali. This was one of the first suttas put up on the original BuddhaDust.
Visakha visits the Buddha and is given a detailed description of how to keep the Sabbath.
[AN 3.71] Channa, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Ananda explains the disadvantages of Lust, Hate and Stupidity and the advantages of letting these things go to Channa the Wanderer. An essential feature of the Dhamma and the Nature of Nibbana is seen in this sutta where the advantages of letting go of Lust, Anger, and Stupidity are not stated in terms of gains but in terms of perception of not experiencing the disadvantages.
Woodward notes here about this sutta that it is the only instance in this volume of a nidana given as just: 'Sāvatthi-nidanaṃ.' A nidana [the opening few lines of a sutta, usually making the statement that what is being said is a repetition of something heard about a teaching given by such and such a person, in such and such a place, under such and such circumstances] of some sort has frequently, but irregularly been inserted for the digital edition we are putting up here where each sutta needs to be able to stand alone and where the abrupt launching into a talk is jarring. Picking up the nidana of the first sutta in a chapter, or from the next previous sutta where a nidana is given, for the rest appears called for where the following suttas begin with 'Atha kho', 'There then'. Otherwise from the context and location of certain characters it is possible to deduce the nidana. Otherwise a generic beginning including only what is known has often, but not always been inserted.
[AN 3.72] Ājīvaka Suttaṃ, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. A householding follower of the Ajivaka's asks Ananda about whose doctrine is taught best, who are those who are conducting themselves the best, who are those who are of benefit to the world. Ananda avoids the trap and speaks only of what doctrine is the best, whether or not those who follow it are well conducted, and whether or not those who follow it are of benefit to the world. Further, the way he speaks of these issues is not by telling the housefather what is what, but by asking the housefather questions getting him to convince himself. The housefather is impressed and becomes a follower of the Buddha.
[AN 3.73] The Sakyan, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Ananda instructs the Buddha's uncle Mahanama concerning the morality, serenity and wisdom of the seeker and the morality, serenity and wisdom of the adept.
[AN 3.74] The Unclothed, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Ananda describes three methods for ending Pain and evading kamma as taught by the Buddha. The key to understanding this sutta is in the phrase: Purāṇañ ca kammaṃ phussa phussa vyantīkaroti. 'And he removes past kamma by way of touch touch.' Repeated contact. There is no explanation in the sutta, and the various translations do not explain well. The idea is that by continuously examining the body, sensations, mental states and the Dhamma and dredging up in memory deeds said and done in the past and examining them from the perspective of Dhamma as it is currently understood [the point of satipatthana, and an evolving process] one is in effect experiencing the consequences of one's past deeds. At this point by understanding the deed in terms of ethical conduct, the detachment of jhāna and by seeing the freedom in the destruction of the corrupting influences [āsava] the deed is resolved and swept away.
Understanding this in this way one is able to resolve the paradox presented by the statement made that there is no ending of kamma without experiencing the results thereof, and the case of Arahants apparently being subjected to the consequences of prior bad kamma as in the cases of Devadatta being able to injure the Buddha's toe, Moggliana being murdered, and Angulimala being subjected to assalt ... and other cases.
How?
By ethical conduct, the calm detached serenity of jhāna, and insight into the freedom that results from the destruction of the corrupting influences of lust, hate, and stupidity [āsavas] it is possible to become arahant before the ending of kamma. The Arahant is, by this behavior and insight, subject to no further births after death. That is what distinguishes Arahantship in this life from pari-Nibbana, and what is meant by the term 'with remainder' when speaking of arahants and non-returners who must experience some delay after death before attaining Nibbana. Those consequences of former deeds that remain to the khandhas (that is, the individuality,) of what is now the Arahant, however far back in time they may have begun, are forced, because their scope is limited to the khandhas, and there will be no further khandhas, into presenting themselves within the narrow limit of the life of the khandhas of the Arahant that remains. Thus the consequences of former actions are experienced (though in the case of the Arahant, as impersonal phenomena, impinging on the khandhas, but not on the mind), but in proportion to the relationship of the finite life remaining to the unbounded scope of Nibbana. A similar thing occurs for the Streamwinner, Once-returner, and Non-returner.
Two similes that were made to make this clear can be found in AN 3.99. Today [Friday, February 21, 2014 8:50 AM] we can use our common understanding of earth's relationship to outer space as a good simile: Imagine the perspective of an ordinary person here on planet earth. In this case the earth appears vast to the point of feeling unlimited. Then send this same person into orbit in the International Space Station. Here his perspective of earth is radically changed. He has become detached from actual experiences on earth though some may still be visible, and he can see the planet as a finite object in space. Take this person further out in space past the solar system and he will hardly be able to make out the existence of earth at all, let alone experience any disturbance from even cataclysmic things that happen there. Then move this person out beyond the Galaxy, and beyond, and beyond the beyond. The various perspectives can be related to the various changes in perspective from Streamwinner to Arahant, while that which is due to be made manifest on planet earth is confined to planet earth.
[AN 3.75] The Unclothed, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Ānanda is advised by the Buddha to instill unwavering confidence in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha in those for whom he has fellow-feelings.
[AN 3.78] Service, Woodward translation
Ethical Practices, Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha shows the bhikkhus Ananda's wisdom by testing him with a question about the fruitfulness of various religious practices. A sutta which shows Ananda at an early stage of his career.
[AN 3.79] Scent, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The scent of flowers and saps and roots go only on the wind, but the scent of the good man goes in all directions with and against the wind.
[AN 3.81] The Recluse, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Three trainings which should be eagerly taken up by the aspiring bhikkhu: the training in higher ethical practices, higher development of the heart, and higher wisdom. The bhikkhu neglecting to undertake these trainings is compared to a jack-ass following a hurd of cattle thinking he was a stear.
[AN 3.82] The Agriculture, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The three basic trainings of the bhikkhu (training in ethical practices, training the heart, and training in wisdom), are likened to the three basics of farming: preparation of the field, sewing the seed, proper irrigation.
[AN 3.83] The The Vajjian, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. A bhikkhu finds it too difficult to train in all the rules of the Patimokkha so the Buddha instructs him to train in three things: the higher ethical practices, training the heart, and training in wisdom. Compare this with the story in Jātaka #56.
[AN 3.84] The Pupil, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. A 'sekha' (seeker, trainee, pupil, student) is defined as one who is still training in the higher ethical practices, training the heart, and training his wisdom.
[AN 3.85] Recital (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
[AN 3.86] Recital (b), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
[AN 3.87] Recital (c), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali
[AN 3.88] Training (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The above four suttas would most profitably be read together. A fifth, below, provides a variation on the last.
In the first, The Buddha shows how serious commitment to the training in ethical practices interacts with various levels of accomplishment in training the heart and training in wisdom to result in Streamwinning, Once-returning, Non-returning or Arahantship. One who practices a little gets a little; one who practices thoroughly gets much. The fourth provides the definition of what constitutes the higher ethical practice, the higher training of the heart, and the higher training in wisdom. In this sutta Woodward, in note #1 points out the difficulty raised by the translation of 'citta' as 'thought' rather than 'heart,' it's literal meaning. The higher 'citta' is the training in samādhi, 'serenity, which is a state of the heart more than a state of the mind.
The first three together, by first providing a broad categorization, second providing a detailed categorization in ascending order and third by providing the same detailed categorization in descending order produce the following picture:

I. In Brief

I.1.

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture [sīla] In Full
Cultivation of serenity [samādhi] Partial
Cultivation of wisdom [paññāa] Partial

Breaking the three yokes [tini saṃyojana]

Breaking the attachment to views,
clearing up doubt about the Four Truths,
and letting go the belief that ethical conduct, good deeds, or ceremonies and rituals are sufficient to bring an end to Pain (dukkha) or attainment of Nibbāna. (Woodward translates 'release' which is misleading given that this is the usual translation for the vimokkhas which are only temporary releases and are attainable even by the Streamwinner. See discussion for the listing for AN 3.21)

Result:

Streamwinning: Assurance; rebirth in Hell, as a deamon, ghost or animal is precluded; awakening is certain.

Note: No time limit specified.

I.2.

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture: In Full
Cultivation of serenity: Partial
Cultivation of wisdom: Partial

Breaking the three yokes [tini saṃyojana]

Weakening lust, hate and stupidity [rāga-dosa-moha]

Result:

Once-returning: Returning once [sakid eva imam lokam] to this world he brings and end to Pain.

Note: The wording on this leaves open the possibility that between death in this world and the next return to this world there may be rebirths in other realms. This says: 'Returning Once'; this does not say: 'Taking rebirth only one more time.'

I.3.

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture: In Full
Cultivation of serenity: In Full
Cultivation of wisdom: Partial

Breaking the five yokes [pañca orambhāgani saṃyojana]
The above three plus: ending desire for pleasure and deviance (vyāpādo: via-not-path; 'warped'; intentional behavior contrary to the Magga; the usual translation 'malevolence' is too narrow!)

Result:

Non-Returning. Spontaneous rebirth [opapātiko: without the experience of death here, reappearance without the experience of birth there, age: @15] there to attain Final Nibbāna without returning.

Note: Contrast this with the description of this attainment with those below. Here it would seem to justify the idea that following this life there was, for the non-returner, but one further life during which he would attain Final Nibbāna.
Woodward adds (and it is often assumed) that this rebirth is in the Pure Abodes. There are cases however where the rebirth of a non-returner is said to have been in the Tusita realm (see below). This understanding is also that presented for the Non-returner in MN 22 pañc'orambhāgiyāni saṃyojanāni pahīnāni sabbe te opapātikā tattha parinibbāyino anāvatthidhammā tasmā lokā 'the five yokes to the lower let go, all those spontaneously arise there to attain Final Nibbāna, not returning from there to this world.' The 'there' is not specified.

I.4.

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture: In Full
Cultivation of serenity: In Full
Cultivation of wisdom: In Full

Eliminating the Corrupting Influences [Āsavas] of Sense Pleasures, being and blindness [kāma, bhāva, avijja]. Sometimes 'diṭṭhi' [views] is added to this list, but that is not necessary in that it is encompassed by 'avijja.'

Result:

Arahantship in this life.

 


 

II.1. In Ascending Order:

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture In Full
Cultivation of serenity Partial
Cultivation of wisdom Partial

Breaking the three yokes

Result:

Streamwinning: Assurance; rebirth in Hell, as a deamon, ghost or animal is precluded;
awakening is certain.

Type 1: Seven rebirths at most, going up and down among gods and men.

Type 2: Rebirth in two or three good families.

By additionally weakening lust, hate and stupidity [rāga-dosa-moha] he becomes

Type 3: The "One-seeder". He takes rebirth as man once; he is a 'Once-returner' Returning once to this world becomes an Arahant here and attains Final Nibbāna.

Note: Again here the wording on this leaves open the possibility that between death in this world and the next return to this world there may be rebirths in other realms. This does not say: 'Taking rebirth only one more time.'

II.2.

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture: In Full
Cultivation of serenity: In Full
Cultivation of wisdom: Partial

Breaking the five yokes

Result:

Non-Returning

Type 1:

Not returning to rebirth as man, attaining the Akaniṭṭha realm he attains Final Nibbāna [parinibbāyī] there.

Note: Here the wording is 'upstream he gets the Akaniṭṭha realm' [uddhaṃsoto hoti akaniṭṭhagāmi]. This realm is the highest of the Pure Abodes. It is likely, but not absolutely clear that this means he is reborn directly in the Akaniṭṭha realm. It could be (and the commentaries, Bhk. Thanissaro and Bhk. Bodhi assume) he is reborn in lower Pure Abodes and travels upward to this realm. (see discussion below)

Type 2:

With-own-making [sa-saŋkhāra] Final Nibbāna

Note: (saŋkhāra; own-making, confounding, constructing, fabrication. Woodward has "with-" or below "without some trouble"; Bhk. Thanissaro has fabrications, adding '(of exertion)'; Bhk. Bodhi skips right to 'exertion'; presumably these translations are influenced by commentary and work off the translation of saŋkhāra as 'activities'; however this is translated, keep in mind that in this context 'activities' or 'exertion' would imply the intent to create personal experience.) attains final Nibbāna,
There is a contradiction in the PTS Pali in the ordering of this whole group and again with these two in this sutta and the next. Woodward translating saŋkhāra as 'trouble' creates a logic for reversing the order in the Pali of this sutta to match what is an error in the next, but 'not-saŋkhāra' is higher than 'saŋkhāra' always.

Type 3:

Without-own-making [a-saŋkhāra] Final Nibbāna

Type 4:

Cut-down [upahacca] Final Nibbāna

Note: Upahacca 'up-strike' or 'kill', or 'up-cut' or the way we usually have it 'to cut up' or 'cut down' or 'to strike down'; Woodward: 'by reduction of his time'; and relying on commentary: Bhk. Thanissaro: 'on arrival [in a Pure Abode]; Bhk. Bodhi; 'upon landing'; see Bhk. Thanissaro's discussion in his footnote. #4) attains Final Nibbāna, Note that the nature of what is cut down is not specified. What we can infer from the position of this type in the list here and below is that there is less time and effort involved in the attaining of Final Nibbāna for this type than for the previous types.

Type 5:

In-between [antarā] Final Nibbāna

Note: There is no confusion here about the term, but the meaning is subject to much debate. One question put is: "Is this an indication of a state between births?" If we see that in the case of this sutta where these last four are put in the descending order thus confirming their relationships to each other as being a progression from lower to higher, and we take the first type as meaning that the non-returner is reborn in some world to progress from that on towards the Akiniṭṭha Realm where there he attains Final Nibbāna, then these four attainments could be understood as:
Style one: Rebirth in some realm where there is still self-identification or a personal world and thereafter moving on up to the Akiniṭṭha and attaining Final Nibbāna, there;
Style two: Rebirth in some realm where there is no self-identification or personal world, such as the Ākiñcaññāyatana or N'evasannānasannāyatana and thereafter moving on up to the Akiniṭṭha and attaining Final Nibbāna, there;
Style three: Cutting down, killing off, cutting-back, the remainder of whatever life remains in whatever rebirth has been taken, and thereafter moving on up to the Akiniṭṭha and attaining Final Nibbāna, there.
Style four: Between death and subsequent rebirth in one of the previous three styles, moving on up to the Akiniṭṭha and attaining Final Nibbāna, there.
But this is not absolutely required by the wording which is in each case just that in this way (i.e., with own-making) he attains Final Nibbāna.
And, again, this is a list put in ascending order, which when (as in the next sutta) it is put in descending order states that it is a failing not to have attained the previous, higher development: [anabhisambhavaṃ: 'not-higher-self development of such'] and it is not possible to construct these last four styles in such a way as not to have them be successively shorter paths to Final Nibbāna than a progression through the Pure Abodes to the Akiniṭṭha. And why should that be objectionable? Is not attaining Arahantship in this life an even shorter path?
This would still allow the understanding of the first type to be a rebirth in some world below the Akiniṭṭha with a progression to there before the attaining of Final Nibbāna, but this would be inconsistant with the statement in MN 22] that 'all those who have broken the five yokes are spontaneously reborn (no specified location) and attain Final Nibbāna, there.
One more peramater needs to be factord in to the understanding of this list as a progression: that is, that it is frequently stated that the Non-returner reborn in one of the Pure Abodes, attains Final Nibbāna, at some point towards the middle of his lifespan. I am not aware of any place where the lifespan of those reborn in the Pure Abodes is stated. These realms are brahma-lokas, however and are calculated in kappas: aeons.
The construction we are left with then points to the understanding of the first type as a rebirth directly in the Akiniṭṭha (the wording in MN 22 is that he attains Final Nibbāna, there) and the subsequent types as indicating other, shorter, direct routes to Final Nibbāna, not by way of the Akiniṭṭha.
Finally, it should be remembered that at any point along any path, (Streamwinner on up) the practitioner might be able to drive himself to destroy the āsavas and become Arahant.

II.3

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture: In Full
Cultivation of serenity: In Full
Cultivation of wisdom: In Full

Eliminating the Corrupting Influences [Āsavas] of Sense Pleasures, being and blindness [kāma, bhāva, avijja].

Result:

Arahantship in this life.

 


 

III. In descending order.

III.1:

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture: In Full
Cultivation of serenity: In Full
Cultivation of wisdom: In Full

Eliminating the Corrupting Influences [Āsavas] of Sense Pleasures, being and blindness [kāma, bhāva, avijja].

Result:

Arahantship in this life.

III.2:

Note: This and the following types, the way the sutta reads, have all undertaken the training rules and have developed ethical culture, serenity, and wisdom in full and have eliminated the five yokes. Each is said to have not attained the preceding [anabhisambhavaṃ: 'not obtaining self development of such']; often put: 'failing that'.

Note: The PTS Pali, CSCD and apparently the Pali used by Bhk. Bodhi the order of this section is incorrectly reversed.

Type 1:

In-between [antarā] Final Nibbāna

Type 2:

Cut-down [upahacca] Final Nibbāna

Type 3:

Without-own-making [a-sa-saŋkhāra] Final Nibbāna

Type 4:

With-own-making [sa-saŋkhāra] Final Nibbāna

Type 5:

Not returning to rebirth as man, attaining the Akaniṭṭha realm he attains Final Nibbāna [parinibbāyī] there.

Note: In this sutta in the PTS Pali there is an elipsis between 'upstream he gets' and 'goes to the Akaniṭṭha' [uddhaṃsoto hoti ... Akaniṭṭhagāmi]. This would make these into two different sorts of non-returner. The BJT Pali has 'Going to the Akaniṭṭha' as a separate sentence in this sutta, but not the previous. The CSCD Pali would read as Bhk. Bodhi translates: 'one bound upstream, heading toward the Akaniṭṭha realm,' no elipsis, no separate sentence, one category. I think the PTS Pali and translation (Woodward places elipses as with the PTS Pali) must be in error here as it is reletively certain that this sutta is to be understood as a repetition in reverse order of the previous sutta. There is no statement in this, at least in these suttas, that the first rebirth subsequent to this life is in the Pure Abodes. The breaking of the five yokes implies only no further rebirth in the 'Lower' Realms. That is defined by PED as meaning the kāma loka or realms where there is experience through the five senses. But since there is at least one case [that of Anāthapiṇḍika, and see also MN 143, and I believe there is at least one other person who was stated to be a non-returner and also to have been reborn in Tusita] of a non-returner being declared to have been reborn in the Tusita Realm, and since beyond the five yokes is still 'lust for form' [rūparāja] the inference is that the non-returner could be reborn in a realm at least as 'low' as that.

Again note that the order here implies more and more time, effort, involvement, attachment.

Type 6: (There is no separate category created here for the following):

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture In Full
Cultivation of serenity Partial
Cultivation of wisdom Partial

Breaking the three yokes

By additionally weakening lust, hate and stupidity [rāga-dosa-moha] he becomes

Result:

The "One-seeder". He takes rebirth as man once; he is a 'Once-returner' Returning once to this world he brings and end to Pain.

Note: Again here the wording on this leaves open the possibility that between death in this world and the next return to this world there may be rebirths in other realms. This does not say: 'Taking rebirth only one more time.' In fact, if the Once-returner is to be seen as one who is less advanced than the lowest non-returner, (and that is always the implication) some intervening life or lives must be assumed or this would be a case of a Non-returner returning to this world to make an end.

Type 7:

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture In Full
Cultivation of serenity Partial
Cultivation of wisdom Partial

Result:

Rebirth in two or three good families.

Note that except for the fact that human birth involves much more pain and struggle, and so imply increased effort for attainment of Final Nibbāna, the amount of time for this type of Streamwinner would be less than that for the swiftest non-returner. Or is it the case here as with the Once-returner, that there are intervening lives in other worlds?

Type 8:

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture In Full
Cultivation of serenity Partial
Cultivation of wisdom Partial

Result:

Streamwinning: Rebirth in Hell, as a deamon, ghost or animal is precluded;
awakening is certain.
Seven rebirths at most, going up and down among gods and men.

The effort here has only been to make the progression rational and consistent with the various ways this progression is mentioned throughout the suttas. There is no question that it is a matter of interest, but the safest course, if one does not see that one is a Streamwinner, is to aim at that. It is at that point at least that there is certainty without need of 'belief' and perception that one is safe from rebirth in the sorts of lives lower than human status.

An editorial footnote will be appended to these suttas referencing this table: See Outline comparing Suttas 85-86-87.

[AN 3.89] Training (b), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha defines the higher ethical practice, the higher training of the heart, and the higher training in wisdom. A slight variation on the previous sutta, with verses added.
[AN 3.90] Pankadhā, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. While listening to the Buddha speak about the training rules, Kassapa bhikkhu thinks that Gotama goes too far along the lines of strict behavior. After the Buddha departs he has second thoughts and suffers regret mightily. He quickly goes to the Buddha to reveal his error. The revelation is acknowledged and he is given a teaching explaining the importance of being a good example. As well as being the teaching on being a good example, this is a good example of what is meant by 'confession' or 'apology' in the Buddha's system. It is really neither a confession nor an apology, but the making conscious of an error in the presence of a person of such a nature as will make the insident unforgettable and useful as a means for keeping check on one's future behavior. The 'revelation' is made either to the person to whom one has behaved badly or to some highly respected person. This is not easy to do but is powerful medicine! Take a person who habitually lies but who understands the danger in lying. The habit is hard to break when attacked head-on, but if such a one resolves to immediately 'confess' that what he has just said is a lie, the embarassment caused by that will quickly drive him to become more aware when he is speaking.
[AN 3.91] Urgent, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha addresses the anxiousness of the bhikkhus to attain the goal by likening the training to the three basic tasks of the farmer: plowing the field, sowing the seed, and irrigation. In the same way that these three tasks are under the control of the farmer, the training is under the control of the bhikkhu; in the same way as the growth of the crop is out of the hands of the farmer; the time of attaining the goal is out of the hands of the bhikkhu. Nevertheless there is expecation of results in both cases. Very similar to AN 3.82
[AN 3.92] Aloofness, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha compares the practice of living in solitude of those of other views with the practice of living in solitude of those who follow this Dhamma and Discipline. Then he compares the results of this practice with the steps the farmer goes through to harvest and secure his crop. This sutta describes a course to non-returning based on the practice of seclusion and having cultivated the first jhāna wherein the first three saŋyojana are broken and further there is a restraining of abhijjhāya and vyāpādena (Woodward's coveting and malevolance). Note that the usual fourth saŋyojana is, kāmacchanda so that what may be being said is that the restraint of coveting is the essential aspect of wishing for sense pleasures that must at least restrained to attain non-returning.
The BJT and CSCD pali and Bhk. Bodhi break this sutta into two at section 4. The BJT Pali has this section include all four Jhānas; the CSCD and the Pali apparently followed by Bhk. Bodhi have, as is the case with the PTS Pali, only the first Jhāna. Except for following what was done before, there is no sense to breaking the sutta into two at this point.
Bhk. Bodhi notes that the commentary wants to deny that this is a non-returner, but all the commentary does is invent the name 'jhāna-non-returner' and define this in the same way as the non-returner is defined which is just what the sutta does. The essential thing the commentary wants to inject into the thinking about this is that this non-returner does not enter a Brahma-loka or the Pure Abodes, but goes to some kāma world (that would include the Tusita realm) and attains Final Nibbāna there. There is nothing in the sutta itself to confirm or deny this, but attainment of the Brahma Lokas is said to be done by way of attaining the first jhāna even for commoners. Add this to the picture of the non-returner in the outline above. This is a good example of the kind of mess you can get into trusting the commentaries to explain things.

 


Just as in the autumn season
when the sky is clear
and the clouds have fled,
the sun
leaping up into the firmament
drives away all darkness from the heavens
and shines and burns and flashes forth,
even so
in the Ariyan disciple
arises the flawless, taintless eye of wisdom
AN 3.92 — Woodward


 

[AN 3.93] Companies, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes three sorts of groups of companions: one marked by dedication to practice, one marked by discord, and one marked by harmony. Great praise is put on the group marked by harmony.
[AN 3.94] The Thoroughbred (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha likens the ethical practices, dedication, and insight into the Four Truths of the bhikkhu to the qualities of beauty, strength and speed of a king's thoroughbred horse.
[AN 3.95] The Thoroughbred (b), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha likens the ethical practices, dedication, and breaking of the five yokes to the lower worlds of the bhikkhu to the qualities of beauty, strength and speed of a king's thoroughbred horse.
[AN 3.96] The Thoroughbred (c), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha likens the ethical practices, destruction of the corrupting influences (asavas) of the bhikkhu to the qualities of beauty, strength and speed of a king's thoroughbred horse.
[AN 3.97] Rough Cloth, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 3.98] Cloth of Benares, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The above two should be one sutta and are presented together in one file. The Buddha likens the imoral bhikkhu to cloth made from bark fibers and contrasts this with the moral bhikkhu who is like the treasured cloth made in Benares.
[AN 3.99] A Grain of Salt, Woodward translation
The Flower of the Sea Discussion of this sutta below,
Linked to the Pali, Warren, and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translations.
The Buddha illustrates the relativity of kamma using three similes. The repercussions of the same deed for one of undeveloped character and one of developed character are compared to the effects of a small amount of salt on a small amount of water and the effects of the same small amount of salt on a large body of water; and two similes comparing the punishment for a small theft committed by a poor man and the punishment for the same small theft committed by a rich and powerful man.

The key to understanding this sutta is in understanding the following introductory passage:

"For one speaking thus, beggars:

'Yathā yathāyaṃ puriso kammaṃ karoti,||
tathā tathā taṃ paṭisaŋvediyatī' ti.|| ||

'Whatsoever is such as this person intends to create by his deed
such as such as that is the experience that returns to him.'

Such being the case, beggars,
there is not had the living of the godly life
occasioning no thorough understanding of the consummate making of an end to pain.

But for one speaking thus, beggars:

'Yathā yathā vedanīyaṃ ayaṃ puriso kammaṃ karoti,||
tathā tathāssa vipākaṃ paṭisaŋvediyatī' ti.|| ||

'Whatsoever is such as is the experience this person intends to create by his deed,
such as such as that results in the experience that returns to him.'

Such being the case, beggars,
there is had the living the godly life
occasioning thorough understanding of the consummate making of an end to pain."

Kamma is not a matter of 'an eye for an eye'.

The meaning is that if it were the case that one doing an intentional deed of body, speech or mind necessarily were to experience the consequences in the form of experiences of body, speech and mind (it is not even necessary in this case to specify that these results be identical to those deeds, but only that they are of the same form), the nature of that manner of consequence is such as to preclude escape from kamma.

This must be understood in connection with the statement that there is no doing of an intentional deed without the experience of the consequences thereof. [AN 10.208]

Those two ideas together would require, for example, a deed done with body to be experienced by a consequence to the body, and so forth.

This would require identification with, or being downbound to body. And further, since there is no knowing the extent into the past of our intentional deeds of body, and kamma is not a one-for-one thing, but greatly amplifies whatever deed is done, there could be no knowing or saying that 'after such and such a time of doing no more intentional deeds of body, speech or mind, there will be an end of kamma'. And since the time involved in experiences of this sort is extensive, even if one were to practice very earnestly, death would intervene, and there would follow forgetfulness and in the next rebirth there would be the doing of new deeds.

However, if the experience of the repercussion of an intentional deed is in accordance with the sensation to be experienced through the senses that it was intended to cause, (may so-and-so suffer pain, may I enjoy pleasure by way of this deed) then understanding that there are but the three sense-experiences, and that one or another, and only one or another of these experiences accompany all sense experience at whatever level, this allows the results of deeds intended to cause experiences of a certain sort to manifest in connection with any experience through the senses at any level. Then, understanding that sense-experience is limited to the sense-spheres, by so developing one's bodily behavior, heart, and wisdom such as to abandon and rise above sense-experience, there is escape from kamma.

The repercussion of past deeds in the form of sense-experience will follow one up into ever more refined states, but by that very process such perspective is created as encompasses the ultimate past in terms of repercussions in the form of sense-experience (the perspective above sense-experience is the perspective of the totality of existence) and thus is had the experience of the totality of one's past kamma and by this the opportunity is created for the understanding of the consummate making of an end to pain in the understanding that that which is a sense experience is a thing that has come to be and that which has come to be comes to an end, and that by creating no new kamma and by abandoning and rising up above sense experience, kamma is brought to an end.

The theory one has about the nature of the mechanism of action of kamma will determine the nature of the measures one takes to bring kamma to an end. Holding the first of the two points of view above, one will not be able to bring kamma to an end because one will be attempting to bring the wrong things (forms of behavior resulting in things and events (the belief in the effacacy of ethics, rites and rituals to bring about the end of kamma, a yoke to rebirth to be broken by the Streamwinner)) to an end. Looking to the second of these points of view one will be able to bring kamma to and end because one will be looking to bring the cause of the experience of sensation through the senses to an end, that is, identification with the intent to create personal sense-experience.

[AN 3.100] Gold-refiner, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali, and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, Part I and Part II. The Buddha compares the process of attaining the higher mind through meditation to the steps required for the refining of gold. The goldsmith balances use of heat, cooling and examination; the bhikkhu must balance his development of serenity, energy and detachment. In the same way that over-emphasis of one aspect of the process by the goldsmith will likely result in the ruination of the gold, the over-emphasis by the bhikkhu on samadhi will result in sloth, overemphasis on energy building will result in anxiety, and overemphasis on objective detachment will result in the lack of serenity necessary to end the corrupting influences. There are in this sutta very helpful descriptions of the faults to be looked for and got rid of for each stage of advancement in the meditative process.

 


So long, monks,
as I did not thoroughly comprehend,
as it really is,
the satisfaction in the world as such,
the misery in the world as such,
the escape therefrom as such,
so long did I not discern the meaning
of being enlightened
with perfect enlightenment
unsurpassed in the world
with its devas,
its Maras and Brahmās,
together with the host of recluses and brahmins,
of devas and mankind.

But, monks, when I fully comprehended,
as it really is,
the satisfaction in the world as such,
the misery in the world as such,
the escape therefrom as such, -
then did I discern the meaning
of being enlightened
with perfect enlightenment
unsurpassed in the world
with its devas,
its Maras and Brahmās,
together with the host of recluses and brahmins,
of devas and mankind.

Then did knowledge and insight arise in me, thus:

Sure is my heart's release.

This is my last birth.

Now is there no more becoming again.

AN 3.101-Woodward


[AN 3.101] Before, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha relates how it was only after he understood, as it really is, the sweet taste of the world, the disadvantages of the world, and the escape from the world, that he considered himself completely awakened.
[AN 3.102] Satisfaction, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha states that it is only those who have understood the sweet taste of the world, the disadvantages of the world, and the escape from the world that are truly free, detached, released with an unconfined heart.
[AN 3.103] Lamentation, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha says that singing is just lamentation, dancing is just madness, and laughter is just childishness. Destroy the bridge, he says, to singing and dancing; It is enough, if something is really worthy of rejoicing, to simply smile.
The Buddha says to 'break the bridge' that leads to singing and dancing. The meaning is that singing and dancing and laughter are reactions to sense stimulus. They are the making of new kamma. There is the sense stimulus and then there follows after an expression which is a statement about that sense stimulus. For the Arahant if what is perceived is worthy, a response is called for, not a reaction. This is what is going on in back of several cases we encounter in the suttas where the Buddha smiles and Ananda understands this to be signficant and worthy of inquiry as to it's cause. [See for example: MN 81
[AN 3.104] Satiety, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that there is no reaching satisfaction in sleep, drink and sexual intercourse.
[AN 3.106] The Peak (2), Woodward translation
Not Warped, Olds translation
Linked to the Pali. A vivid image of the effects of deviant thought. The Buddha likens warped thinking to the effects of a warped roof peak on the straightness of the rest of the house.
Also of interest in this sutta is the issue of the translation of the word Vyāpāda, here Vyāpanna, the fifth saŋyojana, and so very important to understand correctly. The PED has both going to to Vyāpajjati where they derive it from "[vi+āpajjati]" "Vi" = Re, Un, Āpanna [pp.] - 1. entered upon, fallen into, possessed of, having done, or for, Āpādeti [Causative] to produce, make out, bring, bring into; which leads [?] to the usual definition of 'malevolence' spoilt, disagreeing, gone wrong; corrupt; Bhk. Bodhi here "fail", Woodward (in this sutta) 'Warped' and 'askew' with a footnote explaining.' I suggest what we have here in this sutta is the basic intended meaning as it would be understood throughout the world wherever there is construction using wood, that is as Woodward has it, for English, "warped". I suggest the derivation is: via apada; via the not-path. For the behavior and mental state: deviance, for the opposite: not-warped or straight or just as good "warped" and "not-warped" for all cases. In terms of the saŋyojanas, this would mean behavior and thinking that deviated from the Magga ... not just malevolance.
[AN 3.107] Three Causes (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three things from which originate actions, kamma, karma. Nidānās, things from which originate, begin — not cause. Down-bound: things to which kamma is bound. If lust were a cause, it would always cause, there would be no escape from kamma. Lust arises and is intentionally abandoned, got rid of, exterminated, ended, understood to such a degree as to cause detachment from it, to stop it in it's tracks, to see it coming before it arises and thereby to end kamma. Lust can be not acted upon. Ditto dosa and moha.
[AN 3.108] Three Causes (b), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. This version of the Pali has been fixed, but the BJT version picks up the previous sutta without making all the necessary changes.
Three things from which originate actions that end kamma. This is the reverse case of the previous. This pairing of opposites is a frequent practice in the suttas precisely for situations like this where an exact understanding of the terms must be had to put them in both positive and negative form or they turn the sutta into a mess. Woodward notes that here 'Nidana' as 'cause' doesn't work but he uses 'cause'. Bhk. Bodhi also uses 'cause'. It's an ego thing. A reflection of Pajapati's problem. The arrogance of the ego that at heart thinks it is God the Creator of the Created: the cause of all this. It's inconceivable that things arise without being 'caused'. How come? "Because I can see that I exist, and I can see that things arise in the world as I become conscious of them and therefore I am the cause of things arising in the world." But: "This being, that becomes," is not a causual relationship, it's an associative relationship. The beginning of both this and the previous sutta is: "There are these three nida