Don't let the gloves intimidate you; the gloves are off.


[Site Map]  [Home]  [Sutta Indexes]  [Glossology]  [Site Sub-Sections]

The Pali is transliterated as IAST Unicode (āīūṃṅñṭḍṇḷ). Alternatives:
[ ASCII (aiumnntdnl) | Mobile (āīūŋńñţđņļ) | Velthuis (aaiiuu.m'n~n.t.d.n.l) ]

 

 [Ditthadhamma Lokadhamma]


newWhat's New?

 


Monday, June 27, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, May 30, 2016


 

Pali Letter-order bookmark

Bookmark image

Pali/English Dictionary

On the right is an image which you can save and print for use as a bookmark for your PED and NPD and CPD. The 'Pali/English' dictionaries are organized on the Pali alphabetical order. The Pali alphabetical order is informative and is much more logical than is the English, but if your interest in Pali is not such as has caused you to memorize it, it can be frustrating to look up the word you need to find to clarify an issue. Hense the usefulness of this bookmark.

 

new Thursday, June 16, 2016 8:46 AMSaɱyutta Nikāya The Connected Discourses of the Buddha, I. The Book with Verses, 1. Connected Discourses with Devatās, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations. (All Suttas of each chapter in a single file)
All linked to the Pali, the Mrs. Rhys Davids' translations and other available translations.
[SN 1.1.11-20]
11. Nandana
12. Delight
13. None Equal to That for a Son,
14. The Khattiya
15. Murmuring
16. Drowsiness and Lethargy
17. Difficult to Practice
18. A Sense of Shame
19. A Little Hut
20. Samiddhi
[SN 1.1.21-30]
21. A Sword
22. It Touches
23. Tangle
24. Reining in the Mind
25. The Arahant
26. Sources of Light
27. Streams
28. Those of Great Wealth
29. Four Wheels
30. Antelope Calves
[SN 1.1.31-40]
31. With the Good
32. Stinginess
33. Good
34. There Are No
35. Faultfinders
36. Faith
37. Concourse
38. The Stone Sliver
39. Pajjunna's Daughter 1
40. Pajjunna's Daughter 2
[SN 1.1.41-50]
41. Ablaze
42. Giving What?
43. Food
44. One Root
45. Perfect
46. Nymphs
47. Planters of Groves
48. Jeta's Grove
49. Stingy
50. Ghaṭīkāra
[SN 1.1.51-60]
51. Old Age
52. Undecaying
53. The Friend
54. Support
55. Produces
56. Produces 2
57. Produces 3
58. The Deviant Path
59. Partner
60. Poetry
[SN 1.1.61-70]
61. Name
62. Mind
63. Craving
64. Fetter
65. Bondage
66. Afflicted
67. Ensnared
68. Shut In
69. Desire
70. World
[SN 1.1.71-81]
71. Having Slain
72. Chario
73. Treasure
74. Rain
75. Afraid
76. Does Not Decay
77. Sovereignty
78. Love
79. Provisions for a Journey
80. Source of Light
81. Without Conflict
[SN 1.11.1-25]
1. Suvira
2. Susima
3. The Crest of the Standard
4. Vepacitti (or Patience)
5. Vicotry by Well-Spoken Counsel
6. The Bird Nests
7. One Should Not Transgress
8. Verocana, Lord of the Asuras
9. Seers in a Forest
10. Seers by the Ocean
11. Vows
12. Sakka's Names
13. Mahali
14. Poor
15. A Delightful Place
16. Bestowing Alms
17. Veneration of the Buddha
18. The Worship of the Teacher (or Sakka's Worship)
19. The Worship of the Teacher (or Sakka's Worship) 2
20. The Worship of the Teacher (or Sakka's Worship) 3
21. Having Slain
22. Ugly
23. Magic
24. Transgrssion
25. Nonanger
This concludes the formatting and uploading of the Samyutta Nikaya, Sagatha Samyutta (Volume 1) translations by Bhikkhu Bodhi released by Wisdom Publications for free distribution.

 

[SN 2.12.2] Samyutta Nikaya, Nidana Samyutta (Volume 2) Analysis of Dependent Origination, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Analysis which gives Gotama Buddha's definitions of the terms used in the Paticca Samuppada.
A very important sutta!
[SN 2.12.3] The Way (or Course), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation
The Way which presents the Paticca Samuppada as a Path or Course rather than the usual understanding of this doctrine as a description of how kamma works.
[SN 2.12.4-10] Vipassi, Vessabhū, Kakusandha, Koṇāgamana, Kassapa, and Gotama the Great Sakyan Sage, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations. All on one file.
Linked to the Pali, the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation
Seven identical suttas describing the thinking processes involved in the discovery by the past 7 Buddhas of the Paticca Samuppada with the result that new knowledge, vision, insight, wisdom and light arose in them.

 

Reasoning out
the
Paṭicca Samuppāda

Consequential Self-Appearance

What being is there Aging and Death?

Aging and Death. Jarā-maraṇa. Growing old in years, becoming feeble, the weakening of the sense faculties, dying, the departure from this life, mortality, the breaking apart into their basic elements of the factors that support life.

What results in Aging and Death?

There being Birth, there is Aging and Death.

Birth. Jāti. Being born, becoming an identified-with living individuality in some class of living beings.

Birth results in Aging and Death.

What being is there Birth?

What results in Birth?

There being Existence there is Birth.

Existence. Bhava. Existing in a place of existence; as a human in human existence; as an animal, ghost, deamon or being in hell; as a god among gods; as a being in the realms of sense experience; in the realms of formed existence; in the realms of formlessness existence.

Existence results in Birth.

What being is there Existence?

What results in Existence?

There being Supporting Fuel there is Birth.

Supporting Fuel. Upādāna. Contimplation of delight in pleasures of the senses, in existing as some sort of being in some sort of place of being.

Supporting Fuel results in Birth.

What being is there Supporting Fuel?

What results in Supporting Fuel?

There being Hunger and Thirst there is Supporting Fuel.

Hunger and Thirst. Taṇhā. Wanting, wishing, desire for, hunger for, thirst for the re-experiencing of pleasant, unpleasant or neither pleasant nor unpleasant sensation of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and thinking.

Hunger and Thirst results in Supporting Fuel.

What being is there Hunger and Thirst?

What results in Hunger and Thirst?

There being Sense-Experience there is Hunger and Thirst.

Sense-Experience. Vedanā. Sensations of pleasure, pain or neither pleasure nor pain arising from contact of sense organ with sense object: eye and visible objects; ear and sounds; nose and scents; tongue and tastes; body and touches; the mind and things.

Sense Experience results in Hunger and Thirst.

What being is there Sense-Experience?

What results in Sense-Experience?

There being Touch there is Sense-Experience.

Touch. Phassa. Contact, being in contact with, identification with the perception of sense-organ, sense-object, and sense consciousness.

Touch results in Sense-Experience.

What being is there Touch?

What results in Touch?

There being The Six-Sense Realms there is Touch.

The Six-Sense Realms. Saḷāyatana. The eye, visible objects, visual consciousness, the pleasant, unpleasant and the neither pleasant nor unpleasant sensations that arise from contact with visual consciousness, thinking about sights, hunger and thirst for sights, intentions relating to sights.
The ear and sounds, auditory consciousness, the pleasant, unpleasant and the neither pleasant nor unpleasant sensations that arise from contact with auditory consciousness, thinking about sounds, hunger and thirst for sounds, intentions relating to sounds.
The nose and scents, olfactory consciousness, the pleasant, unpleasant and the neither pleasant nor unpleasant sensations that arise from contact with olfactory consciousness, thinking about scents, hunger and thirst for scents, intentions relating to scents.
The tongue and tastes, consciousness of tastes, the pleasant, unpleasant and the neither pleasant nor unpleasant sensations that arise from contact with savours, thinking about tastes, huger and thirst for tastes, intentions relating to tastes.
The Body and touches, tactile consciousness, the pleasant, unpleasant and the neither pleasant nor unpleasant sensations that arise from contact with tactile consciousness, thinking about touches, hunger and thirst for touches, intentions relating to touches.
The Identified with Mind (mano)* and Things, mental consciousness, the pleasant, unpleasant and the neither pleasant nor unpleasant sensations that arise from contact with mental consciousness, thinking about things, hunger and thirst for things, intentions relating to things.

The Six-Sense Realms result in Touch.

What being is there The Six-Sense Realms?

What results in The Six-Sense Realms?

There being Name-and-Form there is The Six-Sense Realms.

Name-and-Form. Nāma-rūpa. The shape or form of an object, whether material or immaterial (all of those things described above as belonging to the six=sense=realms are nama/rupas), and the terms used to identify it.

Name-and-Form result in The Six-Sense Realms.

What being is there Name-and-Form?

What results in Name-and-Form?

There being Consciousness** there is Name-and-Form.

Consciousness. Viññāṇa. Knowing Knowing. Awareness of knowing of being conscious.

Consciousness results in Name-and-Form.

[This step is omitted in SN 2.12.4. It is implied by the next Step, and it is explained in the Maha Nidana Sutta, DN. 15 ]

What being is there Consciousness?

What results in Consciousness?

There being Name-and-Form there is Consciousness.

Name-and-Form results in Consciousness.

What being is there Consciousness?

What results in Consciousness?

There being Own-Making† there is Consciousness.

Own-making. Saŋkhāra. Con-struction. Identification with the intent to create experience of existence for the self through acts of thought, word, and deed and the resulting identified-with experience.

Own-Making results in Consciousness.

What being is there Own-Making?

What results in Own-Making?

There being Lack of Vision there is Own-Making.

Lack of Vision. Avijjā. Not 'seeing' the self-made nature of existence. Not seeing that deeds rebound on the deed-maker in accordance with the intent of the deed. Not seeing that the result is essentially pain. Not seeing that it is hunger and thirst that is the fundamental source of that pain. Not seeing that to end that pain, one must end that hunger and thirst. Not seeing that the way to end that hunger and thirst is:
High View: the view that this is pain, that it originates with hunger and thirst, that it can only be brought to an end by eliminating the hunger and thirst, and that the way to do that is High View, High Principles, High Talk, High Works, High Lifestyle, High Self-control, High Mind, and High Serenity;
High Principles: Letting go, no mental cruelty, non- Violence;
High Talk: abstention from lies, slander, abusive speech;
High Works: works done without lies, theft, or violence
High Lifestyle: living abandoning what is perceived as a low lifestyle;
High Self-control: Making an Effort, seeking to get rid of bad states, keep off bad states, obtain good states, retain good states;
High Mind: Awareness of the arising, maintaining, and passing off of body, sense-experience, states of mind, and the Dhamma such that one abandons all anger and unhappiness, is satisfied, and above it all.
High Serenity: By rising above sense pleasures and unskillful things, entering into and making a habitat of appreciation of the peace of solitude; the peace of meditation, ease, and detachment.

Lack of Vision results in Own-Making.

So:
Lack of Vision results in Own-Making;
Own-Making results in Consciousness;
Consciousness results in Name-and-Form;
Name-and-form results in the Six Sense Realms;
The Six Sense Realms result in Contact;
Contact results in Sense-Experience;
Sense-Experience results in Hunger and Thirst;
Hunger and Thirst result in Supporting Fuel
Supporting Fuel results in Existence
Existence results in Birth
Birth results in Old Age, sickness, suffering and death
Grief and Lamantation
Pain and Misery
and Despair.

 

§

 

What then, not being is there no†† Aging and Death?

What ending ends Aging and Death?

Birth not being there is no Aging and Death.

Ending birth ends Aging and Death.

What then, not being is there no Birth?

What ending ends Birth?

Existence not being there is no Birth.

Ending Existence ends Birth.

What then, not being is there no Existence?

What ending ends Existence?

Supporting Fuel not being there is no Existence.

Ending Supporting Fuel ends Existence.

What then, not being is there no Supporting Fuel?

What ending ends Supporting Fuel?

Hunger and Thirst not being there is no Supporting Fuel.

Ending Hunger and Thirst ends Supporting Fuel.

What then, not being is there no Hunger and Thirst?

What ending ends Hunger and Thirst?

Sense-Experience not being there is no Hunger and Thirst.

Ending Sense-Experience ends Hunger and Thirst.

What then, not being is there no Sense-Experience?

What ending ends Sense-Experience?

Contact not being there is no Sense-Experience.

Ending Contact ends Sense-Experience.

What then, not being is there no Contact?

What ending ends Contact?

The Six Sense Realms not being there is no Contact.

Ending The Six Sense Realms ends Contact.

What then, not being is there no Six Sense Realms?

What ending ends The Six Sense Realms?

Name-and-form not being there is no Six Sense Realms.

Ending Name-and-form ends The Six Sense Realms.

What then, not being is there no Name-and-form?

What ending ends Name-and-form?

Consciousness not being there is no Name-and-form.

Ending Consciousness ends Name-and-form.

What then, not being is there no Consciousness?

What ending ends Consciousness?

Own-Making not being there is no Consciousness.

Ending Own-Making ends Consciousness.

What then, not being is there no Own-Making?

What ending ends Own-Making?

Lack of Vision not being there is no Own-Making.

Ending Lack of Vision ends Own-Making.

So it is that:

Ending lack of vision ends own-making;
ending own-making ends consciousness;
ending consciousness ends name-and-form;
ending name-and-form ends the six sense realms;
ending the six sense-realms ends contact;
ending contact ends sense-experience;
ending sense-experience ends hunger and thirst;
ending hunger and thirst ends support fuel;
ending support fuel ends existence;
ending existence ends birth;
ending birth ends old age, sickness, suffering and death
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair.

—SN 2.12.4

 


 

*Mano. There are numerous forms of 'mind', and the word can indicate the unidentified-with mind of the Arahant. Here the term is qualified by it's inclusion as a sense-sphere as being the mind of an identified-with, existing being.

** Consciousness. Here this is just the fact of consciousnes. Consciousness as a phenomena. Like 'Mind', there are many forms of consciousness, each depending on it's object. Consciousness does not arise without having an object of it's awareness. If consciousness arises in conjunction with consciousness of an unidentified-with (un own-made) named-form it is called 'the unseen consciousness) which is a term for the consciousness of the Arahant and is an equivalent of Nibbana. Who made the un-identified-with named form? Someone else. This 'unidentified=with consciousness' arises with consciousness that the object is not own-made as it's object.

† Own-making. In different words, an 'identified-with consciousness of existince as named-form' (i.e., an already existing conscious living being) acts with intent to create identified-with experience by bringing together in thought: consciousness, name and form. So we can say that 'named-form created consciousness' and 'consciousness created named-form'. Conceiving in mind a desired object and taking steps by way of thought, word and deed to obtain that object; that object being realized (being made up from named forms) there is consciousness arising from that situation.

†† "is there no". This statement is absolute and relative. It would be that if there were 'no' anywhere there would be 'no' anywhere; but directed at the individual this means: "if you personally had no/did no". "If there were in you no" etc.

 

new Thursday, June 02, 2016 7:10 AMAŋguttara Nikāya
[AN 8.30] Anuruddha: The Eight Thoughts of a Great Man, the M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Hare translation, the Bhk. Thanissaro translation, and the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
An elegant sutta describing the instructions given Anuruddha which lead to his becoming an arahant.
[AN 8.31] Giving (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Hare translation, and the M. Olds translation.
Eight generic ways giving is done.
[AN 8.32] Giving (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Hare translation, and the M. Olds translation.
Qualities followed by the good person that lead to the gods.
An oddity, this sutta consists of only verses, and verses unlikely to have been spoken by the Buddha at that. Possibly this was originally attached to the previous sutta and detached to make the standard 10 suttas of a chapter.
[AN 8.33] Grounds, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Hare translation, and the M. Olds translation.
Eight ways people habitually give.
[AN 8.34] The Field, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation,
The characteristics of an unproductive field contrasted with the characteriscs of a person where gifts when given are not very productive followed by the converse field and person.
[AN 8.35] Rebirth on Account of Giving, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation,
Eight rebirths resulting from the aspirations made by virtuous givers of gifts to those who live a holy life.

 


Ijjhati bhikkhave sīlavato cetopaṇidhi visuddhattā — vītarāgattā.|| ||

Successful, beggars, are the heart's aspirations of the ethical
for they are clear — for they are free from lust.


 

[AN 8.36] Actvity, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation,
Eight outcomes from the performance of meritorous action graded as to extent of the giving and virtuous behavior involved.

 

The Outcome in Rebirth
of
Three Ways of Making Kamma

1. Made by Giving with a wise objective as the result.

Active generosity, done poorly, done moderately well, done in a superior way; and always accompanied by a similar development of ethical conduct.

2. Made by Ethical Conduct with a wise objective as the result.

Abstention from unskillful behavior (deeds causing harm to self or others); cultivation of self-control, done poorly, done moderately well, done in a superior way.

3. Made by Developing Self-Awakening with a wise objective as the result.

Developing the mind, Dhamma research, energy, entheusiasm, impassivity, serenity, and detachment, done poorly, done moderately well, done in a superior way.

Depending on the degree of development #s 1 and 2, practiced together, result in rebirths from luckless human birth through rebirth among the gods with power over the creations of others. See: A Map of the Mind, for the Buddhist Cosmology.

Generosity practiced by itself, though always productive of good results, does not necessarily affect birth. It can, for example, explain a bad man with good luck, or an animal, ghost, or deamon with powers or good luck.

Rebirth in the company of Brahmā and above, and attainment of Nibbāna, all require developing the mind to one degree or another.

Keep in mind that in Buddhist India the idea of 'superior' development of a thing was truly heroic in scope.

AN 8.36

 

[AN 8.37] The Good Person's Gifts, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation,
Eight considerations or manners of giving of the good man praised by those with insight.
[AN 8.38] The Good Person, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
Eight benefits the birth of a good man brings into the world.
[AN 8.39] The Good Person, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Hare translation.
A sutta describing the bountiful harvest of good consquences following from trust in the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha and the ethical standards of the Aristocrats.
[AN 8.40] Conducive, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation the M. Olds translation and the Hare translation.
Eight things which becoming habitual lead to rebirth in Hell, as an animal, as a ghost and here as a human lead to short life, loss of wealth, being hated, being slandered and accused falsely, breaking-up of friendships, hearing unpleasant sounds, hearing unpleasant speech, and going mad.
[AN 8.41] In Brief, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Ñanavara Thera and Bhikkhu Kantasilo translation the M. Olds translation and the Hare translation.
Eight essential factors in the observation of the Buddhist Sabbath.
[AN 8.42] In Detail, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
Eight essential factors in the observation of the Buddhist Sabbath with an explanation of why this practice is so fruitful.
Very interesting from the point of view of the comparative life-spans of some of the gods above the human realm. In this we have an anticipation by about 2500 years of Einstein's Theory of Relativity ... adding some things Einstein didn't think of. Combine this with an understanding that the Paticca Samuppada anticipates quantum physics and whole new worlds of possibilities open up ... But not so long as we have the seven-day work week throwing off the natural rhythm of life as would be lived according to lunar and solar time. In balance with the cosmos, one can see into the cosmos, find one's place, achieve balance; off balance, the sight of man is continually seeking just to find balance. We see the result of that in the focus on the buck. Organize the calendar according to the convenience of the merchant in the seven-day work-week and the mind naturally concludes that the goal of the merchant (the buck) is the source of balance in the world. Think of the ramifications in terms of health, status, power, satisfaction. I suggest that the powers that be when the world grinds to a halt (some time after the election) from the utter bordom of this meaningless pursuit, that in stead of instigating a new war to liven things up, they change the calendar.
[AN 8.43] Visākhā (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Khantipalo translation and the Hare translation.
Eight essential factors in the observation of the Buddhist Sabbath with an explanation of why this practice is so fruitful.
[AN 8.44] Vāseṭṭha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
Vasettha is told of the eight attributes of the Upasatha and remarks as to how much it would benefit others to so pracice.
[AN 8.45] Bojjhā, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
Bojjha is told of the eight attributes of the Upasatha.
[AN 8.46] Anuruddha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
The Venerable Anuruddha is visited by a group of goddeses who perform various entertaining magic feats. Afterwards he asks Gotama about the characteristics of women that would result in being reborn in such a way.
[AN 8.47] Visākhā (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
The Buddha tells Visaka of the eight characteristics of women who are born as goddesses of lovely form.
[AN 8.48] Nakula, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
The Buddha tells Nakulamata of the eight characteristics of women who are born as goddesses of lovely form.
[AN 8.49] The Present World (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
The Buddha tells Visakha of four things that, for women, lead to power in this world, and four that lead to power in the next.
[AN 8.50] The Present World (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus of four things that, for women, lead to power in this world, and four that lead to power in the next.
[AN 8.91-600 WP: 118-627] Lust and So Forth Repetition Series, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
The Wheel exercise which concludes The Book of the Eights.

[AN 10.1 What Purpose?
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
In a Paticca Samuppada-like sutta the Buddha explains how skillful ethical behavior leads directly to knowing and seeing freedom.
[AN 10.2 What Purpose?
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains why when one has established perfect ethical conduct there is no need to make an effort of will to bring forth freedom from regret, joy, entheusiasm, calm, happiness, serenity, knowing and seeing things as they are, disgust with things as they are, and knowing and seeing freedom, for these things arise naturally as a consequence of perfect ethical conduct.
[AN 10.3 Virtuous Behavior,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains, in a Paticca-Samuppada-like sutta, how each step from ethical conduct to freedom from regret, joy, entheusiasm, calm, happiness, serenity, knowing and seeing things as they are, disgust with things as they are, and knowing and seeing freedom depends on the previous condition.
The term to understand here is hat'upanisa. Hata: struck, destroyed. Upanisa (which I take to be from Upanisīdati which lead to Upanissaya (basis, support, foundation)): to set up seated upon. Not 'cause'. So: 'The seating for lack of regret is struck down by lack of ethical conduct. etc.' It is not just that with lack of ethical conduct there is no basis [or 'cause'] for non-regret; lack of ethical conduct actually destroys the basis for non-regret. A person of poor ethical conduct is not just missing out on the benefits of good conduct, he is actively working against his best interests. One is never just passively letting things slide. Poor ethical behavior is a matter of choice. It is not more work to make ethical choices. In fact, since most ethical choices in this system involve abstention from choosing a wrong course, it is much easier to behave ethically. The wording is a matter of the life or urgency of the sutta.
[AN 10.4 Virtuous Behavior,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sariputta explains, in a Paticca-Samuppada-like sutta, how each step from ethical conduct to freedom from regret, joy, entheusiasm, calm, happiness, serenity, knowing and seeing things as they are, disgust with things as they are, and knowing and seeing freedom depends on the previous condition.
[AN 10.5 Ānanda,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda explains, in a Paticca-Samuppada-like sutta, how each step from ethical conduct to freedom from regret, joy, entheusiasm, calm, happiness, serenity, knowing and seeing things as they are, disgust with things as they are, and knowing and seeing freedom depends on the previous condition.
[AN 10.6 Concentration,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
In response to a question by Ananda, the Buddha confirms that there is perception beyond existence.
This and the next are two very important suttas! But 'samādhi' is not 'concentration'! It's 'serenity', being calm and at peace above it all. Concentration is an aspect of serenity in that this level of serenity can only be attained with a high degree of concentration or single-mindedness.
[AN 10.7 Sāriputta,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
In response to a question by Ananda, the Buddha confirms that there is perception beyond existence.
Mrs. Rhys Davids scoffs at this sutta and states that Sariputta could never have said such a thing. With this she begins her major deviation into what amounts to Mahayana Buddhism. Her difficulty stems from her not having thoroughly worked out in her mind the notion of what 'existence' meant in this system: that is that it is, in precisely the way it is stated in one version of Quantum Physics, only upon experience by an individual that a thing comes into existence. Again: the concept of existence is limited to that which is experienced by the individual as an individual. Without the notion of individuality, perception exists. This, by the way is something that I have not heard explained by the Quantum Physicists, that is how it comes to be that a thing is perceived by an individual and by that brought into existence without there being a prior perception of that thing. The eye comes into contact with a visible object and visual consciousness arises. For that to become an individualized experience of seeing, that visual-consciousness must be perceived by an already identified with mind. (We don't ask where that first identified-with mind came from. Not even Buddhas perceive that. But if we push for some sort of explanation of it's origin it is explained as a function of thirst, desire. Mind, perceiving pleasant objects, experiences sensation and desire to repeat that sensation arises. For it to be experienced by the mind with the desire, some sort of identification (location in Time and Space) of the mind that is to experience the experience must be made. How about we call it: "Me" and say that the experience from that perspective is the experience of an "I", or is "My experience." Oops! How do I get out of here?!!
[AN 10.8 Faith,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A stepwise method of progression from faith to arahantship.
[AN 10.9 Peaceful,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A stepwise method of progression from faith to arahantship.
[AN 10.10 True Knowledge,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A stepwise method of progression from faith to arahantship.
[AN 10.11 Lodging,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes five factors in the individual and five factors in his lodging that conduce to rapidly attaining Arahantship.
[AN 10.12 Five Factors,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Five things to give up and five to develop to be called one who is completely proficient.
[AN 10.13 Fetters,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha names the ten things which 'yoke' individuals to rebirth [samyojana]; five yoking the individual to every possible sort of rebirth including those as an animal, monster, ghost or resident in Hell, but also to this and higher re-births and five yoking one to rebirths in higher realms even though one may have seen through the first five.
For more on the Yokes to Birth, see the Glossology: Saɱyogana.
[AN 10.14 Mental Barrenness,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Five obstructions of the heart that if not abandoned, and five things that twist up the heart that if not uprooted, signal decline in a seeker, but which if abandoned and uprooted signal progress.
[AN 10.15 Heedfulness,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A sutta giving 10 similes for the importance of being careful.
The term to understand here is 'appamāda': A = non; PAMĀDA = carelessness. One of the most frequently occuring concepts in the whole of the Pali Cannon. This word is a mantra. A magical word which if concentrated upon, repeatedly pronounced to the point where it induces a hypnotic trance, opens up to reveal the memory embedded in it's creation. A memory which goes far beyond the admittedly valuable idea of being cautious.
[AN 10.16 Worthy of Gifts,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten individuals considered worthy to receive offerings, gifts, signs of respect and who are a peerless opportunity for making good kamma.
[AN 10.17 Protector (1),
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten things that are protections for the seeker.
[AN 10.18 Protector (2),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten things that are protections for the seeker with the additional protection that having these protections the bhikkhus are inclined to instruct and guide such a seeker.
[AN 10.19 Abodes of the Noble Ones (1),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A list (in brief) of ten ways in which the Aristocrat (here equal to the Arahant) abides.
[AN 10.20 Abodes of the Noble Ones (1),
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A list (in some detail) of ten ways in which the Aristocrat (here equal to the Arahant) abides.
[AN 10.21 The Lion,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A list of the ten powers of the Buddha that qualify him to set rolling the Wheel of Dhamma.
[AN 10.22 Doctrinal Principles,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha makes a bold statement about his knowledge and right to turn the Wheel of Dhamma. He then gives a list of the 10 Powers of a Buddha.
[AN 10.23 Body,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A categorization by bodily control, control of speech, or by application of wisdom upon seeing them of things which need to be abandoned.
[AN 10.24 Cunda,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Cunda spins a twist on a list of things which upon seeing them need to be abandoned such that he is able to rightfully say he knows Dhamma and has developed bodily control, virtue, heart and wisdom.
[AN 10.25 Kasiṇas,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Enumeration of ten devices used to assist in the development of concentration.
[AN 10.26 Kāḷī,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Maha Kaccana explains to Kali the meaning of one of the Buddha's brief sayings: Understanding the limitations of the devices used for the development of concentration, one does not form attachment to them and by extention one does not form attachment to anything or anyone and by that one is free.
[AN 10.27 Great Questions (1),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Some bhikkhus are asked that since both they and the Buddha teach a goal of understanding all things, what is the difference between the two systems. The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that when this question is asked the response should be: 'The 10 Questions." (Giving them in full as found in this sutta)
This is a subtle response to this question in that The 10 Questions is a broad and deep exposition to the 10th power of how everything in the world is to be let go. Each of 'the 10' is a complete path to utter detachment seen from a different perspective. A sutta no serious student of the Dhamma should neglect! For more on this subject see the footnotes to Woodward's translation, the next sutta, and The Pali Line.
[AN 10.28 Great Questions (2),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
In an alternate version of the Great 10 Questions, the Kajangala bhikkhuni expands questions given in brief to a group of lay followers.
It is important to note that there are several versions of the ten questions. They are all equally valid in terms of their scope and use. Numerous other sets could be constructed by reviewing the whole of the Anguttara Nikaya.
[AN 10.29 Great Questions (2),
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes how even the most enduring of phenomena and the most lofty of doctrines are burdened with change and should be regarded with revulsion; he then declares of certain doctrines that if their goals are attained they will provide refuge.
[AN 10.30 Great Questions (2),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Raja Pasenadi pays a visit to the Buddha and shows great respect and enumerates the reasons for his great respect.
[AN 10.31 Upāli,
The Buddha tells Upali of the ten things that are taken into consideration before he formulates a rule for the order.
[AN 10.31 (WP #32) Suspending,
Upali asks the Buddha about the reasons for suspending the reading of the Patimokkha (the brief summary of the rules of the order).
BJT Pali and Bhk. Bodhi have this as a separate sutta. In fact it is very likely that PTS Suttas #31-34 (WP #31-36) were but one sutta.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
[AN 10.32 (WP #33) Adjudication,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Upali asks the Buddha about the qualities of one agreed upon to act as an adjudicator in a dispute.
[AN 10.33 (WP #34) Full Ordination,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Upali asks the Buddha about the qualifications needed for a bhikkhu to give full ordination.
[AN 10.34 (WP #35) Dependence,
Upali asks the Buddha about the qualifications needed for a bhikkhu to give dependence.
(WP #36) Novice,
Upali asks the Buddha about the qualifications needed for a bhikkhu to be attended upon by a novice.
BJT Pali and Bhk. Bodhi have this as a separate sutta.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
[AN 10.35 (WP #37) Schism (1),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Upali asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expression: breaking up (Creating a Schism in) the Order.
[AN 10.36 (WP #38) Schism (2),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Upali asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expression: 'Harmony in the Order'.
[AN 10.37-38 (WP #39) Ānanda (1),
Ananda asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expressions: breaking up (Creating a Schism in) the Order and the fruit of such.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Bhk. Bodhi's sutta combines this sutta with the next of PTS (translation.)
[AN 10.39-40 (WP #40) Ānanda (1),
Ananda asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expressions: creating harmony the Order and the fruit of such.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Bhk. Bodhi's sutta combines this sutta with the next of PTS (translation.)
[AN 10.51 One's Own Mind,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha admonishes the bhikkhus to examine themselves for faults and then to make a strong effort to get rid of any faults found; this as a key to the comprehension of their hearts.

 

Know Thyself

Do I live largely obsessed with burning desires?

Do I live largely not obsessed with burning desires?

Do I live largely devious at heart?

Do I live largely not devious at heart?

Do I live largely overcome by lazy ways and inertia?

Do I live largely without lazy ways and inertia?

Do I live largely anxious?

Do I live largely not anxious?

Do I live largely filled with doubts?

Do I live largely having overcome doubt?

Do I live largely angry?

Do I live largely without anger?

Do I live largely with corrupted heart?

Do I live largely not with corrupted heart?

Do I live largely bodily aggrivated?

Do I live largely not bodily aggrivated?

Do I live largely listless?

Do I live largely with roused up energy?

Do I live largely without composure?

Do I live largely composed?

Is there within me tranquility of heart?

Is there not within me tranquility of heart?

Is there within me insight into the higher wisdom?

Is there not within me insight into the higher wisdom?

AN 10.51, AN 10.54

Note: "largely" means does this thing occur very frequently in me? Is it a 'big thing' 'bahula'. Woodward: 'Live generally'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'often'. Bhk. Thanissaro omits the qualification. The qualification is important because a single occurance, or a rare occurance of these things is much less of a problem with regard to the bad things and much more of a problem with regard to the good things. Also, stating the case in the form 'do I or do I not' does not put the proper emphasis on the knowledge of the self of both the positive and negative.

 

[AN 10.52 Sāriputta,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sāriputta admonishes the bhikkhus to examine themselves for faults and then to make a strong effort to get rid of any faults found; this as a key to the comprehension of their hearts.
[AN 10.53 Standstill,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha spirs on the bhikkhus warning them not only to guard against backsliding but also against accepting the status quo, admonishing the bhikkhus to examine themselves for faults and then to make a strong effort to get rid of any faults found; this as a key to the comprehension of their hearts.
[AN 10.54 Serenity,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha gives two criteria for evaluating the knowledge of one's own heart: attainment of higher wisdom and insight into Dhamma, and calm of heart; and then he gives a method for judging the right course to take with regard to clothing, food, location and persons.
Bhk. Bodhi has translated 'Samatha' as 'serenity'; Woodward uses 'peace'; Bhk. Thanissaro uses 'tranquility. 'Samatha' is a term that both encompasses and is subordinate to 'samādhi'. It stands for the general goal of the calm necessary for unbiased vision of things the way they really are, and it is the practice of stilling, calming and tranquilizing the body in preparation for samādhi. What is required for this word then, is one that implies the general idea of calm (applicable to both body and mind, or as here, heart), plus the specific idea of calm of body. 'Serenity' is more of a mental quality. It is the idea of being calmly above it all. Therefore I suggest that for 'samatha' we use 'calm' or 'tranquility'; and reserve 'serenity' for 'samādhi.'
[AN 10.55 Serenity,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sariputta explains the meaning in Gotama's system of the expressions: -Of a nature to wane-, and -Of a nature not to wane-.
[AN 10.56 Perceptions (1),
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha reveals ten perceptions which are very helpful to seekers.
[AN 10.57 Perceptions (2),
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha reveals ten perceptions which are very helpful to seekers.

 

Helpful Perceptions

Perception of the inauspicious (asubha)

Perception of bones (aṭṭhika)
Perception of larva (pulavaka)
Perception of mal-coloration (vinīlaka)
Perception of spongiformity (vicchiddaka)
Perception of swelling (uddhumātaka)

Perception of the body encased by skin as filled from the top of the tips of the hairs of the head above to the bottom of the soles of the feet below with diverse sorts of putrid filth, thinking: "in this body hair of the head, body hair, nails, teeth, skin, meat, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, innerds, intestines, stomach, excrement, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, wax, spit, snot, synovial fluid, urine and brain.

Perception of danger (ādīnava)

Perception of death (maraṇa)

'This body is the source of much pain and danger; for all sorts of afflictions arise in this body, that is, eye-disease, inner ear-disease, nose-disease, tongue-disease, body-disease, head-disease, outer ear-disease, mouth-disease, tooth-disease, cough, asthma, catarrh, pyrexia, fever, stomachache, fainting, dysentery, gripes, cholera, leprosy, boils, eczema, tuberculosis, epilepsy, ringworm, itch, scab, chickenpox, scabies, hemorrhage, diabetes, hemorrhoids, cancer, fistula; illnesses originating from bile, phlegm, wind, or their combination; illnesses produced by change of climate; illnesses produced by careless behavior; illnesses produced by assault; or illnesses produced as the result of kamma; and cold, heat, hunger, thirst, excretion, and urination.' — Bhk. Bodhi AN 10.60

Perception of disinclination for (because of the disgusting nature of) food (āhāre paṭikakūla)

Perception of change (impermanance, discontinuity) (anicca)

Perception of discontinuity in all the own-made (sabba-saŋkhāresu anicca)
Perception of the pain of discontinuity (anicce dukkha)

Body changes, sense-experiences change, perceptions change, what is own-made changes, consciousness changes.

Perception of non-self (anatta)

Perception of non-self in pain (dukkhe anatta)

The eye is not self, visual objects are not self; the ear is not self, sounds are not self, the nose is not self, scents are not self; the tongue is not self, tastes are not self; the body is not self, touches are not self; the mind is not self, mental objects are not self. That which is painful is not logically to be called the self, for if it were the self, it could be controlled by the self and the self would not have pain.

Perception of displeasure with all the world (sabbaloke anabhirata)

There is not anything, anywhere in any way that is for me.

Perception of letting go (pahāna)

Letting go of thoughts of sensual pleasure, deviance, violence and whatever else is an unskillful thought.

Perception of dispassion (virāga)

Having the perception:
'This is it!
This is the culmination!
That is, the calming of all own-making,
the resolution of all involvements,
the withering away of thirst,
dispassion,
extinction,
Nibbāna.'

Perception of ending (nirodha)

Having the perception:
'This is it!
This is the culmination!
That is, the calming of all own-making,
the resolution of all involvements,
the withering away of thirst,
dispassion,
extinction,
Nibbāna.'

Helpful for Attaining These Perceptions

Here beggars, a beggar
having gotten himself off to the forest
or to the root of some tree,
or to some empty hut,
and having taken up his seat there
sitting down,
setting the body upright,
legs bent-across-lapwise,
minding around the mouth,
just so he recollects inspiration,
just so he recollects expiration.

If he inspires deeply, he knows: 'I am inspiring deeply.'
If he breaths out deeply, he knows: 'I am expiring deeply.'

If he inspires shallowly, he knows: 'I am inspiring shallowly.'
If he exspires shallowly, he knows: 'I am breathing out shallowly.'

'Reflecting on the totality of bodily experience I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Reflecting on the totality of bodily experience, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Pacifying own-body-making, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Pacifying own-body-making, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Observing enthusiasm, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Reflecting on enthusiasm, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Observing pleasure, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Observing pleasure, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Reflecting on the own-making of the heart, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Reflecting on the own-making of the heart, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Pacifying the own-making of the heart, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Pacifying the own-making of the heart, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Reflecting on the heart, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Reflecting on the heart, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Abundantly content in heart, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Abundantly content in heart, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Composing the heart, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Composing the heart, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Liberating the heart, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Liberating the heart, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'On the look-out for inconsistancy, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'On the look-out for inconsistancy, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'On the look-out for the end of lust, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'On the look-out for the end of lust, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'On the look-out for ending, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'On the look-out for ending, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'On the look-out for opportunities to let go, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'On the look-out for opportunities to let go, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

Olds, SN 5.54.1

 

[AN 10.58 Roots,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches ten important ideas by posing them as questions that might be asked of Buddhists by outsiders.

 

All Things Considered

If Asked:
'What, friend, is the root of all things?
What brings all things to life?
What is the support of all things?
What is the confluence of all things?
What is at the interface of all things?
Ruled over by what are all things?
Directed at what are all things?
What is at the heart of all things?
What is the pitfall of all things?
What is the end of all things?'

Properly answered, the answers would be:
Wanting is the root of all things, friend.
Work of mind brings all things to life.
Contact supports all things.
All things converge in sense experience.
Serenity is at the interface of all things.
Ruled over by mind are all things.
Directed at wisdom are all Dhammas.
Freedom is at the heart of all Dhammas.
Falling into the deathless are all Dhammas.
Ending in Nibbana are all Dhammas.

 

[AN 10.59 Going Forth,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha gives the bhikkhus 10 things to aim at in their training.
[AN 10.60 Girimānanda,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Piyadassi Thera translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha gives definitions for 'The Ten Perceptions': The idea of discontinuity, of not-self, of the foul, of disadvantages, letting go, dispassion, ending, world-wearyness, of discontinuity in the own-made, of recollection of respriration. In this sutta is a case of 'curing' by way of hearing the Dhamma. Also in this sutta is found a version of what would later become the Satipatthana method.
In this sutta Bhk. Bodhi translates 'sankhara' both as 'conditioned phenomena' and as 'activities'. The first is simply incorrect (all own-made phenomena are impermanent, but not all conditioned phenomena are impermanent: Nibbana is conditioned), the second is one-sided and too narrow, the two together are confusing. For the issues raised by the mistranslation of this term see the article: 'Is Nibbana Conditioned?'
[AN 10.61 Ignorance,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
In the technique of the Paticca Samuppada, the Buddha traces out how blindness rolls on and the way freedom from it is managed.
[AN 10.62 Ignorance,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
In the technique of the Paticca Samuppada, the Buddha traces out how hunger to exist rolls on through blindness and the way freedom from it is managed.
[AN 10.200 (Wisdom Pubs: #211) Hell (1),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten things resulting in one being reborn in Hell, ten resulting in one being reborn in a pleasant or heavenly birth.
[AN 10.201 (Wisdom Pubs: #212) Hell (2),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten things resulting in one being reborn in Hell, ten resulting in one being reborn in a pleasant or heavenly birth.
[AN 10.202 (Wisdom Pubs: #213) Women,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten things resulting in women being reborn in Hell, ten resulting in women being reborn in a pleasant or heavenly birth.
[AN 10.203 (Wisdom Pubs: #214) Female Lay Follower,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten things resulting in women lay followers being reborn in Hell, ten resulting in women being reborn in a pleasant or heavenly birth.
[AN 10.204 (Wisdom Pubs: #215) Self-Confidence,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten negative attributes of a woman lay-follower that lead to her living at home without confidence, ten positive attributes which lead to her living at home with confidence.
[AN 10.205 (Wisdom Pubs: #216) Creeping,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Kamma of mind, speech and body of ten low sorts leads to rebrith in hell or as an animal of stealth and timmidity; kamma of ten high sorts leads to rebirth in the heavens or in a prominant human family.
[AN 10.206 (Wisdom Pubs: #217) Volitional (1),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha speaks to the issue of the need to understand one's past deeds before one is able to attain Arahantship. He suggests development of the heart of friendliness, sympathy, empathy and detachment.
I suggest reading the introduction to my translation of #208 to understand the problems with translation of this sutta, namely that as translated the Buddha is saying that there is no ending kamma without experiencing the consequences of all previously done deeds which is impossible. ... Well, it is possible, twisting one's understanding of what 'experiencing' means. I have explained this elsewhere as being a matter of the degree of effort made to liberate oneself being such as to alter the nature of the consequences so that all consequences get jamed into what remains of one's lifespan and is experienced more mentally than in any other way. But my explanation in #208 uses a different translation of the term being translated 'experiencing' and makes the same case in simpler terms.
[AN 10.207 (Wisdom Pubs: #218) Volitional (1)
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha speaks to the issue of the need to understand one's past deeds before one is able to attain Arahantship. He suggests development of the heart of friendliness, sympathy, empathy and detachment.
[AN 10.217-219 (Wisdom Pubs: #237-746) Volitional (1)
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The wheel sutta(s) that concludes the Book of the Tens.

This completes the formatting and uploading of those suttas of Bhk. Bodhi's translation of the Anguttara Nikaya which have been released for free public distribution.

 

new Wednesday, June 01, 2016 12:06 PMThera-Gāthā Psalms of the Early Buddhists, II. Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translations.
[THAG 256] Anuruddha

 


Monday, May 30, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, April 25, 2016


 

new Friday, May 13, 2016 6:57 AMGallery: A short biography and new image for Lord Chalmers.

 

new Wednesday, April 27, 2016 8:32 AMThera-Gāthā Psalms of the Early Buddhists, II. Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translations.
[THAG 65] Ukkhepata-Vaccha
There are some interesting traces of old thoughts to be found in the background story for the verses of this Thera: that the 3 Piṭakas existed prior to the first council; (of course a 'basket' is not the same thing as what is contained in the basket); that at least some believed that the 3 Piṭakas exist as a sort of cosmic force that is recollected by each succeeding Buddha; that for the most part bhikkhus at the time specialized in one or another branch of Dhamma study: Dhamma or Vinaya, or what is called "Abhidhamma" with a capital "A" but which more likely ought to be referring to "abhidhamma" meaning the study of actual practice, especially in the cultivation of the jhanas, release, and the super-normal powers, in which case calling it a 'basket' would indicate that such was not so much a collection of stories about specific occurrances as a collection of ideas. (The Patimokkha vs. the Sutta Vibhanga; the Anguttara and Samyutta Nikayas -- with some exceptions -- vs the Majjhima and Digha Nikayas) Given this latter understanding the idea of the pitakas existing throughout time becomes more reasonable: A Buddha, his two main disciples, and the main and corrolary ideas relative to awakening and to the ethical conduct of one who follows the Dhamma would all be cosmic principles which resurface periodically at various points in the evolutions of the world.
[THAG 66] Meghiya
[THAG 67] Ekadhamma-Savanīya
[THAG 68] Ekuddaniya
[THAG 60] Sīvali
[THAG 61] Vappa
[THAG 62] Vajji-putta
[THAG 28] Jambugāmika's Son
[THAG 29] Hārita
Note in the biographical material Mrs. Rhys Davids use of the phrase "make straight the heart" and the referenced simile of straightening out the shaft of an arrow. Is this the intended meaning of ceto-ekodhibhava? I think so. Hence my translation "whole-hearted single-mindedness".
[THAG 121] Uttara

 

new Monday, April 25, 2016 4:36 AMAŋguttara Nikāya
[AN 4.31] The Wheel, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the four wheels on which rolls prosperity for gods and men.
[AN 4.32] Sustaining, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The four bases for making friends.
[AN 4.33] The Lion, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha compairs the fear and trembling inspired in animals by the lion's roar to the fear and trembling inspired in beings when the teaching of impermanence is heard taught by the Tathagata.
[AN 4.34] Confidence, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four ways in which faith is placed in the best of things and having been placed in the best yield the best of results.
[AN 4.35] Vassakāra, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Brahman Vassakara visits Gotama and describes what the brahmins call a great man and Gotama replies with what is called a great man in his Dhamma-discipline.
[AN 4.36] Doṇa, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Brahmin Dona is walkiing along behind the Buddha when he notices the mark of the Wheel in gotama's footprints. Drawing near he asks Gotama about what sort of being he may be and is told that he is beyond 'being' and is Buddha.
Bhk. Thanissaro notes [AN 4.36.than#n2] that there is a great deal of discussion (see notes in both the Bhk. Bodhi and Woodward translations (notes are missing from the Bhk. Bodhi versions permitted to be published on line)) concerning the use of the future tense in Dona's inquiries. Bhk. Thanissaro's solution here is that this is a manner of speech. I would only express it slightly differently as a contracted form of: "Will you be being about being a ..." From the perspective of the awakened mind there is actually no true 'present' to base a present tense upon in the case of asking a person what he is in the present. Things are under constant change, so a being is always about becoming something. There should really be a special tense for this case: The present-future or the future-present.
[AN 4.37] Non-Decline, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha enumerates four practices which ensure that one will not fall back.
[AN 4.38] Drawn Back, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Three conditions which must be fulfilled for one to be called 'Withdrawn': having put away personal beliefs, having abandoned ambitions, and having pasified the own-made body. The Buddha defines each of these conditions.
[AN 4.39] Ujjaya, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Brahmin Ujjaya asks if Gotama praises sacrifices and is told that he does not praise bloody sacrifices and that they are of little worth but that he does praise traditional charitable sacrifices and that they are of much worth.
[AN 4.40] Udāyī, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Brahmin Udayi asks if Gotama praises sacrifices and is told that he does not praise bloody sacrifices and that they are of little worth but that he does praise traditional charitable sacrifices and that they are of much worth.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 4.51] Streams of Merit (1), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four gifts that when given to a bhikkhu who is able to attain unbounded serenity yield incalculably rich results.
[AN 4.52] Streams of Merit (2), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Unwavering confidence in the awakening of the Buddha, the teachings of the Buddha, and respect for the followers on the four stages of progress along with possession of high standards of ethical behavior — each of these things produces a flood of good kamma.
[AN 4.53] Living Together (1), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four sorts of couples found in the world: a bad man living with a good woman, a good man living with a bad woman, a bad man living with a bad woman, and a good man living with a good woman.
[AN 4.54] Living Together (2), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four sorts of couples found in the world: a bad man living with a good woman, a good man living with a bad woman, a bad man living with a bad woman, and a good man living with a good woman.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 4.55] The Same in Living (1), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Sister Upalavanna translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Nakula's mother and father each approach the Buddha and each, in identical words, states that they are not aware of the other ever having transgressed against them either in thought or deed and then state that they are desirous of seeing each other in lives to come. The Buddha instructs them in how such a thing is to be attained.
This is an excellent example of the performance of an act of truth: A wish put in the form of: "If this is true, let this wish be granted."
[AN 4.56] The Same in Living (2), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the way a couple that desires to find each other in the next life may do so.
The Buddha's instruction and the verses from the previous.
[AN 4.57] Suppavāsā, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Suppavasa of the Koliyans gives a meal to the Buddha and is told that the food giver both gives and gets, life, beauty, happiness and ability.
Part of a remarkable story in which Suppavasa is pregnant for seven years and a day and when the child (Sivali) is born it is ordained by Sariputta seven days later and becomes Arahant a day after that.
[AN 4.58] Sudatta, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Anathapindika visits the Buddha and is told that the food giver both gives and gets, life, beauty, happiness and ability.
[AN 4.59] Food, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that the food giver both gives and gets, life, beauty, happiness and ability.
[AN 4.60] The Layperson's Proper Practice, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells Anathapindika serving the Order is a layman's path to a good reputation here and a good rebirth hereafter.
[AN 4.60] Worthy Deeds, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches Anathapindika a wise way to manage accumulated wealth such that at the end it will be seen to have been well used.
[AN 4.60] Freedom from Debt, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches Anathapindika four sorts of joy to be experienced by a householder: The joy of ownership, the joy of wealth, the joy of debtlessness, and the joy of blamelessness.
[AN 4.271] = WP: 274-783 Lust and So Forth Repetition Series, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The concluding Wheel style sutta(s) of the Book of the Fours in which to gain higher knowledge, thorough understanding, utter destruction, letting go, eradication, fading away, dispassion, ending, giving up, and renunciation of lust, anger, stupidity, malevolence, hostility, hypocrisy, spite, denegration, deceit, treachery, obstinacy, vehemence, pride, arrogance, intoxication, and negligence, the practices of the Four Settings-up of Memory, the Four Consummate Efforts and the Four Power-Paths are to be applied.

AN 5.1 In Brief, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the E.M. Hare translation and the M. Olds translation.
An undefined list of five Powers or Allys of the Seeker.
AN 5.2 In Brief, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the E.M. Hare translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the M. Olds translation.
The Allys or Powers of the Seeker analyzed separately.
Alternatively 'broken apart', i.e., analyzed in detail. The problem with translating Vitthāra as 'in detail' is that the way the Buddha taught, everything he says is 'in brief'; one can take each level and break it down further. So, for example this sutta is giving us 'more detail', but cannot be said to be a fully detailed analysis. There is much more to be learned about the Balas of the Seeker.
AN 5.3 Suffering, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the E.M. Hare translation, and the M. Olds translation.
Five things that conduce to pain here and hereafter and five things that conduce to pleasure here and hereafter.
AN 5.4 As If Brought There, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the E.M. Hare translation, and the M. Olds translation.
Five things which conduce to being brought to a state such as Hell and five things which conduce to being brought to a state such as Heaven.
AN 5.5 Training, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the E.M. Hare translation, the Sister Upalavanna translation, and the M. Olds translation.
A bhikkhu or bhikkhuni rejecting The Seeking out of hand returning to lesser things, is subject as it were visibly, to five sorts of critical and deprecating thought from a standpoint consistant with Dhamma. The one who sticks with it, no matter how painful, incurs praise.
AN 5.6 Entering, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Unskillful Aquirements, the M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha explains how when faith, sense of shame, fear-of-blame, energy and wisdom are established as instinctive responses, unskillful states find it impossible to gain access.
The word to understand here is paccupaṭṭhitā. PED: Paccupaṭṭhita [pp. of paccupaṭṭhahati; [paṭi+upa+sthā] "to stand up before," to be present;] (re)presented, offered, at one's disposal, imminent, ready, present. I would say rather to have at one's disposal (uprising, upa) the reflex (paṭi) previously established (sthā, stood up) of ... In other words at the first appearance of danger faith etc. reflexively also appears: what we call an 'instinctive response' or 'muscle response' a habitual response recollected more by the musclulature than through thought processes. Hare: "is set on"; Bhk. Bodhi: "is securely settled in."
The point is to give assurance that one has not fallen off track simply because one is harassed in mind by unskillful things; as long as the skills of faith, etc. have been thoroughly ingrained in one's thought processes they will come forward and the skillful will prevail.
AN 5.7 Sensual Pleasures, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha explains how when faith, sense of shame, fear-of-blame, energy and wisdom are not yet established as instinctive responses, a bhikkhu is one who has gone forth from faith. But when these things are established as instinctive responses, one is able to protect oneself.
AN 5.8 Falling Away (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha explains how when faith, sense of shame, fear-of-blame, energy and wisdom are lacking a bhikkhu is subject to falling away. But possessing these things he does not fall away.
AN 5.9 Falling Away (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha explains how when in a disrespectful bhikkhu faith, sense of shame, fear-of-blame, energy and wisdom are lacking he is subject to falling away. But possessing these things he does not fall away.
A qualified version of the previous. There is confusion in titles between the PTS and Bhk. Bodhi, but the suttas are the same.
AN 5.10 Irreverent, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha explains how when in a disrespectful bhikkhu faith, sense of shame, fear-of-blame, energy and wisdom are lacking he is incapable of progress in this Dhamma. But possessing these things he is capable of progress.
The inverse of the previous sutta. In terms of content there is a closer relationship of #9 to #10 than of #9 to #8.
AN 5.11 Not Heard Before, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha claims to have discovered and mastered things that had not been heard of before. He then states that faith, sense of shame, fear-of-blame, energy and wisdom are Powers of one who has 'got it' and that it is because he possesses these Powers, of those who have 'got it', he claims the place of chief.
There is no direct claim here that these Powers were unheard of before or that he was the discoverer of them. It is because he had these powers that he discovered what was unheard-of before (which would have been essentially the Four Truths) and set rolling the Dhamma wheel.
AN 5.12 Peak (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Between the powers of faith, conscientiousness (sense of shame), fear of blame, energy and wisdom, wisdom is considered the peak.
AN 5.13 In Brief, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The five Powers: faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom.
AN 5.14 In Detail, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha defines faith-power, energy-power, mind-power, serenity-power and wisdom-power.
AN 5.15 To Be Seen, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Practices and accomplishments where faith-power, energy-power, mind-power, serenity-power and wisdom-power may be seen as they actually are.
AN 5.16 Peak (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Between the power of faith, the power of energy, the power of mindfulness, the power of concentration, and the power of wisdom, the power of wisdom is considered the peak.
Compare with Ī12.
AN 5.17 Welfare (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
By perfecting ethical behavior, serenity, release and knowledge and vision of release in himself, but not working to perfect these things in others one is working for one's own good, but not that of another.
AN 5.18 Welfare (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
By striving to perfect ethical behavior, serenity, release and knowledge and vision of release in others, but not in himself, one is working for the good of others, but not for his own good.
AN 5.19 Welfare (3), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
By neither striving for the perfection of ethical behavior, serenity, release and knowledge and vision of release in him self nor in others one is working for neither the good of himself nor of others.
AN 5.20 Welfare (4), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the E.M. Hare translation, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
By both striving for the perfection of ethical behavior, serenity, release and knowledge and vision of release in himself and in others one is working for the good of himself and of others.
AN 5.21 Irreverent (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
A Paticca Samuppada-like sutta showing the progressive interdependence of living respectfully and harmoniously with others, keeping the minor precepts, adhering to the seekers training, living ethically, understanding high views, and attaining serenity.
AN 5.22 Irreverent (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
A Paticca Samuppada-like sutta showing the progressive interdependence of living respectfully and harmoniously with others, keeping the minor precepts, adhering to the seekers training, fully developing ethical behavior, attaining every degree of serenity, and fully developing wisdom.
AN 5.23 Defilements, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha likens the process of purifying the mind to the process of purifying gold. Then he describes five super-normal powers attainable with the purified mind.
AN 5.24 Immoral, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha outlines the progressive interdependence of ethical behavior, serenity, knowing and seeing, disenchantment and dispassion, and knowing and seeing freedom.
AN 5.25 Assisted, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things of great assistance in the development of freedom of heart and mind and the things that result from freedom of heart and mind.
AN 5.26 Liberation, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Access to Freedom, the M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five detailed descriptions of situations that result in freedom.
AN 5.27 Liberation, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Serenity, the M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five knowledges that arise in one who developes immeasurable serenity.
AN 5.28 Liberation, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Consummate Samadhi described as consisting of five dimensions (the four usual jhanas and observation of the sign) and yielding skill in the higher knowledges.
AN 5.29 Walking Meditation, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Aggacitta Bhikkhu and Kumara Bhikkhu translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five advantages to be gained from use of a place to pace.
AN 5.30 Nāgita, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha explains to his attendant Nagita why he will not accept the food-gifts of a large number of people who have gathered together to do him homage on hearing of his arival in their town.
AN 5.31 Sumanā, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Sumana, Raja Pasanadi's sister, has waited a long time to join the order as she first felt the need to take care of her grandmother. Before even she is initiated she becomes a non-returner and then an arahant. In this sutta she asks the Buddha about the results of making gifts.
AN 5.32 Cundī, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Cundi asks the Buddha about trust in what teacher, what Dhamma, what Order, what practices in ethical conduct yield the best results.
AN 5.33 Uggaha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Uggaha invites the Buddha to a meal to instruct his daughters in the behavior that will profit them in this life and the life hereafter.
AN 5.34 Sīha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Siha the General asks the Buddha if there is any visible result of giving. He is given five examples.
AN 5.35 The Benefits of Giving, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five advantages to be gained as a result of giving.
AN 5.36 Timely, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five occasions when it is the right time to give.
AN 5.37 Food, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five benefits from giving food to a bhikkhu.
AN 5.38 Faith, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five advantages of faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha.
AN 5.39 Son, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five thoughts in the minds of those who wish for a son.
AN 5.40 Sal Trees, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Supported by a clan chief that has faith, a family grows in five ways.
AN 5.41 Utilization, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Wealth management for the Buddhist. Five steps to take to enjoy and protect one's wealth that leave one satisfied that one has done the best one could whether wealth increases or is lost.
AN 5.42 The Good Person, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
When a good person is born into a family it brings advancement, benefits and happiness to many people.
AN 5.43 Wished For, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha tells Anathapindika, that long life, beauty, happiness, honor and rebirth in heaven hereafter is not to be got by prayers or wishing — one must walk the walk-to-walk ('patipada') to get these things.

 


Manāpa-dāyī labhate manāpaɱ,||
Aggassa dātā labhate pun'aggaɱ,||
Varassa dātā vara-lābhi hoti,||
Seṭṭhaɱ dado seṭṭham upeti ṭhānaɱ.
|| ||

'The pleasing'-giver gains the pleasing,
'The best' a giver gains in turn the best,
'The desireable' a giver the desirable gain he gets,
'The treasured' a giver in treasured state arises.


 

AN 5.44 Wished For, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
A sutta about Ugga the Housefather of Vesali who is a giver of good things in a very gracious manner.
AN 5.45 Streams, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five gifts that when given to a bhikkhu who is able to attain unbounded serenity yield incalculably rich results.
AN 5.46 Accomplishments, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which are real achievements when brought to perfection.
AN 5.47 Wealth, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which should be considered treasures.
AN 5.48 Situations, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The distinction between the disciples of Gotama and the commoner in facing aging, sickness and death, passing away, and dissapearance.
AN 5.49 Kosala, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Helmuth Hecker and Sister Khema translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Pasenadi, king of Kosala is visiting the Buddha when he is told of the death of his chief Queen, Mallika. He is very upset and Gotama instructs him with the distinction between the disciples of Gotama and the commoner in facing aging, sickness and death, passing away, and dissapearance.
AN 5.50 Nārada, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Venerable Narada instructs rajah Munda with a sutta that draws the distinction between the disciples of Gotama and the commoner in facing aging, sickness and death, passing away, and dissapearance.
AN 5.51 Obstructions, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha likens a person mastered by wishing for sense pleasure, hate, lazy ways and inertia, fear and trembling, and doubt and vacillation (the Nivaranas — diversions) to a stream which has been diverted and no longer has it's original strength or free will. Then he likens a person who has mastered desire for sense pleasures, hatred, lazy ways and inertia, fear and trembling and doubt and vacillation to a stream whose diversions have been closed off and which has regained its strength and free will.
The Pali word to understand here is Nīvaraṇa: 'Diversion', not 'obstruction' or 'obstacle, or check. The psychology is completely different when dealing with an obsticle or obstruction or check than it is when dealing with a diversion. An obstacle, etc. stops one's forward motion until the obstacle is eliminated; a diversion weakens but does not arrest completely the forward motion. The simile is of a diversion, not of an obstruction. Words are very important. You must see yourself as if in a stream. The hippies said "Go with the flow". The Buddhist says: "Escape the flow". The Buddhist does not say: "Try to stop the flow," or "Try to stop flowing within the flow." The Buddhist idea of the stream is two-sided. On the one hand it symbolizes the flow of the world; on the other hand it symbolizes the flow of one who has latched on to the idea of escaping the worldly stream. First one must recognize the worldly stream and it's dangers, then one can understand the value of making the effort to escape. That is the meaning of Stream-entry. The ability to see that everything, including oneself is in constant motion, flow, and that one has taken a portion of that flow and identified with it and that if that identification is not broken, that flow will take one on endlessly against one's will. The stream flows into the river, the river into the ocean the ocean evaporates into the clouds and falls back to earth again as the rain which flows down the mountain into the stream. It is constantly ending and reviving. Lust is a diversion from the task of escaping identification with the flow. If one considers lust, etc. to be an obstruction to escape, it conduces to despair because it is felt that there is no progress at all in other areas as long as one has any lust remaining at all. And this is not the case. Progress is gradual. It is a progressive diminution of lust, etc. Progress, escape, liberation, freedom is pleasurable, enjoyable. Something that is desired once it is seen in even a small way. When lust, etc. is seen to slow down that progress, to divert one's energy from effort to enlarge that enjoyment, it is seen as something to be got rid of for the sake of that higher enjoyment.
AN 5.52 A Heap, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha declares the diversions as a constillation of the unskillful.
AN 5.53 Factors, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes five personal dimensions to making effort.
AN 5.54 Occasions, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes features of the seasonable and unseasonable time for making effort.
AN 5.55 Mother and Son, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
A mother and son bhikkhu and bhikkhuni engaging in incest is the occasion for a lecture on the dangers of womankind.
AN 5.56 Preceptor, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha instructs a bhikkhu who is suffering from sloth and torpor to guard the senses, be moderate in eating, live intent on wakefulness, and to cultivate day and night his understanding of the way.
AN 5.57 Themes, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha urges everyone interested in their own salvation to give contemplation to aging, being subject to sickness and death, changeability and separation from the things we love, and the idea that one's deeds return to one in kind. He further explains why it is important to think of these things and the way to think of these things that will bring about escape from them.

 


Five Contemplations

"Jarā-dhammo'mhi jaraɱ anatīto.|| ||

Vyādhi-dhammo'mhi vyādhiɱ anatīto.|| ||

Maraṇa-dhammo'mhi maraṇaɱ anatīto.|| ||

Sabbehi me piyehi manāpehi||
nānā-bhāvo,||
vinā-bhāvo.
|| ||

Kammassako'mhi,||
kamma-dāyādo,||
kamma-yoni,||
kamma-bandhu,||
kamma-paṭisaraṇo.
|| ||

Yaɱ kammaɱ karissāmi,||
kalyāṇaɱ vā pāpakaɱ vā,||
tassa dāyādo bhavissāmī".
|| ||

An aging thing am I aging not-conquered.

An unhealthy thing am I sickness not-conquered.

A dying thing am I death not-conquered.

All that is loved by me,
pleasing to me
becomes different,
becomes not so.

Truly, deed-made am I
deed-inheritor,
deed-inwombed,
deed-bound,
deed-refuged.

Of whatsoever deeds I do,
good or bad,
from such comes what I receive.

AN 5.57


 

AN 5.58 Licchavi Youths, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
A gang of young toughs out hunting come upon the Buddha and are inspired to pay reverence. An elder of their clan is astounded and remarks as to how they will become like a neighbouring clan of gentle manners. The Buddha then, within earshot of the youths, teaches him about the advantages of paying reverance to mother and father, wife and children, workers, gods and holy men.
AN 5.59 Gone Forth in Old Age (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha lists five attributes hard to find in a bhikkhu who has joined the order when old.
AN 5.60 Gone Forth in Old Age (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha lists five attributes hard to find in a bhikkhu who has joined the order when old.
A different set of five.
AN 5.61 Perceptions (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which if they can be well perceived are very helpful in attaining the deathless.
AN 5.62 Perceptions (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which if they can be well perceived are very helpful in attaining the deathless.
A variation of the previous.

 


Helpful Perceptions

Perception of transience,
perception of non-self,
perception of impurity,
perception of death,
perception of disadvantage,
perception of the disgusting nature of food,
perceiving nothing to delight in in all the world.

Saññā. Once knowing. Perception. Not, as per Hare, 'thought'. The idea is the perceiving of impurity, etc., not the thought of impurity, etc. It makes all the difference.


 

AN 5.63 Growth (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which if they are developed are very helpful to growth in the Buddhist system.
AN 5.64 Growth (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which if they are developed are very helpful to growth in the Buddhist system.
As the previous but addressed to women.
AN 5.303-1152 Lust and So Forth Repetition Series, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Not linked to the Pali or PTS translations as it is highly abridged and there are numbering issues. To locate specific sutta-groups, refer back to the index.

AN 8.1 Loving Kindness, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Eight benefits from undertaking the liberation of the heart through loving kindness.
AN 8.2 Wisdom, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Eight conditions to be developed which conduce to great wisdom and the respect of fellow seekers.
AN 8.3 Pleasing (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Eight conditions which prevent one from being liked and respected by one's fellow seekers and the converse which conduce to being liked and respected by them.
AN 8.4 Pleasing (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Eight conditions which prevent one from being liked and respected by one's fellow seekers and the converse which conduce to being liked and respected by them.
A different set of eight.
AN 8.5 World (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Eight broad categories into which all worldly activity can be classified and which, if thoroughly understood lead one to dispassion for the world.
AN 8.6 World (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Eight broad categories into which all worldly activity can be classified and which, if thoroughly understood lead one to dispassion for the world. In this sutta the distinction is made between the attitudes of the common man towards these eight conditions and the attitude towards them of the student of the Aristocrats.

 


The Eight Worldly Obsessions

Gain and loss
honor and dishonor
praise and blame
pleasure and pain


 

AN 8.7 World (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha gives eight things which should be periodically reviewed to insure one is on track. The fate of Devadatta is given as an example of how badly things can go wrong if one is neglegant in regard to these things.
AN 8.8 Uttara on Failing, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Venerable Uttara is teaching the bhikkhus that it is well from time to time to review one's own faults and from time to time to review the faults of others. This is overheard by Vesavana who reports the fact to Sakka, King of the Gods. Sakka visits Uttara and asks him if the saying was original with him and Uttara replies that whatsoever is well said is heard from the Buddha. Sakka then repeats to him the entire episode of it's original utterance by Gotama in AN 8.7. and commends him to remember it as an integral factor in the holy life.
AN 8.9 Nanda, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha praises the way Nananda, who is of a lustful nature, manages to live the spiritual life in purity by way of his practice of garding the senses, moderation in eating, wakefulness, and minding and self-awareness.
AN 8.10 Trash, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha gives three similes for the good reasons to eject a corrupt bhikkhu.
AN 8.11 Verañjā, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha explains why it is that he should be considered the eldest among gods and men.
AN 8.12 Sīha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The story of the conversion of Siha the General who was formerly a disciple of the Niganthas.
There is in this sutta an example of the precise nature of the rule concerning the eating of meat. The General has ordered that meat was to be obtained from an animal that was already butchered. This is comparable to purchasing meat on display in a supermarket today. There is no adverse kamma from either the purchase or the eating of such meat. There is also in this sutta the strange statement by the General that he would not kill a living being even for his life's sake. Perhaps he was retired.
AN 8.13 Thoroughbred, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha gives eight ways in which a thoroughbred horse and a worthy bhikkhu share similar traits.
AN 8.14 Wild Colts, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha gives eight ways in which excitable bhikkhus react like excitable horses when reproved.
AN 8.15 Stains, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha gives eight imperfections found in eight different things.
AN 8.16 Mission, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Four pairs of qualities which make a person worthy to carry messages.
AN 8.17-18 Mission, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Two suttas describing the tricks women and men use to ensnare each other.
AN 8.19 Pahārāda, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Gotama holds a conversation with an eminant Assura [Monster] and contrasts the eight things held to be delightful to them to eight things delightful to the bhikkhus.

 


In the same way as the ocean always and throughout tastes of salt,
so the Dhamma always and throughout tastes of freedom.

AN 8.19


 


The Great Beings
AKA
The Saŋgha

The Stream-Enterer
One practicing for Stream-Entry
The Once-Returner
One practicing for Once-Returning
The Non-Returner
One practicing for Non-Returning
The Arahant
One practicing for Arahantship

AN 8.19


 


The Core Dhammas

The Four Settings-up of Mind
The Four Consummate Efforts
The Four Paths to Supernormal Powers
The Five Forces
The Five Powers
The Seven Dimensions of Self-Awakening
The Aristocratic Eight-Dimensional High Way

AN 8.19


 

 


In this Dhamma and Discipline
penetration to final knowledge
occurs by gradual training,
gradual activity,
and gradual practice,
not abruptly.

AN 8.19 — Bhk. Bodhi, trans.


 

AN 8.20 Uposatha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The episode depicting the circumstances causing the Buddha to refrain thereafter from leading the bhikkhus in the recitation of the Patimokkha: the ejection of a deceitful bhikkhu by Maha Moggallana.
AN 8.21 Ugga (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Ugga of Vesali, a householder, described by the Buddha as having eight wonderful things about himself, tells a bhikkhu of those eight wonderful things.
AN 8.22 Ugga (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The lay follower, Ugga of Hatthigama, is spoken of as having eight wonders associated with him, one of which was that he was a Non-returner.
AN 8.23 Hatthaka (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
The lay follower Hatthaka of Alavi is spoken of as having seven wonders associated with him. Upon being told such he expresses concern as to whether laymen were present when it was said. Thereafter he is praised as haveing eight wonders associated with him, the eighth being modesty.
AN 8.24 Hatthaka (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
The lay follower Hatthaka of Alavi describes how he has managed to gather together a great following using the Buddha's four methods for creating alliances; the Buddha then praises Hatthaka as having eight wonders associated with him.
AN 8.25 Mahānāma, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Kumara Bhikkhu translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Mahanama the Sakyan inquires about the factors that go into the making of a good lay disciple.
AN 8.26 Jīvaka, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Jivaka Komarabhacca inquires about the factors that go into the making of a good lay disciple.
AN 8.27 Powers (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha points out the various tools of children, women, thieves, kings, fools, wise men, the learned, and the holy man.
AN 8.28 Powers (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation the M. Olds translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Sariputta lists the eight powers of one who has destroyed the corrupting influences (asavas) that enable him to know that he has destroyed the corrupting influences.
The first of these is seeing as it is that all things own-made (saŋkhārā-ed) are transitory. Bhk. Bodhi has translated saŋkhārā here as 'conditioned', which is a serious mistake. See the discussion "Is Nibbana Conditioned?" for an explanation of why this is a mistake.
AN 8.29 Inopportune Moments, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Eight times when one's rebirth is not best suited (timely) for leading the godly life.
AN 8.30 Anuruddha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
An elegant sutta describing the instructions given Anuruddha which lead to his becoming an arahant.
Also useful as an instruction as to how to attain the jhānas.

 

The Eight Thoughts of the Great Man

A thing[1] for those who are of small[2] wishes, this is,
not a thing for those of great wishes.

A thing for those who are contented, this is,
not a thing for those of discontentment.

A thing for those who are retiring, this is,
not a thing for those who take pleasure in community.

A thing for those who seize at energy, this is,
not a thing for those who are cozy.

A thing for those who are present-minded, this is,
not a thing for those who are absent-minded.

A thing for those who are serene, this is,
not a thing for those who are not serene.

A thing for the wise, this is,
not a thing for the stupid.

A thing for the undistracted, this is,
for one loving the undistracted,
not a thing for the distracted,
for one loving distractions.

AN 8.30

 


[1] Dhamma. 'Form' in accordance with the practice of this system.

[2] Not 'few' as per Bhk. Bodhi. Bhk. Thanissaro has the sense, but his 'modest' and 'self-aggrandizing' is an explanation, not a translation. Hare's translation is closer but all miss the fact that the meaning is defined later in the sutta when the Buddha gives as examples: A small wish is one which is focused on one's own attainments, a great wish is one which is focused on fame for such attainment.

 


 

Monday, April 25, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, March 28, 2016


 


"Times have changed from the times they used to be"

"Truly, now," said Michael Mail, clearing the corner of his throat in the manner of a man who meant to be convincing; "there's a friendly tie of some sort between music and eating." He lifted the cup to his mouth, and drank himself gradually backwards from a perpendicular position to a slanting one, during which time his looks performed a circuit from the wall opposite him to the ceiling overhead. Then clearing the other corner of his throat: "Once I was sitting in the little kitchen of the Three Choughs at Casterbridge, having a bit of dinner, and a brass band struck up in the street. Sich a beautiful band as that were! I was sitting eating fried liver and lights, I well can mind - ah, I was I and to save my life, I couldn't help chawing to the tune. Band played six-eight time; six-eight chaws I, willy-nilly. Band plays common; common time went my teeth among the fried liver and lights as true as a hair. Beautiful 'twere! Ah, I shall never forget that there band!"

— Old Michael Mail, in Under the Greenwood Tree by Thomas Hardy, 1872
pgs 33 & 70, Collins' Illustrated Pocket Classics,
London and Glasgow: Collins' Clear-Type Press,
Leather Gilt top. No date of publication.
To give another example of the use of 'mind' as 'remember'. So we justify using 'mind' as the translation throughout for 'sati', whether the intent is to be saying: 'the mind', 'remember', 'pay attention', or 'look after.' It makes no never-mind that this usage has fallen out of the common memory. We can recollect it. - 'lights' = lung - O.E.D.


 

new Thursday, April 14, 2016 8:14 AMIndex of Personalities: Mandhāta. A primeval king, ancestor of the Sakyans, who is declared by the Buddha (in AN 4.15) to be the all time top among enjoyers of sense-pleasures.

 

new Thursday, April 14, 2016 8:14 AMThera-Gāthā Psalms of the Early Buddhists, II. Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translations.
[THAG 24] Sugandha
[THAG 25] Nandiya
[THAG 26] Abhaya

 

new Wednesday, April 13, 2016 9:12 AMAŋguttara Nikāya
[AN 3.55] Nibbāna, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains the meaning of 'Seen in this life is Nibbana.
[AN 3.56] Nibbāna, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A wealthy brahmin has heard the story told by the ancients of a time when this world was densely populated and villages and towns and cities grew up right next to each other. He asks Gotama why it is that this is no longer the case and is told that it is because at this time the people are obsessed with lusts, depravities and wrong views resulting in a number of calamaties that depopulate the earth.
[AN 3.57] Vaccha, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha sets straight a rumor that he teaches that it is only to him and his followers that gifts should be given; that it is only gifts to him and his followers that are of great fruit.
[AN 3.58] Tikaṇṇa, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Tikanna, the brahman, visits the Buddha and sings the praises of the brahman 'three-fold lore'. Gotama responds describing the 'three-fold-lore' of the Aristocrats: seeing past lives, seeing the outcomes of kamma, and seeing that one has destroyed the corrupting influences.
[AN 3.59] Jāṇussoṇi, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Janussoni, the brahman, visits the Buddha and suggests that brahmins with the threefold knowledge should always be invited to sacrificial events. The Buddha asks him to describe what the brahmins call the threefold lore. Then Gotama responds describing the 'three-fold-lore' of the Aristocrats: seeing past lives, seeing the outcomes of kamma, and seeing that one has destroyed the corrupting influences.
[AN 3.60] Saŋgārava, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Sangarava approaches Gotama with the idea that those who perform sacrifices do more good for more people than those who leave the household life for the homeless state. Gotama then raises the case of a Buddha arising in the world, one who teaches multitudes, gods and men. There follows discussion of the merits of various magic powers.
Here we can see the origin of the Chinese Mahayana idea that attaining arahantship is selfish. Another interesting thing revealed here is the statement that even in the Buddhas own time his followers numbered in the hundreds of thousands.
There is also in this sutta an interesting description of four different methods of mind-reading.
Now: who sees why brahmin Sangarava got stuck on Ananda's question and how it was that he got un-stuck by the way the issue was approached by the Buddha?
[AN 3.61] Sectarian, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha lays out three positions concerning what is going on here which lead to making no effort to extract oneself from a bondage which entails pain and the endless continuation of pain in rebirth. He then explains his doctrine which does inspire activity towards ending pain and rebirth.
[AN 3.62] Perils, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the M. Olds translation.
Gotama speaks of three terrors of the common people and shows how their fears go too far; he follows that by speaking of three terrors not subject to remediation through wishes; and then he points the way to overcome terrors.
[AN 3.63] Venāga, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes how his seat on a pile of leaves at the root of a tree is celestial, sublime and Aristocratic.
[AN 3.64] Sarabha, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sarabha has quit the sangha believing he understands the Dhamma. He goes around boasting that it is because he understands the Dhamma that he rejects it. The bhikkhus ask the Buddha to set him straight, out of compassion, and he does so. After repeatedly giving Sarabha an opportunity to explain himself which he is unable to do, not even being able to respond at all, the Buddha departs through the air. Sarabha's friends have a great time at his expense as a result.
[AN 3.65] Sarabha, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the the Soma Thera translation.
The Kalamas, bewildred by contradictory claims as to whose Dhamma is the best, ask Gotama for his advice. He responds without praising his own doctrine or disparaging that of others by outlining criteria for judging for oneself whether or not some doctrine is beneficial or harmful.
[AN 3.163 or (wp): 183-352] Lust and So Forth Repetition Series, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, and the the M. Olds translation.
A wheel sutta memory exercise playing off Lust, hate, stupidity, anger, grudge-bearing, deception, ruthlessness, irritation, selfishness, illusion, treachery, stubbornness, quarrellousness, madness, conceit, intoxication and carelessness against higher knowledge, comprehensive knowledge, utter destruction, letting go, waining, putting down, eradication, disposal and rejection. The solution for each set is the development of the states of emptiness, signlessness and purposelessness.
Bhk. Bodhi following the Pali as found in CSCD has this as 170 suttas; the PTS (Pali and translation) has it as one sutta. This version could reasonably be broken into 17 suttas and even more likely considering the pattern followed later in the AN, into the 170 suttas of the CSCD and Bhk. Bodhi versions. However I have followed the PTS Pali. As an exercise it should certainly be one unit, however one sub-divides it.

[AN 4.1] Understood, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, and the the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Four reasons beings have been tied to the round of rebirths this long time.
[AN 4.2] Fallen, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the the F.L. Woodward translation,
Four factors that when missing indicate that one has fallen away from the path, when present that one is on the path: ethical conduct, serenity, wisdom, freedom.
[AN 4.3] Maimed (1), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the the F.L. Woodward translation,
Four types of action which amount to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and four types of action which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma.
[AN 4.4] Maimed (2), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the the F.L. Woodward translation,
Poor behavior towards four persons amounts to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which results in much bad kamma; while good behavior towards four persons does not uproot, does not spoil the self, surrounds one with purity, brings praise by the wise, and results in much good kamma.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 4.5] Along with the Stream, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes the commoner, the Streamwinner, the Non-returner and the Arahant in terms of their relationship to the stream or natural flow of life.
[AN 4.6] One of Little Learning, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Whether one's learning be great or small it profits not if one does not understand either the words or the point, does not follow the teachings within the Dhamma, but whether one's learning be great or small it profits well if one understands the words and the point and one follows the teaching within the Dhamma.
[AN 4.7] They Adorn, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four who are accomplished in wisdom, disciplined, confident, deeply learned, Dhamma-bearers, who live according to Dhamma, that illuminate the Order.
[AN 4.8] Self-Confidence, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Being able in mind to answer four charges of self-deception that could be made against him the Buddha is confident he is Awakened and teaches a doctrine that will lead those who follow it to the end of Pain.
[AN 4.9] Craving, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
If craving arises in a bhikkhu it arises from one or another of these four sources.
[AN 4.10] Bonds, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha explains the way that sense pleasures, existence, opinions and blindness are yokes to the constant round of rebirths.
[AN 4.11] Walking, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation,
Whether walking, or standing, or sitting, or lying down, a bhikkhu who does not wish to be known as a slacker, who does not wish to deprive himself of his opportunity for attaining the goal, should rid himself of lustful, deviant, or crule thoughts.
Woodward notes that the Pali word used for the title of this sutta, 'cara' means 'walking' but he is then forced to say that this includes all the postures. PED: "[from car, carati] 1. the act of going about, walking; one who walks or lives." We say 'carries on'. This is 'carriage' the manner in which one carries oneself ... whether walking, or standing still, or sitting or lying down ... or acting with mind and speech. The term has wide use and is worth remembering. It has come down even to us in our: 'carriage' (both the vehicle and the way one carries oneself) 'cart' 'car' 'carry'.
[AN 4.12] Virtuous Behavior, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation,
Whether walking, or standing, or sitting, or lying down, a bhikkhu who has trained himself in ethical practices has overcome the hinderances. Then, to become one known as energetic, careful and resolute, he must develop energy, establish his memory, calm his body and concentrate and tranquillize his mind.
[AN 4.13] Striving, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation,
An exposition in brief of the four consummate efforts.
[AN 4.14] Restraint, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation,
A detailed exposition of the four consummate efforts.
An important sutta: we do not get what is encompassed by the four consummate efforts described in detail very often.
Be careful to note Bhk. Bodhi's translation of vossagga as 'release' at the culmination of each of the seven dimensions of self-awakening. Do not confuse with either vimutti or vimokkha. 'Release' really doesn't work here. PED has: "Vossagga: relinquishing, relaxation; handing over, donation, gift". So the meaning is 'releasing the world', not 'attaining release.' "letting go" "giving up".
[AN 4.15] Proclamations, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha lists the Four major chiefs of beings in the world.
Both Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi translate the individuals in the list in this sutta as being spoken of in the present tense. This creates a small problem when it comes to Mandhata. In the Jataka story, Mandhata is identified with The Buddha. So from these two sources of information, as translated, we are told: Gotama is his own early ancestor. (Not a problem given the nature of rebirth.) Gotama was two of the pre-eminant beings he is describing. (Somewhat of a problem as they are incompatable, for this would be telling us that The Buddha (as Tathāgata) is one who possesses or enjoys sense-pleasures. when it is clearly stated in numerous places that one does not speak of the 'Tathāgata' in this way.) But if Gotama is not to be identified with Mandhata, how can Mandhata be being spoken of in the present tense as the mythical Mandhata is long dead?
Trying to resolve this problem if we conclude that the Jataka story, as a story of a previous life of the Buddha is a later invention, but that the story of Mandhata was likely one well known to at least the Sakyans, we are left thinking that the mention of Mandhata in the present tense in this sutta is hardly a useful example of what it means to be supreme in the enjoyment or possession of sense-pleasures as we know 1. that he is dead, and 2. we know nothing about his current location or experiences. Either we have here a case where the teaching of the Buddha is not well done, or that this is not a true sutta given by the Buddha, or we have to conclude that the Jataka story is a true story of one of the Buddha's former lives and that the point of using Mandhata as an example was to create this question in our minds and force us to see that Gotama and Mandhata were one and the same individuality and that this is a way for the Buddha to tell the bhikkhus that a Tathāgata enjoys sense-pleasures. (Just a little too twisted even in my view of Gotama's subtlety, and still amounting to a view rejected by the Buddha.) I suggest a different construction:
etad aggaɱ bhikkhave kāmabhogīnaɱ yad idaɱ rājā Mandhātā;
At the top, beggars, that is to say of sense-pleasure possessors/enjoyers: King Mandhata.
'At the top' meaning 'at the all-time top'.
[AN 4.16] Exquisiteness, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four 'exquisites.'
Careful reading will show that the three different translations will yield three different modes of practice. See the Introduction to my translation for details.
[AN 4.17] Wrong Courses (1), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four ways to not get there.
[AN 4.18] Wrong Courses (2), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four ways of getting there.
[AN 4.19] Wrong Courses (3), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four ways of not getting there and four ways of getting there.
Combines the previous two suttas.
[AN 4.20] Wrong Courses (3), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four ways the distributor of food in the Sangha goes wrong whereby he ends up in Hell and four ways that he does not go wrong and thereby ends up in Heaven.
[AN 4.21] Uruvelā (1), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Shortly after his enlightenment Gotama sees no person to whom he should pay reverance and serve. Seeing danger in this situation he decides to place the Dhamma in this position.
[AN 4.22] Uruvelā (2), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things more important than age that make a person an elder.
[AN 4.23] The World, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha declares his freedom from all things worldly and lists the attributes of the Tathagata.
[AN 4.24] Kāḷaka, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that his statement that he knows and understands whatsoever in the world, with its Maras, Brahmas, hosts of recluses and brahmins, devas and mankind, is seen, heard, sensed, cognized, attained, searched into, pondered over by the mind, is to be understood as a simple statement of fact and is not a brag and that because he does know these things, to say otherwise would be a lie.
[AN 4.25] The Spiritual Life, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Brahmacariya or Holy Life is lived for the sake of finding the self-control, letting-go, detachment, and bringing to a conclusion to the problem of pain in existence not for the worldly advantages of fame, gains and favors.
[AN 4.26] Deceivers, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha states that pretend bhikkhus, stubborn persons, gosips, crafty and undisciplined individuals are not followers of what he has taught and have no chance to gain, grow, or prosper in this system, but those whose interest is genuine, who are open-minded, wise, flexible, not gosips, who exercise self-control are followers of what he has taught and will gain, grow, and prosper in this system.
[AN 4.27] Contentment, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha praises contentment with basics of clothing, food, shelter and medicine that are worthless, easy to obtain, and blameless.
[AN 4.28] Noble Lineages, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Gotama speaks of the four ancient practices of the lineage of the Ariyan, a warrior, holy man, ordinary man, shaman, powerful person, and king all wrapped up in the seeker after the solution to the problem of pain in existence.
[AN 4.29] Dhamma Factors, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four paths of good form that are ancient, long standing, traditional, primeval, pure and unadulterated, unconfused, respected by the wise.
[AN 4.30] Wanderers, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha visits a Wanderer's park and teaches the four paths of good form that are ancient, long standing, traditional, primeval, pure and unadulterated, unconfused, respected by the wise, and he adds emphasis by showing that disparaging these four subjects one to ridicule.

 

new Saturday, April 09, 2016 7:43 AM Book Review: Uncle Tom's Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe
A very moving story. So powerful that it is considered to have been one of the contributing causes of the U.S. Civil War. It is, in story form, a thorough examination (almost mathematically elegant) of the evils of the institution of slavery. The review shows how this story is relevant today to the Buddhist.

new Thursday, March 31, 2016 7:41 AM Book Review: Remembrance of Things Past, The definitive French Pleiade edition translated by C.K. Scott Moncrieff and Terrence Kilmartin, with Volume III, Part 7: Time Regained, translated by Andreas Mayor
A classic of French literature that deals with an individual's experience of 'Temporary Release' without the knowledge of Buddhist theory.

 

new Tuesday, March 29, 2016 9:03 AMMajjhima Nikāya
[MN.57] Kukkuravatika-Suttaɱ, Of Emulating Dogs, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Two ascetics, one who's asceticism was to practice the behavior of a dog, the other who's asceticism was to practice the behavior of an ox question the Buddha as to the outcomes of their practices.
[MN.58] Abhaya-Rājakumāra-Suttaɱ, Of Choosing One's Words, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Explaining to Prince Abhaya how it might come to happen that the Buddha says something to someone that upsets them greatly, he outlines the various ways in which an awakened one approaches taking opportunity to speak.
[MN.59] Bahu-vedanīya-Suttaɱ, Pleasant and Unpleasant, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Nyanaponika Thera translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha speaks of seven ways he classifies experience (vedana); and ten ways he classifies happiness the last of which is not to be found classed within experience.
[MN.60] Apaṇṇaka-Suttaɱ, The Sound Doctrine, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains a logical way to behave when faced with uncertainty as to what one should believe.
[MN.61] Ambalaṭṭhikā-Rāhulovāda-Suttaɱ, Against Lying, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha teaches his son the importance of refraining from intentional false speech and the need for reflection prior to, during, and after doing deeds of body, speech, and mind.
[MN.62] Mahā-Rāhulovāda-Suttaɱ, Breathing Exercises, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha teaches his son how to develop minding the breathing.
A Satipatthana Sutta of a different sort.
[MN.63] Cūḷa Māluŋkya-Suttaɱ, Of the Irrelevant, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the Warren translation, the Thomas translation, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Malunkyaputta, dissatisfied that the Buddha has not answered a number of questions concerning existence and non-existence confronts Gotama who explains to him that these questions are not expounded upon because they are not relevant to the goal of ending suffering. This sutta contains the famous simile of the man who refuses to accept medical treatment for an arrow wound until he knows all about the arrow, the shooter, etc.
[MN.64] Mahā Māluŋkya-Suttaɱ, Of Bursting Bonds Asunder, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A detailed discussion of the five fetters to lower rebirths and the practice by way of which these five fetters are eliminated so as to result in non-returning.
This sutta is incomprehensable in any of the translations we have. See the discussion: 'The Five Fetters to the Lower Rebirths' for an analysis of why this is the case. In brief: The Buddha objects to Malunkayaputta's statement that he has taught that x,y, and z are yokes to rebirth because what he has taught is that it is obsession with x,y, and z that is the yoke, not the x,y, and z itself.
In the second part of this sutta the Buddha describes five paths to either arahantship or by the abandoning of the five yokes to rebirth (remember: obsession with views of own-body, etc.,), non-returning: the first burning-knowledge (jhāna), the second, the third, the fourth, the realm of limitless space, the realm of limitless consciousness and the realm of nothing's-to-be-had, each, if accompanied by the perception that the khandhas are painful and not-self, and if one turns his mind from those things and dwells in stead on the deathless thinking:

'Etaɱ santaɱ||
etaɱ paṇītaɱ||
yad idaɱ||
sabba-saŋkhāra-samatho||
sabb'ūpadhi-paṭinissaggo||
taṇhakkhayo||
virāgo||
nirodho||
nibbānan' ti.|| ||

'This is the real,
this is the ultimate,
that is
the calming of all own-making,
the ejection of all fuel,
the destruction of thirsts,
dispassion
ending,
Nibbāna.'

(In the abridged Chalmers and Bhk. Bodhi translations it is easy to read this as being one path, but it is five discrete paths — for a clearer picture of what is being said read the fully expanded Horner translation.)

Then, at this point Ānanda asks: "This being the Way, this being the walk to walk to the abandoning of the yokes to rebirth, how is it that some persons are heart-freed (ceto-vimutti) and some are wisdom-freed (paññā-vimutti)?"

Ānanda's question arises from the fact that each path terminates in the same insight and thought (as above); and that being the case, how is it possible that it could result in two sorts of freedom.

The Buddha's response is that this is a result of differences in forces (indriya-vemattata).

Ms. Horner quotes commentary as follows (Bhk. Bodhi paraphrases in a footnote): [I have inserted the underlying pali in square brackets; Bhk. Bodhi's translation in parenthesis:]

MA. iii. 147-8; If when a monk goes after calm [samatha = samādhi] (Bhk. Bodhi: serenity), one-pointedness of mind [cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ](B.B.: unification of mind) is to the forefront - this monk is called freed in mind [ceto-vimutti](BB: deliverance of mind); but if wisdom [paññā] is to the forefront - such a monk is called freed through wisdom [paññā-vimutti]. When one goes after insight [vipassana], if wisdom is to the forefront, such a monk is called freed through wisdom; if his one-pointedness of mind is to the forefront, he is called freed in mind. The two chief disciples attained arahantship with calm and insight to the forefront; Sāriputta was freed through wisdom and Moggallāna was freed in mind.

I say that what all this is saying is that of the multiple Ways and Walks to Walk to the one end result, there are two prominant interdependent modes of approach: by way of calm and serenity (samatha and samādhi) and by way of insight (vipassana). Both are necessary but emphasis is placed on one or another of these forces by different personality types.

Within each of the two modes there are two further sub-forces (really just echos of their opposite number) at work: intent to gain focus (or whole-hearted single-mindedness or to become 'centered')(cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ)(which is really just another term for samādhi); and intent to gain wisdom (paññā)(which is really just another way of speaking about vipassana).

'Heart' or 'Whole-hearted single mindedness' here is single-minded focus on the attaining of liberation without necessarily understanding the various mechanisms by which that liberation is attained (you must, at least, have knowledge of the meaning of freedom in the Buddha's Dhamma). You sit down to get freedom and you know if you are free and you know if you are not free and you intend to get free period. Intent on wisdom is the intent to attain freedom through the understanding of each step of the way. Wisdom is the ability to use that understanding both to advance the self and advance others of similar inclination. Some persons are more inclined one way others the other way, some both ways.

These are (back to describing what the commentary is saying) the different forces that in different combinations result in either heart-freedom or wisdom-freedom or freedom-both-ways.

1. samatha and samādhi --> cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ --> ceto-vimutti;
2. samatha and samādhi --> paññā --> paññā-vimutti
3. vipassana --> cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ --> ceto-vimutti;
4. vipassana --> paññā --> paññā-vimutti

I question the need to introduce samatha and vipassana except as a means of staking out territory. Vipassana is not listed among the forces (indriana;) samādhi and paññā are. If one understood that cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ could be classed as equivalent to samādhi = samatha (see MN 44) and paññā as vipassana we could have checked the list and not have had the complication of information not provided by the Buddha in the sutta. As explanation it could all have been said by saying that if in your approach to awakening you emphasize the direct attaining of freedom of heart through samādhi, you will end up heart-freed; if you emphasize the acquisition of wisdom through insight you will end up wisdom-freed, if you balance both or follow one with the other, you end up freed-both-ways.

It is interesting to note how the Chalmers translation (here and elsewhere) shows us the powerful influence of first translations on those that follow.

[MN.65] Bhaddāli Suttaɱ, Of Obedience, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A sutta describing the laying down of the rule about not eating at improper times and of one bhikkhu's rebellion against this rule. Contains an explanation of why there are so many rules and so few who attain the goal when at an earlier time there were few rules and many attained the goal. Also contains the simile of the thoroughbred steed.
[MN.66] Laṭukikopama Suttaɱ, The Parable of the Quail, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha shows how letting go of the pleasure of eating at wrong times sets the pattern for letting go of each step of the way from pleasures of the senses through each of the jhanas to the ending of perceiving experience.
[MN.67] Cātumā Suttaɱ, Of Land Sharks, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha instructs a number of bhikkhus about the various pitfalls facing the bhikkhu. He provides four similes: one for anger, one for gluttony, one for the five cords of sense pleasures and one for sexual lust.

 


Bhagavam-mūlakā no bhante dhammā||
Bhagavan-nettikā||
Bhagavam-paṭisaraṇā.
|| ||

We-uns* things, bhante, are Lucky-man-rooted,
Lucky-man-channeled,
Lucky-man-housed.

*We-uns = We ones. 'Our'; U.S. dialect. Sometimes "We's"


 

[MN.68] Naḷakapāna Suttaɱ, The Stimulus of Example, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains the importance of having joyous entheusiasm in the pursuit of the goal and explains that it is in the service of this that he occasionally relates the rebirth of some bhikkhu or bhikkhuni or layman or laywoman.
[MN.69] Gulissāni Suttaɱ, Of Rusticity, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Sariputta delivers a discourse on the proper training for one who lives alone in the forest.
[MN.70] Gulissāni Suttaɱ, Of Rusticity, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Two bhikkhus are taken to task for disparaging the rule about eating at impropper times. Includes a description of Seven sorts of Persons pointing out which have nothing more to do and which have something more to do.

 

Seven Persons

The Both-ways freed
The Wisdom-freed
The Body-knower,
The View-secured,
The Faith-freed,
The Dhamma-follower,
The Faith-follower.

'Freed' in this set means not necessarily that such a one is freed, but that such a one is working at being freed in this way. It might be better to understand this in the sense of 'freed or partially freed'.

The Both-ways freed: One who has attained arahantship by having both attained in body The Eight Releases [see below 'releases'] and who has also seen with wisdom that he has destroyed the Corrupting Influences [Āsavas].

This individual has nothing more to do in that he has secured unshakable freedom.

The Wisdom-freed: One who has attained arahantship only having seen with wisdom that he has destroyed the Corrupting Influences [Āsavas].

This individual has nothing more to do in that he has secured unshakable freedom.

The distinction here is between freedom attained through experience of having trained with the body — the individual who sits down to attain freedom without necessarily understanding the details for attaining such, so that it is said that 'his body knows' — and freedom attained by having destroyed the corrupting influences by way of insight gained working through knowledge and seeing things as they really are. Today [Sunday, April 24, 2016 6:39 AM] modern science recognizes something called "muscle-memory". Having performed an action enough times it becomes such as can be performed almost without use of conscious thought. If this is not the same thing it is closely related.

Body-knower [aka: witness; Ms. Horner 'mental realizer' (which translation is inexplicable)] One who has attained temporary release through experience of having attained in body The Eight Releases, but who has not yet completely destroyed the Corrupting Influences.

This individual has more to do in that he has not yet secured unshakable freedom.

The View-secured: One who is essentially on the same path as the Wisdom-freed, but whose wisdom has got only as far as a comprehension of The Four Truths and who has by this much partly destroyed the Corrupting Influences.

This individual has more to do in that he has not yet secured unshakable freedom.

The Faith-freed: One who has faith that the Buddha was an Arahant, a fully self-awakened one, one who got what was to be got, a seer of this world and the worlds beyond, who understood the way to the End of Pain and whose teaching of that way was consummately done, and who also by this faith has partly destroyed the Corrupting Influences.

This individual has more to do in that he has not yet secured unshakable freedom.

Dhamma-follower: One who is able to see that the Corrupting Influences are not destroyed in him; in whose wisdom there is moderate approval of the Buddha's Dhamma; and in whom there are the forces of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom.

This individual has more to do in that he has not yet secured unshakable freedom.

Faith-follwer: One who is able to see that the Corrupting Influences are not destroyed in him; but who has sufficient faith and respect for the Buddha; and in whom there are the forces of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom.

This individual has more to do in that he has not yet secured unshakable freedom.

 

[MN.71] Tevijja-Vacchagotta Suttaɱ, The True Three-Fold Lore, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains to Vacchagotta the difference between claiming to be all-knowing and all-seeing at all times and claiming to be possessed of the three-visions: the ability to see past lives, the ability to see the relationship of rebirth to deeds, and the knowledge that one is free from corrupting influences.
[MN.72] Aggi-Vacchagotta Suttaɱ, On Fuel, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Warren translation, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha converts Vacchagotta by an explanation of why speculative views do not apply to the attaining of the ending of pain.
[MN.73] Mahā-Vacchagotta Suttaɱ, The Meed of Service, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Vacchagotta is given a lesson in brief concerning what is skillful and what is not skillful and becomes a bhikkhu. Having mastered what is necessary as a foundation he is told to master calm and insight in order to attain magic powers, recollection of past lives, knowledge of the outcome of deeds, and the destruction of the Asavas. He masters all this and becomes an Arahant.
[MN.74] Dīghanakha Suttaɱ, Consistency in Outlook, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Dighanakha is given an instruction in the abandoning of points of view, then in detachment from body, and sensation.
A very early sutta. It is by listening to this sutta that Sariputta becomes arahant. Dighanakha becomes a Streamwinner.

 

Evaɱ vimutta-citto bhikkhu||
na kenaci saŋvadati,||
na kenaci vivadati,||
yañ ca loke vuttaɱ tena voharati aparāmasan.
|| ||

Thus heart-freed, a beggar
does not comply with anyone
does not reply to anyone
and whatever is expressed in worldly terms is not siezed at.

This statement is made as a sort of summary to the discourse at [MN 74] where Dighanaka makes a statement of a point of view and hearing Gotama's response thinks that the Buddha has agreed with him.

The issues raised come up now and again. The Arahant does not agree with points of view that are expressed, nor does he negate them. This is expressed in other cases as 'neither collaborating with nor rebelling against'. He does not 'confront' in debate or in any other form of behavior. He sees things as they are, without intervening 'interpretation' and so when himself confronted by the expression of a viewpoint he does not respond directly, but responds with a statement of what he actually sees. And the corollary (in response to the challenge that by using terms such as "I" and "mine" in common speech he (the arahant) is expressing a point of view): In ordinary speech the Arahant uses the words 'I', 'My' etc., without attaching any idea of ownership.

I have translated saŋvadati and vivadati (literally: co-say and re-say or un-say; agree (say along with) and retort or refute; Ms. Horner: 'concur' and 'dispute'; Nanamoli/Bodhi/Thanissaro: side-with and dispute;) reaching into the obscure and contorted: O.E.D.: Comply. 3.: To be complaisant with, make oneself agreeable to (persons) in conduct or action, to accommodate oneself to the desires or wishes of; the notion of politness often passing to that of obsequiousness or servility;
Reply. 4b: To retort upon one.
He does not contort (ply) himself to agree; he does not try to bend (ply) the other when he disagrees.

See: SN 3.22.94
SN 1.1.14

 

[MN.75] Māgandiya Suttaɱ, Of Keeping Watch and Ward, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., the M. Olds translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Wanderer Magandiya is raised from a view based on faith that health is the greatest good and that this is Nibbana to an understanding of the satisfactions, the dangers and he escape from pleasures of the senses.
[MN.76] Samdaka Suttaɱ, Of False Guides, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Sandaka, a wandering ascetic, asks Ananda a series of questions and is so impressed by his answers that he joins the Order. The questions and answers range from discussion of the problems with the prevailing doctrines to a complete course in the Buddha's Dhamma from the bottom up.

This concludes the uploading of Sacred Books of the Buddhists, Chalmers, Further Dialogues of the Buddha, Volume I. I do not have and have not yet found a copy of Volume II that I could scan, so this series must remain incomplete for the time being.

 


Monday, March 28, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, February 29, 2016


 

On Style: After having thoroughly purged almost all the translations of their references to Pali pages, I have seen the value of these references and will begin to restore them as I go along. They will have the following appearance: [348] and will be links to the PTS Pali Text Page number as located on this site's BJT/PTS hybrid Pali Text. These links can themselves be linked to by appending "#pt000" (without the quotation marks; zeros do not precede single or double digit numbers) to the url.
Along these same lines, I can see at some point a future generation editor adding/restoring the alternative readings and the page numbers of other versions of the Pali. At this point, for the following reasons, I have not included/kept these items: 1. Alternate readings are 99% irrelevant to the understanding of the doctrine (occasionally they are significant, but on these occasions they will almost certainly have been noted in footnotes); 2. are needlessly confusing; 3. would take more time than seems reasonable to me considering their utility; 4. page numbers to Pali texts that are not readily available are a time consuming luxory.
While we're at it, let's add to this list the insertion of the various corrections found in errata sheets, footnotes, and on errata pages at the end of some of the books.

 

new Friday, March 04, 2016 8:21 AMThera-Gāthā Psalms of the Early Buddhists, II. Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translations.
[THAG 169] Sandhita
[THAG 170] Angaṇika-Bhāradvāja
[THAG 171] Paccaya
[THAG 241] Sīlavat
[THAG 242] Sunīta
[THAG 263] Moggallāna the Great
[THAG 264] Vaŋgīsa
[THAG 15] Kuṇḍa-Dhāna
[THAG Envoi] Envoi

 

new Monday, February 29, 2016 4:06 AMMajjhima Nikāya
[MN.36] Mahā Saccaka-Sutta, Saccaka Again, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha teaches Saccaka about training the body and training the heart.
In this sutta we once again come upon Gotama's description of his extreme austerities in his attempt to attain Awakening, his subsequent rejection of such practices, and his recollection of an insident in his youth that pointed to a successful practice.
Sitting there he finds himself in a very peaceful state of mind which he describes in a formula that later becomes know as 'the First Jhāna' — 'knowing'; it is a point at which two things are seen with absolute clarity: 1. it is got by letting go of (separating from) lesser states; and 2. it is a higher form of happiness than sense pleasure; that is at this point one knows for certain one is on the right track.

Separated from Sensuaity,
Separated from Unskillful things,
With Thinking and With Pondering
with the Pleasureable-Enthusiasm born of Separation,
One enters and abides in the First Knowing.

Here we have, side-by-side, both the formula and an illuminating image of this entry point to the attaining of Awakening.

At ease sitting at the root of the rose-apple tree, the young prince is seen just prior to his entry into puberty (separated from sensuality). He is separated from his father and the commencement of the ceremony (separated from unskillful things), yet is observant of the situation. What you need to know is that the Plowing Ceremony is a 'rite of spring', a 'fertility rite', a ceremony that would introduce a youth to sensual pleasures.

[MN.37] Cūḷa-Taṇhā-Saŋkhaya-Sutta, Deliverance from Cravings, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A well-known and much loved sutta. Sakka, Ruler of the Devas, visits the Buddha and asks about the scope of understanding required of one to be able to know he is arahant. The Buddha instructs him, but Maha Moggallana, who was listening, doubts it has sunk in and visits Sakka in the Tavatimsa Realm. There he is put off with frivolities and in order to rouse Sakka to seriousness Maha Moggallana shakes Sakka's palace with his big toe. With his hair standing on end, Sakka gets down to business.
[MN.38] Mahā-Taṇhā-Saŋkhaya-Sutta, Consciousness A Process Only, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The well-known sutta in which the Buddha explains the idea that consciousness is a conditioned phenomena and is not the self that transmigrates from one birth to the next.
This is a very important sutta to understand clearly. (The Chalmers translation is too abridged to be of much help, see the other translations for a better perspective.)
All consciousness is a result of the coming together of conditions.
There are various sorts of consciousness depending on the conditions which give rise to it.
Consciousness is not a self that transmigrates from one existence to the next.
The subjective aparent continuity of individuality from moment to moment and life to life is a matter of illusion. A case of mistaken identity: Identification with conscousness assumed to be the continuation of an identification with consciousness that performed deeds with the intent of creating this consciousness.
After determining that it is individualized consciousness (among the various sorts of consciousness) that Sati believes transmigrates from birth to birth, the Buddha deals with that form of consciousness from the point of view of the factors on which it is dependent and the mechanism of rebirth itself. The mechanics of the arising of consciousnes in ordinary rebirth must be understood before it can be seen how there arises a second sort of consciousness that is not dependent on individualized existence.
There are then two general categories of consciousness: Consciousness conditioned by things of Time; and consciousness conditioned by things not of Time.
Consciousness conditioned by things of time (the six senses) is a thing of time and comes to an end.
This is the consciousness of the ordinary individual.
When consciousness is conditioned by consciousness of freedom from things of time, it is consciousness conditioned by things not of time.
That consciousness, though it is conditioned, has not been own-made, identified-with, and is not an 'existing thing' but is only a consciousness of not being a thing, is not identified-with as "I" or "mine", and because not dependent on something that comes to an end, does not itself come to an end and is the goal of this system.
Again: Consciousness arises dependedent on conditions.
If the conditions present are consciousness of freedom from things of Time, the resulting consciousness is consciousness of consciousness of things not of Time. It has arisen as a result of conditons, not as a result of the willing of an individual (i.e., own-making, or sankharaming.) Consciousness, freed from things of time, is unlimited, not bound to Time, deathless... Nirvana: Out of the Woods; Nibbana, unbound.
Returning to the sutta: An individual who sees consciousness like this does not speculate about the past, future or present nature of a self. He may have vision of past lives, but he also sees that none of them were the self of him. He knows of the future that there is no thing which will be identified with as the self. He knows of the present that there is no thing there that is the self. This is a simpler way of seeing things than the divisions that are created by the assumption of individuality and consequently he is not confused about things of the past, future or present. Things come to be as a consequence of conditions (kamma); without conditions they do not come to be; on the ending of the conditions that brought them about, they cease to be. For all things. Not just "me" or "them".
If you can see how ordinary rebirth-consciousness arises as a consequence of conditions, you can then see how with different conditions (consciousness of consciousness of things not of Time) a different sort of consciousness can arise and you can direct 'mind' to that second sort of consciousness which, unending, deathless, and free from time is clearly superior.
[MN.39] Mahā-Assapura-Sutta, The Ideal Recluse, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha gives the bhikkhus a full curiculum for the realization of Nibbana.
[MN.40] Cūḷa-Assapura-Sutta, The Recluse's Regimen, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains the unreasonableness of such superficial practices as the wearing of robes, going naked, living in filth, ceremonial bathing, living at the root of a tree, eating according to a set regimin, chanting, or wearing matted hair in the hope of ridding one's self of malevolence, wrath, grudge-bearing, hypocracy, spite, jealousy, stingyness, treachery, craftyness, evil desires and wrong views. Then he explains the manner in which practicing friendliness, sympathy, empathy and detachment rids one of those bad characteristics and leads on to attaining arahantship.
[MN.41] Sāleyyaka-Sutta, Our Weird, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera translation, the the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains to the people of Sala how it is that some end up being reborn in Hell and other bad states while others end up being reborn in Heavens and other good states.
On Chalmers' title: Weird = fate, destiny. Hence to a person able to see and alter events in the future; wizzard, > wierd'o = wizzard of.

 


The Wierd'O Oz Nose

When the Wierd-o tells you
He talks with God
You laugh
And think him mad.
But God knows
The Wierd-o knows
When he laughs
And tells you he talks with God
That God knows who's God
And who is
And who is not Mad


 

[MN.42] Sāleyyaka-Sutta, Our Weird, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains to the people of Veranja how it is that some end up being reborn in Hell and other bad states while others end up being reborn in Heavens and other good states.
Identical with the previous with only a change of location and audience.
[MN.43] Mahā Vedalla-Sutta, The Long Miscellany, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., the Sister Upalavanna translation and an outline and analysis by M. Olds.
A very important sutta!
For the sake of teaching the bhikkhus gathered round, Sariputta and Maha Kotthita engage in a question and answer discussion that goes into subtle points of Dhamma.
[MN.44] Cūḷa Vedalla-Sutta, The Short Miscellany, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Warren translation (fragment), the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The lay follower Visakha asks his former wife, the nun Dhammadinna a series of questions concerning Dhamma and receives answers approved of later by the Buddha.

 

Subjective existence, what is considered the individuality (sakkāya), is that which is identified with and made up from the five support piles pañca upādānakkhandhā.

The five support piles:

The form support pile (rūp'upādānakkhandhā);
the sensation support pile(vedan'upādānakkhandhā);
the perception support pile(saññ'upādānakkhandhā);
the own-making support pile(saŋkhār'upādānakkhandhā); and
the consciousness support pile(viññāṇ'upādānakkhandhā).

The arising of individuality is a consequence of thirst (taṇhā) —
thirst for this and that,
thirst for sensual pleasure,
thirst for existence,
thirst for increased existence,
accompanied by delight,
results in attachment
that leads on to rebirth.

To bring about the end of individuality,
end the thirst.

The walk to walk to bring about the end of thirst is:

High Working Hypothesis,
High Principles,
High Talk,
High Works,
High Lifestyle,
High Self-control,
High Mind,
High Serenity,
High Vision, and
High Detachment.
(see: The Method for details.)

That which is support for individuaity arises from the five support piles and
there is no support for individuality apart from the five support piles.

The five support piles are not the support itself,
but the support does not exist without the five support piles; it is the wanting and lust arising from the five support piles that is the support for individuality.

The idea of individuality arises as a consequence of seeing beyond what is self-seen holding the views:

Shape is the self
the self has shape,
shape is in the self,
self is in shape.

Sensation is the self
the self has sensation,
sensation is in the self,
self is in sensation.

Perception is the self
the self has perception,
perception is in the self,
perception is in shape.

The own-made is the self
the self has the own-made,
the own-made is in the self,
self is in the own-made.

Consciousness is the self
the self has consciousness,
consciousness is in the self,
self is in consciousness.

The idea of individuality is got rid of by:

Not regarding shape as the self
or the self as having shape,
or shape as in the self,
or self as in shape.

Not seeing sensation as the self
or the self as having sensation,
or sensation as in the self,
or self as in sensation.

Not seeing perception as the self
or the self as having perception,
or perception as in the self,
or perception as in shape.

Not seeing the own-made as the self
or the self as having the own-made,
or the own-made as in the self,
or self as in the own-made.

Not seeing consciousness as the self
or the self as having consciousness,
or consciousness as in the self,
or self as in consciousness.

The Aristocratic Multi-Dimensional High Way, that is, High Working Hypothesis, High Principles, High Talk, High Works, High Lifestyle,
High Self-control, High Mind, High Serenity, High Vision, and High Detachment,
is own-made or constructed,
not not own-made.

There are three own-makings (saŋkhāra):

Own-made body;
own-made speech;
own-made heart (willing, intention).

The broadest generalized way of speaking of the own-made body is to call it respiration;
respiration is bodily, and
the body is tied up in respiration.
(This definition accommodates other forms of body than are generally familiar, such as those who have multiple shapes but a single mind.)

Own-made speech is essntially thinking and pondering;
first one thinks and ponders,
then one utters speech.

The own-made locus of focus is essentially perceiving and experiencing the senses
perceiving and experiencing the senses are the heart of the matter (are central to),
and the heart is tied up in perceiving and experiencing.

Serenity (samādhi = 'even-over'; here is where the term 'equanimity' even-mindedness, imperturbability should be being used as opposed to using it for upekkha, detachment) is the state of having become whole-heartedly single-minded (cittassa ekaggatā). This definition encompases the entire practice, from undertaking generosity to the attainment of the ending of perception of sense-experience.

The signs of serenity are having set up
minding the body,
minding sense experience,
minding states of the heart,
minding Dhamma.

The pre-requisites for serenity are the four consummate efforts:

The effort to get rid of unskillful states that have arisen;
the effort to keep off unskillful states that have not yet arisen;
the effort to aquire skillful states that have not yet arisen; and,
the effort to preserve skillful states that have arisen.

This is the way Serenity is said to be being cultivated.

The culmination of Serenity is the knowledge and wisdom attained in the freedom of deliverance from things of Time. Serenity being a state of mind of an individual, beyond that, the freedom of deliverance from things not of time is not counted as serenity.

Here first own-making of body ceases first,
then own-making of speech,
then own-making of heart (perception and experience of sense).

This state is reached by way of conditioning the mind, not by the intent to attain. There is in attaining this state no thought "I am attaining".

The difference between this state and the state of a dead body is that there is here the remaining lifespan to be lived out and there is caloric energy.

In re-entering serenity from the point where there is the freedom of delivery from where perception of sense experience ends, one enters signlessness, aimlessness, and emptiness, where here signs are signs of lust, anger and blindness; aims are towards things involving lust, anger, and blindness; and emptiness is a state empty of lust, anger, and blindness.

Here first own-making of heart (perception and experience of sense) is revived,
then own-making of speech,
then own-making of body.

 

[MN.45] Cūḷa Dhamma-Samādāna-Sutta, On Living Up to Professions (1), the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Four modes of practicing Dhamma: Pleasureable in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with pleasurable consequences; and pleasurable in the present with pleasurable consequences.
[MN.46] Mahā Dhamma-Samādāna-Sutta, On Living Up to Professions (2), the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Four modes of practicing Dhamma: Pleasureable in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with pleasurable consequences; and pleasurable in the present with pleasurable consequences.
The same theme as the previous sutta, but differently expanded.
[MN.47] Vīmaɱsaka-Sutta, Study of the Truth-Finder, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., the M. Olds translation [excerpt] and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha goes into detail concerning how one should examine one who claims to have attained the goal.
[MN.48] Kosambiya-Sutta, Amity and Its Root, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the M. Olds translation (outline) and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains how to think to achieve Stream-entry and then describes seven fruits of Stream-entry.
[MN.49] Brahmā Nimantanika-Sutta, Brahmā's Appeal, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha visits Baka Brahma who has come to the belief that he is immortal. The Buddha disabuses him of this idea and demonstrates his authority with an act of psychic power.
As I have said elsewhere, I believe what is intended by the word 'Nimantanika' 'Inviting' is in this case the equivalant of our 'Bring it on!' or the 'Invitation Hand' of Wu Dan kung-fu indicating that the opponent should commense if he is going to fight.
[MN.50] Māra Tajjaniya-Sutta, The Rebuke to Māra, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Mara tries to upset Maha Moggallana and is told of Maha Moggallana's own experience as Mara attempting to upset bhikkhus where he ends up in Niraya with the body of a man and the head of a fish boiling for many hundreds of thousands of years. The gatha at the end is about as close to an old-time curse as is found in Buddhism. (But note that Moggallana clearly shows how this is not a curse, that he holds no ill-will, and that it is strictly this Mara's own deed that will bring about the dread consequences. In fact what we may be seeing here is the way the curse originated, that is as a simple statement of what a real seer sees as the consequences to someone of what they have done. Only later to be transformed into a wish.)
[MN.51] Kandaraka-Sutta, Against Asceticism, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha, from a brief discussion of the four types of individuals found in the world, when asked to elaborate expounds on the habits of those intent on harmful ascetic practices, those who follow a bloody calling, those who torment both themselves and others, and those who neither torment themselves nor torment others. By way of the last group he teaches a detailed course of progress from layman to the benefits of Arahantship.
[MN.52] Aṭṭhaka-Nāgara-Sutta, The Portals of Nirvana, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
In this sutta Ananda explains to a householder how Arahantship can be attained via any single one of eleven different avenues. It is important to note that here is an unequivocal statement that it is possible to attain Arahantship directly from the First Jhana. I stress this point to the readers here not to make out that it is any easy task, but only to refute the notion that it is an impossible one, or that it is absolutely necessary to attain all Four Jhanas which is to make the task appear to be absolutely out of reach for most people today. To attain the First Jhana one must abandon all desire for sensual pleasures, give up foolish conduct, and become entheusiastic about the enjoyment of solitude. Most people can do this much. It requires a little effort. You need to find some place where you can be alone and undisturbed for several hours. Then remember: The Jhanas are not the goal, they are just the platform. At this point one must see the impermanance of all things that have been constructed to form one's individual world including this very mental state called the Jhana, any body, sensation, perception, personal construction, and individualized consciousness. Then one must see that this impermanance, for one attached to the world, inevitably brings pain, and that what is painful cannot be the self. So seeing, one is repelled by constructed things, repelled one abandons them and constructs no more, having abandoned construction one is free, in freedom, seeing freedom, one can know: rebirth is left behind (it requires construction), lived is the best of lives, duty's duty has been done and there is no more being any kind of an 'it' at any place of 'atness' left for one. This is Nibbana, Arahantship, being no longer subject to Time and Death, the Unseen Consciousness of the utterly purified Mind void of any identification with 'self'.
[MN.53] Aṭṭhaka-Nāgara-Sutta, The Portals of Nirvana, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Ananda delivers a variation on The Gradual Course. Here he gives the laymen of Kapilavatthu a discourse on undertaking the quest for awakening from the point of undertaking the training in ethical behavior right on up to the eradication of the Corrupting Influences in Nibbana. It is possible this sutta was intended for laymen directly, (in which case it is encouraging laymen to become arahants) but I believe rather that it was intended to encourage some to enter the order, and to show the others the nature of the practice of the bhikkhus.
[MN.54] Potaliya-Sutta, True Retirement, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains in detail what it means to have given up all avocations in this Dhamma.
Note that here, speaking to a layman, the Buddha is describing the attainment of the three visions of the Arahant as being attained just subsequent to the abandoning of pleasures of the senses. That is, without any specific mention of even the first jhana.
Based on this one could say that Arahantship is attainable without jhana; or one could say: The conditions for the first jhana are met with, and the conditions for the fourth jhana are met with, so there is here the attainment of arahantship with jhana.
Why is jhana not mentioned here? I suggest it is because the discussion proceeds from the request to provide the entire giving up in every way of all occupations. Jhana, as jhana, is essentially an occupation.

 

Kāma
Sense-Pleasures

When trying to determine what is meant by the Buddha when using the term kāmā one should picture not a single state or class of states, but a spectrum of classes of states from the own-making (sankhara-ing) born of the yearning of the deluded Pajapati for the companionship of other beings, to common experience of [caring about] enjoyment of the sensations produced at the senses, to sexual intercourse. Visualize these images as superimposed over one-another. (A = B = C) It's not Freud's 'everything is just sex' and it's not 'ultimately everything is Pajapati's problem'. It depends on where your mind is at present. Start there. It's from there that detachment is possible. To help cultivate the mind to detachment from wherever it is focused, the Master has concocted (cooked up; sankhara'd) a number of similes: Pleasures of the Senses are:

Like A Bone thrown to a Dog

Imagine a dog,
overcome with hunger and thirst
who chances upon a slaughter-house
and the cattle-butcher,
or his skillful apprentice,
tosses him a bone,
scraped,
much-scraped,
devoid of meat,
but with a shmere of blood.

What do you think?

Could that dog,
gnawing that bone,
scraped,
much-scraped,
devoid of meat,
but with a smere of blood
find in that
the satisfaction of his hunger and thirst?

Of course not.

How come?

Because he would wear himself out
before ever he got satisfaction from that bone
scraped,
much-scraped,
devoid of meat,
but with a smere of blood.

Like Carrion

Imagin a Raptor
— a Condor or Eagle or Falcon or Hawk —
that has torn off a piece of carrion
and flown off
and that other Raptors
— Condors or Eagles or Falcons or Hawks —
are circling round diving at that piece of meat
trying to grab a piece for themselves.

What do you think?

If that Raptor
— that Condor or Eagle or Falcon or Hawk —
did not quickly let go of that piece of carrion,
would it not come to death,
or deady pain?

Like Carrying a Torch against the Wind

Imagine a man coming forth
carrying a flaming grass torch
against the wind.

What do you think?

If that man did not quickly let go of that flaming grass torch
would it not burn his hand,
or burn his arm,
or burn another part of his body
and because of that
would he not come to death,
or deady pain?

Like a Pit of Glowing Coals

Imagin a pit of glowing coals,
deeper than a man is high
— coals neither flaming up nor smoking —
and here a certain person comes along,
loving life, not wishing death
wanting happiness, averse to pain
and two strapping men,
taking his arms
were to drag him off to that pit of glowing coals,
deeper than a man is high
— coals neither flaming up nor smoking.

What do you think?

Would not that man
twist and turn his body
this way
and that thinking:

'If I fall in
that pit of glowing coals
I will come to death,
or deady pain!'

Like a Dream

Imagine seeing beautiful parks,
and beautiful forests,
and beautiful plains,
and beautiful mountain ranges,
and beautiful lakes,
in a dream,
and then waking up
to find they have vanished.

snappy

Like a Loan

Imagine a man who has taken out a loan,
got himself rigged up with a new car,
right snappy duds,
rings, earrings, buttons and studs
a glitter with diamonds and rubies
and other precious gems,
gold and silver chains and medallions,
pockets stuffed with cash,
delighting in the admiration of the crowd
that thinks this is the way
a wealthy man struts his stuff.

Then imagine that right there
the collector
or his skillful apprentice
comes along and repossesses the new car,
the new duds,
his jewels and his cash.

Strips 'im right down to 'es boxers
right there in front of everyone.

Then he has second thoughts ...
and takes the boxers too.

What do you think about that?

Would that man's embarassment
convince him
that he had had enough of pretending?

Like Being Up A Tree

Imagine a fruit tree
growing in the dense forest
laden with ripe fruit
but with no fruit yet fallen to the ground,
and here comes a certain person
hungry and thirsty for fruit
looking around for fruit,
with a wanna, needa gotta hafta hava
piece
of fruit.

And he thinks:

Although this fruit tree is laden with fruit,
no fruit has yet fallen to the ground.

But I know how to climb a tree —
How about if I climb this tree
and eat as much as I want
and stuff my pockets for later?

And that is just what he does.

Then imagine that
a certain man with an axe
comes along
hungry and thirsty for fruit
looking around for fruit,
with a wanna, needa gotta hafta hava
piece
of fruit.

And seeing that tree, thinks:

Although this fruit tree is laden with fruit,
no fruit has yet fallen to the ground
and I do not know how to climb a tree —
How about if I chop down this tree
and eat as much as I want
and stuff my pockets for later?

What do you think?

If that first man did not quickly climb down from that tree,
would he not come to death,
or deady pain?

 


 

In the same way as in these similes
Pleasures of the Senses
are of much grief and aggrivation at the time
and lead to real danger later.

Seeing the meaning of these similes
as they really are
with consumate wisdom —
you avoid
whatsoever is that which is diversity-situated diversity detachment —
whatsoever is that which is unity-situated unity detachment —
and develop that detachment
wherein all support for the world is completely desolved.

 


 

Diversity-situated diversity detachment is the detachment of an individual who is himself diverse in nature from that which is diverse in nature. What is diverse in nature is form, sensation, perception, own-making and individualized consciousness. Ordinary detachment: aka: Poise, equanimity, unflappability, detachment.

Unity-situated unity detachment is the detachment of an individual who is himself unified in nature from that which is unified in nature. What is unified in nature is the four formless realms and the state of ending perception of sense-experience. Temporary Release. Delivery from things of Time.

Detachment wherein all support for the world is completely desolved is Nibbana, the unseen consciousness, deathlessness, being outside Time. This is called "Release from things Not of Time," and is an unshakable, permanent freedom.

See MN.29, and discussion that follows it, and MN.38 and the discussion that follows that.

This is precisely the difference between 'equanimity' and 'detachment' and why 'detachment' is the better translation for upekkhā.

There can be a worldly sort of detachment (equanimity) but there cannot be an equanimity without worldly objects.

Equanimity = Equal minded. Equal meaning towards either side of something. Something with two sides is not a unity. Balanced between two alternatives. You cannot be equal minded within unity.

Go back to the Seven Dimensions of Self-Awakening: Put Memory in charge. After doing your Dhamma Research so that you have a basis in knowledge; develop energy and entheusiasm; then progress from equanimity to serenity to detachment = equal-minded within it, serenely above it, detached from it.

So, in response to:

[Bhk. Bodhi's edited version of Ñanamoli Thera's translation]:
Having avoided the the equanimity that is diversified,
based on diversity,
do not develop the equanimity that is unified,
based on unity —
develop that detachment
wherein all support for the world is completely desolved.

[Lord Chalmers]:
Having shed any equanimity
which is scattered and diffused
do not develop that real poise
which is one-centred and concentrated —
develop that detachment
wherein all support for the world is completely desolved.

[Bhk. Thanissaro]:
Having avoided the equanimity coming from multiplicity,
dependent on multiplicity,
do not develop the equanimity coming from singleness,
dependent on singleness —
develop that detachment
wherein all support for the world is completely desolved.

[Ms. Horner]:
Having avoided that which is equanimity in face of multiformity,
resting on multiformity,
do not develop that equanimity
which is equanimity in face of uniformity,
resting on uniformity,
ask yourself: 'What is "equanimity in the face of uniformity based on uniformity"'? and
how could there be an equanimity towards such without grasping?
and instead of following this advice —
develop that detachment
wherein all support for the world is completely desolved.

Go back to the Mulapariyaya: "He does not think about unity. He does not think: 'I am unity, unity is mine, I am of unity, unity is of me.'"

This discourse has been about how,
in the discipline for an ariyan,
there is an entire giving up in every way
of all avocations;
about what makes up the plenitude of universal giving-up
according to the Law of the Noble;
about how the cutting off of affairs in the Noble One's Discipline is achieved entirely and in all ways.

This discourse has not been about how to achieve a menatally balanced position in the world. That would be an avocation, an affair.

 

[MN.55] Jīvaka-Sutta, Lawful and Unlawful Meats, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha refutes the accusation that he allows the eating of the flesh of animals killed specifically for him and he explains the peramaters that allow the eating of meat.
[MN.56] Upāli-Suttaɱ, A Jain's Conversion, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A debate with the Buddha concerning the Jain proposition that of deeds of mind, word, and body, the deed of body carried the strongest kammic consequences where the Buddha holds that it is the deed of mind that carries the strongest kammic consequences.

 


Monday, February 29, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, February 01, 2016


 

new Saturday, February 20, 2016 1:20 PMThera-Gāthā Psalms of the Early Buddhists, II. Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translations.
[THAG 174] Mātanga's Son

 

new Saturday, February 20, 2016 5:54 AMDīgha Nikāya
[DN.31] Sigālovada Suttanta, Gogerly's 1847 translation
The Segala Homily, Rhys Davids translation, includes the introduction,
pdfThe Segala Homily, pdf file of Rhys Davids translation, stripped of footnotes and the introduction, for reading pleasure. Pass it along to those you regard as friends.
Of this sutta Buddhaghosa writes, 'nothing in the duties of housemen is left unmentioned. This Suttanta is called the Vinaya of the Houseman. Hence in one who practises what he has been taught in it, growth is to be looked for, and not decay.' And Rhys Davids adds: 'And truly we may say even now of this Vinaya, or code of discipline, so fundamental are the human interests involved, so sane and wide is the wisdom that envisages them, that the utterances are as fresh and practically as binding to-day and here as they were then at Rajagaha.'

Relative to the way one is to minister to one's teacher by 'eagerness to learn' (sussūsāya), the translators remark: "Childers has obedience. [PED has this as a possible meaning.] This is quite wrong. Considering the enormous importance attached in the autocratic states and religious Orders of Europe to obedience, it is most worthy of notice that obedience does not occur in Buddhist ethics. It is not mentioned in any one of the 227 rules of the Buddhist Order. It does not occur in any one of the clauses of this summary of the ethics of the Buddhist layman, and it does not enter into any one of the divisions of the Eightfold Path nor of the thirty-seven constituent qualities of Arahantship. Hence no member of the Buddhist order takes any vow of obedience; and the vows of a Buddhist layman ignore it."

 


Buddhism
The Science of Awakening
Not a Religion — Not a Philosophy
The Revalation of A Way of Life
Without Pain
Without Death and Rebirth
Outside of Time

As well-taught by
The Getter of the Getting
Aristocrat
The Consummately Self-Awakened One
Walker of the Walk
Who Knows and Sees
Teacher Supreme of Gods and Men
Trainer of the Trainable
The Awake

Having Known and Seen for Himself
He Reveals
To Gods and Men
This Universe,
With its Gods, Devils and Brahmās,
Shamen and Brahmins.

He Teaches A Thing
In both Spirit and Letter,
Helpful from the Start
Helpful in the Middle,
Helpful at the End;
A Come-See for Yourself Thing;
Timeless;
Not Just Pointing to a Future Outcome;
A To-Be-Seen in this Visible World Thing
A Thoroughly Satisfying
Utterly Blameless
Higher Way of Life

 


 

new Tuesday, February 02, 2016 5:53 AMMajjhima Nikāya
[MN.18] Madhu-Piṇḍika Sutta, Honeyed Lore, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha cuts off an argumentative questioner by telling him that in his teaching there is no arguing with anyone about anything and by this he is free. In repeating the insident to the bhikkhus he is questioned as to what this teaching is that argues with no one about anything. The Buddha explains in brief that it is by having no interest in the obsessions and perceptions that assail the mind. Then further the bhikkhus ask for a clarification of this of Maha Kaccana, who speaks of the obsessions and perceptions that arise from sense experience.
[MN.19] Dvedhā-Vitakka Sutta, On Counter-Irritants, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., the M. Olds translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha describes a method for categorizing thought which makes it less difficult to supress disadvantageous thoughts, still advantageous thoughts and attain tranquillity of mind.
[MN.20] Vitakka-Saṇṭhāna Sutta, On Governance of Thoughts, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Soma Thera translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha describes five stands the seeker after higher states of mind can adopt in his effort to eliminate unwanted, degenerate, debilitating thoughts.
[MN.21] Kakacūpama Sutta, The Parable of the Saw, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A famous sutta dealing with the idea that the student of this system should not concern himself with worldly matters, even those so close to home as the abuse of nuns; also dealing with the need for patience and endurance when faced with abusive speech ... to be counteracted by training in a heart of friendliness towards one and all.
[MN.22] Alagaddūpama Sutta, The Venomous Snake, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A wide-ranging very famous sutta that begins with a forceful teaching on the dangers of indulgence in sense pleasures. This sutta contains two famous similies: the similie of the snake illustrating how a wrong grasp of the Dhamma is like taking hold of a poisonous snake from the wrong end; and the simile of the raft illustrating how the Dhamma should be used to attain it's ends and then be let go. The sutta concludes with a thorough examination of the way 'not self' should be considered.
[MN.23] Vammīka-Sutta, The Smouldering Ant-Hill, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the M. Olds translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains a riddle which details the process of awakening.
[MN.24] Ratha-Vinīta-Sutta, On Relays, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Venerable Sariputta having heard a good report about the Venerable Punna Mantaniputto tracks him down and questions him about attaining Nibbana.
[MN.25] Nivāpa-Sutta, Gins and Snares, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha provides a complex simile illustrating by way of a herd of deer and a crop of corn set up to trap it the relationship of the arahant to the realm of the senses.
Following the allegory in this sutta would have us understand that, in the non-identified-with state of arahantship, the arahant may, even after death, still have at least awareness of the world. He makes his 'residence' the states of mind between the first jhana and the ending of experience of sense perception, again, not depending on any of these for identification, and makes use of these states and the sense faculties — the five senses are being made use of by the fourth group, though not to the point of wiggling those sticks!
If this sounds like herasy to you, then you need to bring to mind two other aspects of the Dhamma which dove-tail with it and explain them all in some other way. What two? The so called 'unseen consciousness', (vinnana anidassana), and the three 'visions' of the arahant (see for example MN 4 and many others) (which include knowing past lives and knowing the outcome of deeds, both of which involve perceptions of the world.) Nowhere does it say that these two visions and this sort of consciousness are lost in the state of arahantship at death. In fact what it does say is: "And, monks, as a man might be bound in a prison, but after a time might be freed from those bonds, safe and sound, and with no loss of his property," (MN 39).
[MN.26] Nivāpa-Sutta, Gins and Snares, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Warren translation, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha describes the method of his quest for Nibbana as consisting of avoiding that which was, like himself at that time, subject to change and pain, and seeking only for that which lead to the unborn, the secure from bondage, Nibbana.
[MN.27] Cūḷa Hatthi-padopama-Sutta, The Short Trail, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha teaches brahman Janussoni a way to confidently come to the conclusion that the Buddha is an awakened one: an instruction that delineates the steps from layman to arahant in great detail.

 

 

Seeing Dhamma — Seeing Repercussive Self-Arising

In the same way, friends,
as of all the creatures that roam the world using feet,
the footprint of the elephant is considered pre-eminant,
that is, in terms of size;
in the same way,
of all the doctrines describing the skillful mind,
the Four Aristocrats of Truths are considered pre-eminant,
that is, in terms of scope.

What four?

The Truth that 'This is Pain.'

The Truth that 'The origin of Pain is Thirst.'

The Truth that 'The ending of Thirst is the Ending of Pain.'

The Truth that 'The walk to walk to the ending of Pain is the Aristocratic Multidimensional High Way, that is:

High Point of View;
High Principles;
High Talk;
High Works;
High Lifestyle;
High Self-control;
High Mind;
High Serenity;
High Seeing;
High Detachment.

And what, friends, is this 'Pain'?

Birth is Pain,
Sickness is Pain,
Aging is Pain,
Death is Pain,
Grief and Lamentation,
Pain and Misery,
and Despair are Pain.

Not getting what is wished for is Pain.

Getting what is not wanted is Pain.

In a word: 'These five support-compounds[1] are Pain.'

And what, friends, is to be understood by
"In a word: 'These five support-compounds are Pain'"?

What are the five support compounds?

The shape-support-compound;
the sense-experience[2] support-compound;
the perception support-compound;
the own-making[3] support-compound;
the consciousness support-compound.

Of these the shape-support compound is made up of the four great properties:
solidity, liquidity, heat, and motion
and the shapes that are compounded from these.

These four can be either relating to an individual or be external
and in either case they are unstable,
change,
and come to an end.

And that which is unstable and changeable,
and that which is compounded from
that which is unstable and changeable
and comes to an end
cannot sanely and rationally be understood as:

"This I am;
This is mine;
This is my 'self.'"

How come?

Because that which is not under one's control
cannot sanely and rationally be called one's own
or to be said to belong to one.

And to hold that a thing
that comes into being by being derived from
that which is unstable and changeable
and which comes to an end
is the self
amounts to saying:

"That which is myself
comes and goes,"
which is absurd.

So the sane, rational individual thinks:

That Pain which has arisen
in that which I erroneously believed was myself
has arisen as a result,
or repercussion of something.

A result of what?

Contact of sense-organ with sense-object and consciousness.

For example:

If someone says something disagreeable about him, he thinks:

This unpleasant experience has come to me through my sense of hearing.

It is the result of something,
it is not not a result of something.

Of what is it the result?

Contact of that shape called sound and that shape called ear together with consciousness.

The sense-experience;
the perception;
the own-made aspect;
the consciousness of that shape,
made up from solidity, liquidity, heat and motion
that is sense-organ and sense-object consciousness —
all that is unstable and changeable
and comes to an end.

If being abused he should become angry and upset,
he should recollect the Parable wherein the Buddha says that even if downright bad guys should cut him to pieces with a saw,
were he to get angry
he would not be following the Teacher's instructions.

He should think:

'This body is so constituted that it is subject to abuse'
and he sets up recollection, investigation, energy, entheusiasm, impassivity, serenity and detachment
for the attaining of freedom from body.

By that focus of his mind
on the component parts
on the made-up nature of the experience
on the task of attaining freedom,
he is detached.

Detached he is free.

Seeing this freedom as freedom,
he sees the end of Pain.

In that freedom he can know:

"Left behind is rebirth,
lived is the best of lives,
done is duty's doing,
no more is there being any sort of 'it'
at any place of 'at-ness' left for me."

 


 

Suppose a collection of sticks and straw and mud enclosing a space were to be called a house.

Just so the collecting, assembling, combining together of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness in skin and bones, flesh and blood, urine and vineger, hot air and gas enclosing a space is called a living being.

If, friends, a sense organ is functioning,
and an appropriate sense-object comes within it's range,
and there is contact of the two
there arises sense-consciousness.

That which is shape in such that has thus come to be,
that is known as a 'shape-supported-compound';

that which is sense-experience in such that has thus come to be,
that is known as a 'sensation-supported-compound';

that which is perception in such that has thus come to be,
that is known as a 'perception-supported-compound';

that which is own-made in such that has thus come to be,
that is known as an 'own-made-supported-compound';

that which is consciousness in such that has thus come to be,
that is known as a 'consciousness-supported-compound'.

In this way it is to be understood that
within any given conscious experience
resulting from contact of sense-organ with sense object
there is the collecting, assembling, combining together of the support-compounds.

The Buddha said:

"Whoever sees repercussive-self-arising[4]
He sees Dhamma.

Whoever sees Dhamma
He sees repercussive-self-arising."

We have seen:

The five support compounds are repercussively-self-arisen.

Whatever is wishing for, roosting upon, inclination for, being tied to
in these five support compounds,
that is the arising of Pain.

Whatever is the disciplining of wishing and lust among these five support compounds, that is the ending of Pain.

Whatever is the walking of the Aristocratic Multi-dimensional High Way,
is the walking of the walk for the disciplining of wishing and lust among these five support compounds.

This is how
"In a word: 'These five support-compounds are Pain'"
is to be seen.

 


[1] khandha. 'heap, pile'.

[2] Experience of pleasure, of pain, of neither pain nor pleasure.

[3] Saŋkhāra san = own; khāra = make; that which is constructed by identification with acts of thought, word or deed intended to create experience of sense-experience for the self.

[4]

'Yo paṭicca-samuppādaɱ passati||
so dhammaɱ passati
|| ||

Yo dhammaɱ passati||
so paṭiccasamuppādaɱ passatī.
|| ||

Adapted from MN 28

 

[MN.28] Mahā Hatthi-Padopama-Sutta, The Long Trail, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Sariputta teaches the bhikkhus about how the scope of the Four Truths encompasses the Paticca Samuppada by way of focusing on the details of sense-experience to create detachment.
[MN.29] Mahā Sāropama-Sutta, Timber: Or Discoveries, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha uses a simile to warn the bhikkhus not to mistake fame, or achievement of ethical culture, or attainment of concentration, or attainment of knowledge and vision for attainment of permanent freedom disconnected from Time, which is the goal of his system.

 

Unshakable Freedom

There is release (or deliverance) (vimokkha) and there is freedom (vimutti).

Release is the having been released from something. The having been set free.

Freedom is the state attained subsequent to having been released.

There is release relating to things 'of Time' (samaya)
and there is release relating to things 'not of Time' (asamaya).

There is freedom relating to things 'of Time' (samaya)
and there is freedom relating to things 'not of Time' (asamaya).

Things of time are things that have come into existence,
have been own-made;
this includes the five support-compounds (kkhandha); the six sense spheres (salayatana) and such mental states as the four jhānas, the four arūpa-jhānas, and even the state perceiving ending sense experience. Or, in other words, every existing thing.

Things not of time are things that have not come into existence, have not been own-made.

There are 3 releases and there are 8 releases. The three are:
attaining a state empty (suññata), of lust, hate and blindness;
attaining a state without signs (animitta), of lust, hate and blindness;
attaining a state without ambitions regarding (intentions aimed at getting) (appaṇihita) things involving lust, hate and blindness.
The eight are:
coming to know and see shape (rūpa) as it really is (that is, as compounded of the properties: solidity, liquidity, heat and motion; or, ultimately as aspects of light);
attaining a state of formlessness (arūpa) while recognizing forms;
attaining the perception 'How Pure!";
attaining the four arūpa jhānas:
the Sphere of Endless Space,
the Sphere of Endless Consciousness,
the Sphere of Nothing is to be had,
the Sphere of Neither-perception-nor-non-perception;
and attaining the state where perception of sense-experience ends.

The three releases and the eight releases are releases from things of Time.

The states themselves are not the release;
release is the freedom resulting from attaining these states.

The eight releases are a heierarchy only in one dimension;
in terms of their being vehicles of release, each is of an equality.

Focused on the release mechanism
one is only freed from the thing that came before,
a relative freedom,
which is called:
"Freedom as to things of Time".

Attaining the topmost mechanism,
the state where perception of sense-experience ends,
is not freedom
and is not the goal
and the freedom attained by way of release from that is a matter of an intellectual comprehension that the state was own-made and that to attempt to construct higher mental states would only lead to getting more bound up than before.
In other words, it is an arbitrary end point to the process.
One could have stopped anywhere earlier to the same effect.

Release from that freedom
that is that freedom attained by release from things of Time —
is release from something not of time.

Things of Time > Release from Things of Time > Unstable Freedom from Things of Time (A Thing Itself Free from things of Time, but temporary because relative to things of Time) > Release from Things Not of Time > Stable Freedom from Things Not of Time.

If that freedom that resulted from release from things 'of Time' were not a thing itself 'not of Time', it would not be freedom from things 'of Time'.

Once again: Focus on the fact of being free from X and that is 'freedom as to a thing of Time'; focus on the freedom itself and that is 'freedom as to a thing 'not of Time.'

Think of it like this: 'focus' is a detachment (an awareness of awareness; a being one step beyond) which is another way of saying 'freedom'.

The Buddha is saying that if you can do this, the resulting freedom is unshakable or is what is also also known as 'the unshakable freedom of heart and freedom of wisdom'.

This is having been released from things of time,
and having recognized in the resulting freedom,
that this freedom
is freedom from the corrupting influences āsavas:
(sensual pleasure, existence, blindness, points of view)
with such clarity
that it is known and seen
that this state is of such a nature as to guarantee
rebirth is left behind,
lived is the best of lives,
duty's doing is done,
and that there is no more being any kind of an 'it' at any place of 'atness' left
that could cause one to again own-make (saŋkhārā) this world
or any other 'thing of time'.

The freedom is too sweet;
the pain of the alternative too obvious.

There is nothing missing from or incorrect about the PTS version of the Pali.
In fact I suggest that the versions of the Pali that differ are efforts to 'correct' this version and are themselves in error. The alteration requires slightly more than the simple addition of 'a' before two words. There is enough there to say that the change is conscious.

In the first portion of the last case the seeker has attained release from things of Time with the resultant freedom being freedom based on things of Time. Such freedom is not stable because the base is not stable.

This is the man searching for heartwood who has found heartwood and has taken it away with him seeing that it will be useful for things requiring heartwood.

In the second portion, (which in other similes in other suttas is usually a repetition of the first portion) using the same method, one attains release from things of Time then release from things not of Time (the freedom attained by release from the freedom based on things of Time).

The key is seeing the distinction between release, relative freedom and absolute freedom. The first man becomes the second man by using the heartwood.

The problem seen by the translators, (that the first half of the sequence does not match the second half) is not a problem, it is intentional. It points to the otherwise missing (unstated) path to the freedom based on things 'not of time' resulting from release from things 'not of time.'

As long as the seeker is thinking that there is something there which is giving him his freedom (something released from which he attains this freedom); his freedom is temporary because that 'something' has been own-made and is unstable. When he lets go of that, (not thinking 'This is the real me', 'I have attained this') there is no longer an unstable basis for his freedom and that freedom is absolute.

The only thing that has changed between the two situations (the first portion and the second portion of this case) is the perception of the situation. It doesn't need to be re-stated in an additional case, it just needs to be seen differently.

The first, temporary release, will be noted because the seeker is after permanent release, but he also knows he has the right method because temporary or not it is freedom, so he focuses on that and discovers ultimate freedom.

This business of consciousness being able to be conscious of consciousness and of consciousness being able to be conscious of not being consciouss of things is an essential skill needed to realize Nibbana.

Presenting the issue in the combined way we have it presents a problem (the problem the translators are reacting to) which when focused on with the idea 'how can this be understood to be correct' rather than 'this does not follow the usual pattern and so must be a mistake' results in insight. It is a pedagogical technique, not a mistake. This sort of shift in the use of a frequently-used pattern is not unique in the suttas. Keep'nja onjatoz.

Warning: There is frequent inconsistency in the terms used to translate vimokkha and vimutti with the terms 'Release' and 'Freedom' being used for both. Ms Horner speculates where she should be able to see the certainty: Vimokkha is an objective reference to the things one is freed from; while vimutti is the subjective experience of (mental) freedom.

— Commentary on the translations of MN 29
See also: MN 122,
AN 5.149
And for more: Glossology Pages: Vimutti and Vimokkha

 

[MN.30] Cūḷa Sāropama-Sutta, More about Timber, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha uses a simile to teach brahman Pingalakoccha that in his system one must not mistake fame, or achievement of ethical culture, or attainment of concentration, or attainment of knowledge and vision for attainment of unshakable freedom of heart which is it's goal.

 

Relative to MN 30, the following is adapted as commentary for this sutta from a discussion where it was stated that it was an example of an internal contradiction in the suttas. The discussion begins with this quote:

Leigh Brasington on Possible Altered Sutras to do with Jhana

The Culasaropama Sutra (Majjhima Nikaya #30) in addition to being an excellent teaching on the dangers of spiritual materialism, also refers to the Jhanas. However, it shows signs that suggest the text has been altered.

Its beautiful mathematical harmony of the sutra suddenly breaks down in section 12 with a discussion of the Jhanas.

The Jhanas are a concentration practice and concentration has already been stated in section 10 to be a lesser state than knowledge and vision. But when the Jhanas are introduced in section 12, they are said to be "higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision." [Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.] The inclusion of the Jhanas here actually makes the sutta self-contradictory.

It also contradicts other pro-Jhana sutras. The formulation of the eight Jhanas is the standard "short" one, (similiar to what is found in the Mahasatipatthana Sutta) but with the addition of a last sentence in each of the paragraphs: "This [too] is a state higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision." This sentence directly contradicts the last sentence of section 84 of the Samannaphala Sutta (Digha Nikaya #2). [Horner, Bhk. Thanissaro]

In the previous paragraph of the Samannaphala Sutta, the recluse directs the concentrated, pure, bright mind resulting from the fourth Jhana towards knowledge and vision. The understanding gained "is a visible fruit of recluseship more excellent and sublime than the previous ones".

Many other suttas show signs of this type of tampering and we are left today with the task of puzzling out the original teaching.

 


 

First some definitions.

Pali: Samādhi, ñāṇa-dassana, jhāna
SAMĀ = Even, ADHI = Higher;
ÑĀÑA: a blend of 'Na's' 'knows';
JHĀNA = burn, shine, know, chan, zen.
Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi: concentration, knowledge and vision, jhāna
Horner: concentration, knowledge and vision, meditation
Olds: serenity, book-knowledge and understanding, attainment of a degree of detachment in the burnings.
DASSANA = seeing.

There is no word for 'meditation' in the Pali, unless you understand the term literally in which case it is using sati (thinking about a thing). Otherwise the place is also sometimes taken by 'bhavana', development.

Jhāna is not 'concentration.'
Concentration is an aspect of Jhāna,
and the second jhāna is characterized by cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ: the heart having become whole-heartedly single-minded (my double-meaning translation) (whole, unified, one-pointed, concentrated).

Samādhi is a general term that is defined in different ways. If it is defined as the jhānas as in Sammā Samādhi, High serenity, it is the first four jhānas. It can be just ordinary serenity, it can be a fruit of the practice of loving kindness, it can be any number of practices of other doctrines, and in this doctrine it can also be the three: Aimlessness, Signlessness, Emptiness.

Within this doctrine, samādhi can be higher or lower than knowing and seeing (ñāṇa-dassana) depending on if it is attained in a manner that is informed by ñāṇa book-knowledge of and dassana seeing or understanding the goal, which in this case is described as the ending of the corruptions (āsava: lust, anger, and blindness).

Suppose a person came upon the description of jhāna in Gotama's system without being informed about any of the rest of the system or it's goals such as could be the case in the case of this sutta (he is going after the heart-wood without knowing what it is). In the case of such a one, even able to attain the jhāna, such jhāna would be meaningless in terms of the Buddhist goal. For one understanding and striving after the goal then, samādhi by any definition, when not informed by knowledge of the goal, would be lower than the Buddhist idea of knowing and seeing. Informed by the goal, jhāna is an actual step in the direction of letting go of the world and therefore higher than mere book knowledge and understanding (aka, intellectual knowledge).

So so far, we might put it this way:

Samādhi is lower than
ñāṇa-dassana which is lower than
jhāna attainment informed by Ñāṇa-dassana;

Serenity is lower than
knowing and seeing which is lower than
jhāna attainment informed by knowing and seeing.

In dealing with the Dīgha, our understanding of ñāṇa-dassana becomes important.

This is a term which is applied to the Streamwinner, not the arahant. It does not imply accomplishment of the goal which is vision of the Paṭicca Samuppada and because of that vision the ending of the āsavas (corruptions). It is essentially the acceptance of Sammā Diṭṭhi, the Four Truths as a working hypothesis, whereas Sammā Diṭṭha, which is actually seeing it at work.

Without the book knowledge and understanding one could look for a long time from the mental state called the ending of perception and sense-experience (saññā-vedayita-nirodhaɱ) (if you had even heard of such a state and knew what to look for) and not see what is valuable to be seen from the point of view of the goal of this system.

So in the Sāmañña-phala Sutta of the Dīgha the jhānas are used to rise to a point where knowing and seeing can be used to attain wisdom — the vision (vijja) which makes it possible to see what is going on and to see also that because of that it is impossible that lust and anger could arise again. But it is the freedom gained through the vision that is the fruit of the way, not the knowing and seeing. You need to go forward to section 97 to see this.

This is a great example of the 'Magic' of sutta study. Going to the Abhidhamma first this would never have come up, having come up it breaks up a clot of blindness and moves the story forward. We see that this sutta must have been set up just to provoke such a question or at least to make those who believe jhāna is the end-all stop and think.

The note to Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi's translation: "Although the jhānas may also have been included in the attainment of concentration set forth in Ī10, and knowledge and vision was described as higher than the attainment of concentration, the jhānas now become higher than knowledge and vision because they are being treated as the basis for the attainment of cessation and the destrucion of the taints (in Ī21)."

A non-explanation. Why, How does the change of use alter their position relative to attaining the goal? Because at this point they are informed by knowledge and vision. First he gets samādhi, then he gets knowledge and vision, then he uses samādhi with knowledge and vision for the purpose of attaining the goal.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

Going to the commentators and the Abhidhamma for clarification would have given you the vague hint that is found in the note to Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi's translation which was apparently read by Leigh.

We need to read this writing, even in the Pali, with a great deal of flexibility of mind. They said things then in ways that are heard differently today. Gotama says things using puns and other word-games. Some of these are impossible to translate. Things appear in the suttas that nobody can believe would be in 'a religious work' ... some very raunchy stuff! Things are said that are much deeper than they look at first glance. Gotama doesn't keep anything back, but his teachings are certainly layered. He always tells the truth, always answers the question asked, but what he says can go much further than what the questioner intended when asking the question. Things are said in ways that deliberately make one stop and think. So stop and think when you read these suttas.

 

[MN.31] Cūḷa Gosinga-Sutta, In Gosinga Wood, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha visits the Anuruddhas and learns of their having attained arahantship.
[MN.32] Mahā Gosinga-Sutta, The Shining Light, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, (which has now been completely unabridged, reformatted and has had the footnotes restored) the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A group of the Buddha's great disciples gather together on a beautiful moonlit night in Gosinga Woods with the air perfumed by the Sal Tree blossoms. They each, in turn, describe the sort of bhikkhu they feel would illuminate this woods. Then, unable to descide whose proposition was best, they visit the Buddha to ask his opinion. The Buddha approves all their opinions and adds his own contribution.
It is interesting to note here that Venerable Moggallāna the Great is referred to as being a talker on Dhamma where usually he is noted for his supreme magic powers. As I recall it, the repeaters of the Majjhima Nikāya were organized under Mahā Moggallāna ... which fact, (I do not have a citation) if true, would show that the sutta collections were begun well before Gotama's death and not at the First Council. I think it likely that this was the case, and if so it is misguided to speak of this or that Nikaya as preceding the others. They were more likely all begun about the same time, well prior to Gotama's death, and were all added-to as time went on.
[MN.33] Mahā Gopālaka-Sutta, Pastoral Duties, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Greater Discourse on the Cowherd the I.B. Horner translation, omitted previously,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha likens eleven skills needed by the skillful cowherd to eleven skills needed by the skillful bhikkhu.
[MN.34] Cūḷa Gopālaka-Sutta, Pastos, Good and Bad, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Greater Discourse on the Cowherd the I.B. Horner translation, omitted previously,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha likens those seekers who follow a teacher who does not know what he is talking about to a herd of cows lead by a cowherd that sends his herd across a river where there is no ford.
[MN.35] Cūḷa Saccaka-Sutta, Saccaka's Onslaught, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Warren translation, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Saccaka, who has been boasting and bragging that he can defeat the Buddha in debate when he meets him in debate is upset after his first utterance. The Buddha then teaches him Dhamma.

 


The issue of the right to privacy should not be being cast as a matter of 'expectation of privacy';
it should be being cast as a matter of 'respect for privacy'.

How is the privacy of an individual any different than the right of a copyright owner to determine the uses and terms of use of his copyrighted work?

The author of a written work is presumed to own and have copyrighted his work upon it's creation.

In the same way an individual by his various activities should be presumed to own and have protection similar to copyright (the right to publish or dispose-of as he wishes, whether for profit or not) of the various personal facts, attributes, habits and practices of his life; and this, upon their creation and regarless of their visibility.

Conversely, if the private details of an individual are not to be respected, what is the just basis for giving protection via copyright or patent to any other sort of knowledge or information that can be discovered in various ways?


 

Monday, February 01, 2016
Previous upload was Thursday, December 31, 2015

 

Towards a Uniform Style
for Pali Texts and Translations

This will form a new 'Topic' in the Forum, under the Ditthadhamma Lokadhamma Subject heading.

If, in the Pali text or a translation you see a number, and it looks like this: [1] that is the page number of the original source of that text and that page number is an identified object to which you may link by appending to the url for the page "#pg1" (without the quotation marks.) When the page number is in other formats, it has not yet been given an identity. You may, however, link to it in the same way in the expectation that at some point it will be given such an id. So doing will not invalidate the link it will just point to the top of the page.

Example: Use: "../../dhamma-vinaya/pts/mn/mn.013.horn.pts.htm#pg119" for Horner's MN.13, page 119.

Similarly, in the cases of those books primarily composed of verses, verse numbers appear like this: [1] and may be linked to by appending to the url for the page "#v1"

Example: Use "../../dhamma-vinaya/pts/kd/thag/thag.240.rhyc.pts.htm#v601" for Mrs. Rhys Davids' THAG.240, verse 601

 

§

 

Section numbers and symbols separating sections are unreliable. Different versions of the Pali have used different section numberings as have different translations. Editing of such has altered the numbering inconsistently. The precise 'rule' for determining a section is not defined consistently.

Suggested style:

[1] The first, (location,) portion of the Nidana.

[2] The second, (occasion,) portion of the Nidana.

Where the first portion of the Nidana is missing, the occasion portion should still be numbered [2]. At some point someone will have the enterprise to figure out the proper location portion for all suttas. Some 'Chapter' collections (where the second and subsequent suttas often begin: "Then ..." will be determined to consist of only one sutta.

Sections should be given a number when a new idea is introduced and between it's sub-sections and sub-sub-sections.

There are two categories of things: A and B.

There are two A things.

What two?

[3]

[4]

These are the two.

 


 

There are two B things things.

What two?

[5]

[6]

These are the two.

These are the A and B catagories of things.

 

§

 

Complete change of direction or major category change.

 

§

 

Of all the problems with diacriticals that of the use of the 'mg' (anusvara) is the worst offender. Again different parts of the different versions of the Pali and translations use different symbols 'ɱ', 'ɱ', 'ṁ', and 'ŋ'. Second in terms of confusion is the 'ng' (velar n) which is found as 'ŋ' and 'ṅ', 'ɱ'.

Suggested style:

'ɱ' for the 'mg' (anusvara). It most clearly indicates pronunciation. Evaɱ me sutaɱ. Pronounce: Evam me sutam holding the 'm' sound thinking 'ming' and distinctly concluding the word.

'ŋ' for the 'ng' (velar n). Aŋguttara Pronounce: Ang-guttara.

'nya' for the ñ. Controversial, but think about it: While a good portion of the population does understand the pronunciation of this letter, a good portion does not and a further good portion of the portion that does understand it's pronunciation does not do it properly. How do you pronunce: Suññata? (sunya-nyatta) or Aññā (anya-nyaa)

The underdot 'ḍ', 'ṇ', 'ṭ', and ' ḷ ', if understood to mean 'pronounce dis inc ly, work as is; as do the long vowels, though in both cases for the most part they would be pronounced in the same way without any diacritical at all.

I have not yet, but will begin at this point to take steps to introduce at least the changes suggested for the mg and ng.

 

 

new Wednesday, January 20, 2016 3:33 AMLimitless, Bradley Cooper, Abbie Cornish and Robert De Niro
Director: Neil Burger
Movie Review. Take a pill, experience great super-normal powers, murder, steal, write a best-seller, have lots of sex, get rich, become President of the U.S. Relevance to Buddhism: dangers of supernormal powers for the untrained.

 

new Friday, January 15, 2016 6:53 AMMajjhima Nikāya
[MN.1] Mūla-Pariyāya-Sutta, How States of Consciousness Originate, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the M. Olds translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The first translation into English of the first sutta of the Majjhima Nikāya.
Here the Buddha reveals the root concepts of all things.
In it's expanded form (found in my translation) it is certainly a hypnotic spell, and will, as if by magic, take one back to the very origins of the world. It builds up from that by way of fundamental concepts at the root of all things, verbal and physical and beyond to Nibbana. It is an excellent sutta, by the way, for learning the Pali language. In the myth that isn't told, this sutta, prior to Gotama was a magic spell used with the idea that it would by guiding focus on fundamentals, generate wealth (mula > moola = remuneration). Hense the otherwise mysterious name for the suttas as 'The One Up Passed the Mulapariyaya.'
[MN.2] Sabb-Āsava-Sutta, Coping with Cankers, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the T.W. Rhys Davids translation, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha describes how one who applies his mind studiously to the point is able to rid himself of disrupting influences in seven ways: by seeing them as problems; by self-control, by proper use; by patience; by avoidance; by elimination; and by awakening. Examples of each case are given.
I have done an outline of this sutta which some may find helpful.
[MN.3] Dhamma-Dāyāda-Sutta, Unworldly Goods, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to become heirs of Dhamma, not of worldly things. By heirs of Dhamma he explains, he means putting the Dhamma into practice as he himself puts it into practice. Sariputta follows up on this exhortation with details. It is by not putting this Dhamma into practice as the Buddha did that senior bhikkhus, middle-ranked bhikkhus and juniors, one and all come to blameworthiness, and it is by putting it into practice in this way that one and all come to praiseworthiness.
[MN.4] Bhaya-Bherava-Sutta, Of Braving Fears, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Brahman Janussoni questions the Buddha about the fears and distractedness of mind that arise on living alone in the wilderness. The Buddha explains that for those with corrupt behavior in body, speech and thought; with passionate desires, corrupt at heart, lazy, nervous, doubt-ridden, proud and arrogant, fearful, hungary for fame and gains, weak in energy, confused, without concentration, and weak in wisdom such a life does inspire fear, but for one without these corruptions such a life strengthens one in pursuit of the goal.
[MN.5] Anangaṇa-Sutta, Of Blemishes, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Sariputta and Maha Moggallana engage in a dialogue which points out the advantages of self awareness when it comes to character faults.
[MN.6] Akankheyya-Sutta, Of Yearnings, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Warren, Buddhism in Translations translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Gotama emphasizes again and again the importance of perfecting ethical behavior, internal tranquillity of heart, not dispising jhana practice, penetrating insight, and the making much of empty places for the gaining of every stage in his system from the very most elementary to the most advanced.
[MN.7] Vatthūpama-Sutta, On Fulling, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha likens a dirty cloth incapable of taking dye to the mind corrupted by greed and covetousness, malevolence, anger, malice, hypocrisy, spite, envy, stinginess, deceit, treachery, obstinacy, impetuosity, arrogance, price and conceit — incapable of attaining a good rebirth. He then likens the cleansing of a dirty piece of cloth that renders it capable of taking dye to the process of cleansing the mind of these corruptions, and he describes this cleansing process.
[MN.8] Sallekha-Sutta, Of Expunging, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Nyanaponika Thera translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Maha Cunda approaches the Buddha to ask how to eliminate ideas of 'I' and 'mine'. The Buddha's response is to give him fourty-four pairs of opposites to be resolved upon, thought of, used as guides to follow, things leading upward and which will scour out ideas of 'I' and 'Mine.'
[MN.9] Sallekha-Sutta, Of Expunging, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Sariputta explains the path to attaining of consummate view in thirty two different ways.
In this sutta we find Lord Chalmers first encounter with the Paticca Samuppada. Some things to note: He translates 'upadana' as 'attachments' where it no doubt lead others to 'grasping', but where it should better be 'supports or fuel'; he translates 'bhava' as 'existence' which is unusual and most accurate; he translates 'sankhara' as 'plastic forces' and goes way afield trying to rationalize this choice. It is very hard when trying to translate what one can see is a very deep and profound system to simply get down to earth in one's translation. Because of this exotic translation, the step from sankhāra to consciousness is made obscure. I will clarify: Blindness results in own-making; own-making results in consciousness by way of having brought the sixfold sense sphere (aka nama-rupa) into existence. The PS is presented both this way (one instance of 'consciousness') and with two instances of 'consciousness.' #2 being: Blindness results in own-making, own-making results in consciousness, consciousness results in named-form, named form results in consciousness, consciousness results in the six-fold sense-sphere.
[MN.10] Sati-Paṭṭhāna-Sutta, On Mindfulness, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
With the exception of the Nidana just a reference to the Rhys Davids translation of DN 22.
[MN.11] Cūḷa-Sīhanāda-Sutta, The Short Challenge, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains the logic behind the difference between the Buddhist proclaiming faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha and those of other beliefs proclaiming faith in their teacher, teachings and fellow-believers.
A very interesting sutta! Essentially the difference is in the perception that the Buddha's system works or ought to work in accomplishing what is in effect the goal of all seekers, that there is nothing left unexplained, and that since this is not the case in other faiths, that the faith of those who follow such is never, can never be fully vested. The inference is that faith is not fully vested by a Buddhist until such time as he has perceived that the system works, or ought to work.
[MN.12] Mahā-Sīhanāda-Sutta, The Long Challenge, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A bhikkhu who left the order is going around saying that there is nothing extraordinary about Gotama or his doctrine. Gotama, hering of this persons opinion replies with a wide-ranging rebuttal listing the wonderous aspects of his awakening and the scope of his knowledge.
[MN.13] Mahā-Dukkha-kkhandha-Sutta, The Longer Story of Ill, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A detailed exposition of what constitutes the pleasure, the danger, and the escape from the five senses, forms, and sense experience.
[MN.14] Mahā-Dukkha-kkhandha-Sutta, The Longer Story of Ill, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Mahanama the Sakkyan, lamenting over his state of confusion with regard to pleasures of the senses, is given a detailed exposition of what constitutes the pleasure and the danger of the five senses, the thing that is binding Mahanama to confusion, and the way the Buddha himself escaped such confusion. The Buddha then describes an encounter with some Jains wherein he defeats their claim that the end of pain is to be got through pain by showing them that they are practicing their painful austerities without any support in knowledge or understanding and concludes with a description of the exceptional pleasure which he is able to attain.
[MN.15] Anumāna-Sutta, Reflection, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Maha Moggallana gives the bhikkhus a discourse on self-evaluation.
[MN.16] Ceto-Khila-Sutta, The Heart's Fallows and Bondages, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Rhys Davids 'Buddhist Suttas' translation, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Five things that are like spikes through the heart.
[MN.17] Vana-Pattha-Sutta, Ubi Bene, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha gives a dissertation on how to evaluate whether or not a bhikkhu should continue to live in a forest, in a small town, in a city, in a district or dependent on the support of an individual.
A very useful sutta for day-to-day practice.

 

new Sunday, January 10, 2016 5:12 AMAŋguttara Nikāya, Tika Nipāto
[AN.3.1-10] The Book of the Threes, I. The Fool, Suttas 1-10, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Woodward translations, (the Woodward suttas are on individual files, this link is to the Index) and for #2, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Various suttas dealing with thoughts about the fool and the wise man.
The following Bhikkhu Bodhi suttas are all linked to the Pali and whatever other translations there are available for this sutta.
[AN.3.11] Well Known, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Advising three things leads many people astray, advising the three opposite things leads them to their advantage.
[AN.3.12] To Be Remembered, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three places which should be remembered by a Warlord and in a similar way the three places which should be remembered by a bhikkhu.
[AN.3.13] A Bhikkhu, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha compares worldly ambitions with those of the bhikkhus.
[AN.3.14] Wheel-Turning, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha compares the duty to the Dhamma of a Buddha to the duty to the Dhamma of a Wheel-rolling King.
[AN.3.15] Pacetana, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells a story of his former birth as a wheelwright to illustrate how the person of crooked formation fails and the one of flawless construction stands fast.
[AN.3.16] The Unmistaken, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha describes three pracices which conduce to certainty of attaining the wise course.
[AN.3.17] Oneself, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three modes of behavior which are oppressive of self, others, and both, three that are not oppressive.
[AN.3.18] Deva, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The bhikkhus find the idea of rebirth in heaven repugnant, but more repugnant than that is the idea of bad behavior of body, speech and mind.
[AN.3.19] Shopkeeper (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha compares the reasons for the success or failure of a shopkeeper to the reasons for the success or failure of a bhikkhu's attainment of serenity.
[AN.3.20] Shopkeeper (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha compares the attributes of a successful businessman to the attributes of a bhikkhu successful at making headway in the acquiring of skillful states.
[AN.3.21] Saviṭṭha the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three elders differ on the best of three forms of Stream-entry and submit the question to the Buddha.
This sutta deals with three sorts of attainments: Kāya-sakkhī, the 'body-with-eyes' one who has seen the true nature of body with his own eyes, so at least provisionally: 'body-knower'; Diṭṭha-ppatto, the 'view-secured' (bowled, in-the-bowl, bagged); and Saddhā-vimutto, the 'faith-freed'. The Buddha makes it clear that these are modes or types of practice that have lead to stream-entry, they are not levels in a heierarchy. Any one of the three may be working for arahantship, or non-returning or once-returning. The body witness is one who has made jhāna practice his main focus. The view-attainer has made perception of the truth of the teachings the main focus of his practice. The faith-freed has made faith in the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha the main focus of his practice.
[AN.3.22] Patients, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Providing medical treatment to three types of persons is likened to teaching Dhamma to three types of persons. One sort of person will not recover whether he receives treatment or not; one will recover whether he receives treatment or not; and one will recover if he receives treatment, but not if he does not. Similarly one sort of person will not gain the path whether he hears Dhamma or not; one will gain the path whether he hears Dhamma or not; and one will gain the path if he hears Dhamma and not if he does not. It is for the sake of the sick man who will recover if he receives medical treatment that providing medical treatment for the sick is not useless. Similarly it is for the sake of the one who will gain the path if he hears Dhamma that teaching Dhamma is not useless.
[AN.3.23] Volitional Activities, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
By identification with intentional deviant, non-deviant or mixed deeds one creates personal experience of deviant, non-deviant or mixed worlds.
"Volitional Activities' is Bhk. Bodhi's translation of Saŋkhāra. The reader should keep in mind that this word is very much like and almost a synonym of 'kamma' and needs to accommodate both the act of creation and the thing that results. The differentiation between this term and kamma is essentially the emphasis put on the personal nature of the creating and the results. To 'sankhara' one identifies with the intent to create personal experience by way of thought, word or deed. The result is personal experience formed by the nature of the intent when creating. (This sutta describes the process.) The word, properly translated must convey this dual nature and this personalizing process. I have suggested 'own-making' Saŋ = own; + khāra = make. and 'the own-made'. What is is not is just 'activities' or 'mental formations' or 'fabrications' or anything else without the sense of those activities etc being the means of constructing one's own personal world. But 'activities' although sankharing is activity, does not relate etymologically with the word at all, and 'mental ... and volitionl' are also 'explanations' unrelated to the word. Sticking closely to the Pali we could get: 'con-struction', 'con-fection,' 'con-juration,' 'co-formation,' etc. But where we have elsewhere the terms 'I-making' and 'My-making' why not also 'Own-making?' What it absolutely is not is 'conditioning'...which translation leads into major misunderstanding of Dhamma. [see: Is Nibbana Conditioned?] For the various terms used by other translators visit the Glossology page.
[AN.3.24] Helpful, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
By having brought him to three things a person is said to have done more than anyone else in the world for another person.
[AN.3.25] Diamond, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three sorts of individuals are found in the world, one with a mind like an open sore, one with lightning-like insight, and one with the diamond's ability to cut through even the hardest matters.
[AN.3.26] To Be Associated With, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Advice for selecting one's companions and teachers: except out of compassion and consideration avoid persons less advanced in ethical standards, serenity, and wisdom; associate with those who are equal to one in these things; venerate and follow those who are more advanced.
[AN.3.27] Disgust, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Further advice as to the selection of one's companions.
[AN.3.28] Speech Like Dung, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha characterizes three sorts of speech: The one who gives false testimony is like dung; the one who gives true testimony is like flowers; the one who having abandoned harsh speech, abstains from harsh speech, speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and lovable, as go to the heart, are courteous, desired by many, and agreeable to many is like honey.
[AN.3.29] Blind, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Two sorts of vision: for material gain and for gain of good states; three sorts of persons: one who sees neither, one who has eyes only for material gain and one who sees both.
[AN.3.30] Inverted, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three sorts of persons: one who doesn't listen, one who listens but forgets; and one who listens and retains what he has heard.
[AN.3.31] Brahmā, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
High praise for those families where Mother and Father are worshipped. Likened to Brahma, Teachers of Old, worthy of offerings.
[AN.3.32] Ānanda, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Ananda asks the Buddha whether or not there is a state of samadhi in which there is no I-making or My-Making and yet there is liberation of the heart by wisdom. The Buddha replies that this state is attained thinking: "This is sanity, this is the pinnacle, that is, the calming of all own-making, the forsaking of upkeep, the destruction of thirst, dispassion, ending, Nibbana."
I don't know what better case I could make for the translation of 'saŋkāra' as 'own-making' than this sutta where the ideas "I-making" ahaŋkāra and "my-making" mamaŋkāra and "own-making" saŋkāra are set side by side. If you wanted to say "I-making" and "my-making" in one word what would you say if not "own-making"?
[AN.3.32 (WP 33)] Sāriputta, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The PTS Pali and Woodward's translation and my translation have this as a continuation of #32 and the numbering of these Wisdom Publications suttas will be off by one from here to #38/39 where a condensation occurs which brings the numbering back in sequence with the PTS Pali on which the numbering system of this site is based.
The Buddha speaks about his ability to teach in brief or in detail or both ways and the rarity of those who understand.

 

In brief, do I, Sāriputta set forth Dhamma;

In detail, do I, Sāriputta, set forth Dhamma;

In brief and in detail, do I, Sāriputta, set forth Dhamma —

Yet those who understand are hard to find.

 

[AN.3.33 (WP 34)] Causes, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The three points at which kamma originates and the three where kamma is ended.
The word here to understand is 'nidāna'. Nidana = Down-bound. The 'nidana' is the first knot beginning the weaving process (kamma — pun certainly intended). Too often inappropriately translated 'cause' (as here in all translations but my own). In casual English, 'cause' is understood less as the force of creation than as simply something that happens co-insidentally: 'just because'; in precise English, 'cause' is always an imprecise concept. To make a cup of tea what is required is a cup, water, tea-leaves, a heat source, the effort of an individual and a thousand other things that are necessary for these things to exist. Which of these is the 'cause' of a cup of tea? Or a disease? Or Pain? At best one should always use 'proximate cause' or 'economic cause' but better would be to forget this idea altogether and train your thinking to understanding the idea of 'dependence'. Nidana means more like 'tied up in/to' involved with, but also 'beginning' which is the basis for the other often used translation 'foundation', 'basis.' It is also the first 'condition' necessary to begin weaving. Here what is indicated by the context is a way to say 'There are three "factors based on which" "tied to which" "dependent upon which" action begins.' "Tied-up with," "bound-up in" "Tied down to".
[AN.3.34 (WP 35)] Hatthaka, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha explains to Prince Hatthaka how it is that he can sleep well outdoors in the cold of winter.
[AN.3.35 (WP 36)] Messengers, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three of Yama's messengers, old age, sickness and death, warn man to shape up as he is subject to the same destiny.
[AN.3.36 (WP 37)] Kings (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The gods of the four directions observe the behavior of mankind as to whether or not there is reverence for mother and father, shamen and brahmins, elders of the clan, observance of the uposttha including the wakeful watch and whether or not men do good works. If they see men do these things they are happy, otherwise not so happy.
[AN.3.37 (WP 38)] Kings (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha shows how Sakka's pointing to himself as an example of a fitting reward for observing uposatha and behavior in accordance with the precepts is not suitable.
[AN.3.38-39 (WP 39)] Delicate, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Gotama describes how even though he was exceedingly delicately nurtured, shame at being subject to aging, sickness and death caused him to let go of pride in youth, health and life itself. Then Gotama describes how pride in youth, health and life lead to behavior that does not end well for bhikkhus as well as commoners.
[AN.3.40] Authorities, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The bhikkhu who has given up the household life to seek an end to pain who then indulges a variety of low thoughts is encouraged to put his better self in charge or to make himself aware that there are those in the world who can read his thoughts and by that put the world in charge, or to remind himself that the Dhamma was well taught by Gotama for just this purpose and to put the Dhamma in charge, and by one or another of these means overcome his misguided ways.
[AN.3.41] Present, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three things that need to be present in order to create great good kamma: faith in the results of good deeds, the good deed, and a detached recipient.
[AN.3.42] Cases, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three things by which one of faith can be recognized: desire to see the ethically advanced, desire to hear true Dhamma, living free of the stingy grip of greed.
[AN.3.43] Advantages, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
On the factors to be considered by one who would give a dissertation on Dhamma.
[AN.3.44] Smooth Flow, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three things which define the meaning of 'profitable talk.'
[AN.3.45] The Wise, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three things praised by the wise and good: charity, homelessness and care of parents.
[AN.3.46] Virtuous, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
A virtuous bhikkhu living in dependence on a village gives the inhabitants a great opportunity to make good kamma.
[AN.3.47] Conditioned, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three constructed-characteristics of the constructed. Similar to but importantly different than the well-known 'Three Characteristics'
See the introduction to my translation for my argument as to why translating 'saŋkhata' as 'condition' is a serious mistake.
[AN.3.48] Mountains, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
An inspirational sutta urging leaders of groups to set a good example.
[AN.3.49] Ardor, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three occasions for putting forth extra energy.
[AN.3.50] A Master Thief, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three ways a great bandit and a corrupt bhikkhu are similar.
[AN.3.51] Two Brahmins (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Two old brahmins panicked by impending death seek comfort from Gotama.
Note how casually it is mentioned, and how expected it appears to be that these men should have reached 120 years of age.
[AN.3.52] Two Brahmins (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Two old brahmins panicked by impending death seek comfort from Gotama.
[AN.3.53] A Certain Brahmin, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha explains the meaning of 'Seen in this life is Dhamma'.
[AN.3.54] A Wanderer, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha explains the meaning of 'Seen in this life is Dhamma'.

 

new Tuesday, January 05, 2016 6:00 AMThera-Gāthā, The Psalms of the Early Buddhists, Volume II: Psalms of the Brethren, translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids.
Linked to the Pali and where available to the translations of Bhikkhu Thanissaro.
[THAG 1] Subhūti.
[THAG 4] Puṇṇa of the Mantānis
[THAG 5] Dabba of the Mallas
[THAG 240] Sankicca

 

new Sunday, January 03, 2016 8:31 AMTherī-Gāthā, The Psalms of the Early Buddhists, Volume I: Psalms of the Sisters, translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids.
Linked where available to the translations of Bhikkhu Thanissaro.
Verses which should be especially inspiring to women. Frequently making a declaration of arahantship, often expressing relief from being oppressed by the role of woman.
[THIG.III] Canto III. Psalms of Three Verses.
There is one case [XXXIII] in this Canto of a woman becoming Arahant while still a lay-woman.
[THIG.IV] Canto IV. Psalms of Four Verses.
[THIG.V] Canto V. Psalms of Five Verses.
See especially the story of Paṭācārā!
[THIG.VI] Canto VI. Psalms of Six Verses.
In this Canto see especially Great Pajāpatī, the Gotamid, the Buddha's aunt and the first bhikkhunī and Sujātā, another who attained arahantship while still a lay-woman.
[THIG.VII] Canto VII. Psalms of Seven Verses.
[THIG.VIII] Canto VIII. Psalm of Eight Verses.
[THIG.IX] Canto IX. Psalm of Nine Verses.
[THIG.X] Canto X. Psalm of Eleven Verses.
These are the verses of the woman who, asking the Buddha for a cure for her dead child was sent out to look for a mustard seed from a house where no death had occurred.
[THIG.XI] Canto XI. Psalm of Twelve Verses.
[THIG.XII] Canto XII. Psalm of Sixteen Verses.
[THIG.XIII] Canto XIII. Psalms of About Twenty Verses.
[THIG.XV] Canto XV. Psalm of Over Fourty Verses.

All of the verses and biographical sketches of Mrs. Rhys Davids translation of the Therīgāthā, The Psalms of the Sisters have now been posted and can be accessed through the Index.

 


"People never cease to change place in relaion to ourselves. In the imperceptible but eternal march of the world, we regard them as motionless, in a moment of vision too brief for us to perceive the motion that is sweeping them on. But we have only to select in our memory two pictures taken of them at different moments, close enough together however for them not to have altered in themselves - perceptibly, that is to say - and the difference between the two pictures is a measure of the displacement that they have undergone in relation to us."

- Marcel Proust, Remembrance of Things Past, Volume II: Cities of the Plain, pg 1054. The definitive French Pleiade edition translated by C.K. Scott Moncrieff and Terence Kilmartin.


 

new Friday, January 01, 2016 6:59 AMMajjhima Nikāya,
[MN 8] Effacement, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Nyanaponika Thera translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Maha Cunda approaches the Buddha to ask how to eliminate ideas of 'I' and 'mine'. The Buddha's response is to give him fourty-four pairs of opposites to be resolved upon, thought of, used as guides to follow, things leading upward and which will scour out ideas of 'I' and 'Mine.'
[MN 22] The Simile of the Snake, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A wide-ranging very famous sutta that begins with a forceful teaching on the dangers of indulgence in sense pleasures. This sutta contains two famous similies: the similie of the snake illustrating how a wrong grasp of the Dhamma is like taking hold of a poisonous snake from the wrong end; and the simile of the raft illustrating how the Dhamma should be used to attain it's ends and then be let go. The sutta concludes with a thorough examination of the way 'not self' should be considered.
[MN 32] The Greater Discourse in Gosinga, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A group of the Buddha's great disciples gather together on a beautiful moonlit night in Gosinga Woods with the air perfumed by the Sal Tree blossoms. They each, in turn, describe the sort of bhikkhu they feel would illuminate this woods. Then, unable to descide whose proposition was best, they visit the Buddha to ask his opinion. The Buddha approves all their opinions and adds his own contribution.
[MN 47] The Inquirer, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the M. Olds exerpt/translation/discussion and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha goes into detail concerning how one should examine one who claims to have attained the goal.
[MN 52] The Man from Aṭṭhakanāgara, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
In this sutta Ananda explains to a householder how Arahantship can be attained via any single one of eleven different avenues.
The avenues are any one of the four jhanas, the brahmaVihāras, or the arupa jhanas up to the Realm of No Thing's to be Had. The effeciant cause of the attainment, it is clear, is not the jhana or meditative state, but the insight that that state itself has been own-made and is impermanent.
[MN 54] To Potaliya, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains in detail what it means to have given up all avocations in this Dhamma.
[MN 57] The Dog-duty Ascetic, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Two ascetics, one who's asceticism was to practice the behavior of a dog, the other who's asceticism was to practice the behavior of an ox question the Buddha as to the outcomes of their practices.
A good, clear explanation of the workings of kamma.
[MN 60] The Incontrovertible Teaching, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains a logical way to behave when faced with uncertainty as to what one should believe.
This sutta should be read by every skeptic and every realist who can see of himself that he does not know or see such things as the workings of kamma, rebirth according to one's deeds, the existence of Heaven and Hell, gods, God or the Devil, etc. The logic of the sutta is incontrovertable, indeed. It only makes sense to cover your bets. To hold the position that 'there is no' (kamma, God, etc.) is actually to say that one 'knows,' and to say that one knows means that one is claiming to know all. How else could one know that 'there was not'? If a thing exists, it can be seen. Perhaps not by everyone, but sooner or later it can be seen. If a thing does not exist, one would need to see absolutely everything to know that it did not exist. And then, maybe you missed something. Then, too, to say that one knows that 'there is not' is to say that one knows more than those who have said that 'there is.' That is 'exalting one's self and disparaging others.'
I think Bhk. Bodhi's understanding of what he calls 'The Doctrine of Non-doing' is not well reflected in his choice of sub-title for this section. The idea is not that this is a doctrine of 'Not-doing', but that this is a doctrine where people believe that there is no kammic result of deeds, no 'doing' in the sense of creating consequences. It is saying that there is 'no bad (or good) action' 'kamma' 'action' or 'doing,' not 'no doing'. The idea 'bad' or 'good' implies 'consequences.' Certainly we can see with our own eyes that 'doing' has occurred. 'Kamma' here is being translated one-sidedly, that is only as the 'doing', but the idea of the 'doctrine' is that there is no 'result' (the other side of 'kamma'.) Buddhism itself can be characterized as a doctrine of 'not-doing': 'the not doing of unskillful deeds.' For example, the intent to not do a kammic deed identified with own-making in thought, word, or deed.
There is a similar misplaced emphasis in Bhk. Thanissaro's "Action and Non-Action."
[MN 70] At Kīṭāgiri, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Two bhikkhus are taken to task for disparaging the rule about eating at impropper times. Includes a description of Seven sorts of Persons pointing out which have nothing more to do and which have something more to do.
[MN 75] To Māgandiya, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Wanderer Magandiya is raised from a view based on faith that health is the greatest good and that this is Nibbana to an understanding of the satisfactions, the dangers and he escape from pleasures of the senses.
[MN 77] The Greater Discourse to Sakuludāyin, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
In a discourse which amounts to a full course in Awakening the Buddha teaches Sakuludayi and his followers the reasons his disciples admire and follow him.
[MN 82] On Raṭṭhapāla, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Walter Lupton translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The story of Ratthapala who, inspired by a Dhammatalk given by the Buddha wishes to enter the order but is refused the permission of his parents. He vows to die on the spot unless he receives permission and after many pleadings by his parents and friends finally gets his parents concent. He thereafter quickly becomes arahant. On revisiting his family he is first unrecognized and subjected to abuse, then his father tries to tempt him to return to the world with gold and his former wives. He is not persuaded and delivers a sermon in verses on the subject of the pains in the world. Still later he discourses to the king on four doctrines of the Buddha concerning the futility of living in the world.
[MN 95] With Caŋkī, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha points out the flaws in reliance on faith, inclination, report, consideration of reasons, reflection on and approval of an opinion and describes the path that leads to seeing the truth of a proposition for one's self.

At this point all the available Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed. suttas of the Majjhima Nikaya have been uploaded and linked to the Pali and the various other translations available.

 

Five Unreliable Ways of Determing the Truth

Five things that cannot be relied upon for concluding that a thing is true because they can be seen to be sometimes true and sometimes not and the reverses of each are similarly sometimes true and sometimes not.
For example: Something held to be true because it is agreeable can be incorrect; something held to be false because it is disagreeable can be true.

Pāli Olds Horner Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro
Saddhā Faith Faith Faith Conviction
Ruci Delight Inclination Approval Liking
Anussava Hear-say Report Oral Tradition Unbroken Tradition
Ākāra-parivitakka Formulating through reasoning Consideration of Reasons Reasoned Cogitation Reasoning by Analogy
Diṭṭhi-nijjhānakkhan Acceptance or satisfaction with an insight arising from a point of view Reflection on and approval of Opinion Reflective Acceptance of a View Agreement through Pondering Views

These same five things, however are the ways truth may be preserved down through time.

How to Awaken to the Truth

Examine the teacher as to bodily and verbal behavior with regard to states of Lust, Anger and Delusion.

Is he in the contol of these states such that he might, not knowing, not seeing, say: "I know" or "I see"?

Is he in the control of these states such that he might urge others to act to their detriment?

Does the Doctrine of this teacher lead to dispassion, giving up, letting go, detachment and freedom? A Doctrine that is profound, hard to see and hard to understand, peaceful and sublime, unattainable by mere reasoning, subtle, to be experience by the wise each for himself here in this visible state, for such Doctrine is not easily taught by one in the control of lust, anger and delusion.

After determining that this teacher is in control of these states such that he would not, not knowing, not seeing, say: "I know' or "I see," and would not urge others to act to their detriment, then only:

Pāli Olds Horner Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro
saddhaɱ Niveseti Repose Faith Upon Reposes Faith in Places Faith Places Conviction
upasaŋkamanto payirupāsati Reposing Faith, approach respectfully near Draws close and sits down near by Visits and pays respect Visits and grows close
payirupāsanto sotaɱ odahati Respectfully give ear Lends Ear Gives Ear Lends Ear
dhammaɱ suṇāti Giving Ear, Listen to Dhamma Hears Dhamma Hears Dhamma Hears Dhamma
sutvā dhammaɱ dhāreti Having Listened, Retain Heard Dhamma Remembers Memorizes Remembers
dhāritānaɱ dhammānaɱ atthaɱ upaparikkhati Having Retained, Grasp the Profit in the Retained as Heard Tests the Meaning Examines the Meaning Penetrates the Meaning
dhammā nijjhānaɱ khamanti Having Grasped the Profit, repose satisfaction with or acceptance of the insight arising from this Dhamma Approves Reflectively Accepts Comes to Agreement through Pondering
dhamma-nijjhānakkhantiyā sati chando jāyati There Being Satisfaction with the insight arising from this Dhamma, Wish is born Desire is born Zeal Springs Up Desire Arises
ussahati Wish Born, there is daring to do Makes an Effort Applies Will Becomes Willing
tulayati Daring to Do there is Taking Measures Weighs Up Scrutinizes Contemplates, Weighs Up
pahadati Taking Measures there is Taking Steps Strives Strives Makes Exertion
pahitatto samāno kāyena c'eva paramasaccaɱ sacchikaroti,||
paññāya ca taɱ ativijjha passati
Having taken steps, the shaman, bodily embraces the truth and thus wisely, with his very own vision, sees. being self-resolute he realises with his person the highest truth itself; and penetrating it by means of intuitive wisdom, he sees. Resolutely striving, he realises with the body the ultimate truth and sees it by penetrting it with wisdom. Exerting himself, he both realizes the ultimate meaning of the truth with his body and sees by penetrating it with discernment.

Securing Truth

The above practice brings one to the state of having wakened to the truth. To secure that awakening one must repeat this practice again and again.

 

Caution! While is is often very helpful for understanding a term to know the translations of that term in another language, many translations of the Suttas in languages other than English are not translations from the Pali at all, but are translations from English language translations. Consequently there is the possiblity of error being propagated across languages. So both those reading about Buddhism for the first time from a language other than English, and those English-speakers consulting other languages for insight should be careful to check the source! Your refuge is the Pali.

 


Welcome Friend!
CONTINUED: The listings for:

What's New? 2015What's New? 2014What's New? 2010-2013

 



Contact:
E-mail
Copyright Statement   Webmaster's Page