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 [Dittha-Dhamma Loka-Dhamma]


 

Welcome Friend!

2020

newWhat's New?

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buddhadust.net and obo.genaud.net


Download the Latest Zip Version of the Site:
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Individual articles on this page can be linked-to by appending '#' sign plus the abridged form of the entry date [e.g. #O.2.21.19]
to the end of the url in the address bar.
For example: ~/dhammatalk/dhammatalk_forum/whats.new.htm#O.2.21.19

 


 

Arahantship from the First Gnosis (Jhāna)

I hear tell at one time
the householder Dasama of Aṭṭhaka
asked Ānanda about attaining arahantship:

"Is there, bhante Ānanda,
any one practice
pointed out by that Lucky Man who knows,
who sees,
arahant,
the #1 perfectly Self-Awakened One,
whereby if a beggar lives without carelessness,
ardent,
determined,
his not yet freed mind,
is freed;
or the not yet completely eradicated corrupting influences,
are completely eradicated;
or the not yet attained
unsurpassed freedom from bondage
is attained?"

"As to this, householder, a beggar,
separated from
sensuality
separated from
unskillful things,
still re-thinking,
still re-evaluating,
appreciating the pleasure born of separation,
enters
and makes a habitat of
the First Gnosis.

Concerning this, he says to himself:

'This first gnosis
is just the product
of a higher sort of own-making,
a higher sort of intent.

Whatever is a product
of own-making,
of intent,
is transient,
subject to ending.'

Taking this as his stand
he attains the eradication
of the corrupting influences.

But if he does not attain the complete eradication
of the corrupting influences,
by his devotion to Dhamma,
by his delight in Dhamma,
by the elimination
of the five yokes to the lower,
he gets spontaneous upward promotion,
attaining nibbāna that way,
not subject to turning back.

MN 52 adapted from Ms. Horner's translation.

 


 

Oblog: [O.3.23.20] Monday, March 23, 2020 2:36 PM

"It Can't Happen
without It

Cause"

The Paṭicca Samuppada is not a theory
about how cause and effect works to bring about birth and death;
it is a formula showing the causal associations
that lead to birth and death
that are visible to the ordinary individual
and which can and must be eliminated
in order to eliminate birth and death.

 

If you must think in terms of 'cause', think:

Causal Association, or,
Proximate cause or,
Economic cause.

This way you leave 'cause' as a mystery
and focus on what you are actually able to see for yourself
and do something about,
that is:

Whatever may be the actual cause for our subjective experience of
aging sickness and death,
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair,
we can see that without birth,
there would be no aging sickness and death,
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair for us.

We can see that:

Birth is causally associated with
aging sickness and death,
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair.

and then we can ask:

Without what would we not come to birth?

We can see that:

Whatever may be the actual cause of our birth,
without existence,
there would be no birth for us.

We can see that:

Existence is causally associated
with birth.

and then we can ask:

Without what would we not come into existence?

We can see that:

Whatever may be the actual cause of our existence,
without fuel in support thereof,
(wishes, wantings, planning and taking action,
intended to create the experience of existence,)
there would be no existence for us.

We can see that:

Fuel in support of existence,
is causally associated
with existence.

and then we can ask:

Without what would there be no fuel and support for our existence?

We can see that:

Whatever may be the actual cause of our fueling and supporting existence,
without thirst for pleasure,
thirst for existence
and thirst for non-existence,
there would be no fuel and support for existence.

Thirst,
is causally associated
with existence.

and then we can ask:

Without what would we have no
thirst for pleasure,
thirst for existence, or
thirst for non-existence?

We can see that:

Whatever may be the actual cause of our thirst,
without sense-experience,
we would have no
thirst for pleasure,
thirst for existence, or
thirst for non-existence.

Sense-experience,
is causally associated
with thirst.

and then we can ask:

Without what would we have no sense experience?

We can see that:

Whatever may be the actual cause of our sense experience,
without contact,
we would have no sense experience.

Contact
is causally associated,
with sense experience.

and then we can ask:

Without what would we have no contact?

We can see that:

Whatever may be the actual cause of contact,
without the six realms of sense
we would have no contact.

The six realms of sense
are causally associated
with contact.

and then we can ask:

Without what would we have no contact with the six realms of sense?

We can see that:

Whatever may be the actual cause of our contact with the six realms of sense,
without named-forms,
we would have no contact with the six realms of sense.

Named-forms
are causally associated
with contact with the six realms of sense.

and then we can ask:

Without what would we have no contact with named-forms?

We can see that:

Whatever may be the actual cause of our contact with named-forms,
without sense-consciousness,
there would be no contact with named forms.

Sense-consciousness
is causally associated
with named forms.

and then we can ask:

Without what would we have no sense-consciousness?

We can see that:

Whatever may be the actual cause of our sense-consciousness,
without named-forms,
we would have no sense-consciousness.

Named-forms
are causally associated
with sense-consciousness.

and then we can ask:

Without what would we have no
sense-consciousness associated with named forms,
and named-forms associated with consciousness?

and see that:

Whatever may be the actual cause of our having
sense-consciousness of named forms,
and named-forms associated with sense-consciousness,
without identification with the intent
to create experience for the self
by way of thoughts, words and deeds,
(own-making for short),
there would be no sense-consciousness associated with named forms,
and named-forms associated with sense-consciousness for us.

Own-making
is causally associated
with sense-consciousness associated with named forms,
and named-forms associated with sense-consciousness.

and then we can ask:

Without what would we do no own-making?

and see that:

Whatever may be the actual cause of our own-making
without blindness to the consequences
in aging, sickness and death,
grief and lamantation,
pain and misery,
and despair,
we would do no own-making.

Blindness
is causually associated,
with own-making.

At which point we will be able to see that:

By eliminating the factors
causually associated with it,
we can reasonably assume that
aging sickness and death,
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair
will not come into existence for us.

That by abstaining
from identification with the intent
to create experience for the self
by way of thoughts, words and deeds,
(own-making for short),
we will eliminate the subjective sense-consciousness
causally associated with named forms;

by eliminating the subjective sense-consciousness
causally associated with named forms
we will eliminate the subjective experience of named forms;

by eliminating the subjective experience of named forms,
we will eliminate
the subjecive experience of named forms associated with consciousness

by eliminating the subjective experience of named forms associated with sense-consciousness,
we will eliminate the subjective experience of the six realms of sense

by eliminating the the subjective experience of six realms of sense,
we will eliminate the subjective experience of contact;

by eliminating the subjective experience of contact,
we will eliminate the subjective experience of sense experience;

by eliminating the subjective experience of sense experience,
we will eliminate the subjective experience of thirst,

by eliminating the subjective experience of thirst,
we will eliminate personally fueling the subjective experience of existence in the realms of existence;

by eliminating personally fueling the subjective experience of existence in the realms of existence,
we will eliminate the subjective experience of existence;

by eliminating the subjective experience of existence,
we will eliminate the subjective experience of birth;

by eliminting the subjective experience of birth,
we will eliminate the subjective experience of
aging sickness and death,
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair.

And seeing that that was what we set out to do,
we can know:

"Left behind is rebirth
lived is the Godly life
done is what we set out to do,
no more is there for us,
this side or that side,
no more being any sort of 'it'
in any place of 'atness'."

 


 

Oblog: [O.3.22.20] Sunday, March 22, 2020 9:11 AM

"Beggars, The Sower does not sow a crop
for herds of animals,
thinking:

'Let the herds,
enjoying this crop sown by me,
flourish in good condition
for many a long day.'

Beggars, The Sower sows the crop
for herds of animals
thinking:

'The herds will eat fodder
partaking entranced
of this crop sown by me;
partaking entranced
and eating the fodder,
they will get elated;
being elated
they will get careless;
being careless
they will become those
to be dealt with
according to my will.'

Adapted from Horner's translation of MN 25.

 


 

Oblog: [O.3.19.20] Thursday, March 19, 2020 7:19 AM

There are several variations on the formula for the First Jhāna to be found on this site; today I would translate the formula as follows:

Separated from
sensuality
separated from
unskillful things,
still re-thinking,
still re-evaluating,
appreciating the pleasure born of separation,
enter
and make a habitat of
the First Gnosis.

Vivicca: 'Separated from', 'divorced from', 'aloof from', 'having put away', 'secluded from'. All these are good. What is not good is any word indicating suppression. Suppression requires continued contact and what we are after here is no contact at all.

Kāmehi: Sensual desires; sensuality; thinking erotic thoughts, but also any thoughts of a similar nature implying indulgence in sense pleasures as in fantasizing about lunch. Unless you have practiced that it be otherwise you resort to lustful thoughts about every 29 seconds all day every day. Not a skillful use of Time.

Akusalehi dhammehi: unskillful things. At the very moment when you sit down, your intent goes from indulgence in the unskillful to attention to the skillful. That, along with an appreciation of the advantages of solitude, is, in essence, the entry to the First Jhāna. But do not make the mistake of thinking that you have 'got' the First Jhāna or that that is all there is to it. The First Jhāna is not 'got', what you have got is a good example of the method: progress is made in this system by abandoning (nekkhamma) — the first principle: saŋkappa. The First Jhāna is what you have left after abandoning unskillful things. It is here, in this state that one does ones Dhamma Vicaya; research into the way things really are; yoniso manasikara: tracing things back to their point of origin; Dhamma re-evaluation; re-evaluation of your ethical standards and all the other problems associated with the discrepancy between your self subject to pain and freedom of mind. Attend to these things before you even think about 'getting' the second jhāna.

There are those who say there is no 'thinking' in the jhānas. So they condemn those who follow this notion to doing all their Dhamma Vicaya in the unskillful state of worldly consciousness. That this could result in clear thinking is not reasonable.

Sa-vitakka: Sa = 'with'; takka = thinking. Push it a little and I think that 'still' could be found in 'sa'; but the point is that 'with' means that while prior to sitting you were thinking, now in this first jhāna you are still thinking. The only difference being that the thinking now is skillful where previously it was unskillful.

On re-thinking: thoughts arise from the outside as incomplete fragments; when you string them together in mind to make a coherant thought, it is re-thinking. But because we USAmericans have not, as a people placed much value on our minds, we do not have words that as precisely as this describe what is really happening, that is, that the process of thinking is a matter of repeatedly bringing to mind and arranging and re-arranging perceptions or fragmentary thoughts to form coherant (at least to some) thoughts and (all too often) subsequent speech.

Sa-vicāraɱ With Re-Evaluation. Pondering. 'Cāra' has the sense of lifting up and moving around with setting down implied but not in the word. Once a re-thought thought has been coherantly formed, it is then reviewed and evaluated and altered to fit the inquiry. 'Turning over in the mind' is another way of saying the same thing. What was wanted here was a word that had in it the idea that this too was a thing that was done and redone again and again in the mind. Otherwise 'pondering' would also do.

Viveka-jaɱ pīti-sukhaɱ This is the appreciation of the peace and quiet that comes from being alone for a good spell. Viveka-jam: separation-born; pīti: appreciation; sukhaɱ: pleasure.

Upasampajja: Rise up into; vihārati: abide in, live in, inhabit, make a habit of.

Paṭhamaɱ: the first; jhānaɱ: knowing, gnosis.

Vivicca||
kāmehi||
vivicca||
akusalehi dhammehi||
sa-vitakkaɱ||
sa-vicāraɱ||
viveka-jaɱ pīti-sukhaɱ||
paṭhamaɱ jhānaɱ upasampajja vihārati.
|| ||


Bhk. Thanissaro, in his translation of MN 14, note 5, says, in reference to the statement in that sutta:

"Nigaṇṭha Nāṭaputta ... has told us, "Nigaṇṭhas, there are evil actions that you have done in the past.

Exhaust them with these painful austerities.

When in the present you are restrained in body, restrained in speech, and restrained in mind, that is the non-doing of evil action for the future.

Thus, with the destruction of old actions through asceticism, and with the non-doing of new actions, there will be no flow into the future.

With no flow into the future, there is the ending of action.

With the ending of action, the ending of stress.

With the ending of stress, the ending of feeling.

With the ending of feeling, all suffering and stress will be exhausted."

"One of the great ironies in the history of Buddhism is the extent to which teachings that the Buddha clearly disapproved of, such as this one, have later been taught as quintessentially Buddhist. In some circles, a teaching similar to this one — that non-reactivity to pain burns away the impurity of past kamma and creates no new kamma for the future — is still taught as Buddhist to this day."

First of all the statement that "non-reactivity to pain burns away the impurity of past kamma and creates no new kamma for the future" is not even what Nigaṇṭha Nāṭaputta is saying.

Then Bhk. Thanissaro does not give us the exact wording of the "teaching similar to this one" so we have no basis for comparison.

Now here on this site the statement that could, for a careless ear, be heard as 'similar to this' is made thus:

"Practice non-reaction to the thirst (taṇhā) that results from sense experience created by past kamma."

Practice 'response' in its place.

What response?

Intentionally not reacting.

When in the present you are
restrained in body,
restrained in speech,
and restrained in mind,
that is the non-doing of evil action for the future.

Thus, with the destruction of old actions through non-reaction,
and with the non-doing of new unskillful (unrestrained) actions,
there will be no kammic flow into the future.

No kammic flow into the future is the ending of kamma.

With the ending of kamma,
the ending of pain.

It is not certain that Bhk. Thanissaro had this site in mind, but it comes close enough that an ... um ... response seemed advisable for the sake of clarity.

 


 

Oblog: [O.3.16.20] Monday, March 16, 2020 6:55 AM

What happens to this and all the other digital libraries if the worst happens and the electrical grid goes down?

Or, as my father used to say:

"Where would you be without your Mother?"

Just saying! You might want to consider printing out hard copies of your favoret suttas and their translations. Order hard copies from the Pali Text Society.


"Whatever are, bhante, those variously-composed views appearing in the world
reflecting a self yoked to experience of self or
reflecting a self yoked to experience of the world —
is it possible to let go such views,
is it possible to reject such views,
at the very start of a beggars making of mind?"

"Whatever are, Cunda, those variously-composed views appearing in the world
reflecting a self yoked to experience of self or
reflecting a self yoked to experience of the world —
wherever these views appear, and
wherever they lead in consequence, and
wherever they are in use,
thinking:

'This is not mine,'
'This is not me,'
'This is not my self,'
seeing whatever it is
as it is
with consummate wisdom,
it is possible to let go such views,
it is possible to reject such views."

MN 8

To think etaɱ mama, 'this is mine', is to be in the grip of craving.

To think eso aham asmi, 'I am this', is to be in the grip of pride.

To think eso me attā, 'this is my self', is to be in the grip of wrong view.

MA. i. 183. Quoted from footnotes in the Horner translation.

 


 

Oblog: [O.3.13.20] Friday, March 13, 2020 6:50 PM

What the Dhamma is telling us that we should hear,
when you hear
"Appamāda means 'Non-Carelessness', or
'without carelessness'"
is not "Be Careful", or
"Dilligence", or
"Heedfulness",
but "Be on the watch-out for Carelessness."

Its a matter of the direction of your focus. If you saw the world as it really is, you would know that being careful is the natural state and that it is corrupted from without by and as a result of carelessness. So you don't want to be worrying about being careful where you are already being careful which is what you would be doing if you understood Appamāda to be telling you to be careful; you want to be paying attention to those signs that indicate that you might be slipping into carelessness. That is why this word is given so much importance in the Suttas.


Now I have a good one for you. Give Ear!:

Remourse and self-recrimination
over some past deed poorly done
is itself bad kamma.

How so?

Its the difference between
passively experiencing and active doing:
self-recrimination is an active doing.

Punishing yourself by self-recrimination is taking on a role somewhat beyond your standing in the matter. ... and it isn't going to let you off.

Active doing is kamma.

Sucha one is making himself feel bad
about an anticipated unpleasant sensation, or
about having experienced an unpleasant sensation, or
about experiencing an unpleasant sensation
thus capitalizing on the old kamma to create new experience.

That is the whole of the Paticca Samuppada right there.

In the same way as two persons
who act in the same shameful way
intending to cause pain;
both will experience painful experience
in proportion to the intent.

The one experiences the unpleasant sensatins
and "feels guilty"
is ashamed,
heaps abuse upon himself,
etc., etc., etc.;
the other understands kamma
experiences the unpleasant sensations,
and sees:

"This is the consequence
of a former deed
not well done."

And sets out to learn
as much as possible
about doing
the well done.

 


 

Oblog: [O.3.7.20] Saturday, March 07, 2020 6:43 AM

Translating Pali Negative Opposites

Translating Negative Opposites

In the case of the translation of Pali negative opposites, we need to remember that a fundamental principle in this system is intentional not-doing. With this in mind you will see that translating the literal not-something to some word implying doing something would be both a mistranslation and a perversion of the Dhamma.

In this system we go from that which is
to that which no longer is;
not to some other thing that is.

We take a misleading liberty with our translations of negatives into positive opposites, and we short-change English by not making much instuctive use of the negative opposite as we could.

This note will be placed in the 'Give Ear' section of the Forum. Please also note that I have translated the term in the illustration as "Be Careful". That is not-good and will be changed throughout as I find cases.

 


 

Oblog: [O.3.6.20] Friday, March 06, 2020 8:20 AM

Moggallāna's Big Toe
or
Silver Lining Department

Whatever the reality of the Covid-19 virus outbreak turns out to be, what we can see is that it has given a good scare to virtually everyone on the Planet that has access to news. For the first time, for many, this will be an up-close look at how they feel about Death. A true 'wake up' call. There is the possibility that for some who would not have done so naturally, this scare may turn them to an examination of their beliefs and readyness for the world beyond.


While I am dealing with a worldly matter, let me also put foreward a thought on the business much in discussion today of income inequality.

Naturally today the focus is on exactly the wrong aspect of this question.

For me this needs to be seen from two aspects: The righteousness of earning huge amounts of money, and the righteousness of the playing field.

As far as Buddhist doctrines are concerned they are based on the idea of kamma. There is no fault in an individual based strictly on the amount of money they amass or how rapidly they amass it, as long as it is done honestly. Wealth in this system is a result of generosity in the past. To say that earning huge amounts of money was in some way immoral is to point to a morality that is not based on the Buddhist understanding of kamma.

On the other hand, we need to ask: How is the capitalist system any different than the feudal one? In stead of kings of states; we have CEOs. In stead of Lords, we have VPs and Department Heads. Such an organization is not based on kamma or on the reality of the situation, but on privilage and arbitrary favoritism.

Now I have personally heard multi-centi-millionairs state that they earned it all themselves and owe their success strictly to their own efforts. But this is an absurd opinion. I suggest that the expression "ideas are a dime a dozen" points to the reality: ideas, (the basis for the boss justifying his disproportinately large salary) without support from the infrastructure paid for by the people in the past, financing, and competant co-workers, nothing new would get off the ground. It is to the organization of the playing field: the rules set up by the government and the structure of the distribution of earned income within the corporation that needs to be the focus of the concern for equitable income distribution.

It is because the idea of kamma has not been introduced into this dialog that the same battle has been faught since the world began: back and forth, round and round. The terminology of the debate needs to be upgraded.

My say.

 


 

Oblog: [O.2.27.20] Thursday, February 27, 2020 8:01 AM

Tao Te Ching
by Lao-tzu
Translated by J. Legge
Sacred Books of the East, Vol 39 — 1891

This is a work which every educated person should have read. It's relevance here is that it is cited by Rhys Davids in DN 26. But thank goodness for that as this work is full of wise advice. It is also crazy in spots and surely meets the description: There are those of other beliefs who were not supremely enlightened, teaching a doctrine sometimes correct and sometimes not, imparted by one who was not supremely enlightened. The influence of this work on Chinese culture is evident in its rulers even today after the Comunist revolution. Essentially Lao Tsu is describing the way the governer of a state should use intentional not-doing or Wu wei 無爲, which is a basic principle of the Dhamma. There is much for a Buddhist practitioner to learn from this work. Another case of a man born in the wrong time who but for contact with the Dhamma would most certainly have prospered within it. This file will be permanently listed on the Files and Downloads page.

 


 

Oblog: [O.2.21.20] Friday, February 21, 2020 1:01 PM

[SN 2.16.2] Without Compunction, The Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Rhys Davids translation, and the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Maha Kassapa explains the Four Consummate Efforts in detail.

 


 

Oblog: [O.2.16.20] Sunday, February 16, 2020 9:44 AM

"Which of you gentlemen now is able successfully to divide this mighty land so broad on the north end, and so pointy-faced on the south, into seven equal portions?"

—DN 19

Divide Jambudipa into 7 equal parts

Well, ok, maybe not exactly equal in my drawing, but you get the idea.

First: this solves the problem only for a triangle of this shape. A solution to the question more compatable with the Dhamma would be:

To divide this Rose-Apple-Land into seven equal parts, place Mind (sati) in the center portion; on the right place Energy (viriya), Dhamma Research (Dhamma-Vicaya), and Enthusiasm (pīti); on the left place Impassivity (passadhi), Serenity (samādhi) and Detachment (upekkha).

 


 

Oblog: [O.2.14.20] Friday, February 14, 2020 7:09 AM

Buddhism, Its History and Literature, by T.W. Rhys Davids, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1907


On Sankhāra
and
Saɱkhata

Excerpted from: Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1909, "Pali words beginning with 's'," by Dr. Sten Konow, edited and revised by Professor Dines Andersen.

Sankhāra (saŋkhāra, saɱskāra), m., confection, composition, compound, combination, complex, synthesis, aggregate, -ion:

(1) All things which have been brought together, made up, by pre-existing causes, forms, the world of phenomena, S. ii. 193; Dhp. 255, 278.

(2) Aggregate of the conditions or essential properties for a given process or result — e.g.
(i.) the sum of the conditions or properties making up or resulting in life or existence: ayu-saŋkhāra, D. ii. 106; S. ii. 266; bhava-saŋkhāra, jīvita-saŋkhāra, D. ii. 99, 107.
(ii.) Essential conditions, antecedents or synergy (co-ordinated activity), requisite for act, speech, thought: kāyas., [28] vacīs., cittas., or mānos., described respectively as 'respiration,' 'attention and consideration,' 'percepts and feelings,' 'because these are (respectively) bound up with,' or 'precede' those, M. i. 301 (cf. 56); S. iv. 293.

(3) One of the five khandhas, or aggregates of the constituents of organic life (see khandha), comprising all the citta-sampayutta-cetasika dhamma — i.e., the mental concomitants, or adjuncts, which come, or tend to come, into consciousness at the uprising of a citta, or unit of cognition, Dhs. 1 (cf. M. iii. 25); Abh.S. ch. ii. As thus classified, the saŋkhāra's form the mental factor corresponding to the bodily aggregate, or rūpa-k-khandha, and are in contrast to the three khandhas representing a single mental function only. But just as kāya stands for both body and action, so do the concrete mental syntheses called saŋkhārā tend to take on the implication of synergies, of purposive intellection, connoted by the term abhisaŋkhāra, q.v. — e.g., M. iii. 99 f., where saŋkhārā are a purposive, aspiring state of mind to induce a specific rebirth; S. ii. 82, where puññaɱ, apuññaɱ, āṇeñjaɱ saŋkhāra abhi-saŋkharoti, is, in Vibh. 135, catalogued as the three classes of abhisaŋkhāra; S. ii. 39, 360; A. ii. 157, where saŋkhāra is tantamount to sañcetanā; Mil. 61, where saŋkhāra, as khandha, is replaced by cetana (purposive conception). Thus, too, the saŋkhāras in the Paṭicca-samuppāda formula are considered as the aggregate of mental conditions which, under the law of kamma, bring about the inception of the paṭi-sandhi-viññāṇa, or first stirring of mental life in a newly begun individual. Lists of the psychologically, or logically distinguishable factors making up the composite saŋkhāra-k-khandha, with constants and variants, are given for each class of citta in Dh.S. 62, etc. (N.B. — Read cetanā for vedanā, § 338.) Phassa and cetana are the two constant factors in the saŋkhāra-k-khandha. These lists may be compared with the later elaboration of the saŋkhāra-elements given in Vis. Mag., ch. xiv. (J.P.T.S., 1891-93, 131).

Saɱkhata (p.p.p. of saɱkharoti), put together, compound, created, produced from conditions — i.e., by the influence of actions in former births — S. ii. 26; iii. 56; Dh.S. 1085; It. 37; 88; Nett. 14; V. ii. 284; J.A. ii. 387; Asl. 47; cooked, dressed, Mah. xxxii. 39; embellished, Mah. xxii. 29;
saɱkhata, n., that which is produced from a cause, the Saɱkharas, A. i. 83; 152; S. i. 112; Nett. 22;
asaɱkhata, not put together, uncompounded, not proceeding from a cause, Dh.S. 1086; epithet of Nibbāna, Dh.S. 583; 1439; Mil. 270; A. i. 152; S. iv. 359 ff. (Asaɱkhata-saɱyutta), K.V. 317 ff.; discernment of higher Jhāna states as Sankhata a preliminary to the detachment of Arahatship, M. iii. 244.

To be added to the article on Sankhāra in the Glossology section.

 


 

Oblog: [O.2.12.20] Wednesday, February 12, 2020 8:50 AM

Sources Consulted for the PTS Pali Nikāya Texts

Dīgha Nikāya

Edited by
Vol. 1, 1890: T.W. Rhys Davids and J.E. Carpenter
Vol. 2, 1903: T.W. Rhys Davids and J.E. Carpenter
Vol. 3, 1911: J.E. Carpenter

Ph = M = B - the Phayre MS. of the India Office Library (Burm. ch)
Bm Burmese ms, royal Mandalay Collection, India Office, No. 40
Br Printed Burmese text, Rangoon
Sm A ms in Sinhalese characters in the possession of Professor Rhys Davids
Sc Sinhalese manuscript belonging to J.E. Carpenter
Sd Sinhalese ms. belonging to T.W. Rhys Davids
St Sinhalese ms, Turnour Collection, India Office
Si = K Printed Siamese text, King of Siam's edition 1893 (Siamese ch)
RhDt Rhys Davids' transcript

Majjhima Nikāya

Edited by
Vol. 1, 1888, V. Trenckner
Vol. 2, 1896, R. Chalmers
Vol. 3, 1899, R. Chalmers

A = - Sk the Copenhagen MS. No. VI (Singh. ch)
Ph = M = B - the Phayre MS. of the India Office Library (Burm. ch)
St Sinhalese ms, Turnour Collection, India Office
Bm Burmese ms, royal Mandalay Collection, India Office, No. 40
Si = K Printed Siamese text, King of Siam's edition 1893 (Siamese ch)

Anguttara Nikāya

Edited by
Vol. 1, 1885, R. Morris, 2nd Ed.: A.K. Wrder
Vol. 2, 1888, R. Morris
Vol. 3, 1897, E. Hardy
Vol. 4, 1899, E. Hardy
Vol. 5, 1900, E. Hardy

T = St Sinhalese ms, Turnour Collection, India Office
Ba No. 2276 (in Sinhalese) of the Oriental Mss. in the Library of the British Museum
Bb No. 2412 (in Sinhalese ch) of the Oriental Mss. in the Library of the British Museum
Ph = M = B - the Phayre MS. of the India Office Library (Burm. ch)
Bm #122, #123 Burmese ms, royal Mandalay Collection, India Office, No. 40
S.M. (Sinhalese ch) Morris collection
B.K. Burmese texts
M. #s 125, 130 of the Mandalay collection (Burmese ch), India Office Lib.
M6 Morris Ms. (Sinhalese ch)
M7 Morris Ms. (Sinhalese ch)
M 8 Morris Ms. (Burmese)
S = Si = K Printed Siamese text, King of Siam's edition 1893 (Siamese ch)

2nd Ed:
Ke Siamese editionof the text
Ce Sinhalese edition of the text
ChS Chaṭṭha Sangīti Piṭakaɱ

Saɱyutta Nikāya

Edited by
Vol. 1, 1884, M.L. Feer
Vol. 2, 1888, M.L. Feer
Vol. 3, 1890, M.L. Feer
Vol. 4, 1898, M.L. Feer
Vol. 5, 1890, M.L. Feer

B (Burmese ch) ms of the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris
S1 Copenhagen ms
S2 British Museum ms
S3 Morris ms

Addition to On the Importance of the Pali Text Society Translations

 


 

Oblog: [O.2.13.20] Thursday, February 13, 2020 8:50 AM

pdfTexts from The Buddhist Canon, commonly known as Dhammapada with Accompanying Narratives, translated from the Chinese by Samuel Beal, Professor of Chinese, University College, London, Trubner & Co., 1878.
Cited by Rhys-Davids in his translation of DN. Possibly interesting perspectives from this translation from the Pali (?Buddhist Sanskrit?) to the Chinese to English.

pdfManual of Budhism, in its Modern Development, translated from Singhalese mss. by R. Spence Hardy, Partridge and Oakey, 1853
Another work frequently cited by RD.

 


 

Oblog: [O.2.11.20] Tuesday, February 11, 2020 4:59 AM

The Four Great Authorities

And
The Buddha's Method for Judging Authenticity

On hearing:

[1] "From the mouth of the Exalted One himself have I heard,
from his own mouth have I received it.

This is the Dhamma,
this the Vinaya,
this the teaching of the Buddha."

[2] "In such and such a dwelling-place there is a company of the brethren with their elders and leaders.

From the mouth of that company have I heard, face to face have I received it.

This is the Dhamma,
this the Vinaya,
this the teaching of the Buddha."

[3] "In such and such a dwelling-place
there are dwelling many elders of the Order,
deeply read,
holding the faith as handed down by tradition,
versed in the truths,
versed in the regulations of the Order,
versed in the summaries of the doctrines and the law.

From the mouth of those elders have I heard, from their mouth have I received it.

This is the Dhamma,
this the Vinaya,
this the teaching of the Buddha."

[4] "In such and such a dwelling-place there is a brother,
deeply read,
holding the faith as handed down by tradition,
versed in the truths,
versed in the regulations of the Order,
versed in the summaries of the doctrines and the law.

From the mouth of that brother have I heard, from their mouth have I received it.

This is the Dhamma,
this the Vinaya,
this the teaching of the Buddha."

The word spoken
should neither be received with praise
nor treated with scorn.

Without praise and without scorn
every word and syllable
should be carefully understood
and then put beside the Suttas
and compared with the Vinaya

If when so compared
they do not harmonize with the Suttas,
and do not fit in with the rules of the Order,
then you may come to the conclusion:

"Verily, this is not the word of the Exalted One,
and has been wrongly grasped."

Therefore you should reject it.

But if they harmonize with the Suttas
and fit in with the rules of the Order,
then you may come to the conclusion:

'Verily, this is the word of the Exalted One,
and has been well grasped.'

—Being an Excerpt from Dīgha Nikāya 16
The Book of the Great Decease
adapted from the translation of
T.W. Rhys Davids
intended to supplement the article:

By His Translations You May Know the Man

 


 

Oblog: [O.2.07.20] Friday, February 07, 2020 4:15 AM

In the Beginning
was also
The Word*

In DN 15, we are told that
named-forms depend on consciousness
and that consciousness depends on named-forms.

There are implications.

[1] The logical inference is,
that in this ever-revolving evolving devolving world
the occasion of
the appearance of formed objects (rūpa)
occurs symultaneously with
the origin of consciousness (viññāṇā) of their identity (nāma).

If we bend the theorizing of our modern scientists, we might say that every entry of a new existing thing is a mini- big bang. So this is saying that as well as the material universe as it re-evolves being created by a big bang, so is consciouosness.

To see this you need to divorce yourself from the notion that consciousness is something unique to your brain, or a thing that arises and evolves only within the already existing being or world. In this system consciousness is like an element. A property that naturally arises at the time of the formation of existing beings.

[2] As the world of objects evolves,
so also does the scope of consciousness.

From raw consciousness of elementary forms, consciousness evolves — consciousness of consciousness building on itself forming ideas and opinions into a mind that experiences (vedana) and reacts (upadāna).

Here one might say that individuality was a product of consciousness building on consciousness to such an extent that it has lost consciousness of (has forgotten) it's origins as element and has become fooled into belief that it has a unique existence as a being. We can call this 'Original Blindness'.

[3] Now it may be that someone here, having become aware of the disadvantages of existing, sits down to work out some escape from this world of pain and so works his concentration that he tracks his consciousness back to the point where the process itself is visible. If this is a real phenomena, it is visible. Why would it not be visible?

What does he see?

He sees things appearing in his world simultaneously with his consciousness of them.

As things do not pop into existence wholly formed from zip nada, but individually evolve into existence, there is at this point the perception that things are 'thought into existence.'

And who is the thinker?

Without seeing and understanding the Buddha's doctrine that there is no thing there that is the self of you, the appearance of things will force the conclusion that you are the Creator of the Created (i.e., Pajapati, i.e., God).

This perception — that one is one's self thinking things into existence has implications.

The Creator is also responsible for the conclusion:

That which comes into existence will also pass from existence.

The problem faced by the Creator of the Created is the dilemma: "Do I continue to exist and enjoy the pleasures of the senses but also create this massive bad kamma, or do I not create the world and end up being the only real person in the universe?"

What are you going to do?

The solution is to get rid of this blind view by replacing it with a higher view, that is, seeing that:
consciousness of named-forms is transient,
that which is transient is painful,
that which is painful
is not well seen as
'this is me',
'this is my self',
'this is a part of me', or
'I am a part of this.'

In bringing your mind to perception (seeing) at this level the evolutionary process that resulted in the original experience of individuality is turned onto itself and set to the task of perceiving the real state of affairs and the escape therefrom in dropping the blind point of view which is causing the problem.

From perception of the problem and the solution there follows the process of detachment (upekkha). This process consists of two methods: the letting go and not-doing described in the Magga.

Letting go and not doing being the mechanism of action used to effect detachment, the result is not something made by identification with the intent to create personal experience through acts of thought, word, and deed (i.e., sankhāra-ɱ-ming); the result is not a mind that already existed — though it looks like a sort of reversion to the original state of the mind, it is not that, it has evolved — it evolves from the state of identified-with existence (individuality) to a state where there is no identification with the existing. But it is consciousness. It is consciousness of not being identified with consciousness of named forms. It is the beam of sunshine that passing through the window of the West wall and not finding an East wall or a floor or the ground or the turtle, rests on and is fed by nothing but it's own freedom from attachment.

Such a one, so seeing,
recognizing in this freedom the freedom from pain one has been seeking, can see:

"Left behind is rebirth,
the life of being God,
done is duty's doing,
no more for me is there a hither and further,
no more is there for me this it'n-'n-at'n."

Say I.


*I say: "In the beginning is the A" You want to see this for yourself as opposed to reading this here and forgetting about it in the next minute, give the Sabba-Dhamma Mūla Pariyāya Sutta some serious thought (I mean weeks, months, years of concentrated study!). This sutta, if you allow it to transport you there, will show you the origin and end of the world. Paṭhavi, Apo, Tejo, Vayo, the path of eve's apple, will light your way out.


Of Related Interest:
What is Two?
Pajapati's Problem
Pajāpati A Name for Māra

 


 

Oblog: [O.2.02.20] Sunday, February 02, 2020 5:10 AM

pdf Buddhist Birth Stories the T.W. Rhys Davids translation. An early translation of the Fausböll edition of the Pali. The title page of this work indicates 'Volume 1' but there is apparently no Volume 2. This is a work frequently cited in DN.


The Sects of the Buddhists, T.W. Rhys Davids
An article reprinted from The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1891, which will complement the paper: The Eighteen Schools of Buddhism

 


 

Oblog: [O.1.31.20] Friday, January 31, 2020 6:27 AM

pdf Jātakamāla: Garland of Birth Stories. translated by J. S. Speyer.
I have not read this book. It is included here because referenced by T.W. Rhys Davids in his Introduction to his translation of DN 13: Tevijja Sutta: On knowledge of the Vedas:
"The Jātaka commentary in numerous passages states that the four Brahma vihāras were practised, long before the time of the rise of Buddhism, by the sages of old. I have not found such a statement in the Nikāyas; and it is most probable therefore that the Jātaka commentator is ante-dating the particular meditations in question. However this may be, they remained, throughout the long history of Buddhism, an essential part of Buddhist practice. They are even mentioned in the Jātaka Mālā, a work usually supposed to be Mahāyānist, and dated about a thousand years later than the Buddha."


Plato, Phædo, translated by Benjamin Jowett.
Included here because referenced by T.W. Rhys Davids in his Introduction to his translation of DN 13: Tevijja Sutta: On knowledge of the Vedas.


[DN 13] On Experiential Knowledge, The M. Olds, translation/adaptation of the T.W. Rhys Davids' translation.)
Linked to the Pali, the Buddhist Suttas' Rhys Davids translation, and the PTS Rhys Davids translation.
This Suttanta leads up only to the four states of mind held to result, after death, in a rebirth in the heavenly worlds of Brahma. If you want union with Brahma — which is not the Buddhist goal — this is the way to attain to it.
This is an adaptation! It took all of half a day to re-work Rhys Davids' translation such that it comports with the preferred vocabulary used here. It seems to me that if a uniform-vocabulary translation of the suttas turns out to be a desirable thing (I have my doubts, and have abandoned my previous position in favor of such a thing) it would be relatively simple to construct in this way.

In any case I have a stubborn friend who will not listen to anything that contradicts his notion that

concerning the true path
and the false Various Brahmans,
teach various paths
and all those paths are saving paths.

Just as near a village or a town
there are many and various paths,
yet they all meet together in the village —
just in that way
all the various paths
taught by various Brahmans —
will lead him who acts according to them,
into a state of union with Brahmā

and I thought this sutta might help him see the light.

 


 

Oblog: [O.1.21.20] Tuesday, January 21, 2020 8:41 AM

Quicky Review:

Future Shock,
Alvin Toffler, Random House, N.Y., 1970.

Relevance: Transience. I thought this would throw some light on anicca. It does, but, of course what he is dealing with is worldly transience. His proposition is that the new technoligies emerging in the world speed up transience and this will result in mass disorientation. The first half of the book is very informative in its discussion of the areas where technology will cause disruption. The book was 50 years ahead of its time and is required reading for anyone who has the feeling that the insanity here today is more than the usual older generation viewing the younger generation as more corrupt than they were and who wishes to understand what happened/is happening. The second half of the book is useless predictions and methods for counter-acting the damage of transience. Interesting because most of the predictions and methods suggested for coping were tried and failed.

This review will be located in the Book Review Quicky section.

 


 

Oblog: [O.1.18.20] Saturday, January 18, 2020 9:35 AM

"Whoso stoppeth his ears at the cry of the poor,
he also shall cry himself, but shall not be heard."

Proverbs 21:13, K.J.V. Relative to DN 5 - R.D., note 7

 


 

Oblog: [O.1.12.20] Sunday, January 12, 2020 6:48 AM

All the world’s a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances,
And one man in his time plays many parts,
His acts being seven ages. At first the infant,
Mewling and puking in the nurse’s arms;
And then the whining schoolboy, with his satchel
And shining morning face, creeping like snail
Unwillingly to school. And then the lover,
Sighing like furnace, with a woeful ballad
Made to his mistress’ eyebrow. Then a soldier,
Full of strange oaths, and bearded like the pard,
Jealous in honor, sudden and quick in quarrel,
Seeking the bubble reputation
Even in the cannon’s mouth. And then the justice,
In fair round belly with good capon lined,
With eyes severe and beard of formal cut,
Full of wise saws and modern instances;
And so he plays his part. The sixth age shifts
Into the lean and slippered pantaloon,
With spectacles on nose and pouch on side;
His youthful hose, well saved, a world too wide
For his shrunk shank; and his big manly voice,
Turning again toward childish treble, pipes
And whistles in his sound. Last scene of all,
That ends this strange eventful history,
Is second childishness and mere oblivion,
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything.

—Jaques in Shakespeare's As You Like It, Act II, vii; The Complete Works of William Shakespeare, The Cambridge Edition Text, as edited by William Aldis Wright, Including the Temple Notes, Illustrated by Rockwell Kent, Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc, Garden City and New York, 1936.

 


 

Possible translation for Āsava? = Miasma

 


 

Oblog: [O.1.7.20] Tuesday, January 07, 2020 7:09 AM

[SN 5.55.55] Four Fruitful Things: Stream-Winning The M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Woodward translation.
[SN 5.55.56] Four Fruitful Things: Once-Returning The M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Woodward translation.
[SN 5.55.57] Four Fruitful Things: Non-Returning The M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Woodward translation.
[SN 5.55.58] Four Fruitful Things: Arahantship The M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Woodward translation.
[SN 5.55.59] Four Fruitful Things: Gaining Wisdom The M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Woodward translation.
[SN 5.55.60] Four Fruitful Things: Having Sown Wisdom The M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Woodward translation.
[SN 5.55.61] Four Fruitful Things: Bountiful Wisdom The M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Woodward translation.

In addition to these, there are 13 others (translated by Woodward who translates 'pañña' as 'insight' - 'wisdom' was more generally acknowledge a better translation at a later point): Comprehensive wisdom; Manifold wisdom; Extensive wisdom; Profound wisdom; Unbounded wisdom; Abundant wisdom; Many-sided wisdom; Swift wisdom; Buoyant wisdom; Joyous wisdom; Instant wisdom; Sharp wisdom; Fastidious wisdom.

The Four Things in All Cases:

[1] Association with good men
[2] Hearing True Dhamma
[3] Tracing things to their point of origin,
[4] Conducting one's self in accodance with the Lessons in the Teachings.

 


 

Oblog: [O.1.4.20] Saturday, January 04, 2020 5:55 AM

OK. But for the rule beyond price use:

"Let me abstain
from doing
to others
what me
wouldna
have others
do unto me."

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

Do Unto Others as Ye Would Be Done By
Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.

—The Golden Rule

A Profitable Lesson in Dhamma

Here the student of the Aristocrat ponders:

"Here am I,
fond of my life,
not wanting to die,
fond of pleasure
and averse from pain.

Suppose someone should rob me of my life,
it would not be a thing
pleasing or delightful to me.

If I, in my turn,
should rob of his life
one fond of his life,
not wanting to die,
one fond of pleasure
and averse from pain,
it would not be a thing
pleasing or delightful to him.

For a state that is not pleasant or delightful to me
must be so to him also:
and a state that is not pleasing or delightful to me, -
how could I inflict that upon another?

As a result of such reflection
he himself abstains
from taking the life of creatures
and he encourages others so to abstain,
and speaks in praise of so abstaining.

If someone should take
with thievish intent
what I have not given him,

If someone should have intercourse with my wives,

If someone should spoil my fortune
by lying speech,

If someone should estrange me from my friends by slander,

If someone should treat me with harsh speech

If someone should treat me with pointless, frivolous talk,
it would not be a thing pleasant or delightful to me.

If I in my turn should so treat him,
it would not be pleasant or delightful to him.

For a state that is unpleasant,
not delightful to me
must be so to him also,
and a state that is not pleasant,
not delightful to me, -
how could I inflict that upon another?

—Adapted from Woodward's translation of SN 5.55.7.

The Mirror of Dhamma

This the 'Mirror of Dhamma,'
possessed of which the student of the Aristocrat,
if he please, may himself proclaim of himself:

"Cut off for me is rebirth in Hell,
cut off is rebirth in an animal womb,
cut off is the realm of ghosts,
the Woeful Way and the Downfall
Stream-winner am I
one bound for Awakening!"

Here the student of the Aristocrat has unwavering faith in the Buddha,
thus:

'He is the Lucky Man,
Arahant,
#1 Self-Awakened One,
perfect in knowledge and practice,
a Happy One,
world-knower,
unsurpassed charioteer
of men to be tamed,
teacher of devas and mankind,
a Buddha,
an Exalted One.'

He has unwavering faith in the Dhamma:

'Well taught by the Lucky Man
is the Dhamma,
to be seen in this visible state,
a thing not involving time,
a 'come see' thing,
leading onward,
to be known for themselves
by the wise.'

He has unwavering faith in the Order:

'Walking the walk is the Lucky Man's Order,
walking rightly,
walking according to the method,
walking consummately
is the Exalted One's Order of Disciples:
namely,
the four pairs of men,
the eight sorts of men.

That is the Exalted One's Order of Disciples.

Worthy of honour are they,
worthy of reverence,
worthy of offerings,
worthy of salutations with clasped hands, -
a field of merit unsurpassed for the world.'

And he has the virtues
dear to the Aristocrat,
virtues unbroken,
whole,
unspotted,
untarnished,
giving freedom,
praised by the wise:
virtues untainted,
which lead to serenity.'

This is that
'Mirror of the Dhamma,'
possessed of which the student of the Aristocrat,
if he please, may himself proclaim of himself:

"Cut off for me is rebirth in Hell,
cut off is rebirth in an animal womb,
cut off is the realm of ghosts,
the Woeful Way and the Downfall
Stream-winner am I
one bound for Awakening!"

—Adapted from Woodward's translation of SN 5.55.8.

 


 

Oblog: [O.1.3.20] Friday, January 03, 2020 6:31 AM

Tip: When working on letting go relative to the body, remember that the job is not to relax, but to let go of tensions. Tension is a muscle contraction which has past its point of usefulness. You want to let go of all tensions; if you tried to relax all flexed muscles in the body (which is impossible), you would end up like a plate of spaghetti. The danger here is that you can spend considerable time relaxing this muscle, then that, only after a time noticing that you have been going round and round in a circle, not relieving tensions at all.

Tip: If you are going to use the Dhamma to inform your practice (as opposed to simply following some teacher's guidance), then it becomes very helpful to do your own translations. This does not have to be polished work. The point is the bearing down on, concentration on the Dhamma (the lesson) within the Dhamma (the instruction). You may not be aware of it, but things change extremely rapidly in our world today and our minds have (or are attempting to) adopt by speeding up and cutting corners, especially when we read. In this is the danger of mentally editing what you are reading such as to form an impression of the lesson which agrees with your pre-conceived notions. If your pre-conceived notions were worth their salt, you would not be in the mess you are in. So you need to open yourself to the possibility that you may have to think through a statement that contradicts a long-cherished belief. That opening to the possibility of new understanding is greatly facilitated by the pondering one must do in translation.

 


 

Oblog: [O.1.1.20] Wednesday, January 01, 2020 5:18 AM

DN cover image MN cover image AN cover image SN cover image

E-Book Editions
of the Pali Text Society Translations
of
The Four Nikāyas
E-pub, Azw, Mobi, and PDF formats

Free downloads of the PTS translations of the Four Nikāyas have just been announced by Bhante Bhikkhu Subhuti on his website: americanmonk.org

Please note that this is not a project of BuddhaDust and these publications are not being hosted on this site. These books have been compiled and re-formatted from our as yet [Monday, December 30, 2019 8:15 AM] incompletely proofed html source files by Bhante Bhikkhu Subhuti and Stephen J. Torrence. Some additional editing for spelling has been done by them. Although there remain errors related to the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) of the original scanned books as well as errors made by me in the haste to get 'something' on line, it was felt by Bhante Subhuti that these files were good enough for release in their current state. There are plans to periodically update these books as editing of the source files continues.

Meanwhile this will be, for many people, a more convenient and pleasurable way to read the suttas.

To insure that you are downloading the latest version, please downlad from americanmonk.org

I see the release of these e-books, however much they can be improved, as a small miracle. The Dhamma as propagated itself! This is exactly what I would have hoped would happen with the digitization of these suttas. Here is a quick list of some other projects people might find interesting to compile into e-book formats:

Healthcare and the Medical Professions;
Politics;
Managing Business and Money Management;
The story of Rahula;
The story of Migara's Mother;
The story of Angulimala;
The story of King Pasanadi;
The story of Gotama through the suttas;
The important topics of the Samyutta Nikaya could be made into separate books including suttas on the same subject from all the other Nikayas.
a collection of all the similes plus their explanations;
a listing/index (linked), in chronological order, of all the suttas (I believe this information can be gathered from the commentaries),
and whatever other subjects that are of interest to narow groups.

 


 

Welcome Friend!
CONTINUED: The listings for:

What's New? 2019What's New? 2018What's New? 2017What's New? 2016
What's New? 2015What's New? 2014What's New? 2010-2013

 



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