Don't let the gloves intimidate you; the gloves are off.


[Site Map]  [Home]  [Sutta Indexes]  [Glossology]  [Site Sub-Sections]

The Pali is transliterated as IAST Unicode (āīūṃṅñṭḍṇḷ). Alternatives:
[ ASCII (aiumnntdnl) | Mobile (āīūŋńñţđņļ) | Velthuis (aaiiuu.m'n~n.t.d.n.l) ]

 

 [Ditthadhamma Lokadhamma]


newWhat's New?

The Buddha's Last Words

Handa dāni bhikkhave āmantayāmi vo:||

"Vayadhammā sankhārā,||
appamādena sampādethā ti!|| ||

There you are then, Beggars! I craft this counsel for you:

The own-made is a flighty thing, I say
get yourselves out of this sputtering madness!

 

 


Welcome Friend!

2015

Thursday, December 31, 2015
Previous upload was Monday, December 14, 2015


 

 

new Sunday, December 27, 2015 10:11 AMDīgha Nikāya,
[DN 16] The Book of the Great Decease, the T.W. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Sister Vajira and Francis Story translation, the Warren translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and Rhys Davids earlier 'Buddhist Suttas' translation.
The story of the last days of the Buddha.

 


'How are we to conduct ourselves, lord, with regard to womankind?'

'As not seeing them, Ānanda.'

'But if we should see them, what are we to do?'

'No talking, Ānanda.'

'But if they should speak to us, lord, what are we to do?'

'Keep wide awake, Ānanda.'

Rhys Davids, DN 16


 

[DN 17] The Great King of Glory, the T.W. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali, and Rhys Davids earlier 'Buddhist Suttas' translation.
A story of one of the Buddha's former births told to Ananda as the Buddha was dying to illustrate the meaninglessness of worldly things.
Rhys Davids finds this to be a fable reflecting an ancient sun worship. I suggest rather that it is a story about you. In our hearts we are all 'the Great King of Glory' and this is highly illustrative of the process of withdrawing from the world in terms of that inner self-image.
[DN 18] Jana-Vasabha's Story, the T.W. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali.
King Bimbasara, reborn in the retinue of the deva Vesavana, the Great King of the North, revisits the Buddha and reveals to him the discussion that was had in the council of the Thirty and Three upon a visit by Brahma Sanamkumara the topic of which was the great number of beings just from Magadha that were reborn there as stream-entrants consequent on developing faith in the Buddha and his instructions.
Twenty-four hundred thousand.
Both by way of Rhys Davids translation and by differences in the descriptions made by this Brahma we get a view of the Dhamma unique to this sutta.

 

Cattāro Satipaṭṭhānā

Idha bho bhikkhu ajjhattaṃ kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijdhā domanassaṃ.|| ||

Ajdhattaṃ kāye kāyānupassī viharanto tattha sammā samādhiyati sammā vippasīdati.|| ||

So tattha sammā samāhito sammā vippasanno bahiddhā para-kāye ñāṇa-dassanaṃ abhinibbatteti.|| ||

... pe ...|| ||

 


 

The Four Inceptions of Deliberation

And which are the Four?

Take, Sirs, a brother who abides
subjectively watchful over the body,
ardent
self-possessed
mindful,
that he may discern the unhappiness
arising from coveting the things of the world.

So, subjectively watchful,
he attains to right concentration
and right calm.

He, having right concentration
and right calm
in his physical being,
evokes knowledge of
and insight into
all other physical forms external to himself.

So, again, he abides subjectively watchful over his feelings,
ardent
self-possessed
mindful,
that he may discern the unhappiness
arising from coveting the things of the world.

So, subjectively watchful,
he attains to right concentration
and right calm.

He, having right concentration
and right calm
in his feelings,
evokes knowledge of
and insight into
the feelings of others external to himself.

So, again, he abides subjectively watchful over his heart,
ardent
self-possessed
mindful,
that he may discern the unhappiness
arising from coveting the things of the world.

So, subjectively watchful,
he attains to right concentration
and right calm.

He, having right concentration
and right calm
in his heart,
evokes knowledge of
and insight into
the hearts of others external to himself.

So, again, he abides subjectively watchful over his ideas,
ardent
self-possessed
mindful,
that he may discern the unhappiness
arising from coveting the things of the world.

So, subjectively watchful,
he attains to right concentration
and right calm.

He, having right concentration
and right calm
in his ideas,
evokes knowledge of
and insight into
the ideas of others external to himself.

From T.W.Rhys Davids translation of MN 18. In this sutta 'Satipaṭṭhānā' is translated both as 'deliberation' and 'mindfulness'. Note that this is a practice which entails the combined forces of samāttha and vipassana; calm and insight.

 

[DN 19] The Lord High Steward, the T.W. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali.
Brahma Eternal Youth reminds the Buddha of a former birth.
[DN 20] The Great Concourse, the T.W. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Piyadassi Thera translation.
The Buddha introduces the bhikkhus to the great throng of deities gathered round him in the Great Wood near Kapilavatthu.
Another of these very ancient style poems consisting largely of a list of names. There is a little drama towards the end when Mara and his army sense a great opportunity to capture a lot of victims together, but his plans come to nothing.
[DN 21] The Questions of Sakka, the T.W. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Sakka, Ruler of Gods, visits the Buddha and puts questions to him that have been perplexing him. The Buddha's answers please him and he becomes a Streamwinner.
The prologue to the questions is a poem by one of the Celestial Musicians which is a very beautiful love poem.
[DN 23] Rebirth and Karma, the T.W. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Pali.
Prince Payasi has his view that there is no hereafter, that there is no spontaneous rebirth, and that there is no consequences from deeds well done or badly done thoroughly rebutted by Kassapa the Boy.

This brings to conclusion the digitization of Dīgha Nikāya, Volume 2: The Long Discourses of the Buddha.
This also brings to conclusion the digitization of the whole of the three volumes of the Rhys Davids translation of the Dīgha Nikāya.

And this also brings to conclusion the digitization of the Pali Text Society translations of the Four Nikāyas:
Dīgha Nikāya: The Long Discourses of the Buddha
Majjhima Nikāya: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha
Anguttara Nikāya: The Book of the Gradual Sayings,
Saŋyutta Nikāya: The Book of the Kindred Sayings.

What you do have here is the core of what we have of what Gotama taught both in the Pali and in translation, often multiple translations, and in the majority unabridged such that many suttas are contained herein which have not been seen since these works were first put into writing. What the next generation has here, and this is my gift, is something to work with. I was in the unique position of having the resources in terms of computer hardware, the full sets of all the books involved, long familiarity with all the translations and the Pali and Time. I saw no one else with this combination of assets and so took on the job. It was horrible drugery mixed with some wonderfully magical moments, but way too much pressure to be really enjoyable and with the result that there are a million small errors and perhaps some large ones; not everything has been fully expanded; not all the Pali text has gotten any farther than the upload of the BJT version; some alternative translations have not yet been formatted. These things, and the addition of supplementary works will proceed on a much more relaxed basis. This was the most astounding supplement to my education that I could ever have hoped for. This reward was worth the effort.

 

new Sunday, December 13, 2015 10:01 AMMajjhima Nikāya,
[MN 108] Discourse to Gopaka-Moggallāna, the I.B. Horner translation,
With Gopaka Moggallāna, Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
Ananda responds to questions about how the order can maintain harmony without a designated leader.
[MN 109] Greater Discourse (at the time) of a Full Moon, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
The teacher of a group of bhikkhus leads them to arahantship by asking a series of questions of the Buddha.
An exceptionally clear approach to understanding the idea of not-self. This is a sutta in which it is stated that 60 of those listening to it attained arahantship on the spot.
[MN 110] Lesser Discourse (at the time) of a Full Moon, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha discourses on the qualities of the bad man and those of the good man.
[MN 113] Discourse on the Good Man, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha gives the bhikkhus a course leading to Nibbana by way of contrasting the attitudes of the good man and the not so good man to each stage of the process.
This course leads from various low level practices through the jhanas all the way to neither perceiving nor non-perceiving showing that in each case a person can be off track if they hold themselves above others for their accomplishment. It is in each case pointed out that the essential thing in the practice is the gettiing rid of thirst (tanha).
An important idea to understand in this sutta is the Pali: (about whichever jhāna is being spoken of:) pi kho atammayatā vuttā Bhagavatā;
yena yena hi maññanti tato taṃ hoti aññathā ti.

Horner: "Lack of desire, even for the plane of neither-perception-nor-non-perception has been spoken of by the Lord; for whatever they imagine it to be, it is otherwise."
Bhk. Thanissaro: "The Blessed One has spoken of non-fashioning even with regard to the attainment of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception, for by whatever means they construe it, it becomes otherwise from that."
Bhk. Thanissaro notes: "In other words, whatever the condition of the ground on which one might base a state of becoming — a sense of one's self or the world one inhabits — by the time that state of becoming has taken shape, the ground has already changed. In this case, if one tries to shape a sense of self around one's attainment of jhāna, the attainment itself has already changed."
Bhk. Bodhi: "Non-identification even with the attainment of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-percetion has been declared by the Blessed One; for in whatever way the conceive, the fact is ever other than that."
Bhk. Bodhi notes: MA explains "non-identification" (atammayatā, lit. "not-consisting of that") as the absence of craving. However, the context suggests that the absence of conceit may be the meaning. The statement "for in whatever way they conceive, the fact is ever other than that" (yena yena hi maññanti tato taṃ hoti aññathā) is a philosophical riddle appearing also as Sn 588, Sn 757, and Ud 3:10. Though MA is silent, the Udāna commentary explains it to mean that in whatever way worldly people conceive any of the five aggregates - as self or self's belonging, etc. - the thing conceived turns out to be other than the aspect ascribed to it: it is not self or self's belonging, not "I" or "mine"
MO: The not so good man exalts himself for attaining the jhāna, but the good man thinks: "(This jhāna) indeed, says Bhagava, is just not made like that - for anyone whoever that so thinks has by that got some other thing.
In other words attaining jhāna is incompatable with such thoughts as 'I am better than' which reflect thirst (taṇhā). You cannot get what is got by letting go by way of grasping after it, and a person who thinks that attaining such is something that makes him superior to others is by definition grasping after that attainment and so could not have got it or if they had got it once would because of that grasping not be able to get it again so their basis for pride in their attainment is lost. This my reading.
[MN 114] Discourse on What is To Be Followed and What is Not To Be Followed, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha delivers three discourses in brief on the subject of how to judge whether or not something should be done or used or practiced or associated with. In each case Sariputta expands the brief discussion in detail and the Buddha confirms Sariputtas analysis.
Here, in the unabridged version we see the way the teaching was likely conducted. Not only does Sariputta expand the teaching in brief of the Buddha, but the Buddha then repeats what Sariputta has said, so the bhikkhus end up having heard the lesson three times.
Nit: Ms. Horner has translated 'vitthārena' as 'in full' but logic and tradition has it that the Buddha always speaks 'in brief'. However lengthy a discourse may be, by the nature of the interlinking of doctrines it can be expanded limitlessly (see The Method on this site for an example of how this works), so that there is never any teaching 'in full'. Bhk. Bodhi has 'in detail'.
[MN 115] Discourse on the Manifold Elements, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha defines what it is that makes a person wise.
The term 'element' here, used by Ms. Horner as well as Bhk. Bodhi and others, should be understood as meaning not 'an element' as from the periodic table, but 'a constituent part'.

 


"Whatever fears arise, monks,
all arise for the fool,
not the wise man.

Whatever troubles arise,
all arise for the fool,
not the wise man.

Whatever misfortunes arise,
all arise for the fool,
not the wise man.

— Horner, M.L.S., Discourse on the Manifold Elements.


 

[MN 116] Discourse at Isigili, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Piyadassi Thera translation and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha sings the praises of a number of paccekabuddhas.
This is a very old form of poetry. It consists, with a side-note her and there, of a list of ancient heros (seers) who were paccekabuddhas. The Paccekabuddha is an individual who became arahant without the aid of the Dhamma of a Buddha. Paccekabuddha, is often translated 'silent buddhas' and such are said to not teach. Since there are stories here and there showing that a paccekabuddha did teach, the better understanding is that these individuals had neither the training or the inclination to teach and lacked the charisma to lead groups.
[MN 117] Discourse Pertaining to the Great Forty, the I.B. Horner translation,
The Great Forty, Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavana translation.
In this sutta the Buddha teaches that there is a misguided way and a high way and that the high way may be undertaken in a low way and a high way depending upon one's point of view, the direction of one's effort and the set of one's mind.
Each factor of the Magga is, in this description of how to undertake the Dhamma, to be guided by high view, high effort and high mindfulness. These are defined. The Way in this sutta is described as having High knowledge (ñāṇa) and High Freedom (vimutti) as dimensions nine and ten.
[MN 123] Discourse on Wonderful and Marvellous Qualities, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Ananda relates what he has heard about certain wonderous events that accompanied the birth of the Buddha.
[MN 124] Discourse by Bakkula, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Bakkula utters a lion's roar to his old friend the wanderer Kassapa the Unclothed who is so impressed he joins the order and soon attains arahantship himself.
[MN 126] Discourse to Bhumija, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha explains that it is not enough to have hopes, aspirations, yearnings for freedom from pain, one must behave in a way that brings pain to and end for that to happen. He provides four similes to illustrate this point: trying to get oil by pressing sand, trying to get milk by pulling a bull's horn, trying to get butter by churning water, and trying to light a fire with a wet sappy stick.
[MN 127] Discourse to Bhumija, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Venerable Anuruddha explains the difference between 'boundless' freedom of mind and 'wide-spread' freedom of mind and then answers further questions concerning the manner in which 'wide-spread' freedom of mind manifests it's results in rebirth in a deva world.

 

In the Dark

There are, monks, animals,
breathing creatures
that are born in the dark,
grow old in the dark
and die in the dark.

And which, monks, are the animals,
the breathing creatures
that are born,
grow old
and die
in the dark?

Beetles,
maggots,
earth-worms
and whatever other animals,
breathing creatures there are
that are born,
grow old
and die
in the dark.

Monks, that fool
who formerly enjoyed tastes here
having done evil deeds here,
at the breaking up of the body after dying
arises in companionship
with those beings that are born,
grow old
and die in the dark.

—Horner, M.L.S. Sutta #129

 

[MN 129] Discourse on Fools and the Wise, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha delivers a discourse on the Peril and the Advantages. The pain that one of poor conduct brings upon himself here and now and in Animal birth or Hell hereafter, and the glory that one of consummate conduct brings upon himself here and now or in heavenly birth hereafter.
The great-grandaddy of fire-and-brimstone sermons.

Dinja gedda ma message? A leffa a ova

 

[MN 130] Discourse on the Deva-Messengers, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed. translation and the Sister Upalavana translation. And see also the M. Olds version in The Pali Line: The Advantages and Disadvantages.
The Buddha speaks about his personal knowledge of Yama, lord of Judgment and Yama's messages to mankind: a baby lying in it's own excrement, an old man or woman; a sick man or woman; a man being tortured for misdeeds; and a dead body. Then he describes the horrors of Hell.
The brother of the previous fire and brimstone sermon. The thing, my friends, is not whether or not you believe there is a Hell or not; if there is, it will not matter what you believed. The only rational course is to behave as though there were. That way if there is, you are safe, if there is not at least here the wise will see you as having acted rationally.
[MN 132] Ānanda's Discourse on the Auspicious, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Ananda repeats a lucky charm. A sutta describing a lucky night as being one in which one does not hanker after the past, yearn for the future, and in which one remains detached among things present.
[MN 133] Mahā Kaccāna's Discourse on the Auspicious, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Maha Kaccana explains Bhaddekaratta Sutta to the Bhikkhus. A sutta describing a lucky night as being one in which one does not hanker after the past, yearn for the future, and in which one remains detached among things present.
This is a variation on the previous, using the six sense spheres in place of the five heaps of existence. Another example of how these groups are equivalents.
[MN 134] Lomasakaŋgiyai's Discourse on the Auspicious, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Venerable Lomasakangiyai repeats a lucky charm. A sutta describing a lucky night as being one in which one does not hanker after the past, yearn for the future, and in which one remains detached among things present.
Different circumstances but the same message as MN 132.
[MN 135] Discourse on the Lesser Analysis of Deeds, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, Bhk. Bodhi, ed. translation, the M. Olds translation and the Sister Upalavana translation.
A straight-forward presentation of kamma in terms of what sort of deeds lead to a short lifespan versus a long lifespan, having many illnesses versus having few illnesses, being ugly versus being handsome, being insignificat versus being influencial, being poverty stricken versus being wealthy, being high-born versus being of lowly birth, and being dim-witted versus being wise.
[MN 136] Discourse on the Greater Analysis of Deeds, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the revised Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera translation, the M. Olds translation and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha explains the workings of kamma: good deeds produce good results, bad deeds produce bad results in spite of cases where this law does not appear to be working.
From the introduction by Bhikkhu Khantipalo to the Ñanamoli Thera translation:
"The Buddha ... shows how wrong views can arise from only partial understanding of truth. One can see the stages of this: (1) a mystic "sees" in vision an evil-doer suffering in hell, (2) this confirms what he had heard about moral causality, (3) so he says, "evil-doers always go to hell," and (4) dogma hardens and becomes rigid when he says (with the dogmatists of all ages and places), "Only this is true; anything else is wrong." The stages of this process are repeated for each of the four "persons," after which the Buddha proceeds to analyze these views grounded in partial experience and points out which portions are true (because verifiable by trial and experience) and which are dogmatic superstructure which is unjustified. Finally, the Buddha explains his Great Exposition of Kamma in which he shows that notions of invariability like "the evildoer goes to hell" are much too simple. The minds of people are complex and they make many different kinds of kamma even in one lifetime, some of which may influence the last moment when kamma is made before death, which in turn is the basis for the next life."
A sutta which breaks down the logic behind the caution not to quickly draw generalizations from personal experience.
Note in this sutta that there is no question that an intentional deed produces the result as per the intention. It always does. What this means, however, should be understood not as meaning that the form or shape of the intended deed is the result, but that in accordance with the sensation intended to be produced by the action so is the deed experienced. A deed of thought, word, or body intended to cause pain, results in the experience of pain. The shape of that pain may vary from the shape taken by the deed.
[MN 137] Discourse on the Greater Analysis of Deeds, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
An in-depth analysis of the six realms of the senses.
[MN 141] Discourse on the Analysis of the Truths, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, Bhk. Bodhi, ed. translation, the Piyadassi Thera translation and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Sariputta defines each of the Four Truths and each of the terms within the Four Truths.
... and sometimes the sub-terms within those.

Pali Olds Horner Bhk. Thanissaro Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi Piyadassi Thera Upalavana
Dukkha Pain Anguish Stress Suffering Suffering Unpleasantness
Sammā High or Consummate Perfect or Right Right Right Right Right
Diṭṭhi Working Hypothesis, View Right View View View Understanding View
Saŋkappa Principles Aspiration Resolve Intention Thought Thoughts
Vācā Speech Speech Speech Speech Speech Speech
Kammanta Works Action Action Action Action Action
Ājīva Lifestyle Livelihood Livelihood Livelihood Livelihood Livelihood
Vāyāma Self-control Endeavour Effort Effort Effort Effort
Sati Mind Mindfulness Mindfulness Mindfulness Mindfulness Mindfulness
Samādhi Serenity Concentration Concentration Concentration Concentration Concentration

 

[MN 142] Discourse on the Analysis of the Truths, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha provides a scale for the expected kammic return on gifts to individuals and gifts to the Order in it's various forms.
Ms. Horner's translation is tarnished by frequent misleading references to commentary. The point of this sutta is to say that a gift to the Order, even if the members of the Order at the time are unworthy individuals, is more potent in terms of kammic consequences than a gift given even to a living Buddha. This is stated straight out and contradicted in a note from the commentary!
There is also a discussion in this sutta of 'purification' of gifts by either the giver or the recipient. What does it mean that 'an offering is purified'? The potency of an action is relative to the detachment of the giver and the receiver. It is as though a certain amount of the energy in the deed is held back or weakened by the attachment of either the giver or receiver thus diminishing the kammic consequence or creative force it would have if left free. But the encumbered deed can aparently be restored to it's full potential (? or at least can have it's potential boosted; purification does not necessarily mean that a thing has become wholly pure; the sutta is, after all, giving us in effect, gradations of detachment in individuals) by the degree of detachment of one or the other or both the giver and the receiver. The 'sila' and 'kalya-dhamma', the 'ethical conduct' and 'lovely-manners' are in this sutta the indicators of the detachment of the individual. So for example, a gift given by one of poor moral habit (just to choose something likely to be familiar to the reader) is purified to a certain degree by a recipient of good moral habit, to a greater degree by one striving after Stream-entry, and to still higher degrees by those further along the path. This is, in any case, how I understand this matter.
[MN 143] Discourse on an Exhortation to Anāthapiṇḍika, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The story of the Dhamma taught to Anathapindika just prior to his death and rebirth in the Tusita Realm.
It is not said in this sutta that Anathapindika was a non-returner, but this is claimed elsewhere. If it is the case that he was a non-returner this is an example of rebirth of a non-returner in a relm that is not one of the Pure Abodes and is not even a Brahma realm.
[MN 147] Discourse on an Exhortation to Rāhula, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation the Ñanamoli Thera, Bhk. Bodhi, ed. translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha's instruction to his son Rahula that brought Rahula to Arahantship. A thorough-going breakdown of what is not to be considered self and why it is not to be considered self.
[MN 148] Discourse on the Six Sixes, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation the Ñanamoli Thera, Bhk. Bodhi, ed. translation, Bhk. Vimalaramsi, presenting, the M. Olds translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
An elaboration in great detail of the not-self nature of the six sense realms.
[MN 149] Discourse Pertaining to the Great Sixfold (sense-)Field, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation the Ñanamoli Thera, Bhk. Bodhi, ed. translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
A detailed analysis of how attachment to the six sense realms leads to rebirth and how detachment from the six sense realms leads to the development of the 8-fold path, the four settings-up of memory, the four best efforts, the four power paths, the five forces, the five powers, the seven dimensions of self-awakening, calm and insight and knowledge and freedom (that is, arahantship).
Note here the specific statement that calm and insight arise simultaneously.
[MN 150] Discourse to the People of Nagaravinda, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
A discourse on what sort of person should be honored and esteemed.

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Majjhima Nikāya, Volume 3: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, Vol. III: The Final Fifty Discourses. And this brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of the entire Majjhima Nikāya, The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha.

Once Again Please note: I have, for the Majjhima Nikāya proofread and formatted only the PTS translation and those Bhikkhu Bodhi translations of those suttas which are being currently uploaded; I have not made any effort to link sutta references in footnotes; and I have not proofread or formatted any previously uploaded Pali or translations.
The result is that because of the greater early interest in the Majjhima Nikāya, a considerable number of PTS translations and the majority of the Pali Suttas on the site are currently not unabridged or formatted for easy comprehension. This policy is being adopted with the idea that should the project be terminated prior to arriving at the most optimum state (all suttas and translations proofread, fully formatted, and with footnote references linked to their suttas) there will be (cross fingers even for that!) at least the digital text of these othrwise unavailable PTS translations available for others to work with.

 


Monday, December 14, 2015
Previous upload was Monday, November 16, 2015


 

new Friday, November 27, 2015 4:37 AMKuddhaka Nikāya: Theragāthā: Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation:
[THAG 192] Sambhūta
[THAG 193] Rāhula

 

new Saturday, November 14, 2015 8:55 AMMajjhima Nikāya,
[MN 15] Discourse on Measuring in Accordance With, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
Maha Moggallana gives the bhikkhus a discourse on self-evaluation.
[MN 17] Discourse on the Forest Grove, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha gives a dissertation on how to evaluate whether or not a bhikkhu should continue to live in a forest, in a small town, in a city, in a district or dependent on the support of an individual.
The method of evaluation is that suggested for all persons. See: How to Judge from Personal Experience.
[MN 18] Discourse of the Honey-ball, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha cuts off an argumentative questioner by telling him that in his teaching there is no arguing with anyone about anything and by this he is free. In repeating the insident to the bhikkhus he is questioned as to what this teaching is that argues with no one about anything. The Buddha explains in brief that it is by having no interest in the obsessions and perceptions that assail the mind. Then further the bhikkhus ask for a clarification of this of Maha Kaccana, who speaks of the obsessions and perceptions that arise from sense experience.
Mrs. Horner, following the Pali, abridges two repetitions of the main body of this sutta. The abridgments in the Pali are not indicated as abridgments (by the usual "...pe...") but are done with summary statements. The usual case would have been that the monks and then the Buddha would have repeated all that which had been said and done in each case (each repetition making precise recollection more likely and testifying to the veracity of the testimony). This method of abridgment alone speaks to the fact that the Majjhima was compiled later than either the Anguttara Nikaya or the Samyutta Nikaya. It represents a lessening (however slight) of the respect for precision in recounting the events and sayings of the Buddha, a degradation likely resulting from the arising of the written text. As with cell-phone texting today [Monday, November 16, 2015 6:40 AM] and e-mail yesterday and television before that and radio before that and writing before that, each new generation of communication and memory enhansing devices destroys rather than inhances communication while degrading our ability to remember.

[MN 25] Discourse on Crops, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha provides a complex simile illustrating by way of a herd of deer and a crop of corn set up to trap it the relationship of the arahant to the realm of the senses.
This is a mind-bending sutta, intended I believe, by way of its convoluted repetitions, to exercise and create in the mind of the listener a depth and objectivity of perception (so and so many removes from 'one-to-one') that closely resembles the perception of the arahant. A really valuable sutta in the way it describes the relationship of the arahant to this world, that is, that the Arahant still feeds off this world, but because of his habitat is invisible to Mara, Death, the Evil One. The questions to ask are: What is the nature of this feeding off of this world? And what is that habitat? The habitat is described in this sutta. It is the jhānas from the first jhāna to the ending of perception of sense-experience. There is nothing in this sutta that says that at death these states are no longer accessible to the Arahant. In fact the reverse is implied. Therefore I suggest that to understand this from the point of view of the Arahant, it should be pictured from the top down. When the Arahant wants to know something, he enters jhāna to the depth necessary to know what he wants to know, from the ending of perception of sense experience right down to the first jhāna where he may be aware of thoughts. As for the nature of the world off which the arahant feeds, the Arahant is described as having three sorts of vision: The ability to recollect past lives (in his own chronology and otherwise), the ability to see the outcome of deeds (his own and those of others); and the consciousness that the corrupting influence (āsava) of lust for sense pleasures, existence, and not seeing have been destroyed for him — a consciousness of things of this world (and others), but devoid of identification with, or points of view about self and existence and non-existence.
[MN 27] Lesser Discourse on the Simile of the Elephant's Footprint, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha teaches brahman Janussoni a way to confidently come to the conclusion that the Buddha is an awakened one: an instruction that delineates the steps from layman to arahant in great detail.
[MN 29] Discourse on the Simile of the Pith, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha uses a simile to warn the bhikkhus not to mistake fame, or achievement of ethical culture, or attainment of concentration, or attainment of knowledge and vision for attainment of permanent freedom disconnected from Time, which is the goal of his system.
There is a problem with the last section of the Pali. The problem is either with the PTS Pali or the BJT/CSCD (BBS and SBJ eds.,) or all of the above. In the PTS the the first half of the last section, before the simile, has the bhikkhu attaining release from things connected to time which is then cast as a position from which he is likely to fall away. The second half of the PTS version of the last section has the bhikkhu attaining release from things not connected to time which is then cast as a position from which there is no falling away. The other versions of the Pali and the translations (all the other translations) have the first and second halfs of the section as identical.

[From the first version of the PTS ed:]

Appamatto samāno samayavimokkhaṃ ārādheti.|| ||

Ṭhānaṃ kho pan'etaṃ bhikkhave vijjati yaṃ so bhikkhu tāya samayavimuttiyā parihāyetha.|| ||

[Horner:] "Being diligent,
he obtains release as to things of time.

The situation occurs, monks,
when that monk falls away from freedom as to things of time."

[Olds:] "Being careful the shaman is favoured with upon-time-freedom.

And thus it stands, beggars, that this beggar, nourished by whatever he knows by upon-time-freedom,
falls away.

[From the second half of the PTS and the last whole section of all other versions:]

Appamatto samāno asamayavimokkhaṃ ārādheti.|| ||

Aṭṭhāname taṃ bhikkhave anavakāso yaṃ so bhikkhu tāya asamayavimuttiyā parihāyetha.|| ||

[Horner:] "Being diligent,
he obtains release as to things that are timeless.

This is impossible, monks,
it cannot come to pass,
that a monk should fall away
from freedom as to things that are timeless."

[Bhk. Thanissaro:] "Being heedful, he achieves a non-occasional liberation.

And it is impossible, monks,
there is no opportunity,
for that monk to fall from that non-occasional release.

[Bhk. Bodhi:] "Being diligent, he attains perpetual liberation.

And it is impossible for that bhikkhu to fall away from that perpetual deliverance."

I find it highly unlikely that that very very careful man, V. Treckner, would have made a mistake here. It is not just a slip of a negative or the repetition of an almost identical phrase. I believe his rendering is a correct recording of what was an error in the orignal Pali, that is, that there should be two versions of the final section: one relating to temporary release and the other relating to a release from which there is no falling back. This also comports with the simile where there is mention of 'the benefits of having the pith', which we can take as being that he who attains temporary release, once that is known, will strive for that state on a permanent basis.

So my version of the Pali would include a second last section, and my translation of the second section, both parts, would differ as per the second half of the PTS Pali:

Appamatto samāno asamayavimokkhaṃ ārādheti.|| ||

Aṭṭhāname taṃ bhikkhave anavakāso yaṃ so bhikkhu tāya asamayavimuttiyā parihāyetha.|| ||

Being careful, the seeker is favoured with not-upon-time-freedom.

And thus it does not stand, beggars, that this beggar,
throwing away the nourishment of not-upon-time-freedom,
falls away.

My position is that this business of freedom being connected or not connected to time (samaya- or asamaya=) does not mean, as Horner and Bhk. Thanissaro understand it, dealing with the temporal world and dealing with the transcendental, nor does it mean 'temporary' versus 'not-temporary' (or perpetual). The temporary or lasting nature of the freedom is dealt with as the separate idea 'parihāyetha'. He gets this freedom that is or is not connected to Time and then he either falls away or does not fall away from that. 'Samaya-' is a matter of the nature of what is perceived. In the first case there is connection to the appearance of time; in the second case there is connection to phenomena perceived as not related to time. (The ordinary way we perceive the world as an on-going story that proceeds chronologically versus seeing things as discrete entities coming to be and passing away much as an animated cartoon character or a movie creates the illusion of movement.) One more thing that argues for this understanding of 'samaya-' is that in [AN 5.149 and 150], the attainer of samaya-vimutti is described as both subject to falling away and also, with precautions, not subject to falling away. In other words it cannot be that this word 'samaya' means 'temporary' when the attainer thereof is also described as not being subject to falling away.
[MN 30] Lesser Discourse on the Simile of the Pith, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha uses a simile to teach brahman Pingalakoccha that in his system one must not mistake fame, or achievement of ethical culture, or attainment of concentration, or attainment of knowledge and vision for attainment of unshakable freedom of heart which is it's goal.
[MN 31] Lesser Discourse in Gosiŋga, the I.B. Horner translation,
The Shorter Discourse in Gosinga, the Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, Linked to the Pali, and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha visits the Anuruddhas and learns of their having attained arahantship.
The re-telling of the visit is, of course, turned into a lesson for one and all.
[MN 34] Lesser Discourse on the Cowherd, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha likens those seekers who follow a teacher who does not know what he is talking about to a herd of cows lead by a cowherd that sends his herd across a river where there is no ford.
[MN 35] Lesser Discourse to Saccaka, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Warren translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the the Sister Upalavana translation.
Saccaka, who has been boasting and bragging that he can defeat the Buddha in debate when he meets him in debate is upset after his first utterance. The Buddha then teaches him Dhamma.
This is a wonderful example of old time debate. It also shows how politely and reasonably such a debate was conducted even when the consequences were as hair-raising as they are shown to be in this sutta. There is no attempt to bring the debate to a pre-mature conclusion simply because Saccaka feels bad. What our board monitors need to see is that by terminating debate for the sake of maintaining good feelings is preventing the discovery of deeper truths. We hang on to our beliefs; getting them destroyed is painful; going through that pain is the only way of reaching higher wisdom.
This debate also shows how a really wise debator takes defeat and turns it into an advantage.
This sutta concludes with an exchange which should put to rest all doubt about the impossibility of transference of kamma. Saccaka, in gratitude for his instruction, invites the Buddha and the sangha for a meal. To prepare the meal he asks his friends to donate to him what they feel they owe him. He then gives what he has received to the Buddha and the Sangha. Then he asks that the merit for such a meal be received by the doners. The Buddha explains that the doners have given to Saccaka and will receive kammic consequences that accord with the rebound from one such as him whereas Saccaka, who gave to the Buddha will receive the kammic consequences of one who has given to a Buddha. No transference of kamma.
[MN 36] Greater Discourse to Saccaka, the I.B. Horner translation,
The Greater Discourse to Saccaka, the Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, Linked to the Pali, and the the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, andthe Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha teaches Saccaka about training the body and training the heart.
Note that this sutta is given before Gotama's breakfast! There is some very interesting information here about what constitutes the development of body and the development of the heart. This sutta also relates some of Gotama's very early practices and the recollection which finally lead him to the path to awakening.
Ms. Horner, Bhk. Bodhi, Bhk. Thanissaro, and Sister Upalavana all translate 'citta-bhāvanā' as 'development of mind.'
Ms. Horner notes commentary here as saying that development of body kāya-bhāvanā, is vipassanā, insight, and development of mind, citta-bhāvanā is samatha, calm.
This would make vipassana practice = Satipatthana practice (the setting up of mind or memory) the development of body, and the development of calm through jhāna practice, the development of mind. This seems a little backward to me.
If, in stead of translating citta-bhāvanā as 'development of mind' we translate it as 'development of heart', the use of jhāna practice to calm the heart is more easily understood. But how does Satipatthana practice amount to development of body?
I suggest that the message of the sutta is that the development of the body and heart occur symultaneously in the practice of letting go lust for sense-pleasures and lust for things that make for sense-pleasures.
[MN 38] Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The well-known sutta in which the Buddha explains the idea that consciousness is a conditioned phenomena and is not the self that transmigrates from one birth to the next.
[MN 40] Lesser Discourse at Assapura, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha explains the unreasonableness of such superficial practices as the wearing of robes, going naked, living in filth, ceremonial bathing, living at the root of a tree, eating according to a set regimin, chanting, or wearing matted hair in the hope of ridding one's self of malevolence, wrath, grudge-bearing, hypocracy, spite, jealousy, stingyness, treachery, craftyness, evil desires and wrong views. Then he explains the manner in which practicing friendliness, sympathy, empathy and detachment rids one of those bad characteristics and leads on to attaining arahantship.
[MN 42] Discourse to the People of Verañjā, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha, speaking to the householders of Veranja, explains in detail how it comes about that some people go to happy rebirths in the heavens and others end up in hell.
[MN 45] Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Four modes of practicing Dhamma: Pleasureable in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with pleasurable consequences; and pleasurable in the present with pleasurable consequences.
[MN 46] Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving, the I.B. Horner translation,
The Greater Discourse on Ways of Undertaking Things, the Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Four modes of practicing Dhamma: Pleasureable in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with pleasurable consequences; and pleasurable in the present with pleasurable consequences.
The four described differently than in the previous sutta and here given similies. Very good suttas to read when your practice seems to be resulting in nothing but grief. You stop drinking and find you have no friends; you stop killing and find your house full of cockroaches, etc. One of the most difficult barriers to overcome because it comes at the beginning of one's practice when one has very little experience to bolster one's will power.
[MN 48] Discourse at Kosambī, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha explains how to think to achieve Stream-entry and then describes seven fruits of Stream-entry.
This description of the fruit of Stream-entry does not include the usual 'never again to be reborn in states lower than human birth, and rebirth only seven more times at most' but in some ways these are more valuable in that they deal with mental attitudes one acquires which are extraordinarily re-assuring and form the basis for enthusiasm for greater effort at attainment.
[MN 49] Discourse on a Challenge to a Brahma, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha visits Baka Brahma who has come to the belief that he is immortal. The Buddha disabuses him of this idea and demonstrates his authority with an act of psychic power.
Each translator has his own notion of what the title of this sutta may mean. PED has the term 'nimantana' as 'invitation'. NI = in; MANT = mind, command; intend. Ms. Horner: 'Challenge'; Bhks. Thanissaro and Bhodi: 'invitation'; Sister Upalavanna: 'Address'. How about: 'All of the above.' A pun, meaning to address, and invite, and challenge. Address as in sword-fighting; invite as in kung-fu movies where one fighter indicates with his hand 'bring it on'; a challenge to combat or to discovery.

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Majjhima Nikaya, Volume 1: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, Vol. I: The First Fifty Discourses.

Please note: I have, for the Majjhima Nikaya proofread and formatted only the PTS translation and those Bhikkhu Bodhi translations of those suttas which are being currently uploaded; I have not made any effort to link sutta references in footnotes; and I have not proofread or formatted any previously uploaded Pali or translations.
The result is that because of the greater early interest in the Majjhima Nikaya, a considerable number of PTS translations and the majority of the Pali Suttas on the site are currently not unabridged or formatted for easy comprehension. This policy is being adopted with the idea that should the project be terminated prior to arriving at the most optimum state (all suttas and translations proofread, fully formatted, and with footnote references linked to their suttas) there will be (cross fingers even for that!) at least the digital text of these othrwise unavailable PTS translations available for others to work with.

[MN 55] Discourse to Jīvaka, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha explains to Jivaka what is and what is not allowable in the way of meat for the bhikkhus.
A sutta to consult when the endless debate over vegetarianism comes up. Let me have another shot at clarifying the situation. There is kamma, and there are the rules for the bhikkhus, and there is doing good deeds. As far as kamma goes, the operant factor, the efficient cause of a kammic consequence, is intent. Where there is no intent to cause harm, there is no kammic consequences. The rules for the bhikkhus are based on the law of kamma. There being no intent to harm in connection with eating meat that was not killed by one's self, killed upon request by one's self, or suspected to have been killed specifically for one, there is no kammic consequence and there is no rule against eating meat of such a sort. Where some individual decides that he wishes to reduce the demand for meat that is the motive for the butchering of animals, that is an intentional good deed and is to be praised. When an individual blames a person who does not have any intent to harm living creatures, but who eats meat as per the factors that make it kammically blameless, then that person is blind to the nature of kamma and is making bad kamma by holding a wrong mental position. And the louder and more forcefully they do that, the worse is the bad kamma they make. Finally, the bhikkhus are beggars. Beggars should not be choosers. They are in the right refusing meat that is not allowable because in the refusal is a lesson given to the doner of what is allowable. But in the ordinary course of the begging round for a beggar to refuse meat lawfully given is to deprive the doner of good kamma and that is bad kamma. There are countries which are primarily vegetarian and situations where the bhikkhu may have a choice. In the case where the doner of a food gift gives the bhikkhu a choice, there is no problem with his requesting to be given vegetarian food only. The layman, of course, can choose to be a vegetarian or not according as he wishes with no adverse consequences.
[MN 58] Discourse to Prince Abhaya, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Explaining to Prince Abhaya how it might come to happen that the Buddha says something to someone that upsets them greatly, he outlines the various ways in which an awakened one approaches taking opportunity to speak.
[MN 59] Discourse to Prince Abhaya, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Nyanaponika Thera translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha speaks of seven ways he classifies experience (vedana); and ten ways he classifies happiness the last of which is not to be found classed within experience.

 

Seven Classes of Experience
vedana

1. Two: Explained as Pleasant and Unpleasant in [MN 59]; but as Bodily and Mental in SN 4.36.22.

2. Three: Pleasant, Unpleasant and not-pleasant-but-not unpleasant.[SN 4 36.1]

3. Five: The forces (indriya) of Pleasure, Pain, mental ease, mental pain and detachment [DN 33.5.22]

4. Six: Arising from contact of consciousness, eye and visual object; ear and sound; nose and scent; tongue and taste; body and touch; mind and things.

5. Eighteen: Based on contemplation of mental ease, mental pain, and detachment with regard to each of the six senses [DN 33.6.11,12,13 SN 4.36.22]

6. Thirty-six: Arising from point of view: Worldly mental ease arising from the six senses; Unworldly mental ease arising from the six senses; Worldly mental pain arising from the six senses; Unworldly mental pain arising from the six senses; Worldly detachment arising from the six senses; Unworldly detachment arising from the six senses. [SN 4.36.22]

7. One-hundred and Eight: Arising from point of view: Either aimed at worldly experience or not aimed at worldly experience. [2] Past, Future and Present; [3] pleasant, painful, not-pleasant-but-not painful; [3] arising from contact of consciousness, eye and visual object; ear and sound; nose and scent; tongue and taste; body and touch; mind and things. [2X3X3X6 = 108] [Satipatthana Sutta: Vedana][SN 4.36.22] But possibly also #6 above, past, future, present. (Really different words describing the same experience.)

 

 

Ten Classes of Happiness

MN 59

1. Based on the five senses (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body)

2. Based on the first jhāna.

3. Based on the second jhāna.

4. Based on the third jhāna.

5. Based on the fourth jhāna.

6. Based on the Sphere of Endless Space.

7. Based on the Sphere of Endless Consciousness.

8. Based on the Sphere Where Nothing's Had.

9. Based on the Sphere of Neither-Perception-nor-Non-Perception.

10. Based on the End of Perception of Experiencing.

 

[MN 61] Discourse on an Exhortation to Rāhula at Ambalaṭṭhika, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha teaches his son the importance of refraining from intentional false speech and the need for reflection prior to, during, and after doing deeds of body, speech, and mind.

 


Even so, Rāhula,
of anyone for whom there is no shame at intentional lying,
of him I say
that there is no evil he cannot do.

— The Buddha to his son. MN 61, Horner translation.


 

[MN 63] Lesser Discourse to Māluŋkya (Putta), the I.B. Horner translation,
The Shorter Discourse to Malunkyaputta, the Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi,
Linked to the Pali, the J.E. Thomas translation, the Warren translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha explains to Mulunkyaputta why he does not make a declaration as to whether or not the world is vast, or an ending thing or whether or not the self and the body are one thing or different things, or in what way the arahant manifests after death. This sutta contains the famous simile of the man who refuses to accept medical treatment for an arrow wound until he knows all about the arrow, the shooter, etc.
[MN 64] Greater Discourse to Malunkya(putta), the I.B. Horner translation,
The Greater Discourse to Malunkyaputta, the Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
A detailed discussion of the five fetters to lower rebirths and the practice by way of which these five fetters are eliminated so as to result in non-returning.
A vital passage of this sutta is mangled by both Ms. Horner and Bhk. Bodhi and I put together an analysis which attempts to make sense of it in the archives of the old BuddhaDust Forum: The Five Fetters to the Lower Rebirths.
Note also in this sutta that the Buddha is describing attainment of Non-returning in multiple ways, the first of which is just the first jhāna.
Another thing to note is the importance placed on actually getting a grasp of the problem of rebirth: One must see body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as not stable; so seeing one must see that as a danger and re-focus one's attention on the idea of escaping death and rebirth. So focused one must see that it is by ending own-making, stopping reaction to sense-stimuli and action based on desires and passions that this is accomplished. This is the major stumbling block I perceive out there in the world of Buddhist teachers and practitioners today [Saturday, November 28, 2015 7:01 AM], that is, that they do not perceive or teach the real issue, that Buddhism is being taught as though it's first importance were as a way to find happiness in this world. Bring your mind to attention to the real problem: death and rebirth. Happiness in this world results from those practices which deal with this real problem as a matter of course. It should not be made the goal.
[MN 65] Discourse to Bhaddāli, the I.B. Horner translation,
To Bhaddāli, the Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
A sutta describing the laying down of the rule about not eating at improper times and of one bhikkhu's rebellion against this rule. Contains an explanation of why there are so many rules and so few who attain the goal when at an earlier time there were few rules and many attained the goal. Also contains the simile of the thoroughbred steed.
[MN 66] Discourse on the Simile of the Quail, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha shows how letting go of the pleasure of eating at wrong times sets the pattern for letting go of each step of the way from pleasures of the senses through each of the jhanas to the ending of perceiving experience.
[MN 67] Discourse at Cātumā, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha instructs a number of bhikkhus about the various pitfalls facing the bhikkhu. He provides four similes: one for anger, one for gluttony, one for the five cords of sense pleasures and one for sexual lust.
[MN 68] Discourse at Naḷakapāna, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha explains the importance of having joyous entheusiasm in the pursuit of the goal and explains that it is in the service of this that he occasionally relates the rebirth of some bhikkhu or bhikkhuni or layman or laywoman.
[MN 69] Discourse on Gulissāni, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Sariputta delivers a discourse on the proper training for one who lives alone in the forest.
[MN 71] Discourse to Vacchagotta on the Threefold Knowledge, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha explains to Vacchagotta the difference between claiming to be all-knowing and all-seeing at all times and claiming to be possessed of the three-visions: the ability to see past lives, the ability to see the relationship of rebirth to deeds, and the knowledge that one is free from corrupting influences.
[MN 72] Discourse to Vacchagotta on Fire, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Warren translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissao translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha converts Vacchagotta by an explanation of why speculative views do not apply to the attaining of the ending of pain.
A crystal clear explanation of the difference between views about existence and non existence and the insight that liberates.
Note here also the unmistakable way in which the term 'upādāna' is to be thought of as 'fuel.' There being thirst the result is fuel for the fire of existence.
Two observations: Ms. Horner has a very strange habit of leaving certain passages unintelligible, or if intelligible, making no sense in context. Almost as though she had worked out some sort of literal translation and then neglected to put it into readable English. Then, also, she quotes the commentary extensively in these translations, and some of the absurd things the commentator has to say should be noted as the absurdities that they are.
[MN 76] Discourse to Sandaka, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Sandaka, a wandering ascetic, asks Ananda a series of questions and is so impressed by his answers that he joins the Order. The questions and answers range from discussion of the problems with the prevailing doctrines to a complete course in the Buddha's Dhamma from the bottom up.
[MN 78] Discouse to Samaṇamaṇḍikā's Son, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissao translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha teaches Five-tools, the carpenter about ethical standards, their origination, their stopping and the way to go about causing their stopping; intentions, their origin, their stopping and the way to go about their stopping.
Note that both ethical standards and skillful intentions are to be let go of once they are attained.
Note that ethical standards are considered to have been fully developed and let go when one has experienced freedom of heart and has gained wisdom; that unskillful intentions are stopped at the first jhāna; and that skillful intentions are stopped at the second jhāna.
[MN 83] Discourse on Makhādeva, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha relates a past life and uses it to inspire Ananda not to be the last of the line to live by the Eightfold Path.
[MN 85] Discourse to Prince Bodhi, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Prince Bodhi is given a discourse in refutation of the idea that the end of pain is to be got through suffering pain. A sutta built around circumstances of the Buddha's practice of austerities and the practice that lead to his awakening.
This sutta concludes with a series similar to that which concludes the Satipatthana Sutta, but in this case it is stated that an able student taught this Dhamma in the morning could gain the goal by the evening, if taught in the evening he could gain it by the morning.
[MN 87] Discourse on "Born of Affection", the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissao translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Queen Mallika convinces King Pasenadi of the truth in the Buddha's saying that grief and lamentation, pain and misery and despair are born of affection, originate in affection.
[MN 88] Discourse on "Born of Affection", the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
In an exchange between Ananda and King Pasenadi Ananda defines what is offensive and what is inoffensive conduct of body, speech and thought and is thanked by the king with a gift of a fine piece of cloth.
[MN 90] Discourse at Kaṇṇakatthala, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissao translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
King Pasenadi questions the Buddha about omniscience, the difference between the casts, and about the exisence and destinies of the gods and Brahma.
Note how the Buddha handles the issue of cast. He does not deny the differences between the way the casts are honored in this world while aserting that it is by the possession and use of faith, health, honesty and forthrightness, energy put to the use of eliminating bad states and acquiring good states, and by the use of their wisdom that the difference in the destinies of all individuals is seen. Note also here the unhesitating affirmation of the existence of the gods and Brahma.
[MN 91] Discourse with Brahmāyu, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Brahmin Brahmayu, at the age of 120, is converted and becomes a non-returner when he sees the 32 marks of a great man in Gotama and is taught a gradual course in Dhamma.
This is a very long sutta with many interesting points including a list of the 32 marks of a great man. It needs to be said when this subject comes up that these 32 marks are not to be taken literally. There is a subtle manifestation of the marks on the physical body, but they are primarily to be understood symbolically. Here also, I believe, too literal translation may obscure a more figurative meaning. Further it is helpful to think of the Buddha's body as being in a sphere that is somewhat less material than the ordinary body — More plastic and subject to being manifest according to mind so that some will see his body in the ordiary way while others, with more vision, will see it with such things as his aura, rays, and so forth. The fact of this brahman being 120 is not that unusual in the suttas. It seems that life expectancy has undergone a decline since those times rather than the increase the medical profession claims — the increase being measures from the depth of the barbarity of the European middle ages. There is a very intersting description of what was considered good form at the time, including a description of 'table manners.'
[MN 92] Discourse with Brahmāyu, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Keniya, a matted hair ascetic is greatly satisfied by a teaching of the Buddha and invites him and the order of bhikkhus, 1200 in number to a meal for the next day. In the meantime Sela the Brahman seeing the preparations for the meal being made by Keniya, is told that it is for an Awakened One. Sela is stirred by the idea of an Awakened One and visits the Buddha immediately and he, and his 300 followers are converted. The next day the Buddha and the order of bhikkhus, some 1500 in number show up for the meal.
This sutta is full of magic! There is no mention at all of Keniya being in the slightest way disturbed by the addition of 300 guests for the meal. Can you see why? Note the way that Gotama responds in kind to the address in verse. This sutta gives us a peek into the very different way things were done within the closed society of the Brahmins versus that of the ordinary people of the time.
[MN 94] Discourse with Brahmāyu, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Brahman Ghotamukha is converted by the bhikkhu Udena with a discourse on the four types of persons found in the world.
[MN 96] Discourse with Esukārī, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha teaches brahman Esukari with a very powerful sutta on the error of discrimination by birth or color, or wealth.
[MN 97] Discourse with Dhānañjāni, the I.B. Horner translation,
To Dhanañjani the Bhikkhu Thanissao translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Sariputta instructs the brahman Dhananjani about how to rise above careless behavior and attain the Brahma world.
[MN 98] Discourse to Vāseṭṭha, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha resolves the dispute between two brahman youths. One held the belief that a brahman was a brahman because of birth, the other that a brahman was a brahman because of deeds. In many examples the Buddha shows that one is a brahman because of deeds.
God-like behavior brings one into alignment with the original benevolent objective creative force and one merges into and becomes God; corrupt behavior (essentially biased, self-serving, "self-ish" behavior) separates and distances one from the original creative force and continuing on in that direction one ends up in Hell.
[MN 99] Discourse with Subha, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Subha asks the Buddha about what he thinks of a number of Brahman doctrines.
See also the discussion: "Discussing the Subhasutta" in the old BuddhaDust archives.
[MN 100] Discourse to Sangarava, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha converts the brahman youth Sangarava with a discourse about the different types of people that claim to be supremely awakened. He tells Sangarava about some of the events of his struggle for awakening and the method he discovered for doing so.

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Majjhima Nikaya, Volume 2: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, Vol. II: The Middle Fifty Discourses.

[MN 101] Discourse to Sangarava, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds paraphrase/translation and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha gives a detailed refutation of the doctrine of the Jains and sets forth his counter-argument in his method for the ending of kamma.
An extremely important sutta which is a shameful mess in the Horner translation and it is not at all clear in the other translations. It needs an entirely new translation. I have done a paraphrase version in which one can at least follow the argument.
It is a world-wide phenomena in religions that the dues required for salvation is pain. The Buddha refutes this argument by explaining that it is by not reacting (that is 'not reacting'; that is not 'not experiencing'; one does not fight against or pursue the furtherance of on-coming experience) to pleasant or unpleasant experience with grasping or aversion that past kamma is resolved, freedom from kamma attained. The first effort at putting this method into practice is usually accompanied by pain of withdrawl. The yearning to prolong the experience of pleasure, when denied, is painful; the urge to escape pain, when denied, is also initially painful. The ending of the old habit of reaction is painful, but it must be seen as a secondary pain. The Buddha gives as an example the painful sensations that accompany the curing of an injury caused by a poisoned arrow. It is this experience which is being mistakenly interpreted as the fee for freedom. It is not the fundamental fee for freedom. Not everyone will have such dues to pay. The fee for freedom is the non-reaction.
[MN 102] Discourse to Sangarava, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
In this sutta the Buddha outlines various views about the nature of the real, essential self and the world, past, future and present and points out that these views are all speculative and that for true satisfaction and liberation one must let go of all that which has been constructed, including speculative opinions.
As is suggested by Ms. Horner, this sutta should definately be read along with the Brahmajāla-Suttanta. It has some interesting differences. (I do not say 'contradictions.') Ms. Horner, here, as throughout her translation of the Majjhima relys heavily on the commentary. In the case of this sutta at least the commentary has tended to force an interpretation of what is being said where it would be better taken as it is given.
[MN 103] Discourse on "What then?", the I.B. Horner translation,
What Do You Think About Me? Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds extract outline, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
In this sutta the Buddha outlines the various ways in which argument and contention arise; the ways bhikkhus should attempt to resolve argument and contention; and the way one should respond if asked if one were the person who resolved an argument or raised another from the dark into the light.
[MN 104] Discourse at Sāmagāma, the I.B. Horner translation,
At Sāmagāma, Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
Hearing of the great disorder among the followers of Nataputta the Jain upon his death, Ananda approaches the Buddha about taking measures to insure it does not happen in his sangha. The Buddha then explains to Ananda those things which will retain unity in the order.
[MN 105] Discourse at Sāmagāma, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha shows Sunakkhatta a path to Nibbana together with several similes to help illustrate his points.
The path is a very unusual one! Unique in the suttas. He takes Sunakkhatta from a point where he is interested in irrelevant issues like the accomplishments of certain bhikkhus, through abandoning sense pleasures, to 'unshakability', to The Realm of No Things Had, to the Realm of Neither-Perception-nor-Non-Perception, to temporary Nibbana, to Nibbana.
Unshakability here may mean becoming a Stream-enterer, or it may mean someone who has attained the fourth jhana, it is not defined. It may just mean someone looking for conviction in something. The next sutta illustrates how this concept should be understood as a quality, not a destination.
[MN 106] Discourse on Beneficial Imperturbability, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha elaborates multiple paths to Nibbana using unshakability as the focal point.

 


Nāhaṃ kvacani,||
kassaci kiñcana tasmiṃ,||
na ca mama kvacani kismiñci kiñcanaṃ na'tthī|| ||

I am not 'the something',
of this 'whoever' 'whatever'
and there is not something that is my 'whoever' 'whatever'

 


Monday, November 16, 2015
Previous upload was Saturday, October 03, 2015


 

new Thursday, November 12, 2015 8:02 AMMajjhima Nikāya,
[MN 13] Greater Discourse on the Stems Of Anguish the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Sister Upalavana translation, and the Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi.
A detailed exposition of what constitutes the pleasure, the danger, and the escape from the five senses, forms, and sense experience.
[MN 14] Lesser Discourse on the Stems Of Anguish the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Sister Upalavana translation, and the Ñanamoli Thera translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi.
Mahanama the Sakkyan, lamenting over his state of confusion with regard to pleasures of the senses, is given a detailed exposition of what constitutes the pleasure and the danger of the five senses, the thing that is binding Mahanama to confusion, and the way the Buddha himself escaped such confusion. The Buddha then describes an encounter with some Jains wherein he defeats their claim that the end of pain is to be got through pain by showing them that they are practicing their painful austerities without any support in knowledge or understanding and concludes with a description of the exceptional pleasure which he is able to attain.

 

new Tuesday, October 06, 2015 7:48 AMTheragāthā, The Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids' translations:
#104: Khitaka.
#105: Malitavambha
#106: Suhemanta

 

new Sunday, October 04, 2015 5:51 AMSaŋyutta Nikāya,
[SN 5.51.12] Of Great Fruit, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha describes the various magic powers that result from developing the four paths to magic power.
[SN 5.51.13] Desire, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha defines the individual terms found in the formulas of the four paths to magic power.
[SN 5.51.14] Moggallāna, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
Maha Moggallana rouses up a bunch of slacker bhikkhus by using his big toe to distort and jiggle the house of Migara's mother, where they were residing.
However magical it might seem for Moggalana to have created an earthquake-like disturbance with his big toe, that would be to miss the real picture conveyed by the Pali which is much more instructive as to the the way magic powers are actually performed. Picture the house immitating, as a house might, the boasting and braging, joke telling and various impropper behaviors of the bhikkhus. It is that sort of thing which cause the hair to stand on end. This is one of two occasions where Moggalana cause such disturbance with his big toe. Both are very popular suttas.
[SN 5.51.15] The Brahmin, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the M. Olds translation.
Venerable Ananda explains how the four paths to magic power use desire to bring about the end of desire.
A question that frequently comes up among beginners bound up in logic.
Interesting in this sutta is the difficulty of sustaining the translation 'investigation' for 'vīɱansā.' In the Pali Ananda asks a series of questions all phrased identically:
Did you not previously have (chanda, viriya, citta, vīɱansā), so: "I will get me to the park."
The difficulty is getting a construction in English that is identical for all four. I see I have used 'investigation' in my translation here but I retain a pre-disposition to use the more literal 're-membering'. That is that in accomplishing any desire there is the reconstruction in mind by way of memory of the steps needed to attain that desire.
Also of interest is the discussion in Woodward's footnote on chanda where I would dispute that in this Dhamma there is any moral issue involved in the term or any distinction being made between a moral and an un-moral sort of desire. All desire is on a level in this system, including the desire for attaining Arahantship. The desire for attaining Arahantship is the desire for attaining that arahantship for some sort of self. It's like trying to lift yourself by your bootstraps. Can't be done.
[SN 5.51.16] Recluses and Brahmins (a) or Mighty Magic Power, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
Past, future or in the present, whoever has attained mighty magic powers has done so using the four paths to magic power.
[SN 5.51.17] Recluses and brahmins (b) or Manifold Forms, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
Past, future or in the present, whoever has attained the various forms of magic power has done so using the four paths to magic power.
[SN 5.51.18] Monk, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha states that it is by the cultivation of the four paths to magic power that a person attaines Arahantship.
[SN 5.51.19] Teaching or Cultivation, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha deliniates magic power, the path to magic power, the development of the magic power-paths, and the path going to the development of the magic power-paths.
[SN 5.51.20] Teaching or Cultivation, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus a detailed analysis of the four paths to magic power.
[SN 5.51.21] The Way, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha relates how the four paths to magic power were revealed to him as a way to practice prior to his awakening.
[SN 5.51.22] The Iron Ball, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
Ananda asks the Buddha if he is able to reach the Brahma realm in the physical body as well as in the mental body and is told that he is able to do so and explains how.
A very important sutta for clearing away the illusion one may have that magic powers are exclusive to the astral body. (Where it is very easy to convince one's self that one's day-dreams are great attainments.) In a verse from the brethren [#104] referenced in a footnote we also get a vivid description of 'sukha' the pleasure experienced by the meditator in a high state of samādhi:

Buoyant in sooth my body, every pulse
Throbbing in wondrous bliss and ecstasy.
Even as cotton-down blown on the breeze,
So floats and hovers this my body light.

The Buddha's description of his method of attaining the plasticity and lightnes to rise up into the air is worth pondering:
"Yasmim samaye kāyam pi citte samādahati cittam pi ca kāye samādhati|| ||
Sukhasaññañ ca lahusaññaāā ca kāye okkamitvā viharati|| ||

Woodward: "At such a time as Tathāgata concentrates body in mind and concentrates mind in body, at such a time as he enters on and abides in the consciousness of bliss and bouyancy..."
Bhk. Bodhi: "When the Tathāgata immerses the body in the mind and the mind in the body, and when he dwells having entered upon a blissful perception and a boyant perception in regard to the body..."
Mine: "At such a time as the Tathāgata abides
with body aligned with heart,
and heart aligned with body,
and body is steeped in
perception of pleasure,
perception of lightness,
'Samādahati', samā = 'even', 'level' 'lay out';Ādahati = 'lite', 'fire up'; (Woodward takes this to samādhi for his 'concentrates'; my 'align' tries to cover both possibilities (and it seems likely that this is where we get the term samādhi).) the critical word to understand.
Bhk. Bodhi believes this reading to be incorrect and reads: 'Samodahati', (PED: [saŋ+odahati] to put together, supply, apply) and explains: [which word is] "... strongly supported by the explanation: "(He) immerses the body in the mind: having taken the body, he mounts it on the mind; he makes it dependent on the mind; he sends it along the course of the mind. The mind is an exalted mind. Movement along the course of the mind is buoyant (quick). (He) immerses the mind in the body: having taken the mind, he mounts it on the body; he makes it dependent on the body; he sends it along the course of the body. The body is the coarse physical body. Movement along the course of the body is sluggish (slow)."
Ok, his translation may be strongly supported by the explanation, but what does the explanation explain? This is mumbo-jumbo as far as explanation goes. That is, what needs to be said could be said in much more clear terms and said in more clear terms it makes nonsense of the way it is said. Except for the added confusion 'immersion' leaves us precisely where we began: in a body immersed in and dependent on mind and a mind immersed in and dependent on a body. Maybe it's the translation.
This idea in other terms would be: Diminish the differentiation between the material and the mental working at it from both sides; a mind that sees the material body in the same terms as an imaginary body; a material body with the same properties of plasticity as an imaginary body. This is essentially the task required of every act of magic.
Finally, PED on 'Samādahati', = to put together' would be a synonym for 'Samodahati' anyway.
[SN 5.51.23] Monk, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
It is by developing and making a big thing of the four paths to magic power that a bhikkhu on destroying the corrupting influences, attains the freedom of Arahantship.
[SN 5.51.24] Puritan, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
It is by developing and making a big thing of the four paths to magic power that a bhikkhu on destroying the corrupting influences, attains the freedom of Arahantship.
Identical with the previous.
[SN 5.51.25] Fruits (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
It is by developing and making a big thing of the four paths to magic power that a bhikkhu on destroying the corrupting influences, attains either the freedom of Arahantship or at least non-returning.
[SN 5.51.26] Fruits (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
It is by developing and making a big thing of the four paths to magic power that a bhikkhu on destroying the corrupting influences, attains the freedom of Arahantship or at least one or another of six forms of non-returning.
[SN 5.51.27] Ānanda (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha deliniates magic power, the path to magic power, the development of the magic power-paths, and the path going to the development of the magic power-paths.
Identical with #19, but addressed to Ananda.
[SN 5.51.28] Ānanda (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha deliniates magic power, the path to magic power, the development of the magic power-paths, and the path going to the development of the magic power-paths.
Identical with the previous, but here the question is put to Ananda by the Buddha.
[SN 5.51.29] Monks (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha deliniates magic power, the path to magic power, the development of the magic power-paths, and the path going to the development of the magic power-paths.
Identical with the previous, but the questions are asked by a group of bhikkhus.
[SN 5.51.30] Monks (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha deliniates magic power, the path to magic power, the development of the magic power-paths, and the path going to the development of the magic power-paths.
Identical with the previous, but the questions are asked by the Buddha of a group of bhikkhus.
[SN 5.51.31] Moggallāna, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha praises the mighty magic powers of the Venerable Moggallana by way of a course of instruction on the development of magic powers.
[SN 5.51.32] Tathāgata, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha gives the bhikkhus a course of instruction on the development of magic powers as developed by one who has got the goal.
Identical with the previous except that it is in reference to the Tathagata rather than Moggallana.
[SN 5.51.33-44] Gaŋgā Repetition, the F.L. Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha likens the flow of great rivers to the way in which developing and making much of the five powers brings one to Nibbana.
[SN 5.51.45-54] Earnestness the F.L. Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
Nine similes for the caution that is the fundamental condition that leads to the bringing to life of the five powers.
[SN 5.51.55-66] Deeds Requiring Strength the F.L. Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha provides twelve similes illustrating various aspects of the Dhamma.
[SN 5.51.67-76] Longing the F.L. Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
The buddha explains how the five powers are to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of wishes, delusions, corrupting influences, existence, pain, closed-mindedness, flare-ups, sense-experience, and thirst.
[SN 5.51.77-86] The Flood the F.L. Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
The buddha explains how the the five powers are to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of the floods, the bonds, yokes to rebirth, ties to the body, risidual inclinations, sense pleasures, diversions, the fuel stockpiles, the yokes to lower rebirths, the yokes to higher rebirths.

The repetition suttas of this Samyutta were done in the short form.

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 5.51. The Book of the Kindred Sayings on the Bases of Psychic Power.

 


"Then goodbye to you, Aubrey,' said the Admiral, holding out his hand. Yet it was not a human farewell: it was rather a gesture of civility to a being of another kind, very samll and far away, at the wrong end of a telescope as it were, a being of no importance, in circumstances of no great importance, that nevertheless had to be dealt with correctly.

—Patrick O'Brian, The Ionian Mission, pg. 258, W.W. Norton & Co., 1981. A beautifully rendered passage in which I see not the dying Admiral and Captain Aubrey, but Gotama and the world from which he was departing forever.
Not a series I can recommend as it is essentially irrelevant to the purpose of attaining awakening, but those who are able to read from the perspective of the Buddhist ethical position will find in it an excellent, though unintentional, view, clearer than will be found in the most scholarly of academic histories, of the way flawed British values lead to the incredible arrogance, the misguided thinking, and corruption that brought about the fall of that great empire. Also found in this series are descriptions of everyday life which although two thousand years later and in a different country with different values, paints a picture of life that is much closer to that which existed in Gotama's time and place than does any conception one might form extrapolating from our own time and place [Friday, October 09, 2015 8:38 AM, U.S.A.] for instance the excessively brutal forms of punishment and their wide application (death for the theft of a loaf of bread by a child!) and the corresponding exceedingly polite and delicate forms of speech and behavior of even the most common of persons ... especially between classes.


 

[SN 5.52.1] Paṭhama Rahogata Suttaṃ, the Pali,
In Solitude (a), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Maha Moggallana questions Anuruddha about his practice of the four settings-up of memory and Anuruddha explains.
A good sutta to consult for the reader interested in the precise wording of the Satipaṭṭhāna practice. In the Majjhima and Digha versions the wording is kāye kāyānupassī [viharati] 'body body-overseeing [living]'; where here it is '[Ajjhattaṃ] kāye [vaya-dhamma]-anupassī [viharati]' '[Internally, etc.] body [passing-things, etc.]-overseeing [living]'
In this sutta: Woodward: "dwells contemplating the rise of things as regards [his own personal] body Bhk. Bodhi: "dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body"
In the Mahā Satipaṭṭhāna Suttanta Digha:
Rhys Davids: 'as to the body, continue so to look upon the body'
Walshe: 'abide contemplating the body as body'
Woodward (in this sutta but apparently influenced by the Satipatthana): 'he dwells in body contemplating the rise of things in body'
Warren: "as respects the body, observant of the body"
Bhk. Thanissaro: "focused on the body in and of itself"
Majjhima:
Horner: "contemplating the body in the body"
Bhk. Bodhi/Nanamoli: "contemplating the body as a body"
I have translated: "observing the body, through the body" also "living in body, overseeing body",
I have reasoned that because this is a practice for setting up a recollected mind in the state in which we find ourselves (that is, primarily identified with body, or sense-experience, or emotions, or the Dhamma) with the intent of seeing body, sense-experience, the heart (or mental states) and the Dhamma as passing phenomena whether currently considered as 'our own' (internal) or 'of the outside' (external) such that we can observe these things whether internal or external or both external and internal as passing phenomena, painful, and not in any way 'our own' such that we may become totally detached therefrom. Hense the idea: 'while we are living in.' But today, it occurs to me that this carries weight or shadow of identity that is not in the Pali and is not necessary for the passage to make sense even in English.
So today [Monday, October 12, 2015 3:38 AM] I think that we should be translating:
'[one] lives seeing body following upon (anu) body', or, in the case of this sutta:
'[one] lives seeing body following upon internal passing things.' In other words seeing phenomena in a way similar to the way one might view the flipping of a series of images making up an animated cartoon.
[SN 5.52.2] Dutiya Rahogata Suttaṃ, the Pali,
In Solitude (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Maha Moggallana questions Anuruddha about his practice of the four settings-up of memory and Anuruddha explains.
A slightly shorter version of the prevous.
[SN 5.52.3] Sutanu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sutanu, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Anuruddha explains the practice that has brought him great magic powers, that is making a big thing of the four settings-up of memory.
[SN 5.52.4-6] Cactus Grove (a, b, c), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
Three suttas. In the first Sariputta questions Anuruddha about what states should be abandoned by a learner. (The Four Settings-up of memory) In the second Sariputta questions Anuruddha about what states should be abandoned by one who is no longer seeking. (Again, the Four Settings-up of Memory) In the third Sariputta asks Anuruddha about what practice he has undertaken to achieve great magic powers. Anuruddha answers that it is the Four Settings-up of Memory.
Given the fact that at another point Sariputta scolds Anuruddha about his pride of attaining clairvoyant vision of the thousand world system, and here in a similar statement Anuruddha make a similar claim where the higher claim would have been that he had attained the eradication of the asavas, one cannot help but think that this was a lesson being taught Anuruddha. But there is no indication that he understood at this point. In the next sutta, given at a different location, hense also at a different time, and by implication of it's location in the sequence at a later time, he is reported to say that they lead to the eradication of tanha (thirst), which is the goal.
[SN 5.52.7] Taṇhakkhaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Destruction of Craving, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Anuruddha declares that the four settings-up of memory leads to the destruction of thirst, i.e., arahantship.
[SN 5.52.9] Sabba or Ambapāla Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The All or Ambapali, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Anuruddha declares that the four settings-up of memory leads arahantship.
[SN 5.52.10] Grievously Afflicted, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Venerable Anuruddha explains that it is because he is well established in the four settings-up of memory that when he is afflicted with a severe illness it does not affect his mind.

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 5.52. The Book of the Kindred Sayings about Anuruddha.

[SN 5.53.1-12] Gaŋga-peyyāla the Pali,
Gaŋgā Repetition, the F.L. Woodward translation
The Buddha likens the flow of great rivers to the way in which developing and making much of the four jhanas brings one to Nibbana.
[SN 5.53.13-22] Appamāda-vagga, the Pali,
Earnestness the F.L. Woodward translation
Nine similes for the caution that is the fundamental condition that leads to the bringing to life of the four jhanas.
[SN 5.53.23-34] Balakaraṇīya-vagga, the Pali,
Deeds Requiring Strength the F.L. Woodward translation
The Buddha provides twelve similes illustrating various aspects of the Dhamma.
[SN 5.53.35-44] Esana-vagga, the Pali,
Longing the F.L. Woodward translation
The buddha explains how the four jhanas are to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of wishes, delusions, corrupting influences, existence, pain, closed-mindedness, flare-ups, sense-experience, and thirst.
[SN 5.53.45-54] Ogha-vagga, the Pali,
The Flood the F.L. Woodward translation
The buddha explains how the the four jhanas are to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of the floods, the bonds, yokes to rebirth, ties to the body, risidual inclinations, sense pleasures, diversions, the fuel stockpiles, the yokes to lower rebirths, the yokes to higher rebirths.

This entire Samyutta consists only of the repetition series which is a little strange given the importance of the subject, the fact that this collection is devoted to collecting suttas on important subjects, and the fact that there are so many suttas that could have been collected here.

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 5.53. The Book of the Kindred Sayings on the Four Trances. [The PTS Pali has no title for this Samyutta. I have made this up using Woodward's translation for Jhāna.]

[SN 5.55.1] Rajah, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Although a Wheel-Turning King conquers the world and after death his immediate rebirth is in the Heaven of the Three and Thirty Gods, he has not escaped rebirth as an animal, deamon or in hell, whereas a disciple of the Buddha, if he have faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha and is of virtuous character has escaped for all time these low rebirths.
[SN 5.55.3] Dīghāvu Upāsaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Dīghāvu, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha visits the dying lay disciple Dighavu and instructs him first in attaining Stream-entry and then in attaining Non-returning. He is declared by the Buddha to have been spontaneously reborn in a location from whence he will not return to this world.
[SN 5.55.4] Paṭhama Sāriputta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sāriputta (a), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sariputta explains to Ananda the four essential things required of the Streamwinner.
[SN 5.55.5] Dutiya Sāriputta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sāriputta (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha questions Sariputta about various sayings concerning the dimensions of Streamwinning, the stream, and the streamwinner.
[SN 5.55.6] Thapatayo Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Chamberlains, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Isidatta and Purana describe their affection for the Buddha and he praises their faith and generosity in a way that suggests to them that they are Streamwinners.
Both Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi describe these two as 'chamberlains'. Woodward, in a footnote suggests 'equeries' which comes closer to how the duties of these two are described. They were in charge of maintenance and preparation for use and assisted in the actual mounting of the royal conveyances (horses, elephants, chariots). The actual term means 'chariot builder' which could be interpreted as 'in charge of conveyances.' They were close enough to the king (Passanadi) to sleep in his chamber on at least one occasion which is a possible justification for calling them chamberlains but in the description of the episode in which this happens it looks like it was specially contrived and not a usual procedure.
[SN 5.55.7] Veḷudvāreyyā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Those of Bamboo Gate, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The people of Bamboo Gate ask the Buddha for a teaching that will bring them a house full of kids, pleasant sense-experiences and rebirth in heavon. The Buddha gives them a course of instruction that leads to Stream-winning.
[SN 5.55.8] Paṭhama Giñjakāvasatha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Brick Hall (a), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda asks the Buddha about the destiny of some individuals who have died. He is told of their destinies and is given a teaching whereby individuals may determine for themselves that they have attained Stream-entry.
This teaching is the 'Dhamma-Ādāsa', the well-known 'Mirror of Dhamma.'
[SN 5.55.9] Dutiya Giñjakāvasatha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Brick Hall (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda asks the Buddha about the destiny of some individuals who have died. He is told of their destinies and is given a teaching whereby individuals may determine for themselves that they have attained Stream-entry.
The same as the previous with different individuals.
[SN 5.55.10] Dutiya Giñjakāvasatha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Brick Hall (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda asks the Buddha about the destiny of some individuals who have died. He is told of their destinies and is given a teaching whereby individuals may determine for themselves that they have attained Stream-entry.
Almost the same as the previous two, but with some changes.
[SN 5.55.11] Sahassa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Thousand, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a thousant bhikkhunis the four criteria for determining Stream entry.
[SN 5.55.12] Brāhmaṇā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Brahmins, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha contrasts his four criteria for attaining stream entry with a Brahmin doctrine for attaining a heavonly rebirth.
[SN 5.55.13] Ānanda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ānanda, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda and Sariputta discuss what does and what does not lead a person to Stream-winning.
[SN 5.55.14] Paṭhama Duggati Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Woeful Way (a), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Possessed of four things one is assured of never again being reborn in Hell or states lower than human birth and of attaining awakening.
[SN 5.55.15] Dutiya Duggati Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Woeful Way (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Possessed of four things one never again need fear such an outcome as being reborn in Hell or states lower than human birth and one is assured of attaining awakening.
Almost identical to the previous with slightly more emphasis on the outcome which is avoided.
[SN 5.55.16] Paṭhama Mittenāmaccā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Intimate Friends (a), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that they should teach the four limbs of Streamwinning to their friends, kith and kin, for whom they feel kindness of heart, who have a mind to listen to them.
One needs to walk a fine line when teaching Dhamma. One must balance the certain knowledge that Dhamma would be of value to anyone with the understanding that to try and push understanding on someone will have adverse results. The simplest formula is to refrain from teaching except in response to questions or to clear signals of interest. It is possible however, given sufficient perception of likely understanding, to initiate discussion. The main idea is to avoide any hint of external pressure and internal anxiety for fame and fortune. In this sutta the boarder is deliniated by the idea that one should teach where one has kindly feelings towards the other and where the other is one with a predisposition to listen carefully to what you have to say.
[SN 5.55.17] Dutiya Mittenāmaccā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Intimate Friends (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that they should teach the four limbs of Streamwinning to their friends, kith and kin, for whom they feel kindness of heart, who have a mind to listen to them. Then he assures them that one with any one of the four limbs of Streamwinning is immune from rebirth as an animal, ghost, or in Hell.
Here the thing to note is the idea that each of the limbs of stremwinning encompasses the others.
[SN 5.55.18] Paṭhama Devacārika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Visiting the Devas (a), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Maha Moggallana visits the Gods of the Three and Thirty and praises the four limbs of Stream-winning.
Here we have an example of how the four limbs of Stream-winning should be taught. Note that there is no discussion of such things as the Four Truths or the Paticca Samuppada. The teaching is the simple statement that to have faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha and to have ethical behavior that is admired by the Aristocrats will result in rebirth in a godly realm. Implicit is the expectation that someone interested in such an outcome will investigate further. Question. And by that give scope to a response by a capable teacher.
You have to read the fine print in these contracts! Behavior not approved of by the Aristocrats constitutes lack of faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. You need to understand the subtle differences between today's understanding of moral behavior as compared to that of the ethical conduct of the Buddha's Dhamma. For more on this, see: Understanding the Distinctions between Kamma, Ethics, Morality, the Rules of the Sangha, and the Behavior Required of One Seeking Awakening and The Pali Line: Ethical Culture.
[SN 5.55.19] Dutiya Devacārika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Visiting the Devas (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Maha Moggallana visits the Gods of the Three and Thirty and praises the four limbs of Stream-winning.
Almost identical with the previous but changing 'are reborn' to 'have been reborn'. (Not noticed by Woodward, but changed for this version.)
[SN 5.55.20] Tatiya Devacārika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Visiting the Devas (c), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Maha Moggallana visits the Gods of the Three and Thirty and praises the four limbs of Stream-winning.
Almost identical with the previous but changing 'have been reborn' to 'are stream-winners, not doomed to the Downfall, assured, bound for enlightenment.' (Not noticed by Woodward, but changed for this version.)
[SN 5.55.23] Godhā or Tatiya Mahānāma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Godha or Mahanama (c), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Mahanama and Godha debate whether the Streamwinner has three essential features or four. They bring the debate to the Buddha for resolution.
This is an interesting sutta for stretching intuitive vision. The debate between the two, though brought before the Buddha, is not resolved in so many words. Godha, who in the original debate speaks first, states that there are three essential features of stream-winning. Mahanama, who has heard face-to-face (in the previous sutta #22) that the Streamwinner has four essential features speaks second. Godha suggests they consult the Buddha for the resolution of the issue. After repeating to the Buddha the previous dialogue, Mahanama continues his side of the argument with a strong statement of his faith in the Buddha. At this the Buddha turns to Godha and asks him what he thinks about Mahanama now. Godha's response is non-commital. There ends the sutta.
What has happened?
Mahanama is saying with this declaration of faith: "Not only am I a Streamwinner and know by that, but my faith in the Buddha is unshakable and I have heard, face-to-face with the Buddha the statement that the Streamwinner has these four attributes. I will hold this position against all commers based on this faith in the Buddha.
Godha is saying: No argument that there are four, but a person who understands the Dhamma at a higher level understands that possesing any one of the four is the equivalent of possessing all four. Let us go to the Buddha himself and he will make this clear.
By not saying that the one is correct and the other is incorrect the Buddha confirms Godha in his view while giving Mahanama a path (the one we are using here to explain this sutta, that is, a paradox) to see in this way at some future point, and Godha goes along with the idea.
Bhk. Bodhi, in a footnote explains it this way: "Though the argument has not been explicitly settled, the matter seems to be clinched through Mahanama's testimony to his faith. By expressing so intensely his confidence in the Buddha, Mahanama confirms his status as a noble disciple, and thus his viewpoint must be correct. Spk-pṭ says that while one endowed with any one of these four qualities is a stream-enterer, one should explain in terms of possessing all four.
I would suggest only that this tends to imply (by the statement that the argument is 'clinched' and that his view is correct) that Godha's statement is incorrect and this is not the case. Both are correct. Mahanama's position is just not as broad in scope as Godha's. As for Spk-pṭ, the Buddha himself teaches it both ways and other ways.
Woodward's footnote explaining Godha's statement is a quote from the commentary that implies that he is just avoiding having to say that Mahanama is ignorant. But there is no deprecation of Mahanama there. If there were, that would show a lack of understanding of what Gotama had done and the sutta would be undone.
I say avoid the commentaries for just such reasons as are shown in this case. Go to the sutta, read the translations, work out your own translation, and come to your own vision. Commentaries where they are written down and not given face-to-face from teacher to students, should be seen as essentially the working-out in mind for the sake of the commentator of the meaning of a sutta (and by doing so publicly, however well-intentioned, are probably a mistake if not mistaken). The suttas are meant to be studied and the meaning worked out in mind, to explain them prior to being asked is (except for the fact that they should not be blindly trusted) to deprive the reader of this work of mind. ... for this I apologize to my own readers for the implication that I believe them to be a bunch of flats without sufficient entheusiasm to do more than skim the texts. Not so! Should these commentaries be encountered first, as in the case of readers here, they should be seen as advertisements for the suttas, an invitation to examine the original for one's self. What should not be the case is that they be relied upon exclusive of examining the original suttas. I cannot emphasize this enough.
[SN 5.55.24] Paṭhama Sarakāni or Saraṇāni Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sarakani or Saranani (a), the F.L. Woodward translation.
A lay disciple who has fallen away from the layman's training and who took to drink dies and is declared by the Buddha to be a Streamwinner. There is general consternation and confusion. The Buddha explains, giving a series of examples, the broad extent of possible factors leading to stream-wining.
A good sutta for those of us with, shall we say, some deficiencies in our practice. Still, the lowest possible criteria — being able to distinguish what is well said from what is not well said — is no easy matter and for effectiveness in attaining streamwinning (defined essentially as the certain and permanent escape from rebirth in hell, as a ghost or as an animal and eventual awakening) requires at least contact with the Dhamma, though it implies that having this ability and continually traveling on rejecting the badly said in favor of the well said one will eventually come upon Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.25] Dutiya Sarakāni or Saraṇāni Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sarakani or Saranani (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
A lay disciple who has fallen away from the layman's training and who took to drink dies and is declared by the Buddha to be a Streamwinner. There is general consternation and confusion. The Buddha explains, giving a series of examples, the broad extent of possible factors leading to stream-wining.
Almost identical to the previous but with an expanded list of streamwinners (more cases of non-returners), and a simile.
[SN 5.55.26] Paṭhama Dussilya or Anāthapiṇḍika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Immoral or Anāthapiṇḍika (a), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sariputta cures Anathapindika of a grievous illness by bringing him to conscious awareness of his attainment of the four dimensions of Streamwinning, his fulfilment of the Aristocratic Eight dimensional Way, and his consummate knowledge and freedom.
This is the Buddhist method of 'working cures'. It is generally not recommended that the bhikkhus work cures in that beings have their kamma to work out, but here and there we see it being done. In this case it appears to have been only a temporary reprieve, presumably to give Anathapindika time to develop somewhat beyond this point. Here he is securely fixed in the position of Streamwinner. He ends as a non-returner.
Note the Buddha's final statement where he indicates that the four dimensions of streamwinning are the equivalent of the Eightfold Path plus knowledge and freedom.
[SN 5.55.27] Dutiya Dussilya or Anāthapiṇḍika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Immoral or Anāthapiṇḍika (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda visits Anathapindika when he is sick and reviews with him the four dimensions of streamwinning.

 

The Ethical Standards Much Praised by the Aristocrats
or
The Fourth Dimension of Streamwinning

These are referred to as 'training rules' or 'the householder's seeker's path'. They should be taken on with the idea: "Let me train myself to abstain ..."

(1) pāṇa-tipātā veramaṇī, abstention from injury to breathing things. This is intentional injury. But it is 'injury', not just 'killing,' and 'breathing things' includes plant life.
(2) adinn'ādānā veramaṇī abstention from taking what is not given.
(3) abrahmacariyā veramaṇī abstention from carrying on in an ungodly (non-Brahma; not-the best) way. Forgetting ethical standards in the pursuit of pleasure. Often translated abstention from adultery or chastity, but this is too narrow. As with #5 below the idea is the abstention from injurious behavior caused by pursuit of pleasure, not the specific pleasure. Where sexual transgressions are specifically described the idea for laymen — the rules for bhikkhus, and the practices leading to the higher attainments such as non-returning are much more restrictive — is abstention from sexual intercourse in cases where the result would be dangerous to the self or harmful to another: i.e., with another person's mate(s) or betrothed, with those still living with their parents, with those protected by the state or powerful individuals.
(4) musā-vādā veramaṇī abstention from negligent speech. The idea of 'musā-vādā' is that which is said carelessly, not only lies but also thoughtlessly saying things that are not true, exageration, slander, passing along rumors, cussing, intentionally hurtful, provocative, insulting speech and name-calling, gossip, and speech which just wastes time;
(5) surā-meraya-majjapamāda-ṭṭhānā veramaṇī abstaining from careless behavior resulting from fermented or distilled drinks. This is alcohol. For us, with our plethora of intoxicants, drugs, psycho-active chemicals and insideous influences in our commodities, the general rule would be where the use of a thing causes careless behavior or neglegance. This 'rule' was a later addition to the first four and is really encompassed by them, and we can see in the case of SN 5.55.4 and other similar cases, that the emphasis is on the consequence in neglegance, not the use of the substance.

 


[SN 5.55.28] Dutiya Dussilya or Anāthapiṇḍika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Immoral or Anāthapiṇḍika (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Stream-entry: Eliminating Dread, Mastering the Four Dimensions, Penetrating the Method, Declaring Intent the M. Olds, trans.
The Buddha gives Anathapindika a complete course in attaining Stream-entry.

 

Stream-entry

Eliminating Dread
Mastering the Four Dimensions
Penetrating the Aristocratic Method
Declaring Intent

Whenever, friends,
in the student of aristocracy,
the five fears of retribution are allayed,
and four dimensions of Stream-entry have been mastered,
and he has wisely,
well viewed,
well penetrated
the aristocratic method,
he may with certainty of his aspiration
by himself, of himself
predict:

'Destroyed is Hell for me,
destroyed is the creeper's womb,
destroyed is the ghostly garb,
destroyed is falling away,
depression,
repeated failure.

A Streamwinner am I!

An unfailing thing,
assured,
destined for self-awakening.'

 


 

What five fears of retribution has he allayed?

Whatever, friends, for him who injures breathing things,
from injury to breathing things,
results in fear of retribution
in this seen thing,
results in fear of retribution
in the hereafter,
experienced in the heart as pain and misery,
in abstention from injury to breathing things,
that fear of retribution is allayed.

Whatever, friends, for him who takes what is not given,
from taking what is not given,
results in fear of retribution
in this seen thing,
results in fear of retribution
in the hereafter,
experienced in the heart as pain and misery,
in abstention from taking what is not given,
that fear of retribution is allayed.

Whatever, friends, for he who carries on in an ungodly way,
from carrying on in an ungodly way,
results in fear of retribution
in this seen thing,
results in fear of retribution
in the hereafter,
experienced in the heart as pain and misery,
in abstention from carrying on in an ungodly way,
that fear of retribution is allayed.

Whatever, friends, for him who utters negligent speech,
from uttering negligent speech,
results in fear of retribution
in this seen thing,
results in fear of retribution
in the hereafter,
experienced in the heart as pain and misery,
in abstention from uttering negligent speech,
that fear of retribution is allayed.

Whatever, friends, for him who behaves carelessly because of fermented and distilled drink,
from behaving carelessly because of fermented and distilled drink,
results in fear of retribution
in this seen thing,
results in fear of retribution
in the hereafter,
experienced in the heart as pain and misery,
in abstention from behaving carelessly because of fermented and distilled drink,
that fear of retribution is allayed.

These are the five fears of retribution he has allayed.

 


 

What four dimensions of Stream-entry has he mastered?

Herein, friends, of the Buddha, the student of aristocracy is possessed of certain clarity:

'Just he is the Lucky Man,
Aristocrat,
consummately self-awakened one,
possesser of vision and conduct,
the Welcome,
Worldly-wise,
people's unsurpassed Dhamma-coach,
teacher of gods and men,
Buddha,
The Lucky Man.'

Of the Dhamma, the student of aristocracy is possessed of certain clarity:

'Well revealed is the Lucky Man's Dhamma,
a seen-here thing,
timeless,
a come-and-see thing
leading onward,
something to be experienced for one's self by the wise.'

Of the Order, the student of aristocracy is possessed of certain clarity:

'Practicing well is the Lucky Man's Order of students,
of upright practice is the Lucky Man's Order of students,
practicing the method is the Lucky Man's Order of students,
practicing consummately is the Lucky Man's Order of students.

That is to say it is the four pairs of men,
the eight good men —
that is the Lucky Man's Order of students
that is worthy of veneration,
worthy of hospitality,
worthy of handouts,
worthy of salutation,
an unsurpassable field of prosperity for the world.'

And he is possessed of ethics praised by the Aristocrats —
unbroken,
without gaps,
untarnished,
unblemished,
liberating,
not disparaged by the wise,
beyond, second to none,
evolving into serenity.

These are the four dimensions of Stream-entry he has mastered?

 


 

And what is that aristocratic method
he has wisely,
well viewed,
well penetrated?'

Here, friends, the student of aristocracy
thoroughly mentally studies points of conception
of mutually bound up stimuli,
so:

This 'this' being, that is had;
with this support, that comes to birth;

This 'this' not being, that is not had;
this ending, that subsides.

That is to say:

Blindness-stimuli: own-making,[1]
own-making-stimuli: consciousness,
consciousness-stimuli: named-form,
named-form-stimuli: the six realms of sense,
the six realms of sense-stimuli: contact,
contact-stimuli: sensation
sensation-stimuli: thirst,
thirst-stimuli: support,
support-stimuli: existence,
existence-stimuli: birth,
birth-stimuli: aging and death,
grief and lamentation
pain and misery,
and despair.

Thus is had this self-sustaining mutually bound up body of pain.

Thus also:

Blindness'-ending: own-making's-ending,
own-making's-ending: consciousness'-ending,
consciousness'-ending: named-form's-ending,
named-form's-ending: the six realms of sense's-ending,
the six realms of sense's-ending: contact's-ending,
contact's-ending: sensation's-ending
sensation's-ending: thirst's-ending,
thirst's-ending: support's-ending,
support's-ending: existence's-ending,
existence's-ending: birth's-ending,
birth's-ending: aging and death,
grief and lamentation
pain and misery,
and despair's-ending.

Thus is had the end of this self-sustaining mutually bound up body of pain.

This is that aristocratic method
he has wisely,
well viewed,
well penetrated.

Whenever, friends,
in the student of aristocracy,
these five fears of retribution are allayed,
and these four dimensions of Stream-entry have been mastered,
and he has wisely,
well viewed,
well penetrated
the aristocratic method,
he may with certainty of his aspiration
by himself, of himself
predict:

'Destroyed is Hell for me,
destroyed is the creeper's womb,
destroyed is the ghostly garb,
destroyed is falling away,
depression,
repeated failure.

A Streamwinner am I!

An unfailing thing,
assured,
destined for self-awakening.'

 


[1] Avijjāpaccayā saŋkhārā. Here this is just a list or table of mutually bound up conditions and is not a series of clauses in a sentence to be read out as with Woodward: "Conditioned by ignorance, activities come to pass", or Bhk. Bodhi: "With ignorance as condition, volitional formations [come to be]." To read it that way is a short-cut that ignores the instruction that what should be done with the pairs of items in this list is to subject them to examination in mind per the previously described method:

This 'this' being, that is had;
with this support, that comes to birth;

This 'this' not being, that is not had;
this ending, that subsides.

So:

This 'blindness-stimuli' being, own-making is had;
with blindness-stimuli support, own-making comes to birth;

This 'blindness-stimuli' not being, own-making is not had;
blindness-stimuli ending, own-making subsides.

 


[SN 5.55.29] Bhaya or Bhikkhu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fear or The Monk, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha gives a number of bhikkhus a complete course in attaining Stream-entry.
[SN 5.55.30] Licchavi or Nandaka, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha gives an inspiring talk to Nandaka the minister of the Licchavi on Stream Entry.
This sutta is notable for the insertion in the description of the benefits of stream-entry the idea that such also brings both earthly and heavenly long life, beauty, happiness, good name, and sovereignty.
[SN 5.55.32] Flood (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes four facets of stream-entry as four overflowing benefits.
Here only the first three of the four dimensions of stream-entry are given with a description of generosity as a fourth.
[SN 5.55.33] Flood (c), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes four facets of stream-entry as four overflowing benefits.
Here only the first three of the four dimensions of stream-entry are given with a description of the insight into the rise and fall of things which is had by the Streamwinner as a fourth.
[SN 5.55.34] Paṭhama Devapada Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Path to the Devas (a), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the four dimensions of stream-entry as the path to the deva worlds.
[SN 5.55.35] Dutiya Devapada Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Path to the Devas (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the four dimensions of stream-entry as the path to the deva worlds.
This sutta differs from the previous in the addition of awareness in the bhikkhu that he has because of his development found the path to the devas.
[SN 5.55.36] Sabhāgata Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Joined the Company, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that the devas delight in the similarity to themselves of one who has the four dimensions of stream-entry.
Bhk. Bodhi notes that Woodward has misunderstood a term here which results in a translation essentially unsupported by the material that follows. I have provided Bhk. Bodhi's note which explains, and I give an abridged example of his construction of the sutta.
[SN 5.55.37] Mahānāma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Mahānāma, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Mahanama receives answers to his qestions about what constitutes a disciple, faith, ethical conduct, generosity and wisdom.
[SN 5.55.38] Vassa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Raining, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens the way rain on the mountains flows down filling the streams, lakes and rivers and empties into the Ocean to the way the person with faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha and who possesses the ethical behavior of the Aristocrat gradually develops arahantship.
[SN 5.55.40] Nandiya, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha defines the 'puthujjana', the disciple that lives carelessly and the disciple that lives carefully.
I have mentioned this previously but it is worth repeating: there is a habit among some bhikkhus weak themselves in knowledge of the Dhamma, eager for some indication of their superiority to the rest of the world, not adverse to insulting others to class anyone not a bhikkhu as a 'puthujjana,' 'commoner'. Here in this sutta we can see that this term is to be applied only to those with absolutely no belief in the Buddha or his system. Those who do have belief but whose knowledge and practice falls short are called 'ariyasāvako pamāda-vihārī' 'disciples who live carelessly'. Just having heard the idea that there is such a thing as awakening is a huge step in the right direction, any sort of faith in the Buddha and his teachings as being the way to attain that awakening should be respected as such.
[SN 5.55.41] Paṭhama Abhisanda or Sahaka or Asaŋkheyya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Flood or Capacious (a), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha speaks about how difficult it is to calculate the benefits of being blessed with the four dimensions of Stream-entry.
Here the verses at the end seem to detract from the point of the sutta in that they suggest that it is the fact that the Stream-enterer is generous to the Sangha that brings about his merit while the message of the sutta is that it is the attaining of the four dimensions themselves that is the basis of his merit.
[SN 5.55.42] Dutiya Abhisanda or Sahaka or Asaŋkheyya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Flood or Capacious (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha speaks about how difficult it is to calculate the benefits of being blessed with four factors.
The same as the previous substituting generosity for ethical behavior as a fourth item.
[SN 5.55.43] Dutiya Abhisanda or Sahaka or Asaŋkheyya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Flood or Capacious (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha speaks about how difficult it is to calculate the benefits of being blessed with four factors.
The same as the previous but substituting wisdom for generosity as the fourth item and eliminating the simile.
[SN 5.55.44] Paṭhama Mahāddhana or Aḍḍha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Very Rich or Wealthy (a), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha calls a person possessing the four dimensions of Stream-entry very rich, of great possessions.
[SN 5.55.45] Dutiya Mahāddhana or Aḍḍha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Very Rich or Wealthy (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha calls a person possessing the four dimensions of Stream-entry very rich, of great possessions, of great fame.
Only one word different than the previous.
[SN 5.55.46] Bhikkhū or Suddaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Monks, or Puritan, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha defines Stream-entry for the bhikkhus in it's most fundamental form.
[SN 5.55.47] Nandiya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Nandiya, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha defines Stream-entry for Nandia the Sakyan.
[SN 5.55.48] Bhaddiya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Bhaddiya, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha defines Stream-entry for Bhaddiya the Sakyan.
Identical with the previous with only the addressee changing.
[SN 5.55.49] Mahānāma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Mahānāma, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha defines Stream-entry for Mahanama the Sakyan.
Identical with the previous with only the addressee changing.
[SN 5.55.50] Aŋga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Limb, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four dimensions of Stream-entry.
A completely different set of 'aŋgas' than is found in, for example, SN 5.28. Which tells us that we should not consider 'The Four Dimensions of Stream-entry" (cattāri sotāpattiy-aŋgāni) as a title of a fixed set, but only as a way of distinguishing four of many dimensions that make a set that will lead to Stream-entry.
[SN 5.55.51] Sagāthaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
With Verses, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Blessed with these four things the Disciple of the Buddha is a Stream-enterer.

 


For those individuals interested doing sutta readings (especially for live audiences) or in dramatizing suttas for video recording: There is a construction in the Pali in which one person speaks followed by speech of another person where there is no indication as to the fact that it is two persons speaking. Sometimes even the 'ti' indicating the end of a person's speech is missing. In our English construction of dialogue we are used to having the speaker indicated in some way. Sometimes this is handled in translations by indicating the speaker in square brackets. However I have witnessed 'old time' story telling in which this sort of dialogue occurs and such transitions are indicated by a slight pause and facial and tonal differences. Even in the case of voice-only recording, the pause and tonal difference would be enough to convey the change.


 

[SN 5.55.52] Vassavuttha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Spending the Rainy Season, the F.L. Woodward translation.
A bhikkhu reports on his experiences living near the Buddha during a rainy season.
Very interesting from the point of view of getting a glympse of the way news was passed along in the days of the Buddha.
[SN 5.55.53] Dhammadinna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Dhammadinna, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Dhammadinna brings his 500 followers to the Buddha for a Dhamma lesson.
In an interesting footnote Woodward quotes commentary which refers to Samyuttas as Suttantas: 'collections,' which, of course, they are. The importance of this is in understanding the nature of those 'suttas' called 'suttanta' in the Digha and Majjhima.
[SN 5.55.54] Dhammadinna, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha explains to Anathapindika how one should speak to a disciple of the Buddha who is suffering an illness likely to lead to death.
The qualification indicates that this approach should probably not be taken with an unconverted individual.
[SN 5.55.55] Paṭhama Caturo Phalā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Four Fruits (a), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to stream-entry: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.56] Dutiya Caturo Phalā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Four Fruits (b), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to once-returning: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.57] Tatiya Caturo Phalā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Four Fruits (c), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to non-returning: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.58] Catuttha Caturo Phalā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Four Fruits (d), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to Arahantship: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.59] Paññā-Paṭilābho Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Acquiring Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to acquiring wisdom: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.60] Paññā-Vuḍḍhi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Growth of Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to growing wisdom: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.61] Paññā-Vepullata Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Increase of Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to increasing wisdom: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.62] Mahā-Paññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Comprehensive Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to great wisdom: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.63] Puthu-Paññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Manifold Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to broad wisdom: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.64] Vipula-Paññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Extensive Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to bountiful wisdom: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.65] Gambhīra-Paññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Profound Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to profound wisdom: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.66] Appamatta-Paññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Unbounded Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to immeasurable wisdom: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.67] Bhūri-Paññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Abundant Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to world-wide wisdom: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.68] Paññā-bahula Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Many-sided Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to wisdom a-plenty: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.69] Sīgha-Paññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Swift Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to swift wisdom: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.70] Lahu-Paññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Buoyant Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to easy wisdom: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.71] Hāsa or Hāsu-Paññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Joyous Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to good-humored wisdom: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.72] Javana-Paññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Instant Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to spontaneous wisdom: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.73] Tikkha-Paññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sharp Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to sharp wisdom: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.
[SN 5.55.74] Nibbedhika-Paññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fastidious Insight, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things which lead to penetrating wisdom: companionship with good men, listening to Dhamma, tracing things in mind to their points of origin, and walking in the footsteps of the Dhamma in the Dhamma.

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 5.55. The Book of the Kindred Sayings on Stream-winning.

[SN 5.56.1] Concentration the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Woodward translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to develop serenity because the serene individual knows things as they really are and this is essential for seeing the Four Truths.
[SN 5.56.2] Paṭisallīṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Meditation, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Seclusion, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to devote themselves to solitude because in solitude the individual knows things as they really are and this is essential for seeing the Four Truths.
Paṭisallīṇa: Retirement to one's own room.
[SN 5.56.3] Paṭhama Kulaputta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Clansman (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Clansmen (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha states that whoever in the past, future or present leaves the household life for the homeless life, if done in the consummate way, does so with the idea of seeing as they are, and attaining deeper comprehension of the Four Truths.
Important in the phrasing of this statement is, of course, that this is the case when home-leaving is done with the highest intentions. Given that, what is being said is that this is the real goal of all well-intentioned seekers.
[SN 5.56.4] Dutiya Kulaputta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Clansman (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Clansmen (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha states that whoever in the past, future or present leaves the household life for the homeless life and finds understanding of things as they are, comes upon that understanding by way of deep comprehension of the Four Truths.
[SN 5.56.5] Paṭhama Samaṇa-Brāhmaṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Recluses and Brahmins (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ascetics and Brahmins, (1) the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha states that whatever seekers and brahmins there are, past, future, or present, who wake up to things the way they are, do so by way of deep comprehension of the Four Truths.
[SN 5.56.6] Dutiya Samaṇa-Brāhmaṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Recluses and Brahmins (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ascetics and Brahmins, (2) the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha states that whatever seekers and brahmins there are, past, future, or present, who declare that they have been or will be awakened to things the way they are, do so by declaring that they have done so by way of deep comprehension of the Four Truths.
Another way of saying this is that in whatever words an awakened one uses to state that he is an awakened one and whatever words he uses to state that such and such was his method of doing so it amounts to saying that he has awakened to the Four Truths and has done so by deep comprehension of the Four Truths. The corrolary of this is that it is very important to figure out the equivalance of the various ways understanding Arahantship is described and the equivalance of the various methods described for reaching Arahantship. Exercise: See if you can see the equivalance of the Four Truths and the Paticca Samuppada. (See: The Pali Line: The 10th Question: Samma Vijja)
[SN 5.56.7] Vitakkā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Thoughts, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Thoughts, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The bhikkhus are urged to abandon thoughts of lust, deviance and harm and to train the mind to think 'this is pain', 'this is the source of pain', 'this is way to end pain,' 'this is the way to go about bringing an end to pain.'
[SN 5.56.8] Cintā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Reasoning, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Reflection, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The bhikkhus are urged to abandon speculations concerning the world and the hereafter and to focus in stead on heart-felt comprehension of the thoughts: 'this is pain', 'this is the source of pain', 'this is way to end pain,' 'this is the way to go about bringing an end to pain.'
Cintā 'Heart-talk'. This is the form of thinking wherein one uses one's 'feeling' about what one is thinking about to push forward that thinking to the point of satisfaction. As long as one has the thought: 'This doesn't feel right,' one continues to reason out the issue. So it is not pure reason nor simple reflection nor just construction of ideas in words. As the Buddha points out, this is not in all cases a very reliable form of thinking. It works well in the case of the Four Truths because of the broadly edifying nature of the Four Truths relative to liberation.
Note that 'Tathāgata' here means anyone who has got the goal.
[SN 5.56.9] Viggāhika-Kathā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Wordy Warfare, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Disputatious Talk, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The bhikkhus are urged to abandon acrimonious debate and in stead to train themselves to think about and speak with one another about the topics: 'this is pain', 'this is the source of pain', 'this is way to end pain,' 'this is the way to go about bringing an end to pain.'
Note that 'Tathāgata' here means anyone who has got the goal.
[SN 5.56.10] Tiracchāna-Kathā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Talk, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Pointless Talk, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The bhikkhus are urged to abandon various sorts of low talk and in stead to train themselves to speak with one another about the topics: 'this is pain', 'this is the source of pain', 'this is way to end pain,' 'this is the way to go about bringing an end to pain.'
Tiracchāna-Kathā. Tiracchāna: Athwort, slant-wize, horizontal primarily in reference to the mode of locomotion of animals. In reference to 'kathā' 'speech' meaning of a lower order, not aimed at the highest, worldly. Note that for the Buddhist at least this includes speculative thought about existence and non-existence. Consequently the discussion of whether or not the self exists now or after death and in what form, etc. (the discussion of self vs. no self) is Tiracchāna-Kathā, while the discussion of non-self ('this' is not my self, not mine, is just pain) is not.

 

Low Talk

Train yourself to abstain from low talk, such as:

Talk of kings and ministers of state,
robbers and thieves,
the horrors of war and battle;
talk of food, drink, clothes, beds, garlands and perfumes;
talk of cities, towns, villages,
relationships, men and women,
heroes and villains;
gossip at the corner,
over the back fence,
or at the well
talk of those alive or of those who are departed;
talk comparing differences between this and that;
speculative talk about creation,
existence or non-existence.

 


[SN 5.56.12] Tathāgatas, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Woodward translation and the Olds translation.
The second sutta delivered by the Buddha after his awakening.
This probably belongs to the first sutta as it is a description of how awakening is to be arrived at using the Four Truths. It is certainly an essential part of understanding how the first sutta could have been so powerfully effective in converting the original five bhikkhus.
[SN 5.56.13] Khandha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Factors, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Aggregates, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha gives a detailed definition of each of the Four Truths.
A very important sutta! The details, the meaning to be understood by the brief headings 'This is Pain' etc. are not frequently found in the suttas. This is not the most detailed to be found but is a good start. For a more detailed set of definitions see the fourth section of the Satipatthana Suttanta of the Digha Nikaya. Remember, however, that pushed to it's widest extent the Four Truths encompasses the whole of the Dhamma.
Note that the definition of the first truth as being the the five stockpiles of fuel (upādānakkhandha) is the equivalant of saying 'everything that constitutes existence is pain'.
[SN 5.56.14] Āyatana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sphere of Sense, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Internal Sense Bases, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha gives a detailed definition of each of the Four Truths.
The difference between this sutta and the previous one is that here the definition of Pain is the six personal or internal realms or spheres. Woodward: 'personal spheres of sense"; Bhk. Bodhi: Internal Sense Bases. That this was explicitly called 'the internal' spheres (or bases or realms) seems to call for a similar sutta using the external spheres, but that is missing. In any case the simple statement that Pain is to be understood as the six internal spheres should not be read as excluding the six external spheres. The very point of the sutta is to show the equivalence of the senses to the (upādānakkhandha); that is, everything in existence. (See on this the first several suttas of The Salayatana Samyutta, where both are called 'Pain.' The fact is that 'the world, the origin of the world, the end of the world, is to be found in this fathom-long body' (and other such statements) indicates that that which is experienced as existence is essentially all internal. Another possibility is that the 'āyatana of the eye' etc. was understood to mean both the eye and visual object, etc. When the components (eye:visual object) are used separately in SN 35 they are not accompanied by the term 'āyatana.' A third possibility is that the term 'ajjhattikāni' 'internal' was inserted later in error.
[SN 5.56.15] Paṭhama Dhārana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Bearing in Mind (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Remembrance 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to bear in mind the Four Aristocratic Truths.
Dhāra: 'holding' > 'retaining > our 'bear in mind,'
Sati: 'mind' > 'memory,' 'recollection' 'remembrance',
Asati: 'out of mind' > 'to forget',
Vimaɱsa: 'Re-member' > to call to mind, construct in memory,
Vitakka: re-talk > think in words;
Vicara: 're-wander': to reminisce or ponder,
Citta: "center' > 'heart' > 'mind', the place of origin of thought and so also 'thought'
Cetanā, thought or thinking arising from the heart
Cintā: 'heart-talk', thinking governed (driven) by the emotions
Mana & Mano 'mind' mind as a sense organ controlling the objective functions giving rise to consciousness: the personal (identified with) objective mind,
Sannā: once-knowing, perception. The first point of consciousness of or identification of named forms.
Viñnāṇa re-knowing-knowing-knowing. Conscious awareness, consciousness of consciousness, self-awareness.
[SN 5.56.16] Dutiya Dhārana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Bearing in Mind (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Remembrance 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to bear in mind the Four Aristocratic Truths.
A variation on the previous wherein the Buddha states that it would be impossible to reject these four truths and come up with another set of four truths and claim that they were spoken by the Buddha. These sorts of claims made by the Buddha are not infrequent and must be understood at a higher level. It is not that he is saying that some fool cannot come along and say this. What is being said is that an earnest, honest seeker, examining these four truths would need to see the truth of them before he could in good faith reject them and seeing the truth of them would not reject them let alone come up with a better way of expressing the truths therein, let alone claim that the Buddha did not say them. These truths provide the solution to the problem of Pain in existence in the most fundamental, general, rock bottom way such that there is no more fundamental, general, or rock bottom way to state them. ... which is why very careful attention should be paid by translators to the translation of the term 'dukkha'. 'Stress' and 'Anguish' for example, are not all-encompassing of terms of pain and suffering. The term needs to encompass all those features that define 'dukkha' in the various places it is defined (for example, SN 5.55.13 and 14, above, and the Satipatthana Sutta.) There are really only two words in English of such scope: the literal 'shit' (do-do uk ukky k-kha), and 'pain'. And the clincher, for 'pain' is the fact that in the definition found throught the suttas of dukkha as: aging and death, grief and lamentation, pain and misery, and despair, ('pain and misery' being the contrast between physical pain and mental pain,) the word which I have translated as 'pain,' that 'physical pain,' is 'dukkha'. Dukkha needs to stand for physical pain and mental pain in the same way as does 'pain' in English.
There is another aspect to this. Middle-class American businesmen suffer 'stress'; upperclass English women suffer 'anguish'. Other strata of society will reject out of hand that they suffer either stress or anguish. Virtually nobody in their right mind will reject the fact that they suffer pain. The compassionate term therefore, considering mankind in general, is the term accepted most universally: pain. If the translator feels the need to take in higher orders of existence, such as the gods, he will consider the term 'shit' to be more universally understood. 'Pain' is really an abstract term; there is no concrete thing to point to to explain it that will imply both mental and physical pain. I yield for the most part in my translations to the sensibilities of the modern reader of English and use 'pain' for my translation of 'dukkha', but the literal meaning should be kept in mind when you come across the devas or face rebirth. Of course the even simpler way to handle this is to leave the term untranslated and add it to the English vocabulary. "Dukkha happens."
[SN 5.56.17] Avijjā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ignorance, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ignorance, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Questioned about the meaning of the term 'avijja', 'blindness', the Buddha explains that it is blindness to the truth of the four truths.
Avijjā is translated as 'ignorance' by Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi and almost all the other translators, but, unless you hear in this term 'Ignore -ance' understanding it to mean not that one is ignorant of a thing but that one is ignoring (refusing to acknowledge) one's knowledge of it, 'ignorance' is not the idea here. The idea here is precisely ignoring: 'not seeing' having penetrating knowledge and vision of, ('vijja' = 'vision'); understanding, seeing it as it really is, and not heeding one's vision.
If this were not the case anyone having once heard the four truths could be said to be without ignorance.
Make the connection: This is the first factor in the Paticca Samuppada, the one ultimately dependent upon which is 'own-making' or constructing one's own personal world. So when that formula is encountered, it should be understood to be saying: "It is because of blindness to the four truths that one constructs one's own world."
The stream-enterer has knowledge and vision of the four truths and is therefore not ignorant, but for some time he may still go on constructing his own world. He does so out of blindness to, the ignoring of, the truth that whatsoever he constructs ends in pain.
[SN 5.56.18] Avijjā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ignorance, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ignorance, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Questioned about the meaning of the term 'vijja', 'vision', the Buddha explains that it is vision of the truth of the four truths.
The seeing before your very eyes, at any instance of impulse to create for one's self the certain knowledge that it will end in pain.
Bhk. Bodhi's 'True knowledge' is a gloss and apparently an attempt to overcome the defects of translating 'avijja' as 'ignorance.'
[SN 5.56.19] Sankāsanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Illustration, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Implications, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that each of the four truths is capable of unlimited ways of being exprssed.
That is my understanding of the meaning of the sutta.
The key term here is: Sankāsanā. Also spelled: Saṅkāsanā and Sañkāsanā I have spelled it as it is found in PED which defines it: "explanation, illustration."
Both Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi note commentary as stating that synonyms are (PED definitions in ()):
pakāsanā = (explaining, making known; information, evidence, explanation, publicity),
vivaraṇā = (uncovering, unveiling, making open, revelation),
vibhājan'uttānī-karaṇa = (division; detailing, classification 'stretch out, flat-make (to make plain)),
paññatti = (making known, manifestation, description, designation, name, idea, notion, concept).
In Childers', 'saṅkāso' = resembling.
For each, Gotama states that:
Tattha aparimāṇā vaṇṇā,||
aparimāṇā vyañjanā,||
aparimāṇā sankāsanā,||
Such is immeasurably colored or shaded (Woodward: 'shades'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'nuances'
immeasurably characterized (Woodward: variations of meaning; Bhk. Bodhi: details),
immeasurably Sankāsanā-ed (Woodward: 'ways of illustrating'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'implications'.
I suggest the meaning is to be inferred from the previous suttas where, for example, 'dukkha' is defined in one sutta as the 'khandhas' and another as the 'internal six realms'. In other words he is explaining this business of the interchangeability of various aspects of Dhamma.
I further suggest that this is not to say that 'dukkha' or any other important term may be translated any which way or any way other than that which is most precisely aligned with it's literal meaning (I believe that is being warned against in SN 5.56.16) , but that when that term is found, the concept expressed by it may be explained as encompassing other terms or other ideas may be equated to it without altering it's meaning. There is a fine line there which must be respected between defining a term as such and such and equating such and such to that term.
'Dukkha' means 'Dukkha' not 'Vihesā'
'Dukkha' encompasses 'Vihesā'
'Vihesā' does not encompass 'Dukkha'
'Pain' means 'Pain', not 'Worry'.
'Pain' encompasses 'Worry'.
'Worry (or Stress or Anguish) does not encompass 'Pain'
one way of understanding 'Dukkha' is to know that 'Idaŋ' or the 'Saḷāyatanāna' or 'khandha'is Dukkha,
one way of understanding 'Pain' is to know that 'This' (whatever) or 'the realm of the senses' or 'the components of existence' are 'Pain'.
What makes these equivalants 'legal' and narrow, non-literal, abstract translations not is that what the Buddha is saying in these cases is that every term that is equivalant to 'every existing thing' is capable of being understood as 'pain' whereas not every thing that is painful is capable of being understood to encompass all understandings of the term pain.
Why is this important for the practitioner?
Because when you are told 'thou shalt not kill' and you follow the commandment to avoid the wrath of God, you will behave differently than when you are told 'train yourself to abstain from harm to living beings' and you follow that advice pointing to your own best self-interest.
For more on this see the introduction to my translation of the next sutta, SN 5.56.20.
[SN 5.56.21] Paṭhama Vijjā Suttaṃ the Pali,
Knowledge (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Koṭigāma (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that it is because of not having knowledge of, not penetrating the four truths that beings have been wandering round this round-and-round so very very long.
[SN 5.56.22] Dutiya Vijjā Suttaṃ the Pali,
Knowledge (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Koṭigāma (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha warns the bhikkhus that those shaman and brahmin who do not understand the four truths have not found the way to Arahantship.
[SN 5.56.23] Sammā Sambuddho Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fully Enlightened, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Perfectly Enlightened One, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that it is because of understanding the four truths that he is called The Arahant, The Consummately Self-Awakened One.
[SN 5.56.24] Arahanta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arahants, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Arahants, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that whoever has in the past, or will in the future or is now an Arahant all became such as a consequence of understanding the Four Aristocratic Truths.
[SN 5.56.25] Āsavakkhayo Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Distruction of the Āsavas, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Destruction of the Taints, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that it is one who knows and sees the Four Aristocratic Truths that is able to destroy the corrupting influences, not one who does not know and see.
[SN 5.56.26] Mittā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Friends, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Friends, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that they should teach The Four Aristocratic Truths to their friends, kith and kin, for whom they feel kindness of heart, who have a mind to listen to them.
[SN 5.56.27] Tathā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
True, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Actual, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Such-as-Such-is, the M. Olds translation,
The Buddha aserts that the Four Aristocratic Truths are called that because they are true.
[SN 5.56.28] Loka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The World, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The World, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
In the World, the M. Olds translation,
The Buddha explains that among the gods, the World, including Māra and Brahmā, with shamen and brahmins being born among gods and men, one who gets the getting (the 'tathagata', 'the such-as-such-is-getter') is considered the Aristocrat and that is why the Four Aristocratic Truths are called 'Aristocratic Truths'.
[SN 5.56.29] Pariññeyyaṃ or Abhiññeyya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
To be Fully Understood or Comprehended, the F.L. Woodward translation,
To Be Fully Understood, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
To become an Arahant there is one thing to be comprehended, one thing to be let go, one thing to be seen as true, and one thing to be made to become.
[SN 5.56.30] Gavampati Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Gavampati, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Gavampati, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Gavampati states to a group of elder bhikkhus that he has heard face-to-face with the Buddha that he who sees any one of the Four Truths also sees all of them.
This is understood in the commentaries to mean 'in the same instant', but we shall show that the meaning is 'upon arriving at the point of seeing, as it really is, in it's totality'.
This is a very interesting sutta from the point of view of doubtful matters. Bhk. Bodhi, in a note to the print edition, confirms my belief that this statement is not made elsewhere in the four nikaya, by the Buddha or anyone else. (What is said elsewhere is that each of the four truths is the equivalent of each of the others.) It is quoted it the Vissudhi Magga and in Points of Controversy. Curiously in Points of Controversy Gavampati's point is defended by the Thereavadans in spite of it's being (at least on the face of it ... we will get to that) in contradiction to numerous places where awakening is stated to be a gradual process. That awakening is an instantaneous (that is, all or nothing) event is the position of at least some Zen Buddhist schools.
How can we reconcile this dilemma without dismissing the statement of Gavampati as being false?
The key term here that must be understood is 'passati', 'seeing'. The terms used for the Stream-enterer are: ñāṇa and dassana, 'knowing and seeing'. The difference between dassana and passati is that the former is an intellectual understanding whereas the latter is a penetrating vision, discovery, realization, of the actual reality. So we can say there is, up to the point of passati, a gradual expansion of comprehension, 'dassana,' which, at a certain point results in a penetrating, comprehensive, all-encompassing vision of all aspects of a single truth which can be expressed in each of four ways (an awakening which could be called 'instantaneous').
Said another way, you cannot see the full scope of the idea that everything is pain until you see that it is a result of thirst (one cannot see the full scope of the statement that existence itself is pain, for example, until one is able to see that it is thirst-motivated behavior which brings about existence — to that point one is continuously trying to awaken the existing being, that is to 'awaken myself,' which cannot be done because awakening is outside of existence) and that by ending thirst that pain will end and that the way to end thirst is to mold one's behavior such that it does not exhibit any form of self-interest, i.e., thirst, that is, follow the Magga. And it is the same whether you approach the problem from this or any of the other three Truths.
There is a gradual course which leads up to a sudden, comprehensive, liberating vision, and one does not fully 'see' until one has reached that point.
[SN 5.56.31] Siŋsapā, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Siŋsapā Grove the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha compares what he has seen to what he has taught to a handfull of leaves in comparison to the leaves in the surrounding grove.
The lesson is to learn to distinguish in one's speech between what is beneficial in the attainment of the goal and what is not.
[SN 5.56.32] Khadira Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Acacia Tree, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Acacia, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha gives the bhikkhus a simile for the impossibility of attaining the end of pain without mastering the Four Aristocratic Truths.
[SN 5.56.33] Daṇḍa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Stick, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Stick, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
In the same way that a stick, when it falls, falls sometimes on it's tip end, sometimes on it's butt end, sometimes flat, in the same way beings obstructed by blindness, yoked to rebirth by desire, fall from here and land there, fall from there and land here.
[SN 5.56.34] Ceḷa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Turban, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Clothes, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha states that the urgency with which one would deal with one's wrap or turban being on fire is insignificant compared with the urgency with which one should deal with comprhension of the Four Truths for the ending of Pain.
[SN 5.56.35] A Hundred Years, the F.L. Woodward translation,
A Hundred Spears, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha aserts that even if a man were to be pierced with 300 spears every day for a hundred years, it would be worth it to endure it, to even consider it a pleasure, were it to happen that at the end of that hundred years one were to awaken to the Four Aristocratic Truths.
How come?
Because there is no seen beginning to this business of living. In other words, compared to what has gone before, 100 years of such torture is but a finger-snap, the release from it a pleasure beyond calculation.
Sattisata. 'spears-a-hundred', but more aptly: 'spears-a-plenty', 'spears pleny'nuf' since it is one-hundred spear-cuts 3 times a day for a hundred years. Sata is understood in the sense of 'plenty' as well as '100'.
[SN 5.56.36] Living Creatures, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Creatures, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha provides a simile for the vast scope of the degeneration that has come about in living beings in just the sea in this world.
[SN 5.56.37] Paṭhama Suriyupamā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Parable of the Sun (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Sun (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
In the same way as the dawn is the first sign of the sunrise, so the first sign of comprehension of the Four Aristocratic Truths is Consummate View.
Since Consummate View, 'sammā ditthi' is defined as the Four Aristocratic Truths, it must serve as both the starting point in the adoption of the Magga and a description of the 'view' at it's conclusion. The best way to understand this so as to avoid the idea that it must be taken on faith is to understand it as a working hypothesis. In fact, 'ditthi' is 'seeing,' but seeing intellectually, seeing a thing as it really is is 'dittha'.
[SN 5.56.38] Dutiya Suriyupamā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Parable of the Sun (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Sun (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha compares the arising of a Buddha and the teaching of the Four Truths to the way the sun dispells darkness.
[SN 5.56.39] Indakhīlo Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Foundation Stone, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Indra's Pillar, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha describes how one who understands the Four Aristocratic Truths does not rely on outward appearances for determining whether some person is one who knows and sees.
Be not mislead by 'the guru smile' and 'the guru radiance'. This appearance of great happiness is based on the love of fame and fortune. Watch, in stead for signs of lust, anger and blindness; knowledge of pain, it's source, the way it is brought to an end, and the walk to walk to bring about it's end.
[SN 5.56.40] Vādino Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Dogmatists, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Seeking an Argument, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha compares the efforts of a professor to upset the balance of one who understands the Four Aristocratic Truths to the impotence of the wind to shake a fourty-eight-foot piller sunk twenty-four feet into the ground.
Vādin. 'Professor'. In the old tradition of one who wanders around seeking truth by way of debating anyone who claimed to possess such. This is a lost art in most places in the world today [Saturday, November 07, 2015 8:08 AM] and that is a shame. This sort of debate used to exist even in this country. It was known as 'wrestling with the devil'. Among orthodox Jews such debate existed until very recently and may still exist. The debates often reached white heat and sometimes came to blows, but always ended with the understanding that the effort at bottom was to find the truth. The debate was separate from fellow-feeling. We are much at a disadvantage for the loss of this art. In our so-called 'forums' there is such fear of upsetting people's feelings (and thereby losing viewers and fame) that anything approaching true debate is cut off at the knees. What needs to be understood is that as long as debate is conducted according to rules that will always lead to higher understanding, upset feelings are the consequence of hanging on to wrong ideas. Nothing personal. Let them go and be happy.
[SN 5.56.41] Reflection about the World, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Woodward translation,
This sutta deals with the thoughts one should and should not dwell on. It should be read when the issue of what the Buddha did not discuss comes up. Here by the juxtaposition of the issues not to be considered with those which should be thought about it is clear that this is not a matter of keeping things a mystery but of what is and what is not a matter pertaining to the goal.
[SN 5.56.42] The Precipice, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Precipice, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation,
In this sutta a bhikkhu comes across a frightening precipice and asks the Buddha if he has ever seen the like. The Buddha tells him that the precipice of old age and death, grief and lamentation, pain and misery and despair that results from own-making the own-made is a more frightening precipice than that.
[SN 5.56.43] Pariḷāha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Distress, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Great Conflagration, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
In this sutta the Buddha Describes the Great Burning Hell and a bhikkhu asks him if there is any worse burning. The Buddha tells him that the burning of old age and death, grief and lamentation, pain and misery and despair that results from own-making the own-made is a worse burning than that.
[SN 5.56.44] The Peaked House, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Peaked House, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation,
The Buddha compares the claim of a person who claims to be able to bring pain to an end without the Four Aristocratic Truths to a person who claimed to be able to build a house with a peaked roof from the peak down.
[SN 5.56.45] The Keyhole, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Hair, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation,
Ananda reports an astounding archery trick, but the Buddha tells him of a trick which is much more difficult.
Chiggaḷa. [O.E.: cipplan, to cut, E. chip] a slit, something with a hole chipped out; PED: Keyhole.
The horse-hair is split lengthwise one hundred times ... anyone could pierce a hair only split seven times! For more archery tricks see Jātaka 522.
[SN 5.56.46] Gross Darkness, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Darkness, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation,
The Buddha conjures an image of the impenetrable darkness of the space between the worlds and then tells the bhikkhus that darker than this is the blindness of one who does not see the Four Aristocratic Truths.
Woodward has this darkness as 'the darkness of interstellar space; Bhk. Bodhi calles them 'world interstices'. What is being referred to here is not the darkness of outer space (neither between planatary and steller bodies nor beteeen galaxies which are all within a single 'world system', but the darkness between world systems.
[SN 5.56.47] Dutiya Chiggaḷa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Yoke-hole (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Yoke with a Hole, (1) the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The well-known sutta wherein the Buddha describes the difficulty of attaining birth as man for one who has slipped into lower births as being as infrequent as a blind sea turtle poking it's head up through a one-holed yoke that has been cast upon the ocean.
Do you 'see' the symbolism of the blind sea-turtle and the yoke with one hole?
[SN 5.56.48] Yoke-hole (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Yoke with a Hole, (2) the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation,
A version of the well-known sutta wherein the Buddha describes the difficulty of attaining birth as man for one who has slipped into lower births as being as infrequent as a blind sea turtle poking it's head up through a one-holed yoke that has been cast upon the ocean.
[SN 5.56.49] Paṭhama Sineru Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sineru (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Sineru (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that the amount of Pain left for a Streamwinner compared to what has gone before is like comparing seven bits of gravel to Mount Sineru.
[SN 5.56.50] Dutiya Sineru Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sineru (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Sineru (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that the amount of Pain that has been destroyed by a Streamwinner compared to what is left is like comparing seven bits of gravel to Mount Sineru.

 

DPPN: Sineru. A mountain, forming the centre of the world. It is submerged in the sea to a depth of eighty-four thousand yojanas and rises above the surface to the same height. It is surrounded by seven mountain ranges — Yugandhara, Īsadhara, Karavīka, Sudassana, Nemindhara, Vinataka and Assakaṇṇa. On the top of Sineru is Tāvatiṃsa, while at its foot is the Asurabhavana of ten thousand leagues; in the middle are the four Mahādīpā [great islands or lands or continents] with their two thousand smaller dīpa.
Sineru is often used in similes, its chief characteristic being its unshakability (suṭṭhuṭhapita). It is also called Meru or Sumeru, Hemameru, and Mahāneru. Each Cakkavāla [world system] has its own Sineru, and a time comes when even Sineru is destroyed.

 

[SN 5.56.51] Nakhasikha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Tip of the Nail, the F.L. Woodward translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner: a bit of dirt on the fingernail compared to the whole earth.
[SN 5.56.52] Pokkharaṇī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Tank, the F.L. Woodward translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner: a drop of water on the tip of a blade of grass compared to the water in a gigantic water tank.
[SN 5.56.53] Paṭhama Sambejja Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Confluence (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner: two or three drops of water compared to the water at the confluence of India's five great rivers.
[SN 5.56.54] Dutiya Sambejja Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Confluence (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner: the drying up of the water at the confluence of India's five great rivers vs two or three drops that remain.
It is curious that the number of drops here and in the previous sutta is two or three versus seven. In all the suttas of this chapter the Pali is abridged indicating the text used in the first is to be used, but it may be possible that this was originally a simile for the clan-to-clan goer, or it may even indicate that the number seven so firmly associated with the stream-enterer is not to be held on to rigidly.
[SN 5.56.55] Paṭhama Pathavī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Earth (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner: seven small balls of clay compared to the whole earth.
[SN 5.56.56] Dutiya Pathavī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Earth (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner: the wearing away of the whole earth versus seven balls of clay that remain.
[SN 5.56.57] Paṭhama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Ocean (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner: Two or three drops of water compared to the water in the ocean.
[SN 5.56.58] Dutiya Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Ocean (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner: The drying up of the ocean versus two or three drops that remain.
[SN 5.56.59] Paṭhama Pabbatupamā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Simile of the Mountain (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner: seven balls of clay as large as mustard seeds compared to the Himalaya.
[SN 5.56.60] Dutiya Pabbatupamā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Simile of the Mountain (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
A simile for the great accomplishment of the Streamwinner: the wearing away of Himalaya compared to seven grains of gravel the size of mustard seeds that remain.
Compare the previous two suttas with the last two of the previous chapter [SN 5.56.49, SN 5.56.50] and then compare them with the suttas at SN 2.13. Just to keep you on your toes! We also get a hint as to the relative sizes of Mt. Sineru, the Hemalayas, and the Earth.
[SN 5.56.61-70] Cakka-peyyālo, the Pali,
Cyclic-Repetition, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ten suttas all with the same introductory simile illustrating a comparison between smaller and larger. born among men: born elsewhere; born in central India: born elsewhere; having wisdom: not having wisdom; abstaining from alcohol: not abstaining; born on land: born in water; reverant towards mother ... : not reverant towards mother ... father ... shamen ... brahmins ... elders.
[SN 5.56.71-80] Appakā-virataṃ, the Pali,
Few Abstain, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ten suttas all with the same introductory simile illustrating a comparison between smaller and larger. life-takers: abstainers from taking life; takers of what is not given; indulgence in sensual pleasures; false speakers; slanderers; harsh speakers; idle babblers; seed and vegetable life destroyers; those who eat after noon; those who wear perfumes and cosmetics.
[SN 5.56.81-90] Āmakadhañña-peyyālaṃ, the Pali,
Uncooked-Grain Repetition, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ten suttas all with the same introductory simile illustrating a comparison between smaller and larger: those who view entertainments: those who abstain; those who accept gold and silver; uncooked rice; uncooked meat; women and girls; slaves; goats and sheep; fowles and swine; elephants.
[SN 5.56.91-101] Bahutarā Sattā, the Pali,
More Numerous, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Eleven suttas all with the same introductory simile illustrating a comparison between smaller and larger: more numerous those who accept land: those who abstain; refrain from buying and selling; refrain from running errands; refrain from using false measures; refrain from bribery; refrain from cutting, flogging, binding, highway robbery, plunder; violent deeds.
In many of these cases we must assume that what is intended is that most people, 'given the opportunity' do not abstain.[SN 5.56.102-131] More Numerous, the F.L. Woodward translation,
All linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation; suttas 102-113 linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 5.56. The Book of the Kindred Sayings about the Truths.

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 5. The Great Chapter.

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Saŋyutta Nikāya: The Book of the Kindred Sayings.


Saturday, October 03, 2015
Previous upload was Tuesday, September 8, 2015


 

new Wednesday, September 09, 2015 5:10 AMSaŋyutta Nikāya,
[SN 5.47.31] Anussuta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Unheard Before, the F.L. Woodward translation
Unheard Before, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha describes the process of awakening in himself at the time he discovered that what was happening was body examining body, sense-experience examining sense-experience, mental states examining mental states, Dhamma examining things; that these things should be understood as body examining body, sense-experience examining sense-experience, mental states examining mental states, Dhamma examining things; and when these things had been understood as body examining body, sense-experience examining sense-experience, mental states examining mental states, Dhamma examining things.
In other words he is describing here his first perception of non-self in things. That things have awareness of things independent of any essential self.
This is exactly parallel to the description of his awakening to the 'group of five' found in the second part of the first sutta.
[SN 5.47.32] Virāga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Dispassion, the F.L. Woodward translation
Dispassion, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that the four settings-up of memory lead to distaste, dispassion, ending, calm, self-awakening, knowledge and vision and Nibbana.
[SN 5.47.33] Viraddha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Neglected, the F.L. Woodward translation
Neglected, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that it is by the neglect or non-neglect of the four settings-up of memory that one does or does not attain the Aristocratic way to the end of Pain.
[SN 5.47.34] Bhāvanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Cultivation, the F.L. Woodward translation
Development, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that it is by the making to live of the four settings-up of memory that one reaches beyond the beyond.
[SN 5.47.34] Mindful, the F.L. Woodward translation
Mindful, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha teaches the beggars that one should live recollected and comprehending.
Note in this sutta the distinction being made between 'sata' and 'sampajāno.'
'Sata' (being recollected, having rememberance (pp of sarati = to remember (not precisely identical with 'sati' as Woodward, Bhk. Thanissaro, Bhk. Bodhi would have it; the difference being that sata is more directly connected with the idea of memory or recall where sati is more directly connected with the putting to use of the recollected)) is defined as while living in body, sense-experience, the heart, and the Dhamma, over-seeing body, sense-experience, the heart, and Dhamma (or things) and is exactly the four settings up of memory which includes 'sampajāno' (comprehension), and 'sati' (to mind, minding) and involves the task of energetically eliminating greed and depression.
Comprehension 'Sampajāno' is defined as the 'viditā' (the seeing = knowing = finding out = dis-covery = wise as in 'I'm wise to that') of the rise ('Keep that tool cool fool, I'm wise to that rise in your Levi's'), manifestation, and resolution of sense-experience, word-thought and perception.
Sense-experience is the sensation (of pleasure, pain, or sensation that is neither painful nor pleasant) arising from the experience of sight, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, and awareness of things.
Word thought (vitakka = re-talking) is thoughts formed by words.
perception (saññā = once-knowing) is the first point of conscious awareness where what is sensed (come into contact with the senses) has first had a name placed on it, that is, has been identified.
So putting it together we can say that being recollected means that one, while living in the body, sense-experience, heart (or mental states) or the Dhamma should over-see (that is observe and take care of) the body, sense-experience, the heart, and the Dhamma, with great energy (ātāpi), comprehending in connection with body, sense-experience, heart and the Dhamma the rise, manifestation, and resolution of sense-experience, word-thought and perception, such as to eliminate worldly greed and depression.
... and all this with regard to the self or external things or both the self and external things together.
... and further, all this only just to the degree that one is conscious that 'this is body', 'this is sense-experience,' 'this is the heart', 'this is Dhamma.'

 

Pali Olds Woodward Bhk. Thanissaro Bhk. Bodhi
sato recollected mindful mindful mindful
sampajāno comprehending composed alert clearly comprehending
kāye kāyānupassī viharati lives in the body over-seeing the body abides in body contemplating body remains focused on the body in and of itself dwells contemplating the body in the body
vedanā sense-experience feelings feelings feelings
cittā heart/mental states mind mind mind
dhammā Dhamma mind-states mental qualities phenomena
vitakkā thoughts train of thought thoughts thoughts

 

[SN 5.47.36] Aññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
One of Two, the F.L. Woodward translation
Final Knowledge, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that serious application of the four settings-up of memory results in either attaining final knowledge in this life or the state of non-returning.
[SN 5.47.37] Desire to Do, the F.L. Woodward translation
Desire, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha describes to the bhikkhus how it is that by minding the body, sense-experiences, the heart and the Dhamma wishing is abandoned and that when wishing is abandoned the deathless is attained.
[SN 5.47.38] By Full Understanding, the F.L. Woodward translation
Full Understanding, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha describes to the bhikkhus how it is that by minding the body, sense-experiences, the heart and the Dhamma encyclopedic knowledge of the body, sense-experience, the heart and the Dhamma is acquired and when that is acquired the deathless is attained.
[SN 5.47.39] Bhāvanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Cultivation, the F.L. Woodward translation
Development, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus how to make live the four settings-up of memory.
[SN 5.47.40] Analysis, the F.L. Woodward translation
Analysis, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the setting up of memory, the bringing to life the setting up of memory and the way to the bringing to life of the setting up of memory.
Woodward's translation of '-paṭṭhāna' as 'stations' breaks down in this translation where the use is put into the singular. Woodward begins with 'the four' (not in the Pali), but follows with 'a station' which is very awkward when it deals with the four together. I have changed it to the singlular throughout for internal consistency and consistency with the Pali. Bhk. Bodhi translates 'establishment'. Since '-paṭṭhāna' can also be understood in the sense of 'pasture' (resort or establishment as in residence, or alternatively as basis of nourishment or just 'basis') which would face the same issues as 'station', if 'station' or 'pasture' or 'resort' or the like is for some reason preferred, the solution would be to set up the sutta so that the whole sequence was repeated four times, once for each of the 'stations' and the Pali to then be considered an abridgment. There are precedents for such an arrangement.
[SN 5.47.41] The Deathless, the F.L. Woodward translation
The Deathless, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha admonishes the bhikkhus to study the four settings-up of memory and not to miss their chance at attaining the Deathless.
There is a significant difference here in Woodward's understanding of the Pali and hense his translation. To understand the issues consult the various translations and especially the footnotes in my translation ... where I have quoted Bhk. Bodhi's footnotes which are not included in his on-line translation.
[SN 5.47.42] Arising, the F.L. Woodward translation
Origination, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the arising and ending of body, sense-experience, the heart and the Dhamma.
This sutta seems to have generated a great deal of confusion and debate continuing on down to our own time. Bhk. Thanissaro notes: This discourse is unusual in that it identifies the word satipatthana, not with the standard formula of the process of establishing mindfulness, but with the objects that form the frame of reference for that process. For example, instead of identifying the first satipatthana as, "There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in and of itself — ardent, alert, and mindful — subduing greed and distress with reference to the world," it identifies it simply as "body."
For a detailed discussion of this issue and my proposed solution, along with the full text of the debate found in Points of Controversy, see the end of my translation.
[SN 5.47.43] Sata Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Way, the F.L. Woodward translation
The Path, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha describes his thinking concerning the four settings-up of memory at a time just after his awakening. His thinking is confirmed by Brahma Sahampati.
[SN 5.47.44] Magga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Mindful, the F.L. Woodward translation
Mindful, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha instructs the bhikkhus to mind the body, sense-experiences, the heart and the Dhamma.
[SN 5.47.45] Kusalarāsī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
A Heap of Merit, the F.L. Woodward translation
A Heap of the Wholesome, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha describes the four settings-up of memory as 'heap skillful!'.
[SN 5.47.46] Pāṭimokkha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Obligation, the F.L. Woodward translation
The Restraint of the Pāṭimokkha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha gives a bhikkhu a teaching in brief: cultivate ethical behavior and the four settings-up of memory.
[SN 5.47.47] Duccarita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Wrong Conduct, the F.L. Woodward translation
Misconduct, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha gives a bhikkhu a teaching in brief: abandon unethical behavior and cultivate the four settings-up of memory.
[SN 5.47.48] Mittā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Friends, the F.L. Woodward translation
Friends, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that those for whom they have friendly feelings should be urged to cultivate the four settings-up of memory.
Here the four settings-up of memory are presented in the Pali in the identical way they have always previously been presented, that is, as addressed to a bhikkhu. However as friends and relatives and blood relations would not always have been bhikkhus, it seems more likely the original of this sutta would have used a more neutral term. "Here your friends should ..." "Here a person should ..."; "Here one should ..."
[SN 5.47.49] Vedanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Feelings, the F.L. Woodward translation
Feelings, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
For the thorough understanding of the three sensations arising from sense-experience the four settings-up of memory should be made to live.
There is a difference between (Bhk. Bodhi): "These four establishments of mindfulness, bhikkhus, are to be developed for the full understanding of these three feelings.
and
(Woodward): "For the full understanding of these three feelings
the four stations of mindfulness ought to be cultivated."
The former makes it appear that the satipatthanas entire purpose is the understanding of the three feelings; the latter allows for it to be one of the purposes. Simply understanding is not sufficient for the attainment of the goal; these feelings must also be abandoned, having abandoned them the resulting state must be perceived as freedom; and that freedom must be perceived as the freedom from pain one has been seeking.
[SN 5.47.50] Āsava Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Āsavas, the F.L. Woodward translation
Taints, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
For the thorough understanding of the three corrupting influences (sense-pleasures, existing and blindness) the four settings-up of memory should be made to live.
[SN 5.47.51-62] Gaŋga-peyyāla the Pali,
Gaŋgā Repetition, the F.L. Woodward translation
Ganges Repetition Series, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha likens the flow of great rivers to the way in which developing and making much of the Four Settings-up of Memory brings one to Nibbana.
[Suttas 63-104 are represented in the Pali only by indication that they should follow the same pattern as found in the parallel suttas at the end of the Magga Samyutta which was used also for the Bojjhanga Samyutta. However, the way the formula for the satipatthanas is to be adjusted to fit is not indicated. I have made a 'best guess' as to how this was originally constructed in the Pali, and have constructed a 'Woodward translation' and 'Pali' to match. The PTS Pali, Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi revert to the standard formula for the Satipatthanas in sutta 104, but this does not follow the pattern of the Magga Samyutta and is, I believe, a mistake all around. I have followed the pattern of the Magga Samyutta in my 'reconstructions'). In other words, these suttas are all just guesswork. Let me assure the reader, however, that there is no material missing from my organization. On the contrary it contains more material than would be found if the various abridgments had been followed faithfully.
[SN 5.47.63-72] Appamāda-vagga, the Pali,
Earnestness the F.L. Woodward translation
Diligence, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Nine similes for the caution that is the fundamental condition that leads to the bringing to life of the Four Settings-up of Memory.
[SN 5.47.73-84] Balakaraṇīya-vagga, the Pali,
Deeds Requiring Strength the F.L. Woodward translation
Strenuous Deeds, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha provides twelve similes illustrating various aspects of the Dhamma.
[SN 5.47.85-94] Esana-vagga, the Pali,
Longing the F.L. Woodward translation
Searches, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The buddha explains how the Four Settings-up of Memory is to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of wishes, delusions, corrupting influences, existence, pain, closed-mindedness, flare-ups, sense-experience, and thirst.
[SN 5.47.95-104] Ogha-vagga, the Pali,
The Flood the F.L. Woodward translation
Floods, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The buddha explains how the four settings-up of memory are to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of the floods, the bonds, yokes to rebirth, ties to the body, risidual inclinations, sense pleasures, diversions, the fuel stockpiles, the yokes to lower rebirths, the yokes to higher rebirths.

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 5.47. The Book of the Kindred Sayings on the Four Stations of Mindfulness.

[SN 5.48.1] Suddhika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Puritan, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha lists the five forces (indriyani).
See the Glossology: Indriyāni. I distinguish between the Indriani, and the Balani thus: The indriāni are the forces in nature of sight, etc.; the balani are the abilities of an individual to use those force. See on this SN 5.48.9, where they are described as more or less identical; and SN 5.48.43 which more or less confirms this way of understanding the difference.
[SN 5.48.2] Paṭhama Sota Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Stream (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Understanding the five forces (indriana), their advantages, their disadvantages and the escape from them, one is called a Stream-winner and has escaped rebirth in hell or as an animal or in any state lower than human and is assured of reaching arahantship.
[SN 5.48.3] Dutiya Sota Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Stream (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Understanding the five forces (indriana), their arising, their setteling down and the escape from them, one is called a Stream-winner and has escaped rebirth in hell or as an animal or in any state lower than human and is assured of reaching arahantship.
[SN 5.48.4] Paṭhama Araha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arahant (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Understanding the five forces (indriana), their advantages, their disadvantages and the escape from them and having become free without more to be done, one is called an Arahant, has destroyed the corrupting influences, has lived the godly life, done one's duty, won one's best interests, laid down the load, worn out the yokes to rebirth, become one released by the highest knowing.
[SN 5.48.5] Dutiya Araha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arahant (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Understanding the five forces (indriana), their arising, their settling down and the escape from them and having become free without more to be done, one is called an Arahant, has destroyed the corrupting influences, has lived the godly life, done one's duty, won one's best interests, laid down the load, worn out the yokes to rebirth, become one released by the highest knowing.
[SN 5.48.6] Paṭhama Samaṇabrāhmaṇā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Recluses and Brahmins (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Whether or not one understands the five forces (indriana), their arising, their settling down and the escape from them and having become free without more to be done, is the mark of a seeker or Brahmin among seekers and brahmins and is the benefit of being a seeker or brahmin.
[SN 5.48.7] Dutiya Samaṇabrāhmaṇā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Recluses and Brahmins (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Whether or not one understands the five forces (indriana), their arising, their settling down and the walk to walk to escape from them, is the mark of a seeker or Brahmin among seekers and brahmins and is the benefit of being a seeker or brahmin.
Slightly more detailed than the previous.
[SN 5.48.8] Daṭṭhabba Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Point of View, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes where each of the forces is to be seen at work.
If you want to see and understand the forces, look at this.
"Kattha ca ~indriyaṃ daṭṭhabbam? ... ~esu."
"And where is the ~ force be seen?
In, within ~"
i.e.: "Where is the faith force to be seen?
In faith in the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha." the force of faith is to be seen in faith in the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha;
the force of energy is to be seen in making effort;
the force of memory is to be seen in the four settings-up of memory;
the force of serenity is to be seen in the four jhānas;
the force of wisdom is to be seen in the four truths.
Bhk. Bodhi: "And where is the faculty ~ to be seen? The faculty ~ is to be seen here in the ..."
[SN 5.48.9] Daṭṭhabba Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Point of View, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha analyzes each of the five forces individually.
Here, the way this analysis goes, there is little or no difference between the indriya and the balani. Perhaps they are just synonyms.
Bhk. Bodhi notes that in the analysis of satindriya, sati is described as memory rather than as attention as though this were a change. This is not a distinction to be found in the Pali, but only in the translations. Sati is always either 'mind' or 'memory' or 'recollection' or 'recollectedness' or in the case of 'minding' a form of remembering, and 'mind' is understood as the memory.
[SN 5.48.10] Daṭṭhabba Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Analysis (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha analyzes each of the five forces individually.
A deeper analysis than the previous.
[SN 5.48.11] Paṭilābho Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Laying Hold, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes how to gain control of the forces of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom.
[SN 5.48.12] Paṭhama Saŋkhitta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
In Brief (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that it is the degree to which they have mastered faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom that determines their having attained the various degrees of accomplisment in his system from Faith Follower to Arahant.
[SN 5.48.13] Dutiya Saŋkhitta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
In Brief (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that it is the degree to which they have mastered faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom that determines their having attained the various degrees of accomplisment in his system from Faith Follower to Arahant. Then he points out that it is in this way that there is diversity in forces, diversity in fruition, diversity in powers, and diversity in peoples.
[SN 5.48.14] Tatiya Saŋkhitta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
In Brief (c), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that it is the degree to which they have mastered faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom that determines their having attained the various degrees of accomplisment in his system from Faith Follower to Arahant. Then he points out that it is in this way that those who master these things completely reach complete development while those who master them only partially reach only partial development, but that in every case some mastery brings some fruition.
[SN 5.48.15] Paṭhama Vtthāra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
In Detail (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that it is the degree to which they have mastered faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom that determines their having attained the various degrees of accomplisment in his system from Faith Follower to Arahant.
In this sutta the list of degrees of accomplishment is somewhat expanded.
[SN 5.48.16] Dutiya Vtthāra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
In Detail (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that it is the degree to which they have mastered faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom that determines their having attained the various degrees of accomplisment in his system from Faith Follower to Arahant. Then he points out that it is in this way that there is diversity in forces, diversity in fruition, diversity in powers, and diversity in peoples.
[SN 5.48.17] Tatiya Vtthāra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
In Detail (c), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that it is the degree to which they have mastered faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom that determines their having attained the various degrees of accomplisment in his system from Faith Follower to Arahant. Then he points out that it is in this way that those who master these things completely reach complete development while those who master them only partially reach only partial development, but that in every case some mastery brings some fruition.
[SN 5.48.18] Paṭipanna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Practising, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that it is the degree to which they have mastered faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom that determines their having attained the various degrees of accomplisment in his system from Faith Follower to Arahant. But he who has neglected to develope these things at all is considered 'an outsider.'
A corrolary is that bhikkhus should be very careful in the way they toss around the term 'puthujjana', a very discouraging term for a layman to have directed at him. It is no easy thing to accomplish 'starting,' and beginners should be being encouraged rather than being made stepping stones for ignorant ego-building.
[SN 5.48.19] Upasama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Tranquil, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha instructs a bhikkhu in the understanding of the phrase: 'Force-Complete'.
[SN 5.48.20] Āsavānaṃ Khaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Destruction of the Āsavas, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that it is through mastering the forces of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom and by destroying the corrupting influences that one lives heart-free, wisdom-free.
[SN 5.48.21] Nabbhava (or Ñānavā or Punabbhava) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
No More Becoming or The Knower, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus how it was by thoroughly understanding the forces of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom that he came to know the world and become self-awakened with the highest awakening, heart-freed, sure of freedom, certain that this was his last life, that rebirth was ended and there would be no more existing.
[SN 5.48.22] Jīvita (Jīvit'indriya) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Vitality, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes three forces: femininity, masculinity and living.
[SN 5.48.23] Ñāya (Aññ'indriya) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Method, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes three forces: the force of knowing that one will know the unknown; the force of knowledge of the unknown; and the force of knowing.
The ability to anticipate knowing, the knowledge itself, and knowing that knowledge. The knowledge here is 'añña' (Say: 'An-yeh') 'answer-knowing' sometimes translated 'omniscience'. Bhk. Bodhi: 'final knowledge'. It is a synonym for Arahantship. Bhikkhus who announce that they have attained the goal are said to 'declare añña.'
[SN 5.48.24] Ekābhiñña (or Ekabījī) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
One-Seed-er, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that it is the degree to which they have mastered faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom that determines their having attained the various degrees of accomplisment in his system from Faith Follower to Arahant.
This version introduces the 'one-seed man' and the clan-to-clan-goer and introduces the idea of the streamwinner that has just seven lives more to go. The one-seed man is described as of a lower degree than the once-returner but is described by the commentary as being it's equivalent, that is that he has but one more life to go before becoming an Arahant. The distinction may be in the abode, where the one-seeder may be reborn in one of the deva worlds, where the once-returner is reborn once more in this world and becomes arahant here. The scale is apparently based on the time needed to achieve arahantship (the deva world being of vastly longer duration) (but this sounds very much like the non-returner to me; perhaps the distinction in this case is that the deva world is not in the Pure Abodes). The clan-to-clan goer takes rebirth in two or three families before becoming arahant. Considering all the various possibilities it appears that the only real constant is that once one has become streamwinner one is assured of attaining arahantship within seven rebirths. The variations can be anywhere between attaining arahantship in this life, or immediately subsequent to death, to traveling from realm to realm up to the highest Pure Abode, to taking an arbitrary number of rebiths up to seven more, either as human or deva. Pretty much any variation one could imagine. Someone looking for a project could put together a definitive description of the various possible alternative re-birth paths to Arahantship.
[SN 5.48.25] Suddhaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Puritan, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes six forces: that of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind.
Bhk. Bodhi's 'Simple version' is a better translation for the suttas given the title 'Suddhaka'. They are not really about an individual or type of individual, they are describing a doctrine in it's purest form.
[SN 5.48.26] Sota or Sotāpanna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Stream or Stream-winner, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that understanding the arising, the settling down, the pleasure and the escape from the six forces is what qualifies one as a streamwinner.
[SN 5.48.27] Paṭhama Arahatā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arahant or Enlightened (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that understanding the arising, the settling down, the pleasure and the escape from the six forces and having freed one's self from them without residual fuel is what qualifies one as an arahant.
It is not sufficient to simply understand, the understanding must be applied and made into personal experience. It's like the difference between understanding that the flavor of a tomato is acid with sweet overtones, versus actually tasting the tomato.

 


"... a renunciation is not always total from the start, when we decide upon it in our original frame of mind and before it has reacted upon us, whether it be the renunciation of an invalid, a monk, an artist or a hero. But if he had wished to produce with certain people in his mind, in producing he had lived for himself, remote from society, to which he had become indifferent; the practice of solitude had given him a love for it, as happens with every big thing which we have begun by fearing, because we know it to be incompatible with smaller things which we prize and which it does not so much deprive us of as detach us from. Before we experience it, our whole preoccupation is to know to what extent we can reconcile it with certain pleasures which cease to be pleasures as soon as we have experienced it."
— Marcel Proust, Remembrance of Things Past, Volume I, Within a Budding Grove, pg. 886. The definitive French Pleiade edition translated by C.K. Scott Moncrieff and Terence Kilmartin, Vantage Books, N.Y. 1982.


 

[SN 5.48.28] Dutiya Arahatā or Buddho Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arahant or Enlightened (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus how it was by thoroughly understanding the arising, the settling down, the pleasure and the escape from the six forces and having freed himself from them without residual fuel that he came to know the world and become self-awakened with the highest awakening, heart-freed, sure of freedom, certain that this was his last life, that rebirth was ended and there would be no more existing.
[SN 5.48.29] Paṭhama Samaṇabrāhmaṇā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Recluses and Brahmins (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Whether or not one understands the six forces (indriani), their arising, their settling down and the escape from them, is the mark of a seeker or Brahmin among seekers and brahmins and is the benefit of being a seeker or brahmin.
[SN 5.48.30] Dutiya Samaṇabrāhmaṇā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Recluses and Brahmins (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Whether or not one understands the six forces (indriani), their arising, their settling down and the escape from them, is the mark of a seeker or Brahmin among seekers and brahmins and is the benefit of being a seeker or brahmin.
Similar to the previous but detailing each of the senses.
[SN 5.48.31] Suddhika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Puritan, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes five forces: that of pleasure, that of pain, that of mental ease, that of mental discomfort and that of detachment.
[SN 5.48.32] Sota Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Stream, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that understanding the arising, the settling down, the pleasure and the escape from the five forces (that of pleasure, that of pain, that of mental ease, that of mental discomfort and that of detachment) is what qualifies one as a streamwinner.
[SN 5.48.33] Arahā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arahant, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that understanding the arising, the settling down, the pleasure and the escape from the five forces (that of pleasure, that of pain, that of mental ease, that of mental discomfort and that of detachment) and having freed one's self from them without residual fuel is what qualifies one as an arahant.
[SN 5.48.34] Paṭhama Sammaṇabrāhmaṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Recluses and Brahmins (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Whether or not one understands the five forces (indriani) (that of pleasure, that of pain, that of mental ease, that of mental discomfort and that of detachment), their arising, their settling down and the escape from them, is the mark of a seeker or Brahmin among seekers and brahmins and is the benefit of being a seeker or brahmin.
[SN 5.48.35] Dutiya Sammaṇabrāhmaṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Recluses and Brahmins (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Whether or not one understands the five forces (indriani) (that of pleasure, that of pain, that of mental ease, that of mental discomfort and that of detachment), their arising, their settling down and the escape from them, is the mark of a seeker or Brahmin among seekers and brahmins and is the benefit of being a seeker or brahmin.
Similar to the previous but detailing each of the forces.
[SN 5.48.36] Paṭhama Vibhaŋga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Analysis (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha gives detailed definitions of each of the five forces (that of pleasure, that of pain, that of mental ease, that of mental discomfort and that of detachment).
Woodward notes: Upekkhā here, it is to be noted, is the hedonic, not the intellectual (tatra-majjhatt'upekkhā) mental balance.
But the sutta speaks of both the bodily and mental!
Bhk. Bodhi notes (my clarifications/interjections in [italic]): "According to the Abhidhamma, all bodily feeling [sensation, sensation arising from sense experience, or just 'sense-experience' or just 'experience'], that is, feeling arising through bodily sensitivity (kāyappasāda), is either pleasant or painful; there is no neutral feeling based on bodily sensitivity. [This first premise is to be questioned! Where is this assertion to be found in the suttas?] Hence Spk explains the bodily equanimity [upekkhā, - we have not yet arrived at the conclusion that this term is to be understood as 'equanimity.'] as feeling arising based on the other four senses, the eye, etc. [All this so far not really helpful to know even if true.] The word upekkhā, translated as equanimity, has two main denotations. [Here Bhk. Bodhi begins to relate his translation to the idea expressed in Woodward's comment.] In relation to feeling it denotes neutral feeling, adukkhamasukhā vedanā, feeling which is neither painful nor pleasant. As a mental quality, however, [Wait a minute! There is no such distinction found in the way 'vedana' is applied; the same term is used for both bodily and mental ('sensations ...')] it deontes mental neutrality, impartiality, or balance of mind (called tatramajjhattatā) in the Abhidhamma, which assigns it to the saŋkhārakkhandha)[own-made or constructed-group as opposed to that which is experienced as a result of externally originating stimulus]. In this sense it occurs as the fourth devine abode (impartiality towards beings), as the seventh factor of enlightenment [limb of wisdom, dimension of awakening] (mental equipose), and as a quality of the meditative mind mentioned in the formulas for the third and fourth jhānas. [Where, however, upekkhā, it is stated: 'he experiences in body that joy of which the Aristocrats say: "Happy is he who lives with upekkhā,..."] For a fuller discussion of the different types of upekkhā, see Vism 160-62 (Ppn 4:156-70).
What is all this saying? It is saying that upekkhā, has two aspects: that which is related to bodily experience (the five senses) and that which is related to the heart or mind. That is, really only that the translation for this term needs to mean the same thing whether relating to bodily or mental experience. Allowing that the statement made by Woodward (also based on commentary) is incorrect on the face of it, we didn't need to have all this explanation as this is the only conclusion that can be reached based on the wording of the sutta.
So then:
If an indriya is a controlling power and upekkhā, is indifference (as per Woodward) we get, according to him: 'the controlling power of indifference is indifference upon experience of bodily or mental sensation that is neither agreeable nor disagreeable.
If indriya is a faculty and upekkhā, is equanimity (as per Bhk. Bodhi) we get, according to him: 'the faculty of equanimity is equanimity upon experience of bodily or mental sensation that is neither comfortable nor uncomfortable.
In the Pali, the indriya of upekkhā is 'Yaṃ kāyikaṃ vā|| cetasikaṃ vā|| n'eva sātaṃ nāsātaṃ vedayitaṃ' 'whatsoever is of body or of the heart (mind) experienced as neither (sweet, agreeable, comfortable) nor (bitter, disagreeable, uncomfortable).
I suggest:
The force of detachment is that neither sweet nor bitter experience of detachment whether arising from body or mind.
The question is:
Is the indriya (the controlling power, the equanimity, the force) upekkhā, (indifference, equanimity, detachment) that depends on a certain sort of experience,
or is the indriya upekkhā, a certain sort of experience?
Ask yourself:
Is an indifference which depends on experience a controlling power? Or is it an experience which is itself controlled?
Is an equanimity depending on feeling that is neither comfortable nor uncomfortable really equanimity?
Or is it that a detachment that is neither sweet nor bitter (or neither agreeable or disagreeable; or neither comfortable nor uncomfortable) is a force (or a controlling power; or a faculty) useful for attaining Nibbāna, aka: upekkhā, aka sensation that is not painful but not pleasant? (see next sutta)
[SN 5.48.37] Dutiya Vibhaŋga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Analysis (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha gives detailed definitions of each of the five forces (that of pleasure, that of pain, that of mental ease, that of mental discomfort and that of detachment). He then shows how each of these forces are to be regarded as sense-experiences.
A slightly more detailed version of the previous.
[SN 5.48.38] Analysis (c), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha gives detailed definitions of each of the five forces (that of pleasure, that of pain, that of mental ease, that of mental discomfort and that of detachment). He then shows how each of these forces are to be regarded as sense-experiences.
Identical with the previous with the addition of the statement at the conclusion that by this analysis it can be seen that these indriya can be classed both as five and three in number.
[SN 5.48.39] The Fire-stick, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha uses the similie of rubbing two sticks together to produce fire to illustrate how it is by contact with the experience of sensations that the various forces arise and that when that contact is broken, the force is dissipated.
This is not an easy sutta to understand! What does the expression: 'Sukhavedanīyaṃ phassaṃ' ('contacting the to be experienced as pleasant') mean? Given that (at least in this case) experience is consequent on the intent (to cause pleasure, pain, or end kamma) with which things are done, what is to be experienced as pleasant (painful, etc.) is that which rebounds back upon one based on and reflecting back that intent. Here the reflected result that appears (paṭicca uppajjati is said to be a force (indriya) of which one is conscious. If the two sticks are 'the to be experienced' and 'the identified-with experiencer', how is one to separate the two sticks? How does one break contact? At the point where an intentional act is about to take place. At that point, opting not to act with intent to create pleasure or pain, one acts to end kamma which produces 'the to be experienced as neither pleasure nor pain.' When the force (indriya) of that experience has been consumed (in the consciousness of freedom from the consequence of doing the deed with intent to create pleasure or pain), there is no further contact. Since there is no going back to undo previously done intentional deeds, this undoing must be able to be done from the present moment. How? By letting go of, the not-doing of all existing or 'the world', (a sort of generic facing of the entire mass of consequences of one's past deeds — we have X amount of that which is to be experienced as pain, X amount of that which is to be experienced as pleasure, the precise form, or intensity or level of consiousness at which it is to be experienced is not fixed and so can be massed together such that given high enough state of consciousness the whole of it could be dealt with in (so they say) as little as half a day, or, given sufficient understanding, seven lifetimes at most) that is, serenity samādhi practice ending in detachment upekkha. In the next sutta we see how this is done.
[SN 5.48.40] Uppatika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Consequent, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha explains how each of the five forces ((that of pleasure, that of pain, that of mental ease, that of mental discomfort and that of detachment)) is to be understood in it's arising, in it's settling down and in the escape from it.
Note that even the force of detachment is to be escaped. The force 'detachment' is the experience by an individuality of detachment from the world and is therefore not absolute detachment or absolute freedom.

 


 

Escape from the Forces

For each Force the knowledge of it, knowledge of it's origin, settling down and escape is understanding that forces are identified by their signs, that they are tied to things, that they are own-made (constructed), and that they are the results of something and are therefore impermanent, painful, and not self and knowing it's origin in this way one knows that to bring it to an end the source in own-making must be brought to an end.

Force (Indriya) Way of Escape
Bodily Pain Separating from sensual pleasures,
separating from unsillful things,
with thinking,
with pondering,
one enters the first knowing:
solitude-born pleasurable entheusiasm.
Mental Pain Upon the disappearance of thinkng and pondering
internally self-composed,
whole-heartedly single-minded,
without thinking,
without pondering,
one enters the second knowing:
serenity-born pleasurable entheusiasm.
Bodily Pleasure Upon the fading of entheusiasm,
and living detached,
recollected and self-aware,
experiencing pleasure in body —
one enters the third knowing:
That of which the Aristocrats declare:
"Detached, recollected, one lives pleasantly."
Mental Pleasure Having let go pleasure,
having let go pain,
having previously settled down mental pleasure and mental pain,
without pain,
without pleasure,
one enters the fourth knowing:
pure detached recollection.
Detachment With the total surpassing
of the realm of neither-perception-nor-non-perception
one enters and abides in
the end of the experiencing of perception.

 

[SN 5.48.41] Old Age, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Ananda remarks on the changed brought upon the forces of the Buddha by old age. The Buddha responds by telling him that aging is inherant in youth, sickness in health, death in living.
[SN 5.48.42] Uṇṇābho Brāhmaṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Uṇṇābha the Brahmain, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Uṇṇābha the Brahmain, the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha instructs Uddabha the Brahmin that
mind is the home of the five senses,
and seated in mind is the bringing to life of the five senses scope and pasturage;
memory is the home of mind,
and seated in memory is the bringing to life of the mind's scope and pasturage;
recollectedness is the home of the memory,
and seated in recollectedness is the bringing to life of the memory's scope and pasturage;
freedom is the home of recollectedness,
and seated in freedom is the bringing to life of recollectedness' scope and pasturage;
Nibbana is the home of freedom,
and seated in Nibbana is the bringing to life of freedom's scope and pasturage;
and that to ask about the home of Nibbana is beyond the possibility of answering, and the scope and pasturage of Nibbana is beyond encompassing.
The Pali is abridged in this sutta in a way that has confused the translators. The brahmin is asking throughout two questions: what is the home of such and such (where do these things reside, where do they find resolution), and seated in (based on) what is it that brings these things to life ('paccanubhonti' = paṭicca anu bho > bhava 'result-following-after-living', Woodward's 'who profit's by'; Bhk. Bodhi's: 'what is it that experiences' both of which break down at Nibbana where their is no 'who' or 'experiencer') the scope and pasturage of such and such. The translators answer the two questions only in the first instance and then ask only about the home. (I have expanded the Pali and my translation is fully spelled out.) This tends to point the thinking only in the one direction where both directions are important to understanding how this sutta is a lesson which could have brought someone to non-returning: that is, that it is a version of the paticca samuppada.
Try this another way: The home of the senses is the mind, and the only point at which the full scope and pasturage of the senses is attained is from the perspective of the mind; the home of the mind is the memory and the only point at which the full scope and pasturage of the mind is attained is from the perspective of memory; the home of the memory is recollectedness (being in full possession of awareness of memory) and the only point at which the full scope and pasturage of the memory is attained is from the perspective of recollectedness; the home of recollectedness is freedom and the only point at which the full scope and pasturage of recollectedness is attained is from the perspective of freedom; the home of freedom is Nibbana and the only point at which the full scope and pasturage of freedom is attained is from the perspective of Nibbana.
Woodward notes here that this is one of a very few suttas in which a layman is actually declared a non-returner. It is not exceptional that a layman becomes a non-returner but it is not often that an individual is so declared by the Buddha.
Also of note here is the distinction made between 'mind' (mano) and 'memory' (sati) and the description of the full functioning of sati as recollectedness (satiyā) and further the very interesting statement that freedom is what brings to life, re-animates, re-livens re-existences the range and pasturage of recollectedness.
Freedom from this body is necessary for rebirth in the next; and this also illustrates how it is that freedom in and of itself is not the same thing as arahantship; freedom must be seen as freedom and this is to be seen as the point, not a transition between lives. That recognition is what keeps off the tendency to rebirth experienced in freedom.
[SN 5.48.43] Sāketa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sāketa the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha provides a simile by way of illustrating how the (indriya) can be thought of as the same thing as the five powers (balani).
The simile is that of a river divided by an island where from one perspecive it can be seen as two bodies of water and from another as a single body of water. The island is individuality. From the perspective of the individual the forces are objective energies that act on it while the powers are subjective uses of those forces; from an objective perspective they are one and the same thing.
[SN 5.48.44] Eastern Gatehouse, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
In a lesson clearly directed at teaching the bhikkhus the distinction between faith and knowledge, the Buddha questions Sariputta as to whether or not he believes that the five forces lead to Nibbana. Sariputta states that he does not go by faith in this matter but by has realized it for himself.
[SN 5.48.45] Paṭhama Pubbārama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
East Park (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
By developing and making a big thing of just the force of wisdom one can make an end and attain arahantship because that one force encompasses the other four.
[SN 5.48.46] Dutiya Pubbārama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
East Park (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
By developing and making a big thing of the Ariyan wisdom and freedom one can make an end and attain arahantship because the Ariyan wisdom is the force of wisdom and the Ariyan freedom is the force of serenity.
This sutta seems confused to me. It may depend on a much more pronounced understanding of 'Ariyan wisdom and freedom' than currently exists, but I suspect it is a confusion of two suttas or sets of suttas. First Gotama states that by two forces one may attain arahantship, then defines those two forces as the Ariyan wisdom and freedom, then states that these are the equivalant of the forces of wisdom and serenity. This sutta is in a group that looks like it should be an orderly progression: 1 force: wisdom; 2 forces: wisdom + serenity; 3 forces: wisdom + serenity + memory; 4 fources: wisdom + serenity + memory + energy; five forces: wisdom + serenity + memory + energy + faith. In stead we get this strangely mixed sutta for #2 and #3 is omitted altogether. Still, it does give us another example of the way we must remember that terms in this system overlap each other.
[SN 5.48.47] Tatiya Pubbārama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
East Park (c), the F.L. Woodward translation,
By developing and making a big thing of energy, memory, serenity and wisdom one can make an end and attain arahantship.
[SN 5.48.48] Catuttha Pubbārama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
East Park (d), the F.L. Woodward translation,
By developing and making a big thing of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom one can make an end and attain arahantship.
[SN 5.48.49] Piṇḍola Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Scrap-Hunter, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha explains to the bhikkhus that Pindola the Bharadvajan attained arahantship based on his cultivation of memory, serenity and wisdom.
Piṇḍola: 'just a dole'. Perhaps this sutta explains the missing 3s version in the previous series.
[SN 5.48.51] Sālā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sālā, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha likens wisdom to the strength, speed and courage of the lion in it's usefulness for attaining awakening.
Woodward's translations of Pañña and bodhā as 'insight' and 'wisdom' here are liable to cause confusion as elsewhere Pañña is usually translated 'wisdom' and bodhā is translated in some way that indicates awakening (e.g. Bodhi: 'enlightenment') (and 'insight' is the common translation for 'vipassana') and here it leads Woodward, in his effort to indicate that this is not just ordinary 'wisdom' but the wisdom of an awakened one, to translate the term here and hereafter as 'the wisdom' which sounds very awkward.
[SN 5.48.52] Mallika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Mallika, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha likens the stabilizing effect of knowledge on the forces of faith, energy, memory, and serenity to the stabilizing effect of the ridge-beam on the roofbeams of a house with a peaked roof.
Woodward has further complicated the picture here (from the previous sutta) by now translating 'ñāṇa' as 'insight'.

 

Pali Olds Woodward Bhk. Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro
Pañña Wisdom Insight Wisdom Discernment
Bodhi, bodhā Awakening Wisdom Enlightenment Awakening
Ñāṇa Knowledge Insight Knowledge Knowledge

 

[SN 5.48.53] Learner, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes how the beginner can know that he has become a seeker and how the seeker can know that he has become one who needs no longer seek.
[SN 5.48.54] Pada Suttaṃ, the Pali,
In the Foot, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Just as all the characteristics of feet, of creatures that walk around on feet, are found united in the footprint of the elephant and of footprints the elephant's is considered chief, that is, in terms of size; in the same way all the characteristics of awakening of beings walking toward awakening are found united in the footprints of wisdom, and of footprints of awakening, wisdom is considered chief, that is in terms of walking towards awakening.
[SN 5.48.55] Sāra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Heart-wood, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha uses the simile of the supremacy of red sandalwood as a scented heart-wood to illustrate the centrality of wisdom in the effort at awakening.
[SN 5.48.56] Established, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha aserts that by the setting up of one thing: namely carefulness, one gards the mind amid the corrupting influences and in so doing brings the five forces (faith, energy, memory, serenity, and wisdom) under control.
[SN 5.48.57] Brahmā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Brahmā, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Brahma Sahampati confirms the Buddha's thought that when the forces of faith, energy, memory, serenity, and wisdom are cultavated and made a big thing of they result in attaining Arahantship.
For students of the Pali language it should be interesting to note the way this Brahma is known: that is by his name being repeated twice. A name or word being repeated twice is understood to indicate an ultimate. 'Ladies and Gentlemen! The One and Only Brahma Sahampati!' 'Janusoni's white carriage, superb white carriage!' 'the king's army, unbeatable army!'
[SN 5.48.58] Sūkarakhatā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Boar's Cave, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha rehearses Sariputta in the various practices of the Arahant.
[SN 5.48.59] Paṭhama Uppāda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arising (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha explains that it is only upon the arising of a Buddha that the forces of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom can be made much of and reach full development.
Both Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi word this in such a way as to mean that these forces do not arise at all without the appearance of a Buddha. But we can see for ourselves that at least energy, memory, serenity and wisdom of a sort do arise without the appearance of a Buddha.
The Pali (Pañcimāni bhikkhave, indriyāni, bhāvitāni bahulīkatāni) allows us to say:
"These five indriya, developed and made much of,"
(leading in most cases to some statement concerning the benefit of doing so, but conditioning the translators' ears to this one construction) can also be heard:
"The development and making much of these five indriya". The only way this sutta makes sense.
[SN 5.48.60] Paṭhama Uppāda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arising (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha explains that it is only upon the arising of a Buddha that the forces of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom can be made much of and reach full development.
A slight variation of the previous.
[SN 5.48.61] Saŋyojana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fetter, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Developing and making much of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom leads to breaking the yokes to rebirth.
[SN 5.48.62] Anusaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Tendency, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Developing and making much of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom leads to exterpation of residual tendencies to lust, hate and blindness.
[SN 5.48.63] Pariññā or Addhāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Comprehension or The Way Out, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Developing and making much of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom leads to thorough understanding of the Buddhist system.
[SN 5.48.64] Āsavakkhaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Destruction of the Āsavas, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Developing and making much of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom leads to the corrupting influences of lust, becomming and blindness.
[SN 5.48.65] Dve Phalā Suttaṃ the Pali,
Two Fruits, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Developing and making much of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom leads either to arahantship in this world or to non-returning.
[SN 5.48.66] Satt'ānisaŋsā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Seven Advantages, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Developing and making much of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom leads either to arahantship in this world or to one or another of six forms of non-returning.
[SN 5.48.67] Paṭhama Rukkha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Tree (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
As in India the Rose-apple tree is held in highest regard, so of factors leading to awakening, wisdom is held in highest regard.
[SN 5.48.68] Dutiya Rukkha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Tree (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
As in the realm of the Devas of the Thirty-three the coral tree is held in highest regard, so of factors leading to awakening, wisdom is held in highest regard.
[SN 5.48.69] Tatiya Rukkha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Tree (c), the F.L. Woodward translation,
As in the realm of the Asuras (Monsters) the pied trumpet-flower tree is held in highest regard, so of factors leading to awakening, wisdom is held in highest regard.
[SN 5.48.70] Catuttha Rukkha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Tree (d), the F.L. Woodward translation,
As in the realm of the Supanna Birds the silk cotton tree tree is held in highest regard, so of factors leading to awakening, wisdom is held in highest regard.
[Suttas 71-124 follow the pattern established for the Satipatthanasamyutta. The PTS Pali and Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi translations are all almost completely abridged and follow another pattern in which sections VII-XII (Suttas 71-124) are all organized under the heading 'based on seclusion' and another set of sections, XIII - XVII (Suttas 125-178) is organized under the heading 'restraint of lust.' This doubles the number of suttas while halving the subjects covered and is, I believe, a mistake.]
[SN 5.48.71-82] Gaŋga-peyyāla the Pali,
Gaŋgā Repetition, the F.L. Woodward translation
The Buddha likens the flow of great rivers to the way in which developing and making much of the five forces brings one to Nibbana.
[SN 5.48.83-92] Appamāda-vagga, the Pali,
Earnestness the F.L. Woodward translation
Nine similes for the caution that is the fundamental condition that leads to the bringing to life of the five forces.
[SN 5.48.93-104] Balakaraṇīya-vagga, the Pali,
Deeds Requiring Strength the F.L. Woodward translation
The Buddha provides twelve similes illustrating various aspects of the Dhamma.
[SN 5.48.105-114] Esana-vagga, the Pali,
Longing the F.L. Woodward translation
The buddha explains how the five forces are to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of wishes, delusions, corrupting influences, existence, pain, closed-mindedness, flare-ups, sense-experience, and thirst.
[SN 5.48.115-124] Ogha-vagga, the Pali,
The Flood the F.L. Woodward translation
The buddha explains how the five forces are to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of the floods, the bonds, yokes to rebirth, ties to the body, risidual inclinations, sense pleasures, diversions, the fuel stockpiles, the yokes to lower rebirths, the yokes to higher rebirths.

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 5.48. The Book of the Kindred Sayings on the Faculties.

[SN 5.49.13-22] Appamāda-vagga, the Pali,
Earnestness the F.L. Woodward translation
Nine similes for the caution that is the fundamental condition that leads to the bringing to life of the Four Consummate Efforts.
[SN 5.49.23-34] Balakaraṇīya-vagga, the Pali,
Deeds Requiring Strength the F.L. Woodward translation
The Buddha provides twelve similes illustrating various aspects of the Dhamma.
[SN 5.49.35-44] Esana-vagga, the Pali,
Longing the F.L. Woodward translation
The buddha explains how the Four Consummate Efforts are to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of wishes, delusions, corrupting influences, existence, pain, closed-mindedness, flare-ups, sense-experience, and thirst.
[SN 5.49.45-54] Ogha-vagga, the Pali,
The Flood the F.L. Woodward translation
The buddha explains how the Four Consummate Efforts are to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of the floods, the bonds, yokes to rebirth, ties to the body, risidual inclinations, sense pleasures, diversions, the fuel stockpiles, the yokes to lower rebirths, the yokes to higher rebirths.

[(Suttas 1-12 were prevously uploaded.) This entire Samyutta consists only of the repetition series found at the end of the previous samyuttas. Here it has been worked out in a simpler form which may indicate the way the previous versions of these sections should have been produced. The difference consists in the elimination of any hint of the sub-subsections (i.e., 'Based on seclusion', etc.) in the abridgment.]

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 5.49. The Book of the Kindred Sayings on the Right Effots.

[SN 5.50.1-12] Gaŋga-peyyāla the Pali,
Gaŋgā Repetition, the F.L. Woodward translation
The Buddha likens the flow of great rivers to the way in which developing and making much of the five powers brings one to Nibbana.
[SN 5.50.13-22] Appamāda-vagga, the Pali,
Earnestness the F.L. Woodward translation
Nine similes for the caution that is the fundamental condition that leads to the bringing to life of the five powers.
[SN 5.50.23-34] Balakaraṇīya-vagga, the Pali,
Deeds Requiring Strength the F.L. Woodward translation
The Buddha provides twelve similes illustrating various aspects of the Dhamma.
[SN 5.50.35-44] Esana-vagga, the Pali,
Longing the F.L. Woodward translation
The buddha explains how the five powers are to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of wishes, delusions, corrupting influences, existence, pain, closed-mindedness, flare-ups, sense-experience, and thirst.
[SN 5.50.45-54] Ogha-vagga, the Pali,
The Flood the F.L. Woodward translation
The buddha explains how the the five powers are to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of the floods, the bonds, yokes to rebirth, ties to the body, risidual inclinations, sense pleasures, diversions, the fuel stockpiles, the yokes to lower rebirths, the yokes to higher rebirths.

This entire Samyutta consists only of the repetition series found at the end of the previous samyuttas. Here it has been worked out following the pattern established in SN 5.48.

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 5.50. The Book of the Kindred Sayings on the Powers.

 


Thīnnamiddha = Oscitance


 


Tuesday, September 8, 2015
Previous upload was Tuesday, August 11, 2015


 

new Wednesday, August 12, 2015 3:57 AMSaŋyutta Nikāya,
[SN 5.46.33] Paṭhama Kilesa Suttaṃ the Pali,
Corruptions (a), the F.L. Woodward translation
Corruptions (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha likens wanting, deviance, lazy ways and inertia, fear and anxiety, and doubt and wavering to the way other metals degrade gold.
This group of terms is here called 'kilesas' 'the slimes', elsewhere these are known as the diversions, 'nīvaraṇā'.
[SN 5.46.34] Dutiya Kilesa Suttaṃ the Pali,
Corruptions (b), the F.L. Woodward translation
Non-Corruptions, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The seven dimensions of awakening do not slime and if practiced and made a big thing of lead to the liberation by knowledge that is Arahantship.
[SN 5.46.35-36] Yoniso Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Systematic (a and b), the F.L. Woodward translation
Careful Attention, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
To the Place of Conception Not tracing things back to their place of origin allows for wanting, deviance, lazy ways and inertia, fear and anxiety and doubt and vascillation to arise and when such arises it proliferates; but when one traces things back to their place of origin the seven dimensions of awakening arise and when such have arisen they roll on to complete development.
The PTS Pali and the Woodward translation have this as two suttas. This is clearly wrong as separate, the first would have no reference to the dimensions of awakening which is the theme of this chapter. They are combined here as one sutta but for clarity in referencing I have retained the numbering.
I did my translation because to me the sutta reads 'tracing or not tracing things back to their point of origin, this arises, because it has arisen it is the source of further development.' Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi read this as 'tracing or not tracing things such and such arises and goes on to further development.' I think they have not traced things to their place of origin, but it can be read both ways.
[SN 5.46.37] Vuddhi (or Aparihāni?), the Pali,
Increase or Not decrease, the F.L. Woodward translation
Growth, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Making a big thing of the seven dimensions of awakening results in advancement, not to decline.
[SN 5.46.38] Āvaraṇa-Nīva aṇa (or Nīvaraṇāvaraṇa) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Restraint and Hindrance, the F.L. Woodward translation
Obstructions, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Without Hindrances, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha lists the diversions, then states how when one focuses one's mind on the Dhamma and is not diverted at such a time the seven dimensions of awakening can develop and come to completion.
Bhk. Bodhi has divided this sutta into two and states that his perception is that they deal with two different subjects. I read this as dealing with one subject: first the statement of the diversions, then the statement as to how when they have been eliminated the seven dimensions of awakening can develop.
What I believe is going on here and in the previous sutta but one, is that we are seeing the work of late editors trying to organize what was likely originally one long lesson into the ten suttas usually making up a chapter.
[SN 5.46.39] Rukkha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Tree, the F.L. Woodward translation
Trees, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.

Mighty oaks from little acorns grow!

The Buddha likens the diversions to the seeds that produce great trees that dominate and destroy any small tree that is nearby. Then he points out that when the seven dimensions of awakening grow and reach fulfillment these diversions are eliminated and the practice culminates in arahantship.
The message of the striking image of the destructive powers of the small seed if allowed to grow is that even the person who has given up the world to become a homeless bhikkhu, if he still has even small traces of his former diversions and does not take measures to eliminate them is in great danger just because of the growth of mind made possible by the homeless life.

An idle mind is the Devil's workshop

[SN 5.46.40] Trees, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha contrasts the Hindrances with the seven dimensions of awakening.
[SN 5.46.41] Vidhā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Conceits, the F.L. Woodward translation
Discriminations, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha states that whatever shaman or brahman in the past, future or present has or will abandon the notions 'better am I', 'equal am I', 'worse am I,' all did or will do so by making a big thing of the seven dimensions of awakening.
This is not some liberal meat-head coccamami commi pinko, egalatarian construction of an ideal mental state among beings: "we are all equals here!". It involves two perceptions: the first is the perception that there is no thing there that is the self not only of one's own, but of anyone; the second is that there being no self there of anyone in anything, there is no difference between any of it's elements in terms of self-importance and to hold that there is is an indication that one is not yet seeing things as they are, and hense is a 'conceit' as Woodward puts it. Bhikkhu Bodhi calls such a notion a 'discrimination,' thinking, presumably of the negative use of that word, but the situation here is not 'discriminating against or in favor of'. It is certainly reasonable within the context of seeking awakening for example, to discriminate between levels of accomplishment: that the Buddha's understanding is superior to, or that one's degree of awakening is inferior to or equal to those in the various stages. It is where notions of the self as having or possessing such or lacking such attainment accompanied by pride or shame or the idea of 'better' or 'worse' enter the picture that such notions become problematic. Otherwise the perception would be as detached as the cook's perception as to the donness of a loaf of bread in the oven: it's not a matter of better or worse, superior or inferior, but of having reached a certain point of development. Even the idea 'better for mankind' 'better for the world' is a value judgment placed over an opinion as to the existence of the world which depends on notion of self-in-existence.

 


It is the propitious miracle of self-esteem that, since few of us can have brilliant connections or profound attainments, those to whom they are denied still believe themselves to be the best endowed of men, because the optics of our social perspective make every grade of society seem the best to him who occupies it and who regards as less favoured then himself, ill-endowed, to be pitied, the greater men whom he names and calumniates without knowing them, judges and despises without understanding them.
Marcel Proust, Remembrance of Things Past, Volume I: Within a Budding Grove, p.826, Translated by C.K. Scott Moncrieff and Terence Kilmartin, Vantage Books, N.Y.


 

[SN 5.46.42] Cakkavatti Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Roller of the Wheel, the F.L. Woodward translation
Wheel-Turning Monarch, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha describes the seven treasures of the Wheel-rolling King and the seven treasures of the Dhamma-wheel rolling Buddha.
[SN 5.46.43] Māra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Māra, the F.L. Woodward translation
Māra, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the way to destroy Mara's army is the seven dimensions of awakening.
[SN 5.46.44] Duppañño Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Witless, the F.L. Woodward translation
Unwise, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The buddha explains the meaning of the expression: 'Dumb drip,' as being a person who has not cultivated the seven dimensions of awakening.
The Pali is: 'Duppañño eḷa-mūga!' Bhk. Bodhi: 'unwise' (dup = difficult; [of] pañña = wisdom; ? slack-wit, dim-wit, dim-bulb, half-wit, block-head, slow, dolt, dense, simple, thick-headed, numb-skull, bone-head, dope, empty-headed, nobody-home, space to let, feeble-mind, nit-wit, moron, unintelligent, brainless, lack-brain, stupid, dumb, dolt, oaf, dense, thick, dumb as a brick, hebetudinous, fat-head, blundering idiot, lunk-head, f--k head, feather-brain, weak-wit, sensless-, screwy, daft, loony, batty, sappy ...). Woodward: 'witless imbecile' (eḷa = drool, drivvle, drip, sap, boob; mūga = mouth).
[SN 5.46.45] paññavā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Intelligent, the F.L. Woodward translation
Wise, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The buddha explains the meaning of the expression: 'Wise, no drip,' as being a person who has cultivated the seven dimensions of awakening.
[SN 5.46.46] Dalidda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Wretched, the F.L. Woodward translation
Poor, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The buddha explains the meaning of the expression: 'Hobo,' as being a person who has not cultivated the seven dimensions of awakening.
Dalidda. 'poor hiker', wanderer, vagrant. This should incorporate both the idea of poverty and the idea of wandering around. Migrant-laboror. The contrast naturally arises between such a one and the bhikkhu. For one thing, there is nothing in the term 'dilidda' that indicates that this sort of person does not do work for pay. Further than that, and deeper, though there have been some worldly-wise hobos, the further distinction is in the particular aim of the Buddhist bhikkhu to use this lifestyle as a tool in the search for awakening.
[SN 5.46.47] Adalidda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Well-to-do, the F.L. Woodward translation
Prosperous, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The buddha explains the meaning of the expression: 'No pauper!' as being a person who has cultivated the seven dimensions of awakening.
This is the negative (a-) of the term used in the previous sutta and is really 'non-pauper', but we have the expression 'He is no pauper' which fits here very well. 'Pauper' would probably be the best term to use there if it were not lacking in the element of wandering around. My feeling is that generally the better translation in these cases is to use the same term in both the positive and negative as this will most clearly support the closeness of the translation to the original. On the other hand the student should make himself aware that when two different terms are used for the positive and the negative, there is likely some divergence from the original intent in one or the other or both of the terms used. I suggest that the divergence here (the element of wandering around) is symbolic: One without the seven dimensions of awakening wanders around poor in understanding, one who possesses the seven dimensions of awakening does not wander around mentally and is wealthy in spirit.
[SN 5.46.48] Ādicca Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Sun, the F.L. Woodward translation
The Sun, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Just as the dawn is an early sign of the rising of the sun, so friendship with the good is an early sign of the appearance of the seven dimensions of awakening.
Birds of a feather flock together. Take a look around, are you friends with the good? Or do you have corrupt companions? If you can find no one you can be friendly with that appears to you to be intent on the good, then walk alone, 'like the bull elephant in the jungle keeping shy of the herd'. The whole issue of your being here in existence in the world is for the sake of companionship. If you cannot make that into an experience of the highest order, then the next most valuable thing you should do is cultivate the ability to tolerate loneliness. In any case the basis of companionship of the highest order is the mutual cultivation of detachment built on the appreciation of solitude. This is what should be understood as what is meant by 'the good'. That is, that it is ultimately not something to be sought for in persons, but in mental attitude. If one's companion is the appreciation of solitude, how can one ever be alone?
[SN 5.46.49] Paṭhama Aŋga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Factor (a), the F.L. Woodward translation
Internal Factor, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that as far as internal factors go, he sees no single other factor so important for the development of the seven dimensions of awakening as that of tracing things back to their place of origin.
[SN 5.46.50] Dutiya Aŋga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Factor (b), the F.L. Woodward translation
External Factor, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that as far as external factors go, he sees no single other factor so important for the development of the seven dimensions of awakening as that of friendship with the good.
Again I would point out that this is friendship with the principle of goodness in whatever form (e.g., the Dhamma), not just good persons.
[SN 5.46.51] Nutriment, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Woodward translation and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches what is and what is not a food for the obstructions (nivarana) and for the seven dimensions of self-awakening (satta sambojjhanga).
[SN 5.46.52] A Method of Exposition, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Woodward translation.
The exact similarity in the outward form of the practices of a group of ascetics with one method of instruction used by The Buddha leads to the question of what is the difference between the two sects. The Buddha reveals an interpretation of the doctrine unique to the understanding of the awakened mind, inaccesable through any other source.
[SN 5.46.53] Fire, the Woodward translation,
Fire, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The exact similarity in the outward form of the practices of a group of ascetics with one method of instruction used by The Buddha leads to the question of what is the difference between the two sects. The Buddha reveals an interpretation of the doctrine unique to the understanding of the awakened mind, inaccesable through any other source.
In this case a very useful method for balancing the mind between being sluggish and being over-excited.
[SN 5.46.54] Metta Suttaṃ, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Woodward translation.
The Buddha develops the four Brahma Viharas by way of the Seven Dimensions of Self-awakening showing the scope and maximum accomplishment successively of the thorough practice of projecting friendliness, compassion, empathy and detachment while developing memory, Dhamma-investigation, energy building, entheusiasm, impassivity, serenity, and detachment.
One of the most informative descriptions of the use of the Four Brahma-viharas. Here it is shown how it is to be used in conjunction with the seven dimensions of awakening. Also given are the results in each of the four of the practice when it falls short of complete freedom in Arahantship.
[SN 5.46.55] Saŋgārava Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Saŋgārava, the F.L. Woodward translation
Saŋgārava, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The conversion of Sangarava the Brahmin. Sangarava asks the Buddha why it is that sometimes things that one has studied for a long time cannot be remembered and why sometimes things one has not studied are clear in mind.
I think that missing from the current translations is the fact that what is being spoken of is not simply remembering things one has only just casually glanced at, but is also recollecting things one has not previously seen at all. Sangarava is concerned with mantas, (mantras) or magic charms or spells, but this is something that concerns seeing in mind of any sort.
[SN 5.46.56] Abhaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Abhaya, the F.L. Woodward translation
Abhaya, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Prince Abhaya of the Lacchavi visits the Buddha on Vulture-head Mountain. There he asks what the Buddha has to say in regard to Purana Kassapa's doctrine that there is no driving force that results in not knowing and seeing things as they are nor in seeing things as they are. The Buddha replies that wanting, deviance, lazy ways and inertia, fear and anxiety, and uncertainty and vascillation (the diversions) result in not knowing and seeing things as they are, that the seven dimensions of awakening result in seeing things as they are.
[SN 5.46.57] Aṭṭhika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Skeleton, the F.L. Woodward translation
Developing perception of the skeleton produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
Woodward calls this 'the idea of the skeleton', Bhk. Bodhi: 'the perception of a skeleton'. I suggest the so-called 'after image' of the skeleton (a vision of the image of a great huge skeleton reclining in the cosmos) does not require having seen a real skeleton. (In the long distant past we have seen enough of skeletons!) Further, the message of the sutta is not that the goal is this image, but that in perceiving the skeleton when accompanied by the seven dimensions of awakening, the inference should be drawn that 'This body of mine, too, is just like that, is constructed just like that, has not got beyond the fate of that,' and that seeing that, any desire for body, ambition with regard to body is let go. Again I suggest that this is the meaning of: 'Living in a body, one regards body as body.' That is that we see body as it is, a thing subject to ending.
[SN 5.46.58] Puḷavaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Worm-Eaten, the F.L. Woodward translation
Developing perception of the worm-eaten corpse produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.59] Vinīḷaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Discoloured, the F.L. Woodward translation
Developing perception of the discolored corpse produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.60] Vicchiddaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fissured, the F.L. Woodward translation
Developing perception of the fissured corpse produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.61] Uddhumātaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Inflated, the F.L. Woodward translation
Developing perception of the inflated corpse produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.62] Mettā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Goodwill, the F.L. Woodward translation
Developing friendly vibrations produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.63] Karuṇā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Compassion, the F.L. Woodward translation
Developing sympathetic vibrations produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.64] Muditā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sympathy, the F.L. Woodward translation
Developing empathetic vibrations produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.65] Upekhā Suttaṃ the Pali,
Euanimity, the F.L. Woodward translation
Developing detachment produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.

 

Pali Olds Woodward Bhk. Bodhi
Mettā Friendliness Goodwill Loving Kindness
Karuṇā Sympathy Compassion Compassion
Muditā Empathy Sympathy Altruistic Joy
Upekhā Detachment Equanimity Equanimity

 

[SN 5.46.66] Ānāpāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Inbreathing and outbreathing, the F.L. Woodward translation
Minding the in-and-exhalations produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.67] Asubha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Foul, the F.L. Woodward translation
Perception of the foul produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.68] Maraṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Death, the F.L. Woodward translation
Perception of death produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.69] Paṭikkūla Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Repulsive, the F.L. Woodward translation
Perception of the repulive in food produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.70] Anabhirati (or Sabbaloke) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Distaste or All the world, the F.L. Woodward translation
Perception of distaste for the whole world produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.71] Anicca Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Impermanent, the F.L. Woodward translation
Perception of impermanence produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.72] Dukkha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ill, the F.L. Woodward translation
Perception of pain in impermanence produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.73] Anatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Not Self, the F.L. Woodward translation
Perception of not-self in the painful produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.74] Pahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Abandoning, the F.L. Woodward translation
Perception of the advantages of letting go produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.75] Pahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Abandoning, the F.L. Woodward translation
Perception of dispassion produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.
[SN 5.46.76] Nirodha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Cessation, the F.L. Woodward translation
Perception of ending produces great fruit, great benefits, either arahantship or non-returning, omniscience, psychic attainments, destruction of yokes, being greatly moved, and pleasant living in the present.

 

There is confusion between versions in the following sub-chapters of this chapter. My reading is that the lot should follow the organization of SN 5.45 which is itself confused between versions but which I believe is properly straightened out in the version provided here. That yields the following scheme:

IX. Ganga Repetition

Eastward (a) Ganges based on seclusion flowing to Nibbana
Eastward (b.1) Yamuna
Eastward (b.2) Aciravati
Eastward (b.3) Sarabhu
Eastward (b.4) Mahi
Eastward (c) Ganges, Yamuna, Aciravati, Sarabhu, Mahi
Ocean (a) Ganges based on seclusion flowing to Nibbana
Ocean (b.1) Yamuna
Ocean (b.2) Aciravati
Ocean (b.3) Sarabhu
Ocean (b.4) Mahi
Ocean (c) Ganges, Yamuna, Aciravati, Sarabhu, Mahi

X. Earnestness

Tathagata

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

The Foot

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

The Roof-peak ... etc.

XI. Deeds Requiring Strength

Strength

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

Seed

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

The Snake ... etc.

XII. Longing

Longing

a. Full Comprehension

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

b. Realization

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

c. Wearing Out

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

d. Abandoning

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

Conceits

a. Full Comprehension

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

b. Realization

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

c. Wearing Out

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

d. Abandoning

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

Asava ... etc. ...

XIII. The Flood

The Flood

a. Full Comprehension

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

b. Realization

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

c. Wearing Out

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

d. Abandoning

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

Bond

a. Full Comprehension

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

b. Realization

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

c. Wearing Out

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

d. Abandoning

i. Seclusion
ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion
iii. Ending in the Deathless
iv. Ending in Nibbana

Grasping ... etc. ...

PTS Pali and Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi translations would break up sub-chapters IX-XIII into two sets (repeating the sub-chapter headings, creating sub-chapters XIV-XVIII each according to the following (I use 'X. Earnestness' because I do not understand how 'IX. Ganga Repetition' could be divided up and make sense*:

X. Earnestness

Tathagata

i. Seclusion

XV. Earnestness

Tathagata

ii. Ending in Restraint of Passion

... etc. ...

which would create a different scheme for them than is found in SN 5.45 and not include the sub-sub heads 'Ending in the Deathless' and 'Ending in Nibbana'.

* All versions are abridged so there is no clue. I speculate that the version as found in SN 5.45 was the first and that it was elaborated on to create the subsequent chapters. If this was the case then my X in this chapter could have been expanded to include the four sub-sub-sections. In any event the confusion here should certainly be considered a place to look for clues as to the original organization.

 

[SN 5.46.77-88] Gangā Peyyālo I: Viveka-nissitam
PTS: Ganga — Repetition: Based on Seclusion
[The following suttas are all on single files.]
[SN 5.46.77] Paṭhama Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward a, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.78] Dutiya Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.1, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.79] Tatiya Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.2, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.80] Catuttha Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.3, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.81] Pañcama Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.4, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.82] Chaṭṭha Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward c, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.83] Paṭhama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.84] Dutiya Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.1), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.85] Tatiya Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.2), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.86] Catuttha Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.3), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.87] Pañcama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.4), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.88] Pañcama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (c), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha likens the flow of great rivers to the way in which developing and making much of the Seven Dimensions of Awakening brings one to Nibbana.
[SN 5.46.89-98] Appamāda Vaggo
[SN 5.46.89] Tathāgata, the Pali,
Tathāgata, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.90] Padam, the Pali,
The foot, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.91] Kūṭam, the Pali,
The roof-peak, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.92] Mūlam, the Pali,
Wood, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.93] Sāro, the Pali,
Heart Wood, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.94] Vassikam, the Pali,
Jasmine, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.95] Rājā, the Pali,
Prince, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.96] Canda, the Pali,
Moon, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.97] Suriya, the Pali,
Sun, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.98] Vattham, the Pali,
Cloth, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Nine similes for the caution that is the fundamental condition that leads to the bringing to life of the seven dimensions of self-awakening.
[SN 5.46.99-110] Balakaraṇīya-vaggo
PTS: Deeds Requiring Strength
[SN 5.46.99] Balam, the Pali,
Strength, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.100] Bījā, the Pali,
Seed, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.101] Nāgo, the Pali,
The Snake, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.102] Rukkho, the Pali,
The Tree, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.103] Kumbho, the Pali,
The Pot, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.104] Sukiya, the Pali,
Bearded Wheat, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.105] Ākāsa, the Pali,
The Sky, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.106] Megha, the Pali,
The Rain-cloud a, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.107] Megha 2, the Pali,
The Rain-cloud b, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.108] Nāvā, the Pali,
The Ship, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.109] Āgantukā, the Pali,
For All Comers, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.110] Nadī, the Pali,
The River, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha provides twelve similes illustrating various aspects of the Dhamma.
[SN 5.46.111-120] Esanā-vaggo, On Longing, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
[SN 5.46.161] Esanā, the Pali,
Longing, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.162] Vidhā, the Pali,
Conceits, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.163] Asavo (AAsavo, Āsavo the Pali,
Asava, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.164] Bhavo, the Pali,
Becoming, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.165] Dukkhatā, the Pali,
Suffering, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.166] Khilā, the Pali,
Obstructions, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.167] Malam, the Pali,
Stain, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.168] Nighā, the Pali,
Pains, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.169] Vedanā, the Pali,
Feelings, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.170] Taṇhā the Pali,
Craving, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.46.170.2] Tasinā or Taṇhā, the Pali,
Thirst, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The buddha explains how the seven dimensions of self-awakening is to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of wishes, delusions, corrupting influences, existence, pain, closed-mindedness, flare-ups, sense-experience, and thirst.
[SN 5.45.121-130] Ogha Vaggo, The Flood, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
[SN 5.46.121] Ogho, the Pali,
The Flood, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
[SN 5.46.122] Yogo, the Pali,
Bond, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
[SN 5.46.123] Upādānam, the Pali,
Grasping, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
[SN 5.46.124] Ganthā, the Pali,
(Bodily) Ties, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
[SN 5.46.125] Anusayā, the Pali,
Tendency, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
[SN 5.46.126] Kāmaguṇa, the Pali,
The Sense-Pleasures, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
[SN 5.46.127] Nivaraṇāni, the Pali,
Hindrances, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
[SN 5.46.128] Khandā, the Pali,
Factors, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
[SN 5.46.129] Orambhāgiya, the Pali,
The Lower Set (of Fetters), the F.L. Woodward, translation,
[SN 5.46.130] Uddhambhāgiya, the Pali,
The Higher Set (of Fetters), the F.L. Woodward, translation,
The buddha explains how the seven dimensions of self awakening are to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of the floods, the bonds, yokes to rebirth, ties to the body, risidual inclinations, sense pleasures, diversions, the fuel stockpiles, the yokes to lower rebirths, the yokes to higher rebirths.

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 5.46. The Book of the Kindred Sayings on the Limbs of Wisdom.

[SN 5.47.1] Ambapālī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ambapālī, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ambapālī, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha describes the one sure way for beings to overcome grief and lamentation, pain and misery, to finding the method, and realizing Nibbana.
An exact parallel to the opening of the Satipatthana Sutta.
Both Bhikkhu Bodhi and Woodward give references in their footnotes helpful for anyone interested in the meaning of 'ekāyana maggo'. That is, is it 'the one and only way' or (Woodward): 'the sole way'; or (Bhk. Bodhi): 'the one-way path'; or (Soma Thera, Nyanasatta Thera): 'the only way'; or (Nyanaponika Thera): 'the sole way'; or (Bhk. Thanissaro): 'the direct path'; (Sister Upalavana): 'There is only one way'.
There is someing in the psyche of the times (and one which I have shared) that rebels agains the idea that the Buddha could be saying that his, and not just his but this particular one of his methods, is the only way to salvation. There is another way of looking at this. That is that whatever anyone else may wish to think about their (religion, discipline, philosophy) no other system provides a solution to the problem of rebirth. This beeing seen and attained by a person making such a statement, it is not a brag, but is simply a statement of a true fact. The issue then becomes only one of internal contradiction. How can this be the one and only when there are a half dozen others which have been declared to lead to Arahantship? The response to that, then, is that within the Buddha's system it can be shown that any of the other methods which are declared to be paths to arahantship can be shown to be the equivalent of the four settings up of mind.
[SN 5.47.2] Sata Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Mindful, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Mindful, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha instructs the bhikkhus to be mindful and self-aware. Then he explains how to mind and be self-aware.
Here we have a very clear explanation of how the satipatthana technique is to be applied. The 'self-aware' aspect (sampajāna) (which takes up the bulk of the instructions in the Satipatthana Sutta) is the aspect of the practice concerned with observing and being aware; the 'minding' (sati) aspect is the governing of the mental attitude towards and reaction to what is observed.

 


"... But often one hears nothing when one listens for the first time to a piece of music that is at all complicated. ... Probably what is wanting, the first time, is not comprehension but memory. For our memory, relatively to the complexity of the impresions which it has to face while we are listening, is infinitesimal, as brief as the memory of a man who in his sleep thinks of a thousand things and at once forgets them, or as that of a man in his second childhood who cannot recall a minute afterwards what one has just said to him. Of these multiple impressions our memory is not capable of furnishing us with an immediate picture. But that picture gradually takes shape in the memory, and, with regard to works we have heard more than once, we are like the schoolboy who has read several times over before going to sleep a lesson which he supposed himself not to know, and finds that he can repeat it by heart next morning. ...

The reason why a work of genius is not easily admired from the first is that the man who has created it is extraordinary, that few other men resemble him. It is his work itself that, by fertilising the rare minds capable of understanding it, will make them increase and multiply.

— Marcel Proust, Remembrance of Things Past, Vol. 1, Swann's Way, p 570 ff.; C.K. Scott Moncrieff and T. Kilmartin, trans., Vantage Books, N.Y., 1982

Proust goes on to make the point that it is no use for the genius innovator to hold back on the release of his work in the face of certain popular rejection because it is the work itself that prepares the ground for it's reception. To release it at a later time would only be to release it for rejection at a later time. Like his vivid description of the way the mind works to build up a conscious memory, a new idea in the world must be repeated again and again before it takes root.

Well in fact Gotama's work was recognized almost immediately and by a wide swath of the population of the country. But in this special case, that fact itself was part of the genius of his work. Shortly after Gotama's death the usual suspects came in and virtually completely eradicated what he had done. It survived, as much as it has survived, in the memorized and then written works and has been incubating for 2500 years among the more cultured of humanity. Some of it's wisdom has seeped into the body of knowledge of the rest of the world. There is so much more. I have hope for greater acceptance by the present generation. It is an old story with mankind that in his youth man pursues ideals, in mid-life he turns to the acquisition of money and power and in his old age some return to the quest for knowledge of their youth. The so-called baby boom generation is just reaching retirement age. Life expectancy for a person retiring who has no obsession to keep his mind alive, is about three years. (He cleans up the garage, does a little gardening, reads a book, takes a cruse, spends a week formulating an exercise plan and dies.) Those with an abiding interest survive longer. Those whose youthful obsession was to become a man of knowledge may return to their youthful ambition and with wiser eyes and lucky contact discover Gotama's system. In the 60s the youth of the day were mislead by opportunistic gurus, in their better sense they abandoned their quest for realistic goals, today they have perspective sufficient to distinguish what is well said from what is said to pull the wool over their eyes.

As for the mechanism for developing the memory: The task for the ordinary person who wishes to remember or memorize something is to repeat it and make connections, for the student of the Aristocrats who wishes to see things as they are the task is to develop such speed and unobscured attention to the perception of phenomena such that they become fully conscious as they form. There is, in the formation of a perception sufficient repetition and association to establish memory without personally initiated (sankaramed) repetition or artificially invented associations.


 

[SN 5.47.3] Bhikkhu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Monk, the F.L. Woodward translation,
A Bhikkhu, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha teaches a bhikkhu a fundamental course in the Dhamma which brings about his arahantship.
In this sutta we find the basics of what was to become a part of the refrain in the Satipatthana suttas: i.e.: "Thus he lives observing body through body with regard to the self
or he lives observing body through body with regard to externals
or he lives observing body through body with regard to himself and externals."
[SN 5.47.4] Bhikkhu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Monk, the F.L. Woodward translation,
A Bhikkhu, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Lesson at Sālā, the M. Olds, translation.
The Buddha instructs the bhikkhus in how to instruct the novices in developing the four settings-up of memory.
I have done a translation here because I have a slightly different take than that of either Woodward or Bhikkhu Bodhi on the intention of this sutta.
[SN 5.47.5] A Heap of the Wholesome, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the F. L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha contrasts the Hindrances with the Four Settings-up of Mind.
[SN 5.47.6] The Falcon, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Hawk, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
In a fable describing a battle between a falcon and a quail the Buddha instructs the bhikkhus of the dangers of roaming among the five cords of sense pleasure and the safety of sticking to the four settings-up of memory.
Petty nit: The translations of Bhk. Bodhi and Woodward speak of the quail as taking refuge inside the clod of earth. But clods of earth are solid. What must be being spoken of is taking refuge behind or beside or between or among clods or even under an overturned clod. Bhk. Thanissaro: 'behind'; Rouse (in the Jataka Story #168): 'just turned over' (i.e., stepped aside, it being difficult for the Falcon in full descent to distinguish between the clod and the quail, which, given our use of the term 'clod' for a fool, gives life to the fable.)
Bhk. Thanissaro's translation is the most coherant.
[SN 5.47.7] The Monkey, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Monkey, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and Andrew Olendzki translation.
In a fable describing the way a foolish monkey traps himself trying to rescue himself from entrapment by a tar baby, the Buddha instructs the bhikkhus of the dangers of roaming among the five cords of sense pleasure and the safety of sticking to the four settings-up of memory.
Another nit here. The trap is a post covered with tar. The Monkey to free his one hand does not grab the one hand with the other, but pushes on the post hoping that with that leverage he will free his stuck hand, but that sticks too. In this way the other appendages also get stuck. Woodward's 'grabs it' and 'grabs them' referring to the limbs, not the trap, breaks down when it is the head that gets stuck. And further grabing the one hand with the other would not necessarily result in the second hand getting stuck and might even give the monkey strength enough to free the hand. And how could even a monkey grab both hands with one foot? Etc.
The mistake that is illustrated by the fable is trying to free one's self from the pain consequent upon indulgence in (getting stuck in) sense pleasures by indulging in other sense pleasures. That is trying to free the stuck hand by pushing against the trap. So the whole sutta is spoiled by this error.
Woodward may be forgiven such things as he is closing in on the end of a massive work of translation and fatigue is inevitable, but where were the editors and proofreaders? I am proofreading from the 6th printing, the first of which was published in 1930!
[SN 5.47.8] The Cook, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Cook, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
The Buddha explains that in the same way as an incompetant cook who does not note the needs and responses of those he cooks for gets no gains, fame or favors, in the same way the bhikkhu who does not live developing the four settings-up of the memory gets no advancement in this Dhamma and Discipline.
[SN 5.47.9] Gilāna Suttaṃ, the Pali
Sick, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ill, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
At a point shortly before his death the Buddha, after supressing a bout of his illness is asked by Ananda about how the Sangha is to be governed after his death.
The Buddha's response amounts to saying that the Sangha is not lead by a leader as such, but by the Dhamma. That even the Buddha himself does not think of himself as leading the Sangha, but teaching the Dhamma which is, if there is any leader, the leader. It is in this episode that the Buddha declares that the Dhamma has been taught by him without the closed fist of the guru. That there is no secret inner teaching distinct from the outward teaching.
I hear this statement in conjunction with the question concering leadership. The Buddha is saying that the Sangha is not run like a cult with leadership passed down from master to master. (Of course today we find that this is exactly how most Sanghas are run with the inevitable result that faith is placed in 'liniage' and the dubious teachings of 'patriarchs' rather than in understanding the Dhamma for one's self and with the further result of animosities between Sanghas and the spread of confusion within and without the community.) The Dhamma is taught fully exposed and individuals understand it according to their own capacities and effort. Leadership such as it exists (ideally simple teacher/student relationships) is according to individual merit. As for esoteric vs. exoteric, or internal vs. external it is obvious that there is deep meaning to be discovered in the suttas. Similies to take one example, are in their very nature things of 'levels of meaning'. The difference is that the deeper meaning found in the suttas is not secret, hidden from those who do not possess private knowledge. It's out there to be discovered by anyone who digs for it. In fact it could be said that the main effort of the Dhamma is to bring as many people as possible to an understanding of it's deeper meaning.
[SN 5.47.10] The Nuns' Lodging, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Bhikkhunis' Quarter, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Nun's Investiture, the M. Olds translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Andrew Olendzki translation
The Buddha explains the approach to the four settings-up of memory for the learner and for one who has attained the goal.
As Andrew Olendzki points out in his introduction to his translation of this sutta, it is not well known, but it is one of a very few suttas that go the one level beyond the presentation of method into the technique for using it in meditation practice. It ranks up there in the top ten of the most helpful suttas for meditators. It is very reminiscent of the Mahā Suññata Suttaṃ.
I have done a translation applying my best understanding. This is a sutta where it is highly recommended that one compare trnslations and if possible dig into the Pali. Each translation is slightly different in approach and the differences will have dramatic influences on practice.
My take is that the Buddha perceived that Ananda did not fully understand how the four settings-up of memory were to be used to develop intent to attain happiness and then, happiness attained how they were to be used after letting go of all intentions with regard to the future and the past, as simply a pleasant means to observe the present. This sutta should also interest those who have followed Castenada's Don Juan in that the explanation here of intent is very clear and it will advance their studies beyond his teachings which stop at the development of intent.
[SN 5.47.11] A Great Man, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation and the M. Olds translation.
Sariputta asks about the Great Man (MahaPurisa, Superman) and the Buddha explains that one should be called a Great Man only if he has attained freedom of mind. He explains that this is attained by way of The Four Settings-up of Memory.
[SN 5.47.12] Nālandā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Nālandā, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Nālandā, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha questions Sariputta about his statement that there never was, never would be or was not now any greater teacher of liberation of heart than the Buddha.
Sariputta's response is instructive and anyone interested in becoming a streamwinner should study it until it is understood. The issue is how it is possible to have certainty in a case such as this. See also in this regard the discussion 'Certainty without Faith'. Note that Woodward has Sariputta speaking of 'faith'; Bhk. Bodhi has him speaking of 'confidence'. These terms in English can imply 'blind faith', but that is not how this is to be understood. The term to undertand is 'pasanna' to be plesed or satisfied to the point of having eliminated doubt.
[SN 5.47.13] Cunda, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Cunda, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Nyanaponika Thera translation.
The Buddha consoles Ananda upon the death of Sariputta with a discourse on the ephemeral nature of that which has come to be.
Another example of the very unique way in which the Buddhist deals with grief over the loss of a loved one. There is an assumption in this position of the ultimate rationality of man which is inspiring. Essentially grief is considered to be a fault in the individual experiencing the grief. It depends on ignorance of the inevitability of change in existing things and represents not a concern for the fate of the dead person but a selfish concern with one's own loss, a loss which is itself an illusion based on the assumption of self.
[SN 5.47.14] Ukkavela, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ukkacela, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the the Nyanaponika Thera translation.
The Buddha remarks upon how empty the sangha appears to him since the deaths of Sariputta and Moggalana.
There is confusion here with regard to the wording of the third paragraph of the Pali and the translations reflect this confusion. The problem is that depending on the way one breaks the sentences and the change of one letter turning 'empty' into 'not-empty', according as one hears it, the meaning can be made to appear to imply that the Buddha is suffering grief. ... a no-no. Further, Woodward's translation gives the appearance of there being a place of current residence of Sariputta and Moggalana. I have greater faith in the PTS Pali. My translation of the PTS Pali of this passage:

"Even to me, beggars, this company appears to be empty.

With Sariputta and Moggallana having attained Parinibbana, beggars,
to me this company is empty.

There is, though, no wondering with regard to destination,
that is as to the direction
where Sariputta and Moggallana abide.

[SN 5.47.15] Bāhiyo (or Bāhiko) Suttaṃ, the Pali
Bāhiyo (or Bāhiko), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Bāhiyo, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha gives Bahiyo a teaching which leads to his becoming an Arahant.
[SN 5.47.16] Uttiya Suttaṃ, the Pali
Uttiya, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Uttiya, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha gives Uttiya a teaching which leads to his becoming an Arahant.
[SN 5.47.17] Ariya Suttaṃ, the Pali
Ariyan, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Noble, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus about the four settings-up of memory.
[SN 5.47.18] Brahmā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Brahmā, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Brahmā, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha describes his thinking concerning the four settings-up of memory at a time just after his awakening. His thinking is confirmed by Brahma Sahampati.

Acrobats

[SN 5.47.19] Desakā (or Sole ending), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Sedaka, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Illustrating his point with a story about the way acrobats should attend to their safety, the Buddha explains how it is that by attending to one's own safety, one attends to the safety of others.
With regard to the title and the picture we should have of the acrobats I believe Bhk. Thanissaro has the clearest presentation: this is the first of two suttas delivered at Desaka which conclude this chapter and this one deals with acrobats. The trick they perform is that of balancing on a bamboo pole. The Master balances on the pole, the student balances on the master after climbing up the pole and climing up on the shoulders of the master.
As to the meaning it is a response to the argument heard when outsiders speak of 'the selfishness of the Arahant' or the 'Theravada' or 'Hineyana School of Buddhism'. This comes up most frequently when speaking to students of the Mahayana schools of Buddhism or to those who have heard this selfishness argument from Mahayanists. It is by protecting one's self that one protects others; protecting others is accomplished by protecting one's self. Imagine the consequence if the Master, balancing on the bamboo pole, in stead of paying attention to his balance, pays attention to the balance of the student on his shoulders. Or similarly imagine the consequence if the student in stead of paying attention to his own balance, pays attention to the balance of the master. It is in everyone's interest that one first attend to one's own 'balance'; it is by attending to one's own best interests that one attends to the best interests of others.

Holding the Bowl

'Spill even one drop of that Soma-apo liquid and its: 'Off with your head!'.

[SN 5.47.20] The Countryside, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Most Beautiful Girl of the Land, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha provides a parable for the way a beggar must keep his head while walking his walk between the raging of the world and the temptations of the senses.
A very powerful sutta for those attempting celebacy. See also in this regard: SN 5.47.20; SN 2.17.22; JĀT. 1.96; and Dhammatalk Archive: 'Winds'.
[SN 5.47.21] Sīla Suttaṃ, the Pali
Habit, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Virtue, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Ananda and Bhadda discuss the purpose of ethical culture.
Woodward has contradicted himself in his translation of this sutta so that the question 'What is the purpose of sīla' is not answered, and in stead the purpose of the four settings-up of memory is made to be the creation of sīla. Bhk. Bodhi has got this much correctly. However Sīla is not [Bhk. Bodhi]: 'virtue'; or [Woodward]: 'habit' or even 'morality'. It is a manta (Skt. mantra) = 'to sow, etc.' = 'as ye sow, so shall ye reap' which is 'ethics.' That is, the counseling of behavior in accordance with a theory of how things work as opposed to 'morality' (counceling of behavior in accordance with normally accepted views on right and wrong) or 'virtue' (conformity to the 'right' in a theory of right and wrong). The behavior that is taught as best by the Buddha is that which conforms to one's own best interests in accordance with his theory of kamma as reflected in the Four Truths. Ethics. As it happens the resulting guidlines closely parallel generally accepted ideas of morality and the behavior of those considered virtuous so it is easy to think that the difference is unimportant. It is important. Though the behaviors of those non-Buddhists who today are termed 'moral' and 'virtuous' are similar in many ways to those Buddhists who are called 'of ethical behavior', they are not similar in all ways and at just that point where the differences are important for accomplishing the goal, they deviate. To mistake generally accepted ideas of morality and virtue as identical with Buddhist ethical behavior is to risk making a wrong decision a such critical junctions as death, under the influence of drugs or when in jhāna one has come upon great personal power.
Before one is able to live in a body overseeing body (etc.) such as to be able to eliminate coveting and depression one must be able to see things clearly. In order to see things clearly one's vision must not be blinded by the bias which the mind automatically generates in order to rationalize unetical behavior. Hence the pre-requisite is the cultivation of ethical conduct. This is the order in which these things are developed in 'The Gradual Course,' Sīla and throughout the suttas.
[SN 5.47.22] Ṭhiti Suttaṃ, the Pali
Permanence, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Duration, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Ananda and Bhadda discuss the reasons for the short or long duration of the Dhamma after the death of the Buddha.
Woodward has translated 'Ṭhita' here as 'permanence' which should not be confused with the converse of the usual translation of 'anicca' as 'impermanence'. The basic meaning is 'stand' = establishment. The Dhamma is impermanent whether it last long or not.
[SN 5.47.23] Parihāna Suttaṃ, the Pali
Decay, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Decline, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Ananda and Bhadda discuss the reasons for the continued presence or the passing away of the Dhamma.
Parihāna. Literally: 'thorough-oh-woe!'. It's not the decay or decline of the Dhamma, its the decay or decline of the presence of, practice of, recollection of the Dhamma here.
[SN 5.47.24] Suddhaka Suttaṃ, the Pali
Puritan, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Simple Version, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the four settings-up of memory in it's briefest form.
Suddhaka. = 'pure stuff'. The essence. The article in it's pure state. This is not about the person who has an understanding in such a way.
[SN 5.47.25] Brāhmaṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Brahmin, the F.L. Woodward translation,
A Certain Brahmin, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
A Brahmin asks the Buddha about what it is that determines if the Dhamma will last long or not.
[SN 5.47.26] Padesa Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Partial, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Partly, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Venerable Sariputta, the venerable Maha Moggallana and the venerable Anuruddha discuss what constitutes a seeker.
[SN 5.47.27] Samatta Suttaṃ, the Pali
Perfectly, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Completely, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Venerable Sariputta, the venerable Maha Moggallana and the venerable Anuruddha discuss what constitutes a non-seeker.
Aseka. A = non. Both Woodward [adept] and Bhk. Bodhi [one beyond training] translate the 'seka' of the previous sutta in a way that creates a 'being something' which is not in the spirit of the Dhamma. By retaining the original term and putting it's opposite into the negative (non-pupil), (non-trainee) or my 'non-seeker' we better show the idea (the arahant does not go on from being a seeker to being something else, he has simply stopped seeking because he has found what he is seeking) and follow more closely the Pali.
[SN 5.47.28] Loka Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Universe, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The World, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Venerable Sariputta, the venerable Maha Moggallana and the venerable Anuruddha discuss the origin of Anuruddhas great psychic powers.
Loka is not really either 'world' or 'universe'. The world and the universe are lokas, but 'loka' means 'locus', 'location', 'focal point'. And the worlds being spoken of are not replicas of this world (say, as one would imagine seeing it from outer space) but of the way the world and worlds are perceived by the seer.
[SN 5.47.29] Sirivaḍḍha Suttaṃ, the Pali
Sirivaḍḍha, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Sirivaḍḍha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Ananda comforts the householder Sirivaddha who declares himself as a non-returner in his presence.
[SN 5.47.30] Mānadiṇṇo Suttaṃ, the Pali
Mānadiṇṇo, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Mānadiṇṇo, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Ananda comforts the householder Manadinna who declares himself as a non-returner in his presence.

 


Tuesday, August 11, 2015
Previous upload was Wednesday, July 08, 2015


A translation for 'paṭicca':

'Trigger'. Downbound blindness triggers own-making.
'actuate'. Downbound own-making actuates consciousness.
'propagate'. Downbound consciousness propagates named shapes.
'generate'. Downbound named shapes generates consciousness.
'manifest'. Downbound consciousness manifests the six realms of the senses.
'breed'. Downbound, the six realms of the senses breeds sense-experience.
'touch off'. Downbound, sense-experience touches off contact.
'stimulate'. Downbound contact stimulates hunger/thirst.
'inflame'. Downbound hunger/thirst inflames fuel.
'salt'. Downbound fuel salts existence.
'beget'. Downbound existence begets birth.
'introduce'. Downbound birth introduces old age, sickness, suffering and death,
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair.
provoke, prompt, spawn, spur, push, drive, compel, goad, prod, whip up, engender, induce...

What it isn't is 'cause', no more than the mother 'causes' the birth of her child. The child comes into existence as a consequence of the conjoining of inumerable factors, some of which are vital, some of which can be controlled by choice. When the Paṭicca Samuppada is given in the reverse direction indicating the path to the ending of pain, the factors presented are those which are vital, salient, comprehensible, visible and at some point in the chain under the control of the individual.

 


The 4 Virtues of a Sioux Warrior

Bravery,
Fortitude,
Generosity,
Wisdom


 

new Sunday, July 12, 2015 7:54 AMTheragāthā, Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation. Accompanied by brief biographical sketches.
[THAG 225] Lakuṇṭaka-Bhaddiya,
A sweet-voiced dwarf.
[THAG 226] Bhadda.
A seven-year old Arahant.
[THAG 30] Uttiya.

 

new Thursday, July 09, 2015 4:32 AMSaŋyutta Nikāya,
[SN 5.45.1] Ignorance, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha explains in a paticca-samuppada-like style how blindness leads to shameful behavior and that gives rise to mistaken points of view which leads to false release. Where there is vision, 'seeing' the bad consequences of shameful acts, that gives rise to consummate point of view which leads to consummate release.
[SN 5.45.2] Half the Holy Life, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Ananda, probably speaking of friendship with other bhikkhus, declares that it is 'half of the Brahma life' to be associated with the lovely. Gotama corrects him saying it is the whole of the Brahma life, but he is speaking of a close association and companionship with the Dhamma.
[SN 5.45.3] Sāriputta, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sariputta declares that it is 'the whole of the Brahma life' to be associated with the lovely. Gotama confirms him in this view.
[SN 5.45.4] Brāhmaṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Brahmin, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Brahmin, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha explains how to understand the simile of the chariot.
[SN 5.45.5] Kim Attha? Suttaṃ, the Pali,
To What Purpose?, the F.L. Woodward translation,
For What Purpose?, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha insructs the bhikkhus in the way they should respond when asked why one lives the holy live under the Buddha, that is, that it is lived for the eradication of pain and that the Aristocratic Eight-dimensional Way is the walk to walk to the ending of pain.
[SN 5.45.6] Aññataro Bhikkhu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
A Certain Monk (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
A Certain Bhikkhu 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha insructs a bhikkhu in the meaning of the expression: 'Brahma's Carriage'.
That is 'Brahma-cariya'. Not really 'the holy life' or 'the godly life', possibly 'the best, or Brahma's ... behavior (except used better for bhava) conduct, deportment, comportment, manner, demeanor, mien, carriage, bearing ... 'carrying on like Brahma' the way Brahma carries himself. Carousing?
[SN 5.45.7] Dutiya Aññataro Bhikkhu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
A Certain Monk (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
A Certain Bhikkhu 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha explains a higher understanding of the expression 'The destruction of lust, the destruction of anger, the destruction of delusion. He then instructs a bhikkhu on the meaning of the expression 'The Deathless' and teaches him the way to the deathless.
[SN 5.45.8] Analysis, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Analysis, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches the Aristocratic Eight-dimensional High Way giving brief summaries of the meaning of each of the steps of the way.
These definitions, in turn, are given fuller treatment elsewhere, such as in the Maha Satipatthana Sutta.
[SN 5.45.9] Suka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Bearded Wheat, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Spike, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha likens success in attaining the aim of the Dhamma to the success of a spike booby-trap at piercing the foot: if it is badly aimed, it fails, if it is well-aimed it succeeds.
[SN 5.45.10] Nandiya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Nandiya, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Nandiya, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Wanderer Nandia asks the Buddha about what leads to Nibbana, results in Nibbana, has Nibbana as it's goal.
[SN 5.45.11] Paṭhama Vihāra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Way of Dwelling (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Dwelling, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Residence (1), the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha lives in retreat for half a month living in a way similar to the way he did when first achieving awakening. When he emerges he relates his insights concerning the phenomena of experience to the bhikkhus.
[SN 5.45.12] Dutiya Vihāra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Way of Dwelling (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Dwelling 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Residence (2), the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha lives in retreat for three months living in a way similar to the way he did when first achieving awakening. When he emerges he relates his insights concerning the phenomena of experience to the bhikkhus.
The question is: What is the meaning of this and the previous sutta?
Bhk. Bodhi footnotes with explanations as to what it is that is experienced as a result of each of the conditions, but this cannot be the message of the suttas. How come? Because if the message were the results of each of the conditions the suttas would be as pointless as they appear — they would conclude without having provided a path to Nibbana to make it a lesson. It does not go, according to this scheme, past the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. And still further there is no follow-up sutta which says: "And what, bhikkhus, is that experience?" which one would expect in the case of this having been a teaching in brief. I say again what I often repeat: We must seek the meaning of a sutta in the sutta as given. I suggest therefore the message is that with all these conditions, positive or negative, up to the point of having tranquilized desire, or thought, or perception itself, whatever the result, the result is experience. Just experience. Not the goal. In other words the message is precisely contrary to that implied by the commentaries, that is that the goal is not well served by concentration on attainment of the various intermediate steps. They happen, they are not the point.
[SN 5.45.13] Sekha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Learner, the F.L. Woodward translation,
A Trainee, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha defines the meaning of the term 'seeker.' (sekha)
[SN 5.45.14] Paṭhama Uppāda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By the Uprising (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Arising, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The eight dimensions of the Magga only come together upon the arising of a Buddha.
[SN 5.45.15] Dutiya Uppāda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By the Uprising (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Arising (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The eight dimensions of the Magga only come together upon the arising of the discipline of the Well-gone (the Buddha).
[SN 5.45.16] Paṭhama Parisuddha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Utterly Pure (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Purified, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The eight dimensions of the Magga only come together upon the arising of a Buddha.
[SN 5.45.17] Dutiya Parisuddha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Utterly Pure (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Purified (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The eight dimensions of the Magga only come together upon the arising of the discipline of the Well-gone (the Buddha).
[SN 5.45.18] Paṭhama Kukkuṭārāma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Cock's Pleasaunce (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Cock's Park (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Bhadda asks Ananda about the path of unrighteousness (a-Brahmacarin). Ananda responds that it is the opposite of the Aristocratic Eight-dimensional High Way.
[SN 5.45.19] Dutiya Kukkuṭārāma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Cock's Pleasaunce (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Cock's Park (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Bhadda asks Ananda about the Brahma manner and the goal of living in the manner of Brahma.
[SN 5.45.20] Tatiya Kukkuṭārāma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Cock's Pleasaunce (c), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Cock's Park (3), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Bhadda asks Ananda about the Brahma manner, who is called one who lives in the manner of Brahma, and what is the goal of living in the manner of Brahma.
[SN 5.45.21] Micchatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Perversion, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Wrongness, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus about the mis-directed way and the consummate way.
[SN 5.45.22] Akusala-dhamma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Unprofitable States, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Unwholesome States, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus about unskillful things and skillful things.
[SN 5.45.23] Paṭhama Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Practice (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Way, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus about the contrary way to walk the walk and the consummate way to walk the walk.
[SN 5.45.24] Dutiya Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Practice (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Way (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Whether layman or bhikkhu, contrary practice is contrary practice and leads to no good end; whether layman or bhikkhu consummate practice is consummate practice and is the method, the skillful practice of Dhamma and the walk to walk.
[SN 5.45.25] Asappurisa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Unworthy (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Inferior Person, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the difference between the good man and the not so good man.
[SN 5.45.26] Dutiya Asappurisa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Unworthy (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Inferior Person 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the difference between the good man and the one superior to the good man and the not so good man and the one inferior to the not so good man.
The lesson here being that it's bad enough to be doing everything in a misguided way, but it's worse still to think this has lead to liberation, and on the other hand it is not sufficient to be doing everything in the consummate way — one must also have consummate knowledge and attain freedom with such behavior.
[SN 5.45.27] Kumbha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Pot, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Pot, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha illustrates the steadying effect of the Eightfold Way on the mind by the example of two pots, one with a stand and one without. The one without the stand is easily knocked over.

 


 

I the Phone

At about the same time as the arising of the Buddha the people known as Moche in the Paruvian Andes built a temple dedicated to the Moon in which there was a chamber which had a fresco that has come to be called 'the revolt of the objects'. This fresco depicts man-created objects such as shields and weapons which have taken on arms and legs and have turned against their creator, man. The immages illustrate the belief that there comes a time in this world, after a long long time, but sooner or later when the creations of man turn against him and destroy him allowing for a return to the peace of the original chaos of nature. Today we can see how farm machinery attacked and displaced farm workers by the millions while replacing healthy natural food products with those invented by man — unhealthy, disease causing, without spirit or taste. Automation has eliminated millions, and will in the near future eliminate virtually all low-paying jobs while reaching steadily into higher paying ones leading to nearly total unemployment, poverty, starvation and civil discontent. "I the Phone" has attached itself parasitically to the human in such a way as to lead inevitably to its host's utter destruction. For an amount shamefully beyond a reasonable profit the user pays for a device which he then feeds by an additional fee once a month with the result that his memory is sucked away into the wi-fisfere and he becomes dependent on this machine for the recollection of his own phone number, the way to the grocery store and the recollection of the features of his wife and children. In the same way as trusting the psychiatrist with one's problems without any evidence that such trust is warranted leads only to a mind that elaborates on its problems and makes them worse, so the ever making of a "more rewarding telephone experience" continually re-inforces and amplifies the deviant paths your explorations of the internet have revealed. Curiosity yields to the lure of absolute corruption. What to do to keep from being sucked down this drain-pipe dream? You need a purchase that does not involve purchasing. A stand that will keep you from being knocked over and spilling out your ... um ... vitality ... to the always listening Big Data Big Brother machine in your hand that is, for its own preservation and propagation, ever seeking to satisfy your every inclination no matter how depraved and dangerous. The Buddha has pointed the way. Use the Aristocratic Eightfold Path to judge yourself. Set up an internal but objective debate regarding your behavior and beliefs. Allow yourself to do only what you understand does not transgress this code. Make that your stand.

I am not Mi-phone,
Mi-phone is not me,
Mi-phone is not a part of me,
I am not a part of Mi-phone.

 


 

[SN 5.45.28] Samādhi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Concentration, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Concentration, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Serenity, the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus about serenity that can be said to be accompanied by its sources and adornments.
[SN 5.45.29] Vedanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Feeling, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Feeling, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the Eightfold Path is to be cultivated in order to understand the three experiences: pleasant sensation, painful sensation and sensation that is not painful but not pleasant.
Woodward has reversed the meaning of this sutta to make it that the Magga is to be understood by understanding the feelings.
[SN 5.45.30] Uttiya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Uttiya, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Uttiya, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The venerable Uttiya is taught about the five cords of sense pleasure: sights, sounds, scents, tastes and touches.
Woodward has reversed the meaning of this sutta to make it that the Magga is to be understood by abandoning the five, but it is that the five are to be abandoned by cultivation of the Magga.
[SN 5.45.31] Paṭipatti Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Conduct, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Practice, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus how not to walk the walk and how to walk the walk.
[SN 5.45.32] Paṭipanna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Conducted, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Practice 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the one who has not properly walked the walk and the one who has properly walked the walk.
[SN 5.45.33] Viraddha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Neglected and Undertaken, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Neglected, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Whoever neglects the Eightfold Path also neglects the way to the end of Pain.
[SN 5.45.34] Pāraŋgama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Crossing Over, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Going Beyond, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the way to going beyond.
The question here is: Is this "a-pāra apāraŋgamanāya saŋvattanti," (Woodward's: "conduces to that state in which no further shore and no hither shore exist") or "apārā pāraŋgamanāya saŋvattanti" Bhk. Bodhi's "lead to going beyond from the near shore to the far shore")? Woodward notes that: At A. v, 233 the Buddha says the two shores are breaking and keeping the precepts. At A. v, 232 (as here) it is the right and wrong eightfold way. The issue is the nature of Nibbāna. In these translator's terms: Is it a far shore or is it without shores.
The PTS Pali text is: "apārāpāraŋgamanāya; the CSCD has: "apārā pāraṃ gamanāya," the BJT is: apārā pāraŋgamanāya.
I suggest: apārāpāra be expanded to: apāra ā-pāraŋ "leads from the not-beyond to beyond" ('shore' enters the translation only through the simile and the minds of the translators). This takes one off the near shore without placing one on a further shore. On the not-beyond they go back and forth in misery, beyond they do not. This comports with the simile of the raft. The Magga and the precepts are the steps to the beyond, they are not the beyond. Following the precepts and the Magga does not lead to a place where both shores do not exist. This would be holding the theory of annihilationism. Arahantship is known by knowing that there is no more 'it'n and 'at'n' (itthattaŋ). The further shore is surely an 'at'n; the beyond the not-beyond is not.
[SN 5.45.35] Paṭhama Sāmañña Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Life of the Recluse a, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Asceticism, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Shamanism, the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha defines shamanism and the benefits brought about by shaminism.
I do not see how 'samaṇa' can be argued to be anything other than 'shaman'. That it is defined differently by the Buddha than it is commonly understood to be is nothing unusual. I further suggest that the term 'sāmañña-brāhmaṇa' originally indicated the distinction 'practitioners and scholars' with no prejudice intended. Even farther out on that limb, I suggest that 'sāmaṇa' came down from 'sammā' so that in the combination 'sāmañña-brāhmaṇa' what we really have is 'highest-er/best-er'.
[SN 5.45.36] Dutiya Sāmañña Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Life of the Recluse b, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Asceticism 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Shamanism 2, the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha defines shamanism and the attainments of shaminism.
[SN 5.45.37] Paṭhama Brahmañña Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Highest Life (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Brahminhood (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha defines Brahminism and the benefits brought about by Brahminism.
[SN 5.45.38] Dutiya Brahmañña Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Highest Life (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Brahminhood (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha defines Brahminism and the attainments of Brahminism.
[SN 5.45.39] Paṭhama Brahmacariya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Best Practice a, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Holy Life 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha defines the Brahma manner and the fruits of the Brahma manner.
[SN 5.45.40] Dutiya Brahmacariya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Best Practice b, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Holy Life 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha defines the Brahma manner and the attainments of the Brahma manner.
[SN 5.45.41] Virāga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Dispassion, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Fading Away of Lust, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha explains how the bhikkhus should answer if questioned as to what the purpose is of living under his Dhamma-Vinaya and then questioned as to the way that purpose is to be attained.
[SN 5.45.42] Saṃyojana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fetter, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Abandoning of the Fetters, Etc., the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Bhk. Bodhi's text abridges to include Suttas 42-48.
The Buddha explains how the bhikkhus should answer if questioned as to what the purpose is of living under his Dhamma-Vinaya and then questioned as to the way that purpose is to be attained.
[SN 5.45.43] Anusaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Tendency, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha explains how the bhikkhus should answer if questioned as to what the purpose is of living under his Dhamma-Vinaya and then questioned as to the way that purpose is to be attained.
[SN 5.45.44] Addhāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Way Out, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha explains how the bhikkhus should answer if questioned as to what the purpose is of living under his Dhamma-Vinaya and then questioned as to the way that purpose is to be attained.
[SN 5.45.45] Asavakhaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Destruction of the Āsavas, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha explains how the bhikkhus should answer if questioned as to what the purpose is of living under his Dhamma-Vinaya and then questioned as to the way that purpose is to be attained.
[SN 5.45.46] Vijjā-Vimutti Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Release by Knowledge, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha explains how the bhikkhus should answer if questioned as to what the purpose is of living under his Dhamma-Vinaya and then questioned as to the way that purpose is to be attained.
[SN 5.45.47] Ñāṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Knowing, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha explains how the bhikkhus should answer if questioned as to what the purpose is of living under his Dhamma-Vinaya and then questioned as to the way that purpose is to be attained.
[SN 5.45.48] Anupādā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Without Grasping, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha explains how the bhikkhus should answer if questioned as to what the purpose is of living under his Dhamma-Vinaya and then questioned as to the way that purpose is to be attained.
The aim of living as Brahma is dispassion, destruction of the yokes to rebirth, rubbing out residual tendencies, reaching one's final conclusion, destroying the corrupting influences, personally experiencing the rewards of freed vision, attaining knowing and seeing, and attaining final Nibbāna without fuel. Living as Brahma is accomplished by walking the Magga, and because of that each unit as well as the group as a whole makes a path to Nibbāna.
[SN 5.45.49] Good Friend, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation and the M. Olds translation,
[SN 5.45.50-55] Accomplishment in Virtue, Etc., the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation and the M. Olds translation,
Good friends, ethical culture, the wish to attain, self-knowledge, a view of the working hypothesis, being careful, tracing things back to their point of origin are all factors that herald the rise of the Aristocratic Eightfold Path.
This group and the next should be read together as one sutta.
[SN 5.45.56] Good Friend, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation and the M. Olds translation,
[SN 5.45.57-62] Accomplishment in Virtue, Etc., the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation and the M. Olds translation,
Good friends, ethical culture, the wish to attain, self-knowledge, a view of the working hypothesis, being careful, tracing things back to their point of origin are all factors that herald the rise of the Aristocratic Eightfold Path.
[SN 5.45.63-69]: Ekadhamma-Peyyalo I: I. Viveka-nissitam
PTS: The-One-Condition — Repetition: Based on Seclusion
WP: One Thing Repetition Series: Based upon Seclusion Version,
[The following suttas are all on single files (Pali, PTS, Wisdom Pubs). The numbering scheme follows the PTS Pali.]
[SN 5.45.63] Kalyāṇamittatā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Friendship with the Lovely, the Woodward translation,
Good Friend, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.64] Sīla Suttaṃ, the Pali
Virtue, the Woodward translation,
64-69:Accomplishment in Virtue, Etc., the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.65] Chanda Suttaṃ, the Pali
Desire, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.66] Atta Suttaṃ, the Pali
Self-possession, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.67] Diṭṭhi Suttaṃ, the Pali
Insight, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.68] Appamāda Suttaṃ, the Pali
Earnestness, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.69] Yoniso Suttaṃ, the Pali
Systematic Thought, the Woodward translation,
Good friends, ethical culture, the wish to attain, self-knowledge, a view of the working hypothesis, being careful, tracing things back to their point of origin are all factors that herald the rise of the Aristocratic Eightfold Path.
[SN 5.45.70-76]: Ekadhamma-Peyyalo I: II. Rāga-Vinaya-nissitam
PTS: The-One-Condition — Repetition: Restraint of Passion
WP: One Thing Repetition Series: Removal of Lust Version,
[The following suttas are all on single files.]
[SN 5.45.70] Kalyāṇamittatā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Friendship with the Lovely, the Woodward translation,
Good Friend, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.71] Sīla Suttaṃ, the Pali
Virtue, the Woodward translation,
71--76:Accomplishment in Virtue, Etc., the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.72] Chanda Suttaṃ, the Pali
Desire, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.73] Atta Suttaṃ, the Pali
Self-possession, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.74] Diṭṭhi Suttaṃ, the Pali
Insight, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.75] Appamāda Suttaṃ, the Pali
Earnestness, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.76] Yoniso Suttaṃ, the Pali
Systematic Thought, the Woodward translation,
Good friends, ethical culture, the wish to attain, self-knowledge, a view of the working hypothesis, being careful, tracing things back to their point of origin are all factors that herald the rise of the Aristocratic Eightfold Path.
[SN 5.45.77-83]: Ekadhamma-Peyyalo II: I. Viveka-nissitam
PTS: The-One-Condition — Repetition 2: 1. Based on Seclusion
WP: One Thing Repetition Series 2: 1. Based upon Seclusion Version,
[The following suttas are all on single files.]
[SN 5.45.77] Kalyāṇamittatā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Friendship with the Lovely, the Woodward translation,
Good Friend, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.78] Sīla Suttaṃ, the Pali
Virtue, the Woodward translation,
78-83:Accomplishment in Virtue, Etc., the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.79] Chanda Suttaṃ, the Pali
Desire, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.80] Atta Suttaṃ, the Pali
Self-possession, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.81] Diṭṭhi Suttaṃ, the Pali
Insight, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.82] Appamāda Suttaṃ, the Pali
Earnestness, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.83] Yoniso Suttaṃ, the Pali
Systematic Thought, the Woodward translation,
Good friends, ethical culture, the wish to attain, self-knowledge, a view of the working hypothesis, being careful, tracing things back to their point of origin are all factors that herald the rise of the Aristocratic Eightfold Path.
[SN 5.45.77-83]: Ekadhamma-Peyyalo II: ii. Rāga-Vinaya-nissitam
PTS: The-One-Condition — Repetition 2: 2. Restraint of Passion
WP: One Thing Repetition Series 2: 2. Removal of Lust Version,
[The following suttas are all on single files.]
[SN 5.45.84] Kalyāṇamittatā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Friendship with the Lovely, the Woodward translation,
Good Friend, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.85] Sīla Suttaṃ, the Pali
Virtue, the Woodward translation,
85-90:Accomplishment in Virtue, Etc., the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.86] Chanda Suttaṃ, the Pali
Desire, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.87] Atta Suttaṃ, the Pali
Self-possession, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.88] Diṭṭhi Suttaṃ, the Pali
Insight, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.89] Appamāda Suttaṃ, the Pali
Earnestness, the Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.90] Yoniso Suttaṃ, the Pali
Systematic Thought, the Woodward translation,
Good friends, ethical culture, the wish to attain, self-knowledge, a view of the working hypothesis, being careful, tracing things back to their point of origin are all factors that herald the rise of the Aristocratic Eightfold Path.
[SN 5.45.91-102] Gangā Peyyālo I: Viveka-nissitam
PTS: Ganga — Repetition: Based on Seclusion
WP: First Ganges Repetition Series: Based upon Seclusion Version
[The following suttas are all on single files (Pali, Woodward, Bhk. Bodhi).]
[SN 5.45.91] Paṭhama Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward a, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Slanting to the East, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.92] Dutiya Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.1, the F.L. Woodward translation,
WP: 92-96: Slanting to the East 92-96, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.93] Tatiya Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.2, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.94] Catuttha Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.3, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.95] Pañcama Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.4, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.96] Chaṭṭha Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward c, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.97] Paṭhama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
WP: 92-96: The Ocean 97-102, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
[SN 5.45.98] Dutiya Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.1), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.99] Tatiya Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.2), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.100] Catuttha Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.3), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.101] Pañcama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.4), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.102] Pañcama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (c), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha likens the flow of great rivers to the way in which developing and making much of the Aristocratic Eightfold Way brings one to Nibbana.
[SN 5.45.103-114] Gangā Peyyālo II: Raga-nissitam
PTS: Ganga — Repetition: Restraint of Passion
WP: Second Ganges Repetition Series: Removal of Lust Version
[The following suttas are all on single files (Pali, Woodward, Bhk. Bodhi).]
[SN 5.45.103] Paṭhama Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward a, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Slanting to the East, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.104] Dutiya Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.1, the F.L. Woodward translation,
WP: 104-108: Slanting to the East 92-96, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.105] Tatiya Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.2, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.106] Catuttha Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.3, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.107] Pañcama Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.4, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.108] Chaṭṭha Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward c, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.109] Paṭhama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Ocean 109-114, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
[SN 5.45.110] Dutiya Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.1), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.111] Tatiya Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.2), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.112] Catuttha Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.3), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.113] Pañcama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.4), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.114] Pañcama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (c), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha likens the flow of great rivers to the way in which developing and making much of the Aristocratic Eightfold Way brings one to Nibbana.
[SN 5.45.115-126] Gangā Peyyālo III: Amatogadha-nissitam
PTS: Ganga — Repetition: Plunging into the Deathless
WP: Third Ganges Repetition Series: The Deathless as Its Ground Version
[The following suttas are all on single files (Pali, Woodward, Bhk. Bodhi).]
[SN 5.45.115] Paṭhama Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward a, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Slanting to the East, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.116] Dutiya Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.1, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Slanting to the East 116-120, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.117] Tatiya Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.2, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.118] Catuttha Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.3, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.119] Pañcama Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.4, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.120] Chaṭṭha Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward c, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.121] Paṭhama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Ocean 121-126, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
[SN 5.45.122] Dutiya Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.1), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.123] Tatiya Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.2), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.124] Catuttha Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.3), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.125] Pañcama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.4), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.126] Pañcama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (c), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha likens the flow of great rivers to the way in which developing and making much of the Aristocratic Eightfold Way brings one to Nibbana.
[SN 5.45.127-138] Gangā Peyyālo IV: Nibbanannino-nissitam
PTS: Ganga — Repetition: Flowing to Nibbāna
WP: Fourth Ganges Repetition Series: Slants towards Nibbāna Version
[The following suttas are all on single files (Pali, Woodward, Bhk. Bodhi).]
[SN 5.45.127] Paṭhama Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward a, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Slanting to the East, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.128] Dutiya Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.1, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Slanting to the East 128-132, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.129] Tatiya Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.2, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.130] Catuttha Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.3, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.131] Pañcama Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward b.4, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.132] Chaṭṭha Pācīna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eastward c, the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.133] Paṭhama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Ocean 133-138, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
[SN 5.45.134] Dutiya Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.1), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.135] Tatiya Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.2), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.136] Catuttha Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.3), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.137] Pañcama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (b.4), the F.L. Woodward translation,
[SN 5.45.138] Pañcama Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (c), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha likens the flow of great rivers to the way in which developing and making much of the Aristocratic Eightfold Way brings one to Nibbana.
[SN 5.45.139-148] Appamāda Vaggo
[SN 5.45.139] Tathāgata, the Pali,
Tathāgata, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Tathāgata, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Tathāgata, the M. Olds, translation.
[SN 5.45.140] Padam, the Pali,
The foot, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Footprint, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Foot the M. Olds, translation.
[SN 5.45.141] Kūṭam, the Pali,
The roof-peak, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Roof Peak, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Roof-peak the M. Olds, translation.
[SN 5.45.142] Mūlam, the Pali,
Wood, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Roots, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Root the M. Olds, translation.
[SN 5.45.143] Sāro, the Pali,
Heart Wood, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Heartwood, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Heart-wood the M. Olds, translation.
[SN 5.45.144] Vassikam, the Pali,
Jasmine, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Jasmine, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Jasmine the M. Olds, translation.
[SN 5.45.145] Rājā, the Pali,
Prince, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Monarch, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Kings the M. Olds, translation.
[SN 5.45.146] Canda, the Pali,
Moon, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Moon, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Moon the M. Olds, translation.
[SN 5.45.147] Suriya, the Pali,
Sun, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Sun, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Sun the M. Olds, translation.
[SN 5.45.148] Vattham, the Pali,
Cloth, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Cloth, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Cloth the M. Olds, translation.
Nine similes for the caution that is the fundamental condition that leads to the bringing to life of the Aristocratic Eight-dimensional High Way.
My translation, Woodward's translation and the Pali are revisions. They existed on this site previously but all were completely revised (corrected).
At Ī140 the PTS Pali, and following that, Woodward, misses the heading for this section and has this entire group erroneously listed as sub sections of Ī139.
[SN 5.45.149-160] Balakaraṇīya-vaggo
PTS: Deeds Requiring Strength
WP: Strenuous Deeds
[SN 5.45.149] Balam, the Pali,
Strength, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Strenuous, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
[SN 5.45.150] Bījā, the Pali,
Seed, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Seeds, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
[SN 5.45.151] Nāgo, the Pali,
The Snake, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Nagas, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
[SN 5.45.152] Rukkho, the Pali,
The Tree, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Tree, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
[SN 5.45.153] Kumbho, the Pali,
The Pot, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Pot, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
[SN 5.45.154] Sukiya, the Pali,
Bearded Wheat, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Spike, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
[SN 5.45.155] Ākāsa, the Pali,
The Sky, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Sky, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
[SN 5.45.156] Megha, the Pali,
The Rain-cloud a, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Rain Cloud, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
[SN 5.45.157] Megha 2, the Pali,
The Rain-cloud b, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Rain Cloud 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
[SN 5.45.158] Nāvā, the Pali,
The Ship, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Ship, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
[SN 5.45.159] Āgantukā, the Pali,
For All Comers, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Guest House, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
[SN 5.45.160] Nadī, the Pali,
The River, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The River, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha provides twelve similes illustrating various aspects of the Dhamma.

 


Tisso imā bhikkhave dukkhatā.|| ||

Katamā tisso?|| ||

Dukkha-dukkhatā||
saŋkhāra-dukkhatā||
vipariṇāma-dukkhatā.|| ||

Imāsaṃ kho bhikkhave tissannaṃ dukkhatānam||
abhiññāya,||
pariññāya,||
parikkhayāya,||
pahānāya,||
ayam ariyo aṭṭhaŋgiko maggo bhāvetabbo.|| ||

Three, beggars, are the pains.

What three?

Pain's pain,
own-making's pain
alteration's pain.

It is then, beggars, that
for the higher knowledge of,
for the thorough knowledge of,
for the thorough destruction of,
for the letting go of
these three forms of pain
the Aristocratic Multi-dimensional High Way
should be brought to life.
— Olds translation from SN 5.45.165


 

[SN 5.45.161-170] Esanā-vaggo, On Longing, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
Searches, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.161] Esanā, the Pali,
Longing, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Searches, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.162] Vidhā, the Pali,
Conceits, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Discriminations, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.163] Asavo (AAsavo, Āsavo the Pali,
Asava, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Taints, II.1560
Issues, Olds, trans.
The Pali, F.L. Woodward, and Olds translations are revisions of this previously posted sutta.
[SN 5.45.164] Bhavo, the Pali,
Becoming, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Existence, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.165] Dukkhatā, the Pali,
Suffering, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Suffering, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.166] Khilā, the Pali,
Obstructions, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Barrenness, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.167] Malam, the Pali,
Stain, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Stains, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.168] Nighā, the Pali,
Pains, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Troubles, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.169] Vedanā, the Pali,
Feelings, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Feelings, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.170] Taṇhā the Pali,
Craving, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Cravings, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.170.2] Tasinā or Taṇhā, the Pali,
Thirst, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Thirst, The Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The buddha explains how the Eightfold Path is to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of wishes, delusions, corrupting influences, existence, pain, closed-mindedness, flare-ups, sense-experience, and thirst.
There is a difference of opinion as to the arrangement of the suttas in this and the following vagga (or maybe it is just me). The PTS, CSCD and Woodward appears to arrange the suttas: Subject: Division (Comprehension, Realization, Wearing out, Abandoning): 3 versions of the 8-fold path without repeating the beginning of the sutta each time (seclusion, dispassion, deathlessness, nibbana). The BJT and Bhk. Bodhi (though abridged), have the organization as: Subject: Division I: 1 version of the 8-fold path, Division I, 2nd version of the 8-fold path, etc. then Division II, etc. I have followed the PTS organization as described above.
[SN 5.45.171-180] Ogha Vaggo, The Flood, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
Floods, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
[SN 5.45.171] Ogho, the Pali,
The Flood, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
Floods, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation
Linked tothe Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
[SN 5.45.172] Yogo, the Pali,
Bond, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
Bonds, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation
[SN 5.45.173] Upādānam, the Pali,
Grasping, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
Clinging, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation
[SN 5.45.174] Ganthā, the Pali,
(Bodily) Ties, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
Knots, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation
[SN 5.45.175] Anusayā, the Pali,
Tendency, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
Underlying Tendencies, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation
[SN 5.45.176] Kāmaguṇa, the Pali,
The Sense-Pleasures, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
Cords of Sensual Pleasure, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation
[SN 5.45.177] Nivaraṇāni, the Pali,
Hindrances, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
Hindrances, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation
[SN 5.45.178] Khandā, the Pali,
Factors, the F.L. Woodward, translation,
Aggregates Subject to Clinging, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation
[SN 5.45.179] Orambhāgiya, the Pali,
The Lower Set (of Fetters), the F.L. Woodward, translation,
Lower Fetters, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation
[SN 5.45.180] Uddhambhāgiya, the Pali,
The Higher Set (of Fetters), the F.L. Woodward, translation,
Higher Fetters, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The buddha explains how the Eightfold Path is to be used for the higher knowledge of, thorough knowledge of, thorough destruction of, for the letting go of the floods, the bonds, yokes to rebirth, ties to the body, risidual inclinations, sense pleasures, diversions, the fuel stockpiles, the yokes to lower rebirths, the yokes to higher rebirths.
In addition to the questions raised regarding the orginization of the previous chapter, the final sutta of this chapter, in the Burmese MSS B1-2 (and only it) includes at its end what is, in the case of Bhk. Bodhi's interpretation, the equivalant of Ī91; in the case of Woodward's interpretation a repetion of the entire sutta.
Taking a wild guess I suggest that there was in some original manuscript some abridged indication that there was to follow here some sort of final conclusion. A terminal knot. I suspect this is also the case with the end of the previous chapter and explains the inclusion of the second Sutta #170. What then I would conclude would be the final conclusion in both Chapters is what Bhk. Bodhi suggests for this chapter alone: a repetition of Ī91. This would then bring the number of 'takes' on the Eightfold path to five, and would show that the five takes were a progression which flowed, slided and tended towards Nibbana.

Putting together the repetition collections beginning with Ī49, if colors or symbols were given to each component part and they were laid out or woven together or arranged as a mandalla in the order of these suttas (and unabridged!!!), what we would see is a magnificant tapistry. I keep trying to encourage people to read these without skipping. Perhaps this is misguided. What would serve just as well would be to read them carefully enough to remember the sequence and then, in meditation, to reconstruct the whole. The vision of this work of art could then be seen in mind and it could never be forgotten.

This brings to conclusion the scanning, proofreading, formatting and uploading of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 5.45. The Book of the Linked Sayings on the Way.

[SN 5.46.1] Himavanta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Himālaya, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Himalayas, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha likens the evolving growth of the bhikkhu in the Dhamma from it's base in ethical culture to the evolving growth of the great sea serpents from their birthplace in the Himalayas.
[SN 5.46.2] Kāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Body, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Body, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Body, the M. Olds translation.
The buddha teaches the bhikkhus about the diversions and the things that help in the development of the dimensions of awakening.
I have always found this sutta to be particularly obscure in that in several places it seems to be self-referential and uninformative. "What is the food of the memory-self-awakening dimension? Things based on the memory-self-awakening-dimension." I did my translation to see if there was something in the Pali that was being overlooked, but the picture is not much clearer. It isn't that this doesn't make sense, or cannot be figured out, it is just that it does not much advance the story which is unusual. (Hint: I suspect it of having been partly forgotten and made up after.) Other than in the places where this occurs this is a valuable sutta for it's detail concerning how to manage the diversions (nivarana) and how to develop the seven dimensions of self-awakening (sambojjhanga).
Note: We can see in this sutta by the elaboration of 'dhamma-vicaya' that this is research into 'things', not research into 'The Dhamma.' Woodward's 'Norm'. I have also translated this 'The Dhamma' and also 'dhamma' and at this time I think I will not try to change what I have previously done as this points in any case to the ultimate goal of such research.
[SN 5.46.3] Virtue, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Woodward translation and the Olds translation.
The Buddha describes how even just the sight of an Arahant can lead to Awakening or non-returning.
The translations of both Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi are easy to misunderstand. They give the impression that the whole sequence from first seeing an Arahant to attaining the result is virtually instantaneous. "When a monk, so dwelling aloof, remembers and turns over in his mind the teaching of the Norm, it is then that the limb of wisdom which is mindfulness is established in that monk. When he cultivates the limb of wisdom which is mindfulness then it is that the monk's culture of it comes to perfection." etc. Bhk. Bodhi: "Dwelling thus withdrawn, one recollects that Dhamma and thinks it over. Whenever, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwelling thus withdrawn recollects that Dhamma and thinks it over, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of mindfulness comes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu." The idea is that when he starts one thing he has at that same time also started the next thing, to fully develop the first thing the second thing must be fully developed; when the first thing has been fully developed the other things are at that time also fully developed. Development is a circular thing; a revolving evolving enveloping developing.
[SN 5.46.4] Practice, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Clothes, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
In Practice, the M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali.
Sariputta describes the way he utilizes the Seven Dimensions of Awakening.
My translation is a revision of a previously abridged version of this sutta. The Pali was also slightly revised.
[SN 5.46.5] Bhikkhu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Monk, the F.L. Woodward translation,
A Bhikkhu, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Beggar, the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha explains the meaning of the term 'A dimension of Awakening'.

 


Vimuttasmiṃ, 'Vimuttami,' ti||
ñāṇaṃ hoti,||
'khīṇā jāti||
vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ||
kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ||
nāparaṃ itthattāyā' ti pajānāti.

In freedom, having the knowledge: 'I am free,'
he understands:

'Left behind is birth,
re-inhabited is the Brahma mode,
duty's doing's done
there is no it'n-n-at'n to follow.'


 

[SN 5.46.6] Kuṇḍali Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Kuṇḍali, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Kuṇḍaliya, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha shows how guarding the senses culminates in giving up bad conduct of body, speech and mind which culminates in the culmination of the four settings up of the memory which culminates in the culmination of the seven dimensions of self-awakening which culminates in freedom through knowledge.
Details are given for each step. This is a very helpful sutta, especially in the description of guarding the senses which describes what is to be done in more than the usual detail.
[SN 5.46.7] Kūṭāgāra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Peak, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Peaked House, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha likens the way that in a peaked-roof house, all the rafters slope towards the peak, aim towards the peak, terminate in the peak to the way when the seven dimensions of awakening are made a big thing of they slope towards Nibbana, aim towards Nibbana, terminate in Nibbana.
[SN 5.46.8] Upavāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Upavāna, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Upavāna, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Venerable Upavana explains how by developing the seven dimensions of awakening one can know a pleasant way of living (that is, Arahantship).
[SN 5.46.9] Uppannā (or Uppāda) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arisen (or Arising), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Arisen (or Arising), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The seven dimensions of awakening arise, but not without the appearance of a Buddha.
A statement which amounts to saying that the seven dimensions of awakening, as a system, is unique to Buddhism.
[SN 5.46.10] Uppannā (or Uppāda) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arisen (or Arising), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Arisen (or Arising), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The seven dimensions of awakening arise, but not without the appearance of a Buddha.
Almost identical with the previous.
[SN 5.46.11] Pāṇā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Creatures, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Living Beings, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
As the posture of all breathing things depends on the earth, so awakening depends on the development of the seven dimensions of awakening.
Pāṇa = 'breathers', breathing things.
[SN 5.46.12] Paṭhama Suriyassa Upamā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Simile of the Sun (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Simile of the Sun 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Just as the dawn is the first sign of the sunrise, so friendship with the good is the first sign of the arising of the seven dimensions of awakening.
[SN 5.46.13] Dutiya Suriyassa Upamā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Simile of the Sun (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Simile of the Sun 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Just as the dawn is the first sign of the sunrise, so studious etiological examination is the first sign of the arising of the seven dimensions of awakening.
[SN 5.46.14] Sick (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ill 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Piadassi Thera translation.
Maha Kassapa is cured of a sickness by hearing the seven dimensions of awakening.
[SN 5.46.15] Dutiya Gilanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sick 2, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ill 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Maha Moggalana is cured of a sickness by hearing the seven dimensions of awakening.
[SN 5.46.16] Tatiya Gilanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sick 3, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ill 3, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Piadassi Thera translation.
The Buddha is cured of an illness by hearing Maha Cunda recite the seven dimensions of awakening.

 


The Seven Dimensions of Awakening

There are, friends, seven dimensions of awakening.

What seven?

The memory-demension of self-awakening.

When, the memory-dimension of self-awakening
as fully described by the Lucky Man,
as seated in solitude,
seated in dispassion,
seated in ending,
culminating in giving up,
is made to live,
made a big thing of,
it conduces to higher knowledge,
self-awakening,
Nibbāna.

The investigation-of-things-demension of self-awakening.

When, the investigation-of-things-dimension of self-awakening
as fully described by the Lucky Man,
as seated in solitude,
seated in dispassion,
seated in ending,
culminating in giving up,
is made to live,
made a big thing of,
it conduces to higher knowledge,
self-awakening,
Nibbāna.

The energy-demension of self-awakening.

When, the energy-dimension of self-awakening
as fully described by the Lucky Man,
as seated in solitude,
seated in dispassion,
seated in ending,
culminating in giving up,
is made to live,
made a big thing of,
it conduces to higher knowledge,
self-awakening,
Nibbāna.

The entheusiasm-demension of self-awakening.

When, the entheusiasm-dimension of self-awakening
as fully described by the Lucky Man,
as seated in solitude,
seated in dispassion,
seated in ending,
culminating in giving up,
is made to live,
made a big thing of,
it conduces to higher knowledge,
self-awakening,
Nibbāna.

The impassivity-demension of self-awakening.

When, the impassivity-dimension of self-awakening
as fully described by the Lucky Man,
as seated in solitude,
seated in dispassion,
seated in ending,
culminating in giving up,
is made to live,
made a big thing of,
it conduces to higher knowledge,
self-awakening,
Nibbāna.

The serenity-demension of self-awakening.

When, the serenity-dimension of self-awakening
as fully described by the Lucky Man,
as seated in solitude,
seated in dispassion,
seated in ending,
culminating in giving up,
is made to live,
made a big thing of,
it conduces to higher knowledge,
self-awakening,
Nibbāna.

The detachment-demension of self-awakening.

When, the detachment-dimension of self-awakening
as fully described by the Lucky Man,
as seated in solitude,
seated in dispassion,
seated in ending,
culminating in giving up,
is made to live,
made a big thing of,
it conduces to higher knowledge,
self-awakening,
Nibbāna.

These, friends are the seven dimensions of awakening!

These, friends are the seven dimensions of awakening!


 

[SN 5.46.17] Pāraŋgāmi or Apara Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Crossing Over or No More, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Going Beyond, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the way to going beyond.
See the discussion for SN 5.45.34. The sutta proper does not mention 'shores' as translated by both Bhk. Bodhi and Woodward. Woodward, by his translation inserts a contradiction between the sutta and the verses.
[SN 5.46.18] Viraddha or Āraddha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Neglected and Undertaken, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Neglected, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that neglecting the seven dimensions of awakening is neglecting the path to Awakening; undertaking the seven dimensions of awakening is undertaking the path to awakening.
The interesting thing about this little sutta is the fact that it refers to the seven dimensions of awakening as the 'ariyo maggo sammā dukkhakkhayagāmi;' the Aristocratic consummate way to the end of pain'. Woodward here understands this to be a reference to the Eightfold Way and inserts 'Eightfold' which is not there. Bhk. Bodhi translates properly as 'the noble path leading to the complete destruction of suffering,' but makes no comment. Could the 'bojjhaŋgā' have been the original "Magga"? Not according to the 'First Sutta'. What is the explanation? Woodward translates the same phrase correctly (as 'the Ariyan way that goes on to the utter destruction of ill') at SN 5.51.2 where it refers to the Four Iddhipada. 'Ariyaa Magga' appears to be a term that could be broadly applied. That is, could it be applied to any 'path' that lead to Nibbāna.
[SN 5.46.19] Ariya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ariyan, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Noble, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that making live, making a big thing of the seven dimensions of awakening conduces to the complete eradication of pain.
[SN 5.46.20] Nibbidā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Revulsion, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Revulsion, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that undertaking the seven dimensions of awakening leads to a singular inability to abide, to dispassion, ending, calm, higher knowledge, self-awakening, Nibbana.
The Dude would understand. Singular, Unique, Utter world-weariness: ekanta-Nibbida: one-ended-dis-abidability > vindati = to find or to know (as in 'I found that to be ~" > 'It was my pleasure to know" > possess, enjoy, so dis-enjoy > singularly unenjoyable). Woodward: 'downright revulsion'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'utter revulsion'. The problem with 'revulsion' is the implication that it is an emotion within. What is being spoken of is a perception that a thing out there is revolting. Like water rolling off a duck's back, the duck is not 'wetted' by the water. Dis-taste. Having no inclination to indulge. Having the idea, perception or knowledge, but not the sensation, that a thing is revolting.
[SN 5.46.21] Bodhanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Knowing, the F.L. Woodward translation,
To Enlightenment, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha explains the meaning of the term 'dimension of awakening'.
[SN 5.46.22] Desanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Instruction, the F.L. Woodward translation,
A Teaching, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the seven dimensions of awakening.
[SN 5.46.23] Ṭhānā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Conditions, the F.L. Woodward translation,
A Basis, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that it is giving study to things which cause them to arise, or if arisen, increase, and that whether they are diversions or dimensions of awakening.
[SN 5.46.24] Ṭhānā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Conditions, the F.L. Woodward translation,
A Basis, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches that not tracing things back to their place of origin results in the arising or increase of the diversions and the failure to arise or the disappearance of the seven dimensions of awakening.
[SN 5.46.25] Aparihāni Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Undeclining, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Non-Decline, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the seven dimensions of awakening are things that lead to non-decline.
[SN 5.46.26] Khaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Destruction, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Destruction of Craving, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the Venerable Udayi that which destroys thirst and the way to practice to destroy thirst.
Woodward has complicated this sutta by inserting the qualification, per his understanding of the remarks made by the Commentator, of 'rooted in craving.' Where the Pali says: 'Taṇhāya pahānā kammam pahīyati. Kammassa pahānā dukkham pahīyati. 'Letting go Thirst, kamma is let go. Kamma having been let go, pain is let go,' he has "By the abandoning of craving action (that is rooted in craving) is abandoned. By the abandoning of action (rooted in craving) Ill is abandoned." Which he justifies with the statement: "To say that action as such should be abandoned would be contrary to the Buddha's 'doctrine of the deed.'"
This is a misunderstanding. The Pali does not say 'let go kamma', it says 'let go thirst'. The 'doctrine of the deed' is the view that kamma is a fact, that there are consequences that follow intentional acts. The view that there is no action necessary to become free from pain is 'the doctrine of non-action". To free one's self from pain it is necessary to act in a way which ends kamma which is the intentional action of not acting in response to taṇhā. It is kamma which ends kamma and thus is not 'non-action.' The end result is the end of kamma.
[SN 5.46.27] Nirodha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Cessation, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Cessation of Craving, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus about that which ends thirst and the way to practice to end thirst.
[SN 5.46.28] Nibbedha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Penetration, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Partaking of Penetration, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches Venerable Udayi that the seven dimensions of awakening are part and parcel to extraction of lust, anger and blindness.
[SN 5.46.29] Eka-Dhamma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The One Condition, the F.L. Woodward translation,
One Thing, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that there is no other single thing more effective at ridding one of the yokes to rebirth than the seven dimensions of awakening.
This sutta presents a big problem for translators, one similar to that found in the Book of the Ones, where the Buddha is making a statement that he does not know of another thing so effective at accomplishing a thing as such and such. And then he goes on to give another thing about which he says the same thing.

"Nāhaṃ bhikkhave, aññaṃ ekadhammam pi samanupassāmi yo evaṃ bhāvitā bahulīkatā||
saŋyojaniyānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya saŋvattanti.|| ||

Yad idaṃ satta bojjhaŋgā.|| ||

I do not, beggars, perceive another single thing, developed, made much of,
just so effective for letting go things that yoke to rebirth.
That is, the seven dimensions of awakening.

My previous way of resolving this problem was to word it: 'I do not perceive another single thing more ... . Thus allowing for another thing which is 'just as much.' But the problem is this is not in the Pali. Woodward translates "I behold not, monks, any other single condition which ... is so..." Bhk. Bodhi: "I do not see even one other thing that ... . Both these translations leave one asking: Well what about the Eightfold Way? Or in the case of those cases found in the Book of the Ones, what about those other things?

Now what I believe is the case is that whether intentionally paradoxical or understood as a given or a feature of the language the meaning was that such and such was identical 'in essence' with such another thing. That to say that to say: 'no other single thing is so effective as the seven dimensions of awakening' was in essence saying the same thing as 'no other single thing is so effective as the eightfold way' because the two things though using different words amount to the same thing.

[SN 5.46.30] Udāyī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Udāyī, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Udāyī, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Venerable Udayi declares streamwinning.
A good, detailed example of the declaration of streamwinning by a bhikkhu.
[SN 5.46.31] Paṭhama Kusalā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Good (a), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Wholesome 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that whatever is skillful is based on being careful and being careful is considered the most skillful of skillful things. He then tells them that one who is careful will develop the seven dimensions of awakening.
[SN 5.46.32] Dutiya Kusalā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Good (b), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Wholesome 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that whatever is skillful is based on tracing things back to their place of origin and tracing things back to their place of origin is considered the most skillful of skillful things. He then tells them that one who traces things back to their place of origin will develop the seven dimensions of awakening.
Here, relating this to the previous sutta, we have a variation on the problem discussed above. How else would it be possible for both being careful and tracing things back to their place of origin to be considered best of skillful things if they were not essentially the same thing? With Woodward that would be: earnestness = systematic attention; with Bhk. Bodhi: diligence = careful attention.

 


 

Wednesday, July 08, 2015
Previous upload was Tuesday, June 09, 2015

 

new Tuesday, June 30, 2015 6:39 AMMajjhima Nikāya,
[MN 128] Discourse on Defilements, the I.B. Horner translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha is not able to halt the argument and contention of the sangha in Ghosita's vihara in Kosambi and so moves on to visit Bhago in Balakallonakara village where he teaches him Dhamma and then he visits the Anuruddhas staying in the Eastern Bamboo Grove there. There he teaches the Anuruddhas in great detail the process of eliminating the obstructions to clairvoyant sight and describes the method of jhana practice in threes which he himself used to attain arahantship.
Anyone wishing to develop the deva eye or clairvoyance should be very interested in this sutta. It is also here that we see the actual meditation method used by Gotama. This 'method in threes' is:

I.i. Develop serenity (samādhi) with thinking (vitakka) and pondering (vicāra);
I.ii. Develop serenity without thinking, just a measure of pondering (vicāra-matta);
I.iii. Develop serenity without thinking or pondering;
II.i. Develop serenity with entheusiasm (pīti);
II.ii. Develop serenity settling down entheusiasm;
II.iii. Develop serenity in connection with happiness;
III.i. Develop serenity with detachment;
[then, not stated as such, but I suggest are, the second and third parts of the third part:]
III.ii. by that attaining freedom,
and in freedom seeing freedom,
III.iii. arises the knowledge and vision:
'Unshakable is my heart's freedom,
this is the end of birth,
there is no further exististing.'

The over-all message of the sutta is that when the bhikkhus do not live in harmony with each other they obstruct their access to Dhamma, when they live in harmony access to Dhamma appears.

 

new Thursday, June 11, 2015 5:22 AMSaṃyutta Nikāya,
[SN 4.36.21] Sīvaka, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sīvaka, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the Nyanaponika Thera translation, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes various sources of pain in the world that are not directly attributable to kamma.
Note carefully that this is a precise response to the precise wording of a statement being made, that is that all sense experiences is driven (hetu) by past deeds. The meaning is that while all sense experiences can be said to result from the past deeds that brought about the current life, there are certain experiences in life that are driven (hetu) by impersonal, non-karmic forces.
[SN 4.36.21] The Theme of the Hundred and Eight, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, the Nyanaponika Thera translation, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha lists the various ways he categorizes the sense experiences.
[SN 4.36.23] The Brother, the F.L. Woodward translation.
A Certain Bhikkhu, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A Bhikkhu is taught about the sense experiences, their arisings, the way to their arisings, their endings, the way to their endings, their satisfactions and their miseries, and the way of escape.
[SN 4.36.24] Before, and [WP #25] Knowledge, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation . Both on the same file.
Linked to the Pali, and the PTS Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the precise knowledge of sense experience that arose to him that helped bring about his awakening.
N.B.: Bhikkhu Bodhi, following his mss, divides this sutta into 2; subsequent suttas for the WP ed are included in the Sutta Index citation under the related PTS sutta but are given there with the WP ed. sutta number. The WP file number will reflect the PTS sutta numbering system. The Sutta number appearing at the top of the display will indicate the PTS sutta number with the WP sutta number in square brackets and will link to the corresponding PTS sutta in the Sutta Index.
[SN 4.36.25] Bhikkhunā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By A Brother, the F.L. Woodward translation.
[WP #26] A Number of Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
A number of Bhikkhus are taught about the sense experiences, their arisings, the way to their arisings, their endings, the way to their endings, their satisfactions and their miseries, and the way of escape.
[SN 4.36.26] Samaṇa-Brāhmaṇā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Recluses and Brahmins (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
[WP #27] Ascetics and Brahmins (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Understanding sense experience, its arising, its passing away, its satisfactions and its misery and understanding the escape from sense experience is stated to be the way that the true shaman and brahman are recognized by true shamen and brahmins and this is also the benefit of having lived the life of a shaman or brahmin.
[SN 4.36.27] Dutiya Samaṇa-Brāhmaṇā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Recluses and Brahmins (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
[WP #28] Ascetics and Brahmins (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Understanding sense experience, its arising, its passing away, its satisfactions and its misery and understanding the escape from sense experience is stated to be the way that the true shaman and brahman are recognized by true shamen and brahmins and this is also the benefit of having lived the life of a shaman or brahmin.
Identical to the previous.
[SN 4.36.28] Tatiya Samaṇa-Brāhmaṇā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Recluses and Brahmins (iii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
[WP #29] Ascetics and Brahmins (3), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Understanding sense experience, its arising, its passing away, its satisfactions and its misery and understanding the escape from sense experience is stated to be the way that the true shaman and brahman are recognized by true shamen and brahmins and this is also the benefit of having lived the life of a shaman or brahmin.
A nearly identical version of the previous.
[SN 4.36.29] Purified and Free from Carnal Taint, the F.L. Woodward translation.
[WP #30-31] Simple Version and Spiritual, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Nyanaponika Thera translation. A sutta describing the carnal, the carnal-free, and the carnal-free beyond the carnal-free forms of entheusiasm, pleasure and detachment.
A sutta which is very helpful in understanding 'pīti' 'sukha' and 'upekkhā', and the way many other terms are to be understood (and translated), that is, broadly, not rigidly. All three of these must be understood in terms of words having aspects which are carnal and yet other aspects which can exist in the Arahant. There is also an interesting gradation of the jhānas which is rare if not unique to this sutta

 


This brings to completion the scanning, proofing, formatting and uploading of Woodward's translation of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 4.36: The Vedanā Book, Kindred Sayings about Feeling.


 

[SN 4.37.1] Manāpā Amanāpā (aka Mātugāma) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Charming and Not Charming, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Five things which if missing make a woman uninteresting for a man and five which make her delightful.
[SN 4.37.2] Manāpā Amanāpā (aka Purisa) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Charming and Not Charming (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Five things which if missing make a man uninteresting for a woman and five which make him delightful.
[SN 4.37.3] Āveṇika-Dukkha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Special, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Five sufferings unique to women.
It is interesting to note that of the five the two that depend on social customs have been greatly altered but not eliminated even here [U.S.A.] today [Saturday, June 13, 2015]. Women still, for the most part, give up their names, and in the home are still expected to assume duties which amount to serving the man. Even in families with great wealth, where there are servants to do the actual work, the women's role is to supervise in this area. This sutta should be used by men to cultivate sympathy and empathy.
[SN 4.37.4] Āveṇika-Dukkha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Special, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Five reasons women are cast into Hell after death.
[SN 4.37.5-14] Anuruddho I: Kaṇhapakkho the Pali,
PTS: Anuruddha 1. The Dark Side the Woodward translation.
The Venerable Anuruddha asks the Buddha about the factors that result in a woman ending up in Hell. He receives ten different answers.
It is unclear exactly how this sutta was originally presented. The PTS text, which I follow, has arranged it as a single question receiving 10 different answers. Each answer is then counted as a sutta.
I have set the ten suttas up on one file. The links above connect to the top of the file, the links below connect to the individual suttas.
[5] Kodhano, the Pali,
Wrathful, the Woodward translation
[6] Upanāhī, the Pali,
Grudging, the Woodward translation
[7] Issukī, the Pali,
Envious, the Woodward translation
[8] Maccharena, the Pali,
Through stinginess, the Woodward translation
[9] Aticārī, the Pali,
Adulteress, the Woodward translation
[10] Dussīlam, the Pali,
Immorality, the Woodward translation
[11] Appassuto, the Pali,
Of Small Knowledge, the Woodward translation
[12] Kusīto, the Pali,
Indolent, the Woodward translation
[13] Muṭṭhassati, the Pali,
Muddle-headed, the Woodward translation
[14] Pañcaveram, the Pali,
The Fivefold Guilty Dread, the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.37.15-24] Anuruddho I: Sukkapakkho the Pali,
PTS: Anuruddha 2. The Bright Fortnight the Woodward translation.
The Venerable Anuruddha asks the Buddha about the factors that result in a woman ending up in Heavenly Worlds. He receives ten different answers.
As with the previous chapter, it is unclear exactly how this sutta was originally presented. The PTS text, which I follow, has arranged it as a single question receiving 10 different answers. Each answer is then counted as a sutta.
I have set the ten suttas up on one file. The links above connect to the top of the file, the links below connect to the individual suttas.
[15] Akodhano, the Pali,
Not Wrathful, the Woodward translation
[16] Anupanāhī, the Pali,
Not Grudging, the Woodward translation
[17] Anissukī, the Pali,
Not Envious, the Woodward translation
[18] Amaccharena, the Pali,
Not Stingy, the Woodward translation
[19] Anaticārī, the Pali,
No Adulteress, the Woodward translation
[20] Sīlavā, the Pali,
Moral, the Woodward translation
[21] Bahussuto, the Pali,
Rich in Knowledge, the Woodward translation
[22] Viriya, the Pali,
Energetic, the Woodward translation
[23] Sati, the Pali,
Has Her Wits about Her, the Woodward translation
[24] Pañcasīla, the Pali,
Observes the Five Charges, the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.37.25] Visāradā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Confident, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Possessing these five powers a woman lives confident in her home.
[SN 4.37.26] Pasayhā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Force, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Possessing these five powers a woman lives at home dominating her husband.
[SN 4.37.27] Abhibhūyya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Conquering, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Possessing these five powers a woman rolls on overloarding her husband.
[SN 4.37.28] Eka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
One, the F.L. Woodward translation.
With this one power a man dominates his wife no matter what her powers may be.
The term to understand is 'Issariya-balena.' Woodward's 'Authority'. Authoritarian power. Possessing the power to command or enforce submission whether through earned respect or assumed by force of 'might-is-right,' 'fire and sword.'
[SN 4.37.29] Aŋga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Quality, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Dimensions, the M. Olds translation,
The five powers of a woman are described as 'dimensions'; for a woman to be fully multi-dimensional she must have all five powers.
This sutta did not make sense to me in either the translations or the Pali, so I did it in my 'translation' as I believe it should have been done (as I believe it was originally done.)
[SN 4.37.30] Nāsenti Suttaṃ, the Pali,
They Overthrow, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Abiding Power, the M. Olds translation,
The power of ethical conduct is shown to be stronger than all the other powers combined.
This sutta too looks as though it was remembered incorrectly. It lacks the obvious symmetry we would expect. Thus I have done a translation of this one as well.
[SN 4.37.31] Hetu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Because of, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Of the various powers of a woman it is only the power of ethical behavior that drives her to heavenly worlds after death.
[SN 4.37.32] Ṭhānam Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Condition, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Five wishes of women that are made easy to attain by making good kamma.
[SN 4.37.33] Visāradavāda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Confident, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Five things which give a lay woman confidence.

 


This brings to completion the scanning, proofing, formatting and uploading of Woodward's translation of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 4.37: The Mātugāma Book, Kindred Sayings about Womankind.


 

[SN 4.38.1] Nibbāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Nibbāna, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Rose-apple-eater asks the Venerable Sariputta about Nibbana and the way to Nibbana.
[SN 4.38.2] Arahatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arahantship, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Rose-apple-eater asks the Venerable Sariputta about Arahantship and the way to Arahantship.
We have with this sutta a good justification for thinking that when a sutta begins with no Nidana what is intended is that the Nidana previous is to be considered as the Nidana. Unlike many other suttas, in the suttas of this chapter the characters and location are certain.
[SN 4.38.3] Dhammavādī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Norm-preacher, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Rose-apple-eater asks the Venerable Sariputta about Dhamma teachers, those who practice well, and those who are happy in the world, and the way to let go of lust, anger and blindness.
[SN 4.38.4] Kim atthiya? Suttaṃ, the Pali,
What is it?, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Rose-apple-eater asks the Venerable Sariputta about the purpose of living the holy life under Gotama.
[SN 4.38.5] Assāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Comfort, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Rose-apple-eater asks the Venerable Sariputta about the extent to which a person can be said to be living in comfort.
[SN 4.38.6] Paramassāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Supreme Comfort, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Rose-apple-eater asks the Venerable Sariputta about the extent to which a person can be said to be living in supreme comfort.
[SN 4.38.7] Vedanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Feeling, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Rose-apple-eater asks the Venerable Sariputta about comprehending sense experience.
[SN 4.38.8] Āsavā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Āsavā, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Rose-apple-eater asks the Venerable Sariputta about abandoning the corrupting influences.
[SN 4.38.9] Avijjā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ignorance, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Rose-apple-eater asks the Venerable Sariputta about ignorance and abandoning ignorance.
[SN 4.38.10] Taṇhā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Craving, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Rose-apple-eater asks the Venerable Sariputta about craving and abandoning craving.
[SN 4.38.11] Ogha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Flood, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Rose-apple-eater asks the Venerable Sariputta the meaning of the expression 'The Flood! The Flood!'.
[SN 4.38.12] Upādāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Grasping, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Rose-apple-eater asks the Venerable Sariputta about grasping.
[SN 4.38.13] Bhava Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Becoming, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Rose-apple-eater asks the Venerable Sariputta about existences.
[SN 4.38.14] Suffering, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Wanderer Rose-apple-eater asks the Venerable Sariputta about pain.
[SN 4.38.15] Sakkāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Person-pack, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Rose-apple-eater asks the Venerable Sariputta about individuality.
[SN 4.38.16] Sakkāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Person-pack, the F.L. Woodward translation.
In responses to questions from the Wanderer Rose-apple-eater the Venerable Sariputta explains that going forth from the household life into the homeless state is hard to do, that for one who has gone forth feeling delight is hard, that for one who has gone forth and feels delight, living in conformity with the Dhamma is hard to do, but for one who has managed all these things, Arahantship is not hard to get.

 


This brings to completion the scanning, proofing, formatting and uploading of Woodward's translation of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 4.38: The Jambukhādaka Book, Kindred Sayings about Jambukhādaka.


 

All the suttas in this chapter were abridged and are exact equivalants to those of the preceding chapter with the exception that the Wanderer Samandako is substituted for that of the Wanderer Jambukhadaka.
[SN 4.39.1] Nibbāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Nibbāna, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Samandako asks the Venerable Sariputta about Nibbana and the way to Nibbana.
[SN 4.39.2] Arahatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arahantship the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Samandako asks the Venerable Sariputta about Arahantship and the way to Arahantship.
[SN 4.39.3] Dhammavādī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Norm-preacher, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Samandako asks the Venerable Sariputta about Dhamma teachers, those who practice well, and those who are happy in the world, and the way to let go of lust, anger and blindness.
[SN 4.39.4] Kim atthiya? Suttaṃ, the Pali,
What is it?, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Samandako asks the Venerable Sariputta about the purpose of living the holy life under Gotama.
[SN 4.39.5] Assāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Comfort, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Samandako asks the Venerable Sariputta about the extent to which a person can be said to be living in comfort.
[SN 4.39.6] Paramassāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Supreme Comfort, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Samandako asks the Venerable Sariputta about the extent to which a person can be said to be living in supreme comfort.
[SN 4.39.7] Vedanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Feeling, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Samandako asks the Venerable Sariputta about comprehending sense experience.
[SN 4.39.8] Āsavā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Āsavā, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Samandako asks the Venerable Sariputta about abandoning the corrupting influences.
[SN 4.39.9] Avijjā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ignorance, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Samandako asks the Venerable Sariputta about ignorance and abandoning ignorance.
[SN 4.39.10] Taṇhā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Craving, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Samandako asks the Venerable Sariputta about craving and abandoning craving.
[SN 4.39.11] Ogha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Flood, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Samandako asks the Venerable Sariputta the meaning of the expression 'The Flood! The Flood!'.
[SN 4.39.12] Upādāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Grasping, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Samandako asks the Venerable Sariputta about grasping.
[SN 4.39.13] Bhava Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Becoming, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Samandako asks the Venerable Sariputta about existences.
[SN 4.39.14] Dukkham,
Suffering, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Samandako asks the Venerable Sariputta about pain.
[SN 4.39.15] Sakkāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Person-pack, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Wanderer Samandako asks the Venerable Sariputta about individuality.
[SN 4.39.16] Sakkāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Person-pack, the F.L. Woodward translation.
In responses to questions from the Wanderer Samandako the Venerable Sariputta explains that going forth from the household life into the homeless state is hard to do, that for one who has gone forth feeling delight is hard, that for one who has gone forth and feels delight, living in conformity with the Dhamma is hard to do, but for one who has managed all these things, Arahantship is not hard to get.

 


This brings to completion the scanning, proofing, formatting and uploading of Woodward's translation of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 4.39: The Sāmaṇḍaka Book, Kindred Sayings about Sāmaṇḍaka.


 

[SN 4.41.1] Saŋyojana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fetter, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Citta the housefather resolves the doubts of some senior bhikkhus who were perplexed as to whether the yoke to rebirth was or was not the same thing as the thing giving rise to the yoke.
[SN 4.41.2] Isidatta Suttaṃ (1), the Pali,
Isidatta (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The novice Isidatta answers Citta's question on the diversity of elements when the elder bhikkhus are unable to do so.
[SN 4.41.3] Dutiya Isidatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Isidatta (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The novice Isidatta answers Citta's question on the origins and ending of various view-theories when the elder bhikkhus are unable to do so.
Pop Quiz: Why was it that Isidatta left Macchikasaṇḍa never to be seen there again?
[SN 4.41.4] Mahaka, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Bhikkhu Mahaka performs two works of magic power.
Pop Quiz 2: Why was it that Mahaka left Macchikasaṇḍa never to be seen there again?
[SN 4.41.5] Paṭhama Kāmabhū Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Kāmabhū (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
About Kamabhu (1), the Nizamis translation.
Citta gives his solution to a riddle posed by the Venerable Kamabhu.

 

§

 

Nelaŋgo setapacchādo||
ekāro vattatī ratho
|| ||

Anīghaṃ passa āyantaṃ||
chinnasotaṃ abandhananti.
|| ||

My translation and solution:

Straight, transparent,
built here, rolling on —
the chariot —
see it smoothly guided
beyond the stream,
unbound.

Straight = ethical
transparent = without deceit, open, visible (covered in white would point to a layman which is unlikely)
built here = the set-up mind
rolling on = saŋsara, but also rolling on to the ending of saŋsara
chariot = the own-made, the personal vehicle
smoothly guided = steared without the corrupting influences
beyond the stream = with thirst cut off
unbound = cut free of, losed, released.

Since Citta's solution was not confirmed by the Buddha, and Kāmabhū may not have understood the solution himself (that is that he may have been asking Citta for a solution rather than posing the riddle (but see the next sutta where it appears that Kāmabhū is in fact a knowledgable bhikkhu who is instructing Citta); — Kāmabhū does not actually say that Citta's solution is correct or in accordance with a solution given by the Buddha ... his remark to Citta may well have been a polite 'maybe.' Or it may be that Citta's solution, although not what he had in mind was nevertheless fair Dhamma and so he let it pass.), I believe we are free to arrive at a different solution. My translation 'turns' on making the riddle both a description of the proper chariot and an instrucion as to what to do with it. If 'ekāro' must be 'one-spoked' or 'one-wheeled' we can hear in that the sound of one hand clapping and not be too upset. Nizamis' solution is as forced as mine but more academically couched. (There is no √ in Pali; it would be √kar = 'make'. But there are those who believe Sanskrit to be the root language of Pali. May they go in peace, make of it what they will.)(lidda didjadijajijjajok-khahaha)

EDIT [Thursday, July 09, 2015 6:55 AM] see on this SN 1.1.4 where: straight = the name the Road is called;
Free-from-fear = the destination;
'Silent Runner' = the name of the Chariot;
the wheels = Righteous Effort;
the 'leaning board' = Conscience;
the drapery = Heedfulness;
the driver = the Dhamma;
those that run before = Right Views (important persons traveled with troops in front and in back)

Again see SN 5.45.5 where the wheels are energy, the axle is entheusiasm (possibly the intent of ekāro, that is, one-axled); the drapery is desirlessness, and the car is 'built by self'.

There seems to be a great deal of flexibility in giving meanings to the components of the chariot.

[SN 4.41.6] Dutiya Kāmabhū Suttaṃ, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali the Warren, Buddhism in Translations translation and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Citta asks the Venerable Kamabhu various questions about attaining the ending of perception and sense-experience.
A footnote in Woodward's translation states: "In the first jhāna speech ceases." He gives no citation for this statement, and in fact he may have been thinking of overt speech, but we can understand the meaning in a deeper way and see the absolute correctness of this statement by analyzing the situation. Since vitakka and vicara are classified as speech (thinking through the construction of a statement precedes voicing it) and exist in the first jhāna, and these are eliminated prior to entering the second jhāna, that statement is to be understood to mean that at some point in the first jhāna speech is brought to an end with the result that one enters the second jhāna. Bhikkhu Bodhi, in his note here states that speech ceases in the second jhāna, but this is contrary to every description of the second jhāna found in the suttas.

Vitakka vicārānaṃ vūpasamā||
ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ||
cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ||
avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ||
samādhijaṃ||
pīti-sukhaṃ||
dutiyajjhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
|| ||

Thinking and pondering having calmed down,
attaining tranquillity,
becoming single-minded,
without thinking and pondering,
with the pleasurable enthusiasm born of Serenity
he enters into
and makes a habitat
of the Second Knowing.

After thinking has been pacified, or by the pacification of thinking, he then enters the second jhāna.

We are then able to apply this sequence to the manner in which the other factors are dropped in attaining the subsequent jhānas. The pleasure of enthusiasm is dropped in the second jhāna to attain the third jhāna, enthusiasm is dropped in the third jhāna to attain the fourth jhāna, and breathing is stopped in the fourth jhāna.
The importance of all this is to note that when the breathing is said in translation to have ceased 'at' or 'upon attaining' the fourth jhāna, what is to be understood is not that at the very first point of attaining the fourth jhāna the breathing immediately stops, (that is that there is no respiration in the fourth jhāna) but that it is there in that jhāna that the breathing is brought to an end. There is still breathing going on in at least the early stages of the fourth jhāna.
This analysis also makes clear the fact that the jhānas are not static states or trances, 'other', undescribed states suddenly discovered upon fulfilling the instructions for the attaining of the jhāna and which have a fixed set of attributes, but are processes which undergo internal development or have evolving characteristics and whose characteristics are found in the descriptions we have of the attaining of the jhānas. In a way the standard descriptions are being wrongly divided. The description of the essential aspect of what is going on in the first jhāna for example, is found as the process of attaining the second jhāna, and so forth.

[SN 4.41.7] Godatta the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Citta answers the questions of a bhikkhu on the various ways the heart's release is attained and the various terminologies used to describe that release.
This is a very good sutta to learn about what is meant by the various 'heart's releases' that are mentioned throughout the suttas, but it is also a good sutta to learn to become flexible in one's understanding of the equavilance of various Dhammas to each other.
[SN 4.41.9] Acela Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Unclothed (ascetic), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Citta the householder lay follower of the Buddha and Acela Kassapa, a wandering naked ascetic compare notes on the progress after thirty years of their choice of seeker's paths. Acela admits to having accomplished nothing while Citta has become a non-returner. This so impresses Acela that he becomes a bhikkhu and attains arahantship.
[SN 4.41.10] Seeing the Sick, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The dying moments of Citta the householder, his vision and his instructions to his friends and relatives.
I believe the title of this should have the meaning of 'the vision of the sick'. It has nothing to do with visiting the sick.

 


This brings to completion the scanning, proofing, formatting and uploading of Woodward's translation of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 4.41: The Citta Book, Kindred Sayings about Citta.


 

[SN 4.42.1] Caṇḍa-Gāmaṇī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Wrathful, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains why some persons are termed 'wrathful' while others are termed 'peaceful.'
A really diplomatic explanation! A good example of how to respond to people when they ask embarassing questions seeking the truth about themselves.
[SN 4.42.2] Leaf-basket, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation,
Thalaputa the stage manager, actor, questions the Buddha about the destiny of actors in the life to come.
Our lives today [Wednesday, June 24, 2015 6:23 AM] are so bound up in 'entertainments' such as movies and plays and novels and we make such heros of those involved in their production or in their performance that it is most disagreable to confront the fact that these are vehicles which depend on the practice of saying what is not true and lead those who are already deluded to become moreso, lead those who are already bound up in lusts to become moreso, lead those who are already bound up in hateful, angry, violent thoughts to become moreso. Is it a wonder then that those who produce and perform in such entertainments find rebirth again in the destiny of those who lead others astray through the lie? Worse still is holding that such performances are a good thing and lead to rebirth in heavenly states, for that is a wrong view, and a wrong view results in one of two rebirths: as an animal or in hell.
Be very careful, by the way, if you have an actor, director, writer friend you would like to help. Their careers ... lives, are bound up in their occupation and the likely result will be anger at you and casting you as a deluded religious fanatic. Wait until the question comes up and respond rather than initiating the discussion.
[SN 4.42.3] Fighting-man, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation,
Fighting-man questions the Buddha about the destiny of warriors in the life to come.
The message could not be clearer. Those men who chose a warriors life thinking it to be a road to heaven and glory are treding a path to hell. Those leaders of men who are urging others to injure and destroy life with the promise of a heavenly birth are teaching in stead a road to hell. There is no right side and wrong side here. The intent to injure is the intent to injure; the intent to get others to injure is the intent to get others to injure. The consequences are in accordance with that intent.
[SN 4.42.4] Hatthāroha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Elephant, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Mahout the elephant commander questions the Buddha about the destiny of elephant-mounted warriors in the life to come.
Identical to the previous substituting elephant-mounted warriors for fighting men. (Actually Woodward does not use the term 'elephant-mounted warriors'. He abridged the entire sutta and I have followed the example of the previous sutta and used 'Mahout, the head keeper', 'mahout', and 'head keeper' per his abridgment.
[SN 4.42.5] Assāroha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Horse, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Jockey, the head horse-trainer, questions the Buddha about the destiny of cavelry-men in the life to come.
Identical to the previous substituting 'cavelry-men' for 'elephant mounted warriors'.
[SN 4.42.6] Westlander (or The Dead Man), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation,
The Buddha points out how it is the behavior of the individual and not the prayers of his friends that determines his destiny in the life to come.
[SN 4.42.7] Desanā (aka Khettūpama) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Teaching, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains his priorities when it comes to whom to teach first, second and last.

 

Naya — The Knack

One In the same way that a person who has never done an intentional harmful deeds
can never experience harmful results from his intentional harmful deeds;
so from the time a person abandons intentional harmful deeds
no new harmful results will be forthcoming.

Two And then,
as an intermediate fail-safe precautionary step,
by the generation of powerful compensatory good kamma
such as with the development of the heart of good will
such as are the consequences of past deeds
that must be experienced
are experienced
relative to the mass of good kamma so developed,
and by a balanced, happy mind —
that is, much less severly,
and with detached understanding.

Three And then,
by the powerful effects
of the kamma which is the intent to end kamma
that is generated by intentional non-reaction
to the consequences of past deeds that arise,
in the form of unpleasant, pleasant or not-unpleasant-but-not-pleasant sense-experiences,
all past kamma is understood,
warn out
and has no footing for future arising.

 

[SN 4.42.8] The Conch, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation,
The Buddha contrasts his teachings for the ending of bad kamma with those of Nataputta.
An excellent sutta for understanding the Buddha's method as well as for showing the importance of precision of terminology. Note that this sutta does not speak to the ending of all kamma or the attaining of Arahantship, but has only to do with the way to deal with the consequences of bad deeds.
[SN 4.42.9] Clan, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation,
Nataputta tries to disgrace the Buddha by suggesting he is doing the families disservice going on begging rounds during a time of famine. The Buddha responds by saying that charity, honesty and being perceptive is the basis for prosperity. He then points out the eight real reasons for the destruction of families.
Note that Asibandhaka's Son, who is the one made to carry out Nataputa's scheme, does not apolgize or renounce his view on this matter as is the more usual case.
[SN 4.42.10] Crest-jewel, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation,
The Buddha states in no uncertain terms that gold and silver, (or precious gems), that is money, is not to be sought for or accepted by the bhikkhus.

 


You may downright aver, headman,
of him to whom the taking of gold and silver is permitted
that he is not a recluse by nature,
not of the nature of the Sakyan's sons.

SN 4.42.10 - Woodward.


As far as the rules for bhikkhus go, this is an offence of expiation. [VIN. CULLAVAGGA XII; SUTTA VIBHAṄGA NISSAGGIYA PĀCITTIYA XVIII] The rule states: [Horner, transl.]: Whatever monk should take gold and silver, or should get another to take it (for him), or should consent to its being kept in deposit (for him), there is an offence of expiation involving forfeiture.

Today [Friday, June 26, 2015 12:33 PM] there are bhikkhus who accept money directly and there is a widespread practice of having some lay person accept money for a bhikkhu or for the sangha ... that is, being kept in deposit for him or them.

For such bhikkhus and abbots we must leave this to their own conscience and the scruples of their saŋghas. For the layman seeking to gain good kamma we need to consider the statement that such a one is not considered a recluse by nature, nor is he of the nature of the Sakyan's sons.

The idea is very simple: If there is money being accepted, what follows from that is at a level that is below that of the bhikkhu as a 'son of the sakkyan; that is, one who has the true spirit of the bhikkhu. Whatever flows from that money stains the life of the bhikkhu. Make up your own mind as to whether or not this is worth the doing, but don't fool yourself, or let yourself be fooled into thinking that you are making great piles of good kamma.

The fine point is that you are not giving to the bhikkhu at all. A gift given through an intermediary is a gift given to the intermediary, not the bhikkhu. This is not the same thing as a group of people pooling their money to do some deed for a bhikkhu or the sangha. Its a matter of where the intent originates.

 

Eight Things that Bring about the Ruination of a Family

1. Kings bring about the ruination of a family.
2. Thieves bring about the ruination of a family.
3. Fire brings about the ruination of a family.
4. Floods bring about the ruination of a family.
5. Finding no new wealth brings about the ruination of a family.
6. Abandoning industry through lazyness brings about the ruination of a family.
7. The arising of a decadent spendthrift in a family brings about the ruination of a family.
8. The impermanence of things bring about the ruination of a family.

 

[SN 4.42.12] Rāsiya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Rāsiya, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Accused of condemning all forms of asceticism, the Buddha explains how he distinguishes profitable ascetic practices from unprofitable ones.
This is a really valuable sutta for those wishing to tune up their thinking on the fine details of kamma and the use of precise language.
[SN 4.42.13] Pātali (or Manāpa) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Patali (or Charming), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Patali asks the Buddha if he knows magic and when he is told that he does, he accuses the Buddha of being a fraud. He gets a mouthful in response.
This is really a collosal sutta, very much in the mood of the Magandiya Sutta where onlaught after onslaught gradually brings the victim to understanding. The issue here is forming hasty opinions based on sloppy logic.
No one of the various versions in Pali or translation agrees with the rest, and all seem to be mixed up in one way or another. The BJT Pali just gives up in the middle and states that there are some pages missing. I have had to construct what I believe is the most logical original form based on previous similar situations and I have explained my thinking in a sidebar on the Woodward translation. This is too good a sutta to leave in a mess.

 


This brings to completion the scanning, proofing, formatting and uploading of Woodward's translation of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 4.42: The Gāmani Book, Kindred Sayings about Headmen.


 

[SN 4.43.1] Kāya-gatā-sati Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Body, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Mindfulness Directed to the Body, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that destruction of lust, anger and blindness is the not own-made (sankhata) and the way to the not-ownmade is minding the gates (going's to) the body (kaya-gata-sati).
Woodward has for 'gatā' 'relating to'; Bhk. Bodhi 'directed to', but this is in the book that is dealing with the six sense realms. I think we have been told what our minds are to be minding.
[SN 4.43.2] Samatha-Vipassanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Calm, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Serenity and Insight, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that destruction of lust, anger and blindness is the not own-made (sankhata) and the way to the not-ownmade is calm and insight.
Identical with the previous with the one change of terms. Note that it is Calm (samatha) and Insight (vipassana), not just the one or the other.
[SN 4.43.3] Savitakka-Savicāra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Directed Thought, the F.L. Woodward translation.
With Thought and Examination, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that destruction of lust, anger and blindness is the not own-made (sankhata) and the way to the not-ownmade is a progressive serenity: first with thinking and contemplation; then without thinking and with a measure of contemplation; then with neither thinking nor contimplation.
Identical with the previous with the one change of terms. Note this way of describing samādhi. Vitakka and vicāra are sorts of thinking. According to a note in Bhk. Bodhi's translation, the commentaries go into contortions trying to fit this scheme into the more standard version of the four jhānas and ends up contradicting the suttas when it suggests that vicāra is abandoned in the second jhāna. (See just above on SN 4.41.6, where both vitakka and vicāra are let go in/at the end of the first jhana bringing on the second jhana) I suggest also that this supports my description of the jhānas as a process without real boarders. Names can be applied where useful, but tend, as we can see, to become rigid and demanding. The first is highly verbal (re-talking); the second is dwelling on an idea which may be done visually without any verbalization. The idea of 'directed thought and sustained thought' comes from early attempts to understand the terms as described by the commentaries, taking the description of what it feels like and turning that into technical terms and using those as the translation. The idea is compared with initial effort of a bird to fly compared with its having attained flight. This implies a progression from 'initial thought' to 'sustained thought'. My perception is that verbal thought follows visual thought. Vitakka follows Vicara. Vitakka is the putting into coherent thoughts names arising off sequences of images. This is my perception, but the logic also dictates that this must be the case. How could one have sustained thoughts without first having directed thoughts (or initial thought) (as in the second form of this type of jhāna) if it is a progression? First we have a picture of something and we think it would be something worth expressing in words, then we formulate the words. There is a point in the thinking process where there is 'a train of thought' which sustains itself (so there is 'sustained thought', but that is not a translation) and one is more or less just an observer, but is this arriving at, or arriving back at ... that is, the result of letting go of the obstruction of 'sustained thought' by that which is vitakka? The second level is described by Woodward as 'without directed but just with sustained thought' by Bhk. Bodhi has '... with examination only.' 'Avitakka-vicāra-matto' 'matta' = measure. A bit of, not "just with" (if the 'pi' is 'just' then the 'matta is untranslated) nor "only." Bhk. Bodhi supplies references (also found in Ms. Horner's translation of MN 128 (also see above) to other suttas using this three-dimensional description of samādhi, e.g., DN 33.03 MN 128 (Where this three-fold samādhi is said by the Buddha to have been his method for attaining Arahantship) and AN IV 300.
[SN 4.43.4] Suññata-Samādhi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Void, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Emptiness Concentration, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that destruction of lust, anger and blindness is the not own-made (sankhata) and the way to the not-ownmade is serenity that is empty, signless, and pointless.
Note the usual order of these three is pointless, signless and empty. An empty samādhi is considered the pleasant dwelling in the here and now of the great ones.
[SN 4.43.5] Satipaṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Stations of Mindfulness, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Establishments of Mindfulness, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that destruction of lust, anger and blindness is the not own-made (sankhata) and the way to the not-ownmade is the four stations of the Memory. Satipaṭṭhāna
[SN 4.43.6] Sammappadhāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Right Efforts, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Right Strivings, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that destruction of lust, anger and blindness is the not own-made (sankhata) and the way to the not-ownmade is the four consummate ways to walk. Sammā Padhānā
[SN 4.43.7] Iddhipāda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Bases of Effective Power, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Bases for Spiritual Power, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that destruction of lust, anger and blindness is the not own-made (sankhata) and the way to the not-ownmade is the four power-paths.
Iddhi is not just spiritual power, it is power of all sorts, from the ability to cook well to the managing of omniscience, and includes what is commonly called 'magic'.
[SN 4.43.8] Indriya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Controlling Power, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Spiritual Faculties, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that destruction of lust, anger and blindness is the not own-made (sankhata) and the way to the not-ownmade is the five forces.
Indriya is most frequently found translated 'faculty.'
[SN 4.43.9] Bala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Strength, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Powers, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that destruction of lust, anger and blindness is the not own-made (sankhata) and the way to the not-ownmade is the five powers.
I distinguish between the indriya and the balani (where the names of the components are the same) by classing the indriyani as objective natural forces and the balani as powers used by the individual. There is the force of faith, when that force is employed by the individual it is a power. In, SN 4.43.12.21-25 [e.g. Woodward] might show me up wrong here, but desperately hanging on, I say that what is being spoken of there is the cultivation of the force, the bringing it into being, not the employment of it.
Indriya is most frequently found translated 'faculty.'
[SN 4.43.10] Bojjhaŋga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Limbs of Wisdom, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Factors of Enlightenment, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that destruction of lust, anger and blindness is the not own-made (sankhata) and the way to the not-ownmade is the seven dimensions of awakening.
Bojjhaŋga, Sambojjhangā when it refers to 'self-awakening'. Memory, Dhamma-research, Energy, Entheusiasm, Impassivity, Serenity, Detachment.
[SN 4.43.11] Maggaŋga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By the Path, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Eightfold Path, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that destruction of lust, anger and blindness is the not own-made (sankhata) and the way to the not-ownmade is the Aristocratic Eight-Dimensional High Way.
Ariya Aṭṭhaŋgika Magga.
[SN 4.43.12] Asaŋkhata Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Uncompounded, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Unconditioned, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that destruction of lust, anger and blindness is the not own-made (sankhata) and then gives them fourty-five paths to the not-ownmade.
The BJT Pali numbers each of the sub-sections in this sutta as a separate sutta.
This sutta elaborates somewhat on the previous eleven suttas. Here will be found one case where calm (samatha) and insight (vipasana) are each said to be paths to the goal in and of themselves. However digging into the details of each will show that each contains the other. Vipasana practice uses the Four stations of the mind which involves the Magga which contains Samma-samadhi; and Samadhi practice encompasses the whole practice from generosity on up. Similar encompassings can be worked out for the other fourty-three cases. This system is holographic. Each basic element contains the whole.
[SN 4.43.13] Anta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The End, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Uninclined, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the end point of the system and then gives them 46 paths to that endpoint.
The numbering of this sutta and the sub-sections within it are confused between versions. Woodward has numbered this as Ī12(2) but there seems no justification for that. I have changed the number and the number of the suttas that follow in this Chapter and have noted such in the Index. Otherwise he has worked out the scheme of subheadings in the most logical way. Bhk. Bodhi has it that the sutta is a re-working, with the one change, of suttas 1-12. Woodward has it that it is this reworking but with suttas 1 and 12. Sutta 1 is the only sutta of the first 11 which is not duplicated in 12. Also it is a good umbrella sutta for the rest. This makes the scheme look like: I and 2-11; 12 = 2-11 (with components each taking one sub-section, i.e., section 2 which is samatha and vipassana in Ī2 separates samatha and vipassana into two sub-sections in Ī12; 13 (and the following) then take the form: I+12. While there is repetition in the suttas duplication is rare. I have followed Woodward's scheme in rendering the unabridgment of this sutta in his translation and in the Pali. I have left Bhk. Bodhi's abridgment as it is per the copyright restrictions.
[SN 4.43.14] Anāsava Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Without Āsavas, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Taintless, Etc., the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus what is without corrupting influences and then gives them 46 paths to that state.
Bhikkhu Bodhi abridges suttas 14-43 here, giving only the change in subject.
[SN 4.43.15] Sacca Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Truth, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus a truth beyond the worldly and then gives them 46 paths to that truth.
[SN 4.43.16] Pāra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Further Shore, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus about 'the further' and then gives them 46 paths to that further.
Note that here 'the further' stands for Nibbana, whereas Nibbana is said to be without a further.
[SN 4.43.17] Nipuṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Subtle, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the subtle and then gives them 46 paths to the subtle.
[SN 4.43.18] Sududdasa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Hard to See, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the very difficult to see and then gives them 46 paths to seeing the very difficult to see.
[SN 4.43.19] Ajajjara Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Unfading, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the unaging and then gives them 46 paths to seeing the unaging.
[SN 4.43.20] Ajajjara Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Unfading, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the stable and then gives them 46 paths to attaining the stable.
[SN 4.43.21] Apalokita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Undecaying, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the beyond this world and then gives them 46 paths to attaining the beyond this world.
There is some sort of problem here. The PTS, BJT and CSCD all have 'Apalokita'. PTS defines this as "asking permission." Woodward objects and uses apalokina aparently following the Commentary. Bhk. Bodhi follows either Woodward or the Commentary without making a comment. Childers has a secondary definition "the unseen", which has the advantage of being the word as given and making sense. I would think this was 'beyond the worldly' apa = up past + lokita = this world but that is not in the dictionaries.
[SN 4.43.22] Anidassana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The invisible, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the unseen and then gives them 46 paths to attaining the unseen.
[SN 4.43.23] Nippapa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Taintless, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the 'out-of-the bad' and then gives them 46 paths to attaining the 'out-of-the bad'.
Here Woodward says he reads with the commentary 'nippapañca' (un-difuseness) but translates more closely to the texts' nippapa. 'outatha-badness' Bhk. Bodhi translates 'unproliferated' following the commentary. The text as given makes sense so why not just leave well enough alone?
[SN 4.43.24] Santa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Peace, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about peace and then gives them 46 paths to attaining peace.
[SN 4.43.25] Amata Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Deathless, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the deathless and then gives them 46 paths to the deathless.
[SN 4.43.26] Paṇīta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Excellent, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the exalted and then gives them 46 paths to the exalted.
[SN 4.43.27] Siva Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Blissful, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the fortunate and then gives them 46 paths to the fortunate.
[SN 4.43.28] Khema Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Security, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the sanctuary and then gives them 46 paths to the sanctuary.
[SN 4.43.29] Taṇhakkhaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Destruction of Craving, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the destruction of thirst and then gives them 46 paths to the destruction of thirst.
[SN 4.43.30] Acchariya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Wonderful, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the wonderful and then gives them 46 paths to the wonderful.
[SN 4.43.31] Abbhuta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Marvellous, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the marvelous and then gives them 46 paths to the marvelous.
[SN 4.43.32] Anītika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Free from Ill, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the healthy and then gives them 46 paths to the healthy.
Woodward, Hare, Horner and both Rhys Davids translate 'Dukkha' as "ill". Here in 'īti' is the word that should be being translated 'ill.'
[SN 4.43.33] Anītikadhamma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The State of Freedom from Ill, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about healthy things and then gives them 46 paths to healthy things.
[SN 4.43.34] Anītikadhamma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Nibbāna, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about Nibbana, and then gives them 46 paths to Nibbana.
Curious that Nibbāna, should appear here in this list and not last. Also curious that Woodward footnotes as though this were the first time he had come across the word. He notes that the commentary derives the word from ni-vānaŋ (out of the woods) = ni-taṇhā (dis-thirst) (ni = 'down' or 'put down.' 'In' from the way God sees things.)
[SN 4.43.35] Avyāpajjha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Harmless, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the way via freedom from bonds, and then gives them 46 paths to the way via freedom from bonds.
Bhk. Bodhi: the unafflicted. Take your pick.
[SN 4.43.36] Virāga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Dispassion, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about dispassion, and then gives them 46 paths to dispassion.
[SN 4.43.37] Suddhi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Purity, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about purity, and then gives them 46 paths to purity.
[SN 4.43.38] Mutti Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Release, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about freedom, and then gives them 46 paths to freedom.
[SN 4.43.39] Anālaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Non-attachment, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about not dwelling on things, and then gives them 46 paths non-dwelling.
Anālaya. Non-gripping. Ālaya the grip of a bird on a branch > dwelling.
Bhk. Bodhi: the unadhesive.
[SN 4.43.40] Dīpa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Island, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the light, and then gives them 46 paths to the light.
Bhk. Bodhi: The Island. I think it's a light. See SN 3.22.43 olds, note 1
[SN 4.43.41] Lena Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Cave of Shelter, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikhus about the cave-shelter, and then gives them 46 paths to the cave-shelter.
Really just 'cave', but understood at the time by the bhikkhus as a good place to seek solitude and work at their meditation practice.
[SN 4.43.42] Tāṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Stronghold, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus about shelter, and then gives them 46 paths to shelter.
Bhk. Bodhi: asylum.
[SN 4.43.43] Saraṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Refuge, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus about refuge, and then gives them 46 paths to refuge.
[SN 4.43.44] Parāyaṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Goal, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Destination, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus about the goal, and then gives them 46 paths to the goal.

 


This brings to completion the scanning, proofing, formatting and uploading of Woodward's translation of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 4.43: The Asañkhata Book, Kindred Sayings about the Uncompounded. Also completed is the formatting of Bhikkhu Bodhi's translation of this Chapter.


 

[SN 4.44.1] Khemā, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
King Pasenadi questions bhikkhuni Khema about the existence of the Tathagata after death and then questions the Buddha in the same way and receives the same answers in the same form.
[SN 4.44.2] Anurādha the F.L. Woodward translation,
Anurādha the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches the Venerable Anuradha that the one who has attained the goal cannot be described relative to form, sense-experience, perception, own-making or consciousness.
[SN 4.44.3] Sāriputta and Koṭṭhika (or 'viewed'), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Sāriputta and Koṭṭhika, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Venerable Sariputta explains to the Venerable Kotthika that the reason the Buddhas has not made asertions concerning the existence of one who has attained the goal is because any such assertion would limit such a one to existence relative to form, sense experience, perception, own-making and consciousness and that such a one cannot be described by such limited ideas.
As noted by Woodward the Venerable Kotthita is not asking these questions because he needs to know the answers. He is likely asking these questions of Sariputta in front of a gathering of students so that they would hear the answers to properly put questions.
[SN 4.44.4] Sāriputta and Koṭṭhika 2 (or 'arising), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Sāriputta and Koṭṭhika 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Venerable Sariputta explains to the Venerable Kotthika that the reason the Buddhas has not made asertions concerning the existence of one who has attained the goal is because the very question does not arise to one who sees form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as they really are.
[SN 4.44.5] Sāriputta and Koṭṭhika 3 (or 'affection'), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Sāriputta and Koṭṭhika 3, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Venerable Sariputta explains to the Venerable Kotthika that the reason the Buddhas has not made asertions concerning the existence of one who has attained the goal is because to one who has abandoned passion, desire, affection, thirst, craving for body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness such questions do not even arise.
[SN 4.44.6] Sāriputta and Koṭṭhika 4 (or 'Delight'), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Sāriputta and Koṭṭhika 4, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Venerable Sariputta explains to the Venerable Kotthika other reasons that the Buddhas has not made asertions concerning the existence of one who has attained the goal is that these questions do not arise for one who has abandoned delight in body, sense-experience, own-making and consciousness; or for one who has abandoned delight in becoming; or for one who has abandoned delight in thirst. He then aserts that there is no reason more encompassing for not making such asertions than that such do not occur for one who has abandoned thirst.
All texts and translations make the error of switching Sariputta for Kotthita as the questioner at the end of this sutta. My BJT Pali is particullarly messed up in this Chapter.
[SN 4.44.7] Moggallana or 'Sphere', the F.L. Woodward translation,
Moggallāna, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Wanderer of the Vaccha Clan asks Maha Moggallana a series of questions about existence and non-existence and is told in all cases that these are not questions on which the Buddha has made a declarative statement. When asked why this is so, Maha Moggallana explains that it is only because of holding views about the self with regard to the senses that these questions arise and that not holding such views the questions do not arise. Vaccha then goes to the Buddha and puts the same questions and receives the same answers.
This is one of the places which I have here and there mentioned where the bhikkhus themselves, at the time, remark on the fact that both disciples and the Buddha use the same wording and phrasing when responding to the same questions. I suggest this is because the most precise wording and phrasing with regard to questions and answers has been worked out and so is not a matter of remembering what the Buddha Said, but of responding in accordance with the most precise understanding. I further suggest that we can and should find such precise wording in our English translations and that that is the way the doctrine will be most profitably understood.
[SN 4.44.8] Vaccha (or 'bond'), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Vacchagotta, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Wanderer of the Vaccha Clan asks Gotama a series of questions about existence and non-existence and is told in all cases that these are not questions on which the Buddha has made a declarative statement. When asked why this is so, Gotama explains that it is only because of holding views about the self with regard to form, sense-expeience, own-making, and consciousness that these questions arise and that not holding such views the questions do not arise. Vaccha then goes to Maha Moggallana and puts the same questions and receives the same answers.
[SN 4.44.9] The Debating Hall, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Debating Hall, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Wanderer of the Vaccha Clan asks Gotama about the difference in the way he announces the destinations after death of his disciples versus those of other teachers. He is told that the difference is that the Buddha determines rebirths according to the individual's remaining fuel.
Fuel here is 'upādāna'. Since 'fuel for a fire' is given as a simile, it is certain that we have here the most suitable translation for this term.
[SN 4.44.10] Ananda (or 'The existence of the self'), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ananda (Is There a Self?), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Wanderer of the Vaccha Clan asks Gotama about whether or not there is a self and receives no reply. When asked by Ananda for the reason he did not reply he explains that answering in the affirmative he would be stating the eternalists view, answering in the negative he would be stating the annihilationists view, answering in the affirmative he would be answering contrary to his knowledge of all things as changing, answering in the negative poor bewildered Vacchagotta would have been even more bewilded than before.
"Poor bewildered Vacchagotta." atsa u bub!
Vaccha = calf, one-year-old, youngster.
[SN 4.44.11] Sabhiya, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Sabhiya Kaccāna, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Wanderer of the Vaccha Clan asks the Venerable Sabhiya a series of questions about existence and non-existence of one who has attained the goal and is told in all cases that these are not questions on which the Buddha has made a declarative statement. When asked why this is so, the Venerable Sabhiya asks in return how one would describe someone if there were no grounds for saying that a thing existed.

 


This brings to completion the scanning, proofing, formatting and uploading of Woodward's translation of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 4.44: The Avyākata Book, Kindred Sayings about the Unrevealed.

This also concludes the uploading of the entire Book of the Kindred Sayings, Volume IV: The Kindred Sayings on the Sixfold Sphere.


 

new Tuesday, June 09, 2015 9:24 AMThera-Gāthā,
Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation:
Mrs. Rhys Davids' translation contains short biographical sketches for each thera.
[THAG 14] Sīvaka
[THAG 35] Sāmaññakāni
[THAG 35] Kumā's Son
[THAG 245] Godatta,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
[THAG 262] Tālaputa
[THAG 187] Bhagu
[THAG 188] Sabhiya
[THAG 189] Nandaka.

 

new Tuesday, June 09, 2015 6:34 AM Book Review: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, Reviewed by L.S. Cousins, A PDF file. From The Journal of Buddhist Ethics, Volume 4 1997. What looks like a fair review, but the real value is in a sort of appendix where Cousins goes over the translations of specific terms comparing the translations of Bhk. Bodhi with those of Bhk. Nanamoli, Ms. Horner, and K.R. Norman.

 

Tuesday, June 09, 2015
Previous upload was Saturday, May 09, 2015

 

new Thursday, June 04, 2015 11:36 AMAŋguttara Nikāya,
[AN 10.208] [Wisdom Pubs. #219] The Deed-born Body, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the Woodward translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the M. Olds translation
The Buddha speaks to the issue of the need to understand one's past deeds before one is able to attain Arahantship. He suggests development of the heart of friendliness, sympathy, empathy and detachment.
Bhikkhu Bodhi's understanding of a sutta which I have found very difficult to reach confidence that I have understood it well. I do not agree with Bhk. Bodhi's understanding which seems to have been based on the commentary. The Buddha says that we must understand our past deeds before we can bring kamma to an end and that we must bring kamma to an end before we can attain Arahantship. Is he speaking of 'experiencing the consequences' or 'understanding the nature'? What is the meaning of his suggestion, made, if taken as given, to appear to be a solution to the idea of experiencing one's kamma prior to rebirth in another realm, to practice the brahmaviharas? I believe the idea is that practicing the brahmaviharas here, they will be beset by; that is they will continually confront; the consequences of one's past deeds and that by comparing the joy of the brahmavihara with the results of kamma one will come to an understanding of the nature of all kamma and the need to abandon deeds. Here you have an ideal opportunity to compare several points of view. Judge for yourself!

 


"...very, very few people have any idea what they are talking about.

You must always remember that ninety per cent of what you're told is purest bullshit."

— John Cleese, So Anyway

— In spite of the great truth of that last statement it is certain that this fellow does not know what he is talking about, that is, he has certainly not quantified all of what all of us have been told so as to knowledgeably determine the percentage ... and judging from my personal experience, I am sure the percentage is much higher than 90%.


 

 

Acquiring upright posture

The Magic Carpet Ride

Go to your place to be alone. Sit down, sitting up straight, legs crossed in front, and bring your mind to your mouth and then to your resperations. In the style of the Emptiness Sutta, let go of all the world except for the body and the small area where you are sitting. With your eyes only just open, gazing down at the mouth such that the image of the body is just recognizable, imagine you are riding a magic carpet.
If you slouch back the magic carpet will tip back and dump you off.
If you slouch forward the magic carpet will tip forward and dump you off.
If you slouch twisting to the left the magic carpet will twist to the left and dump you off.
If you slouch twisting to the right the magic carpet will twist to the right and dump ou off.
If you stretch up to the back the magic carpet will tip back and dump you off.
If you stretch up to the front the magic carpet will tip forward and dump you off.
If you arch to the left the magic carpet will twist to the left and dump you off.
If you arch to the right the magic carpet will twist to the right and dump you off.
If you fall asleep you will slump.
If you are taken up by a train of thought you will twist.
If you are perfectly balanced, focused and alert the magic carpet will fly in whatsoever direction you wish
and soon you will be able to maintain your balance without effort or thought and can let go of the tensions that arise without slouching or stretching.

 

The following sutta selections from Bhikkhu Bodi's translations/editings of Wisdom Publications titles have been released by them under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License and have been uploaded to this site.

EDIT: For the current list and status of formatting of these suttas please visit:
Index of Available Wisdom Publications Bhikkhu Bodhi Suttas

 

new Monday, June 01, 2015 5:57 AM Book Review: T.E. Lawrence, Seven Pillers of Wisdom. Another book where the outward form is irrelevant to Buddhists but where the substance is rich with possibilities for insight into both the lifestyle and the mental attitude of the Buddha and the bhikkhus of the Buddhas time.

From a chapter called: "The Last Preaching"

"Feisal brought nationality to their minds in a phrase, which set them thinking of Arab history and language; then he dropped into silence for a moment: for with these illiterate masters of the tongue words were lively, and they liked to savour each, unmingled, on the plate. Another phrase showed them the spirit of Feisal, their fellow and leader, sacrificing everything for the national freedom; and then silence again, while they imagined him day and night in his tent, teaching, preaching, ordering and making friends: and they felt somethhing of the idea behind this pictured man sitting there iconically, drained of desires, ambitions, weakness, faults; so rich a personality enslaved by an abstraction, made one-eyed, one armed, with the one sense and purpose, to live or die in its service."

Envision not Feisal, but Gotama sitting in the discussion hall. One could only hope that this reverance for the word might be kindled in the mind of one reading this book such that it was applied to his studies of the suttas.

 

new Thursday, May 14, 2015 6:03 AMThera-Gāthā,
Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation:
Mrs. Rhys Davids' translation contains short biographical sketches for each thera.
[THAG 2] Koṭṭhita the Great.
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
[THAG 3] Kankhā-Revata (Revata the Doubter)
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
[THAG 117] Yasa
Noteworthy because he attained Arahantship as a layman. Also the story of his renunciation is a close parallel of that of Gotama.
[THAG 118] Kimbila
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
[THAG 137] Tissa
[THAG 138] Kimbila
[THAG 139] Nanda
[THAG 221] Brahmadatta
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
[THAG 222] Sirimaṇḍa
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Andrew Olendzki translation.

 


Heavily falls the rain of guilt on fault
Concealed; less heavy where the fault lies bare

By death the world is smitten sore; by age
And by decay 'tis shrouded and beset,
Pierced by the dart of craving evermore,
By itch of pestering desires assailed.

By death the world is held enslaved; by age
And by decay escorted, guarded sure,
Without a refuge, everlastingly
Struck as by thief with bludgeon and with sword.

Like forest fires behold them drawing nigh: -
Death and disease, decay, dread trinity,
Whom to confront no strength sufficeth, yea,
No swiftness aught avails to flee away.

Make thou the day not futile, not in vain,
Whether it be by little or by much.
For every day and night that thou dost waste,
By so much less thy life remains to live.

Whether thou walk or stand or sit or lie,
For thee the final day of life draws nigh;
No time hast thou to dally heedlessly.

Mrs. Rhys Davids translation of the verses of Ven. Sirimaṇḍa. THAG 222


 

new Wednesday, May 13, 2015 7:18 AMTherīgāthā, Psalms of the Sisters:
[THIG Canto XIV: Psalm of about Thirty Verses] Subhā, 'of Jīvaka's Mango-grove,' Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.

 

new Sunday, May 10, 2015 4:08 AMSaṃyutta Nikāya,
[SN 4.35.145] Action, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus about old kamma, new kamma and the way to end kamma.
The important thing here is to grasp the idea of kamma as both the product of action and the action which brought about that product. This is not the same thing as our 'action' and 'result' as conceived of as discrete events in Time as reflected in our English construction 'subject, verb, object' — the one term stands for both. Understanding this will help clarify the understanding of 'saŋkhāra' which is also the 'doing' and the result. Having grasped this way of seeing the world as flow of consciousness through a series of apparently (apparently only) static events consisting of action and consequence, it will become clear why, as in this sutta, the Buddha felt it necessary to define what, precisely it is that is profitably considered the past and what the present, that is, that that part of the event which consists of the eye and objects should be thought of as the past; that part of it that is the action of doing should be considered to be the present. (I know! Your perception is that action occurs now and consequences follow later in time; but that perception is a consequence of your being 'in-volved' in the world. Outside, apart from involvement, the perception is different than that. It is, in fact, your perception of action as 'the present' and consequences as 'the future' that binds you to Time and identification with the 'actor'. It is the Buddha's description of this construction that is, in fact, the key to unlocking the door to this higher perception.) Then the lesson is completed by pointing out the way to stop the flow by following the Magga.
[SN 4.35.146] Paṭhama Sappāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Helpful (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that a helpful tool in the effort to attain Nibbana is to regard the sense organs, the sense objects, sense-consciousness, contact with the senses, and the sensations that result from contact with the senses all as impermanent.
[SN 4.35.147] Dutiya Sappāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Helpful (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that a helpful tool in the effort to attain Nibbana is to regard the sense organs, the sense objects, sense-consciousness, contact with the senses, and the sensations that result from contact with the senses all as painful.
[SN 4.35.148] Tatiya Sappāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Helpful (iii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that a helpful tool in the effort to attain Nibbana is to regard the sense organs, the sense objects, sense-consciousness, contact with the senses, and the sensations that result from contact with the senses all as not self.
[SN 4.35.149] Catuttha Sappāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Helpful (iv), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that a helpful tool in the effort to attain Nibbana is to regard the sense organs, the sense objects, sense-consciousness, contact with the senses, and the sensations that result from contact with the senses all as impermanent, painful and not self and so regarding them, to let them go.
[SN 4.35.150] Antevāsika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Resident Pupil, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens allowing unprofitable states to arise from sensory perception to having a resident student and being under the power of a teacher, for these states dwell within and boss him around.
[SN 4.35.151] Kim Atthiya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
To What Purpose?, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains to the bhikkhus how they should respond to questions about why one leads the bhikkhu's life under him.
Very handy to know so as not to get tangled up in trying to explain some of the deeper teaching where one's understanding might be ... um ... somewhat dim.
[SN 4.35.152] Atthi Nu Kho Pariyāyo Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Is There A Method?, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the manner in which knowledge can be had (right up to knowledge of arahantship) without resort to faith, inclination, hearsay, methodological deduction, reflection on reasons or approval of a speculative theory.
A really valuable sutta for clarifying the idea that this Dhamma is one which is to be 'seen for one's self in this visible state'.
[SN 4.35.153] Is Faculty, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha explains what it means to have brought the forces to perfection, or to say that someone has brought their forces to perfection.
'Indriya' is almost always (other than in my translations) translated 'faculties,' meaning the sense- or other faculties. I believe the word is intended, in that it is derived from Indra, a god of war, to imply 'force', as in 'May the force be with you!' and that the sense faculties were viewed as forces (powers when put to use, forces in and of themselves).
[SN 4.35.154] Dhamma-Kathika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Preacher, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells a bhikkhu what is to be understood by the terms 'Dhamma teaching bhikkhu', 'an In Form-according-to-Dhamma bhikkhu,' and 'a Nibbana-in-this-seen-thing-winning bhikkhu.'
'dhamma-kathiko bhikkhū,''dhammānudhamma-paṭipanno bhikkhū,' 'diṭṭha-dhamma-nibbānappatto bhikkhū.'
[SN 4.35.155] Ajjhatta Nandikkhaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Destruction of the Lure, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Destruction of Taking Enjoyment in the Internal, The M. Olds translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that at the point where the instability of personal sense experience is seen as unstable the destruction of the motivation to take enjoyment in the senses has been reached and with the destruction of the motivation to take enjoyment in the senses the lust for sense pleasure has been destroyed. With the destruction of taking enjoyment in lust the heart is freed.
The BJT Pali, for some reason, has mistakenly substituted 'Dukkha' for 'Anicca' throughout this sutta.
I have done a translation of this sutta because for a long time the translation of 'nandi' as 'delight' has bothered me in that the real idea is not the experience of delight or enjoyment, but the 'taking' or 'finding' of delight or enjoyment in, that is, really, the seeking out of, the indulgence in delight or enjoyment. Also in this translation is a new suggested translation for 'anicca' as 'unreliable.' Another translation that occurs to me now is 'flighty.' Another is 'fleeting.' Both of these lack an easy oposite form constructed from the same root.
[SN 4.35.156] Bāhirana Nandikkhaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Destruction of the Lure (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Destruction of Taking Enjoyment in the Internal, The M. Olds translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that at the point where the instability of experience of the external is seen as unstable the destruction of the motivation to take enjoyment in the senses has been reached and with the destruction of the motivation to take enjoyment in the senses the lust for sense pleasure has been destroyed. With the destruction of taking enjoyment in lust the heart is freed.

 


"Whenever, beggars, a beggar sees the unreliable eye as unreliable,
he has achieved consummate view.

With seeing consummately comes satiation.

In the destruction of taking enjoyment,
the destruction of lust
in the destruction of lust,
the destruction of taking enjoyment.

With the destruction of taking enjoyment in lust,
the heart is called
'Well-freed'.


 

[SN 4.35.157] Ajjhattana-Nandikkhaya-Yoniso Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Destruction of the Lure (iii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to study the point where the instability of experience of the internal sense organs is seen as unstable. So seeing, the destruction of the motivation to take enjoyment in the senses has been reached and with the destruction of the motivation to take enjoyment in the senses the lust for sense pleasure has been destroyed. With the destruction of taking enjoyment in lust the heart is freed.
[SN 4.35.158] Bahira-Nandikkhaya-Yoniso Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Destruction of the Lure (iv), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to study the point where the instability of external sense objects is seen as unstable. So seeing, the destruction of the motivation to take enjoyment in the senses has been reached and with the destruction of the motivation to take enjoyment in the senses the lust for sense pleasure has been destroyed. With the destruction of taking enjoyment in lust the heart is freed.
[SN 4.35.159] Jīvakambavane aka Samādhi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
In Jivaka's Mango Grove (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to practice serenity to see sense experience as it really is as unstable.
[SN 4.35.160] Jīvakambavane aka Paṭisallāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
In Jivaka's Mango Grove (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to devote themselves to solitude to see sense experience as it really is as unstable.
[SN 4.35.161] Koṭṭhika, (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the M. Olds translation.
Kotthika asks for a teaching in brief and the Buddha tells him to put away desire for the impermanent which he defines as the six sense realms.
[SN 4.35.162] Koṭṭhita Dukkha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Koṭṭhika, (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Kotthika asks for a teaching in brief and the Buddha tells him to put away desire for the painful which he defines as the six sense realms.
[SN 4.35.163] Koṭṭhita Anatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Koṭṭhika, (iii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Kotthika asks for a teaching in brief and the Buddha tells him to put away desire for what is not the self which he defines as the six sense realms.
[SN 4.35.164] Micchā-Diṭṭhi Pahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Wrong View, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that the way to eliminate misguided view is to see sense-experiences as impermanent.
[SN 4.35.165] Sakkāya-Diṭṭhi Pahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Person-Pack, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that the way to eliminate views as to own-body is to see sense-experiences as impermanent.
[SN 4.35.166] Attanu-Diṭṭhi Pahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
About the Self, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that the way to eliminate views as to self is to see sense-experiences as impermanent.
[SN 4.35.4.2:] Saṭṭhi-Peyyālam Vaggo, the Pali,
The Sixty Summaries, the F.L. Woodward translation.
A summary by way of a wheel sutta matching desire, lust, and desire and lust by way of instability, pain and not self, by way of the internal sense organs and the external sense objects, by way of the past, future and present.
Suttas 167-186 should be read together (and should really be thought of as one sutta) and are here presented in one file.
The above link to the top of the sections, the below link to the individual suttas.
Each sutta is made up of multiple sub-sections. Bhk. Bodhi has each sub-section numbered as a separate sutta. I have followed the PTS numbering which groups the sub-sections under one sutta number.
[SN 4.35.167] Anicca-Chanda Suttaṃ, (1-3) the Pali
By Way of Desire (i-iii), the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.168] Dukkha-Chanda Suttaṃ (4-6), the Pali
By Way of Desire (iv-vi), the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.169] Anatta-Chanda Suttaṃ (7-9), the Pali
By Way of Desire (vii-ix), the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.170] Anicca-Chanda Suttaṃ, (10-12) the Pali
By Way of Desire (x-xii), the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.171] Dukkha-Chanda Suttaṃ, (13-15) the Pali
By Way of Desire (xii-xv), the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.172] Anatta-Chanda Suttaṃ, (16-18) the Pali
By Way of Desire (xvi-xviii), the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.173] Atītena Suttaṃ, 1-3, the Pali
By Way of the Past 1-3, the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.174] Atītena Suttaṃ, 4-6, the Pali
By Way of the Past 4-6, the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.175] Atītena Suttaṃ, 7-9, the Pali
By Way of the Past 7-9, the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.176] Atītena Suttaṃ, 10-12, the Pali
By Way of the Past 10-12, the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.177] Atītena Suttaṃ, 13-15, the Pali
By Way of the Past 13-15, the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.178] Atītena Suttaṃ, 16-18, the Pali
By Way of the Past 16-18, the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.179] Yad anicca Suttaṃ, 1-3, the Pali
What is Impermanent 1-3, the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.180] Yad anicca Suttaṃ, 4-6, the Pali
What is Impermanent 4-6, the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.181] Yad anicca Suttaṃ, 7-9, the Pali
What is Impermanent 7-9, the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.182] Yad anicca Suttaṃ, 10-12, the Pali
What is Impermanent 10-12, the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.183] Yad anicca Suttaṃ, 13-15, the Pali
What is Impermanent 13-15, the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.184] Yad anicca Suttaṃ, 16-18, the Pali
What is Impermanent 16-18, the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.185] Ajjhatta Suttaṃ, 1-3, the Pali
The Personal 1-3,, the Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.186] Bahira Suttaṃ, 1-3, the Pali
The External 1-3, the F.L. Woodward translation.
[SN 4.35.187] Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens sense experience to the ocean with the sense objects being the source of it's turbulance. He who can transcend the turbulance is called free.
[SN 4.35.188] Dutiya Samudda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ocean (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens sense experience to the ocean in which the world, for the most part is drowned, tangled up and bound down. He who can get rid of lust, anger and blindness has transcended this ocean with it's great dangers.
[SN 4.35.189] The Fisherman, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha likens indulgence in sense experience to a fish being hooked by a fisherman's bait.
[SN 4.35.190] Khīra-Rukkhopama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Sap-Tree, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens lust, hate and blindness to sap flowing from a cut in a sappy tree. In such a one even insignificant contact with sense objects overwhelms the heart, he has no hope when he comes into contact with powerful sense objects.
[SN 4.35.191] Koṭṭhika Suttaṃ,, the Pali [Revised, unabridged],
Koṭṭhika, the F.L. Woodward translation [Revised, unabridged].
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Olds translation.
Sariputta teaches Maha Kotthika the Buddha's doctrine that the sense organs are not bound to the sense objects nor are the sense objects bound to the sense organs, but desire binds the two together.
An extremely important bit of information! It is because of the bond between sense organ and sense object created by desire that there arises the impression in mind that there is an individual there perceiving a world through the senses.
[SN 4.35.192] Kāmabhū Suttaṃ,, the Pali,
Kāmabhū, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda teaches Kamabhu the Buddha's doctrine that the sense organs are not bound to the sense objects nor are the sense objects bound to the sense organs, but desire binds the two together.
With the exception of the protagonists, identical with the previous sutta.
[SN 4.35.194] Āditta-Pariyāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
On Fire, the F.L. Woodward translation.
A Fire-and-Brimstone Sermon, the Olds translation.
The Buddha delivers a real old-time fire and brimstone sermon on the dangers associated with the senses.
I did my translation because Woodward conveys by his translation the idea that searing the eye, etc. with red-hot implements would be a good thing in general whereas the idea is that relative to the dangers of desire and lust wrapped up in sense experience it would be better to sear ... . Some zealidiot in times to come will be saying that we should all go around injuring our sense organs, or worse, that the Buddha said that we should all do so. It seems to me that the Buddha has changed his style here. It happens here and there. The syntax is unusual. Woodward speculates that this sutta may have been spoken with Devadatta in mind.
[SN 4.35.195] Paṭhama Hatthapādupamā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Simile of Hand and Foot 1, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha points out that without hands and feet, limbs and belly there would not be seen those activities that lead to personal pleasure and pain.
[SN 4.35.196] Dutiya Hatthapādupamā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Simile of Hand and Foot 2, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha points out that without hands and feet, limbs and belly there would not be seen those activities that lead to personal pleasure and pain.
This sutta is identical in every way to the previous. This sometimes happens, but is very unusual. It is more likely that this was originally the start of a second sutta which would have somehow pointed to the external.
I do not see how either of these amount to similes (Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi). Upamā (f.) [f. of upama in abstract meaning] likeness, simile, parable, example... > Upama (adj.) [compar.-superl. formation from upa, cp. Latin summus from *(s)ub-mo] "coming quite or nearly up to", i. e. like, similar, equal. But here? > Upameti [upa + mā] to measure one thing by another, to compare.
[SN 4.35.197] Āsīvisopama Suttaṃ, the Pali [previously provided unproofed from the BJT],
The Snake, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha makes and explains similes for the four great characteristics, the five fuel stockpiles, desire, the six sense organs, the six sense objects, the corrupting influences, the eightfold path, Nibbana and the Arahant.
A really rich and illuminating sutta. Includes the simile of the raft (the eight-fold Way). The similes are immensely helpful for both practitioner and translator. For the practitioner for gaining perspective on the concepts illustrated and for the translator who should always strive to make his translation seamlessly fit the simile.
[SN 4.35.198] Rathūpama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Delighting In, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a formula for living fully and at ease here with good grounds for attaining arahantship in the future: guard the senses, exercise moderation in eating and practice wakefulness.
[SN 4.35.199] The Tortoise, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha likens guarding the senses to the safety of the tortoise when it draws into it's shell it's head and limbs to protect itself from predators.
[SN 4.35.200] The Log of Wood, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches that by following high view (sammā diṭṭhi) one naturally drifts towards and ends up in Nibbāna in the same way that a log in the Ganghes, if it avoids all the obstacles, will drift towards and end up in the ocean.
One can see where a misunderstanding of this sutta could lead to the 'inaction' school of Buddhism. What this school is missing is that little bit about avoiding the obstacles. 'Not-doing' is 'intentional not-doing', not 'doing nothing.' The obstacles must be avoided by conscious, intentionally not engaging with them. When a lie would obtain some goal, consciously, intentionally not voicing that lie because doing otherwise would be in contradiction with high view.
[SN 4.35.201] Dutiya Dārukkhandhopama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Log of Wood (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that by following high view (samma ditthi) one naturally drifts towards and ends up in Nibbana in the same way that a log in the Ganghes, if it avoids all the obstacles, will drift towards and end up in the ocean.
Nearly identical with the previous but with Kimbila as the protagonist, a different definition of 'rotting within', and eliminating the conversion of the goatherd.
[SN 4.35.202] Lustful, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Maha Moggalana delivers a discourse on what constitutes a leaky bhikkhu. If a bhikkhu dwells attached to the pleasures of the senses, averse to the pains of the senses then he is conquored by the senses and subject to old age, sickness and death and is a leaky bhikkhu. If he is not attached to the pleasures of the senses, averse to the pains of the senses then he is conquoror of the senses and not subject to old age, sickness and death and is not a leaky bhikkhu.
I, as did Maha Moggalana, will leave it up to your imaginations as to what is intended by the idea of 'leaky.'
[SN 4.35.203] Dukkha-Dhamma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
States of Ill, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains what it means to know and see the appearing and disappearing of all states of pain and how, so seeing one is freed from sense experience.
The distinctive lesson here is the emphatic statement that by knowing and seeing the appearing and disappearing of body, sense experience, perception, own-making and consciousness one is knowing and seeing all states of pain. The sutta includes helpful similes and methods for practicing to attain such knowing and seeing.
[SN 4.35.204] The Judas Tree, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A bhikkhu questions a number of bhikkhus about the nature of perfection and receives different answers from each. Consulting the Buddha it is explained that there are many different approaches to Nibbana.
The simile of a tree seen at different seasons of the year is given for the idea of different views of the approach to Nibbana. The different approaches mentioned are: seeing the arising and passing away of the sense experiences; seeing the arising and passing away of the stockpiles of fuel (khandhas); seeing the arising and passing away of the four great characteristics (earth, water, firelight and wind); and seeing that whatsoever comes into existence is something that must go out of existence. Note that the last one is usually found as the formula for Streamwinning. In other words, though that is the insight gained at the entrance to Streamwinning, it is also a path all the way to Nibbana. Then the Buddha gives another simile to illustrate the idea of different approaches while given another approach which is more fundamental, general and encompassing than the others, that is, following the Eightfold Path. He describes a king's fortress with six gates and a gatekeeper and the visitation by 'a swift pair of messengers' who deliver the truth to the king who sits at the crossroads. The terms of the simile are defined. Note that 'the swift pair of messengers' are the practices of 'calm' and 'insight'. Not just one or the other, but both.
[SN 4.35.205] The Lute, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus two similes: one for understanding the way mindfulness works to develop control over the inclination to indulge in sense pleasures, and the other, the famous simile of the Lute, to illustrate the emptiness of the pleasures of the senses.
This is an exquisite sutta to invision. Picture the field of ripe corn and then the cow and her delight in finding such a sumptuous meal only to end up being brow-beaten again and again until she learns to associate the field of corn with the beating, then imagine the somewhat feebleminded king, fascinated by the enchanting sounds of the lute and in a wonderfully thick-headed way searching for the sounds in the lute itself, taking it apart and not finding the sounds, in disgust shattering it to bits. The one simile folds right into the other and the combination blossoms out into a powerful lesson. This is our dilemma. It's like the smoker who knows smoking is bad for him and will lead him to a painful end but who must, to quit, engage in an enormous battle with his desire to smoke. Just understanding the problem of pain in existence and rebirth isn't enough. We need to break the habit and the way that is done is to so investigate the nature of sense pleasures that we see that they always, inevitably lead to a brow-beating. It's only at the point where we abandon all hope that there is a way to engage in pleasurs of the senses without suffering the beating that we finaly reach the resigned detachment that is the freedom of Nibbana. "Abandon all hope, ye who enter here!" This is the subtle trickery of Mara, that we read this as the sign over the entrance to hell, when it is the sign over the entrance to Nibbana.
[SN 4.35.206] The Six Animals, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches a simile for the control of the six senses by way of contrasting the result of tying each of six different animals with six different tastes when they are each tied to the others versus when they are each tied to a central stake.
In the first case the animals, when tired of struggling against each other follow the strongest of them whereas when they are all tied to the central stake they cease to struggle at all.
Something similar to the way mankind switched from following war-lords to following the rule of law ... only mankind, being what it is (a blight on the face of the earth), seeing that laws were made by ignorant men, in the service of their avarice, not righteousness, turned it's struggle to subverting the rule of law.
Nevertheless, should one sincerely seek to free one's self from the domination of the senses, the lesson here points to the value of subjecting one's self to the discipline of minding the gates to embodyment (kāyagatā sati) (i.e., the senses).
The opening passage of this sutta is problematic and I believe the point has been missed (or at least has not been made clear) by Woodward, Bhkkhu Thanissaro and Bhikkhu Bodhi. I suggest the idea (not a translation) is this:

In the same way as a man with a festering wound when entering a jungle of thorns would come to pain resulting from the thorns scratching at his wound,
so a beggar retires from the world and finds there a person who accosts him saying:
"You, behaving as you do, are a blight on the face of the earth!"

And this is how this should be understood:
The beggar retiring from the world with minding the gates to embodyment unguarded, the blight on the face of the earth, stands for non-self-restraint;
the person who accosts him stands for the conscience, the effort for self-restraint.

[SN 4.35.207] The Sheaf of Corn, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha likens sense experience to a shief of wheat being beaten by six farmers, then he likens the desire for rebirth to that same shief of wheat being beaten again by a seventh farmer. He then instructs the bhikkhus that any notion of things being the self or belonging to the self, any theories concerning such are vain, prideful assumptions with shaky unstable foundations.

 


This brings to completion the scanning, proofing, formatting and uploading of Woodward's translation of Saŋyutta Nikāya, 4.35: The Saḷāyatana Book, Kindred Sayings on Sense.


 

[SN 4.36.1] Concentration, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Nyanaponika Thera translation.
The Buddha defines 'vedana' (sense-experience) as consisting of three experiences: pleasant, unpleasant, and not pleasant but not unpleasant.
There is no explanation as to why this sutta is titled 'Samadhi', 'Serenity'; (woodward's 'Concentration').
This 'Book' is distinguished by the inclusion of verses after each sutta. It is a matter of speculation as to whether or not these verses were uttered by Gotama. They do not appear to be in contradiction with the doctrine, but are occasionally ... somewhat removed from the sutta.
[SN 4.36.2] Concentration, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Nyanaponika Thera translation.
The Buddha defines 'vedana' (sense-experience) as consisting of three experiences: pleasant, unpleasant, and not pleasant but not unpleasant.
Identical to the previous but with different verses.
[SN 4.36.3] By Abandoning, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Nyanaponika Thera translation.
After defining the three sense experiences, the Buddha describes how the residual inclination to lust for these experiences must be abandoned.
[SN 4.36.4] By Abandoning, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Nyanaponika Thera translation and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Using the figure of the maelstrom the Buddha describes the difference between the ordinary commoner and the arahant when experiencing the unpleasant.
[SN 4.36.5] By Abandoning, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Nyanaponika Thera translation.
Seeing pleasant experience as painful, painful experience as a thorn, and not-painful-but-not-pleasant experience as temporary, the bhikkhu is seeing things in the best way and by perfect understanding of pride brings pain to an end.
[SN 4.36.6] By the Barb, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Nyanaponika Thera translation. and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Both the common person and the Arahant undergo painful experiences, pleasant experiencess and experiences that are not painful but not pleasant. The Buddha explains that the difference between the two is that the Arahant does not add to his pain by an emotional or 'follow-on' component.
Here I believe we have illustrated a very clear idea of what is meant by 'anusaya' (Woodward's 'lurking tendency'; Bhk. Bodhi and Nanaponika Thera: 'underlying tendency'; Bhk. Thanissaro: 'resistant obsession'. It is simply put, the emotional (heart-felt) mental attitude that arises subsequent (following after, 'anu') to an experience. The 'follow-on' experience. Experiencing pain the anusaya is a mental attitude of repugnance. Experiencing pleasure the anusaya is a mental attitude of attachment to plesant sense experience. Experiencing what is not unpleasant-but-not-pleasant the anusaya is blindness.
Blindness as a reaction to experiencess that are not-unpleasant-but-not-pleasant may not be seen by some as 'emotional', but this should be understood as per Websters: emotion 2a: the affective aspect of consciousness, feeling; and b: a reaction of or effect upon this aspect of consciousness. The common person reacts to this sort of experience with the desire to escape it in the experience of pleasure, hense his anusaya is blindness to the outcome.
[SN 4.36.7] Sickness (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Nyanaponika Thera translation and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha visits the sick ward and delivers a sermon on being prepared for death through recollectedness and self-awareness.
"Sata and sampajāna" Woodward: "collected and composed"; Bhikkhu Bodhi and Nayanaponika Thera: "mindful and clearly comprehending"; Bhikkhu Thanissaro: "mindful and alert." SATA p.p. of > 'Sarati': to remember; SAMPAJĀNA: saŋ+pajāna: own or self + know, understand.
It is interesting to note the difference in customs and culture between our own and the Buddha's time as can be seen in this sutta. If someone today were to walk into a ward for the terminally ill and deliver a sermon on being prepared to die he would be thought to be in very poor taste ... and as a result of respecting this convention those who were in fact facing immanent death would not hear what they needed to hear. For whose sake, for whose comfort in blindness, then, is our custom of never mentioning death to the dying? Of course our situation is so twisted up today [Sunday, May 31, 2015 8:25 AM] that the dying themselves would become offended at this 'behavior in bad taste'.
[SN 4.36.8] Sickness (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Nyanaponika Thera translation.
The Buddha visits the sick ward and delivers a sermon on being prepared for death through recollectedness and self-awareness.
Identical with the previous sutta with 'contact' (phassa) being substituted for 'body'. Nyanaponika Thera has footnoted that 'phassa' (which he translates as 'sense-impression') is 'mental factor and does not signify physical impingement'. I don't know where he gets this idea. First the literal translation of 'phassa' is 'touch'. It is understood to be the contact of a sense object with a sense organ together with consciousness. And here it is, if contrasted with the previous sutta, a synonym for 'body'. Surely this is physical or at most physical/mental impingement. The reverse would actually imply the creation of the sense organ and object by its own sense-consciousness ... Pajapati's error. "Own-eye-impact, beggars, comes to be as a result of eye data, it is not that eye data comes to be as a result of own-eye-impact," SN 2.14.3 (and the entire vagga
If what Nyanaponika Thera is saying is that 'phassa' is to be defined as 'the experience of contact,' (which would be a mental factor) this does not comport with this very sutta which is saying that the experience, 'vedana', arises as a consequence of the contact.
My version of BJT has simply copied the previous sutta without making the appropriate changes. In fact my version of the BJT Pali has been very poorly edited throughout this volume. Perhaps this has been corrected in later editions, but be careful!
[SN 4.36.9] Impermanent, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Nyanaponika Thera translation, and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha defines the three sense experiences and describes them as inconstant, own-made, originating as a result, things under destruction, things fading away, ending things.
[SN 4.36.10] Impermanent, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali, andthe Nyanaponika Thera translation.
The Buddha points out that experiences rooted in contact are dependent on that contact and come to an end when that contact comes to an end.
[SN 4.36.11] Impermanent, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Alone, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Warren translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, andthe Nyanaponika Thera translation.
The Buddha explains his statement that whatsoever is sense-experience, that is of the nature of pain. Then he describes three progressions leading to Arahantship: that of a progression of endings; that of a progresion of masterings; and that of a progression of calmings-down.
The idea here is that the attaining of arahantship is gradual. There is a school of Zen Buddhism out there that speaks of sudden Awakening. This is another case where the subjective is ignored in the face of a perception which counts the subjective as insignificant, unreal. Like the struggle of an individual in a dream to wake up relative to his waking up. After awakening it appears that the progression towards awakening of the unawakened subjective individuality was insignificant, almost irrelevant. Almost. Except for the subjective individual for whom it is all important. There is no awakening without the intent to awaken. So although awakening may be sudden, when the idea is seen in it's totality, awakening is gradual.
Here I have finally seen a convincing argument for translating 'saññā-vedayita-nirodha' as 'the ending of perception and sense-experience'. This is how it is explained in this sutta, that is 'perception and sense experience' are ended. I have sometimes used this translation and sometimes used 'the ending of perception of sense experience.' The complication here for me has always been that there is perception (saññā) beyond the attaining of the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception which I have taken to be the 'saññā-vedayita-nirodha' which is described by Sāriputta as: "One perception arose in me: to end becoming is nibbana; another perception faded out in me: to end becoming is nibbana." AN 10.7 And again, in AN 10.6 The Buddha describes the highest state, the conclusion as having percption. Hense my understanding was that this jhāna ended sense-perception, but not all perception. Since that must still be the case however this term is translated, my understanding now is that the 'saññā-vedayita-nirodha' is just another own-made mental state like all the other jhānas and though it may involve the ending of perception, that state too is not to be confused with Nibbāna.
[SN 4.36.12] Impermanent, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Alone, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, andthe Nyanaponika Thera translation.
The Buddha likens the various sense experiences to the various sorts of winds that blow.
[SN 4.36.13] Dutiya Ākāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Impermanent, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Alone, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha likens the various sense experiences to the various sorts of winds that blow.
Identical to the previous but without the verses.
[SN 4.36.14] The Guest-House, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Guest House, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, andthe Nyanaponika Thera translation.
The Buddha likens the various sense experiences to the various sorts of guests that inhabit a guest house.
This sutta is one of the few places where the vedanas are described in the two modes found in the Satipatthana Sutta. It is very important to understand how this works. The sense experience produced by contact with an identical object or situation can be experienced in different, opposite ways depending on one's mental state, perspective or orientation. From the point of view of one letting go of the world, what would have produced a pleasant sense experience for one downbound to the world will be experienced as unpleasant (both in it's nature as temptation, and as transient and leading inevitably to pain); what would have produced an unplesant sense experience will be experienced as plesant (because experienced as no longer pertaining to the self) and what would have been experienced as a neutral sense experience inclining the downbound to seek pleasant sense experience will be experienced by the renunciate as a taste of Nibbāna. For the one the experience is impersonal and mental and does not equate to our idea of 'sensation' but is more like 'idea'; for the other it is a subjective experience that is a mixture of bodily and mental sensations. Because of the need for the one word to satisfy both uses I suggest that vedana be translated not as 'sensation' but as 'sense experience' or just 'experience'. 'Feeling' which is the most frequent translation, but which does not relate to the literal meaning of 'vedana' ('the given experience'), does serve both needs but I think points to or reveals experience of the uncarnal sort less forcefully.
[SN 4.36.15] Property, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ānanda, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, andthe Nyanaponika Thera translation.
Ananda asks the Buddha to define various aspects of sense experience.
[SN 4.36.16] Dutiya Santakam (aka Ānanda) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Property 2, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ānanda 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha defines various aspects of sense experience.
Identical with the previous except that the Buddha initiates the discussion.
[SN 4.36.17] Paṭhama Aṭṭhaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eightfold (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
A Number of Bhikkhus 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
A number of bhikkhus ask the Buddha to define various aspects of sense experience.
Identical with Ī15 substituting 'a number of bhikkhus' for 'Ananda'.
[SN 4.36.18] Dutiya Aṭṭhaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eightfold (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
A Number of Bhikkhus 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha defines various aspects of sense experience.
Identical with the previous except that the Buddha initiates the discussion.
[SN 4.36.19] Fivetools, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Pañcakaŋga, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, andthe Nyanaponika Thera translation.
The Buddha explains that he has taught an understanding of sense experience in multiple ways each of which is complimentary, not contradictory with the others. He then teaches his understanding of pleasure by describing a progression from gross sensual pleasures to the sublime pleasure of the ending of perception and sense experience.||
A very important sutta for the understanding of the meaning of 'vedana' and also for the Buddhist understanding of pleasure or happiness.
[SN 4.36.20] Bhikkhunā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By A Brother, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
The Buddha explains that he has taught an understanding of sense experience in multiple ways each of which is complimentary, not contradictory with the others. He then teaches his understanding of pleasure by describing a progression from gross sensual pleasures to the sublime pleasure of the ending of perception and sense experience.
A repetition of the lesson portion of the previous sutta.

 


The art of man is able to construct monuments far more permanent than the narrow span of his own existence: yet these monuments, like himself, are perishable and frail; and in the boundless annals of time, his life and his labours must equally be measured as a fleeting moment.

— Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume III, p1065.


 

Saturday, May 09, 2015
Previous upload was Monday, March 9, 2015

 

new Tuesday, May 05, 2015 7:15 AMSaṃyutta Nikāya,
[SN 5.51.11] Formerly or Condition, the Woodward translation,
linked to the Pali and to the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha describes his approach to developing magic powers and the various magic powers that he attained as a result of this practice.
This sutta was submitted formatted and proofread by Alex Genaud.

 


 

Antam idaṃ bhikkhave jīvikānaṃ yad idaṃ piṇḍolyaṃ,||
abhilāpāyaṃ bhikkhave lokasmiṃ||
'Piṇḍolo vicarasi pattapāṇī' ti.

"This, brethren,
is the meanest of callings -
this of an almsman.

A term of abuse is this in the world to-day,
to say:

'You scrap-gatherer!

With bowl in hand you roam about.'

'Tis this calling
that is entered on
by those clansmen who are bent on [their] good
because of good,
not led thereto
by fear of kings,
by fear of robbers,
not because of debt,
not from fear,
not because they have no livelihood:
but with the thought:

'Here am I,
fallen upon birth,
decay,
death,
sorrow and grief,
woe,
lamentation
and despair,
fallen upon woe,
foredone with woe.

Maybe some means of ending all this mass of woe
may be found.'

Thus, brethren, a clansman leaves the world,
and covetous is he in his desires,
fierce in his longing,
malevolent of heart,
of mind corrupt,
careless and unrestrained,
not quieted,
but scatter-brained,
and thoughtless.

Just as, brethren,
a torch from a funeral pyre,
lit at both ends,
and in the middle smeared with dung,
kindleth no fuel
either in village or in forest -
using such a figure
do I describe unto you this man,
for he has lost his home and wealth,
nor yet does he fulfil the duties of a recluse.

SN 3.22.80, Woodward translation, where the Buddha goes on to describe the value of having adopted this low form of earning a living as being that in this way there is the opportunity to get rid of the corruptions of mind. 'almsman' = 'piṇḍolyaṃ' 'scraper'.

§

"This is a lowly means of livelihood, alms gathering. It's a form of abuse in the world [to say], 'You go around as an alms gatherer with a bowl in your hand'"
ITI 91, Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.

§

I suggest 'monk,' or 'mendacant' or 'brother' is not a term of abuse in the world whereas 'beggar' is. There is, as it says in this sutta, a compelling reason for respectable people to adopt this 'lowest of possible occupations.' See: Using 'Beggar' for 'Bhikkhu' ... again and links from there.

 


 


The Light of Thabor

"When thou art alone in thy cell, shut thy door, and seat thyself in a corner; rise thy mind above all things vain and transitory; recline thy beard and chin on thy breast; turn thy eyes and thy thought towards the middle of thy belly, the region of the navel; and search the place of the heart, the seat of the soul. At first, all will be dark and comfortless; but if you presevere day and night, you will feel an ineffable joy; and no sooner has the soul discovered the place of the heart, then it is involved in a mystic and etherial light."

The practice of the monasteries of mount Athos c 1341, Mosheim, Institut. Hist. Eccles. p. 522, 523. Fleury, Hist. Eccles. tom. xx. p. 22. 24. 107-114, etc. quoted from Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume III, p. 783.
Note that if one 'places the beard and chin on one's breast and turns one eyes and thought towards the middle of one's belly, the region of the navel,' it has approximately the same effect as placing the mind (sati) around the mouth while sitting upright with the chin tucked in. Rising above all things vain and transitory = separating one self from the diversions (Nīvaraṇā). I am not saying the two practices are the same in intent or consequence, but the form of the meditation practice of these monks is virtually identical to the initial steps in jhāna practice.

As a follow-up, this practice, which was the exclusive manner of prayer of a small group of monks called 'Quietists', was discovered by the wider Christian community, brought into the discussion of the substantiality of God (was this light material or immaterial and depending on that was this a legitimate vision of God or not) and became a raging debate among the people of Constantanople as well as among the ecclesiastics — (from the Buddhist perspective, bringing an intermediate result of a practice of letting go of the world into a discussion of existence or non-existence). After a great ruckass it was finally decided that it was a legitimate view of the eternal light of God. Gibbon, in his really witty way, ridicules the whole idea without having any personal experience of the practice: "and, after so many insults, the reason of mankind was slightly wounded by the addition of a single absurdity." And the educated English of the world lost an opportunity to discover jhāna practice, for Gibbon was sacred wisdom right up until the end of WW I, where wisdom was abandoned altogether in the West.


 

 


"What we gave, we have;
What we spent, we had;
What we left, we lost."

— epitaph of Edward Courtenay
"the blind and the good" Earl of Devon c 1400
quoted from Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume III, p735


 

Get your head out of the bag

Living with the eye-force controlled, beggars,
the heart is releaved from the eye's-consciousness of shapes.

As such, enjoyment is born in the releaved heart.

With joy, enthusiasm is born.

Enthusiastic in mind, the body experiences impassivity.

Impassive in body, pleasure is experienced.

A pleased heart has arrived at serenity.

Serene in heart, things become clear.

Things being clear,
you thus get a measure of living carefully.

SN 4.35.97, Olds translation

 


 

new Monday, March 23, 2015 4:38 AMThera-Gāthā,
Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation:
[THAG 217] Migajāla.
One of the sons of Vishaka. It is interesting to hear the understanding of an Arahant of what he has accomplished and what he thinks of the Buddha and the Dhamma. Mostly in the suttas we do not get views from this perspective.
[THAG 218] Jenta, The Chaplain's Son
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
Here we get a picture of a conversion as it happens. A little bit of a sutta as well as the Arahant's psalm.
[THAG 219] Sumana
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
Another interesting story in that this bhikkhu/Arahant entered the order when only seven years old at a time when Anuruddha had gathered a following and when Sariputta was still alive and may have been present at the Second Council.
[THAG 46] Samiddhi
[THAG 204] Kassapa of Gayā
[THAG 205] Vakkali
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
[THAG 206] Vijitasena
Linked to the K.R. Norman translation
[THAG 69] Channa
The verses of the Bhikkhu who at the end of the Buddha's life was subjected to 'the higher penalty', that of being shunned by the bhikkhus. In the descriptions of this event it is not clear why such an extreme measure would be taken in the case of a bhikkhu whose fault was extreme affection and pride in the Buddha. Reflecting on this we can see that the reaction of an ordinary person to being subjected to such a punishment by the one so adminred would initially result in anger and a change of heart about that person. Snap fingers, no more pride. Masterful psychology. This is not the Channa of SN 4.35.87.
[THAG 70] Puṇṇa
[THAG 252] Mālunkyā's Son
Mālunkyā's Son praises a teaching in brief received from the Buddha. See also in reference to this: SN 4.35.95
[THAG 214] Mālunkyā's Son
The verses of Mālunkyā's Son after he has attained Arahantship.
[THAG 122] Piṇḍola-Bhāradvāja.
[THAG 119] Vajji-putta.
The background story for this bhikkhu's verses is interesting in that it describes him as one (maybe the first one) of those responsible for organizing the first council. It also contains the story of Ananda's becoming an Arahant.
[THAG 120] Vajji-putta.

 


Is there a man who careless, heedless dwells,
Craving in him will like a creeper grow.
He hurries hankering from birth to birth,
In quest of fruit like ape in forest tree.

Whom she doth overcome, - the shameful jade,
Craving, the poisoner of all mankind, -
Grow for him griefs as rank as jungle-grass.

But he who doth her down, - the shameful jade,
Hard to outwit, - from him griefs fall away
As from the lotus glides the drop of dew.

This word to you, as many as are here
Together come: May all success be yours!
Dig up the root of craving, as ye were
Bent on the quest of sweet usira root.
Let it not be with you that, ye the reed,
Māra the stream, he break you o'er and o'er!

Bring ye the Buddha-Word to pass; let not
This moment of the ages pass you by!
That moment lost, men mourn in misery.

As dust [mixed and defiled], is carelessness;
And dust-defilement comes through carelessness.
By earnestness and by the Lore ye hear,
Let each man from his heart draw out the spear.

—THAG 214, Mrs. Rhys Davids' translation.
The verses of Mālunkyā's Son after he has attained Arahantship.


 

[THAG 215] Sappadāsa, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.

new Monday, March 23, 2015 4:38 AMSaṃyutta Nikāya,
[SN 4.35.4] Bāhira Anicca Suttaṃ (Aniccam 2; Bāhiram), the Pali,
Impermanent (ii): the External, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that shapes, sounds, scents, savours, touches and things are inconstant, painful and not self and that seeing that brings freedom and recognizing that freedom as freedom rebirth is left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an it at any place of atness left for one.
[SN 4.35.5] Bāhira Dukkha Suttaṃ (Dukkham 2; Bāhiram), the Pali,
Ill (ii): the External, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that shapes, sounds, scents, savours, touches and things are painful and not self and that seeing that brings freedom and recognizing that freedom as freedom rebirth is left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an it at any place of atness left for one.
[SN 4.35.6] Bāhira Anattā Suttaṃ (Anattā 2; Bāhiram), the Pali,
Void of the Self (ii): the External, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that shapes, sounds, scents, savours, touches and things are not self and that seeing that brings freedom and recognizing that freedom as freedom rebirth is left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an it at any place of atness left for one.
[SN 4.35.7] Dutiya Ajjhatta Anicca Suttaṃ (Aniccam 3; Ajjhattam), the Pali,
Impermanent (iii): the Personal, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind were impermanent in the past, will be impermanent in the future and are impermanent now and that seeing that one should strive to be repelled by them, become dispassionate towards them, and look for their ending.
[SN 4.35.8] Dutiya Ajjhatta Dukkha Suttaṃ (Dukkham 3; Ajjhattam), the Pali,
Ill (iii): the Personal, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind were painful in the past, will be painful in the future and are painful now and that seeing that one should strive to be repelled by them, become dispassionate towards them, and look for their ending.
[SN 4.35.9] Dutiya Ajjhatta Anatta Suttaṃ (Anattām 3; Ajjhattam), the Pali,
Void of the Self (iii): the Personal, the F.L. Woodward translation. Listed in the text in error as 'external.'
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind were not self in the past, will be not self in the future and are not self now and that seeing that one should strive to be repelled by them, become dispassionate towards them, and look for their ending.
[SN 4.35.10] Dutiya Bāhira Anicca Suttaṃ (Aniccam 4; Bāhiram), the Pali,
Impermanent (iv): the External, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that visible objects, sounds, scents, savours, touches, and things were impermanent in the past, will be impermanent in the future and are impermanent now and that seeing that one should strive to be repelled by them, become dispassionate towards them, and look for their ending.
[SN 4.35.11] Dutiya Bāhira Dukkha Suttaṃ (Dukkham 4; Bāhiram), the Pali,
Ill iv, the External, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that visible objects, sounds, scents, savours, touches, and things were painful in the past, will be painful in the future and are painful now and that seeing that one should strive to be repelled by them, become dispassionate towards them, and look for their ending.
[SN 4.35.12] Dutiya Bāhira Anatta Suttaṃ (Anattā 4; Bāhiram), the Pali,
Void of the Self iv: the External, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that visible objects, sounds, scents, savours, touches, and things were not self in the past, will be not self in the future and are not self now and that seeing that one should strive to be repelled by them, become dispassionate towards them, and look for their ending.
[SN 4.35.13] Sambodha (Sambodhena) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Enlightenment, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the reasoning that went on in his mind concerning the personal six senses that lead to his enlightenment.
A teaching which is repeated again and again throughout the suttas. Vital to understand and much more difficult to practice than it appears. Sit down and reviewing the sutta in your mind attempt to see in your own world the facts he is describing. Should be read and practiced along with the next sutta.
[SN 4.35.14] Dutiya Sambodha (Sambodhena ii) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Enlightenment (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the reasoning that went on in his mind concerning the six external objects of sense that lead to his enlightenment.
[SN 4.35.15] Assādapariyesana (Assādena 1) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Satisfaction, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the perceptions he had concerning the personal six senses that lead him to conclude he was enlightened.
This sutta should be read together with the next sutta. See also in this regard SN 3.22.26 for the description of the method but using in this case the khandhas, and SN 3.22.27 for the perceptions also using the khandhas. The lesson here is that these two sets of ideas are equivalents. Some people may find it easier to examine themselves by the one way, others by the other way. If you want confidence that you are capable of answering random questions concerning Dhamma (that is if you are interested in being a Dhamma teacher) it is vital to understand the variety of sets of equivalents.
[SN 4.35.16] Dutiya Assādapariyesana (Assādena 2) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Satisfaction 2, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the perceptions he had concerning the external six sense objects that lead him to conclude he was enlightened.
[SN 4.35.17] No Ve Assāda (No Cetena 1) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Without Satisfaction, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that one must see the satisfactions, disadvantages, and the way of escape from the personal sense spheres in order to attain enlightenment.
The tendency is to think of the Buddha as teaching only that the world is miserable and one should give it up. Here one can see that what he is really saying is that it is necessary to see both the misery of the world and the pleasures to be found there and to compare the two. The conclusion of the wise will be that the world should be given up. Then, of course, it is necessary to understand how it can be given up.
Dig around and examine what you experience as the highest pleasure derived from sight, etc., the worst pain that results from seeing. If you do not do this thoroughly and objectively you will never convince yourself of the need to let go of the eye.
Eyes see your loved ones, your mother, your father, your sisters and brothers, friends and relatives, the form of the most beautiful lass in the land, bhikkhus, perhaps even a Buddha; eyes see the birth of your children, wonderful vistas, masses of people, sights of historical events, memorable events; eyes see beautiful things, works of art and imagination; it is with our eyes we find our food; eyes see your well done deeds prosper, they see the badly done deeds of your enemies cause them suffering, because of eyes we can read the Dhamma ... — Eyes are put out as punishments by poking red-hot stilletos into them; are goughed out with thumbs in fights, poked out by accident, are subject to diseases and produce salty watery tears that obstruct your meditation in old age, they see, in mirrors your own aging; eyes see your loved one's suffer pain, get old and die, they see one's you love betray you or ignore you; eyes see your deeds go unappreciated, the deeds of your enemies appreciated, they see your badly done deeds fail; eyes see ugly sights, horrific sights, terrifying sights; were it not for seeing would you risk all the dangers of living?
When looking into the satisfaction to be found in perception through the eye, try to find the ultimate satisfaction. e.g. "Because of the eye sense I am able to see sights that inspire to lofty emotions and ambitions." Don't just accept the idea that the eye yields pain. Conversely when examining the pain that is consequent on perception through the eye sense also look for the ultimate pain. e.g., having seen sights with the eye that inspire lofty emotions and ambitions, acting on those emotions and ambitions the result is dissapointment, frustration, and the dangerous urge to try again in another birth. Putting the two sets of observations together, evaluate. Don't rationalize. Weigh. It's not: "But the pain is the price of the pleasure." (resignation) or "The pleasure is worth the pain." (A rationalization made in the absense of experience: always!) But: "I can see that accepting the pain with the pleasure is of a lower order than the escape (pain and pleasure are worldly, the aim of escape is getting beyond the worldly). I have not yet gained the pleasure of the highest order of worldly satisfaction, and I do not yet know the satisfaction of the higher order attained through freedom from the eye, but judging objectively the higher order should yield a greater satisfaction and I might not ever attain the highest order of worldly satisfaction. Let me then, facing these two alternative paths, aim towards attaining the higher order and see. At least if I fail this quest I will not berate myself for having chosen a low path."
This entire chapter (suttas 13-22), called the Yamaka-vagga, or the Twins Chapter, is made up of sets of two contrasting suttas one dealing with the internal or personal sense organs and the other dealing with the sense objects. The pairs should, of course, be read together. But it is interesting to question why they are presented separately in the first place. Were they actually delivered separately? It is conceivable. If the bhikkhus that were present were familiar with Gotama's methods they would know to expect the second sutta to follow at some point. That point might not be immediately after the delivery of the first sutta. Delay would serve to inhance retention of the idea. Create suspense of a sort. On the other hand it might just be that suttas throughout that were originally delivered in a unified form were broken up into separate 'suttas' just for the sake of achieving the legendary 84,000 suttas the Buddha is supposed to have delivered.
[SN 4.35.18] Dutiya No Ve Assāda (No Cetena 2) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Without Satisfaction 2, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that one must see the satisfactions, disadvantages, and the way of escape from the spheres of the external sense objects in order to attain enlightenment.
[SN 4.35.19] Paṭhama Abhinanda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Taking Delight In, the F.L. Woodward translation.
He who takes delight in the personal senses is not free from Pain; he who does not take delight in the personal senses is free from pain.
Note here the implication that 'taking delight' is a willful act, not something that simply happens to one.
[SN 4.35.20] Dutiya Abhinanda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Taking Delight In (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
He who takes delight in external sense objects is not free from Pain; he who does not take delight in external sense objects is free from pain.
[SN 4.35.21] Paṭhama Uppāda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By the Uprising (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that the setting up of the personal sense organs is the setting up of pain, the ending of the personal sense organs is the ending of pain.
[SN 4.35.22] Dutiya Uppāda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By the Uprising (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that the setting up of the external sense objects is the setting up of pain, the ending of the external sense objects is the ending of pain.
Note that the setting up of the sense objects is not the creation of the sense objects; it is the work of going about to get them.
[SN 4.35.23] The All, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the M. Olds, and Bhk. Thanissaro translations.
The Buddha describes what in his system accounts for absolutely everything in existence, calling it 'The All.'
Bhikkhu Thanissaro discusses in a footnote the question as to whether or not The All is intended to encompass Nibbana and whether, if Nibbana is not a dhamma, it can be considered The Self.
The All describes all that which has been own-made, (sankhāra-ed), that which has become (or which has becoming), a development of the conjunction of nāma/rūpa with consciousness, what we call 'all existing things'; an equivalent of the khandhas. Beyond that there is no thing (dhamma) which can be said to have existence. Nibbāna on the other hand, is not own-made, it is not a thing, the consciousness arising from and conscious of named/shapes. So the All includes the individualized (sankhāra-ed) mind and dhammas (things) and the idea of Nibbāna, but not Nibbāna. Because Nibbāna is not-become, does not have existence as understood in this way, it is therefore impossible to point to it. It is not impossible or beyond anyone's scope to make the statement that the all includes the not-become or non-existent; an absurdity, I would argue, that would place one's mind's over the abyss.
[SN 4.35.24] Abandoning (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the M. Olds, and Bhk. Thanissaro translations.
The Buddha teaches Dhamma for letting go of The All.
[SN 4.35.25] Dutiya Pahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Abandoning 2, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches Dhamma for letting go of The All through thoroughly known higher knowledge.
[SN 4.35.26] Paṭhama Parijānāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Comprehension (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that it is because of lack of mastery, thorough knowledge, dispassion, and letting go of The All that the body of pain is not destroyed, but that with mastery, thorough knowledge, dispassion towards and letting go of The All, the body of pain may be destroyed.
[SN 4.35.27] Paṭhama Parijānāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Comprehension (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that with mastery, thorough knowledge, dispassion towards and letting go of The All, the body of pain may be destroyed.
Identical with the second part of the previous sutta. Usually the shorter, positive version is found first.
[SN 4.35.29] Andhabhūtam Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Afflicted, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that the six sense realms are afflicted by aging, sickness and death, grief and lamentation, pain and misery and despair.
A variation on SN 4.35.28, previously posted.
Both Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi agree with the commentary in reading aḍḍhabhūtam for the andhabhūtam of the PTS text. Bhk. Bodhi translates 'weighed down'. I see no reason to object to andhabhūtam: which would be 'being blinded by'. The difference is orientation towards the being. Aḍḍhabhūtam suggests the affliction by these things of the being; andhabhūtam suggest the being blinded by these things of the mind. The latter would more closely adhere to the aims of the Dhamma.
[SN 4.35.30] Sāruppa-Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Proper, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents the best method for the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
[SN 4.35.31] Sappāya-Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Helpful (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents a walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
A variation on the previous sutta. The curious thing here is the omition of the reference to The All. Substituted for that is the identical construction but using the khandhas. Some ideas that occur: The omition is a mistake. The omition is deliberate and points to the equivalence of the khandhas with The All. The titles may point to the significance. The first 'Sāruppa-Paṭipadā'  SĀRUPPA: 'a shapely walk to walk' PED: fit, suitable, proper. > SA = with; RŪPA = shape, taken to mean 'equal to'; PAṬIPADĀ = path to walk; PED: means of reaching a goal or destination, path, way, means, method, mode of progress; Woodward: a way that is proper; Bhk. Bodhi: 'a way that is appropriate'. The second: 'Sappāya-Paṭipadā' 'a walk to walk to begin' SAPPĀYA > SAṄ = with, own, con; + (according to PED) = pass, but possibly also + PĀYA > PĀ+Ā+YA = 'pass to whatever', 'to begin with'; PED: to start out; nstr. pāyena (adv.) for the most part, commonly, usually; PED: likely, beneficial, fit, suitable; Woodward: 'a way that is helpful'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'a way that is suitable'. Reading with me the possibility exists that what the Buddha is suggesting is a good way to begin the analysis is to conceptualize the all in terms of the khandhas, to fit the eye and sights, etc. into the scheme of the khandhas.
[SN 4.35.32] Dutiya Sappāya-Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Helpful (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents a walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
A variation on the previous sutta using dialogue between the bhikkhus and himself concerning the impermanance of things and the wisdom of not identifying with such as the self or belonging to the self.
[SN 4.35 IV: Jāti-dhamma Vagga] SN 4.35 IV: The Chapter on Quality of Rebirth, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Each of the ten following suttas is identical with the exception of the one feature term. Consequently this chapter is all on one file each for the Pali and translation. The above links to the top of the file, the below link to the individual suttas.
33. Jāti Suttaṃ,
Birth,
34. Jarā Suttaṃ,
Age,
35. Vyādhi Suttaṃ,
Sickness,
36. Maraṇa Suttaṃ,
Death,
37. Soko Suttaṃ,
Sorrow,
38. Saṃkilesa Suttaṃ,
Impurity,
39. Khaya Suttaṃ,
Dissolution,
40. Vaya Suttaṃ,
Growing Old,
41. Samudaya Suttaṃ,
Uprising,
42. Nirodha Suttaṃ,
Ceasing to Be,
The Buddha lists ten things that are aspects of the senses which when seen as they really are lead to dispassion and freedom from them leading to Arahantship.
Each of these things is '-dhamma', which both Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi translate 'subject to'. But this is torturing the word 'dhamma': Woodward's note: "dhamma: having the quality of, the rule of; hence 'subject to,' 'liable to.'" The simple: "Is a rebirth-thing ... an aging-thing, etc." would do just as well.
There is in the series both the term 'jarā' and 'vaya'. Woodward translates: 'age' and 'growing old'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'aging' and 'vanishing'. 'jarā' is most commonly encountered in the compound 'jarā-maraṇa' usually translated 'aging and death'; The etymology of 'vayā' found in PED is interesting: ... vayo (age) is connected with Sanskrit vīra = Latin vir. man, hero, vīs strength; Gr. i)/s sinew, i)/fios strong; Sanskrit vīḍayati to make fast, also veshati; whereas vayas (fowl) corresponds with Sanskrit vayasa (bird) and vih. to Gr. ai)eto/s eagle, oi)wno/s bird of prey, Latin avis bird] age, especially young age, prime, youth; meaning "old age" when characterized as such or contrasted to youth (the ord. term for old age being jarā). To form a more distinct difference we might translated vaya: 'weakening.'
[SN 4.35 V: Sabbā Aniccā Vagga] SN 4.35 V: The Chapter on Impermanence, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Each of the ten following suttas is identical with the exception of the one feature term. Consequently this chapter is all on one file each for the Pali and translation. The above links to the top of the file, the below link to the individual suttas.
43. Anicca Suttaṃ,
Impermanent,
44. Dukkha Suttaṃ,
Woeful,
45. Anattā Suttaṃ,
Void of Self,
46. Abhiññeyya Suttaṃ,
To Be Fully Known,
47. Pariññeyya Suttaṃ,
To Be Comprehended,
48. Pahātabba Suttaṃ,
To Be Abandoned,
49. Sacchikātabba Suttaṃ,
To Be Realized,
50. Abhiññāpariññeyya Suttaṃ,
To Be Comprehended by Full Knowledge,
51. Upadduta Suttaṃ,
Oppressed,
52. Upassaṭṭha Suttaṃ,
Afflicted,
The Buddha lists ten things that are aspects of the senses which when seen as they really are lead to dispassion and freedom from them leading to Arahantship.
A different set of ten things than the previous.
[SN 4.35.53] Avijjā-Pahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ignorance, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a bhikkhu what it is that causes blindness to vanish and knowledge to arise.
[SN 4.35.54] Saŋyojana-Pahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fetters (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a bhikkhu what it is that results in letting go of the yokes to rebirth.
A variation of the previous.
[SN 4.35.55] Saññojana Samugghāta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fetters (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a bhikkhu the method for exterpating the yokes to rebirth.
A variation of the previous.
[SN 4.35.56] Āsava-Pahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Āsavas (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a bhikkhu what it is that results in letting go of the disrupting influences.
A variation of the previous.
[SN 4.35.57] Āsava-Samugghāta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Āsavas (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a bhikkhu the method for exterpating the disrupting influences.
A variation of the previous.
This word has given translators no end of trouble and is surely an Āsava. Āsava. From A SRU 'to flow out.' Which I believe should be read in the simplest possible way as 'in-fluence'. There is more than one group of Āsava's, and the definition of the term should not be derived from only one. A tree-stump in one's path at night, or a vicious dog, is an Āsava, but hardly 'A Canker' (Hare, Horner), 'taint' (Bhks. Bodhi, Nanamoli), 'intoxicant' (Rhys Davids) 'fermentation' (Bhk. Thanissaro), 'corruption' (Walshe). I have been using 'Corrupting Influences' thinking only of 'The Āsavas, but better would be 'disrupting influences' which I will adopt henseforth. Other possibilities: 'Eruptions,' 'Interuptions'. 'The Āsavas' are: sensual pleasures, existence (or living or becoming), blindness, and views.' 'Views' is a later addition and is incorporated in 'blindness.' Arahantship is attained when 'The Āsava's' are thoroughly exterpated, uprooted, destroyed and yield no more secondary associations.
[SN 4.35.58] Anusaya-Pahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Lurking Tendency (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a bhikkhu what it is that results in letting go of the secondary associations of a bad habit.
A variation of the previous.
[SN 4.35.59] Anusaya-Samugghāta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Lurking Tendency (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a bhikkhu the method for exterpating the secondary associations of a bad habit.
A variation of the previous.
Anusaya. ANU = following after; SAYA > SA = one's, YA = whatever. PED: Bent, bias, proclivity, the persistance of a dormant or latent disposition, predisposition, tendency. Always in bad sense. In the oldest texts the word usually occurs absolutely, without mention of the cause or direction of the bias. EDIT: Here previously I put forward the suggestion that anusaya meant the tendency of a habit to present itself time and time again for a long time following the insight into and the breaking of a bad habit. In SN 4.36.006 however we are given a very clear explanation of anusaya as being the follow-on emotional/mental component of the ordinary person's reaction to the experience of sensation.
[SN 4.35.60] Sabbūpādāna-Pariññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Comprehension, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha delivers a lecture on a method for the complete understanding of all that is comprised under the heading of 'set-ups'.
Upādāna is the things one does in response to sensation in order to re-experience the sensation or in order to get away from the sensation through other experiences. Here what is being spoken of is the entire spectrum of things that go into the blind setting up of rebirth: what it is that is to be understood in order to understand the real nature of setting up further existence. That is: it is through understanding the way sense experience arises that one conceives a distaste for sense experience and with that distaste thirst to re-experience or to escape by way of some other experience falls away and when this thirst falls away one is free, and in freedom the recognizing of that freedom is the freedom from setting up future rebirth.
Why does knowing/seeing that the eye and visible objects coming into contact giving rise to visual consciousness and that the union of the three is contact cause 'nibbindati'?  PED: to get wearied of; to have enough of, be satiated, turn away from, to be disgusted with. The term needs to be neutral. Woodward's 'repulsion' is a reaction. Reacting one is not free. The same applies to Bhk. Bodhi's 'revulsion'. It could be 'distaste' or 'disgust', meaning 'not having a taste for', which is not a 'doing'. The word is virtually identical in definition to 'satisfaction'. The idea at work is that seeing the senses in this way free's one from the notion that sense-experience is arising 'in me' or is being produced 'by me' or 'is me'. This is a solution, an escape from the problem of existing that we have been seeking. So it satisfies and there is naturally no further arising of any desire to jump back into the fire or the maelstrom. We don't need to see the whole world as 'revolting', we just need to see it as a trap that we have escaped.
[SN 4.35.61] Sabbūpādāna-Pariyādinna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Exhausting (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha delivers a lecture on a method for the complete breaking open of all that is comprised under the heading of 'set-ups'.
Pariyādinna PED: exhausted, finished, put an end to, consummated -pp. of pariyādiyati PED: 1. to put an end to, exhaust, overpower, destroy, mastery control 2. to become exhausted, give out; > PARI = all around; ĀDIYATI = to split or join (adhere) which meaning comes closer to what this sutta is teaching which is the (exaustion of the grip of the senses by way of) observation of the unity of the parts of sense experience. To break them apart or to see their unity.
Except for the heading the sutta is identical to the previous.
[SN 4.35.62] Dutiya Sabbūpādāna-Pariyādinna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Exhausting (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha delivers a lecture on a method for the complete breaking open of all that is comprised under the heading of 'set-ups'.
Identical with Ī32 but with the theme of breaking apart the components of sense experience.
[SN 4.35.63] By Migajāla, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha defines what it really means to be considered one who lives in solitude.
[SN 4.35.64] Dutiya Migajālena Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Migajāla, (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Migajala asks for a teaching in brief and is told that with desire for things of the senses there comes bondage, with the end of desire for things of the senses, the end of bondage.
A variation of the previous sutta with a change of context. It is interesting that the previous sutta did not have the effect of stimulating Migajala to attain arahantship, whereas the second time he heard the same message, this time within the context of a teaching that would lead to arahantship, it did.
[SN 4.35.65] Samiddhi-Māra-Pañha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Samiddhi, (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Samiddhi inquires about Mara, the Evil One, and is told that whatever there is of the realm of the senses, that is Mara.

At this point, because it is referenced in a footnote, I took a side-trip back to SN 3.23.1-46 which had been added to the site from a collection privately used by me before it was released for public distribution but which had not been unabridged. It has now been unabridged and is worth a (? second) read. All the suttas are on one file.

[SN 4.35.66] Samiddhi-Satta-Pañha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Samiddhi, (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Samiddhi inquires about Beings, and is told that whatever there is of the realm of the senses, that is a being.
[SN 4.35.67] Samiddhi-Dukkha-Pañha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Samiddhi, (iii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Samiddhi inquires about Dukkha (Pain), and is told that whatever there is of the realm of the senses, that is Pain.
[SN 4.35.68] Samiddhi-Loka-Pañha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Samiddhi, (iv), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Samiddhi inquires about the World, and is told that whatever there is of the realm of the senses, that is the World.
See also on this subject: SN 4.35.107

Loka. The World

What you perceive through the senses. Through the eye: Light (rūpa). Through the ear, nose, tongue, and body: Sounds, scents, savours, contact = substantiality. Through the mind: Perception, sensation, intention, consciousness = things (dhammas).

PED:

Loka [cp. Vedic loka in its oldest meaning "space, open space." For etymology see rocati. To the etymology feeling of the Pāli hearer loka is closely related in quality to ruppati (as in pop. etymology of rūpa) and rujati. As regards the latter the etymology runs "lujjati kho loko ti vuccati" S IV.52, ... see lujjana. The Dhtp 531 gives root lok (loc) in sense of dassana] world, primarily "visible world," then in general as "space or sphere of creation," with var. degrees of substantiality. Often (unspecified) in the comprehensive sense of "universe." Sometimes the term is applied collectively to the creatures inhabiting this or var. other worlds, thus, "man, mankind, people, beings." - Loka is not a fixed and def. term. It comprises immateriality as well as materiality and emphasizes either one or the other meaning according to the view applied to the object or category in question. Thus a translation of "sphere, plane, division, order" interchanges with "world." Whenever the spatial element prevails we speak of its "regional" meaning as contrasted with "applied" meaning. The fundamental notion however is that of substantiality, to which is closely related the specific Buddhist notion of impermanence (loka = lujjati).

Rocati [Vedic rocate, ruc, Idg. °leuq, as in Latin luceo to be bright (cp. lūx light, lūmen, lūna etc.); Sanskrit rocana splendid, ruci light, roka and rukṣa light; Av. raocant shining; Gr. amfi-lu/kh twi-light, leuko/s white; also with 1: Sanskrit loka world, locate to perceive, locana eye; Lith. laukti to await; Goth. liuhap light = Ohg. lioht, E. light; Oir loche lightning. - The Dhtp (and Dhtm) gives 2 roots ruc, viz. the one with meaning "ditti" (Dhtp 37), the other as "rocana" (Dhtp 395), both signifying "light" or "splendour," but the second probably to be taken in sense of "pleasing"]

Lujjati [Pass. of ruj, corresponding to Sanskrit rujyate. Dhtp 400 gives luj as sep. root with meaning vināsa. See rujati] to be broken up, to break (up), to be destroyed; to go asunder, to fall apart

 

[SN 4.35.69] Upasena, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Upasena has been bitten by a snake and wishes to die outdoors. He is taken out and before he dies is questioned by Sariputta as to why it is that he shows no change in his sense-faculties or countenance. Upasena declares that there is not in him any idea of I-making or mine-making with regard to the senses.
Woodward translates the last part of the dialogue "Now the venerable Upasena had ... Therefore the venerable Upasena had..." giving the impression that this is a comment being made by the narrator, but it is a comment being made in response to Upasena by Sariputta so I have altered it slightly to make that point clearer. I have noted this fact in a footnote. Bhk. Bodhi in his translation puts this more clearly.
Note here the use of the terms 'ahaṃ-kāra-mamiṃ-kāra'  'I-making-mine-making' (PED: kāra from "from kr") which I suggest provides precident for understanding saŋ-khāra as 'own-making.' PED spells 'Sankhāra' but has "from saŋ+kr"
[SN 4.35.70] Upavāṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Upavāṇa, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The venerable Upavana inquires about the description of the Dhamma as being within view, timeless, come-see-able, leading-on, individually to be experienced by the cognizant.
This is a frequently-appearing description of the Dhamma. Here the meaning is shown to be that with this Dhamma one becomes aware of one's experiences at the senses, the lust that one has for sense experience, and the point when that lust no longer appears. This is, in a sequence that leads on, the experience in the individual of the problem, the solution, the method for it's solution, and the realization of the goal. It is not a Teaching that asks one to believe or behave and wait for the result in some future life. It just needs to be said that what is intended here is not that one look at the Dhamma and snap fingers one is awakened. The idea is that at each step in the practice of what the Dhamma teaches (intellectual understanding, insight, letting go, freedom, realization of freedom) that degree of the Dhamma has been personally fulfilled and results to that degree a freedom from pain (the achievement of the goal) right there. Each step forward is a step into further freedom.
It is this phenomena of visible progress that so often leads the newcomer to believe that he has achieved the end when he has only just begun. Avoid grasping the snake in the wrong way! This Dhamma teaches absolute freedom. If you can see that there is still in your life some degree of captivity, you are not there yet.
[SN 4.35.71] Paṭhama Chaphassāyatana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Concerning the Sixfold Sphere of Contact (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains to a bhikkhu that seeing the six sense realms as not-self or belonging to the self is the end of pain.
A bhikkhu is thrown into doubt when the Buddha tells the bhikkhus that those who do not see the appearance, the retirement, the satisfaction and misery, and the escape from the sixfold sphere of contact do not understand the Dhamma or follow the Discipline, for he perceives himself as not yet seeing these things as they really are. Then when the Buddha asks him if he sees the eye as 'me', 'mine' 'my self' the bhikkhu answers he does not. And the Buddha says that there you have it, that seeing the eye in this way is the method for seeiing the the appearance, the retirement, the satisfaction and misery, and the escape from the eye, etc.
This is a good example of what was described in the previous sutta as Dhamma being within view, timeless, come-see-able, leading-on, individually to be experienced by the cognizant. At that time that the bhikkhu sees the eye, etc. as 'Not me, not mine, not my self' he has entered the path and sees the appearance, the retirement, the satisfaction, the misery and the escape from the eye, etc. When he doesn't, he isn't and doesn't. Time to get busy and make such perception uninterupted.
[SN 4.35.72] Dutiya Chaphassāyatana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Concerning the Sixfold Sphere of Contact (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains to a bhikkhu that seeing the six sense realms as not-self or belonging to the self the contrary perception does not arise again.
The same as the previous sutta but concluding "...so as to become again no more in future time" for 'that is the end of ill'.
Here the Buddha is pointing to the necessity of taking the perception 'this is not' to the point where, like the last fading out of the temptation to engage in a bad habit, the idea 'This is' does not arise again.
[SN 4.35.73] Tatiya Chaphassāyatana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Concerning the Sixfold Sphere of Contact (iii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents a walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
A combination of the previous sutta with #32. If you didn't understand it the first time, maybe you got it the second time, if not the second time, work on it by way of the third exposition.
[SN 4.35.74] Sick (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A sick bhikkhu is visited by the Buddha and taught the walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
Sutta #32 put in another context.
[SN 4.35.75] Sick (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A sick bhikkhu is visited by the Buddha and taught the walk to walk to uproot thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
Sutta #32 put in another context.
[SN 4.35.76] Anicca Suttaṃ (aka: Rādha Suttaṃ (i)), the Pali,
Rādha (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Radha asks the Buddha for a teaching in brief and is told desire for that which is impermanent must be let go.
What is impermanent is explained as the eye, visible objects, visual consciousness, eye-contact, and the sensations that result from contact with the eye; ear ...; nose...; tongue...; body...; and mind.
There is no explanation as to why this and the following two suttas are placed in a chapter on the sick.
[SN 4.35.77] Dukkha Suttaṃ (aka: Rādha Suttaṃ (ii)), the Pali,
Rādha (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Radha asks the Buddha for a teaching in brief and is told desire for that which is painful must be let go.
What is painful is explained as the eye, visible objects, visual consciousness, eye-contact, and the sensations that result from contact with the eye; ear ...; nose...; tongue...; body...; and mind.
[SN 4.35.78] Anatta Suttaṃ (aka: Rādha Suttaṃ (iii)), the Pali,
Rādha (iii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Radha asks the Buddha for a teaching in brief and is told desire for that which is not self must be let go.
What is not self is explained as the eye, visible objects, visual consciousness, eye-contact, and the sensations that result from contact with the eye; ear ...; nose...; tongue...; body...; and mind.
[SN 4.35.79] Pathama Avijjā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ignorance (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
A bhikkhu asks if there might be just one thing which if let go will result in blindness disappearing and vision arising. He is told that there is.
Note that here is at least one case of where 'avijja' ('blindness', or 'not-vision') is directly contrasted with 'vijja' ('vision').
[SN 4.35.80] Sick (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Second Blindness, Olds, translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A bhikkhu asks if there might be just one thing which if let go will result in blindness disappearing and vision arising. He is told that there is.
A different answer. The BJT Pali for this sutta repeats the opening refrain for each of the senses. This is not found in the PTS or CSCD texts and is out of place and has been eliminated here.
Woodward has translated the word 'aññato' 'other', by 'changeable'. This is, with a certain amount of contortion, not incorrect, but misses the idea which is that the eye, etc. should be regarded as 'other'. That is other than the self or one's own. One can regard a thing as changeable but still regard it as one's own or one's self. Bhk. Bodhi has 'differently'; Bhk. Thanissaro: 'something separate'. Something different or separate can also be regarded as one's own.
[SN 4.35.81] Sambahula-bhikkhu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
A Brother, the F.L. Woodward translation.
A group of bhikkhus inquires as to how they should answer when questioned as to the point of the Buddha's teaching.
The PTS text and Woodward's translation mis-title this sutta. It should be 'A number of bhikkhus' (per Bhk. Bodhi), or 'A group' or 'many' or 'a gathering'.
Additionally a portion of the bhikkhus question is very difficult to hear. The Bhikkhus ask how they should answer so that ... (There are three possible issues): 1. we are not reproached for misrepresenting his teachings; 2. that others repeating what we have said are not reproached for misrepresenting his teachings; 3. that the teachings themselves are not criticised by one believing what we have said):
Woodward has them saying: [we hope we have answered] "so that no one who agrees with his teaching and follows his views might incur reproach?"
If the entire statement is held together in mind as Woodward translates, it can be heard: 'so that no one who agrees with his teaching and follows his views as we have answered would incur reproach' which could be heard as applying both to the speakers and to anyone who might repeat what they have said. Otherwise this should read: "so that no one who agrees with his teaching and follows his views might reproach us. Or: so that we might not incur the reproach of one who agrees with his teaching and follows his views. Or: so that no one repeating it might incur the reproach of one who agrees with his teaching and follows his views.' But this does not cover the third possible meaning.
Bhk Bodhi notes commentary: "Spk. explains: 'How (should we answer) so that not the slightest consequence or implication of the ascetic Gotama's assertion — (a consequence) which is reasonable because of the reason stated — might give ground for criticism" [by] This is meant: "How can there be no ground for criticism in any way of the ascetic Gotama's asertion?" I dissent from Spk on what is to be safeguarded against criticism: Spk takes it to be the Buddha's assertion, while I understand it to be the inquirer's account of the Buddha's assertion. In other words, the inquirer wants to be sure he is representing the Buddha's position correctly, whether or not he agrees with it." Bhk. Bodhi has: "'that no reasonable consequence of our assertion gives ground for criticism.'" which, in spite of Bhk. Bodhi's understanding of his own words, solves all three issues, as does the uninterpreted reading of Spk.
Tempest in a teapot. Mountain out of molehill. Much ado about nothing. Or concern about getting things expressed precisely so that down the road those who follow and understand the true teaching will not have reason to criticise us; or so that those who follow who do not have good understanding will not be mislead; or so that those who, without understanding the true teaching, follow, taking what we have said as gospel, will not criticise the teacher.
This concern is what this sutta is all about.
[SN 4.35.82] Loka Suttaṃ, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A bhikkhu asks about the extent of what is encompassed by the idea of 'the world'.
see also the discussion above under SN 4.35.68.
[SN 4.35.83] Phagguna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Phagguna, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Phagguna asks the Buddha if there are sense organs capable of perceiving the past Buddhas. He is told that there are not.
In other places the Buddha has taken advantage of similar questions to respond in the affirmative qualifying the answer by substituting the 'eye of dhamma' or 'the ear of dhamma' for the physical eye and ear. Here the form of Phagguna's question by including all the senses and also by including all the past Buddhas precludes this response. There are no physical senses capable of such perception, and the Buddha states that even he is unable to see back in time all the way to the beginning.
[SN 4.35.84] Paloka-dhamma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Transitory, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda asks about the extent of what is encompassed by the idea of 'the world'.
Identical to SN 4.35.82, but with Ananda asking the question.
see also the discussion above under SN 4.35.68.
[SN 4.35.85] Void, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Ananda asks about the extent of what is encompassed by the idea 'Empty is the World.'
A variation of the previous.
[SN 4.35.86] Saṅkhitta-dhamma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
In Brief, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda asks for a teaching in brief. The Buddha gives him a walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
Identical to SN.4.35.32 above.

 


 

Nissitassa calitaṃ,||
anissitassa calitaṃ n'atthi,||
calite asati passaddhi hoti,||
passaddhiyā sati nati na hoti,||
natiyā asati āgatigati na hoti,||
āgatigatiyā asati cutupapāto na hoti,||
cut'upapāte asati nevidha na huraṃ||
na ubhayam antarena||
esevanto dukkhassā.|| ||

§

In him that clingeth, there is wavering,
In him that clingeth not, wavering is not,
Where is no wavering, there is calm,
Where is calm, there is no bent,
Where is no bent, there is no wrong practice,
Where is no wrong practice, there is no vanishing and reappearing,
If there be no vanishing and reappearing, there is no here
nor yonder
nor yet midway.
That is the end of ill.

SN 4.35.87, Woodward translating a saying of the Buddha uttered by Mahā Cundo.

§

'For him who clings there is wavering;
for him who clings not there is no wavering;
if there is no wavering there is impassibility;
if there is impassibility there is no yearning;
if there is no yearning, there is no coming and going;
if there is no coming and going, there is no deceasing and uprising;
if there is no deceasing and uprising,
there is no "here" itself
nor "yonder"
nor "in between the two."
This is itself the end of anguish.'

— Ms. Horner's translation from MN 144

 


 

[SN 4.35.87] Channa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Channa, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sariputta and Maha Cunda visit Channa who is dying a painful death. Channa announces he will 'take the knife' (commit suicide). Sariputta questions him as to his understanding of Dhamma and Maha Cunda recites for him a saying of the Buddha warning against the wavering that results from attachments. Later, after Channa has 'taken the knife' Sariputta questions the Buddha as to Channa's fate. The Buddha states that his was a blameless end.
The question of suicide comes up periodically and is worth examining carefully. To the best of my understanding to this point this is an outline of the factors involved:
'Blameability' here means incurring a bad kammic outcome. This result rests on the idea that a. 'this' is not the self and consequently b. killing 'this' is ranked with murder.
This is the outcome for anyone who, killing this body, ends up taking up rebirth in another body.
This means that a blameable outcome is to be expected for anyone who commits suicide who is at that time less advanced than the non-returner who is able to attain arahantship at death.
Arahants do not commit suicide as they do not experience pain in a way which interfears with their mental stability (which is the excuse that justifies suicide for the person who does not incurr blame for suicide.)
The suttas do not go into the outcome for the lesser cases of suicide, but one can extrapolate from related situations that the degree of bad outcome is modified to the extent of an individual's ability to comprehend the situation in terms of the Dhamma, and his ability to let go of attachments, at the point of or shortly after death but before taking up a new birth.
In this sutta both Sariputta and Maha Cunda doubt Channa's understanding, both apparently basing their doubt on Channa's fondness for the company of laymen. The Buddha explains that although such attachment is a dangerous thing, it is the taking of one's own life for the sake of taking up rebirth in another body that is the issue in the case of suicide. Channa was above this error and knew he was above such an error.
For an alternative translation see Ms. Horner's translation of MN 144, which is identical to this.
[SN 4.35.88] Puṇṇa, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Punna, after being given an instruction 'in brief' by the Buddha, is questioned as to how he will deal with the fierce people of Sunaparanta where he intends to dwell. He gives a series of answers which shows he has the patience to deal with them even to the point of death.
For another translation of this sutta see MN 145 below which is almost identical.
[SN 4.35.89] Bāhiya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Bāhiya, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Bahiya asks for a teaching in brief and The Buddha gives him a walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
[SN 4.35.90] Pathama Ejā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Passion (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents a method for eliminating passion which he characterizes as a sickness, a boil a being pierced by an arrow.
A variation of Sutta 30.
[SN 4.35.91] Dutiya Ejā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Passion (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents a method for eliminating passion which he characterizes as a sickness, a boil a being pierced by an arrow.
A variation of Sutta 31.
[SN 4.35.92] Paṭhama Dvaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Duality (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The First Duality, the M. Olds, translation.
The Buddha describes the ultimate duality and states that no one could reject this duality and point out another duality.
This sutta is very similar to Ī23, and is another way of describing all there is in existence.
[SN 4.35.93] Duality (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Second Duality, the M. Olds, translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha explains that it is a consequence of the meeting of a sense organ and a sense object that sense-consciousness, sense-contact, sense-experience, feeling, and self-awareness appear and that each of these individual elements being changeable, the resulting consciousness is changeable.
A very important sutta that describes the self-arising of consciousness and self-awareness. 'Self' here not referring to an individuality, but to the arising of consciousness of itself of the process. Very useful in comprehending the idea of 'not-self'. My translation strives to more forcefully point to the lack of a 'person' or 'self' in the process.
[SN 4.35.94] Cha-Phassāyatana (Saŋgayya (i)) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Including (the sixfold sense-sphere), the F.L. Woodward translation,
United with the Six Spheres of Touch, the M. Olds, translation.
The Buddha teaches that united with the six spheres of touch is the experience of pain or pleasure in accordance with whether or not the senses have been tamed, trained and are well guarded or not.
[SN 4.35.95] Including (the sixfold sense-sphere), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha gives Mālunkya-putta a teaching in brief which inspires him to attain arahantship.
This is a well-known sutta which is the source of a catch-phrase-teaching of Zen Buddhism. The Buddha first asks Mālunkya-putta if he has any desire for sights, sounds, scents, tastes, touches, or things that he has never seen or heard of before. In other words not yet even imagined. This is a difficult idea to grasp. It is essentially saying that the past and the present are past, and that the future is completely unknown. It is a fresh, blank tablet if one's mind is taken off the desire for repeating past experiences. Then, seeing this way, abandoning the views and opinions and biases concerning things of the past, that which is seen, heard, sensed, and become conscious can be experienced thus (the zen catch-phrase in full context):

"... in what is seen
there will be only the seen.

"diṭṭhe diṭṭha-mattaṃ bhavissati,"
(no 'you will have' as per Woodward just 'there will be'.

In what is heard
there will be only what is heard.

In the sensed
there will be only what is sensed.

In the cognized
there will be only what is cognized.

When in what is seen
there is only the seen;
in what is heard
there is only what is heard;
in the sensed
there is only what is sensed;
in the cognized
there is only what is cognized;
there is no 'you' Mālunkya-putta 'by this'.

There being no 'you' Mālunkya-putta 'by this,'
there is no 'you' Mālunkya-putta 'there.'

There being no 'you' Mālunkya-putta 'there,'
it follows that there will be no 'you' experience,
no thrusting forward,
no waffling-around like a philosopher.

And that is the end of dukkha."

I agree with Bhiks Thanissaro and Bodhi that what is being spoken about is not the 'having' of no 'by this-ness' by Mālunkya-putta as Woodward has it, but the having of no 'you' by or through or because of that 'this'. Further than that my understanding of the next paragraph departs radically from the understanding of all three translators. Reader beware!

[SN 4.35.97] Dwelling Heedless, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Living Dangerously, the M. Olds translation
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha defines living dangerously as living with the forces of the senses uncontrolled. Living carefully is defined as living with the sense-forces controlled.
[SN 4.35.98] Saṃvara Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Restraint, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes restraint and lack of restraint in terms of whether or not one indulges and hangs on to the six senses.
[SN 4.35.99] Concentration, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha urges the Bhikkhus to develop serenity (samadhi) in order to see things as they are.
Woodward footnotes here that the commentary here defines Samādhi as citt'ekaggatā = 'heart one-got,' most frequently translated 'one-pointed', but also occasionally 'unified'. I suggest 'single-minded' 'intent' on it's purpose, and that this is at most one of many attributes of and not the entire definition of samadhi for the meaning elsewhere encompasses the entire practice from generosity up to and including the jhānas and the accomplishment of pointlessness, signlessness and emptiness all of which conduce to seeing things as they are and dwelling above it all = serenity.
[SN 4.35.100] Paṭisallāṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Solitude, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha urges the Bhikkhus to develop solitude in order to see things as they are.
A variation of the previous.
[SN 4.35.101] Not Yours (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to let go of experience through the senses. He compares their nature as not belonging to the self to the nature of the twigs and branches of the Jeta Grove.
Compare this sutta with SN 3.22.33.
[SN 4.35.102] Dutiya Na Tumhāka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Not Yours (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to let go of experience through the senses as such does not belong to the self.
Identical to the previous sutta but without the simile.
[SN 4.35.103] Uddaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Uddaka, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the requiements for stating that one is knowledgable, has mastered the word, and dug out the root of pain.
This lesson is given by way of critiquing a statement of Gotama's former teacher Uddaka, Rama's Son who makes the claim that he is 'Versed in lore, all conqueror, has dug out the root of Dukkha, not dug out before.' Uddaka taught Dhamma only up to The Sphere of Neither-Perception-nor-Non-Perception which did not satisfy Gotama in that he saw that this sphere was 'sankara-ed' (intentionally constructed by the self for experience of the self) and therefore subject to change and ending.
[SN 4.35.104] Yogakkhemi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Winner of Security the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha provides a general rule for the attainment of freedom from yokes in general through yoking one's self to abandoning the realms of the senses.
The sutta uses puns and depends on understanding the terms 'yoga' and 'pariyaya'. 'Yoga' in it's literal meanings as 'yoke' (as the yoke of a beast of burden to it's burden') and figuratively as 'devotion' or 'application' to a task. 'Pariyaya' means 'pass-round-whatsoever-whatsoever'. Most frequently in the sense of curiculum, or course. But it also means 'in general.' 'everything whatever'. The idea is along the lines of 'abandonging desire through desire to abandon desire;' 'yoked to abandonging the senses one abandons the yokes of the senses.' And here I take the meaning to be that this curiculum will serve in any case of being yoked; that this is the most general way of stating the way to attain freedom.
[SN 4.35.105] Upādāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Dependent, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that it is the senses that support personal pain and pleasure, and that seeing that the senses are impermanent and that impermanence is painful and letting go of taking delight in sense-experience leads to freedom and the end of rebirth.
This sutta has many parallels with suttas in the Khandhā book, e.g. SN 3.22.49, SN 3.22.79, SN 3.22.85, SN 3.22.100 ...
[SN 4.35.106] Dukkha-Samudaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ill, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes the way pain emerges and how, by ending thirst, the sequence is broken and freedom attained.
This sutta uses the Paticca Samuppada methodology to focus down on the sense spheres.
[SN 4.35.107] Loka-Samudaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The World, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha defines the world and the ending of the world in terms of thirst for sense experience.
See SN 4.35.68 above and the discussion of 'Loka' that follows.
[SN 4.35.108] Seyya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Better, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha points out that where the senses are seen as inconstant and painful the idea that the self is better or worse or equal to any other does not find any basis.
This is a variation on SN 4.35.105. This is the advantage of these series of suttas which are similar in most respects but change in one respect: they hammer away at one aspect of the Dhamma from all sides. It is very easy to think that when one has penetrated through to one view of, say, the senses according to Dhamma, one has completely understood this Dhamma. With these suttas one can be sure. They scour off every contaminant. Here in order to understand how seeing that the senses are changeable and painful eliminates judgments of superiority and inferiority, one must first grasp the idea (which is not stated overtly, you have to work at it) that the senses, being changeable and painful cannot rightly be considered 'self'. Without 'self' there is no evaluation of 'self' and 'other'. Think of these suttas as a soft cloth that is polishing, polishing, polishing away everything that is obstructing your vision. Every one of them is worth a little elbow grease.
[SN 4.35.109] Saŋyojana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fetter, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha defines the yokes to rebirth (sanyojana) distinguishing between the thing (the senses) and the yoke itself which is desire and lust.
A very important distinction to get through your head! See also for this idea: SN 3.22.120. It is not the fault of the fairest lass in the land, carelessly dressed, revealing her charms, laughing and singing and dancing, (no matter how much she is trying to make it so), that lust arises in one's heart. It is one's own deficiency of knowledge, perception, vision and self control.
[SN 4.35.110] Upādāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Grasping, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha defines that which supports life distinguishing between the thing (the senses) that supports and the supporting which is desire and lust.
See also for this idea: SN 3.22.121.
Because of the distinction made here between the fuel and the thing that makes the fuel fuel living, or between that which supports life and that which makes those supports support life, these are two (four) very good suttas to use to batter out your personal um...grasp/understanding/translation of 'upādāna'. Grasping works. 'The eye is the thing grasped, the lust is the grasping." Bhk. Bodhi: 'The eye is a thing that can be clung to, the desire and lust for it is the clinging there.' But I don't think the idea is 'clinging' either in regard to the khandhas or in its place in the Paticca Samuppada. This word must stand for 'going after or supporting or fueling getting' or 'going towards, supporting, fueling making' not trying to keep, hang on to, what has already been got.
[SN 4.35.111] Paṭhama Parijānana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Understanding (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states flat out that without understanding, without thoroughly knowing about, without becoming dispassionate towards, and without letting go of the six spheres of sense one is incapable of attaining the end of pain (dukkha).
You be told!
[SN 4.35.112] Paṭhama Parijānana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Understanding (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states flat out that without understanding, without thoroughly knowing about, without becoming dispassionate towards, and without letting go of the six objects of the senses one is incapable of attaining the end of pain (dukkha).
[SN 4.35.113] Paṭhama Parijānana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Understanding (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha exhorts a bhikkhu who has overheard him rehearsing it to himself to remember a version of the chain of self-generating consequences (the Paticca Samuppada) based on the six sense spheres.
[SN 4.35.114] Paṭhama Māra-Pāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Māra's Noose (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that indulging in the pleasures of the senses one is known as someone inhabiting the house of the Evil One, under the influence of the Evil One, trapped by the Evil One's noose, bound by the Evil One, subject to the pleasure of the Evil One.
[SN 4.35.115] Māra's Noose (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that indulging in the pleasures of the senses one is known as someone in bondage to sensory objects perceived by the sense organs, one inhabiting the house of the Evil One, under the influence of the Evil One, trapped by the Evil One's noose, bound by the Evil One, subject to the pleasure of the Evil One.
Identical to the previous with one change.
[SN 4.35.116] Paṭhama Loka-Kāma-Guṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Worldly Sense-Pleasures (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the end of the world is not to be reached by finding the end of the world but also that the end of pain cannot be reached without finding the end of the world. The bhikkhus question Ananda about this teaching in brief and Ananda explains that the meaning is that in the Buddha's system the world is to be understood as experiencing through the senses. The Buddha confirms Ananda's explanation.
This sutta is abridged by way of a statement that such and such was repeated precisely as it occurred. I have unabridged the Woodward translation accordingly but left the Pali as abridged.
This is an important sutta because of the definition of 'the world' as it is to be understood in the Buddhas's system.
[SN 4.35.118] Sakka-Pañha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sakka, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Sakka, king of the devas, asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
The introduction here of Sakka, a deva, the king of the devas, is so casual as to defeat any argument that it was so introduced by the editors to puff up Gotama's image. If that had been the intention the mind set of such would have dictated an array of fabulous circumstances to highlight the occasion. Here Sakka just has a simple question, gets a simple answer and that's the end of it. I would feel much safer, even were I one who disbelieved in devas, saying that it is I that cannot see devas rather than saying that devas do not exist. The latter statement would require of me a vision more astounding than that which would be required to see a deva.
[SN 4.35.119] Pañca-sikha-Pañha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Five-crest, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Deva Five-crest, asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
[SN 4.35.120] Sāriputta-Saddhi-Vihārika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sāriputta, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Sariputta teaches a bhikkhu about guarding the sense, moderation in eating and keeping the wakeful watch.||
Essential lessions in basic training. These are things to learn before even taking the first step in learning meditation and they will be things one will need to master for there to be any hope of real progress in this system.
This is very hard to swallow for people here today [USA Friday, April 24, 2015 7:22 AM] who only want to hear 'pay attention to the breating' or 'practice loving kindness'. Both those things are valuable instructions, but this is a system which claims to solve all the problems of existence. It is unreasonable to think that it will not require self-discipline and hard work. The Dhamma allows for faith by the layman — Practice Generosity, refine your ethical conduct, and train yourself as is suggested in this sutta. But be aware and be satisfied with the fact that this is just the beginning of a very long trip; one that will be the most difficult and trying of your life. If you approach this Dhamma thinking it's going to be a snap, or that it will make everything here right, beautiful and pleasant and easy, you are going to snap and be unjustifiably dissapointed and all the gods will have to say about you in that state is that you are indulging yourself in self-pity. You need to develop the heart of the hero. The sensation of having huge lungs, vast and irresistable strength. Very similar to the mind-set of the martyr, without the masochism — the determination to penetrate through to the achievement of the goal no matter what must be sacrificed here in this world. This is not the heart of a small man trying to trudge up an impossibly steep hill. Take hold. Put yourself in charge. There is no obstacle you cannot overcome! This is the Way! Everything you learn and practice in this system moves you ahead, but it is absolutely vital to keep the task in perspective. It is monumental. It is the most difficult challenge you will ever face. When you think it's going to be (or ought to be) easy and you fall back it is very important to look to yourself for the reason and not blame the system. If when you fall back you acknowledge your weaknesses you will be able to regain the system by re-examining your behavior and understanding of the system. If you blame the system; where will you go from there?
[SN 4.35.121] Rāhulo-Vāda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Rāhula, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Perceiving that Rahula, the Buddha's son, is ripe for Arahantship, the Buddha teaches him how to see the senses as not self and to let them go.
The story of the Buddha's son from birth to Arahantship is another of the background stories that one can pieces together when the the entire sutta collection is read. Here we see the teaching that brought him to Arahantship. (see: SN: Rahula Samyutta iii, SN 3.22.91, SN 3.22.92, AN 1.209 Personalities: Rahula.) This teaching is one that has appeared several times in this Chapter, but has a twist at the end of each section that deals with the senses. The BJT Pali has copied and pasted the text from another sutta but has neglected to make the change in the end sections. In stead of ending with the question as to the permanence or impermanence of the sensations that arise consequent on sense-contact, it ends with a question as to the impermanence or permanence of sensation, perception, own-making and consciousness.
[SN 4.35.122] Saŋyojana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fetter, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the distinction between that which yokes one to rebirth and that to which one is yoked.
A variation of SN 4.35.109, SN 3.22.120, SN 3.22.121.
[SN 4.35.123] Saŋyojana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fetter, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the distinction between that which supports rebirth and that which is the act of supporting.
See references just above, discussion (for both) at SN 4.35.109 above.
[SN 4.35.124] Vesālī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Vesālī, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ugga (Hugo), the householder, of Vesali, asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
see SN 4.35.118 above.
[SN 4.35.125] Vajji Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Vajjians, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ugga (Hugo), the householder, of Hatthigama, asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
Identical to the previous.
see SN 4.35.118 above.
[SN 4.35.126] Nālandā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Nālanda, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Upali, the householder, asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
Identical to the previous.

 


"Put not your faith in translations!"

Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume III, p. 775, n. 24.


 

[SN 4.35.127] Bhāradvāja, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Udena, the king of the Vaŋsas, questions the venerable Bharadvaja as to why respectable young men of family would renounce the world and live their entire lives as beggars in the Dhamma taught by Gotama. Bharadvaja provides him with several answers the last of which satisfies the king who then becomes a lay follower.
A point of interest here is the translation of the first response where Bharadvaja quotes the Buddha as teaching that the bhikkhu should mātu-mattīsu mātu-cittaṃ upaṭṭhapetha 'for the mother-measured mother-heart set up'. Woodward: "In the case of those who are just mothers, sisters and daughters, do ye call up the mother-mind, the sister-mind, the daughter-mind." Towards those considered (measured as, reckoned to be; Woodward's 'just' = 'a measure of') mothers, set up the heart as towards a mother, etc. Per Bhk. Bodhi: "towards women old enough to be your mother set up the idea that they are your mother." Bhk. Thanissaro: "with regard to women who are old enough to be your mother, establish the attitude you would have toward your mother." The idea 'old enough,' presumably the translation for 'measured as,' is pushing a narrow idea onto the Pali. It's 'measuring'. Taking into consideration all impressions together there is a similarity to ... . Think of the custom in countries like China and India where those towards whom one has feelings as towards a mother, father, uncle, brother, sister, daughter, are so called even between strangers. The idea here is 'who are similar to'. Age will be one factor of many. The idea that the mental attitude is to be the one one has for one's own mother, etc. is also not indicated but is being picked up from commentary. That could be a dangerous proposition! (as is pointed out by the king in response). Both sons, brothers and fathers and mothers, sisters and daughters are subject to deviant thoughts and feelings about each other. The idea is to set up the ideal way one should consider mothers, etc.
This sutta is being delivered by the bhikkhu named by the Buddha as one who is best at uttering a 'lion's roar'. In the case of this bhikkhu his lion's roar is that he is able to answer the questions of anyone concerning the paths and benefits from Streamwinner to Arahant. This sutta however does not seem to show him at such a high level as his first two answers are both incomplete responses to the question and ineffective in satisfying the King.
[SN 4.35.128] Soṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Soṇa, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Sona, the householder, asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
Identical to SN 4.35.124.
[SN 4.35.129] Ghosita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ghosita, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ghosita the householder asks Ananda about the Buddha's understanding of the diversity of informative data.
Note that here the object of sense productive of sensation that is not-painful-but-not-pleasant is 'upekkhā-ṭṭhāniyā': 'a detached-state.' (a state of detachment from sense-consciousness.) PED has, under 'upekkha': "Sometimes equivalent to adukkham-asukha-vedanā "feeling which is neither pain nor pleasure," but here it is not the equivalant, but the source. To say that it is the equivalent is the equivalant of saying that pleasant sensation arising from consciousness of a pleasant visual object is the same thing as the visual object. Adukkha-m-asukha-vedanā is not 'neither/nor' but 'not-but-not'. Grumble, grumble, grumble.
[SN 4.35.130] Hāliddaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Hāliddaka, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Haliddaka the householder asks Maha Kaccana about the diversity of informative data.
[SN 4.35.131] Nakulapitā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Nakulapitar, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Nakulapita asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
Identical to SN 4.35.124.
[SN 4.35.132] Lohicca Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Lohicca, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Maha Kaccana teaches a brahmin the meaning of guarding the senses.
[SN 4.35.133] Verahaccāni, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the M. Olds translation (revised)
The Elder Udayin teaches by example the respect that should be paid to the Dhamma and Dhamma teachers. He then teaches the different situations where the Arahant will or will not point out pleasure and pain.
[SN 4.35.134] Devadahakhaṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Moment at Devadaha, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha makes a distinction between the seeker and the Arahant with regard to being careful about guarding the senses.
[SN 4.35.135] Verahaccāni, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
The Buddha delivers a real fire-and-brimstone sutta urging the bhikkhus to take advantage of the lucky fact that they have been reborn when Dhamma was being taught and make strong effort.
[SN 4.35.136] Rūpāpārāma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Not Including (the sixfold sense-sphere), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that it is because of the instability of the objects of the senses that gods and men come to grief, but that the Arahant actually finds this instability his source of living at ease.
The sutta numbering system of the BJT and CSCD Pali and the Bhk. Bodhi translation diverges from the PTS at this sutta which they have divided into two suttas. There are reasonable arguments for either side of the issue.
The sutta is especially interesting for the statement that it is the instability of sense objects that is the basis of ease for the Arahant. I don't believe this statement is made elsewhere in the suttas. How should this be understood? I would suggest that it is because the Arahant is free from the grief caused by this instability that perception of it is a reminder of what has been escaped.
[SN 4.35.137] Palāsinā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Leaves (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to let go of experience through the senses. He compares their nature as not belonging to the self to the nature of the twigs and branches of the Jeta Grove.
Compare this sutta with SN 3.22.33. and SN 4.35.101.
[SN 4.35.138] Dutiya Palāsinā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Leaves (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to let go of the objects of the senses. He compares their nature as not belonging to the self to the nature of the twigs and branches of the Jeta Grove.
This and the previous sutta are without nidanas. In context they should have been located in Devadaha, but the simile in each references 'this Jeta Grove' which is in Savatthi. I have used Savatthi, but there is room for doubt.
[SN 4.35.139] Ajjhatta-Anicca aka Hetunā Ajjhatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Personal, by Way of Condition (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the sense organs, however they originated, are a product of the impermanent and as a consequence are themselves impermant. Then he instructs them that when this is seen as it is, one lets go one's taste for experience through the senses.
[SN 4.35.140] Ajjhatta-Dukkha aka Hetunā Ajjhatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Personal, by Way of Condition (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the sense organs, however they originated, are a product of suffering and as a consequence are themselves of the nature of suffering. Then he instructs them that when this is seen as it is, one lets go one's taste for experience through the senses.
A variation of the previous.
[SN 4.35.141] Ajjhatta-Anatta aka Hetunā Ajjhatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Personal, by Way of Condition (iii), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the sense organs, however they originated, are a result of what is not the self and as a conseqence are themselves not of the nature of self. Then he instructs them that when this is seen as it is, one lets go one's taste for experience through the senses.
[SN 4.35.142] Bāhira-Anicca aka Hetunā Bāhira Suttaṃ (i), the Pali,
The External, by Way of Condition 1, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the sense objects, however they originated, are a result of what is not the self and as a conseqence are themselves not of the nature of self. Then he instructs them that when this is seen as it is, one lets go one's taste for experience through the senses.
[SN 4.35.143] Bāhira-Dukkha aka Hetunā Bāhira Suttaṃ (ii), the Pali,
The External, by Way of Condition 2, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the sense objects, however they originated, are a result of what is not the self and as a conseqence are themselves not of the nature of self. Then he instructs them that when this is seen as it is, one lets go one's taste for experience through the senses.
[SN 4.35.144] Bāhira-Anatta aka Hetunā Bāhira Suttaṃ (iii), the Pali,
The External, by Way of Condition 3, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the sense objects, however they originated, are a result of what is not the self and as a conseqence are themselves not of the nature of self. Then he instructs them that when this is seen as it is, one lets go one's taste for experience through the senses.
The previous six making up the famous '3 characteristics'. Note that the implication is that by thorough understanding of any one of them the whole lot is understood and arahantship is attainable.

 

new Thursday, March 19, 2015 4:21 AMDīgha Nikāya,
[DN 14] Mahā Padāna Sutta, the Pali,
The Sublime Story, the Rhys Davids, T. and C., translation.
The Buddha gives the bhikkhus a comprehensive course on his system through the lens of seeing the lives of the previous seven Buddhas.
Like other suttas, this one reveals itself in a completely different light when unabridged. It is essential to understand the repetitions as vital tools in conditioning the mind to reception of ideas which will completely change an individual's perception of the world. It is just at that point where the reader finds it unbearable to read what he has already read twice or three times before that the listener is brought into another dimension. I suggest that that other dimension is the attainment of the jhānas. A point where the individual's ego relaxes his grip on his normal reality and can accept new possibilities. This experience can only be duplicated in the reader if he forces himself to relax and imagines himself in the place of the listener. This opportunity is completely lost with abridgment and with that loss also is lost the opportunity to accept as real experience what is in the ordinary world acceptable only as 'childish myth' or, as Rhys Davids would have it the root of the weed which would eventually overwhelm the original teaching and bring it down.
But this sutta contains in fact a complete course in the doctrine from a version of the gradual course to the four truths to a very enlightening exposition of the Paticca Samuppada.
The knee-jerk reaction of the critical reader will immediately dismiss as absurd myth the idea that there were, if there even were, seven previous Buddhas who all experienced birth, renunciation of the world, awakening and the events leading to the teaching of the Dhamma in virtually identical ways. But with even casual observation one will note in one's own life that there are thousands of episodes which repeat themselves in identical ways. People repeat the same stories over and over. Not only old people but everyone. I have seen myself in situations where the circumstances and dialogue were identical with those of a few years previous. Read a history of China, The History of the Fall of the Roman Empire, The Rise and Fall of The Third Reich, the story of Napoleon. History is an absurd story of nearly identically repeating episodes. Truly 'a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing.' It is in the nature of the world to repeat itself. Repetition until mutation is the first operating principle of our DNA. Why should we think that the world at large operates differently? That there is in this world an expansion into virtually every permutation of every possibility is visible if you look. That there are as a result heavons and hells is the predictable natural result which is denied only by the narrow 'scientific, rational' mind that cannot see it's nose in front of it's face. That this evolution of possibilities also contains a principle of perfection in what we call an Awakened being is not that difficult to accept. That this principle evolves upward in relatively similar ways is also reasonable. That one does not 'see' this reflects only on one's own taming, training and education. At least, the truly 'rational' individual should allow for the possibility. Relax, someone who has seen it for themselves is speaking to you in this sutta. Listen with an unbiased ear and you may 'see.'
This leads to the question of the term to be used for this phenomena of seeing the past lives of others. It cannot properly be 'recollection' or 'memory' as those are terms indicating the recollection of experiences personally witnessed at the time. What we have here is the seeing of events that were not personally witnessed. The Pali is: 'suppaṭividdhattā'  SU = well; PAṬI = reflect; VIDDHA = having had penetrating knowledge (intuited);
what is 'penetrated' or 'intuited' is dhamma-dhātuyā; not, I suggest 'a principle of the truth' or 'Dhamma,' but data or information concerning the nature of things in general — What I am suggesting above: that with an open mind one sees the repetititve nature of the things in the world and so seeing, and not obstructing such a view by dismissal as 'myth', one is able to see and differentiate between what to the ordinary 'seer' looks like one fuzzy event, the overlaping of multiple events. We can see also, the reverse. That say, for example, the history of Europe as one simple story repeating itself over and over. After a brief experiment in good government, psychopathic brute or psychopathic benevolant dictator or inbred idiot child rises up through the ranks of the army or inherits rule, takes control of the government, kills his enemies or not, takes many wives or not, has children or not, gives laws that make sense or not, indulges in cruelty, persecution of some enemy, conquest of other nations, indulgence of the senses or lives an ascetic life, kills his children and friends for conspiring against his life, is betrayed by his children and friends, is assassinated or exiled in luxory. Once or twice in a thousand years there is a good ruler. Once or twice in a thousand years an experiment in good govenment. Mostly not. Hitler and Napoleon are two sides of the same coin. When the good ruler dies his legacy is lost. When the initial excitement of a new good government wears off and becomes ordinary some psychopathic brute or some psychopathic benevolant dictator ... Rince and repeat. Why should the story of Awakening be any different? That is in terms of it's repetitive nature? A cosmic principle of Awakening in juxtaposition to the cosmic principle of Blindness.
Rhys Davids: 'through clear discernment of a principle of the truth ... that he is able to remember;' Walshe: 'understands ... by his own penetration of the principles of Dhamma.'
In this regard also the reader, when Rhys Davids (and following him, Walshe) speaks of the 'rule', what is being translated is 'the Dhamma', which should be heard in this case as 'the form' or 'the pattern' or at least 'the general rule.'
The numbering of the sections agrees in no two versions of this sutta. I have numbered the sections according as it appears to me the text is usually broken up.
Rhys Davids ends this sutta with a reading I believe is mistaken. In this case the Buddha has just gone to visit the Aviha heaven where groups of devas there approach and announce to him the details of the lives of the seven Buddhas including Gotama, (each group having been the disciples of the Buddha about whom they speak). The Pali and Rhys Davids both abridge giving the details for the first Buddha (Vipassi) and the last (Gotama) indicating the rest with "pe". Then Rhys Davids has Gotama visiting the Atappa, Sudassa, Sudassi and Akinittha heavens successively where in each case the gods deliver speeches similar to the ones delivered in the Aviha realm. But my reading of the Pali is that the gods of each of the higher realms approach Gotama and join the others in the Aviha realm. I read for the last case, for example: "Then the Akanittha gods approach the Aviha gods and the Attapa gods and the Sudassa gods and the Sudassi gods and ... ." Rhys Davids has this as: "Then on, including thus the Aviha and Cool and Fair gods" In the translation proper I have expanded the abridgment of Rhys Davids translation according to his understanding, but I have footnoted the alternate reading in full using his terminology. The significance of the difference is pedagogical: It makes much better sense that each succeeding higher set of gods state their knowledge in front of the younger group.

 

The Self-Rising Nature of Existence and Pain

This consciousness rebounds off/evolves into named-form
going no further.

It is only this far
that there is birth
or aging
or death
or falling from one condition
or reappearing in another;
that is to say:

Named-form resulting in consciousness,
and consciousness resulting in named-form,
named-form resulting in the six realms of the senses,
the six realms of the senses resulting in contact,
contact resulting in sense experience,
sense experience resulting in thirst (to get, to get away from),
thirst resulting in stoking the fire (fueling the fire, this is the activity of sankhārā-ing, acting in thought word and deed with the intent to create experience of existence for the self)
fueling the fire resulting in existence,
existence resulting in birth,
birth resulting in aging, sickness and death,
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair.

This is the Samudaya
of this entire body of pain.

"Samudaya! Samudaya!"

At that thought, beggars,
there arose a vision into things
not previously cognized,
and knowledge arose,
reason arose,
wisdom arose,
light arose.

Adapted from Rhys Davids translation of DN 14. See also: SN 3.65.

 


 

This passage which I have adapted from Rhys David's translation of DN 14 where it is related of Vipassi Buddha's awakening is also found in the second part of The First Sutta.

In the conclusion to both versions, after having pieced together the sequence of dependencies resulting in birth and it's consequent pain, the Buddhas remark: "Samudayo! Samudayo!" and a previously unrealized insight occurs to them.

Since what has just occurred is the sequence of dependencies itself (the Paṭicca Samuppada) (and thus it, itself, is not the insight that is being referred to as it has been previously realized) what is this insight that they are referring to?

First one must grasp the significance of the originating idea, that is:

Paccudāvattati kho idaṃ viññāṇaṃ,||
nāma-rūpamhā,||
nā paraṃ gacchati.
|| ||

This consciousness rebounds off/evolves into named-form
going no further.

... that for conscousness of existence as an individuality, consciousness and named-forms are interdependent. Picking an arbitrary starting point, consciousness of named forms results in a sequence that when mixed with identification with intent to create experience of existence leads to the formation of consciousness of named forms.

Now 'Samudaya' is usually translated 'arising' or 'coming to be'. But here, as in 'Sankhārā' we have an un-accounted-for (in such translations) 'sam.'

Is this 'own'? or 'co-, con-, or com'?

Looking at the point in the sequence named 'upādāna', we can see that without fueling the fire the process would come to a halt at this point. When an identified-with previously rolling process (aka a living being) identfies with the intent to create experience of existence through acts of thought, word and deed, the process rolls on. The error is in thinking that this previously identified with instigator of action is 'the self' or 'a self' or 'belongs to a self'. In that it does not, the process is 'self-' or 'own-rising.' The parts replicate themselves. In that identification with intent to create experience of existence is necessary for the process to continue, it is 'co-arising'. Not 'co' 'you and it' but 'co' 'it and this intent and this identification and this action'. It can be let go without loss of 'self.'

Today [Tuesday, March 17, 2015 4:13 AM] we have these nano-robots that replicate themselves. But for that process to work automatically there was originally built into it the instruction to do that. That is the equivalent of the process of own-making.

In light of the above, the second half of this insight, 'Nirodha! Nirodha!' is not just the seeing of the reverse of the process of the Paticca Samuppada, but the fact that it is done by the ending of the identification of self with the fueling of the process. That it comes to an end of it's own without that input.

In the same way as we can observe the self-replicatiing nano robot and see that we could dismantle the thing and prevent it's self-replication by removing the instruction to replicate, we can remove the self-replicating intent to experience from this process of existing we call life and eliminate the consequent self-identification with it's painful outcome.

How?

By minute examination of everything occuring at the senses (or within the scope of the 4 satipatthanas, or within the scope of the khandhas).

By 'yoniso-manasikara-ing', tracing things back to their points of origin, one can observe the self-replicating process as occuring independent of any 'self,' dependent only on the mistaken view that there is self there (that 'I' will 'die' if I do not act).

By eliminating every activity that is identified with self by filtering every thought, word, and deed through the Magga, The Aristocratic Multi-dimensional High Way.

When one can see that one can opt-out.

Opting out one is free.

Recognizing this freedom as the freedom from Pain that one has been seeking, one is free
and one knows:

"Birth is left behind,
lived was carrying on like Brahma,
done is duty's doing,
no more for me is there being it and at."

 


 

Kimhi nu kho sati jarā-maraṇaṃ hoti,||
kim paccayā jarā-maraṇan.
|| ||

What now being have we aging and death,
what results in aging and death?

Jātiyā kho sati jarā-maraṇaṃ hoti,||
jāti-paccayā jarā-maraṇan.
|| ||

Birth now being we have aging and death,
birth results in aging and death.

Kimhi nu kho sati jāti hoti,||
kim paccayā jātī?
|| ||

What now being have we birth,
what results in birth?

Bhave kho sati jāti hoti,||
bhava paccayā jātī.
|| ||

Becoming now being we have birth,
becoming results in birth.

'Becoming' is a literal translation of 'bhava' (it could be 'bad-go' or 'pass-vent' or 'pass wind') which is elsewhere translated as 'being' or 'existing' or 'living'. It is what we understand as existing (and there is no 'existing' as we understand it outside of this), which is a process of becoming in the shape of forms of existence such as being human, being a god, etc. It is valuable for insight into the fact that this is a thing which is a self-sustaining process, that the idea of existing or living be seen as becoming.

Kimhi nu kho sati bhavo hoti,||
kim paccayā bhavo?
|| ||

What now being have we becoming,
what results in becoming?

Upādāne kho sati bhavo hoti,||
upādāna-paccayā bhavo.
|| ||

Setting up now being we have becoming,
setting up results in becoming.

'Setting up' is what I now suggest is the best translation for 'upadana' (literally: up-given), elsewhere translated Rhys Davids: 'grasping,' Walshe, Bhk. Bodhi: 'clinging,' Bhk. Thanissaro: 'clinging/sustenance,' and myself: 'upholding,' 'support,' 'upkeep,' 'going-after-getting', and more lately following Bhk. Thanissaro 'fueling'. The idea is that after the experience of sensations, and upon the arising of thirst one sets out to get, prepares the way, sets rolling the necessary pre-condtions for attaining, thereby fueling the fire of lust and furthering the effort to get. Setting up is accomplished by wanting/wishing, points of view, performing rites and rituals in the effort to attain experience of self. It is the actions of sankhārā-ing.

Kimhi nu kho sati upādānaṃ hoti,||
kim paccayā upādānan?
|| ||

What now being have we setting up,
what results in setting up?

Taṇhāya kho sati upādānaṃ hoti,||
taṇhā-paccayā upādānan.

Thirst now being we have setting up,
thirst results in setting up.

Kimhi nu kho sati taṇhā hoti,||
kim paccayā taṇhā?
|| ||

What now being have we thirst,
what results in thirst?

Vedanāya kho sati taṇhā hoti,||
vedanā-paccayā taṇhā.
|| ||

Sense-experience now being we have thirst,
sense-experience results in thirst.

'Sense-experience,' (literally the 'thrill given'), takes, at it's most fundamental, three forms: pleasant sensation, painful sensation or sensation that is not painful but not pleasant. Such sensations result from contact with an object perceived to be of a nature corresponding to the sensation, but one experiences unpleasant sensation then perceives what one believes to be an unpleasant object. Sensation is relative to the object only in its results in the next revolution of the cycle and the mind, seeking the object of sensation can be mistaken and instigate on entirely false premises completly disasterous activity. Sensation follows contact. What one experiences as sensation preceeds thirst. 'Preceeds' means it comes before. 'Comes before' means it is already in the past. It is the experience of something that has already happened. Thirst set up on sense experience is chasing the past and results in becoming in the future. The process can be stopped at this point by tracing sense experience back to it's point of origin (yoniso-manasikaro) and seeing that if it is not acted upon it will not result in future sense experience. Experiencing the unpleasant sensation called anger that results from a perception of some injury inflicted on one by some person or event one has the choice of reacting with vengeful, angry, and always mistaken behaviors (setting up further expectations of becoming in an unpleasant situation) or by perceiving the event as over-with, passed, done gone, at that point, letting the sensation die out.

Kimhi nu kho sati vedanā hoti,||
kim paccayā vedanā?
|| ||

What now being have we sense-experience,
what results in sense-experience?

Phasse kho sati vedanā hoti,||
phassa-paccayā vedanā.
|| ||

Contact now being we have sense-experience,
contact results in sense-experience.

Kimhi nu kho sati phasso hoti,||
kim paccayā phasso?
|| ||

What now being have we contact,
what results in contact?

Saḷāyatane kho sati phasso hoti,||
saḷāyatana-paccayā phasso.
|| ||

The six-realms now being we have contact,
the six-realms results in contact.

'The six-realms' is the literal translation of 'saḷāyatana' which is shorthand for 'the six-realms of the senses': the eye and sights, the ear and sounds, the nose and scents, the tongue and tastes, the body and touches, the mind and all things.

Kimhi nu kho sati saḷāyatanaṃ hoti,||
kim paccayā saḷāyatanan?
|| ||

What now being have we the six realms,
what results in the six realms?

Nāma-rūpe kho sati saḷāyatanaṃ hoti,||
nāma-rūpa-paccayā saḷāyatanan.
|| ||

'Named-shapes' is the literal translation of 'nāma-rūpa', elsewhere translated: Walshe and Rhys Davids (incorrectly imposing Western philosophical views on the Pali) 'mind-and-body;' Bhk. Bodhi: mentality/materiality (just rephrasing the mistake of 'mind-and-body'); Rhys Davids, Hare, Horner, Bhk. Thanissaro: 'name and form;' Horner: psycho-physicality; Bhk. Punnaji: Entity/Identity (which is excellent if one does not wish to literally follow the Pali); Woodward: Name and visible body complex. It could also, following the Greek, be translated: 'phenomena' phe-nomena: face-name, which is helpful for understanding the meaning. What is it that makes up an experience of sense? The Eye comes into Contact with a visible object. Sense-experience (senstion), and Consciousness of that sense experience are the result. The component parts are the Form (a shape, sound, scent, savour, touch, or mental object) and perception (identification of the object as a shape, sound, scent, savour, touch, or mental object that is pleasant, unpleasant or not unpleasant but not pleasant and as whatever further identifications that object has come to be known by).

Named-shapes now being we have the six realms,
named-shapes result in the six realms.

Kimhi nu kho sati nāma-rūpaṃ hoti,||
kim paccayā nāma-rūpan?
|| ||

What now being have we named-shapes,
what results in named-shapes?

Viññāṇe kho sati nāmarūpaṃ hoti,||
viññāṇa-paccayā nāmarūpan.

Consciousness now being we have named-shapes,
cognition results in named-shapes.

Viññāṇa, literally 're-knowing-knowning-knowledge', the awareness of knowing that knowing is occuring. I believe this word also reflects the reality that consciousness as it is experienced by the ordinary individual is not a single act of knowing, but an illusion created by thousands of re-perceptions of a composite of previously perceived sense-objects. In the Paṭica Samuppada Viññāṇa, is intimately bound up in the point of view that this consciousness is arising in an individuality known as 'me,' perceiving through the senses.

Kimhi nu kho sati viññāṇaṃ hoti,||
kim paccayā viññāṇan?
|| ||

What now being have we consciousness,
what results in consciousness?

Nāma-rūpe kho sati viññāṇaṃ hoti,||
nāma-rūpa-paccayā viññāṇan.
|| ||

Named-forms now being we have consciousness,
named-forms results in consciousness.

Paccudāvattati kho idaṃ viññāṇaṃ,||
nāma-rūpamhā,||
nā paraṃ gacchati.
|| ||

This consciousness rebounds off/evolves into named-form
going no further.

Paccudāvattati could also be 'rolls out from/returns to'. The simile given is of two shiefs of wheat which are able to be placed upright only by one leaning on the other. Consciousness needs an object to be conscious of to be consciousness as we know it; named-forms are only such when there is consciousness of them. Part of the idea of 'name' implies a perception of that name. Things have 'names' to their observer. They do not wander around space with a name attached waiting to be made conscious of. They are given names in the process of perception that results in consciouosness of them by an individual. Be careful to note that 'this!' Our term 'consciousness' is not a direct equivalent of the Pali Viññāṇa, and there is no end of trouble for one conceiving the idea that the Buddha is teaching the eradication of 'consciousness'. For a more detailed discussion of this issue see: Is Nibbana Conditioned see the second part of this discussion.

Ettāvatā jāyetha vā jīyetha mīyetha vā cavetha vā upapajjetha vā,||
yad idaṃ nāma-rūpa-paccayā viññāṇaṃ,||
viññāṇa-paccayā nāma-rūpaṃ,||
nāma-rūpa-paccayā saḷāyatanaṃ,||
saḷāyatana-paccayā phasso,||
phassa-paccayā vedanā,||
vedanā-paccayā taṇhā,||
taṇhā paccayā upādānaṃ,||
upādāna-paccayā bhavo,||
bhava-paccayā jāti,||
jāti-paccayā jarā-maraṇaṃ||
soka-parideva-dukkha-domanass-ūpāyāsā sambhavan.
|| ||

Only thus is there birth and with birth aging or death or passing on or appearing,
that is, named-forms resulting in consciousness,
consciousness resulting in named forms,
named forms resulting in the six-realms,
the six-realms resulting in contact,
contact resulting in sense-experience,
sense-experience resulting in thirst,
thirst resulting in setting up,
setting up resulting in becoming,
becoming resulting in birth,
birth resulting in aging and death,
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair.

Understanding this, the Paṭicca Samuppada, provides the basis for the insight into the knowledge that 'this,' that which we know as 'myself' or 'me,' is a process, a becoming thing. And it is this insight which is essential to have set up to fully appreciate the idea that:

Yaṃ kiñci samudaya-dhammaṃ||
sabban taṃ nirodha-dhamman|| ||

'Whatever there is that is a self-arising thing,
all that is an ending thing.'

and that whatever comes to an end is not the self.

 

 

Vulture Peak Range above Old Rajagaha
Vulture Peak Range above Old Rājagaha.

 

new Friday, March 13, 2015 8:23 AMTherīgāthā, Psalms of the Sisters:
[THIG Canto II: Psalms of Two Verses]Psalms of Two Verses, Ps. XIX-XXVIII Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
Includes short biographical descriptions of each bhikkhunī: Verses of: Abhirūpa-Nandā, Jentī or Jentā, Sumangala's Mother, Aḍḍhakāsī, Cittā, Mettikā, Mittā, Abhaya's Mother, Abhayā, and Sāmā. All on one file. Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translations where available.
Apologies for numbering errors in the previous upload for Canto I. A strange, probably search-and-replace error exchanged Capitial "I." for "i." and sometimes eliminated an "I" altogether and this in all files relating to the Therigatha including the index. Very distressing in a file which uses Roman Numerals extensively. I hope I have caught all the errors in the previous and this file.
Note in the photograph above the distortion just right of center eminating from Vulture's Head itself. Relax and see the wings streatching out from each side of the head. Vulture's Head would be what Don Juan would call a power spot. Possibly an entry point to another dimension; a place where two worlds meet. Two of the bhikkhuni's in Canto II achieve Arahantship in old age upon climbing to this spot. Of course someone will suggest this was just a blur caused by the careless use of chemicals by the photograph's developer. I wonder what chemicals?
[THIG Canto XVI: The Great Canto] Ps. LXXIII: Sumedhā, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

 


Yo kho Vakkali, dhammaṃ passati||
so maṃ passati,||
yo maṃ passati||
so dhammaṃ passati.|| ||

He, Vakkali, who sees Dhamma,
he sees me;
he who sees me,
he sees Dhamma.

— Gotama The Awake, SN 3.22.87


 

 

new Wednesday, March 11, 2015 6:13 AMMajjhima Nikāya
[MN 9] Discourse on Perfect View, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana, Bhk. Thanissaro, Ñanamoli Thera trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., Buddhist Publication Society, 1991 and Bhks. Bodhi and Nanamoli, Wisdom Publications (with permission) translation.
Sariputta explains the path to attaining of consummate view in thirty two (33 ?) different ways.
A very enlightening sutta!
Note that Ms. Horner has dared to break with the pack in her translation of 'sammā' as 'perfect'.
Note that here is an exposition of the Paticca Samuppada which casts each of the factors in the form of the Four Truths which shows both that each of the factors is itself a path to Nibbana, and that the Paticca Samuppada as a whole is a way of stating the Four Truths.
Note that the commentator numbers the proclamation of the Four Truths in this sutta as 32. I suggest that in addition the entire sutta also counts as one such proclamation, so the number should be 33.
Note that we have here the Paticca Samuppada with the 'āsavas' the corrupting influences, (Ms. Horner's 'cankers'), preceding the usual 'ignorance' as it's starting point.
Note that here 'Craving' 'Taṇha' is at one point said to be the precurser to the sustenances, and later in the secquence paralleling the Paticca Samuppada, it is said to be the origin of 'upādāna' (Ms. Horner's 'Grasping'.) I suggest this is a good argument for the translation of 'upādāna' not as 'grasping,' but as 'support' or 'fuel' or an equivalant term. See above: 'set-ups'.
Note that under the three sankharings which I have usually described as of thought, word, and deed, the precise translation would be of body, word, and mental (where 'mental' is 'citta', or that work of the heart which has to do with intent and will, and is more specifically associated with individuality than is the more general 'mano' or 'mind'). The Buddha's system of 'kamma' makes a distinction between a passing thought and thought associated with intent or will. Passing thoughts are not 'kammic acts' or sankharas (own-makings).
[MN 144] Channovāda Suttaṃ,
Discourse on an Exhortation to Channa, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Sister Upalavana translation.
Sariputta and Maha Cunda visit Channa who is dying a painful death. Channa announces he will 'take the knife' (commit suicide). Sariputta questions him as to his understanding of Dhamma and Maha Cunda recites for him a saying of the Buddha warning against the wavering that results from attachments. Later, after Channa has 'taken the knife' Sariputta questions the Buddha as to Channa's fate. The Buddha states that his was a blameless end.
See: SN 4.35.87 above which is identical to this sutta for a discussion of suicide relative to Buddhism.
[MN 145] Puṇṇavāda Suttaṃ,
Discourse on an Exhortation to Puṇṇa, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Sister Upalavana translation.
Punna, after being given an instruction 'in brief' by the Buddha, is questioned as to how he will deal with the fierce people of Sunaparanta where he intends to dwell. He gives a series of answers which shows he has the patience to deal with them even to the point of death.
An inspiring sutta. A great lesson in the attitude one should adopt to perfect patience.
For another translation of this sutta see SN 4.35.88 above which is almost identical.
[MN 56] Discourse with Upāli, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Sister Upalavana translation.
A debate with the Buddha concerning the Jain proposition that of deeds of mind, word, and body, the deed of body carried the strongest kammic consequences where the Buddha holds that it is the deed of mind that carries the strongest kammic consequences.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her and by Alexander Genaud. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged and the footnotes needed to be added in. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.
[MN 32] Greater Discourse in Gosiŋga, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Sister Upalavana translation.
A group of the Buddha's great disciples gather together on a beautiful moonlit night in Gosinga Woods with the air perfumed by the Sal Tree blossoms. They each, in turn, describe the sort of bhikkhu they feel would illuminate this woods. Then, unable to descide whose proposition was best, they visit the Buddha to ask his opinion. The Buddha approves all their opinions and adds his own contribution.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged and the footnotes needed to be added in. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.
[MN 41] Discourse to the People of Sālā, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Nanamoli translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha, speaking to the householders of Sala, explains in detail how it comes about that some people go to happy rebirths in the heavens and others end up in hell.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged and the footnotes needed to be added in. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.
[MN 47] Discourse on Inquiring, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha goes into detail concerning how one should examine one who claims to have attained the goal.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged and the footnotes needed to be added in. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.
[MN 51] Discourse to Kandaraka, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha, from a brief discussion of the four types of individuals found in the world, when asked to elaborate expounds on the habits of those intent on harmful ascetic practices, those who follow a bloody calling, those who torment both themselves and others, and those who neither torment themselves nor torment others. By way of the last group he teaches a detailed course of progress from layman to the benefits of Arahantship.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged and the footnotes needed to be added in. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.
[MN 93] Discourse with Assalāyana, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavana translation.
A debate between a brahmin and the Buddha concerning the relative merits of the casts. A thoroughly rational and convincing set of arguments for the position that it is individual merit, not birth that distinguishes one man from another.
A very important sutta.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged and the footnotes needed to be added in. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.
[MN 95] Discourse with Caŋkī the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha points out the flaws in reliance on faith, inclination, report, consideration of reasons, reflection on and approval of an opinion and describes the path that leads to seeing the truth of a proposition for one's self.