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 [Ditthadhamma Lokadhamma]


newWhat's New?

 


Monday, April 25, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, March 28, 2016


 


"Times have changed from the times they used to be"

"Truly, now," said Michael Mail, clearing the corner of his throat in the manner of a man who meant to be convincing; "there's a friendly tie of some sort between music and eating." He lifted the cup to his mouth, and drank himself gradually backwards from a perpendicular position to a slanting one, during which time his looks performed a circuit from the wall opposite him to the ceiling overhead. Then clearing the other corner of his throat: "Once I was sitting in the little kitchen of the Three Choughs at Casterbridge, having a bit of dinner, and a brass band struck up in the street. Sich a beautiful band as that were! I was sitting eating fried liver and lights, I well can mind - ah, I was I and to save my life, I couldn't help chawing to the tune. Band played six-eight time; six-eight chaws I, willy-nilly. Band plays common; common time went my teeth among the fried liver and lights as true as a hair. Beautiful 'twere! Ah, I shall never forget that there band!"

— Old Michael Mail, in Under the Greenwood Tree by Thomas Hardy, 1872
pgs 33 & 70, Collins' Illustrated Pocket Classics,
London and Glasgow: Collins' Clear-Type Press,
Leather Gilt top. No date of publication.
To give another example of the use of 'mind' as 'remember'. So we justify using 'mind' as the translation throughout for 'sati', whether the intent is to be saying: 'the mind', 'remember', 'pay attention', or 'look after.' It makes no never-mind that this usage has fallen out of the common memory. We can recollect it. - 'lights' = lung - O.E.D.


 

new Thursday, April 14, 2016 8:14 AMIndex of Personalities: Mandhāta. A primeval king, ancestor of the Sakyans, who is declared by the Buddha (in AN 4.15) to be the all time top among enjoyers of sense-pleasures.

 

new Thursday, April 14, 2016 8:14 AMThera-Gāthā Psalms of the Early Buddhists, II. Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translations.
[THAG 24] Sugandha
[THAG 25] Nandiya
[THAG 26] Abhaya

 

new Wednesday, April 13, 2016 9:12 AMAŋguttara Nikāya
[AN 3.55] Nibbāna, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains the meaning of 'Seen in this life is Nibbana.
[AN 3.56] Nibbāna, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A wealthy brahmin has heard the story told by the ancients of a time when this world was densely populated and villages and towns and cities grew up right next to each other. He asks Gotama why it is that this is no longer the case and is told that it is because at this time the people are obsessed with lusts, depravities and wrong views resulting in a number of calamaties that depopulate the earth.
[AN 3.57] Vaccha, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha sets straight a rumor that he teaches that it is only to him and his followers that gifts should be given; that it is only gifts to him and his followers that are of great fruit.
[AN 3.58] Tikaṇṇa, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Tikanna, the brahman, visits the Buddha and sings the praises of the brahman 'three-fold lore'. Gotama responds describing the 'three-fold-lore' of the Aristocrats: seeing past lives, seeing the outcomes of kamma, and seeing that one has destroyed the corrupting influences.
[AN 3.59] Jāṇussoṇi, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Janussoni, the brahman, visits the Buddha and suggests that brahmins with the threefold knowledge should always be invited to sacrificial events. The Buddha asks him to describe what the brahmins call the threefold lore. Then Gotama responds describing the 'three-fold-lore' of the Aristocrats: seeing past lives, seeing the outcomes of kamma, and seeing that one has destroyed the corrupting influences.
[AN 3.60] Saŋgārava, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Sangarava approaches Gotama with the idea that those who perform sacrifices do more good for more people than those who leave the household life for the homeless state. Gotama then raises the case of a Buddha arising in the world, one who teaches multitudes, gods and men. There follows discussion of the merits of various magic powers.
Here we can see the origin of the Chinese Mahayana idea that attaining arahantship is selfish. Another interesting thing revealed here is the statement that even in the Buddhas own time his followers numbered in the hundreds of thousands.
There is also in this sutta an interesting description of four different methods of mind-reading.
Now: who sees why brahmin Sangarava got stuck on Ananda's question and how it was that he got un-stuck by the way the issue was approached by the Buddha?
[AN 3.61] Sectarian, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha lays out three positions concerning what is going on here which lead to making no effort to extract oneself from a bondage which entails pain and the endless continuation of pain in rebirth. He then explains his doctrine which does inspire activity towards ending pain and rebirth.
[AN 3.62] Perils, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the M. Olds translation.
Gotama speaks of three terrors of the common people and shows how their fears go too far; he follows that by speaking of three terrors not subject to remediation through wishes; and then he points the way to overcome terrors.
[AN 3.63] Venāga, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes how his seat on a pile of leaves at the root of a tree is celestial, sublime and Aristocratic.
[AN 3.64] Sarabha, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sarabha has quit the sangha believing he understands the Dhamma. He goes around boasting that it is because he understands the Dhamma that he rejects it. The bhikkhus ask the Buddha to set him straight, out of compassion, and he does so. After repeatedly giving Sarabha an opportunity to explain himself which he is unable to do, not even being able to respond at all, the Buddha departs through the air. Sarabha's friends have a great time at his expense as a result.
[AN 3.65] Sarabha, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the the Soma Thera translation.
The Kalamas, bewildred by contradictory claims as to whose Dhamma is the best, ask Gotama for his advice. He responds without praising his own doctrine or disparaging that of others by outlining criteria for judging for oneself whether or not some doctrine is beneficial or harmful.
[AN 3.163 or (wp): 183-352] Lust and So Forth Repetition Series, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, and the the M. Olds translation.
A wheel sutta memory exercise playing off Lust, hate, stupidity, anger, grudge-bearing, deception, ruthlessness, irritation, selfishness, illusion, treachery, stubbornness, quarrellousness, madness, conceit, intoxication and carelessness against higher knowledge, comprehensive knowledge, utter destruction, letting go, waining, putting down, eradication, disposal and rejection. The solution for each set is the development of the states of emptiness, signlessness and purposelessness.
Bhk. Bodhi following the Pali as found in CSCD has this as 170 suttas; the PTS (Pali and translation) has it as one sutta. This version could reasonably be broken into 17 suttas and even more likely considering the pattern followed later in the AN, into the 170 suttas of the CSCD and Bhk. Bodhi versions. However I have followed the PTS Pali. As an exercise it should certainly be one unit, however one sub-divides it.

[AN 4.1] Understood, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, and the the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Four reasons beings have been tied to the round of rebirths this long time.
[AN 4.2] Fallen, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the the F.L. Woodward translation,
Four factors that when missing indicate that one has fallen away from the path, when present that one is on the path: ethical conduct, serenity, wisdom, freedom.
[AN 4.3] Maimed (1), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the the F.L. Woodward translation,
Four types of action which amount to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and four types of action which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma.
[AN 4.4] Maimed (2), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the the F.L. Woodward translation,
Poor behavior towards four persons amounts to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which results in much bad kamma; while good behavior towards four persons does not uproot, does not spoil the self, surrounds one with purity, brings praise by the wise, and results in much good kamma.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 4.5] Along with the Stream, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes the commoner, the Streamwinner, the Non-returner and the Arahant in terms of their relationship to the stream or natural flow of life.
[AN 4.6] One of Little Learning, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Whether one's learning be great or small it profits not if one does not understand either the words or the point, does not follow the teachings within the Dhamma, but whether one's learning be great or small it profits well if one understands the words and the point and one follows the teaching within the Dhamma.
[AN 4.7] They Adorn, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four who are accomplished in wisdom, disciplined, confident, deeply learned, Dhamma-bearers, who live according to Dhamma, that illuminate the Order.
[AN 4.8] Self-Confidence, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Being able in mind to answer four charges of self-deception that could be made against him the Buddha is confident he is Awakened and teaches a doctrine that will lead those who follow it to the end of Pain.
[AN 4.9] Craving, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
If craving arises in a bhikkhu it arises from one or another of these four sources.
[AN 4.10] Bonds, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha explains the way that sense pleasures, existence, opinions and blindness are yokes to the constant round of rebirths.
[AN 4.11] Walking, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation,
Whether walking, or standing, or sitting, or lying down, a bhikkhu who does not wish to be known as a slacker, who does not wish to deprive himself of his opportunity for attaining the goal, should rid himself of lustful, deviant, or crule thoughts.
Woodward notes that the Pali word used for the title of this sutta, 'cara' means 'walking' but he is then forced to say that this includes all the postures. PED: "[from car, carati] 1. the act of going about, walking; one who walks or lives." We say 'carries on'. This is 'carriage' the manner in which one carries oneself ... whether walking, or standing still, or sitting or lying down ... or acting with mind and speech. The term has wide use and is worth remembering. It has come down even to us in our: 'carriage' (both the vehicle and the way one carries oneself) 'cart' 'car' 'carry'.
[AN 4.12] Virtuous Behavior, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation,
Whether walking, or standing, or sitting, or lying down, a bhikkhu who has trained himself in ethical practices has overcome the hinderances. Then, to become one known as energetic, careful and resolute, he must develop energy, establish his memory, calm his body and concentrate and tranquillize his mind.
[AN 4.13] Striving, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation,
An exposition in brief of the four consummate efforts.
[AN 4.14] Restraint, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation,
A detailed exposition of the four consummate efforts.
An important sutta: we do not get what is encompassed by the four consummate efforts described in detail very often.
Be careful to note Bhk. Bodhi's translation of vossagga as 'release' at the culmination of each of the seven dimensions of self-awakening. Do not confuse with either vimutti or vimokkha. 'Release' really doesn't work here. PED has: "Vossagga: relinquishing, relaxation; handing over, donation, gift". So the meaning is 'releasing the world', not 'attaining release.' "letting go" "giving up".
[AN 4.15] Proclamations, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha lists the Four major chiefs of beings in the world.
Both Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi translate the individuals in the list in this sutta as being spoken of in the present tense. This creates a small problem when it comes to Mandhata. In the Jataka story, Mandhata is identified with The Buddha. So from these two sources of information, as translated, we are told: Gotama is his own early ancestor. (Not a problem given the nature of rebirth.) Gotama was two of the pre-eminant beings he is describing. (Somewhat of a problem as they are incompatable, for this would be telling us that The Buddha (as Tathāgata) is one who possesses or enjoys sense-pleasures. when it is clearly stated in numerous places that one does not speak of the 'Tathāgata' in this way.) But if Gotama is not to be identified with Mandhata, how can Mandhata be being spoken of in the present tense as the mythical Mandhata is long dead?
Trying to resolve this problem if we conclude that the Jataka story, as a story of a previous life of the Buddha is a later invention, but that the story of Mandhata was likely one well known to at least the Sakyans, we are left thinking that the mention of Mandhata in the present tense in this sutta is hardly a useful example of what it means to be supreme in the enjoyment or possession of sense-pleasures as we know 1. that he is dead, and 2. we know nothing about his current location or experiences. Either we have here a case where the teaching of the Buddha is not well done, or that this is not a true sutta given by the Buddha, or we have to conclude that the Jataka story is a true story of one of the Buddha's former lives and that the point of using Mandhata as an example was to create this question in our minds and force us to see that Gotama and Mandhata were one and the same individuality and that this is a way for the Buddha to tell the bhikkhus that a Tathāgata enjoys sense-pleasures. (Just a little too twisted even in my view of Gotama's subtlety, and still amounting to a view rejected by the Buddha.) I suggest a different construction:
etad aggaɱ bhikkhave kāmabhogīnaɱ yad idaɱ rājā Mandhātā;
At the top, beggars, that is to say of sense-pleasure possessors/enjoyers: King Mandhata.
'At the top' meaning 'at the all-time top'.
[AN 4.16] Exquisiteness, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four 'exquisites.'
Careful reading will show that the three different translations will yield three different modes of practice. See the Introduction to my translation for details.
[AN 4.17] Wrong Courses (1), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four ways to not get there.
[AN 4.18] Wrong Courses (2), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four ways of getting there.
[AN 4.19] Wrong Courses (3), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four ways of not getting there and four ways of getting there.
Combines the previous two suttas.
[AN 4.20] Wrong Courses (3), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four ways the distributor of food in the Sangha goes wrong whereby he ends up in Hell and four ways that he does not go wrong and thereby ends up in Heaven.
[AN 4.21] Uruvelā (1), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Shortly after his enlightenment Gotama sees no person to whom he should pay reverance and serve. Seeing danger in this situation he decides to place the Dhamma in this position.
[AN 4.22] Uruvelā (2), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things more important than age that make a person an elder.
[AN 4.23] The World, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha declares his freedom from all things worldly and lists the attributes of the Tathagata.
[AN 4.24] Kāḷaka, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that his statement that he knows and understands whatsoever in the world, with its Maras, Brahmas, hosts of recluses and brahmins, devas and mankind, is seen, heard, sensed, cognized, attained, searched into, pondered over by the mind, is to be understood as a simple statement of fact and is not a brag and that because he does know these things, to say otherwise would be a lie.
[AN 4.25] The Spiritual Life, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Brahmacariya or Holy Life is lived for the sake of finding the self-control, letting-go, detachment, and bringing to a conclusion to the problem of pain in existence not for the worldly advantages of fame, gains and favors.
[AN 4.26] Deceivers, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha states that pretend bhikkhus, stubborn persons, gosips, crafty and undisciplined individuals are not followers of what he has taught and have no chance to gain, grow, or prosper in this system, but those whose interest is genuine, who are open-minded, wise, flexible, not gosips, who exercise self-control are followers of what he has taught and will gain, grow, and prosper in this system.
[AN 4.27] Contentment, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha praises contentment with basics of clothing, food, shelter and medicine that are worthless, easy to obtain, and blameless.
[AN 4.28] Noble Lineages, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Gotama speaks of the four ancient practices of the lineage of the Ariyan, a warrior, holy man, ordinary man, shaman, powerful person, and king all wrapped up in the seeker after the solution to the problem of pain in existence.
[AN 4.29] Dhamma Factors, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four paths of good form that are ancient, long standing, traditional, primeval, pure and unadulterated, unconfused, respected by the wise.
[AN 4.30] Wanderers, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha visits a Wanderer's park and teaches the four paths of good form that are ancient, long standing, traditional, primeval, pure and unadulterated, unconfused, respected by the wise, and he adds emphasis by showing that disparaging these four subjects one to ridicule.

 

new Saturday, April 09, 2016 7:43 AM Book Review: Uncle Tom's Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe
A very moving story. So powerful that it is considered to have been one of the contributing causes of the U.S. Civil War. It is, in story form, a thorough examination (almost mathematically elegant) of the evils of the institution of slavery. The review shows how this story is relevant today to the Buddhist.

new Thursday, March 31, 2016 7:41 AM Book Review: Remembrance of Things Past, The definitive French Pleiade edition translated by C.K. Scott Moncrieff and Terrence Kilmartin, with Volume III, Part 7: Time Regained, translated by Andreas Mayor
A classic of French literature that deals with an individual's experience of 'Temporary Release' without the knowledge of Buddhist theory.

 

new Tuesday, March 29, 2016 9:03 AMMajjhima Nikāya
[MN.57] Kukkuravatika-Suttaɱ, Of Emulating Dogs, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Two ascetics, one who's asceticism was to practice the behavior of a dog, the other who's asceticism was to practice the behavior of an ox question the Buddha as to the outcomes of their practices.
[MN.58] Abhaya-Rājakumāra-Suttaɱ, Of Choosing One's Words, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Explaining to Prince Abhaya how it might come to happen that the Buddha says something to someone that upsets them greatly, he outlines the various ways in which an awakened one approaches taking opportunity to speak.
[MN.59] Bahu-vedanīya-Suttaɱ, Pleasant and Unpleasant, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Nyanaponika Thera translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha speaks of seven ways he classifies experience (vedana); and ten ways he classifies happiness the last of which is not to be found classed within experience.
[MN.60] Apaṇṇaka-Suttaɱ, The Sound Doctrine, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains a logical way to behave when faced with uncertainty as to what one should believe.
[MN.61] Ambalaṭṭhikā-Rāhulovāda-Suttaɱ, Against Lying, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha teaches his son the importance of refraining from intentional false speech and the need for reflection prior to, during, and after doing deeds of body, speech, and mind.
[MN.62] Mahā-Rāhulovāda-Suttaɱ, Breathing Exercises, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha teaches his son how to develop minding the breathing.
A Satipatthana Sutta of a different sort.
[MN.63] Cūḷa Māluŋkya-Suttaɱ, Of the Irrelevant, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the Warren translation, the Thomas translation, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Malunkyaputta, dissatisfied that the Buddha has not answered a number of questions concerning existence and non-existence confronts Gotama who explains to him that these questions are not expounded upon because they are not relevant to the goal of ending suffering. This sutta contains the famous simile of the man who refuses to accept medical treatment for an arrow wound until he knows all about the arrow, the shooter, etc.
[MN.64] Mahā Māluŋkya-Suttaɱ, Of Bursting Bonds Asunder, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A detailed discussion of the five fetters to lower rebirths and the practice by way of which these five fetters are eliminated so as to result in non-returning.
This sutta is incomprehensable in any of the translations we have. See the discussion: 'The Five Fetters to the Lower Rebirths' for an analysis of why this is the case. In brief: The Buddha objects to Malunkayaputta's statement that he has taught that x,y, and z are yokes to rebirth because what he has taught is that it is obsession with x,y, and z that is the yoke, not the x,y, and z itself.
In the second part of this sutta the Buddha describes five paths to either arahantship or by the abandoning of the five yokes to rebirth (remember: obsession with views of own-body, etc.,), non-returning: the first burning-knowledge (jhāna), the second, the third, the fourth, the realm of limitless space, the realm of limitless consciousness and the realm of nothing's-to-be-had, each, if accompanied by the perception that the khandhas are painful and not-self, and if one turns his mind from those things and dwells in stead on the deathless thinking:

'Etaɱ santaɱ||
etaɱ paṇītaɱ||
yad idaɱ||
sabba-saŋkhāra-samatho||
sabb'ūpadhi-paṭinissaggo||
taṇhakkhayo||
virāgo||
nirodho||
nibbānan' ti.|| ||

'This is the real,
this is the ultimate,
that is
the calming of all own-making,
the ejection of all fuel,
the destruction of thirsts,
dispassion
ending,
Nibbāna.'

(In the abridged Chalmers and Bhk. Bodhi translations it is easy to read this as being one path, but it is five discrete paths — for a clearer picture of what is being said read the fully expanded Horner translation.)

Then, at this point Ānanda asks: "This being the Way, this being the walk to walk to the abandoning of the yokes to rebirth, how is it that some persons are heart-freed (ceto-vimutti) and some are wisdom-freed (paññā-vimutti)?"

Ānanda's question arises from the fact that each path terminates in the same insight and thought (as above); and that being the case, how is it possible that it could result in two sorts of freedom.

The Buddha's response is that this is a result of differences in forces (indriya-vemattata).

Ms. Horner quotes commentary as follows (Bhk. Bodhi paraphrases in a footnote): [I have inserted the underlying pali in square brackets; Bhk. Bodhi's translation in parenthesis:]

MA. iii. 147-8; If when a monk goes after calm [samatha = samādhi] (Bhk. Bodhi: serenity), one-pointedness of mind [cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ](B.B.: unification of mind) is to the forefront - this monk is called freed in mind [ceto-vimutti](BB: deliverance of mind); but if wisdom [paññā] is to the forefront - such a monk is called freed through wisdom [paññā-vimutti]. When one goes after insight [vipassana], if wisdom is to the forefront, such a monk is called freed through wisdom; if his one-pointedness of mind is to the forefront, he is called freed in mind. The two chief disciples attained arahantship with calm and insight to the forefront; Sāriputta was freed through wisdom and Moggallāna was freed in mind.

I say that what all this is saying is that of the multiple Ways and Walks to Walk to the one end result, there are two prominant interdependent modes of approach: by way of calm and serenity (samatha and samādhi) and by way of insight (vipassana). Both are necessary but emphasis is placed on one or another of these forces by different personality types.

Within each of the two modes there are two further sub-forces (really just echos of their opposite number) at work: intent to gain focus (or whole-hearted single-mindedness or to become 'centered')(cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ)(which is really just another term for samādhi); and intent to gain wisdom (paññā)(which is really just another way of speaking about vipassana).

'Heart' or 'Whole-hearted single mindedness' here is single-minded focus on the attaining of liberation without necessarily understanding the various mechanisms by which that liberation is attained (you must, at least, have knowledge of the meaning of freedom in the Buddha's Dhamma). You sit down to get freedom and you know if you are free and you know if you are not free and you intend to get free period. Intent on wisdom is the intent to attain freedom through the understanding of each step of the way. Wisdom is the ability to use that understanding both to advance the self and advance others of similar inclination. Some persons are more inclined one way others the other way, some both ways.

These are (back to describing what the commentary is saying) the different forces that in different combinations result in either heart-freedom or wisdom-freedom or freedom-both-ways.

1. samatha and samādhi --> cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ --> ceto-vimutti;
2. samatha and samādhi --> paññā --> paññā-vimutti
3. vipassana --> cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ --> ceto-vimutti;
4. vipassana --> paññā --> paññā-vimutti

I question the need to introduce samatha and vipassana except as a means of staking out territory. Vipassana is not listed among the forces (indriana;) samādhi and paññā are. If one understood that cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ could be classed as equivalent to samādhi = samatha (see MN 44) and paññā as vipassana we could have checked the list and not have had the complication of information not provided by the Buddha in the sutta. As explanation it could all have been said by saying that if in your approach to awakening you emphasize the direct attaining of freedom of heart through samādhi, you will end up heart-freed; if you emphasize the acquisition of wisdom through insight you will end up wisdom-freed, if you balance both or follow one with the other, you end up freed-both-ways.

It is interesting to note how the Chalmers translation (here and elsewhere) shows us the powerful influence of first translations on those that follow.

[MN.65] Bhaddāli Suttaɱ, Of Obedience, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A sutta describing the laying down of the rule about not eating at improper times and of one bhikkhu's rebellion against this rule. Contains an explanation of why there are so many rules and so few who attain the goal when at an earlier time there were few rules and many attained the goal. Also contains the simile of the thoroughbred steed.
[MN.66] Laṭukikopama Suttaɱ, The Parable of the Quail, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha shows how letting go of the pleasure of eating at wrong times sets the pattern for letting go of each step of the way from pleasures of the senses through each of the jhanas to the ending of perceiving experience.
[MN.67] Cātumā Suttaɱ, Of Land Sharks, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha instructs a number of bhikkhus about the various pitfalls facing the bhikkhu. He provides four similes: one for anger, one for gluttony, one for the five cords of sense pleasures and one for sexual lust.

 


Bhagavam-mūlakā no bhante dhammā||
Bhagavan-nettikā||
Bhagavam-paṭisaraṇā.
|| ||

We-uns* things, bhante, are Lucky-man-rooted,
Lucky-man-channeled,
Lucky-man-housed.

*We-uns = We ones. 'Our'; U.S. dialect. Sometimes "We's"


 

[MN.68] Naḷakapāna Suttaɱ, The Stimulus of Example, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains the importance of having joyous entheusiasm in the pursuit of the goal and explains that it is in the service of this that he occasionally relates the rebirth of some bhikkhu or bhikkhuni or layman or laywoman.
[MN.69] Gulissāni Suttaɱ, Of Rusticity, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Sariputta delivers a discourse on the proper training for one who lives alone in the forest.
[MN.70] Gulissāni Suttaɱ, Of Rusticity, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Two bhikkhus are taken to task for disparaging the rule about eating at impropper times. Includes a description of Seven sorts of Persons pointing out which have nothing more to do and which have something more to do.

 

Seven Persons

The Both-ways freed
The Wisdom-freed
The Body-knower,
The View-secured,
The Faith-freed,
The Dhamma-follower,
The Faith-follower.

'Freed' in this set means not necessarily that such a one is freed, but that such a one is working at being freed in this way. It might be better to understand this in the sense of 'freed or partially freed'.

The Both-ways freed: One who has attained arahantship by having both attained in body The Eight Releases [see below 'releases'] and who has also seen with wisdom that he has destroyed the Corrupting Influences [Āsavas].

This individual has nothing more to do in that he has secured unshakable freedom.

The Wisdom-freed: One who has attained arahantship only having seen with wisdom that he has destroyed the Corrupting Influences [Āsavas].

This individual has nothing more to do in that he has secured unshakable freedom.

The distinction here is between freedom attained through experience of having trained with the body — the individual who sits down to attain freedom without necessarily understanding the details for attaining such, so that it is said that 'his body knows' — and freedom attained by having destroyed the corrupting influences by way of insight gained working through knowledge and seeing things as they really are. Today [Sunday, April 24, 2016 6:39 AM] modern science recognizes something called "muscle-memory". Having performed an action enough times it becomes such as can be performed almost without use of conscious thought. If this is not the same thing it is closely related.

Body-knower [aka: witness; Ms. Horner 'mental realizer' (which translation is inexplicable)] One who has attained temporary release through experience of having attained in body The Eight Releases, but who has not yet completely destroyed the Corrupting Influences.

This individual has more to do in that he has not yet secured unshakable freedom.

The View-secured: One who is essentially on the same path as the Wisdom-freed, but whose wisdom has got only as far as a comprehension of The Four Truths and who has by this much partly destroyed the Corrupting Influences.

This individual has more to do in that he has not yet secured unshakable freedom.

The Faith-freed: One who has faith that the Buddha was an Arahant, a fully self-awakened one, one who got what was to be got, a seer of this world and the worlds beyond, who understood the way to the End of Pain and whose teaching of that way was consummately done, and who also by this faith has partly destroyed the Corrupting Influences.

This individual has more to do in that he has not yet secured unshakable freedom.

Dhamma-follower: One who is able to see that the Corrupting Influences are not destroyed in him; in whose wisdom there is moderate approval of the Buddha's Dhamma; and in whom there are the forces of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom.

This individual has more to do in that he has not yet secured unshakable freedom.

Faith-follwer: One who is able to see that the Corrupting Influences are not destroyed in him; but who has sufficient faith and respect for the Buddha; and in whom there are the forces of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom.

This individual has more to do in that he has not yet secured unshakable freedom.

 

[MN.71] Tevijja-Vacchagotta Suttaɱ, The True Three-Fold Lore, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains to Vacchagotta the difference between claiming to be all-knowing and all-seeing at all times and claiming to be possessed of the three-visions: the ability to see past lives, the ability to see the relationship of rebirth to deeds, and the knowledge that one is free from corrupting influences.
[MN.72] Aggi-Vacchagotta Suttaɱ, On Fuel, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Warren translation, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha converts Vacchagotta by an explanation of why speculative views do not apply to the attaining of the ending of pain.
[MN.73] Mahā-Vacchagotta Suttaɱ, The Meed of Service, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Vacchagotta is given a lesson in brief concerning what is skillful and what is not skillful and becomes a bhikkhu. Having mastered what is necessary as a foundation he is told to master calm and insight in order to attain magic powers, recollection of past lives, knowledge of the outcome of deeds, and the destruction of the Asavas. He masters all this and becomes an Arahant.
[MN.74] Dīghanakha Suttaɱ, Consistency in Outlook, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Dighanakha is given an instruction in the abandoning of points of view, then in detachment from body, and sensation.
A very early sutta. It is by listening to this sutta that Sariputta becomes arahant. Dighanakha becomes a Streamwinner.

 

Evaɱ vimutta-citto bhikkhu||
na kenaci saŋvadati,||
na kenaci vivadati,||
yañ ca loke vuttaɱ tena voharati aparāmasan.
|| ||

Thus heart-freed, a beggar
does not comply with anyone
does not reply to anyone
and whatever is expressed in worldly terms is not siezed at.

This statement is made as a sort of summary to the discourse at [MN 74] where Dighanaka makes a statement of a point of view and hearing Gotama's response thinks that the Buddha has agreed with him.

The issues raised come up now and again. The Arahant does not agree with points of view that are expressed, nor does he negate them. This is expressed in other cases as 'neither collaborating with nor rebelling against'. He does not 'confront' in debate or in any other form of behavior. He sees things as they are, without intervening 'interpretation' and so when himself confronted by the expression of a viewpoint he does not respond directly, but responds with a statement of what he actually sees. And the corollary (in response to the challenge that by using terms such as "I" and "mine" in common speech he (the arahant) is expressing a point of view): In ordinary speech the Arahant uses the words 'I', 'My' etc., without attaching any idea of ownership.

I have translated saŋvadati and vivadati (literally: co-say and re-say or un-say; agree (say along with) and retort or refute; Ms. Horner: 'concur' and 'dispute'; Nanamoli/Bodhi/Thanissaro: side-with and dispute;) reaching into the obscure and contorted: O.E.D.: Comply. 3.: To be complaisant with, make oneself agreeable to (persons) in conduct or action, to accommodate oneself to the desires or wishes of; the notion of politness often passing to that of obsequiousness or servility;
Reply. 4b: To retort upon one.
He does not contort (ply) himself to agree; he does not try to bend (ply) the other when he disagrees.

See: SN 3.22.94
SN 1.1.14

 

[MN.75] Māgandiya Suttaɱ, Of Keeping Watch and Ward, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., the M. Olds translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Wanderer Magandiya is raised from a view based on faith that health is the greatest good and that this is Nibbana to an understanding of the satisfactions, the dangers and he escape from pleasures of the senses.
[MN.76] Samdaka Suttaɱ, Of False Guides, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Sandaka, a wandering ascetic, asks Ananda a series of questions and is so impressed by his answers that he joins the Order. The questions and answers range from discussion of the problems with the prevailing doctrines to a complete course in the Buddha's Dhamma from the bottom up.

This concludes the uploading of Sacred Books of the Buddhists, Chalmers, Further Dialogues of the Buddha, Volume I. I do not have and have not yet found a copy of Volume II that I could scan, so this series must remain incomplete for the time being.

 


Monday, March 28, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, February 29, 2016


 

On Style: After having thoroughly purged almost all the translations of their references to Pali pages, I have seen the value of these references and will begin to restore them as I go along. They will have the following appearance: [348] and will be links to the PTS Pali Text Page number as located on this site's BJT/PTS hybrid Pali Text. These links can themselves be linked to by appending "#pt000" (without the quotation marks; zeros do not precede single or double digit numbers) to the url.
Along these same lines, I can see at some point a future generation editor adding/restoring the alternative readings and the page numbers of other versions of the Pali. At this point, for the following reasons, I have not included/kept these items: 1. Alternate readings are 99% irrelevant to the understanding of the doctrine (occasionally they are significant, but on these occasions they will almost certainly have been noted in footnotes); 2. are needlessly confusing; 3. would take more time than seems reasonable to me considering their utility; 4. page numbers to Pali texts that are not readily available are a time consuming luxory.
While we're at it, let's add to this list the insertion of the various corrections found in errata sheets, footnotes, and on errata pages at the end of some of the books.

 

new Friday, March 04, 2016 8:21 AMThera-Gāthā Psalms of the Early Buddhists, II. Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translations.
[THAG 169] Sandhita
[THAG 170] Angaṇika-Bhāradvāja
[THAG 171] Paccaya
[THAG 241] Sīlavat
[THAG 242] Sunīta
[THAG 263] Moggallāna the Great
[THAG 264] Vaŋgīsa
[THAG 15] Kuṇḍa-Dhāna
[THAG Envoi] Envoi

 

new Monday, February 29, 2016 4:06 AMMajjhima Nikāya
[MN.36] Mahā Saccaka-Sutta, Saccaka Again, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha teaches Saccaka about training the body and training the heart.
In this sutta we once again come upon Gotama's description of his extreme austerities in his attempt to attain Awakening, his subsequent rejection of such practices, and his recollection of an insident in his youth that pointed to a successful practice.
Sitting there he finds himself in a very peaceful state of mind which he describes in a formula that later becomes know as 'the First Jhāna' — 'knowing'; it is a point at which two things are seen with absolute clarity: 1. it is got by letting go of (separating from) lesser states; and 2. it is a higher form of happiness than sense pleasure; that is at this point one knows for certain one is on the right track.

Separated from Sensuaity,
Separated from Unskillful things,
With Thinking and With Pondering
with the Pleasureable-Enthusiasm born of Separation,
One enters and abides in the First Knowing.

Here we have, side-by-side, both the formula and an illuminating image of this entry point to the attaining of Awakening.

At ease sitting at the root of the rose-apple tree, the young prince is seen just prior to his entry into puberty (separated from sensuality). He is separated from his father and the commencement of the ceremony (separated from unskillful things), yet is observant of the situation. What you need to know is that the Plowing Ceremony is a 'rite of spring', a 'fertility rite', a ceremony that would introduce a youth to sensual pleasures.

[MN.37] Cūḷa-Taṇhā-Saŋkhaya-Sutta, Deliverance from Cravings, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A well-known and much loved sutta. Sakka, Ruler of the Devas, visits the Buddha and asks about the scope of understanding required of one to be able to know he is arahant. The Buddha instructs him, but Maha Moggallana, who was listening, doubts it has sunk in and visits Sakka in the Tavatimsa Realm. There he is put off with frivolities and in order to rouse Sakka to seriousness Maha Moggallana shakes Sakka's palace with his big toe. With his hair standing on end, Sakka gets down to business.
[MN.38] Mahā-Taṇhā-Saŋkhaya-Sutta, Consciousness A Process Only, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The well-known sutta in which the Buddha explains the idea that consciousness is a conditioned phenomena and is not the self that transmigrates from one birth to the next.
This is a very important sutta to understand clearly. (The Chalmers translation is too abridged to be of much help, see the other translations for a better perspective.)
All consciousness is a result of the coming together of conditions.
There are various sorts of consciousness depending on the conditions which give rise to it.
Consciousness is not a self that transmigrates from one existence to the next.
The subjective aparent continuity of individuality from moment to moment and life to life is a matter of illusion. A case of mistaken identity: Identification with conscousness assumed to be the continuation of an identification with consciousness that performed deeds with the intent of creating this consciousness.
After determining that it is individualized consciousness (among the various sorts of consciousness) that Sati believes transmigrates from birth to birth, the Buddha deals with that form of consciousness from the point of view of the factors on which it is dependent and the mechanism of rebirth itself. The mechanics of the arising of consciousnes in ordinary rebirth must be understood before it can be seen how there arises a second sort of consciousness that is not dependent on individualized existence.
There are then two general categories of consciousness: Consciousness conditioned by things of Time; and consciousness conditioned by things not of Time.
Consciousness conditioned by things of time (the six senses) is a thing of time and comes to an end.
This is the consciousness of the ordinary individual.
When consciousness is conditioned by consciousness of freedom from things of time, it is consciousness conditioned by things not of time.
That consciousness, though it is conditioned, has not been own-made, identified-with, and is not an 'existing thing' but is only a consciousness of not being a thing, is not identified-with as "I" or "mine", and because not dependent on something that comes to an end, does not itself come to an end and is the goal of this system.
Again: Consciousness arises dependedent on conditions.
If the conditions present are consciousness of freedom from things of Time, the resulting consciousness is consciousness of consciousness of things not of Time. It has arisen as a result of conditons, not as a result of the willing of an individual (i.e., own-making, or sankharaming.) Consciousness, freed from things of time, is unlimited, not bound to Time, deathless... Nirvana: Out of the Woods; Nibbana, unbound.
Returning to the sutta: An individual who sees consciousness like this does not speculate about the past, future or present nature of a self. He may have vision of past lives, but he also sees that none of them were the self of him. He knows of the future that there is no thing which will be identified with as the self. He knows of the present that there is no thing there that is the self. This is a simpler way of seeing things than the divisions that are created by the assumption of individuality and consequently he is not confused about things of the past, future or present. Things come to be as a consequence of conditions (kamma); without conditions they do not come to be; on the ending of the conditions that brought them about, they cease to be. For all things. Not just "me" or "them".
If you can see how ordinary rebirth-consciousness arises as a consequence of conditions, you can then see how with different conditions (consciousness of consciousness of things not of Time) a different sort of consciousness can arise and you can direct 'mind' to that second sort of consciousness which, unending, deathless, and free from time is clearly superior.
[MN.39] Mahā-Assapura-Sutta, The Ideal Recluse, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha gives the bhikkhus a full curiculum for the realization of Nibbana.
[MN.40] Cūḷa-Assapura-Sutta, The Recluse's Regimen, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains the unreasonableness of such superficial practices as the wearing of robes, going naked, living in filth, ceremonial bathing, living at the root of a tree, eating according to a set regimin, chanting, or wearing matted hair in the hope of ridding one's self of malevolence, wrath, grudge-bearing, hypocracy, spite, jealousy, stingyness, treachery, craftyness, evil desires and wrong views. Then he explains the manner in which practicing friendliness, sympathy, empathy and detachment rids one of those bad characteristics and leads on to attaining arahantship.
[MN.41] Sāleyyaka-Sutta, Our Weird, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera translation, the the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains to the people of Sala how it is that some end up being reborn in Hell and other bad states while others end up being reborn in Heavens and other good states.
On Chalmers' title: Weird = fate, destiny. Hence to a person able to see and alter events in the future; wizzard, > wierd'o = wizzard of.

 


The Wierd'O Oz Nose

When the Wierd-o tells you
He talks with God
You laugh
And think him mad.
But God knows
The Wierd-o knows
When he laughs
And tells you he talks with God
That God knows who's God
And who is
And who is not Mad


 

[MN.42] Sāleyyaka-Sutta, Our Weird, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains to the people of Veranja how it is that some end up being reborn in Hell and other bad states while others end up being reborn in Heavens and other good states.
Identical with the previous with only a change of location and audience.
[MN.43] Mahā Vedalla-Sutta, The Long Miscellany, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., the Sister Upalavanna translation and an outline and analysis by M. Olds.
A very important sutta!
For the sake of teaching the bhikkhus gathered round, Sariputta and Maha Kotthita engage in a question and answer discussion that goes into subtle points of Dhamma.
[MN.44] Cūḷa Vedalla-Sutta, The Short Miscellany, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Warren translation (fragment), the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The lay follower Visakha asks his former wife, the nun Dhammadinna a series of questions concerning Dhamma and receives answers approved of later by the Buddha.

 

Subjective existence, what is considered the individuality (sakkāya), is that which is identified with and made up from the five support piles pañca upādānakkhandhā.

The five support piles:

The form support pile (rūp'upādānakkhandhā);
the sensation support pile(vedan'upādānakkhandhā);
the perception support pile(saññ'upādānakkhandhā);
the own-making support pile(saŋkhār'upādānakkhandhā); and
the consciousness support pile(viññāṇ'upādānakkhandhā).

The arising of individuality is a consequence of thirst (taṇhā) —
thirst for this and that,
thirst for sensual pleasure,
thirst for existence,
thirst for increased existence,
accompanied by delight,
results in attachment
that leads on to rebirth.

To bring about the end of individuality,
end the thirst.

The walk to walk to bring about the end of thirst is:

High Working Hypothesis,
High Principles,
High Talk,
High Works,
High Lifestyle,
High Self-control,
High Mind,
High Serenity,
High Vision, and
High Detachment.
(see: The Method for details.)

That which is support for individuaity arises from the five support piles and
there is no support for individuality apart from the five support piles.

The five support piles are not the support itself,
but the support does not exist without the five support piles; it is the wanting and lust arising from the five support piles that is the support for individuality.

The idea of individuality arises as a consequence of seeing beyond what is self-seen holding the views:

Shape is the self
the self has shape,
shape is in the self,
self is in shape.

Sensation is the self
the self has sensation,
sensation is in the self,
self is in sensation.

Perception is the self
the self has perception,
perception is in the self,
perception is in shape.

The own-made is the self
the self has the own-made,
the own-made is in the self,
self is in the own-made.

Consciousness is the self
the self has consciousness,
consciousness is in the self,
self is in consciousness.

The idea of individuality is got rid of by:

Not regarding shape as the self
or the self as having shape,
or shape as in the self,
or self as in shape.

Not seeing sensation as the self
or the self as having sensation,
or sensation as in the self,
or self as in sensation.

Not seeing perception as the self
or the self as having perception,
or perception as in the self,
or perception as in shape.

Not seeing the own-made as the self
or the self as having the own-made,
or the own-made as in the self,
or self as in the own-made.

Not seeing consciousness as the self
or the self as having consciousness,
or consciousness as in the self,
or self as in consciousness.

The Aristocratic Multi-Dimensional High Way, that is, High Working Hypothesis, High Principles, High Talk, High Works, High Lifestyle,
High Self-control, High Mind, High Serenity, High Vision, and High Detachment,
is own-made or constructed,
not not own-made.

There are three own-makings (saŋkhāra):

Own-made body;
own-made speech;
own-made heart (willing, intention).

The broadest generalized way of speaking of the own-made body is to call it respiration;
respiration is bodily, and
the body is tied up in respiration.
(This definition accommodates other forms of body than are generally familiar, such as those who have multiple shapes but a single mind.)

Own-made speech is essntially thinking and pondering;
first one thinks and ponders,
then one utters speech.

The own-made locus of focus is essentially perceiving and experiencing the senses
perceiving and experiencing the senses are the heart of the matter (are central to),
and the heart is tied up in perceiving and experiencing.

Serenity (samādhi = 'even-over'; here is where the term 'equanimity' even-mindedness, imperturbability should be being used as opposed to using it for upekkha, detachment) is the state of having become whole-heartedly single-minded (cittassa ekaggatā). This definition encompases the entire practice, from undertaking generosity to the attainment of the ending of perception of sense-experience.

The signs of serenity are having set up
minding the body,
minding sense experience,
minding states of the heart,
minding Dhamma.

The pre-requisites for serenity are the four consummate efforts:

The effort to get rid of unskillful states that have arisen;
the effort to keep off unskillful states that have not yet arisen;
the effort to aquire skillful states that have not yet arisen; and,
the effort to preserve skillful states that have arisen.

This is the way Serenity is said to be being cultivated.

The culmination of Serenity is the knowledge and wisdom attained in the freedom of deliverance from things of Time. Serenity being a state of mind of an individual, beyond that, the freedom of deliverance from things not of time is not counted as serenity.

Here first own-making of body ceases first,
then own-making of speech,
then own-making of heart (perception and experience of sense).

This state is reached by way of conditioning the mind, not by the intent to attain. There is in attaining this state no thought "I am attaining".

The difference between this state and the state of a dead body is that there is here the remaining lifespan to be lived out and there is caloric energy.

In re-entering serenity from the point where there is the freedom of delivery from where perception of sense experience ends, one enters signlessness, aimlessness, and emptiness, where here signs are signs of lust, anger and blindness; aims are towards things involving lust, anger, and blindness; and emptiness is a state empty of lust, anger, and blindness.

Here first own-making of heart (perception and experience of sense) is revived,
then own-making of speech,
then own-making of body.

 

[MN.45] Cūḷa Dhamma-Samādāna-Sutta, On Living Up to Professions (1), the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Four modes of practicing Dhamma: Pleasureable in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with pleasurable consequences; and pleasurable in the present with pleasurable consequences.
[MN.46] Mahā Dhamma-Samādāna-Sutta, On Living Up to Professions (2), the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Four modes of practicing Dhamma: Pleasureable in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with pleasurable consequences; and pleasurable in the present with pleasurable consequences.
The same theme as the previous sutta, but differently expanded.
[MN.47] Vīmaɱsaka-Sutta, Study of the Truth-Finder, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., the M. Olds translation [excerpt] and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha goes into detail concerning how one should examine one who claims to have attained the goal.
[MN.48] Kosambiya-Sutta, Amity and Its Root, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the M. Olds translation (outline) and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains how to think to achieve Stream-entry and then describes seven fruits of Stream-entry.
[MN.49] Brahmā Nimantanika-Sutta, Brahmā's Appeal, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha visits Baka Brahma who has come to the belief that he is immortal. The Buddha disabuses him of this idea and demonstrates his authority with an act of psychic power.
As I have said elsewhere, I believe what is intended by the word 'Nimantanika' 'Inviting' is in this case the equivalant of our 'Bring it on!' or the 'Invitation Hand' of Wu Dan kung-fu indicating that the opponent should commense if he is going to fight.
[MN.50] Māra Tajjaniya-Sutta, The Rebuke to Māra, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Mara tries to upset Maha Moggallana and is told of Maha Moggallana's own experience as Mara attempting to upset bhikkhus where he ends up in Niraya with the body of a man and the head of a fish boiling for many hundreds of thousands of years. The gatha at the end is about as close to an old-time curse as is found in Buddhism. (But note that Moggallana clearly shows how this is not a curse, that he holds no ill-will, and that it is strictly this Mara's own deed that will bring about the dread consequences. In fact what we may be seeing here is the way the curse originated, that is as a simple statement of what a real seer sees as the consequences to someone of what they have done. Only later to be transformed into a wish.)
[MN.51] Kandaraka-Sutta, Against Asceticism, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha, from a brief discussion of the four types of individuals found in the world, when asked to elaborate expounds on the habits of those intent on harmful ascetic practices, those who follow a bloody calling, those who torment both themselves and others, and those who neither torment themselves nor torment others. By way of the last group he teaches a detailed course of progress from layman to the benefits of Arahantship.
[MN.52] Aṭṭhaka-Nāgara-Sutta, The Portals of Nirvana, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
In this sutta Ananda explains to a householder how Arahantship can be attained via any single one of eleven different avenues. It is important to note that here is an unequivocal statement that it is possible to attain Arahantship directly from the First Jhana. I stress this point to the readers here not to make out that it is any easy task, but only to refute the notion that it is an impossible one, or that it is absolutely necessary to attain all Four Jhanas which is to make the task appear to be absolutely out of reach for most people today. To attain the First Jhana one must abandon all desire for sensual pleasures, give up foolish conduct, and become entheusiastic about the enjoyment of solitude. Most people can do this much. It requires a little effort. You need to find some place where you can be alone and undisturbed for several hours. Then remember: The Jhanas are not the goal, they are just the platform. At this point one must see the impermanance of all things that have been constructed to form one's individual world including this very mental state called the Jhana, any body, sensation, perception, personal construction, and individualized consciousness. Then one must see that this impermanance, for one attached to the world, inevitably brings pain, and that what is painful cannot be the self. So seeing, one is repelled by constructed things, repelled one abandons them and constructs no more, having abandoned construction one is free, in freedom, seeing freedom, one can know: rebirth is left behind (it requires construction), lived is the best of lives, duty's duty has been done and there is no more being any kind of an 'it' at any place of 'atness' left for one. This is Nibbana, Arahantship, being no longer subject to Time and Death, the Unseen Consciousness of the utterly purified Mind void of any identification with 'self'.
[MN.53] Aṭṭhaka-Nāgara-Sutta, The Portals of Nirvana, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Ananda delivers a variation on The Gradual Course. Here he gives the laymen of Kapilavatthu a discourse on undertaking the quest for awakening from the point of undertaking the training in ethical behavior right on up to the eradication of the Corrupting Influences in Nibbana. It is possible this sutta was intended for laymen directly, (in which case it is encouraging laymen to become arahants) but I believe rather that it was intended to encourage some to enter the order, and to show the others the nature of the practice of the bhikkhus.
[MN.54] Potaliya-Sutta, True Retirement, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains in detail what it means to have given up all avocations in this Dhamma.
Note that here, speaking to a layman, the Buddha is describing the attainment of the three visions of the Arahant as being attained just subsequent to the abandoning of pleasures of the senses. That is, without any specific mention of even the first jhana.
Based on this one could say that Arahantship is attainable without jhana; or one could say: The conditions for the first jhana are met with, and the conditions for the fourth jhana are met with, so there is here the attainment of arahantship with jhana.
Why is jhana not mentioned here? I suggest it is because the discussion proceeds from the request to provide the entire giving up in every way of all occupations. Jhana, as jhana, is essentially an occupation.

 

Kāma
Sense-Pleasures

When trying to determine what is meant by the Buddha when using the term kāmā one should picture not a single state or class of states, but a spectrum of classes of states from the own-making (sankhara-ing) born of the yearning of the deluded Pajapati for the companionship of other beings, to common experience of [caring about] enjoyment of the sensations produced at the senses, to sexual intercourse. Visualize these images as superimposed over one-another. (A = B = C) It's not Freud's 'everything is just sex' and it's not 'ultimately everything is Pajapati's problem'. It depends on where your mind is at present. Start there. It's from there that detachment is possible. To help cultivate the mind to detachment from wherever it is focused, the Master has concocted (cooked up; sankhara'd) a number of similes: Pleasures of the Senses are:

Like A Bone thrown to a Dog

Imagine a dog,
overcome with hunger and thirst
who chances upon a slaughter-house
and the cattle-butcher,
or his skillful apprentice,
tosses him a bone,
scraped,
much-scraped,
devoid of meat,
but with a shmere of blood.

What do you think?

Could that dog,
gnawing that bone,
scraped,
much-scraped,
devoid of meat,
but with a smere of blood
find in that
the satisfaction of his hunger and thirst?

Of course not.

How come?

Because he would wear himself out
before ever he got satisfaction from that bone
scraped,
much-scraped,
devoid of meat,
but with a smere of blood.

Like Carrion

Imagin a Raptor
— a Condor or Eagle or Falcon or Hawk —
that has torn off a piece of carrion
and flown off
and that other Raptors
— Condors or Eagles or Falcons or Hawks —
are circling round diving at that piece of meat
trying to grab a piece for themselves.

What do you think?

If that Raptor
— that Condor or Eagle or Falcon or Hawk —
did not quickly let go of that piece of carrion,
would it not come to death,
or deady pain?

Like Carrying a Torch against the Wind

Imagine a man coming forth
carrying a flaming grass torch
against the wind.

What do you think?

If that man did not quickly let go of that flaming grass torch
would it not burn his hand,
or burn his arm,
or burn another part of his body
and because of that
would he not come to death,
or deady pain?

Like a Pit of Glowing Coals

Imagin a pit of glowing coals,
deeper than a man is high
— coals neither flaming up nor smoking —
and here a certain person comes along,
loving life, not wishing death
wanting happiness, averse to pain
and two strapping men,
taking his arms
were to drag him off to that pit of glowing coals,
deeper than a man is high
— coals neither flaming up nor smoking.

What do you think?

Would not that man
twist and turn his body
this way
and that thinking:

'If I fall in
that pit of glowing coals
I will come to death,
or deady pain!'

Like a Dream

Imagine seeing beautiful parks,
and beautiful forests,
and beautiful plains,
and beautiful mountain ranges,
and beautiful lakes,
in a dream,
and then waking up
to find they have vanished.

snappy

Like a Loan

Imagine a man who has taken out a loan,
got himself rigged up with a new car,
right snappy duds,
rings, earrings, buttons and studs
a glitter with diamonds and rubies
and other precious gems,
gold and silver chains and medallions,
pockets stuffed with cash,
delighting in the admiration of the crowd
that thinks this is the way
a wealthy man struts his stuff.

Then imagine that right there
the collector
or his skillful apprentice
comes along and repossesses the new car,
the new duds,
his jewels and his cash.

Strips 'im right down to 'es boxers
right there in front of everyone.

Then he has second thoughts ...
and takes the boxers too.

What do you think about that?

Would that man's embarassment
convince him
that he had had enough of pretending?

Like Being Up A Tree

Imagine a fruit tree
growing in the dense forest
laden with ripe fruit
but with no fruit yet fallen to the ground,
and here comes a certain person
hungry and thirsty for fruit
looking around for fruit,
with a wanna, needa gotta hafta hava
piece
of fruit.

And he thinks:

Although this fruit tree is laden with fruit,
no fruit has yet fallen to the ground.

But I know how to climb a tree —
How about if I climb this tree
and eat as much as I want
and stuff my pockets for later?

And that is just what he does.

Then imagine that
a certain man with an axe
comes along
hungry and thirsty for fruit
looking around for fruit,
with a wanna, needa gotta hafta hava
piece
of fruit.

And seeing that tree, thinks:

Although this fruit tree is laden with fruit,
no fruit has yet fallen to the ground
and I do not know how to climb a tree —
How about if I chop down this tree
and eat as much as I want
and stuff my pockets for later?

What do you think?

If that first man did not quickly climb down from that tree,
would he not come to death,
or deady pain?

 


 

In the same way as in these similes
Pleasures of the Senses
are of much grief and aggrivation at the time
and lead to real danger later.

Seeing the meaning of these similes
as they really are
with consumate wisdom —
you avoid
whatsoever is that which is diversity-situated diversity detachment —
whatsoever is that which is unity-situated unity detachment —
and develop that detachment
wherein all support for the world is completely desolved.

 


 

Diversity-situated diversity detachment is the detachment of an individual who is himself diverse in nature from that which is diverse in nature. What is diverse in nature is form, sensation, perception, own-making and individualized consciousness. Ordinary detachment: aka: Poise, equanimity, unflappability, detachment.

Unity-situated unity detachment is the detachment of an individual who is himself unified in nature from that which is unified in nature. What is unified in nature is the four formless realms and the state of ending perception of sense-experience. Temporary Release. Delivery from things of Time.

Detachment wherein all support for the world is completely desolved is Nibbana, the unseen consciousness, deathlessness, being outside Time. This is called "Release from things Not of Time," and is an unshakable, permanent freedom.

See MN.29, and discussion that follows it, and MN.38 and the discussion that follows that.

This is precisely the difference between 'equanimity' and 'detachment' and why 'detachment' is the better translation for upekkhā.

There can be a worldly sort of detachment (equanimity) but there cannot be an equanimity without worldly objects.

Equanimity = Equal minded. Equal meaning towards either side of something. Something with two sides is not a unity. Balanced between two alternatives. You cannot be equal minded within unity.

Go back to the Seven Dimensions of Self-Awakening: Put Memory in charge. After doing your Dhamma Research so that you have a basis in knowledge; develop energy and entheusiasm; then progress from equanimity to serenity to detachment = equal-minded within it, serenely above it, detached from it.

So, in response to:

[Bhk. Bodhi's edited version of Ñanamoli Thera's translation]:
Having avoided the the equanimity that is diversified,
based on diversity,
do not develop the equanimity that is unified,
based on unity —
develop that detachment
wherein all support for the world is completely desolved.

[Lord Chalmers]:
Having shed any equanimity
which is scattered and diffused
do not develop that real poise
which is one-centred and concentrated —
develop that detachment
wherein all support for the world is completely desolved.

[Bhk. Thanissaro]:
Having avoided the equanimity coming from multiplicity,
dependent on multiplicity,
do not develop the equanimity coming from singleness,
dependent on singleness —
develop that detachment
wherein all support for the world is completely desolved.

[Ms. Horner]:
Having avoided that which is equanimity in face of multiformity,
resting on multiformity,
do not develop that equanimity
which is equanimity in face of uniformity,
resting on uniformity,
ask yourself: 'What is "equanimity in the face of uniformity based on uniformity"'? and
how could there be an equanimity towards such without grasping?
and instead of following this advice —
develop that detachment
wherein all support for the world is completely desolved.

Go back to the Mulapariyaya: "He does not think about unity. He does not think: 'I am unity, unity is mine, I am of unity, unity is of me.'"

This discourse has been about how,
in the discipline for an ariyan,
there is an entire giving up in every way
of all avocations;
about what makes up the plenitude of universal giving-up
according to the Law of the Noble;
about how the cutting off of affairs in the Noble One's Discipline is achieved entirely and in all ways.

This discourse has not been about how to achieve a menatally balanced position in the world. That would be an avocation, an affair.

 

[MN.55] Jīvaka-Sutta, Lawful and Unlawful Meats, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha refutes the accusation that he allows the eating of the flesh of animals killed specifically for him and he explains the peramaters that allow the eating of meat.
[MN.56] Upāli-Suttaɱ, A Jain's Conversion, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A debate with the Buddha concerning the Jain proposition that of deeds of mind, word, and body, the deed of body carried the strongest kammic consequences where the Buddha holds that it is the deed of mind that carries the strongest kammic consequences.

 


Monday, February 29, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, February 01, 2016


 

new Saturday, February 20, 2016 1:20 PMThera-Gāthā Psalms of the Early Buddhists, II. Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translations.
[THAG 174] Mātanga's Son

 

new Saturday, February 20, 2016 5:54 AMDīgha Nikāya
[DN.31] Sigālovada Suttanta, Gogerly's 1847 translation
The Segala Homily, Rhys Davids translation, includes the introduction,
pdfThe Segala Homily, pdf file of Rhys Davids translation, stripped of footnotes and the introduction, for reading pleasure. Pass it along to those you regard as friends.
Of this sutta Buddhaghosa writes, 'nothing in the duties of housemen is left unmentioned. This Suttanta is called the Vinaya of the Houseman. Hence in one who practises what he has been taught in it, growth is to be looked for, and not decay.' And Rhys Davids adds: 'And truly we may say even now of this Vinaya, or code of discipline, so fundamental are the human interests involved, so sane and wide is the wisdom that envisages them, that the utterances are as fresh and practically as binding to-day and here as they were then at Rajagaha.'

Relative to the way one is to minister to one's teacher by 'eagerness to learn' (sussūsāya), the translators remark: "Childers has obedience. [PED has this as a possible meaning.] This is quite wrong. Considering the enormous importance attached in the autocratic states and religious Orders of Europe to obedience, it is most worthy of notice that obedience does not occur in Buddhist ethics. It is not mentioned in any one of the 227 rules of the Buddhist Order. It does not occur in any one of the clauses of this summary of the ethics of the Buddhist layman, and it does not enter into any one of the divisions of the Eightfold Path nor of the thirty-seven constituent qualities of Arahantship. Hence no member of the Buddhist order takes any vow of obedience; and the vows of a Buddhist layman ignore it."

 


Buddhism
The Science of Awakening
Not a Religion — Not a Philosophy
The Revalation of A Way of Life
Without Pain
Without Death and Rebirth
Outside of Time

As well-taught by
The Getter of the Getting
Aristocrat
The Consummately Self-Awakened One
Walker of the Walk
Who Knows and Sees
Teacher Supreme of Gods and Men
Trainer of the Trainable
The Awake

Having Known and Seen for Himself
He Reveals
To Gods and Men
This Universe,
With its Gods, Devils and Brahmās,
Shamen and Brahmins.

He Teaches A Thing
In both Spirit and Letter,
Helpful from the Start
Helpful in the Middle,
Helpful at the End;
A Come-See for Yourself Thing;
Timeless;
Not Just Pointing to a Future Outcome;
A To-Be-Seen in this Visible World Thing
A Thoroughly Satisfying
Utterly Blameless
Higher Way of Life

 


 

new Tuesday, February 02, 2016 5:53 AMMajjhima Nikāya
[MN.18] Madhu-Piṇḍika Sutta, Honeyed Lore, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha cuts off an argumentative questioner by telling him that in his teaching there is no arguing with anyone about anything and by this he is free. In repeating the insident to the bhikkhus he is questioned as to what this teaching is that argues with no one about anything. The Buddha explains in brief that it is by having no interest in the obsessions and perceptions that assail the mind. Then further the bhikkhus ask for a clarification of this of Maha Kaccana, who speaks of the obsessions and perceptions that arise from sense experience.
[MN.19] Dvedhā-Vitakka Sutta, On Counter-Irritants, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., the M. Olds translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha describes a method for categorizing thought which makes it less difficult to supress disadvantageous thoughts, still advantageous thoughts and attain tranquillity of mind.
[MN.20] Vitakka-Saṇṭhāna Sutta, On Governance of Thoughts, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Soma Thera translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha describes five stands the seeker after higher states of mind can adopt in his effort to eliminate unwanted, degenerate, debilitating thoughts.
[MN.21] Kakacūpama Sutta, The Parable of the Saw, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A famous sutta dealing with the idea that the student of this system should not concern himself with worldly matters, even those so close to home as the abuse of nuns; also dealing with the need for patience and endurance when faced with abusive speech ... to be counteracted by training in a heart of friendliness towards one and all.
[MN.22] Alagaddūpama Sutta, The Venomous Snake, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A wide-ranging very famous sutta that begins with a forceful teaching on the dangers of indulgence in sense pleasures. This sutta contains two famous similies: the similie of the snake illustrating how a wrong grasp of the Dhamma is like taking hold of a poisonous snake from the wrong end; and the simile of the raft illustrating how the Dhamma should be used to attain it's ends and then be let go. The sutta concludes with a thorough examination of the way 'not self' should be considered.
[MN.23] Vammīka-Sutta, The Smouldering Ant-Hill, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the M. Olds translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains a riddle which details the process of awakening.
[MN.24] Ratha-Vinīta-Sutta, On Relays, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Venerable Sariputta having heard a good report about the Venerable Punna Mantaniputto tracks him down and questions him about attaining Nibbana.
[MN.25] Nivāpa-Sutta, Gins and Snares, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha provides a complex simile illustrating by way of a herd of deer and a crop of corn set up to trap it the relationship of the arahant to the realm of the senses.
Following the allegory in this sutta would have us understand that, in the non-identified-with state of arahantship, the arahant may, even after death, still have at least awareness of the world. He makes his 'residence' the states of mind between the first jhana and the ending of experience of sense perception, again, not depending on any of these for identification, and makes use of these states and the sense faculties — the five senses are being made use of by the fourth group, though not to the point of wiggling those sticks!
If this sounds like herasy to you, then you need to bring to mind two other aspects of the Dhamma which dove-tail with it and explain them all in some other way. What two? The so called 'unseen consciousness', (vinnana anidassana), and the three 'visions' of the arahant (see for example MN 4 and many others) (which include knowing past lives and knowing the outcome of deeds, both of which involve perceptions of the world.) Nowhere does it say that these two visions and this sort of consciousness are lost in the state of arahantship at death. In fact what it does say is: "And, monks, as a man might be bound in a prison, but after a time might be freed from those bonds, safe and sound, and with no loss of his property," (MN 39).
[MN.26] Nivāpa-Sutta, Gins and Snares, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Warren translation, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha describes the method of his quest for Nibbana as consisting of avoiding that which was, like himself at that time, subject to change and pain, and seeking only for that which lead to the unborn, the secure from bondage, Nibbana.
[MN.27] Cūḷa Hatthi-padopama-Sutta, The Short Trail, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha teaches brahman Janussoni a way to confidently come to the conclusion that the Buddha is an awakened one: an instruction that delineates the steps from layman to arahant in great detail.

 

 

Seeing Dhamma — Seeing Repercussive Self-Arising

In the same way, friends,
as of all the creatures that roam the world using feet,
the footprint of the elephant is considered pre-eminant,
that is, in terms of size;
in the same way,
of all the doctrines describing the skillful mind,
the Four Aristocrats of Truths are considered pre-eminant,
that is, in terms of scope.

What four?

The Truth that 'This is Pain.'

The Truth that 'The origin of Pain is Thirst.'

The Truth that 'The ending of Thirst is the Ending of Pain.'

The Truth that 'The walk to walk to the ending of Pain is the Aristocratic Multidimensional High Way, that is:

High Point of View;
High Principles;
High Talk;
High Works;
High Lifestyle;
High Self-control;
High Mind;
High Serenity;
High Seeing;
High Detachment.

And what, friends, is this 'Pain'?

Birth is Pain,
Sickness is Pain,
Aging is Pain,
Death is Pain,
Grief and Lamentation,
Pain and Misery,
and Despair are Pain.

Not getting what is wished for is Pain.

Getting what is not wanted is Pain.

In a word: 'These five support-compounds[1] are Pain.'

And what, friends, is to be understood by
"In a word: 'These five support-compounds are Pain'"?

What are the five support compounds?

The shape-support-compound;
the sense-experience[2] support-compound;
the perception support-compound;
the own-making[3] support-compound;
the consciousness support-compound.

Of these the shape-support compound is made up of the four great properties:
solidity, liquidity, heat, and motion
and the shapes that are compounded from these.

These four can be either relating to an individual or be external
and in either case they are unstable,
change,
and come to an end.

And that which is unstable and changeable,
and that which is compounded from
that which is unstable and changeable
and comes to an end
cannot sanely and rationally be understood as:

"This I am;
This is mine;
This is my 'self.'"

How come?

Because that which is not under one's control
cannot sanely and rationally be called one's own
or to be said to belong to one.

And to hold that a thing
that comes into being by being derived from
that which is unstable and changeable
and which comes to an end
is the self
amounts to saying:

"That which is myself
comes and goes,"
which is absurd.

So the sane, rational individual thinks:

That Pain which has arisen
in that which I erroneously believed was myself
has arisen as a result,
or repercussion of something.

A result of what?

Contact of sense-organ with sense-object and consciousness.

For example:

If someone says something disagreeable about him, he thinks:

This unpleasant experience has come to me through my sense of hearing.

It is the result of something,
it is not not a result of something.

Of what is it the result?

Contact of that shape called sound and that shape called ear together with consciousness.

The sense-experience;
the perception;
the own-made aspect;
the consciousness of that shape,
made up from solidity, liquidity, heat and motion
that is sense-organ and sense-object consciousness —
all that is unstable and changeable
and comes to an end.

If being abused he should become angry and upset,
he should recollect the Parable wherein the Buddha says that even if downright bad guys should cut him to pieces with a saw,
were he to get angry
he would not be following the Teacher's instructions.

He should think:

'This body is so constituted that it is subject to abuse'
and he sets up recollection, investigation, energy, entheusiasm, impassivity, serenity and detachment
for the attaining of freedom from body.

By that focus of his mind
on the component parts
on the made-up nature of the experience
on the task of attaining freedom,
he is detached.

Detached he is free.

Seeing this freedom as freedom,
he sees the end of Pain.

In that freedom he can know:

"Left behind is rebirth,
lived is the best of lives,
done is duty's doing,
no more is there being any sort of 'it'
at any place of 'at-ness' left for me."

 


 

Suppose a collection of sticks and straw and mud enclosing a space were to be called a house.

Just so the collecting, assembling, combining together of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness in skin and bones, flesh and blood, urine and vineger, hot air and gas enclosing a space is called a living being.

If, friends, a sense organ is functioning,
and an appropriate sense-object comes within it's range,
and there is contact of the two
there arises sense-consciousness.

That which is shape in such that has thus come to be,
that is known as a 'shape-supported-compound';

that which is sense-experience in such that has thus come to be,
that is known as a 'sensation-supported-compound';

that which is perception in such that has thus come to be,
that is known as a 'perception-supported-compound';

that which is own-made in such that has thus come to be,
that is known as an 'own-made-supported-compound';

that which is consciousness in such that has thus come to be,
that is known as a 'consciousness-supported-compound'.

In this way it is to be understood that
within any given conscious experience
resulting from contact of sense-organ with sense object
there is the collecting, assembling, combining together of the support-compounds.

The Buddha said:

"Whoever sees repercussive-self-arising[4]
He sees Dhamma.

Whoever sees Dhamma
He sees repercussive-self-arising."

We have seen:

The five support compounds are repercussively-self-arisen.

Whatever is wishing for, roosting upon, inclination for, being tied to
in these five support compounds,
that is the arising of Pain.

Whatever is the disciplining of wishing and lust among these five support compounds, that is the ending of Pain.

Whatever is the walking of the Aristocratic Multi-dimensional High Way,
is the walking of the walk for the disciplining of wishing and lust among these five support compounds.

This is how
"In a word: 'These five support-compounds are Pain'"
is to be seen.

 


[1] khandha. 'heap, pile'.

[2] Experience of pleasure, of pain, of neither pain nor pleasure.

[3] Saŋkhāra san = own; khāra = make; that which is constructed by identification with acts of thought, word or deed intended to create experience of sense-experience for the self.

[4]

'Yo paṭicca-samuppādaɱ passati||
so dhammaɱ passati
|| ||

Yo dhammaɱ passati||
so paṭiccasamuppādaɱ passatī.
|| ||

Adapted from MN 28

 

[MN.28] Mahā Hatthi-Padopama-Sutta, The Long Trail, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Sariputta teaches the bhikkhus about how the scope of the Four Truths encompasses the Paticca Samuppada by way of focusing on the details of sense-experience to create detachment.
[MN.29] Mahā Sāropama-Sutta, Timber: Or Discoveries, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha uses a simile to warn the bhikkhus not to mistake fame, or achievement of ethical culture, or attainment of concentration, or attainment of knowledge and vision for attainment of permanent freedom disconnected from Time, which is the goal of his system.

 

Unshakable Freedom

There is release (or deliverance) (vimokkha) and there is freedom (vimutti).

Release is the having been released from something. The having been set free.

Freedom is the state attained subsequent to having been released.

There is release relating to things 'of Time' (samaya)
and there is release relating to things 'not of Time' (asamaya).

There is freedom relating to things 'of Time' (samaya)
and there is freedom relating to things 'not of Time' (asamaya).

Things of time are things that have come into existence,
have been own-made;
this includes the five support-compounds (kkhandha); the six sense spheres (salayatana) and such mental states as the four jhānas, the four arūpa-jhānas, and even the state perceiving ending sense experience. Or, in other words, every existing thing.

Things not of time are things that have not come into existence, have not been own-made.

There are 3 releases and there are 8 releases. The three are:
attaining a state empty (suññata), of lust, hate and blindness;
attaining a state without signs (animitta), of lust, hate and blindness;
attaining a state without ambitions regarding (intentions aimed at getting) (appaṇihita) things involving lust, hate and blindness.
The eight are:
coming to know and see shape (rūpa) as it really is (that is, as compounded of the properties: solidity, liquidity, heat and motion; or, ultimately as aspects of light);
attaining a state of formlessness (arūpa) while recognizing forms;
attaining the perception 'How Pure!";
attaining the four arūpa jhānas:
the Sphere of Endless Space,
the Sphere of Endless Consciousness,
the Sphere of Nothing is to be had,
the Sphere of Neither-perception-nor-non-perception;
and attaining the state where perception of sense-experience ends.

The three releases and the eight releases are releases from things of Time.

The states themselves are not the release;
release is the freedom resulting from attaining these states.

The eight releases are a heierarchy only in one dimension;
in terms of their being vehicles of release, each is of an equality.

Focused on the release mechanism
one is only freed from the thing that came before,
a relative freedom,
which is called:
"Freedom as to things of Time".

Attaining the topmost mechanism,
the state where perception of sense-experience ends,
is not freedom
and is not the goal
and the freedom attained by way of release from that is a matter of an intellectual comprehension that the state was own-made and that to attempt to construct higher mental states would only lead to getting more bound up than before.
In other words, it is an arbitrary end point to the process.
One could have stopped anywhere earlier to the same effect.

Release from that freedom
that is that freedom attained by release from things of Time —
is release from something not of time.

Things of Time > Release from Things of Time > Unstable Freedom from Things of Time (A Thing Itself Free from things of Time, but temporary because relative to things of Time) > Release from Things Not of Time > Stable Freedom from Things Not of Time.

If that freedom that resulted from release from things 'of Time' were not a thing itself 'not of Time', it would not be freedom from things 'of Time'.

Once again: Focus on the fact of being free from X and that is 'freedom as to a thing of Time'; focus on the freedom itself and that is 'freedom as to a thing 'not of Time.'

Think of it like this: 'focus' is a detachment (an awareness of awareness; a being one step beyond) which is another way of saying 'freedom'.

The Buddha is saying that if you can do this, the resulting freedom is unshakable or is what is also also known as 'the unshakable freedom of heart and freedom of wisdom'.

This is having been released from things of time,
and having recognized in the resulting freedom,
that this freedom
is freedom from the corrupting influences āsavas:
(sensual pleasure, existence, blindness, points of view)
with such clarity
that it is known and seen
that this state is of such a nature as to guarantee
rebirth is left behind,
lived is the best of lives,
duty's doing is done,
and that there is no more being any kind of an 'it' at any place of 'atness' left
that could cause one to again own-make (saŋkhārā) this world
or any other 'thing of time'.

The freedom is too sweet;
the pain of the alternative too obvious.

There is nothing missing from or incorrect about the PTS version of the Pali.
In fact I suggest that the versions of the Pali that differ are efforts to 'correct' this version and are themselves in error. The alteration requires slightly more than the simple addition of 'a' before two words. There is enough there to say that the change is conscious.

In the first portion of the last case the seeker has attained release from things of Time with the resultant freedom being freedom based on things of Time. Such freedom is not stable because the base is not stable.

This is the man searching for heartwood who has found heartwood and has taken it away with him seeing that it will be useful for things requiring heartwood.

In the second portion, (which in other similes in other suttas is usually a repetition of the first portion) using the same method, one attains release from things of Time then release from things not of Time (the freedom attained by release from the freedom based on things of Time).

The key is seeing the distinction between release, relative freedom and absolute freedom. The first man becomes the second man by using the heartwood.

The problem seen by the translators, (that the first half of the sequence does not match the second half) is not a problem, it is intentional. It points to the otherwise missing (unstated) path to the freedom based on things 'not of time' resulting from release from things 'not of time.'

As long as the seeker is thinking that there is something there which is giving him his freedom (something released from which he attains this freedom); his freedom is temporary because that 'something' has been own-made and is unstable. When he lets go of that, (not thinking 'This is the real me', 'I have attained this') there is no longer an unstable basis for his freedom and that freedom is absolute.

The only thing that has changed between the two situations (the first portion and the second portion of this case) is the perception of the situation. It doesn't need to be re-stated in an additional case, it just needs to be seen differently.

The first, temporary release, will be noted because the seeker is after permanent release, but he also knows he has the right method because temporary or not it is freedom, so he focuses on that and discovers ultimate freedom.

This business of consciousness being able to be conscious of consciousness and of consciousness being able to be conscious of not being consciouss of things is an essential skill needed to realize Nibbana.

Presenting the issue in the combined way we have it presents a problem (the problem the translators are reacting to) which when focused on with the idea 'how can this be understood to be correct' rather than 'this does not follow the usual pattern and so must be a mistake' results in insight. It is a pedagogical technique, not a mistake. This sort of shift in the use of a frequently-used pattern is not unique in the suttas. Keep'nja onjatoz.

Warning: There is frequent inconsistency in the terms used to translate vimokkha and vimutti with the terms 'Release' and 'Freedom' being used for both. Ms Horner speculates where she should be able to see the certainty: Vimokkha is an objective reference to the things one is freed from; while vimutti is the subjective experience of (mental) freedom.

— Commentary on the translations of MN 29
See also: MN 122,
AN 5.149
And for more: Glossology Pages: Vimutti and Vimokkha

 

[MN.30] Cūḷa Sāropama-Sutta, More about Timber, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha uses a simile to teach brahman Pingalakoccha that in his system one must not mistake fame, or achievement of ethical culture, or attainment of concentration, or attainment of knowledge and vision for attainment of unshakable freedom of heart which is it's goal.

 

Relative to MN 30, the following is adapted as commentary for this sutta from a discussion where it was stated that it was an example of an internal contradiction in the suttas. The discussion begins with this quote:

Leigh Brasington on Possible Altered Sutras to do with Jhana

The Culasaropama Sutra (Majjhima Nikaya #30) in addition to being an excellent teaching on the dangers of spiritual materialism, also refers to the Jhanas. However, it shows signs that suggest the text has been altered.

Its beautiful mathematical harmony of the sutra suddenly breaks down in section 12 with a discussion of the Jhanas.

The Jhanas are a concentration practice and concentration has already been stated in section 10 to be a lesser state than knowledge and vision. But when the Jhanas are introduced in section 12, they are said to be "higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision." [Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.] The inclusion of the Jhanas here actually makes the sutta self-contradictory.

It also contradicts other pro-Jhana sutras. The formulation of the eight Jhanas is the standard "short" one, (similiar to what is found in the Mahasatipatthana Sutta) but with the addition of a last sentence in each of the paragraphs: "This [too] is a state higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision." This sentence directly contradicts the last sentence of section 84 of the Samannaphala Sutta (Digha Nikaya #2). [Horner, Bhk. Thanissaro]

In the previous paragraph of the Samannaphala Sutta, the recluse directs the concentrated, pure, bright mind resulting from the fourth Jhana towards knowledge and vision. The understanding gained "is a visible fruit of recluseship more excellent and sublime than the previous ones".

Many other suttas show signs of this type of tampering and we are left today with the task of puzzling out the original teaching.

 


 

First some definitions.

Pali: Samādhi, ñāṇa-dassana, jhāna
SAMĀ = Even, ADHI = Higher;
ÑĀÑA: a blend of 'Na's' 'knows';
JHĀNA = burn, shine, know, chan, zen.
Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi: concentration, knowledge and vision, jhāna
Horner: concentration, knowledge and vision, meditation
Olds: serenity, book-knowledge and understanding, attainment of a degree of detachment in the burnings.
DASSANA = seeing.

There is no word for 'meditation' in the Pali, unless you understand the term literally in which case it is using sati (thinking about a thing). Otherwise the place is also sometimes taken by 'bhavana', development.

Jhāna is not 'concentration.'
Concentration is an aspect of Jhāna,
and the second jhāna is characterized by cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ: the heart having become whole-heartedly single-minded (my double-meaning translation) (whole, unified, one-pointed, concentrated).

Samādhi is a general term that is defined in different ways. If it is defined as the jhānas as in Sammā Samādhi, High serenity, it is the first four jhānas. It can be just ordinary serenity, it can be a fruit of the practice of loving kindness, it can be any number of practices of other doctrines, and in this doctrine it can also be the three: Aimlessness, Signlessness, Emptiness.

Within this doctrine, samādhi can be higher or lower than knowing and seeing (ñāṇa-dassana) depending on if it is attained in a manner that is informed by ñāṇa book-knowledge of and dassana seeing or understanding the goal, which in this case is described as the ending of the corruptions (āsava: lust, anger, and blindness).

Suppose a person came upon the description of jhāna in Gotama's system without being informed about any of the rest of the system or it's goals such as could be the case in the case of this sutta (he is going after the heart-wood without knowing what it is). In the case of such a one, even able to attain the jhāna, such jhāna would be meaningless in terms of the Buddhist goal. For one understanding and striving after the goal then, samādhi by any definition, when not informed by knowledge of the goal, would be lower than the Buddhist idea of knowing and seeing. Informed by the goal, jhāna is an actual step in the direction of letting go of the world and therefore higher than mere book knowledge and understanding (aka, intellectual knowledge).

So so far, we might put it this way:

Samādhi is lower than
ñāṇa-dassana which is lower than
jhāna attainment informed by Ñāṇa-dassana;

Serenity is lower than
knowing and seeing which is lower than
jhāna attainment informed by knowing and seeing.

In dealing with the Dīgha, our understanding of ñāṇa-dassana becomes important.

This is a term which is applied to the Streamwinner, not the arahant. It does not imply accomplishment of the goal which is vision of the Paṭicca Samuppada and because of that vision the ending of the āsavas (corruptions). It is essentially the acceptance of Sammā Diṭṭhi, the Four Truths as a working hypothesis, whereas Sammā Diṭṭha, which is actually seeing it at work.

Without the book knowledge and understanding one could look for a long time from the mental state called the ending of perception and sense-experience (saññā-vedayita-nirodhaɱ) (if you had even heard of such a state and knew what to look for) and not see what is valuable to be seen from the point of view of the goal of this system.

So in the Sāmañña-phala Sutta of the Dīgha the jhānas are used to rise to a point where knowing and seeing can be used to attain wisdom — the vision (vijja) which makes it possible to see what is going on and to see also that because of that it is impossible that lust and anger could arise again. But it is the freedom gained through the vision that is the fruit of the way, not the knowing and seeing. You need to go forward to section 97 to see this.

This is a great example of the 'Magic' of sutta study. Going to the Abhidhamma first this would never have come up, having come up it breaks up a clot of blindness and moves the story forward. We see that this sutta must have been set up just to provoke such a question or at least to make those who believe jhāna is the end-all stop and think.

The note to Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi's translation: "Although the jhānas may also have been included in the attainment of concentration set forth in Ī10, and knowledge and vision was described as higher than the attainment of concentration, the jhānas now become higher than knowledge and vision because they are being treated as the basis for the attainment of cessation and the destrucion of the taints (in Ī21)."

A non-explanation. Why, How does the change of use alter their position relative to attaining the goal? Because at this point they are informed by knowledge and vision. First he gets samādhi, then he gets knowledge and vision, then he uses samādhi with knowledge and vision for the purpose of attaining the goal.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

Going to the commentators and the Abhidhamma for clarification would have given you the vague hint that is found in the note to Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi's translation which was apparently read by Leigh.

We need to read this writing, even in the Pali, with a great deal of flexibility of mind. They said things then in ways that are heard differently today. Gotama says things using puns and other word-games. Some of these are impossible to translate. Things appear in the suttas that nobody can believe would be in 'a religious work' ... some very raunchy stuff! Things are said that are much deeper than they look at first glance. Gotama doesn't keep anything back, but his teachings are certainly layered. He always tells the truth, always answers the question asked, but what he says can go much further than what the questioner intended when asking the question. Things are said in ways that deliberately make one stop and think. So stop and think when you read these suttas.

 

[MN.31] Cūḷa Gosinga-Sutta, In Gosinga Wood, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha visits the Anuruddhas and learns of their having attained arahantship.
[MN.32] Mahā Gosinga-Sutta, The Shining Light, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, (which has now been completely unabridged, reformatted and has had the footnotes restored) the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A group of the Buddha's great disciples gather together on a beautiful moonlit night in Gosinga Woods with the air perfumed by the Sal Tree blossoms. They each, in turn, describe the sort of bhikkhu they feel would illuminate this woods. Then, unable to descide whose proposition was best, they visit the Buddha to ask his opinion. The Buddha approves all their opinions and adds his own contribution.
It is interesting to note here that Venerable Moggallāna the Great is referred to as being a talker on Dhamma where usually he is noted for his supreme magic powers. As I recall it, the repeaters of the Majjhima Nikāya were organized under Mahā Moggallāna ... which fact, (I do not have a citation) if true, would show that the sutta collections were begun well before Gotama's death and not at the First Council. I think it likely that this was the case, and if so it is misguided to speak of this or that Nikaya as preceding the others. They were more likely all begun about the same time, well prior to Gotama's death, and were all added-to as time went on.
[MN.33] Mahā Gopālaka-Sutta, Pastoral Duties, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Greater Discourse on the Cowherd the I.B. Horner translation, omitted previously,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha likens eleven skills needed by the skillful cowherd to eleven skills needed by the skillful bhikkhu.
[MN.34] Cūḷa Gopālaka-Sutta, Pastos, Good and Bad, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Greater Discourse on the Cowherd the I.B. Horner translation, omitted previously,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha likens those seekers who follow a teacher who does not know what he is talking about to a herd of cows lead by a cowherd that sends his herd across a river where there is no ford.
[MN.35] Cūḷa Saccaka-Sutta, Saccaka's Onslaught, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Warren translation, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Saccaka, who has been boasting and bragging that he can defeat the Buddha in debate when he meets him in debate is upset after his first utterance. The Buddha then teaches him Dhamma.

 


The issue of the right to privacy should not be being cast as a matter of 'expectation of privacy';
it should be being cast as a matter of 'respect for privacy'.

How is the privacy of an individual any different than the right of a copyright owner to determine the uses and terms of use of his copyrighted work?

The author of a written work is presumed to own and have copyrighted his work upon it's creation.

In the same way an individual by his various activities should be presumed to own and have protection similar to copyright (the right to publish or dispose-of as he wishes, whether for profit or not) of the various personal facts, attributes, habits and practices of his life; and this, upon their creation and regarless of their visibility.

Conversely, if the private details of an individual are not to be respected, what is the just basis for giving protection via copyright or patent to any other sort of knowledge or information that can be discovered in various ways?


 

Monday, February 01, 2016
Previous upload was Thursday, December 31, 2015

 

Towards a Uniform Style
for Pali Texts and Translations

This will form a new 'Topic' in the Forum, under the Ditthadhamma Lokadhamma Subject heading.

If, in the Pali text or a translation you see a number, and it looks like this: [1] that is the page number of the original source of that text and that page number is an identified object to which you may link by appending to the url for the page "#pg1" (without the quotation marks.) When the page number is in other formats, it has not yet been given an identity. You may, however, link to it in the same way in the expectation that at some point it will be given such an id. So doing will not invalidate the link it will just point to the top of the page.

Example: Use: "../../dhamma-vinaya/pts/mn/mn.013.horn.pts.htm#pg119" for Horner's MN.13, page 119.

Similarly, in the cases of those books primarily composed of verses, verse numbers appear like this: [1] and may be linked to by appending to the url for the page "#v1"

Example: Use "../../dhamma-vinaya/pts/kd/thag/thag.240.rhyc.pts.htm#v601" for Mrs. Rhys Davids' THAG.240, verse 601

 

§

 

Section numbers and symbols separating sections are unreliable. Different versions of the Pali have used different section numberings as have different translations. Editing of such has altered the numbering inconsistently. The precise 'rule' for determining a section is not defined consistently.

Suggested style:

[1] The first, (location,) portion of the Nidana.

[2] The second, (occasion,) portion of the Nidana.

Where the first portion of the Nidana is missing, the occasion portion should still be numbered [2]. At some point someone will have the enterprise to figure out the proper location portion for all suttas. Some 'Chapter' collections (where the second and subsequent suttas often begin: "Then ..." will be determined to consist of only one sutta.

Sections should be given a number when a new idea is introduced and between it's sub-sections and sub-sub-sections.

There are two categories of things: A and B.

There are two A things.

What two?

[3]

[4]

These are the two.

 


 

There are two B things things.

What two?

[5]

[6]

These are the two.

These are the A and B catagories of things.

 

§

 

Complete change of direction or major category change.

 

§

 

Of all the problems with diacriticals that of the use of the 'mg' (anusvara) is the worst offender. Again different parts of the different versions of the Pali and translations use different symbols 'ɱ', 'ɱ', 'ṁ', and 'ŋ'. Second in terms of confusion is the 'ng' (velar n) which is found as 'ŋ' and 'ṅ', 'ɱ'.

Suggested style:

'ɱ' for the 'mg' (anusvara). It most clearly indicates pronunciation. Evaɱ me sutaɱ. Pronounce: Evam me sutam holding the 'm' sound thinking 'ming' and distinctly concluding the word.

'ŋ' for the 'ng' (velar n). Aŋguttara Pronounce: Ang-guttara.

'nya' for the ñ. Controversial, but think about it: While a good portion of the population does understand the pronunciation of this letter, a good portion does not and a further good portion of the portion that does understand it's pronunciation does not do it properly. How do you pronunce: Suññata? (sunya-nyatta) or Aññā (anya-nyaa)

The underdot 'ḍ', 'ṇ', 'ṭ', and ' ḷ ', if understood to mean 'pronounce dis inc ly, work as is; as do the long vowels, though in both cases for the most part they would be pronounced in the same way without any diacritical at all.

I have not yet, but will begin at this point to take steps to introduce at least the changes suggested for the mg and ng.

 

 

new Wednesday, January 20, 2016 3:33 AMLimitless, Bradley Cooper, Abbie Cornish and Robert De Niro
Director: Neil Burger
Movie Review. Take a pill, experience great super-normal powers, murder, steal, write a best-seller, have lots of sex, get rich, become President of the U.S. Relevance to Buddhism: dangers of supernormal powers for the untrained.

 

new Friday, January 15, 2016 6:53 AMMajjhima Nikāya
[MN.1] Mūla-Pariyāya-Sutta, How States of Consciousness Originate, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the M. Olds translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The first translation into English of the first sutta of the Majjhima Nikāya.
Here the Buddha reveals the root concepts of all things.
In it's expanded form (found in my translation) it is certainly a hypnotic spell, and will, as if by magic, take one back to the very origins of the world. It builds up from that by way of fundamental concepts at the root of all things, verbal and physical and beyond to Nibbana. It is an excellent sutta, by the way, for learning the Pali language. In the myth that isn't told, this sutta, prior to Gotama was a magic spell used with the idea that it would by guiding focus on fundamentals, generate wealth (mula > moola = remuneration). Hense the otherwise mysterious name for the suttas as 'The One Up Passed the Mulapariyaya.'
[MN.2] Sabb-Āsava-Sutta, Coping with Cankers, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the T.W. Rhys Davids translation, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha describes how one who applies his mind studiously to the point is able to rid himself of disrupting influences in seven ways: by seeing them as problems; by self-control, by proper use; by patience; by avoidance; by elimination; and by awakening. Examples of each case are given.
I have done an outline of this sutta which some may find helpful.
[MN.3] Dhamma-Dāyāda-Sutta, Unworldly Goods, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to become heirs of Dhamma, not of worldly things. By heirs of Dhamma he explains, he means putting the Dhamma into practice as he himself puts it into practice. Sariputta follows up on this exhortation with details. It is by not putting this Dhamma into practice as the Buddha did that senior bhikkhus, middle-ranked bhikkhus and juniors, one and all come to blameworthiness, and it is by putting it into practice in this way that one and all come to praiseworthiness.
[MN.4] Bhaya-Bherava-Sutta, Of Braving Fears, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Brahman Janussoni questions the Buddha about the fears and distractedness of mind that arise on living alone in the wilderness. The Buddha explains that for those with corrupt behavior in body, speech and thought; with passionate desires, corrupt at heart, lazy, nervous, doubt-ridden, proud and arrogant, fearful, hungary for fame and gains, weak in energy, confused, without concentration, and weak in wisdom such a life does inspire fear, but for one without these corruptions such a life strengthens one in pursuit of the goal.
[MN.5] Anangaṇa-Sutta, Of Blemishes, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Sariputta and Maha Moggallana engage in a dialogue which points out the advantages of self awareness when it comes to character faults.
[MN.6] Akankheyya-Sutta, Of Yearnings, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Warren, Buddhism in Translations translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Gotama emphasizes again and again the importance of perfecting ethical behavior, internal tranquillity of heart, not dispising jhana practice, penetrating insight, and the making much of empty places for the gaining of every stage in his system from the very most elementary to the most advanced.
[MN.7] Vatthūpama-Sutta, On Fulling, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha likens a dirty cloth incapable of taking dye to the mind corrupted by greed and covetousness, malevolence, anger, malice, hypocrisy, spite, envy, stinginess, deceit, treachery, obstinacy, impetuosity, arrogance, price and conceit — incapable of attaining a good rebirth. He then likens the cleansing of a dirty piece of cloth that renders it capable of taking dye to the process of cleansing the mind of these corruptions, and he describes this cleansing process.
[MN.8] Sallekha-Sutta, Of Expunging, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Nyanaponika Thera translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Maha Cunda approaches the Buddha to ask how to eliminate ideas of 'I' and 'mine'. The Buddha's response is to give him fourty-four pairs of opposites to be resolved upon, thought of, used as guides to follow, things leading upward and which will scour out ideas of 'I' and 'Mine.'
[MN.9] Sallekha-Sutta, Of Expunging, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Sariputta explains the path to attaining of consummate view in thirty two different ways.
In this sutta we find Lord Chalmers first encounter with the Paticca Samuppada. Some things to note: He translates 'upadana' as 'attachments' where it no doubt lead others to 'grasping', but where it should better be 'supports or fuel'; he translates 'bhava' as 'existence' which is unusual and most accurate; he translates 'sankhara' as 'plastic forces' and goes way afield trying to rationalize this choice. It is very hard when trying to translate what one can see is a very deep and profound system to simply get down to earth in one's translation. Because of this exotic translation, the step from sankhāra to consciousness is made obscure. I will clarify: Blindness results in own-making; own-making results in consciousness by way of having brought the sixfold sense sphere (aka nama-rupa) into existence. The PS is presented both this way (one instance of 'consciousness') and with two instances of 'consciousness.' #2 being: Blindness results in own-making, own-making results in consciousness, consciousness results in named-form, named form results in consciousness, consciousness results in the six-fold sense-sphere.
[MN.10] Sati-Paṭṭhāna-Sutta, On Mindfulness, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
With the exception of the Nidana just a reference to the Rhys Davids translation of DN 22.
[MN.11] Cūḷa-Sīhanāda-Sutta, The Short Challenge, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains the logic behind the difference between the Buddhist proclaiming faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha and those of other beliefs proclaiming faith in their teacher, teachings and fellow-believers.
A very interesting sutta! Essentially the difference is in the perception that the Buddha's system works or ought to work in accomplishing what is in effect the goal of all seekers, that there is nothing left unexplained, and that since this is not the case in other faiths, that the faith of those who follow such is never, can never be fully vested. The inference is that faith is not fully vested by a Buddhist until such time as he has perceived that the system works, or ought to work.
[MN.12] Mahā-Sīhanāda-Sutta, The Long Challenge, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A bhikkhu who left the order is going around saying that there is nothing extraordinary about Gotama or his doctrine. Gotama, hering of this persons opinion replies with a wide-ranging rebuttal listing the wonderous aspects of his awakening and the scope of his knowledge.
[MN.13] Mahā-Dukkha-kkhandha-Sutta, The Longer Story of Ill, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A detailed exposition of what constitutes the pleasure, the danger, and the escape from the five senses, forms, and sense experience.
[MN.14] Mahā-Dukkha-kkhandha-Sutta, The Longer Story of Ill, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Mahanama the Sakkyan, lamenting over his state of confusion with regard to pleasures of the senses, is given a detailed exposition of what constitutes the pleasure and the danger of the five senses, the thing that is binding Mahanama to confusion, and the way the Buddha himself escaped such confusion. The Buddha then describes an encounter with some Jains wherein he defeats their claim that the end of pain is to be got through pain by showing them that they are practicing their painful austerities without any support in knowledge or understanding and concludes with a description of the exceptional pleasure which he is able to attain.
[MN.15] Anumāna-Sutta, Reflection, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Maha Moggallana gives the bhikkhus a discourse on self-evaluation.
[MN.16] Ceto-Khila-Sutta, The Heart's Fallows and Bondages, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Rhys Davids 'Buddhist Suttas' translation, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Five things that are like spikes through the heart.
[MN.17] Vana-Pattha-Sutta, Ubi Bene, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha gives a dissertation on how to evaluate whether or not a bhikkhu should continue to live in a forest, in a small town, in a city, in a district or dependent on the support of an individual.
A very useful sutta for day-to-day practice.

 

new Sunday, January 10, 2016 5:12 AMAŋguttara Nikāya, Tika Nipāto
[AN.3.1-10] The Book of the Threes, I. The Fool, Suttas 1-10, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Woodward translations, (the Woodward suttas are on individual files, this link is to the Index) and for #2, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Various suttas dealing with thoughts about the fool and the wise man.
The following Bhikkhu Bodhi suttas are all linked to the Pali and whatever other translations there are available for this sutta.
[AN.3.11] Well Known, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Advising three things leads many people astray, advising the three opposite things leads them to their advantage.
[AN.3.12] To Be Remembered, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three places which should be remembered by a Warlord and in a similar way the three places which should be remembered by a bhikkhu.
[AN.3.13] A Bhikkhu, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha compares worldly ambitions with those of the bhikkhus.
[AN.3.14] Wheel-Turning, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha compares the duty to the Dhamma of a Buddha to the duty to the Dhamma of a Wheel-rolling King.
[AN.3.15] Pacetana, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells a story of his former birth as a wheelwright to illustrate how the person of crooked formation fails and the one of flawless construction stands fast.
[AN.3.16] The Unmistaken, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha describes three pracices which conduce to certainty of attaining the wise course.
[AN.3.17] Oneself, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three modes of behavior which are oppressive of self, others, and both, three that are not oppressive.
[AN.3.18] Deva, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The bhikkhus find the idea of rebirth in heaven repugnant, but more repugnant than that is the idea of bad behavior of body, speech and mind.
[AN.3.19] Shopkeeper (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha compares the reasons for the success or failure of a shopkeeper to the reasons for the success or failure of a bhikkhu's attainment of serenity.
[AN.3.20] Shopkeeper (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha compares the attributes of a successful businessman to the attributes of a bhikkhu successful at making headway in the acquiring of skillful states.
[AN.3.21] Saviṭṭha the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three elders differ on the best of three forms of Stream-entry and submit the question to the Buddha.
This sutta deals with three sorts of attainments: Kāya-sakkhī, the 'body-with-eyes' one who has seen the true nature of body with his own eyes, so at least provisionally: 'body-knower'; Diṭṭha-ppatto, the 'view-secured' (bowled, in-the-bowl, bagged); and Saddhā-vimutto, the 'faith-freed'. The Buddha makes it clear that these are modes or types of practice that have lead to stream-entry, they are not levels in a heierarchy. Any one of the three may be working for arahantship, or non-returning or once-returning. The body witness is one who has made jhāna practice his main focus. The view-attainer has made perception of the truth of the teachings the main focus of his practice. The faith-freed has made faith in the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha the main focus of his practice.
[AN.3.22] Patients, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Providing medical treatment to three types of persons is likened to teaching Dhamma to three types of persons. One sort of person will not recover whether he receives treatment or not; one will recover whether he receives treatment or not; and one will recover if he receives treatment, but not if he does not. Similarly one sort of person will not gain the path whether he hears Dhamma or not; one will gain the path whether he hears Dhamma or not; and one will gain the path if he hears Dhamma and not if he does not. It is for the sake of the sick man who will recover if he receives medical treatment that providing medical treatment for the sick is not useless. Similarly it is for the sake of the one who will gain the path if he hears Dhamma that teaching Dhamma is not useless.
[AN.3.23] Volitional Activities, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
By identification with intentional deviant, non-deviant or mixed deeds one creates personal experience of deviant, non-deviant or mixed worlds.
"Volitional Activities' is Bhk. Bodhi's translation of Saŋkhāra. The reader should keep in mind that this word is very much like and almost a synonym of 'kamma' and needs to accommodate both the act of creation and the thing that results. The differentiation between this term and kamma is essentially the emphasis put on the personal nature of the creating and the results. To 'sankhara' one identifies with the intent to create personal experience by way of thought, word or deed. The result is personal experience formed by the nature of the intent when creating. (This sutta describes the process.) The word, properly translated must convey this dual nature and this personalizing process. I have suggested 'own-making' Saŋ = own; + khāra = make. and 'the own-made'. What is is not is just 'activities' or 'mental formations' or 'fabrications' or anything else without the sense of those activities etc being the means of constructing one's own personal world. But 'activities' although sankharing is activity, does not relate etymologically with the word at all, and 'mental ... and volitionl' are also 'explanations' unrelated to the word. Sticking closely to the Pali we could get: 'con-struction', 'con-fection,' 'con-juration,' 'co-formation,' etc. But where we have elsewhere the terms 'I-making' and 'My-making' why not also 'Own-making?' What it absolutely is not is 'conditioning'...which translation leads into major misunderstanding of Dhamma. [see: Is Nibbana Conditioned?] For the various terms used by other translators visit the Glossology page.
[AN.3.24] Helpful, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
By having brought him to three things a person is said to have done more than anyone else in the world for another person.
[AN.3.25] Diamond, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three sorts of individuals are found in the world, one with a mind like an open sore, one with lightning-like insight, and one with the diamond's ability to cut through even the hardest matters.
[AN.3.26] To Be Associated With, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Advice for selecting one's companions and teachers: except out of compassion and consideration avoid persons less advanced in ethical standards, serenity, and wisdom; associate with those who are equal to one in these things; venerate and follow those who are more advanced.
[AN.3.27] Disgust, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Further advice as to the selection of one's companions.
[AN.3.28] Speech Like Dung, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha characterizes three sorts of speech: The one who gives false testimony is like dung; the one who gives true testimony is like flowers; the one who having abandoned harsh speech, abstains from harsh speech, speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and lovable, as go to the heart, are courteous, desired by many, and agreeable to many is like honey.
[AN.3.29] Blind, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Two sorts of vision: for material gain and for gain of good states; three sorts of persons: one who sees neither, one who has eyes only for material gain and one who sees both.
[AN.3.30] Inverted, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three sorts of persons: one who doesn't listen, one who listens but forgets; and one who listens and retains what he has heard.
[AN.3.31] Brahmā, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
High praise for those families where Mother and Father are worshipped. Likened to Brahma, Teachers of Old, worthy of offerings.
[AN.3.32] Ānanda, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Ananda asks the Buddha whether or not there is a state of samadhi in which there is no I-making or My-Making and yet there is liberation of the heart by wisdom. The Buddha replies that this state is attained thinking: "This is sanity, this is the pinnacle, that is, the calming of all own-making, the forsaking of upkeep, the destruction of thirst, dispassion, ending, Nibbana."
I don't know what better case I could make for the translation of 'saŋkāra' as 'own-making' than this sutta where the ideas "I-making" ahaŋkāra and "my-making" mamaŋkāra and "own-making" saŋkāra are set side by side. If you wanted to say "I-making" and "my-making" in one word what would you say if not "own-making"?
[AN.3.32 (WP 33)] Sāriputta, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The PTS Pali and Woodward's translation and my translation have this as a continuation of #32 and the numbering of these Wisdom Publications suttas will be off by one from here to #38/39 where a condensation occurs which brings the numbering back in sequence with the PTS Pali on which the numbering system of this site is based.
The Buddha speaks about his ability to teach in brief or in detail or both ways and the rarity of those who understand.

 

In brief, do I, Sāriputta set forth Dhamma;

In detail, do I, Sāriputta, set forth Dhamma;

In brief and in detail, do I, Sāriputta, set forth Dhamma —

Yet those who understand are hard to find.

 

[AN.3.33 (WP 34)] Causes, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The three points at which kamma originates and the three where kamma is ended.
The word here to understand is 'nidāna'. Nidana = Down-bound. The 'nidana' is the first knot beginning the weaving process (kamma — pun certainly intended). Too often inappropriately translated 'cause' (as here in all translations but my own). In casual English, 'cause' is understood less as the force of creation than as simply something that happens co-insidentally: 'just because'; in precise English, 'cause' is always an imprecise concept. To make a cup of tea what is required is a cup, water, tea-leaves, a heat source, the effort of an individual and a thousand other things that are necessary for these things to exist. Which of these is the 'cause' of a cup of tea? Or a disease? Or Pain? At best one should always use 'proximate cause' or 'economic cause' but better would be to forget this idea altogether and train your thinking to understanding the idea of 'dependence'. Nidana means more like 'tied up in/to' involved with, but also 'beginning' which is the basis for the other often used translation 'foundation', 'basis.' It is also the first 'condition' necessary to begin weaving. Here what is indicated by the context is a way to say 'There are three "factors based on which" "tied to which" "dependent upon which" action begins.' "Tied-up with," "bound-up in" "Tied down to".
[AN.3.34 (WP 35)] Hatthaka, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha explains to Prince Hatthaka how it is that he can sleep well outdoors in the cold of winter.
[AN.3.35 (WP 36)] Messengers, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three of Yama's messengers, old age, sickness and death, warn man to shape up as he is subject to the same destiny.
[AN.3.36 (WP 37)] Kings (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The gods of the four directions observe the behavior of mankind as to whether or not there is reverence for mother and father, shamen and brahmins, elders of the clan, observance of the uposttha including the wakeful watch and whether or not men do good works. If they see men do these things they are happy, otherwise not so happy.
[AN.3.37 (WP 38)] Kings (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha shows how Sakka's pointing to himself as an example of a fitting reward for observing uposatha and behavior in accordance with the precepts is not suitable.
[AN.3.38-39 (WP 39)] Delicate, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Gotama describes how even though he was exceedingly delicately nurtured, shame at being subject to aging, sickness and death caused him to let go of pride in youth, health and life itself. Then Gotama describes how pride in youth, health and life lead to behavior that does not end well for bhikkhus as well as commoners.
[AN.3.40] Authorities, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The bhikkhu who has given up the household life to seek an end to pain who then indulges a variety of low thoughts is encouraged to put his better self in charge or to make himself aware that there are those in the world who can read his thoughts and by that put the world in charge, or to remind himself that the Dhamma was well taught by Gotama for just this purpose and to put the Dhamma in charge, and by one or another of these means overcome his misguided ways.
[AN.3.41] Present, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three things that need to be present in order to create great good kamma: faith in the results of good deeds, the good deed, and a detached recipient.
[AN.3.42] Cases, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three things by which one of faith can be recognized: desire to see the ethically advanced, desire to hear true Dhamma, living free of the stingy grip of greed.
[AN.3.43] Advantages, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
On the factors to be considered by one who would give a dissertation on Dhamma.
[AN.3.44] Smooth Flow, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three things which define the meaning of 'profitable talk.'
[AN.3.45] The Wise, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three things praised by the wise and good: charity, homelessness and care of parents.
[AN.3.46] Virtuous, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
A virtuous bhikkhu living in dependence on a village gives the inhabitants a great opportunity to make good kamma.
[AN.3.47] Conditioned, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three constructed-characteristics of the constructed. Similar to but importantly different than the well-known 'Three Characteristics'
See the introduction to my translation for my argument as to why translating 'saŋkhata' as 'condition' is a serious mistake.
[AN.3.48] Mountains, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
An inspirational sutta urging leaders of groups to set a good example.
[AN.3.49] Ardor, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three occasions for putting forth extra energy.
[AN.3.50] A Master Thief, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three ways a great bandit and a corrupt bhikkhu are similar.
[AN.3.51] Two Brahmins (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Two old brahmins panicked by impending death seek comfort from Gotama.
Note how casually it is mentioned, and how expected it appears to be that these men should have reached 120 years of age.
[AN.3.52] Two Brahmins (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Two old brahmins panicked by impending death seek comfort from Gotama.
[AN.3.53] A Certain Brahmin, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha explains the meaning of 'Seen in this life is Dhamma'.
[AN.3.54] A Wanderer, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha explains the meaning of 'Seen in this life is Dhamma'.

 

new Tuesday, January 05, 2016 6:00 AMThera-Gāthā, The Psalms of the Early Buddhists, Volume II: Psalms of the Brethren, translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids.
Linked to the Pali and where available to the translations of Bhikkhu Thanissaro.
[THAG 1] Subhūti.
[THAG 4] Puṇṇa of the Mantānis
[THAG 5] Dabba of the Mallas
[THAG 240] Sankicca

 

new Sunday, January 03, 2016 8:31 AMTherī-Gāthā, The Psalms of the Early Buddhists, Volume I: Psalms of the Sisters, translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids.
Linked where available to the translations of Bhikkhu Thanissaro.
Verses which should be especially inspiring to women. Frequently making a declaration of arahantship, often expressing relief from being oppressed by the role of woman.
[THIG.III] Canto III. Psalms of Three Verses.
There is one case [XXXIII] in this Canto of a woman becoming Arahant while still a lay-woman.
[THIG.IV] Canto IV. Psalms of Four Verses.
[THIG.V] Canto V. Psalms of Five Verses.
See especially the story of Paṭācārā!
[THIG.VI] Canto VI. Psalms of Six Verses.
In this Canto see especially Great Pajāpatī, the Gotamid, the Buddha's aunt and the first bhikkhunī and Sujātā, another who attained arahantship while still a lay-woman.
[THIG.VII] Canto VII. Psalms of Seven Verses.
[THIG.VIII] Canto VIII. Psalm of Eight Verses.
[THIG.IX] Canto IX. Psalm of Nine Verses.
[THIG.X] Canto X. Psalm of Eleven Verses.
These are the verses of the woman who, asking the Buddha for a cure for her dead child was sent out to look for a mustard seed from a house where no death had occurred.
[THIG.XI] Canto XI. Psalm of Twelve Verses.
[THIG.XII] Canto XII. Psalm of Sixteen Verses.
[THIG.XIII] Canto XIII. Psalms of About Twenty Verses.
[THIG.XV] Canto XV. Psalm of Over Fourty Verses.

All of the verses and biographical sketches of Mrs. Rhys Davids translation of the Therīgāthā, The Psalms of the Sisters have now been posted and can be accessed through the Index.

 


"People never cease to change place in relaion to ourselves. In the imperceptible but eternal march of the world, we regard them as motionless, in a moment of vision too brief for us to perceive the motion that is sweeping them on. But we have only to select in our memory two pictures taken of them at different moments, close enough together however for them not to have altered in themselves - perceptibly, that is to say - and the difference between the two pictures is a measure of the displacement that they have undergone in relation to us."

- Marcel Proust, Remembrance of Things Past, Volume II: Cities of the Plain, pg 1054. The definitive French Pleiade edition translated by C.K. Scott Moncrieff and Terence Kilmartin.


 

new Friday, January 01, 2016 6:59 AMMajjhima Nikāya,
[MN 8] Effacement, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Nyanaponika Thera translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Maha Cunda approaches the Buddha to ask how to eliminate ideas of 'I' and 'mine'. The Buddha's response is to give him fourty-four pairs of opposites to be resolved upon, thought of, used as guides to follow, things leading upward and which will scour out ideas of 'I' and 'Mine.'
[MN 22] The Simile of the Snake, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A wide-ranging very famous sutta that begins with a forceful teaching on the dangers of indulgence in sense pleasures. This sutta contains two famous similies: the similie of the snake illustrating how a wrong grasp of the Dhamma is like taking hold of a poisonous snake from the wrong end; and the simile of the raft illustrating how the Dhamma should be used to attain it's ends and then be let go. The sutta concludes with a thorough examination of the way 'not self' should be considered.
[MN 32] The Greater Discourse in Gosinga, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A group of the Buddha's great disciples gather together on a beautiful moonlit night in Gosinga Woods with the air perfumed by the Sal Tree blossoms. They each, in turn, describe the sort of bhikkhu they feel would illuminate this woods. Then, unable to descide whose proposition was best, they visit the Buddha to ask his opinion. The Buddha approves all their opinions and adds his own contribution.
[MN 47] The Inquirer, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the M. Olds exerpt/translation/discussion and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha goes into detail concerning how one should examine one who claims to have attained the goal.
[MN 52] The Man from Aṭṭhakanāgara, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
In this sutta Ananda explains to a householder how Arahantship can be attained via any single one of eleven different avenues.
The avenues are any one of the four jhanas, the brahmaVihāras, or the arupa jhanas up to the Realm of No Thing's to be Had. The effeciant cause of the attainment, it is clear, is not the jhana or meditative state, but the insight that that state itself has been own-made and is impermanent.
[MN 54] To Potaliya, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains in detail what it means to have given up all avocations in this Dhamma.
[MN 57] The Dog-duty Ascetic, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Two ascetics, one who's asceticism was to practice the behavior of a dog, the other who's asceticism was to practice the behavior of an ox question the Buddha as to the outcomes of their practices.
A good, clear explanation of the workings of kamma.
[MN 60] The Incontrovertible Teaching, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains a logical way to behave when faced with uncertainty as to what one should believe.
This sutta should be read by every skeptic and every realist who can see of himself that he does not know or see such things as the workings of kamma, rebirth according to one's deeds, the existence of Heaven and Hell, gods, God or the Devil, etc. The logic of the sutta is incontrovertable, indeed. It only makes sense to cover your bets. To hold the position that 'there is no' (kamma, God, etc.) is actually to say that one 'knows,' and to say that one knows means that one is claiming to know all. How else could one know that 'there was not'? If a thing exists, it can be seen. Perhaps not by everyone, but sooner or later it can be seen. If a thing does not exist, one would need to see absolutely everything to know that it did not exist. And then, maybe you missed something. Then, too, to say that one knows that 'there is not' is to say that one knows more than those who have said that 'there is.' That is 'exalting one's self and disparaging others.'
I think Bhk. Bodhi's understanding of what he calls 'The Doctrine of Non-doing' is not well reflected in his choice of sub-title for this section. The idea is not that this is a doctrine of 'Not-doing', but that this is a doctrine where people believe that there is no kammic result of deeds, no 'doing' in the sense of creating consequences. It is saying that there is 'no bad (or good) action' 'kamma' 'action' or 'doing,' not 'no doing'. The idea 'bad' or 'good' implies 'consequences.' Certainly we can see with our own eyes that 'doing' has occurred. 'Kamma' here is being translated one-sidedly, that is only as the 'doing', but the idea of the 'doctrine' is that there is no 'result' (the other side of 'kamma'.) Buddhism itself can be characterized as a doctrine of 'not-doing': 'the not doing of unskillful deeds.' For example, the intent to not do a kammic deed identified with own-making in thought, word, or deed.
There is a similar misplaced emphasis in Bhk. Thanissaro's "Action and Non-Action."
[MN 70] At Kīṭāgiri, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Two bhikkhus are taken to task for disparaging the rule about eating at impropper times. Includes a description of Seven sorts of Persons pointing out which have nothing more to do and which have something more to do.
[MN 75] To Māgandiya, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Wanderer Magandiya is raised from a view based on faith that health is the greatest good and that this is Nibbana to an understanding of the satisfactions, the dangers and he escape from pleasures of the senses.
[MN 77] The Greater Discourse to Sakuludāyin, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
In a discourse which amounts to a full course in Awakening the Buddha teaches Sakuludayi and his followers the reasons his disciples admire and follow him.
[MN 82] On Raṭṭhapāla, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Walter Lupton translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The story of Ratthapala who, inspired by a Dhammatalk given by the Buddha wishes to enter the order but is refused the permission of his parents. He vows to die on the spot unless he receives permission and after many pleadings by his parents and friends finally gets his parents concent. He thereafter quickly becomes arahant. On revisiting his family he is first unrecognized and subjected to abuse, then his father tries to tempt him to return to the world with gold and his former wives. He is not persuaded and delivers a sermon in verses on the subject of the pains in the world. Still later he discourses to the king on four doctrines of the Buddha concerning the futility of living in the world.
[MN 95] With Caŋkī, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha points out the flaws in reliance on faith, inclination, report, consideration of reasons, reflection on and approval of an opinion and describes the path that leads to seeing the truth of a proposition for one's self.

At this point all the available Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed. suttas of the Majjhima Nikaya have been uploaded and linked to the Pali and the various other translations available.

 

Five Unreliable Ways of Determing the Truth

Five things that cannot be relied upon for concluding that a thing is true because they can be seen to be sometimes true and sometimes not and the reverses of each are similarly sometimes true and sometimes not.
For example: Something held to be true because it is agreeable can be incorrect; something held to be false because it is disagreeable can be true.

Pāli Olds Horner Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro
Saddhā Faith Faith Faith Conviction
Ruci Delight Inclination Approval Liking
Anussava Hear-say Report Oral Tradition Unbroken Tradition
Ākāra-parivitakka Formulating through reasoning Consideration of Reasons Reasoned Cogitation Reasoning by Analogy
Diṭṭhi-nijjhānakkhan Acceptance or satisfaction with an insight arising from a point of view Reflection on and approval of Opinion Reflective Acceptance of a View Agreement through Pondering Views

These same five things, however are the ways truth may be preserved down through time.

How to Awaken to the Truth

Examine the teacher as to bodily and verbal behavior with regard to states of Lust, Anger and Delusion.

Is he in the contol of these states such that he might, not knowing, not seeing, say: "I know" or "I see"?

Is he in the control of these states such that he might urge others to act to their detriment?

Does the Doctrine of this teacher lead to dispassion, giving up, letting go, detachment and freedom? A Doctrine that is profound, hard to see and hard to understand, peaceful and sublime, unattainable by mere reasoning, subtle, to be experience by the wise each for himself here in this visible state, for such Doctrine is not easily taught by one in the control of lust, anger and delusion.

After determining that this teacher is in control of these states such that he would not, not knowing, not seeing, say: "I know' or "I see," and would not urge others to act to their detriment, then only:

Pāli Olds Horner Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro
saddhaɱ Niveseti Repose Faith Upon Reposes Faith in Places Faith Places Conviction
upasaŋkamanto payirupāsati Reposing Faith, approach respectfully near Draws close and sits down near by Visits and pays respect Visits and grows close
payirupāsanto sotaɱ odahati Respectfully give ear Lends Ear Gives Ear Lends Ear
dhammaɱ suṇāti Giving Ear, Listen to Dhamma Hears Dhamma Hears Dhamma Hears Dhamma
sutvā dhammaɱ dhāreti Having Listened, Retain Heard Dhamma Remembers Memorizes Remembers
dhāritānaɱ dhammānaɱ atthaɱ upaparikkhati Having Retained, Grasp the Profit in the Retained as Heard Tests the Meaning Examines the Meaning Penetrates the Meaning
dhammā nijjhānaɱ khamanti Having Grasped the Profit, repose satisfaction with or acceptance of the insight arising from this Dhamma Approves Reflectively Accepts Comes to Agreement through Pondering
dhamma-nijjhānakkhantiyā sati chando jāyati There Being Satisfaction with the insight arising from this Dhamma, Wish is born Desire is born Zeal Springs Up Desire Arises
ussahati Wish Born, there is daring to do Makes an Effort Applies Will Becomes Willing
tulayati Daring to Do there is Taking Measures Weighs Up Scrutinizes Contemplates, Weighs Up
pahadati Taking Measures there is Taking Steps Strives Strives Makes Exertion
pahitatto samāno kāyena c'eva paramasaccaɱ sacchikaroti,||
paññāya ca taɱ ativijjha passati
Having taken steps, the shaman, bodily embraces the truth and thus wisely, with his very own vision, sees. being self-resolute he realises with his person the highest truth itself; and penetrating it by means of intuitive wisdom, he sees. Resolutely striving, he realises with the body the ultimate truth and sees it by penetrting it with wisdom. Exerting himself, he both realizes the ultimate meaning of the truth with his body and sees by penetrating it with discernment.

Securing Truth

The above practice brings one to the state of having wakened to the truth. To secure that awakening one must repeat this practice again and again.

 

Caution! While is is often very helpful for understanding a term to know the translations of that term in another language, many translations of the Suttas in languages other than English are not translations from the Pali at all, but are translations from English language translations. Consequently there is the possiblity of error being propagated across languages. So both those reading about Buddhism for the first time from a language other than English, and those English-speakers consulting other languages for insight should be careful to check the source! Your refuge is the Pali.

 


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