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 [Ditthadhamma Lokadhamma]


newWhat's New?

 

new Tuesday, May 05, 2015 7:15 AMSaṃyutta Nikāya,
[SN 5.51.11] Formerly or Condition, the Woodward translation,
linked to the Pali and to the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha describes his approach to developing magic powers and the various magic powers that he attained as a result of this practice.
This sutta was submitted formatted and proofread by Alex Genaud.

 


 

Antam idaṃ bhikkhave jīvikānaṃ yad idaṃ piṇḍolyaṃ,||
abhilāpāyaṃ bhikkhave lokasmiṃ||
'Piṇḍolo vicarasi pattapāṇī' ti.

"This, brethren,
is the meanest of callings -
this of an almsman.

A term of abuse is this in the world to-day,
to say:

'You scrap-gatherer!

With bowl in hand you roam about.'

'Tis this calling
that is entered on
by those clansmen who are bent on [their] good
because of good,
not led thereto
by fear of kings,
by fear of robbers,
not because of debt,
not from fear,
not because they have no livelihood:
but with the thought:

'Here am I,
fallen upon birth,
decay,
death,
sorrow and grief,
woe,
lamentation
and despair,
fallen upon woe,
foredone with woe.

Maybe some means of ending all this mass of woe
may be found.'

Thus, brethren, a clansman leaves the world,
and covetous is he in his desires,
fierce in his longing,
malevolent of heart,
of mind corrupt,
careless and unrestrained,
not quieted,
but scatter-brained,
and thoughtless.

Just as, brethren,
a torch from a funeral pyre,
lit at both ends,
and in the middle smeared with dung,
kindleth no fuel
either in village or in forest -
using such a figure
do I describe unto you this man,
for he has lost his home and wealth,
nor yet does he fulfil the duties of a recluse.

SN 3.22.80, Woodward translation, where the Buddha goes on to describe the value of having adopted this low form of earning a living as being that in this way there is the opportunity to get rid of the corruptions of mind. 'almsman' = 'piṇḍolyaṃ' 'scraper'.

§

"This is a lowly means of livelihood, alms gathering. It's a form of abuse in the world [to say], 'You go around as an alms gatherer with a bowl in your hand'"
ITI 91, Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.

§

I suggest 'monk,' or 'mendacant' or 'brother' is not a term of abuse in the world whereas 'beggar' is. There is, as it says in this sutta, a compelling reason for respectable people to adopt this 'lowest of possible occupations.' See: Using 'Beggar' for 'Bhikkhu' ... again and links from there.

 


 


The Light of Thabor

"When thou art alone in thy cell, shut thy door, and seat thyself in a corner; rise thy mind above all things vain and transitory; recline thy beard and chin on thy breast; turn thy eyes and thy thought towards the middle of thy belly, the region of the navel; and search the place of the heart, the seat of the soul. At first, all will be dark and comfortless; but if you presevere day and night, you will feel an ineffable joy; and no sooner has the soul discovered the place of the heart, then it is involved in a mystic and etherial light."

The practice of the monasteries of mount Athos c 1341, Mosheim, Institut. Hist. Eccles. p. 522, 523. Fleury, Hist. Eccles. tom. xx. p. 22. 24. 107-114, etc. quoted from Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume III, p. 783.
Note that if one 'places the beard and chin on one's breast and turns one eyes and thought towards the middle of one's belly, the region of the navel,' it has approximately the same effect as placing the mind (sati) around the mouth while sitting upright with the chin tucked in. Rising above all things vain and transitory = separating one self from the diversions (Nīvaraṇā). I am not saying the two practices are the same in intent or consequence, but the form of the meditation practice of these monks is virtually identical to the initial steps in jhāna practice.

As a follow-up, this practice, which was the exclusive manner of prayer of a small group of monks called 'Quietists', was discovered by the wider Christian community, brought into the discussion of the substantiality of God (was this light material or immaterial and depending on that was this a legitimate vision of God or not) and became a raging debate among the people of Constantanople as well as among the ecclesiastics — (from the Buddhist perspective, bringing an intermediate result of a practice of letting go of the world into a discussion of existence or non-existence). After a great ruckass it was finally decided that it was a legitimate view of the eternal light of God. Gibbon, in his really witty way, ridicules the whole idea without having any personal experience of the practice: "and, after so many insults, the reason of mankind was slightly wounded by the addition of a single absurdity." And the educated English of the world lost an opportunity to discover jhāna practice, for Gibbon was sacred wisdom right up until the end of WW I, where wisdom was abandoned altogether in the West.


 

 


"What we gave, we have;
What we spent, we had;
What we left, we lost."

— epitaph of Edward Courtenay
"the blind and the good" Earl of Devon c 1400
quoted from Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume III, p735


 

Get your head out of the bag

Living with the eye-force controlled, beggars,
the heart is releaved from the eye's-consciousness of shapes.

As such, enjoyment is born in the releaved heart.

With joy, enthusiasm is born.

Enthusiastic in mind, the body experiences impassivity.

Impassive in body, pleasure is experienced.

A pleased heart has arrived at serenity.

Serene in heart, things become clear.

Things being clear,
you thus get a measure of living carefully.

SN 4.35.97, Olds translation

 


 

new Monday, March 23, 2015 4:38 AMThera-Gāthā,
Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation:
[THAG 217] Migajāla.
One of the sons of Vishaka. It is interesting to hear the understanding of an Arahant of what he has accomplished and what he thinks of the Buddha and the Dhamma. Mostly in the suttas we do not get views from this perspective.
[THAG 218] Jenta, The Chaplain's Son
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
Here we get a picture of a conversion as it happens. A little bit of a sutta as well as the Arahant's psalm.
[THAG 219] Sumana
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
Another interesting story in that this bhikkhu/Arahant entered the order when only seven years old at a time when Anuruddha had gathered a following and when Sariputta was still alive and may have been present at the Second Council.
[THAG 46] Samiddhi
[THAG 204] Kassapa of Gayā
[THAG 205] Vakkali
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
[THAG 206] Vijitasena
Linked to the K.R. Norman translation
[THAG 69] Channa
The verses of the Bhikkhu who at the end of the Buddha's life was subjected to 'the higher penalty', that of being shunned by the bhikkhus. In the descriptions of this event it is not clear why such an extreme measure would be taken in the case of a bhikkhu whose fault was extreme affection and pride in the Buddha. Reflecting on this we can see that the reaction of an ordinary person to being subjected to such a punishment by the one so adminred would initially result in anger and a change of heart about that person. Snap fingers, no more pride. Masterful psychology. This is not the Channa of SN 4.35.87.
[THAG 70] Puṇṇa
[THAG 252] Mālunkyā's Son
Mālunkyā's Son praises a teaching in brief received from the Buddha. See also in reference to this: SN 4.35.95
[THAG 214] Mālunkyā's Son
The verses of Mālunkyā's Son after he has attained Arahantship.
[THAG 122] Piṇḍola-Bhāradvāja.
[THAG 119] Vajji-putta.
The background story for this bhikkhu's verses is interesting in that it describes him as one (maybe the first one) of those responsible for organizing the first council. It also contains the story of Ananda's becoming an Arahant.
[THAG 120] Vajji-putta.

 


Is there a man who careless, heedless dwells,
Craving in him will like a creeper grow.
He hurries hankering from birth to birth,
In quest of fruit like ape in forest tree.

Whom she doth overcome, - the shameful jade,
Craving, the poisoner of all mankind, -
Grow for him griefs as rank as jungle-grass.

But he who doth her down, - the shameful jade,
Hard to outwit, - from him griefs fall away
As from the lotus glides the drop of dew.

This word to you, as many as are here
Together come: May all success be yours!
Dig up the root of craving, as ye were
Bent on the quest of sweet usira root.
Let it not be with you that, ye the reed,
Māra the stream, he break you o'er and o'er!

Bring ye the Buddha-Word to pass; let not
This moment of the ages pass you by!
That moment lost, men mourn in misery.

As dust [mixed and defiled], is carelessness;
And dust-defilement comes through carelessness.
By earnestness and by the Lore ye hear,
Let each man from his heart draw out the spear.

—THAG 214, Mrs. Rhys Davids' translation.
The verses of Mālunkyā's Son after he has attained Arahantship.


 

[THAG 215] Sappadāsa, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.

new Monday, March 23, 2015 4:38 AMSaṃyutta Nikāya,
[SN 4.35.4] Bāhira Anicca Suttaṃ (Aniccam 2; Bāhiram), the Pali,
Impermanent (ii): the External, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that shapes, sounds, scents, savours, touches and things are inconstant, painful and not self and that seeing that brings freedom and recognizing that freedom as freedom rebirth is left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an it at any place of atness left for one.
[SN 4.35.5] Bāhira Dukkha Suttaṃ (Dukkham 2; Bāhiram), the Pali,
Ill (ii): the External, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that shapes, sounds, scents, savours, touches and things are painful and not self and that seeing that brings freedom and recognizing that freedom as freedom rebirth is left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an it at any place of atness left for one.
[SN 4.35.6] Bāhira Anattā Suttaṃ (Anattā 2; Bāhiram), the Pali,
Void of the Self (ii): the External, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that shapes, sounds, scents, savours, touches and things are not self and that seeing that brings freedom and recognizing that freedom as freedom rebirth is left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an it at any place of atness left for one.
[SN 4.35.7] Dutiya Ajjhatta Anicca Suttaṃ (Aniccam 3; Ajjhattam), the Pali,
Impermanent (iii): the Personal, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind were impermanent in the past, will be impermanent in the future and are impermanent now and that seeing that one should strive to be repelled by them, become dispassionate towards them, and look for their ending.
[SN 4.35.8] Dutiya Ajjhatta Dukkha Suttaṃ (Dukkham 3; Ajjhattam), the Pali,
Ill (iii): the Personal, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind were painful in the past, will be painful in the future and are painful now and that seeing that one should strive to be repelled by them, become dispassionate towards them, and look for their ending.
[SN 4.35.9] Dutiya Ajjhatta Anatta Suttaṃ (Anattām 3; Ajjhattam), the Pali,
Void of the Self (iii): the Personal, the F.L. Woodward translation. Listed in the text in error as 'external.'
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind were not self in the past, will be not self in the future and are not self now and that seeing that one should strive to be repelled by them, become dispassionate towards them, and look for their ending.
[SN 4.35.10] Dutiya Bāhira Anicca Suttaṃ (Aniccam 4; Bāhiram), the Pali,
Impermanent (iv): the External, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that visible objects, sounds, scents, savours, touches, and things were impermanent in the past, will be impermanent in the future and are impermanent now and that seeing that one should strive to be repelled by them, become dispassionate towards them, and look for their ending.
[SN 4.35.11] Dutiya Bāhira Dukkha Suttaṃ (Dukkham 4; Bāhiram), the Pali,
Ill iv, the External, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that visible objects, sounds, scents, savours, touches, and things were painful in the past, will be painful in the future and are painful now and that seeing that one should strive to be repelled by them, become dispassionate towards them, and look for their ending.
[SN 4.35.12] Dutiya Bāhira Anatta Suttaṃ (Anattā 4; Bāhiram), the Pali,
Void of the Self iv: the External, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that visible objects, sounds, scents, savours, touches, and things were not self in the past, will be not self in the future and are not self now and that seeing that one should strive to be repelled by them, become dispassionate towards them, and look for their ending.
[SN 4.35.13] Sambodha (Sambodhena) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Enlightenment, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the reasoning that went on in his mind concerning the personal six senses that lead to his enlightenment.
A teaching which is repeated again and again throughout the suttas. Vital to understand and much more difficult to practice than it appears. Sit down and reviewing the sutta in your mind attempt to see in your own world the facts he is describing. Should be read and practiced along with the next sutta.
[SN 4.35.14] Dutiya Sambodha (Sambodhena ii) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Enlightenment (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the reasoning that went on in his mind concerning the six external objects of sense that lead to his enlightenment.
[SN 4.35.15] Assādapariyesana (Assādena 1) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Satisfaction, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the perceptions he had concerning the personal six senses that lead him to conclude he was enlightened.
This sutta should be read together with the next sutta. See also in this regard SN 3.22.26 for the description of the method but using in this case the khandhas, and SN 3.22.27 for the perceptions also using the khandhas. The lesson here is that these two sets of ideas are equivalents. Some people may find it easier to examine themselves by the one way, others by the other way. If you want confidence that you are capable of answering random questions concerning Dhamma (that is if you are interested in being a Dhamma teacher) it is vital to understand the variety of sets of equivalents.
[SN 4.35.16] Dutiya Assādapariyesana (Assādena 2) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Satisfaction 2, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the perceptions he had concerning the external six sense objects that lead him to conclude he was enlightened.
[SN 4.35.17] No Ve Assāda (No Cetena 1) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Without Satisfaction, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that one must see the satisfactions, disadvantages, and the way of escape from the personal sense spheres in order to attain enlightenment.
The tendency is to think of the Buddha as teaching only that the world is miserable and one should give it up. Here one can see that what he is really saying is that it is necessary to see both the misery of the world and the pleasures to be found there and to compare the two. The conclusion of the wise will be that the world should be given up. Then, of course, it is necessary to understand how it can be given up.
Dig around and examine what you experience as the highest pleasure derived from sight, etc., the worst pain that results from seeing. If you do not do this thoroughly and objectively you will never convince yourself of the need to let go of the eye.
Eyes see your loved ones, your mother, your father, your sisters and brothers, friends and relatives, the form of the most beautiful lass in the land, bhikkhus, perhaps even a Buddha; eyes see the birth of your children, wonderful vistas, masses of people, sights of historical events, memorable events; eyes see beautiful things, works of art and imagination; it is with our eyes we find our food; eyes see your well done deeds prosper, they see the badly done deeds of your enemies cause them suffering, because of eyes we can read the Dhamma ... — Eyes are put out as punishments by poking red-hot stilletos into them; are goughed out with thumbs in fights, poked out by accident, are subject to diseases and produce salty watery tears that obstruct your meditation in old age, they see, in mirrors your own aging; eyes see your loved one's suffer pain, get old and die, they see one's you love betray you or ignore you; eyes see your deeds go unappreciated, the deeds of your enemies appreciated, they see your badly done deeds fail; eyes see ugly sights, horrific sights, terrifying sights; were it not for seeing would you risk all the dangers of living?
When looking into the satisfaction to be found in perception through the eye, try to find the ultimate satisfaction. e.g. "Because of the eye sense I am able to see sights that inspire to lofty emotions and ambitions." Don't just accept the idea that the eye yields pain. Conversely when examining the pain that is consequent on perception through the eye sense also look for the ultimate pain. e.g., having seen sights with the eye that inspire lofty emotions and ambitions, acting on those emotions and ambitions the result is dissapointment, frustration, and the dangerous urge to try again in another birth. Putting the two sets of observations together, evaluate. Don't rationalize. Weigh. It's not: "But the pain is the price of the pleasure." (resignation) or "The pleasure is worth the pain." (A rationalization made in the absense of experience: always!) But: "I can see that accepting the pain with the pleasure is of a lower order than the escape (pain and pleasure are worldly, the aim of escape is getting beyond the worldly). I have not yet gained the pleasure of the highest order of worldly satisfaction, and I do not yet know the satisfaction of the higher order attained through freedom from the eye, but judging objectively the higher order should yield a greater satisfaction and I might not ever attain the highest order of worldly satisfaction. Let me then, facing these two alternative paths, aim towards attaining the higher order and see. At least if I fail this quest I will not berate myself for having chosen a low path."
This entire chapter (suttas 13-22), called the Yamaka-vagga, or the Twins Chapter, is made up of sets of two contrasting suttas one dealing with the internal or personal sense organs and the other dealing with the sense objects. The pairs should, of course, be read together. But it is interesting to question why they are presented separately in the first place. Were they actually delivered separately? It is conceivable. If the bhikkhus that were present were familiar with Gotama's methods they would know to expect the second sutta to follow at some point. That point might not be immediately after the delivery of the first sutta. Delay would serve to inhance retention of the idea. Create suspense of a sort. On the other hand it might just be that suttas throughout that were originally delivered in a unified form were broken up into separate 'suttas' just for the sake of achieving the legendary 84,000 suttas the Buddha is supposed to have delivered.
[SN 4.35.18] Dutiya No Ve Assāda (No Cetena 2) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Without Satisfaction 2, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that one must see the satisfactions, disadvantages, and the way of escape from the spheres of the external sense objects in order to attain enlightenment.
[SN 4.35.19] Paṭhama Abhinanda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Taking Delight In, the F.L. Woodward translation.
He who takes delight in the personal senses is not free from Pain; he who does not take delight in the personal senses is free from pain.
Note here the implication that 'taking delight' is a willful act, not something that simply happens to one.
[SN 4.35.20] Dutiya Abhinanda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Taking Delight In (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
He who takes delight in external sense objects is not free from Pain; he who does not take delight in external sense objects is free from pain.
[SN 4.35.21] Paṭhama Uppāda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By the Uprising (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that the setting up of the personal sense organs is the setting up of pain, the ending of the personal sense organs is the ending of pain.
[SN 4.35.22] Dutiya Uppāda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By the Uprising (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that the setting up of the external sense objects is the setting up of pain, the ending of the external sense objects is the ending of pain.
Note that the setting up of the sense objects is not the creation of the sense objects; it is the work of going about to get them.
[SN 4.35.23] The All, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the M. Olds, and Bhk. Thanissaro translations.
The Buddha describes what in his system accounts for absolutely everything in existence, calling it 'The All.'
Bhikkhu Thanissaro discusses in a footnote the question as to whether or not The All is intended to encompass Nibbana and whether, if Nibbana is not a dhamma, it can be considered The Self.
The All describes all that which has been own-made, (sankhāra-ed), that which has become (or which has becoming), a development of the conjunction of nāma/rūpa with consciousness, what we call 'all existing things'; an equivalent of the khandhas. Beyond that there is no thing (dhamma) which can be said to have existence. Nibbāna on the other hand, is not own-made, it is not a thing, the consciousness arising from and conscious of named/shapes. So the All includes the individualized (sankhāra-ed) mind and dhammas (things) and the idea of Nibbāna, but not Nibbāna. Because Nibbāna is not-become, does not have existence as understood in this way, it is therefore impossible to point to it. It is not impossible or beyond anyone's scope to make the statement that the all includes the not-become or non-existent; an absurdity, I would argue, that would place one's mind's over the abyss.
[SN 4.35.24] Abandoning (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the M. Olds, and Bhk. Thanissaro translations.
The Buddha teaches Dhamma for letting go of The All.
[SN 4.35.25] Dutiya Pahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Abandoning 2, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches Dhamma for letting go of The All through thoroughly known higher knowledge.
[SN 4.35.26] Paṭhama Parijānāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Comprehension (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that it is because of lack of mastery, thorough knowledge, dispassion, and letting go of The All that the body of pain is not destroyed, but that with mastery, thorough knowledge, dispassion towards and letting go of The All, the body of pain may be destroyed.
[SN 4.35.27] Paṭhama Parijānāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Comprehension (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that with mastery, thorough knowledge, dispassion towards and letting go of The All, the body of pain may be destroyed.
Identical with the second part of the previous sutta. Usually the shorter, positive version is found first.
[SN 4.35.29] Andhabhūtam Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Afflicted, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that the six sense realms are afflicted by aging, sickness and death, grief and lamentation, pain and misery and despair.
A variation on SN 4.35.28, previously posted.
Both Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi agree with the commentary in reading aḍḍhabhūtam for the andhabhūtam of the PTS text. Bhk. Bodhi translates 'weighed down'. I see no reason to object to andhabhūtam: which would be 'being blinded by'. The difference is orientation towards the being. Aḍḍhabhūtam suggests the affliction by these things of the being; andhabhūtam suggest the being blinded by these things of the mind. The latter would more closely adhere to the aims of the Dhamma.
[SN 4.35.30] Sāruppa-Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Proper, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents the best method for the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
[SN 4.35.31] Sappāya-Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Helpful (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents a walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
A variation on the previous sutta. The curious thing here is the omition of the reference to The All. Substituted for that is the identical construction but using the khandhas. Some ideas that occur: The omition is a mistake. The omition is deliberate and points to the equivalence of the khandhas with The All. The titles may point to the significance. The first 'Sāruppa-Paṭipadā'  SĀRUPPA: 'a shapely walk to walk' PED: fit, suitable, proper. > SA = with; RŪPA = shape, taken to mean 'equal to'; PAṬIPADĀ = path to walk; PED: means of reaching a goal or destination, path, way, means, method, mode of progress; Woodward: a way that is proper; Bhk. Bodhi: 'a way that is appropriate'. The second: 'Sappāya-Paṭipadā' 'a walk to walk to begin' SAPPĀYA > SAṄ = with, own, con; + (according to PED) = pass, but possibly also + PĀYA > PĀ+Ā+YA = 'pass to whatever', 'to begin with'; PED: to start out; nstr. pāyena (adv.) for the most part, commonly, usually; PED: likely, beneficial, fit, suitable; Woodward: 'a way that is helpful'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'a way that is suitable'. Reading with me the possibility exists that what the Buddha is suggesting is a good way to begin the analysis is to conceptualize the all in terms of the khandhas, to fit the eye and sights, etc. into the scheme of the khandhas.
[SN 4.35.32] Dutiya Sappāya-Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Helpful (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents a walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
A variation on the previous sutta using dialogue between the bhikkhus and himself concerning the impermanance of things and the wisdom of not identifying with such as the self or belonging to the self.
[SN 4.35 IV: Jāti-dhamma Vagga] SN 4.35 IV: The Chapter on Quality of Rebirth, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Each of the ten following suttas is identical with the exception of the one feature term. Consequently this chapter is all on one file each for the Pali and translation. The above links to the top of the file, the below link to the individual suttas.
33. Jāti Suttaṃ,
Birth,
34. Jarā Suttaṃ,
Age,
35. Vyādhi Suttaṃ,
Sickness,
36. Maraṇa Suttaṃ,
Death,
37. Soko Suttaṃ,
Sorrow,
38. Saṃkilesa Suttaṃ,
Impurity,
39. Khaya Suttaṃ,
Dissolution,
40. Vaya Suttaṃ,
Growing Old,
41. Samudaya Suttaṃ,
Uprising,
42. Nirodha Suttaṃ,
Ceasing to Be,
The Buddha lists ten things that are aspects of the senses which when seen as they really are lead to dispassion and freedom from them leading to Arahantship.
Each of these things is '-dhamma', which both Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi translate 'subject to'. But this is torturing the word 'dhamma': Woodward's note: "dhamma: having the quality of, the rule of; hence 'subject to,' 'liable to.'" The simple: "Is a rebirth-thing ... an aging-thing, etc." would do just as well.
There is in the series both the term 'jarā' and 'vaya'. Woodward translates: 'age' and 'growing old'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'aging' and 'vanishing'. 'jarā' is most commonly encountered in the compound 'jarā-maraṇa' usually translated 'aging and death'; The etymology of 'vayā' found in PED is interesting: ... vayo (age) is connected with Sanskrit vīra = Latin vir. man, hero, vīs strength; Gr. i)/s sinew, i)/fios strong; Sanskrit vīḍayati to make fast, also veshati; whereas vayas (fowl) corresponds with Sanskrit vayasa (bird) and vih. to Gr. ai)eto/s eagle, oi)wno/s bird of prey, Latin avis bird] age, especially young age, prime, youth; meaning "old age" when characterized as such or contrasted to youth (the ord. term for old age being jarā). To form a more distinct difference we might translated vaya: 'weakening.'
[SN 4.35 V: Sabbā Aniccā Vagga] SN 4.35 V: The Chapter on Impermanence, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Each of the ten following suttas is identical with the exception of the one feature term. Consequently this chapter is all on one file each for the Pali and translation. The above links to the top of the file, the below link to the individual suttas.
43. Anicca Suttaṃ,
Impermanent,
44. Dukkha Suttaṃ,
Woeful,
45. Anattā Suttaṃ,
Void of Self,
46. Abhiññeyya Suttaṃ,
To Be Fully Known,
47. Pariññeyya Suttaṃ,
To Be Comprehended,
48. Pahātabba Suttaṃ,
To Be Abandoned,
49. Sacchikātabba Suttaṃ,
To Be Realized,
50. Abhiññāpariññeyya Suttaṃ,
To Be Comprehended by Full Knowledge,
51. Upadduta Suttaṃ,
Oppressed,
52. Upassaṭṭha Suttaṃ,
Afflicted,
The Buddha lists ten things that are aspects of the senses which when seen as they really are lead to dispassion and freedom from them leading to Arahantship.
A different set of ten things than the previous.
[SN 4.35.53] Avijjā-Pahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ignorance, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a bhikkhu what it is that causes blindness to vanish and knowledge to arise.
[SN 4.35.54] Saŋyojana-Pahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fetters (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a bhikkhu what it is that results in letting go of the yokes to rebirth.
A variation of the previous.
[SN 4.35.55] Saññojana Samugghāta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fetters (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a bhikkhu the method for exterpating the yokes to rebirth.
A variation of the previous.
[SN 4.35.56] Āsava-Pahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Āsavas (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a bhikkhu what it is that results in letting go of the disrupting influences.
A variation of the previous.
[SN 4.35.57] Āsava-Samugghāta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Āsavas (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a bhikkhu the method for exterpating the disrupting influences.
A variation of the previous.
This word has given translators no end of trouble and is surely an Āsava. Āsava. From A SRU 'to flow out.' Which I believe should be read in the simplest possible way as 'in-fluence'. There is more than one group of Āsava's, and the definition of the term should not be derived from only one. A tree-stump in one's path at night, or a vicious dog, is an Āsava, but hardly 'A Canker' (Hare, Horner), 'taint' (Bhks. Bodhi, Nanamoli), 'intoxicant' (Rhys Davids) 'fermentation' (Bhk. Thanissaro), 'corruption' (Walshe). I have been using 'Corrupting Influences' thinking only of 'The Āsavas, but better would be 'disrupting influences' which I will adopt henseforth. Other possibilities: 'Eruptions,' 'Interuptions'. 'The Āsavas' are: sensual pleasures, existence (or living or becoming), blindness, and views.' 'Views' is a later addition and is incorporated in 'blindness.' Arahantship is attained when 'The Āsava's' are thoroughly exterpated, uprooted, destroyed and yield no more secondary associations.
[SN 4.35.58] Anusaya-Pahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Lurking Tendency (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a bhikkhu what it is that results in letting go of the secondary associations of a bad habit.
A variation of the previous.
[SN 4.35.59] Anusaya-Samugghāta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Lurking Tendency (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a bhikkhu the method for exterpating the secondary associations of a bad habit.
A variation of the previous.
Anusaya. ANU = following after; SAYA > SA = one's, YA = whatever. PED: Bent, bias, proclivity, the persistance of a dormant or latent disposition, predisposition, tendency. Always in bad sense. In the oldest texts the word usually occurs absolutely, without mention of the cause or direction of the bias. For a long time following the insight into and the breaking of a bad habit, for example, temptation will continue to arise until there comes a point where it is completely warn out and does not arise again. The dismissal of an arising temptation may appear to be a simple 'go away' or 'no thank you', but actually, to be effective, will be accompanied by an almost subconscious recognition of the disadvantage that was recognized in the initial insight that broke the habit. "I see you Māra!" In this sense 'lurking tendency' is better than 'bias' which smacks of a habit of perception not yet broken. Bhk. Bodhi: 'underlying tendencies'. Not really 'underlying'. More like ancillary, secondary. The associations of a bad habit with various activities of one's life. Like the association of drinking a cup of coffee first thing with getting up in the morning, at 'coffee breaks', after lunch, after dinner, the inclination to believe it when Google news reports that, the Journal of the Coffee-Industry-Research Institute reports that 72 cups of coffee a day cures cancer.
[SN 4.35.60] Sabbūpādāna-Pariññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Comprehension, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha delivers a lecture on a method for the complete understanding of all that is comprised under the heading of 'set-ups'.
Upādāna is the things one does in response to sensation in order to re-experience the sensation or in order to get away from the sensation through other experiences. Here what is being spoken of is the entire spectrum of things that go into the blind setting up of rebirth: what it is that is to be understood in order to understand the real nature of setting up further existence. That is: it is through understanding the way sense experience arises that one conceives a distaste for sense experience and with that distaste thirst to re-experience or to escape by way of some other experience falls away and when this thirst falls away one is free, and in freedom the recognizing of that freedom is the freedom from setting up future rebirth.
Why does knowing/seeing that the eye and visible objects coming into contact giving rise to visual consciousness and that the union of the three is contact cause 'nibbindati'?  PED: to get wearied of; to have enough of, be satiated, turn away from, to be disgusted with. The term needs to be neutral. Woodward's 'repulsion' is a reaction. Reacting one is not free. The same applies to Bhk. Bodhi's 'revulsion'. It could be 'distaste' or 'disgust', meaning 'not having a taste for', which is not a 'doing'. The word is virtually identical in definition to 'satisfaction'. The idea at work is that seeing the senses in this way free's one from the notion that sense-experience is arising 'in me' or is being produced 'by me' or 'is me'. This is a solution, an escape from the problem of existing that we have been seeking. So it satisfies and there is naturally no further arising of any desire to jump back into the fire or the maelstrom. We don't need to see the whole world as 'revolting', we just need to see it as a trap that we have escaped.
[SN 4.35.61] Sabbūpādāna-Pariyādinna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Exhausting (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha delivers a lecture on a method for the complete breaking open of all that is comprised under the heading of 'set-ups'.
Pariyādinna PED: exhausted, finished, put an end to, consummated -pp. of pariyādiyati PED: 1. to put an end to, exhaust, overpower, destroy, mastery control 2. to become exhausted, give out; > PARI = all around; ĀDIYATI = to split or join (adhere) which meaning comes closer to what this sutta is teaching which is the (exaustion of the grip of the senses by way of) observation of the unity of the parts of sense experience. To break them apart or to see their unity.
Except for the heading the sutta is identical to the previous.
[SN 4.35.62] Dutiya Sabbūpādāna-Pariyādinna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Exhausting (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha delivers a lecture on a method for the complete breaking open of all that is comprised under the heading of 'set-ups'.
Identical with Ī32 but with the theme of breaking apart the components of sense experience.
[SN 4.35.63] By Migajāla, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha defines what it really means to be considered one who lives in solitude.
[SN 4.35.64] Dutiya Migajālena Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Migajāla, (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Migajala asks for a teaching in brief and is told that with desire for things of the senses there comes bondage, with the end of desire for things of the senses, the end of bondage.
A variation of the previous sutta with a change of context. It is interesting that the previous sutta did not have the effect of stimulating Migajala to attain arahantship, whereas the second time he heard the same message, this time within the context of a teaching that would lead to arahantship, it did.
[SN 4.35.65] Samiddhi-Māra-Pañha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Samiddhi, (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Samiddhi inquires about Mara, the Evil One, and is told that whatever there is of the realm of the senses, that is Mara.

At this point, because it is referenced in a footnote, I took a side-trip back to SN 3.23.1-46 which had been added to the site from a collection privately used by me before it was released for public distribution but which had not been unabridged. It has now been unabridged and is worth a (? second) read. All the suttas are on one file.

[SN 4.35.66] Samiddhi-Satta-Pañha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Samiddhi, (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Samiddhi inquires about Beings, and is told that whatever there is of the realm of the senses, that is a being.
[SN 4.35.67] Samiddhi-Dukkha-Pañha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Samiddhi, (iii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Samiddhi inquires about Dukkha (Pain), and is told that whatever there is of the realm of the senses, that is Pain.
[SN 4.35.68] Samiddhi-Loka-Pañha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Samiddhi, (iv), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Samiddhi inquires about the World, and is told that whatever there is of the realm of the senses, that is the World.
See also on this subject: SN 4.35.107

Loka. The World

What you perceive through the senses. Through the eye: Light (rūpa). Through the ear, nose, tongue, and body: Sounds, scents, savours, contact = substantiality. Through the mind: Perception, sensation, intention, consciousness = things (dhammas).

PED:

Loka [cp. Vedic loka in its oldest meaning "space, open space." For etymology see rocati. To the etymology feeling of the Pāli hearer loka is closely related in quality to ruppati (as in pop. etymology of rūpa) and rujati. As regards the latter the etymology runs "lujjati kho loko ti vuccati" S IV.52, ... see lujjana. The Dhtp 531 gives root lok (loc) in sense of dassana] world, primarily "visible world," then in general as "space or sphere of creation," with var. degrees of substantiality. Often (unspecified) in the comprehensive sense of "universe." Sometimes the term is applied collectively to the creatures inhabiting this or var. other worlds, thus, "man, mankind, people, beings." - Loka is not a fixed and def. term. It comprises immateriality as well as materiality and emphasizes either one or the other meaning according to the view applied to the object or category in question. Thus a translation of "sphere, plane, division, order" interchanges with "world." Whenever the spatial element prevails we speak of its "regional" meaning as contrasted with "applied" meaning. The fundamental notion however is that of substantiality, to which is closely related the specific Buddhist notion of impermanence (loka = lujjati).

Rocati [Vedic rocate, ruc, Idg. °leuq, as in Latin luceo to be bright (cp. lūx light, lūmen, lūna etc.); Sanskrit rocana splendid, ruci light, roka and rukṣa light; Av. raocant shining; Gr. amfi-lu/kh twi-light, leuko/s white; also with 1: Sanskrit loka world, locate to perceive, locana eye; Lith. laukti to await; Goth. liuhap light = Ohg. lioht, E. light; Oir loche lightning. - The Dhtp (and Dhtm) gives 2 roots ruc, viz. the one with meaning "ditti" (Dhtp 37), the other as "rocana" (Dhtp 395), both signifying "light" or "splendour," but the second probably to be taken in sense of "pleasing"]

Lujjati [Pass. of ruj, corresponding to Sanskrit rujyate. Dhtp 400 gives luj as sep. root with meaning vināsa. See rujati] to be broken up, to break (up), to be destroyed; to go asunder, to fall apart

 

[SN 4.35.69] Upasena, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Upasena has been bitten by a snake and wishes to die outdoors. He is taken out and before he dies is questioned by Sariputta as to why it is that he shows no change in his sense-faculties or countenance. Upasena declares that there is not in him any idea of I-making or mine-making with regard to the senses.
Woodward translates the last part of the dialogue "Now the venerable Upasena had ... Therefore the venerable Upasena had..." giving the impression that this is a comment being made by the narrator, but it is a comment being made in response to Upasena by Sariputta so I have altered it slightly to make that point clearer. I have noted this fact in a footnote. Bhk. Bodhi in his translation puts this more clearly.
Note here the use of the terms 'ahaṃ-kāra-mamiṃ-kāra'  'I-making-mine-making' (PED: kāra from "from kr") which I suggest provides precident for understanding saŋ-khāra as 'own-making.' PED spells 'Sankhāra' but has "from saŋ+kr"
[SN 4.35.70] Upavāṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Upavāṇa, the F.L. Woodward translation.
The venerable Upavana inquires about the description of the Dhamma as being within view, timeless, come-see-able, leading-on, individually to be experienced by the cognizant.
This is a frequently-appearing description of the Dhamma. Here the meaning is shown to be that with this Dhamma one becomes aware of one's experiences at the senses, the lust that one has for sense experience, and the point when that lust no longer appears. This is, in a sequence that leads on, the experience in the individual of the problem, the solution, the method for it's solution, and the realization of the goal. It is not a Teaching that asks one to believe or behave and wait for the result in some future life. It just needs to be said that what is intended here is not that one look at the Dhamma and snap fingers one is awakened. The idea is that at each step in the practice of what the Dhamma teaches (intellectual understanding, insight, letting go, freedom, realization of freedom) that degree of the Dhamma has been personally fulfilled and results to that degree a freedom from pain (the achievement of the goal) right there. Each step forward is a step into further freedom.
It is this phenomena of visible progress that so often leads the newcomer to believe that he has achieved the end when he has only just begun. Avoid grasping the snake in the wrong way! This Dhamma teaches absolute freedom. If you can see that there is still in your life some degree of captivity, you are not there yet.
[SN 4.35.71] Paṭhama Chaphassāyatana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Concerning the Sixfold Sphere of Contact (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains to a bhikkhu that seeing the six sense realms as not-self or belonging to the self is the end of pain.
A bhikkhu is thrown into doubt when the Buddha tells the bhikkhus that those who do not see the appearance, the retirement, the satisfaction and misery, and the escape from the sixfold sphere of contact do not understand the Dhamma or follow the Discipline, for he perceives himself as not yet seeing these things as they really are. Then when the Buddha asks him if he sees the eye as 'me', 'mine' 'my self' the bhikkhu answers he does not. And the Buddha says that there you have it, that seeing the eye in this way is the method for seeiing the the appearance, the retirement, the satisfaction and misery, and the escape from the eye, etc.
This is a good example of what was described in the previous sutta as Dhamma being within view, timeless, come-see-able, leading-on, individually to be experienced by the cognizant. At that time that the bhikkhu sees the eye, etc. as 'Not me, not mine, not my self' he has entered the path and sees the appearance, the retirement, the satisfaction, the misery and the escape from the eye, etc. When he doesn't, he isn't and doesn't. Time to get busy and make such perception uninterupted.
[SN 4.35.72] Dutiya Chaphassāyatana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Concerning the Sixfold Sphere of Contact (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains to a bhikkhu that seeing the six sense realms as not-self or belonging to the self the contrary perception does not arise again.
The same as the previous sutta but concluding "...so as to become again no more in future time" for 'that is the end of ill'.
Here the Buddha is pointing to the necessity of taking the perception 'this is not' to the point where, like the last fading out of the temptation to engage in a bad habit, the idea 'This is' does not arise again.
[SN 4.35.73] Tatiya Chaphassāyatana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Concerning the Sixfold Sphere of Contact (iii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents a walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
A combination of the previous sutta with #32. If you didn't understand it the first time, maybe you got it the second time, if not the second time, work on it by way of the third exposition.
[SN 4.35.74] Sick (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A sick bhikkhu is visited by the Buddha and taught the walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
Sutta #32 put in another context.
[SN 4.35.75] Sick (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A sick bhikkhu is visited by the Buddha and taught the walk to walk to uproot thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
Sutta #32 put in another context.
[SN 4.35.76] Anicca Suttaṃ (aka: Rādha Suttaṃ (i)), the Pali,
Rādha (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Radha asks the Buddha for a teaching in brief and is told desire for that which is impermanent must be let go.
What is impermanent is explained as the eye, visible objects, visual consciousness, eye-contact, and the sensations that result from contact with the eye; ear ...; nose...; tongue...; body...; and mind.
There is no explanation as to why this and the following two suttas are placed in a chapter on the sick.
[SN 4.35.77] Dukkha Suttaṃ (aka: Rādha Suttaṃ (ii)), the Pali,
Rādha (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Radha asks the Buddha for a teaching in brief and is told desire for that which is painful must be let go.
What is painful is explained as the eye, visible objects, visual consciousness, eye-contact, and the sensations that result from contact with the eye; ear ...; nose...; tongue...; body...; and mind.
[SN 4.35.78] Anatta Suttaṃ (aka: Rādha Suttaṃ (iii)), the Pali,
Rādha (iii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
Radha asks the Buddha for a teaching in brief and is told desire for that which is not self must be let go.
What is not self is explained as the eye, visible objects, visual consciousness, eye-contact, and the sensations that result from contact with the eye; ear ...; nose...; tongue...; body...; and mind.
[SN 4.35.79] Pathama Avijjā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ignorance (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
A bhikkhu asks if there might be just one thing which if let go will result in blindness disappearing and vision arising. He is told that there is.
Note that here is at least one case of where 'avijja' ('blindness', or 'not-vision') is directly contrasted with 'vijja' ('vision').
[SN 4.35.80] Sick (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Second Blindness, Olds, translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A bhikkhu asks if there might be just one thing which if let go will result in blindness disappearing and vision arising. He is told that there is.
A different answer. The BJT Pali for this sutta repeats the opening refrain for each of the senses. This is not found in the PTS or CSCD texts and is out of place and has been eliminated here.
Woodward has translated the word 'aññato' 'other', by 'changeable'. This is, with a certain amount of contortion, not incorrect, but misses the idea which is that the eye, etc. should be regarded as 'other'. That is other than the self or one's own. One can regard a thing as changeable but still regard it as one's own or one's self. Bhk. Bodhi has 'differently'; Bhk. Thanissaro: 'something separate'. Something different or separate can also be regarded as one's own.
[SN 4.35.81] Sambahula-bhikkhu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
A Brother, the F.L. Woodward translation.
A group of bhikkhus inquires as to how they should answer when questioned as to the point of the Buddha's teaching.
The PTS text and Woodward's translation mis-title this sutta. It should be 'A number of bhikkhus' (per Bhk. Bodhi), or 'A group' or 'many' or 'a gathering'.
Additionally a portion of the bhikkhus question is very difficult to hear. The Bhikkhus ask how they should answer so that ... (There are three possible issues): 1. we are not reproached for misrepresenting his teachings; 2. that others repeating what we have said are not reproached for misrepresenting his teachings; 3. that the teachings themselves are not criticised by one believing what we have said):
Woodward has them saying: [we hope we have answered] "so that no one who agrees with his teaching and follows his views might incur reproach?"
If the entire statement is held together in mind as Woodward translates, it can be heard: 'so that no one who agrees with his teaching and follows his views as we have answered would incur reproach' which could be heard as applying both to the speakers and to anyone who might repeat what they have said. Otherwise this should read: "so that no one who agrees with his teaching and follows his views might reproach us. Or: so that we might not incur the reproach of one who agrees with his teaching and follows his views. Or: so that no one repeating it might incur the reproach of one who agrees with his teaching and follows his views.' But this does not cover the third possible meaning.
Bhk Bodhi notes commentary: "Spk. explains: 'How (should we answer) so that not the slightest consequence or implication of the ascetic Gotama's assertion — (a consequence) which is reasonable because of the reason stated — might give ground for criticism" [by] This is meant: "How can there be no ground for criticism in any way of the ascetic Gotama's asertion?" I dissent from Spk on what is to be safeguarded against criticism: Spk takes it to be the Buddha's assertion, while I understand it to be the inquirer's account of the Buddha's assertion. In other words, the inquirer wants to be sure he is representing the Buddha's position correctly, whether or not he agrees with it." Bhk. Bodhi has: "'that no reasonable consequence of our assertion gives ground for criticism.'" which, in spite of Bhk. Bodhi's understanding of his own words, solves all three issues, as does the uninterpreted reading of Spk.
Tempest in a teapot. Mountain out of molehill. Much ado about nothing. Or concern about getting things expressed precisely so that down the road those who follow and understand the true teaching will not have reason to criticise us; or so that those who follow who do not have good understanding will not be mislead; or so that those who, without understanding the true teaching, follow, taking what we have said as gospel, will not criticise the teacher.
This concern is what this sutta is all about.
[SN 4.35.82] Loka Suttaṃ, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A bhikkhu asks about the extent of what is encompassed by the idea of 'the world'.
see also the discussion above under SN 4.35.68.
[SN 4.35.83] Phagguna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Phagguna, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Phagguna asks the Buddha if there are sense organs capable of perceiving the past Buddhas. He is told that there are not.
In other places the Buddha has taken advantage of similar questions to respond in the affirmative qualifying the answer by substituting the 'eye of dhamma' or 'the ear of dhamma' for the physical eye and ear. Here the form of Phagguna's question by including all the senses and also by including all the past Buddhas precludes this response. There are no physical senses capable of such perception, and the Buddha states that even he is unable to see back in time all the way to the beginning.
[SN 4.35.84] Paloka-dhamma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Transitory, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda asks about the extent of what is encompassed by the idea of 'the world'.
Identical to SN 4.35.82, but with Ananda asking the question.
see also the discussion above under SN 4.35.68.
[SN 4.35.85] Void, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Ananda asks about the extent of what is encompassed by the idea 'Empty is the World.'
A variation of the previous.
[SN 4.35.86] Saṅkhitta-dhamma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
In Brief, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda asks for a teaching in brief. The Buddha gives him a walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
Identical to SN.4.35.32 above.

 


 

Nissitassa calitaṃ,||
anissitassa calitaṃ n'atthi,||
calite asati passaddhi hoti,||
passaddhiyā sati nati na hoti,||
natiyā asati āgatigati na hoti,||
āgatigatiyā asati cutupapāto na hoti,||
cut'upapāte asati nevidha na huraṃ||
na ubhayam antarena||
esevanto dukkhassā.|| ||

§

In him that clingeth, there is wavering,
In him that clingeth not, wavering is not,
Where is no wavering, there is calm,
Where is calm, there is no bent,
Where is no bent, there is no wrong practice,
Where is no wrong practice, there is no vanishing and reappearing,
If there be no vanishing and reappearing, there is no here
nor yonder
nor yet midway.
That is the end of ill.

SN 4.35.87, Woodward translating a saying of the Buddha uttered by Mahā Cundo.

§

'For him who clings there is wavering;
for him who clings not there is no wavering;
if there is no wavering there is impassibility;
if there is impassibility there is no yearning;
if there is no yearning, there is no coming and going;
if there is no coming and going, there is no deceasing and uprising;
if there is no deceasing and uprising,
there is no "here" itself
nor "yonder"
nor "in between the two."
This is itself the end of anguish.'

— Ms. Horner's translation from MN 144

 


 

[SN 4.35.87] Channa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Channa, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sariputta and Maha Cunda visit Channa who is dying a painful death. Channa announces he will 'take the knife' (commit suicide). Sariputta questions him as to his understanding of Dhamma and Maha Cunda recites for him a saying of the Buddha warning against the wavering that results from attachments. Later, after Channa has 'taken the knife' Sariputta questions the Buddha as to Channa's fate. The Buddha states that his was a blameless end.
The question of suicide comes up periodically and is worth examining carefully. To the best of my understanding to this point this is an outline of the factors involved:
'Blameability' here means incurring a bad kammic outcome. This result rests on the idea that a. 'this' is not the self and consequently b. killing 'this' is ranked with murder.
This is the outcome for anyone who, killing this body, ends up taking up rebirth in another body.
This means that a blameable outcome is to be expected for anyone who commits suicide who is at that time less advanced than the non-returner who is able to attain arahantship at death.
Arahants do not commit suicide as they do not experience pain in a way which interfears with their mental stability (which is the excuse that justifies suicide for the person who does not incurr blame for suicide.)
The suttas do not go into the outcome for the lesser cases of suicide, but one can extrapolate from related situations that the degree of bad outcome is modified to the extent of an individual's ability to comprehend the situation in terms of the Dhamma, and his ability to let go of attachments, at the point of or shortly after death but before taking up a new birth.
In this sutta both Sariputta and Maha Cunda doubt Channa's understanding, both apparently basing their doubt on Channa's fondness for the company of laymen. The Buddha explains that although such attachment is a dangerous thing, it is the taking of one's own life for the sake of taking up rebirth in another body that is the issue in the case of suicide. Channa was above this error and knew he was above such an error.
For an alternative translation see Ms. Horner's translation of MN 144, which is identical to this.
[SN 4.35.88] Puṇṇa, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Punna, after being given an instruction 'in brief' by the Buddha, is questioned as to how he will deal with the fierce people of Sunaparanta where he intends to dwell. He gives a series of answers which shows he has the patience to deal with them even to the point of death.
For another translation of this sutta see MN 145 below which is almost identical.
[SN 4.35.89] Bāhiya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Bāhiya, the F.L. Woodward translation.
Bahiya asks for a teaching in brief and The Buddha gives him a walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
[SN 4.35.90] Pathama Ejā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Passion (i), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents a method for eliminating passion which he characterizes as a sickness, a boil a being pierced by an arrow.
A variation of Sutta 30.
[SN 4.35.91] Dutiya Ejā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Passion (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents a method for eliminating passion which he characterizes as a sickness, a boil a being pierced by an arrow.
A variation of Sutta 31.
[SN 4.35.92] Paṭhama Dvaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Duality (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The First Duality, the M. Olds, translation.
The Buddha describes the ultimate duality and states that no one could reject this duality and point out another duality.
This sutta is very similar to Ī23, and is another way of describing all there is in existence.
[SN 4.35.93] Duality (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Second Duality, the M. Olds, translation.
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha explains that it is a consequence of the meeting of a sense organ and a sense object that sense-consciousness, sense-contact, sense-experience, feeling, and self-awareness appear and that each of these individual elements being changeable, the resulting consciousness is changeable.
A very important sutta that describes the self-arising of consciousness and self-awareness. 'Self' here not referring to an individuality, but to the arising of consciousness of itself of the process. Very useful in comprehending the idea of 'not-self'. My translation strives to more forcefully point to the lack of a 'person' or 'self' in the process.
[SN 4.35.94] Cha-Phassāyatana (Saŋgayya (i)) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Including (the sixfold sense-sphere), the F.L. Woodward translation,
United with the Six Spheres of Touch, the M. Olds, translation.
The Buddha teaches that united with the six spheres of touch is the experience of pain or pleasure in accordance with whether or not the senses have been tamed, trained and are well guarded or not.
[SN 4.35.95] Including (the sixfold sense-sphere), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha gives Mālunkya-putta a teaching in brief which inspires him to attain arahantship.
This is a well-known sutta which is the source of a catch-phrase-teaching of Zen Buddhism. The Buddha first asks Mālunkya-putta if he has any desire for sights, sounds, scents, tastes, touches, or things that he has never seen or heard of before. In other words not yet even imagined. This is a difficult idea to grasp. It is essentially saying that the past and the present are past, and that the future is completely unknown. It is a fresh, blank tablet if one's mind is taken off the desire for repeating past experiences. Then, seeing this way, abandoning the views and opinions and biases concerning things of the past, that which is seen, heard, sensed, and become conscious can be experienced thus (the zen catch-phrase in full context):

"... in what is seen
there will be only the seen.

"diṭṭhe diṭṭha-mattaṃ bhavissati,"
(no 'you will have' as per Woodward just 'there will be'.

In what is heard
there will be only what is heard.

In the sensed
there will be only what is sensed.

In the cognized
there will be only what is cognized.

When in what is seen
there is only the seen;
in what is heard
there is only what is heard;
in the sensed
there is only what is sensed;
in the cognized
there is only what is cognized;
there is no 'you' Mālunkya-putta 'by this'.

There being no 'you' Mālunkya-putta 'by this,'
there is no 'you' Mālunkya-putta 'there.'

There being no 'you' Mālunkya-putta 'there,'
it follows that there will be no 'you' experience,
no thrusting forward,
no waffling-around like a philosopher.

And that is the end of dukkha."

I agree with Bhiks Thanissaro and Bodhi that what is being spoken about is not the 'having' of no 'by this-ness' by Mālunkya-putta as Woodward has it, but the having of no 'you' by or through or because of that 'this'. Further than that my understanding of the next paragraph departs radically from the understanding of all three translators. Reader beware!

[SN 4.35.97] Dwelling Heedless, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Living Dangerously, the M. Olds translation
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha defines living dangerously as living with the forces of the senses uncontrolled. Living carefully is defined as living with the sense-forces controlled.
[SN 4.35.98] Saṃvara Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Restraint, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes restraint and lack of restraint in terms of whether or not one indulges and hangs on to the six senses.
[SN 4.35.99] Concentration, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha urges the Bhikkhus to develop serenity (samadhi) in order to see things as they are.
Woodward footnotes here that the commentary here defines Samādhi as citt'ekaggatā = 'heart one-got,' most frequently translated 'one-pointed', but also occasionally 'unified'. I suggest 'single-minded' 'intent' on it's purpose, and that this is at most one of many attributes of and not the entire definition of samadhi for the meaning elsewhere encompasses the entire practice from generosity up to and including the jhānas and the accomplishment of pointlessness, signlessness and emptiness all of which conduce to seeing things as they are and dwelling above it all = serenity.
[SN 4.35.100] Paṭisallāṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Solitude, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha urges the Bhikkhus to develop solitude in order to see things as they are.
A variation of the previous.
[SN 4.35.101] Not Yours (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to let go of experience through the senses. He compares their nature as not belonging to the self to the nature of the twigs and branches of the Jeta Grove.
Compare this sutta with SN 3.22.33.
[SN 4.35.102] Dutiya Na Tumhāka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Not Yours (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to let go of experience through the senses as such does not belong to the self.
Identical to the previous sutta but without the simile.
[SN 4.35.103] Uddaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Uddaka, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the requiements for stating that one is knowledgable, has mastered the word, and dug out the root of pain.
This lesson is given by way of critiquing a statement of Gotama's former teacher Uddaka, Rama's Son who makes the claim that he is 'Versed in lore, all conqueror, has dug out the root of Dukkha, not dug out before.' Uddaka taught Dhamma only up to The Sphere of Neither-Perception-nor-Non-Perception which did not satisfy Gotama in that he saw that this sphere was 'sankara-ed' (intentionally constructed by the self for experience of the self) and therefore subject to change and ending.
[SN 4.35.104] Yogakkhemi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Winner of Security the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha provides a general rule for the attainment of freedom from yokes in general through yoking one's self to abandoning the realms of the senses.
The sutta uses puns and depends on understanding the terms 'yoga' and 'pariyaya'. 'Yoga' in it's literal meanings as 'yoke' (as the yoke of a beast of burden to it's burden') and figuratively as 'devotion' or 'application' to a task. 'Pariyaya' means 'pass-round-whatsoever-whatsoever'. Most frequently in the sense of curiculum, or course. But it also means 'in general.' 'everything whatever'. The idea is along the lines of 'abandonging desire through desire to abandon desire;' 'yoked to abandonging the senses one abandons the yokes of the senses.' And here I take the meaning to be that this curiculum will serve in any case of being yoked; that this is the most general way of stating the way to attain freedom.
[SN 4.35.105] Upādāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Dependent, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that it is the senses that support personal pain and pleasure, and that seeing that the senses are impermanent and that impermanence is painful and letting go of taking delight in sense-experience leads to freedom and the end of rebirth.
This sutta has many parallels with suttas in the Khandhā book, e.g. SN 3.22.49, SN 3.22.79, SN 3.22.85, SN 3.22.100 ...
[SN 4.35.106] Dukkha-Samudaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ill, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes the way pain emerges and how, by ending thirst, the sequence is broken and freedom attained.
This sutta uses the Paticca Samuppada methodology to focus down on the sense spheres.
[SN 4.35.107] Loka-Samudaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The World, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha defines the world and the ending of the world in terms of thirst for sense experience.
See SN 4.35.68 above and the discussion of 'Loka' that follows.
[SN 4.35.108] Seyya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Better, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha points out that where the senses are seen as inconstant and painful the idea that the self is better or worse or equal to any other does not find any basis.
This is a variation on SN 4.35.105. This is the advantage of these series of suttas which are similar in most respects but change in one respect: they hammer away at one aspect of the Dhamma from all sides. It is very easy to think that when one has penetrated through to one view of, say, the senses according to Dhamma, one has completely understood this Dhamma. With these suttas one can be sure. They scour off every contaminant. Here in order to understand how seeing that the senses are changeable and painful eliminates judgments of superiority and inferiority, one must first grasp the idea (which is not stated overtly, you have to work at it) that the senses, being changeable and painful cannot rightly be considered 'self'. Without 'self' there is no evaluation of 'self' and 'other'. Think of these suttas as a soft cloth that is polishing, polishing, polishing away everything that is obstructing your vision. Every one of them is worth a little elbow grease.
[SN 4.35.109] Saŋyojana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fetter, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha defines the yokes to rebirth (sanyojana) distinguishing between the thing (the senses) and the yoke itself which is desire and lust.
A very important distinction to get through your head! See also for this idea: SN 3.22.120. It is not the fault of the fairest lass in the land, carelessly dressed, revealing her charms, laughing and singing and dancing, (no matter how much she is trying to make it so), that lust arises in one's heart. It is one's own deficiency of knowledge, perception, vision and self control.
[SN 4.35.110] Upādāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Grasping, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha defines that which supports life distinguishing between the thing (the senses) that supports and the supporting which is desire and lust.
See also for this idea: SN 3.22.121.
Because of the distinction made here between the fuel and the thing that makes the fuel fuel living, or between that which supports life and that which makes those supports support life, these are two (four) very good suttas to use to batter out your personal um...grasp/understanding/translation of 'upādāna'. Grasping works. 'The eye is the thing grasped, the lust is the grasping." Bhk. Bodhi: 'The eye is a thing that can be clung to, the desire and lust for it is the clinging there.' But I don't think the idea is 'clinging' either in regard to the khandhas or in its place in the Paticca Samuppada. This word must stand for 'going after or supporting or fueling getting' or 'going towards, supporting, fueling making' not trying to keep, hang on to, what has already been got.
[SN 4.35.111] Paṭhama Parijānana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Understanding (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states flat out that without understanding, without thoroughly knowing about, without becoming dispassionate towards, and without letting go of the six spheres of sense one is incapable of attaining the end of pain (dukkha).
You be told!
[SN 4.35.112] Paṭhama Parijānana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Understanding (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states flat out that without understanding, without thoroughly knowing about, without becoming dispassionate towards, and without letting go of the six objects of the senses one is incapable of attaining the end of pain (dukkha).
[SN 4.35.113] Paṭhama Parijānana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Understanding (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha exhorts a bhikkhu who has overheard him rehearsing it to himself to remember a version of the chain of self-generating consequences (the Paticca Samuppada) based on the six sense spheres.
[SN 4.35.114] Paṭhama Māra-Pāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Māra's Noose (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that indulging in the pleasures of the senses one is known as someone inhabiting the house of the Evil One, under the influence of the Evil One, trapped by the Evil One's noose, bound by the Evil One, subject to the pleasure of the Evil One.
[SN 4.35.115] Māra's Noose (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that indulging in the pleasures of the senses one is known as someone in bondage to sensory objects perceived by the sense organs, one inhabiting the house of the Evil One, under the influence of the Evil One, trapped by the Evil One's noose, bound by the Evil One, subject to the pleasure of the Evil One.
Identical to the previous with one change.
[SN 4.35.116] Paṭhama Loka-Kāma-Guṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Worldly Sense-Pleasures (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the end of the world is not to be reached by finding the end of the world but also that the end of pain cannot be reached without finding the end of the world. The bhikkhus question Ananda about this teaching in brief and Ananda explains that the meaning is that in the Buddha's system the world is to be understood as experiencing through the senses. The Buddha confirms Ananda's explanation.
This sutta is abridged by way of a statement that such and such was repeated precisely as it occurred. I have unabridged the Woodward translation accordingly but left the Pali as abridged.
This is an important sutta because of the definition of 'the world' as it is to be understood in the Buddhas's system.
[SN 4.35.118] Sakka-Pañha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sakka, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Sakka, king of the devas, asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
The introduction here of Sakka, a deva, the king of the devas, is so casual as to defeat any argument that it was so introduced by the editors to puff up Gotama's image. If that had been the intention the mind set of such would have dictated an array of fabulous circumstances to highlight the occasion. Here Sakka just has a simple question, gets a simple answer and that's the end of it. I would feel much safer, even were I one who disbelieved in devas, saying that it is I that cannot see devas rather than saying that devas do not exist. The latter statement would require of me a vision more astounding than that which would be required to see a deva.
[SN 4.35.119] Pañca-sikha-Pañha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Five-crest, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Deva Five-crest, asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
[SN 4.35.120] Sāriputta-Saddhi-Vihārika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sāriputta, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Sariputta teaches a bhikkhu about guarding the sense, moderation in eating and keeping the wakeful watch.||
Essential lessions in basic training. These are things to learn before even taking the first step in learning meditation and they will be things one will need to master for there to be any hope of real progress in this system.
This is very hard to swallow for people here today [USA Friday, April 24, 2015 7:22 AM] who only want to hear 'pay attention to the breating' or 'practice loving kindness'. Both those things are valuable instructions, but this is a system which claims to solve all the problems of existence. It is unreasonable to think that it will not require self-discipline and hard work. The Dhamma allows for faith by the layman — Practice Generosity, refine your ethical conduct, and train yourself as is suggested in this sutta. But be aware and be satisfied with the fact that this is just the beginning of a very long trip; one that will be the most difficult and trying of your life. If you approach this Dhamma thinking it's going to be a snap, or that it will make everything here right, beautiful and pleasant and easy, you are going to snap and be unjustifiably dissapointed and all the gods will have to say about you in that state is that you are indulging yourself in self-pity. You need to develop the heart of the hero. The sensation of having huge lungs, vast and irresistable strength. Very similar to the mind-set of the martyr, without the masochism — the determination to penetrate through to the achievement of the goal no matter what must be sacrificed here in this world. This is not the heart of a small man trying to trudge up an impossibly steep hill. Take hold. Put yourself in charge. There is no obstacle you cannot overcome! This is the Way! Everything you learn and practice in this system moves you ahead, but it is absolutely vital to keep the task in perspective. It is monumental. It is the most difficult challenge you will ever face. When you think it's going to be (or ought to be) easy and you fall back it is very important to look to yourself for the reason and not blame the system. If when you fall back you acknowledge your weaknesses you will be able to regain the system by re-examining your behavior and understanding of the system. If you blame the system; where will you go from there?
[SN 4.35.121] Rāhulo-Vāda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Rāhula, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Perceiving that Rahula, the Buddha's son, is ripe for Arahantship, the Buddha teaches him how to see the senses as not self and to let them go.
The story of the Buddha's son from birth to Arahantship is another of the background stories that one can pieces together when the the entire sutta collection is read. Here we see the teaching that brought him to Arahantship. (see: SN: Rahula Samyutta iii, SN 3.22.91, SN 3.22.92, AN 1.209 Personalities: Rahula.) This teaching is one that has appeared several times in this Chapter, but has a twist at the end of each section that deals with the senses. The BJT Pali has copied and pasted the text from another sutta but has neglected to make the change in the end sections. In stead of ending with the question as to the permanence or impermanence of the sensations that arise consequent on sense-contact, it ends with a question as to the impermanence or permanence of sensation, perception, own-making and consciousness.
[SN 4.35.122] Saŋyojana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fetter, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the distinction between that which yokes one to rebirth and that to which one is yoked.
A variation of SN 4.35.109, SN 3.22.120, SN 3.22.121.
[SN 4.35.123] Saŋyojana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Fetter, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the distinction between that which supports rebirth and that which is the act of supporting.
See references just above, discussion (for both) at SN 4.35.109 above.
[SN 4.35.124] Vesālī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Vesālī, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ugga (Hugo), the householder, of Vesali, asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
see SN 4.35.118 above.
[SN 4.35.125] Vajji Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Vajjians, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ugga (Hugo), the householder, of Hatthigama, asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
Identical to the previous.
see SN 4.35.118 above.
[SN 4.35.126] Nālandā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Nālanda, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Upali, the householder, asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
Identical to the previous.

 


"Put not your faith in translations!"

Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume III, p. 775, n. 24.


 

[SN 4.35.127] Bhāradvāja, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Udena, the king of the Vaŋsas, questions the venerable Bharadvaja as to why respectable young men of family would renounce the world and live their entire lives as beggars in the Dhamma taught by Gotama. Bharadvaja provides him with several answers the last of which satisfies the king who then becomes a lay follower.
A point of interest here is the translation of the first response where Bharadvaja quotes the Buddha as teaching that the bhikkhu should mātu-mattīsu mātu-cittaṃ upaṭṭhapetha 'for the mother-measured mother-heart set up'. Woodward: "In the case of those who are just mothers, sisters and daughters, do ye call up the mother-mind, the sister-mind, the daughter-mind." Towards those considered (measured as, reckoned to be; Woodward's 'just' = 'a measure of') mothers, set up the heart as towards a mother, etc. Per Bhk. Bodhi: "towards women old enough to be your mother set up the idea that they are your mother." Bhk. Thanissaro: "with regard to women who are old enough to be your mother, establish the attitude you would have toward your mother." The idea 'old enough,' presumably the translation for 'measured as,' is pushing a narrow idea onto the Pali. It's 'measuring'. Taking into consideration all impressions together there is a similarity to ... . Think of the custom in countries like China and India where those towards whom one has feelings as towards a mother, father, uncle, brother, sister, daughter, are so called even between strangers. The idea here is 'who are similar to'. Age will be one factor of many. The idea that the mental attitude is to be the one one has for one's own mother, etc. is also not indicated but is being picked up from commentary. That could be a dangerous proposition! (as is pointed out by the king in response). Both sons, brothers and fathers and mothers, sisters and daughters are subject to deviant thoughts and feelings about each other. The idea is to set up the ideal way one should consider mothers, etc.
This sutta is being delivered by the bhikkhu named by the Buddha as one who is best at uttering a 'lion's roar'. In the case of this bhikkhu his lion's roar is that he is able to answer the questions of anyone concerning the paths and benefits from Streamwinner to Arahant. This sutta however does not seem to show him at such a high level as his first two answers are both incomplete responses to the question and ineffective in satisfying the King.
[SN 4.35.128] Soṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Soṇa, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Sona, the householder, asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
Identical to SN 4.35.124.
[SN 4.35.129] Ghosita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ghosita, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Ghosita the householder asks Ananda about the Buddha's understanding of the diversity of informative data.
Note that here the object of sense productive of sensation that is not-painful-but-not-pleasant is 'upekkhā-ṭṭhāniyā': 'a detached-state.' (a state of detachment from sense-consciousness.) PED has, under 'upekkha': "Sometimes equivalent to adukkham-asukha-vedanā "feeling which is neither pain nor pleasure," but here it is not the equivalant, but the source. To say that it is the equivalent is the equivalant of saying that pleasant sensation arising from consciousness of a pleasant visual object is the same thing as the visual object. Adukkha-m-asukha-vedanā is not 'neither/nor' but 'not-but-not'. Grumble, grumble, grumble.
[SN 4.35.130] Hāliddaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Hāliddaka, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Haliddaka the householder asks Maha Kaccana about the diversity of informative data.
[SN 4.35.131] Nakulapitā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Nakulapitar, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Nakulapita asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
Identical to SN 4.35.124.
[SN 4.35.132] Lohicca Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Lohicca, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Maha Kaccana teaches a brahmin the meaning of guarding the senses.
[SN 4.35.133] Verahaccāni, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the M. Olds translation (revised)
The Elder Udayin teaches by example the respect that should be paid to the Dhamma and Dhamma teachers. He then teaches the different situations where the Arahant will or will not point out pleasure and pain.
[SN 4.35.134] Devadahakhaṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Moment at Devadaha, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha makes a distinction between the seeker and the Arahant with regard to being careful about guarding the senses.
[SN 4.35.135] Verahaccāni, the F.L. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation
The Buddha delivers a real fire-and-brimstone sutta urging the bhikkhus to take advantage of the lucky fact that they have been reborn when Dhamma was being taught and make strong effort.
[SN 4.35.136] Rūpāpārāma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Not Including (the sixfold sense-sphere), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that it is because of the instability of the objects of the senses that gods and men come to grief, but that the Arahant actually finds this instability his source of living at ease.
The sutta numbering system of the BJT and CSCD Pali and the Bhk. Bodhi translation diverges from the PTS at this sutta which they have divided into two suttas. There are reasonable arguments for either side of the issue.
The sutta is especially interesting for the statement that it is the instability of sense objects that is the basis of ease for the Arahant. I don't believe this statement is made elsewhere in the suttas. How should this be understood? I would suggest that it is because the Arahant is free from the grief caused by this instability that perception of it is a reminder of what has been escaped.
[SN 4.35.137] Palāsinā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Leaves (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to let go of experience through the senses. He compares their nature as not belonging to the self to the nature of the twigs and branches of the Jeta Grove.
Compare this sutta with SN 3.22.33. and SN 4.35.101.
[SN 4.35.138] Dutiya Palāsinā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Leaves (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to let go of the objects of the senses. He compares their nature as not belonging to the self to the nature of the twigs and branches of the Jeta Grove.
This and the previous sutta are without nidanas. In context they should have been located in Devadaha, but the simile in each references 'this Jeta Grove' which is in Savatthi. I have used Savatthi, but there is room for doubt.
[SN 4.35.139] Ajjhatta-Anicca aka Hetunā Ajjhatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Personal, by Way of Condition (i), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the sense organs, however they originated, are a product of the impermanent and as a consequence are themselves impermant. Then he instructs them that when this is seen as it is, one lets go one's taste for experience through the senses.
[SN 4.35.140] Ajjhatta-Dukkha aka Hetunā Ajjhatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Personal, by Way of Condition (ii), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the sense organs, however they originated, are a product of suffering and as a consequence are themselves of the nature of suffering. Then he instructs them that when this is seen as it is, one lets go one's taste for experience through the senses.
A variation of the previous.
[SN 4.35.141] Ajjhatta-Anatta aka Hetunā Ajjhatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Personal, by Way of Condition (iii), the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the sense organs, however they originated, are a result of what is not the self and as a conseqence are themselves not of the nature of self. Then he instructs them that when this is seen as it is, one lets go one's taste for experience through the senses.
[SN 4.35.142] Bāhira-Anicca aka Hetunā Bāhira Suttaṃ (i), the Pali,
The External, by Way of Condition 1, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the sense objects, however they originated, are a result of what is not the self and as a conseqence are themselves not of the nature of self. Then he instructs them that when this is seen as it is, one lets go one's taste for experience through the senses.
[SN 4.35.143] Bāhira-Dukkha aka Hetunā Bāhira Suttaṃ (ii), the Pali,
The External, by Way of Condition 2, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the sense objects, however they originated, are a result of what is not the self and as a conseqence are themselves not of the nature of self. Then he instructs them that when this is seen as it is, one lets go one's taste for experience through the senses.
[SN 4.35.144] Bāhira-Anatta aka Hetunā Bāhira Suttaṃ (iii), the Pali,
The External, by Way of Condition 3, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the sense objects, however they originated, are a result of what is not the self and as a conseqence are themselves not of the nature of self. Then he instructs them that when this is seen as it is, one lets go one's taste for experience through the senses.
The previous six making up the famous '3 characteristics'. Note that the implication is that by thorough understanding of any one of them the whole lot is understood and arahantship is attainable.

 

new Thursday, March 19, 2015 4:21 AMDīgha Nikāya,
[DN 14] Mahā Padāna Sutta, the Pali,
The Sublime Story, the Rhys Davids, T. and C., translation.
The Buddha gives the bhikkhus a comprehensive course on his system through the lens of seeing the lives of the previous seven Buddhas.
Like other suttas, this one reveals itself in a completely different light when unabridged. It is essential to understand the repetitions as vital tools in conditioning the mind to reception of ideas which will completely change an individual's perception of the world. It is just at that point where the reader finds it unbearable to read what he has already read twice or three times before that the listener is brought into another dimension. I suggest that that other dimension is the attainment of the jhānas. A point where the individual's ego relaxes his grip on his normal reality and can accept new possibilities. This experience can only be duplicated in the reader if he forces himself to relax and imagines himself in the place of the listener. This opportunity is completely lost with abridgment and with that loss also is lost the opportunity to accept as real experience what is in the ordinary world acceptable only as 'childish myth' or, as Rhys Davids would have it the root of the weed which would eventually overwhelm the original teaching and bring it down.
But this sutta contains in fact a complete course in the doctrine from a version of the gradual course to the four truths to a very enlightening exposition of the Paticca Samuppada.
The knee-jerk reaction of the critical reader will immediately dismiss as absurd myth the idea that there were, if there even were, seven previous Buddhas who all experienced birth, renunciation of the world, awakening and the events leading to the teaching of the Dhamma in virtually identical ways. But with even casual observation one will note in one's own life that there are thousands of episodes which repeat themselves in identical ways. People repeat the same stories over and over. Not only old people but everyone. I have seen myself in situations where the circumstances and dialogue were identical with those of a few years previous. Read a history of China, The History of the Fall of the Roman Empire, The Rise and Fall of The Third Reich, the story of Napoleon. History is an absurd story of nearly identically repeating episodes. Truly 'a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing.' It is in the nature of the world to repeat itself. Repetition until mutation is the first operating principle of our DNA. Why should we think that the world at large operates differently? That there is in this world an expansion into virtually every permutation of every possibility is visible if you look. That there are as a result heavons and hells is the predictable natural result which is denied only by the narrow 'scientific, rational' mind that cannot see it's nose in front of it's face. That this evolution of possibilities also contains a principle of perfection in what we call an Awakened being is not that difficult to accept. That this principle evolves upward in relatively similar ways is also reasonable. That one does not 'see' this reflects only on one's own taming, training and education. At least, the truly 'rational' individual should allow for the possibility. Relax, someone who has seen it for themselves is speaking to you in this sutta. Listen with an unbiased ear and you may 'see.'
This leads to the question of the term to be used for this phenomena of seeing the past lives of others. It cannot properly be 'recollection' or 'memory' as those are terms indicating the recollection of experiences personally witnessed at the time. What we have here is the seeing of events that were not personally witnessed. The Pali is: 'suppaṭividdhattā'  SU = well; PAṬI = reflect; VIDDHA = having had penetrating knowledge (intuited);
what is 'penetrated' or 'intuited' is dhamma-dhātuyā; not, I suggest 'a principle of the truth' or 'Dhamma,' but data or information concerning the nature of things in general — What I am suggesting above: that with an open mind one sees the repetititve nature of the things in the world and so seeing, and not obstructing such a view by dismissal as 'myth', one is able to see and differentiate between what to the ordinary 'seer' looks like one fuzzy event, the overlaping of multiple events. We can see also, the reverse. That say, for example, the history of Europe as one simple story repeating itself over and over. After a brief experiment in good government, psychopathic brute or psychopathic benevolant dictator or inbred idiot child rises up through the ranks of the army or inherits rule, takes control of the government, kills his enemies or not, takes many wives or not, has children or not, gives laws that make sense or not, indulges in cruelty, persecution of some enemy, conquest of other nations, indulgence of the senses or lives an ascetic life, kills his children and friends for conspiring against his life, is betrayed by his children and friends, is assassinated or exiled in luxory. Once or twice in a thousand years there is a good ruler. Once or twice in a thousand years an experiment in good govenment. Mostly not. Hitler and Napoleon are two sides of the same coin. When the good ruler dies his legacy is lost. When the initial excitement of a new good government wears off and becomes ordinary some psychopathic brute or some psychopathic benevolant dictator ... Rince and repeat. Why should the story of Awakening be any different? That is in terms of it's repetitive nature? A cosmic principle of Awakening in juxtaposition to the cosmic principle of Blindness.
Rhys Davids: 'through clear discernment of a principle of the truth ... that he is able to remember;' Walshe: 'understands ... by his own penetration of the principles of Dhamma.'
In this regard also the reader, when Rhys Davids (and following him, Walshe) speaks of the 'rule', what is being translated is 'the Dhamma', which should be heard in this case as 'the form' or 'the pattern' or at least 'the general rule.'
The numbering of the sections agrees in no two versions of this sutta. I have numbered the sections according as it appears to me the text is usually broken up.
Rhys Davids ends this sutta with a reading I believe is mistaken. In this case the Buddha has just gone to visit the Aviha heaven where groups of devas there approach and announce to him the details of the lives of the seven Buddhas including Gotama, (each group having been the disciples of the Buddha about whom they speak). The Pali and Rhys Davids both abridge giving the details for the first Buddha (Vipassi) and the last (Gotama) indicating the rest with "pe". Then Rhys Davids has Gotama visiting the Atappa, Sudassa, Sudassi and Akinittha heavens successively where in each case the gods deliver speeches similar to the ones delivered in the Aviha realm. But my reading of the Pali is that the gods of each of the higher realms approach Gotama and join the others in the Aviha realm. I read for the last case, for example: "Then the Akanittha gods approach the Aviha gods and the Attapa gods and the Sudassa gods and the Sudassi gods and ... ." Rhys Davids has this as: "Then on, including thus the Aviha and Cool and Fair gods" In the translation proper I have expanded the abridgment of Rhys Davids translation according to his understanding, but I have footnoted the alternate reading in full using his terminology. The significance of the difference is pedagogical: It makes much better sense that each succeeding higher set of gods state their knowledge in front of the younger group.

 

The Self-Rising Nature of Existence and Pain

This consciousness rebounds off/evolves into named-form
going no further.

It is only this far
that there is birth
or aging
or death
or falling from one condition
or reappearing in another;
that is to say:

Named-form resulting in consciousness,
and consciousness resulting in named-form,
named-form resulting in the six realms of the senses,
the six realms of the senses resulting in contact,
contact resulting in sense experience,
sense experience resulting in thirst (to get, to get away from),
thirst resulting in stoking the fire (fueling the fire, this is the activity of sankhārā-ing, acting in thought word and deed with the intent to create experience of existence for the self)
fueling the fire resulting in existence,
existence resulting in birth,
birth resulting in aging, sickness and death,
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair.

This is the Samudaya
of this entire body of pain.

"Samudaya! Samudaya!"

At that thought, beggars,
there arose a vision into things
not previously cognized,
and knowledge arose,
reason arose,
wisdom arose,
light arose.

Adapted from Rhys Davids translation of DN 14. See also: SN 3.65.

 


 

This passage which I have adapted from Rhys David's translation of DN 14 where it is related of Vipassi Buddha's awakening is also found in the second part of The First Sutta.

In the conclusion to both versions, after having pieced together the sequence of dependencies resulting in birth and it's consequent pain, the Buddhas remark: "Samudayo! Samudayo!" and a previously unrealized insight occurs to them.

Since what has just occurred is the sequence of dependencies itself (the Paṭicca Samuppada) (and thus it, itself, is not the insight that is being referred to as it has been previously realized) what is this insight that they are referring to?

First one must grasp the significance of the originating idea, that is:

Paccudāvattati kho idaṃ viññāṇaṃ,||
nāma-rūpamhā,||
nā paraṃ gacchati.
|| ||

This consciousness rebounds off/evolves into named-form
going no further.

... that for conscousness of existence as an individuality, consciousness and named-forms are interdependent. Picking an arbitrary starting point, consciousness of named forms results in a sequence that when mixed with identification with intent to create experience of existence leads to the formation of consciousness of named forms.

Now 'Samudaya' is usually translated 'arising' or 'coming to be'. But here, as in 'Sankhārā' we have an un-accounted-for (in such translations) 'sam.'

Is this 'own'? or 'co-, con-, or com'?

Looking at the point in the sequence named 'upādāna', we can see that without fueling the fire the process would come to a halt at this point. When an identified-with previously rolling process (aka a living being) identfies with the intent to create experience of existence through acts of thought, word and deed, the process rolls on. The error is in thinking that this previously identified with instigator of action is 'the self' or 'a self' or 'belongs to a self'. In that it does not, the process is 'self-' or 'own-rising.' The parts replicate themselves. In that identification with intent to create experience of existence is necessary for the process to continue, it is 'co-arising'. Not 'co' 'you and it' but 'co' 'it and this intent and this identification and this action'. It can be let go without loss of 'self.'

Today [Tuesday, March 17, 2015 4:13 AM] we have these nano-robots that replicate themselves. But for that process to work automatically there was originally built into it the instruction to do that. That is the equivalent of the process of own-making.

In light of the above, the second half of this insight, 'Nirodha! Nirodha!' is not just the seeing of the reverse of the process of the Paticca Samuppada, but the fact that it is done by the ending of the identification of self with the fueling of the process. That it comes to an end of it's own without that input.

In the same way as we can observe the self-replicatiing nano robot and see that we could dismantle the thing and prevent it's self-replication by removing the instruction to replicate, we can remove the self-replicating intent to experience from this process of existing we call life and eliminate the consequent self-identification with it's painful outcome.

How?

By minute examination of everything occuring at the senses (or within the scope of the 4 satipatthanas, or within the scope of the khandhas).

By 'yoniso-manasikara-ing', tracing things back to their points of origin, one can observe the self-replicating process as occuring independent of any 'self,' dependent only on the mistaken view that there is self there (that 'I' will 'die' if I do not act).

By eliminating every activity that is identified with self by filtering every thought, word, and deed through the Magga, The Aristocratic Multi-dimensional High Way.

When one can see that one can opt-out.

Opting out one is free.

Recognizing this freedom as the freedom from Pain that one has been seeking, one is free
and one knows:

"Birth is left behind,
lived was carrying on like Brahma,
done is duty's doing,
no more for me is there being it and at."

 


 

Kimhi nu kho sati jarā-maraṇaṃ hoti,||
kim paccayā jarā-maraṇan.
|| ||

What now being have we aging and death,
what results in aging and death?

Jātiyā kho sati jarā-maraṇaṃ hoti,||
jāti-paccayā jarā-maraṇan.
|| ||

Birth now being we have aging and death,
birth results in aging and death.

Kimhi nu kho sati jāti hoti,||
kim paccayā jātī?
|| ||

What now being have we birth,
what results in birth?

Bhave kho sati jāti hoti,||
bhava paccayā jātī.
|| ||

Becoming now being we have birth,
becoming results in birth.

'Becoming' is a literal translation of 'bhava' (it could be 'bad-go' or 'pass-vent' or 'pass wind') which is elsewhere translated as 'being' or 'existing' or 'living'. It is what we understand as existing (and there is no 'existing' as we understand it outside of this), which is a process of becoming in the shape of forms of existence such as being human, being a god, etc. It is valuable for insight into the fact that this is a thing which is a self-sustaining process, that the idea of existing or living be seen as becoming.

Kimhi nu kho sati bhavo hoti,||
kim paccayā bhavo?
|| ||

What now being have we becoming,
what results in becoming?

Upādāne kho sati bhavo hoti,||
upādāna-paccayā bhavo.
|| ||

Setting up now being we have becoming,
setting up results in becoming.

'Setting up' is what I now suggest is the best translation for 'upadana' (literally: up-given), elsewhere translated Rhys Davids: 'grasping,' Walshe, Bhk. Bodhi: 'clinging,' Bhk. Thanissaro: 'clinging/sustenance,' and myself: 'upholding,' 'support,' 'upkeep,' 'going-after-getting', and more lately following Bhk. Thanissaro 'fueling'. The idea is that after the experience of sensations, and upon the arising of thirst one sets out to get, prepares the way, sets rolling the necessary pre-condtions for attaining, thereby fueling the fire of lust and furthering the effort to get. Setting up is accomplished by wanting/wishing, points of view, performing rites and rituals in the effort to attain experience of self. It is the actions of sankhārā-ing.

Kimhi nu kho sati upādānaṃ hoti,||
kim paccayā upādānan?
|| ||

What now being have we setting up,
what results in setting up?

Taṇhāya kho sati upādānaṃ hoti,||
taṇhā-paccayā upādānan.

Thirst now being we have setting up,
thirst results in setting up.

Kimhi nu kho sati taṇhā hoti,||
kim paccayā taṇhā?
|| ||

What now being have we thirst,
what results in thirst?

Vedanāya kho sati taṇhā hoti,||
vedanā-paccayā taṇhā.
|| ||

Sense-experience now being we have thirst,
sense-experience results in thirst.

'Sense-experience,' (literally the 'thrill given'), takes, at it's most fundamental, three forms: pleasant sensation, painful sensation or sensation that is not painful but not pleasant. Such sensations result from contact with an object perceived to be of a nature corresponding to the sensation, but one experiences unpleasant sensation then perceives what one believes to be an unpleasant object. Sensation is relative to the object only in its results in the next revolution of the cycle and the mind, seeking the object of sensation can be mistaken and instigate on entirely false premises completly disasterous activity. Sensation follows contact. What one experiences as sensation preceeds thirst. 'Preceeds' means it comes before. 'Comes before' means it is already in the past. It is the experience of something that has already happened. Thirst set up on sense experience is chasing the past and results in becoming in the future. The process can be stopped at this point by tracing sense experience back to it's point of origin (yoniso-manasikaro) and seeing that if it is not acted upon it will not result in future sense experience. Experiencing the unpleasant sensation called anger that results from a perception of some injury inflicted on one by some person or event one has the choice of reacting with vengeful, angry, and always mistaken behaviors (setting up further expectations of becoming in an unpleasant situation) or by perceiving the event as over-with, passed, done gone, at that point, letting the sensation die out.

Kimhi nu kho sati vedanā hoti,||
kim paccayā vedanā?
|| ||

What now being have we sense-experience,
what results in sense-experience?

Phasse kho sati vedanā hoti,||
phassa-paccayā vedanā.
|| ||

Contact now being we have sense-experience,
contact results in sense-experience.

Kimhi nu kho sati phasso hoti,||
kim paccayā phasso?
|| ||

What now being have we contact,
what results in contact?

Saḷāyatane kho sati phasso hoti,||
saḷāyatana-paccayā phasso.
|| ||

The six-realms now being we have contact,
the six-realms results in contact.

'The six-realms' is the literal translation of 'saḷāyatana' which is shorthand for 'the six-realms of the senses': the eye and sights, the ear and sounds, the nose and scents, the tongue and tastes, the body and touches, the mind and all things.

Kimhi nu kho sati saḷāyatanaṃ hoti,||
kim paccayā saḷāyatanan?
|| ||

What now being have we the six realms,
what results in the six realms?

Nāma-rūpe kho sati saḷāyatanaṃ hoti,||
nāma-rūpa-paccayā saḷāyatanan.
|| ||

'Named-shapes' is the literal translation of 'nāma-rūpa', elsewhere translated: Walshe and Rhys Davids (incorrectly imposing Western philosophical views on the Pali) 'mind-and-body;' Bhk. Bodhi: mentality/materiality (just rephrasing the mistake of 'mind-and-body'); Rhys Davids, Hare, Horner, Bhk. Thanissaro: 'name and form;' Horner: psycho-physicality; Bhk. Punnaji: Entity/Identity (which is excellent if one does not wish to literally follow the Pali); Woodward: Name and visible body complex. It could also, following the Greek, be translated: 'phenomena' phe-nomena: face-name, which is helpful for understanding the meaning. What is it that makes up an experience of sense? The Eye comes into Contact with a visible object. Sense-experience (senstion), and Consciousness of that sense experience are the result. The component parts are the Form (a shape, sound, scent, savour, touch, or mental object) and perception (identification of the object as a shape, sound, scent, savour, touch, or mental object that is pleasant, unpleasant or not unpleasant but not pleasant and as whatever further identifications that object has come to be known by).

Named-shapes now being we have the six realms,
named-shapes result in the six realms.

Kimhi nu kho sati nāma-rūpaṃ hoti,||
kim paccayā nāma-rūpan?
|| ||

What now being have we named-shapes,
what results in named-shapes?

Viññāṇe kho sati nāmarūpaṃ hoti,||
viññāṇa-paccayā nāmarūpan.

Consciousness now being we have named-shapes,
cognition results in named-shapes.

Viññāṇa, literally 're-knowing-knowning-knowledge', the awareness of knowing that knowing is occuring. I believe this word also reflects the reality that consciousness as it is experienced by the ordinary individual is not a single act of knowing, but an illusion created by thousands of re-perceptions of a composite of previously perceived sense-objects. In the Paṭica Samuppada Viññāṇa, is intimately bound up in the point of view that this consciousness is arising in an individuality known as 'me,' perceiving through the senses.

Kimhi nu kho sati viññāṇaṃ hoti,||
kim paccayā viññāṇan?
|| ||

What now being have we consciousness,
what results in consciousness?

Nāma-rūpe kho sati viññāṇaṃ hoti,||
nāma-rūpa-paccayā viññāṇan.
|| ||

Named-forms now being we have consciousness,
named-forms results in consciousness.

Paccudāvattati kho idaṃ viññāṇaṃ,||
nāma-rūpamhā,||
nā paraṃ gacchati.
|| ||

This consciousness rebounds off/evolves into named-form
going no further.

Paccudāvattati could also be 'rolls out from/returns to'. The simile given is of two shiefs of wheat which are able to be placed upright only by one leaning on the other. Consciousness needs an object to be conscious of to be consciousness as we know it; named-forms are only such when there is consciousness of them. Part of the idea of 'name' implies a perception of that name. Things have 'names' to their observer. They do not wander around space with a name attached waiting to be made conscious of. They are given names in the process of perception that results in consciouosness of them by an individual. Be careful to note that 'this!' Our term 'consciousness' is not a direct equivalent of the Pali Viññāṇa, and there is no end of trouble for one conceiving the idea that the Buddha is teaching the eradication of 'consciousness'. For a more detailed discussion of this issue see: Is Nibbana Conditioned see the second part of this discussion.

Ettāvatā jāyetha vā jīyetha mīyetha vā cavetha vā upapajjetha vā,||
yad idaṃ nāma-rūpa-paccayā viññāṇaṃ,||
viññāṇa-paccayā nāma-rūpaṃ,||
nāma-rūpa-paccayā saḷāyatanaṃ,||
saḷāyatana-paccayā phasso,||
phassa-paccayā vedanā,||
vedanā-paccayā taṇhā,||
taṇhā paccayā upādānaṃ,||
upādāna-paccayā bhavo,||
bhava-paccayā jāti,||
jāti-paccayā jarā-maraṇaṃ||
soka-parideva-dukkha-domanass-ūpāyāsā sambhavan.
|| ||

Only thus is there birth and with birth aging or death or passing on or appearing,
that is, named-forms resulting in consciousness,
consciousness resulting in named forms,
named forms resulting in the six-realms,
the six-realms resulting in contact,
contact resulting in sense-experience,
sense-experience resulting in thirst,
thirst resulting in setting up,
setting up resulting in becoming,
becoming resulting in birth,
birth resulting in aging and death,
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair.

Understanding this, the Paṭicca Samuppada, provides the basis for the insight into the knowledge that 'this,' that which we know as 'myself' or 'me,' is a process, a becoming thing. And it is this insight which is essential to have set up to fully appreciate the idea that:

Yaṃ kiñci samudaya-dhammaṃ||
sabban taṃ nirodha-dhamman|| ||

'Whatever there is that is a self-arising thing,
all that is an ending thing.'

and that whatever comes to an end is not the self.

 

 

Vulture Peak Range above Old Rajagaha
Vulture Peak Range above Old Rājagaha.

 

new Friday, March 13, 2015 8:23 AMTherīgāthā, Psalms of the Sisters:
[THIG Canto II: Psalms of Two Verses]Psalms of Two Verses, Ps. XIX-XXVIII Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
Includes short biographical descriptions of each bhikkhunī: Verses of: Abhirūpa-Nandā, Jentī or Jentā, Sumangala's Mother, Aḍḍhakāsī, Cittā, Mettikā, Mittā, Abhaya's Mother, Abhayā, and Sāmā. All on one file. Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translations where available.
Apologies for numbering errors in the previous upload for Canto I. A strange, probably search-and-replace error exchanged Capitial "I." for "i." and sometimes eliminated an "I" altogether and this in all files relating to the Therigatha including the index. Very distressing in a file which uses Roman Numerals extensively. I hope I have caught all the errors in the previous and this file.
Note in the photograph above the distortion just right of center eminating from Vulture's Head itself. Relax and see the wings streatching out from each side of the head. Vulture's Head would be what Don Juan would call a power spot. Possibly an entry point to another dimension; a place where two worlds meet. Two of the bhikkhuni's in Canto II achieve Arahantship in old age upon climbing to this spot. Of course someone will suggest this was just a blur caused by the careless use of chemicals by the photograph's developer. I wonder what chemicals?
[THIG Canto XVI: The Great Canto] Ps. LXXIII: Sumedhā, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

 


Yo kho Vakkali, dhammaṃ passati||
so maṃ passati,||
yo maṃ passati||
so dhammaṃ passati.|| ||

He, Vakkali, who sees Dhamma,
he sees me;
he who sees me,
he sees Dhamma.

— Gotama The Awake, SN 3.22.87


 

 

new Wednesday, March 11, 2015 6:13 AMMajjhima Nikāya
[MN 9] Discourse on Perfect View, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana, Bhk. Thanissaro, Ñanamoli Thera trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., Buddhist Publication Society, 1991 and Bhks. Bodhi and Nanamoli, Wisdom Publications (with permission) translation.
Sariputta explains the path to attaining of consummate view in thirty two (33 ?) different ways.
A very enlightening sutta!
Note that Ms. Horner has dared to break with the pack in her translation of 'sammā' as 'perfect'.
Note that here is an exposition of the Paticca Samuppada which casts each of the factors in the form of the Four Truths which shows both that each of the factors is itself a path to Nibbana, and that the Paticca Samuppada as a whole is a way of stating the Four Truths.
Note that the commentator numbers the proclamation of the Four Truths in this sutta as 32. I suggest that in addition the entire sutta also counts as one such proclamation, so the number should be 33.
Note that we have here the Paticca Samuppada with the 'āsavas' the corrupting influences, (Ms. Horner's 'cankers'), preceding the usual 'ignorance' as it's starting point.
Note that here 'Craving' 'Taṇha' is at one point said to be the precurser to the sustenances, and later in the secquence paralleling the Paticca Samuppada, it is said to be the origin of 'upādāna' (Ms. Horner's 'Grasping'.) I suggest this is a good argument for the translation of 'upādāna' not as 'grasping,' but as 'support' or 'fuel' or an equivalant term. See above: 'set-ups'.
Note that under the three sankharings which I have usually described as of thought, word, and deed, the precise translation would be of body, word, and mental (where 'mental' is 'citta', or that work of the heart which has to do with intent and will, and is more specifically associated with individuality than is the more general 'mano' or 'mind'). The Buddha's system of 'kamma' makes a distinction between a passing thought and thought associated with intent or will. Passing thoughts are not 'kammic acts' or sankharas (own-makings).
[MN 144] Channovāda Suttaṃ,
Discourse on an Exhortation to Channa, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Sister Upalavana translation.
Sariputta and Maha Cunda visit Channa who is dying a painful death. Channa announces he will 'take the knife' (commit suicide). Sariputta questions him as to his understanding of Dhamma and Maha Cunda recites for him a saying of the Buddha warning against the wavering that results from attachments. Later, after Channa has 'taken the knife' Sariputta questions the Buddha as to Channa's fate. The Buddha states that his was a blameless end.
See: SN 4.35.87 above which is identical to this sutta for a discussion of suicide relative to Buddhism.
[MN 145] Puṇṇavāda Suttaṃ,
Discourse on an Exhortation to Puṇṇa, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Sister Upalavana translation.
Punna, after being given an instruction 'in brief' by the Buddha, is questioned as to how he will deal with the fierce people of Sunaparanta where he intends to dwell. He gives a series of answers which shows he has the patience to deal with them even to the point of death.
An inspiring sutta. A great lesson in the attitude one should adopt to perfect patience.
For another translation of this sutta see SN 4.35.88 above which is almost identical.
[MN 56] Discourse with Upāli, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Sister Upalavana translation.
A debate with the Buddha concerning the Jain proposition that of deeds of mind, word, and body, the deed of body carried the strongest kammic consequences where the Buddha holds that it is the deed of mind that carries the strongest kammic consequences.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her and by Alexander Genaud. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged and the footnotes needed to be added in. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.
[MN 32] Greater Discourse in Gosiŋga, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Sister Upalavana translation.
A group of the Buddha's great disciples gather together on a beautiful moonlit night in Gosinga Woods with the air perfumed by the Sal Tree blossoms. They each, in turn, describe the sort of bhikkhu they feel would illuminate this woods. Then, unable to descide whose proposition was best, they visit the Buddha to ask his opinion. The Buddha approves all their opinions and adds his own contribution.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged and the footnotes needed to be added in. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.
[MN 41] Discourse to the People of Sālā, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Nanamoli translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha, speaking to the householders of Sala, explains in detail how it comes about that some people go to happy rebirths in the heavens and others end up in hell.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged and the footnotes needed to be added in. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.
[MN 47] Discourse on Inquiring, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha goes into detail concerning how one should examine one who claims to have attained the goal.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged and the footnotes needed to be added in. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.
[MN 51] Discourse to Kandaraka, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha, from a brief discussion of the four types of individuals found in the world, when asked to elaborate expounds on the habits of those intent on harmful ascetic practices, those who follow a bloody calling, those who torment both themselves and others, and those who neither torment themselves nor torment others. By way of the last group he teaches a detailed course of progress from layman to the benefits of Arahantship.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged and the footnotes needed to be added in. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.
[MN 93] Discourse with Assalāyana, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavana translation.
A debate between a brahmin and the Buddha concerning the relative merits of the casts. A thoroughly rational and convincing set of arguments for the position that it is individual merit, not birth that distinguishes one man from another.
A very important sutta.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged and the footnotes needed to be added in. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.
[MN 95] Discourse with Caŋkī the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha points out the flaws in reliance on faith, inclination, report, consideration of reasons, reflection on and approval of an opinion and describes the path that leads to seeing the truth of a proposition for one's self.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged and the footnotes needed to be added in. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.
[MN 118] Discourse on Mindfulness when Breathing In and Out, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Bhikkhus Nanamoli/Bodhi translation, the M. Olds translation and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha explains how recollecting aspiration developed and made much of, completely perfects the four settings-up of memory; the four settings-up of memory, developed and made much of, completely perfects the seven dimensions of awakening; the seven dimensions of awakening, developed and made much of, completely perfects freedom through vision.
A very important sutta for understanding the equivalance to each other of various groups of instructions/practices.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged and the footnotes needed to be added in. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.
[MN 119] Discourse on Mindfulness of Body, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the techniques and fruitful consequences of minding the body.
Note: This sutta shows that minding the body is a complete path to Nibbana. Ms. Horner would have it that this sutta has been extracted from the Satipatthana. It seems just as reasonable (more reasonable if one considers the disjointed feel of the composition of the Satipatthana) to think that the Satipatthana Sutta was compiled using this sutta.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.
[MN 120] Discourse on Uprising by means of Aspiration, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavana translation.
The Buddha teaches how the intent to create experience for the self results in rebirth in accordance with the intent in a sequence that progresses from the intent to experience rebirth as a wealthy or powerful individual through a detailed list of gods to Arahantship.
This sutta needs to be fully unabridged for its full power to be manifest. It is not simply a set of formulas for attaining this or that rebirth, but as a sequence, it also points out at each succeeding step a greater and more ambitious goal.
This edition of Ms. Horner's translation was submitted by Waiyin Chow. It has been proofread by her. It is not yet fully formatted or unabridged though some additional but still incomplete unabridging was done by me. The Pali is copied from the BJT edition and has not yet been proofread further or fully formatted.

The following suttas from the Wisdom Publications, Bhikkhus Bodhi/Nanamoli translation of the Majjhima Nikaya have been released under the
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License and have been uploaded to this site. They are linked-to from the Sutta Index:

1. Mulapariyaya Sutta: The Root of All Things
2. Sabbasava Sutta: All the Taints
4. Bhayabherava Sutta: Fear and Dread
6. Akankheyya Sutta: If A Bhikkhu Should Wish
7. Vatthupama Sutta: The Simile of the Cloth
9. Sammaditthi Sutta: Right View
10. Satipatthana Sutta: The Foundations of Mindfulness
11. Culasihanada Sutta: The Shorter Discourses on the Lion’s Roar
12. Mahasihanada Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Lion’s Roar
13. Mahadukkhakkhandha Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Mass of Suffering
19. Dvedhavitakka Sutta: Two Kinds of Thought
20. Vitakkasanthana Sutta: The Removal of Distracting Thoughts
26. Ariyapariyesana Sutta: The Noble Search
27. Culahatthipadopama Sutta: The Shorter Discourse on the Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint
28. Mahahatthipadopama Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint
29. Mahasaropama Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood
38. Mahatanhasankhaya Sutta: The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving
41. Saleyyaka Sutta: The Brahmins of Sala
118. Anapanasati Sutta: Mindfulness of Breathing
135. Culakammavibhanga Sutta: The Shorter Exposition of Action
140. Dhatuvibhanga Sutta: The Exposition of the Elements
147. Cularahulovada Sutta: The Shorter Discourse of Advice to Rahula
148. Chachakka Sutta: The Six Sets of Six
149. Mahasalayatanika Sutta: The Great Sixfold Base

This is not the entire list of Majjhima Nikaya suttas that has been released and the entire Majjhima Nikaya has not been released. Some other suttas from the MN are on this site under different release peramaters. Certain links will continue to open an empty page indicating that the sutta exists in digital form but has not been released for public distribution. The remainder of those that are now available will be added as time goes on as they relate to the uploading of other suttas and as they relate to discussions. In addition to the Majjhima Nikaya suttas, a large number of suttas from the other Nikayas were also released. Many of these I already have digitized for my personal use and I will upload them as soon as possible.

 

Fig. 23 Anathapindika's gift of the Jetavana park.
Fig. 23 Anāthapiṇḍika's gift of the Jetavana park.
[From the Bharahat Tope, Pl. lxvii.]
— From Rhys Davids, Buddhist India
Used as the front cover illustration for this book.

New PTS Publication: The Ornament of Lay Followers, Ānanda's Upāsakajanālaŋkāra Translated by Giulio Agostini, The Pali Text Society.
I cannot recommend this book as it is really a translation of a commentary on a commentary on Buddhaghosa's editing of the original commentaries which is to say that it affirms and elaborates on and stands a high probability of adding to the errors of the originals — a far cry from the intent of this site to direct the attention of the reader to the original documentation — and because, although on first appearances it would seem that a book devoted specifically to the lay follower would be useful, that would be better accomplished with an anthology of suttas from the Sutta Pitaka. As it stands a random opening of the book showed a dangerous commentarial misinterpretation of kamma. The Buddha's exposition of kamma is relatively straightforward: the repercussion of an act returns to the doer thereof in accordance with the intent with which the original act was undertaken. He discusses the factors going into magnitude. He speaks of generic black and white kamma, kamma of mixed results and kamma that carries no result. He speaks of kamma with immediate results and kamma with delayed results. He states that for anyone other than himself, going into details concerning the specific outcomes of specific deeds whether past, future, or present, is dangerous. Where such details are presented or discussed other than by Gotama, (there is no such discussion in the Suttas) they are commentary and should be put to the side. Here the statement is made that if a person, without knowing who his father was, killed his father thinking he was an animal or an unrelated person, he would nevertheless suffer the immediate and lengthy retribution of a patricide. No. The intent is not there. He would suffer the consequences of an ordinary deed of killing. My commentary accords with what we are given in the suttas, what appears in this book is pure, out of thin air speculation without any basis for the argument given. I personally do not have time to delve deeply into a work that at first glance shows such an error and I recommend the reader also put this work to the side awaiting such a point in one's understanding of the suttas where time can be spent wasted on reviewing wrong views.
This 'Ānanda' is not the Ānanda of the suttas. Read The Pali Line for an introduction to the Dhamma that sticks to the Suttas and which follows the usual preparatory talk given to laymen by the Ānanda of the suttas.

 

Monday, March 9, 2015
Previous upload was Friday, January 30, 2015

 

It is almost impossible to imagine the wealth of Wheel-turning Kings and some of the wealthy kings described in the suttas, and even Gotama's description of the luxory of his life before he renounced the world is extreme beyond what we could imagine of the luxory of even a Bill Gates, or Carlos Slim, and Rhys Davids at one point suggests that the descriptions are wild fantasies, but read below a authentic description, (only one of many similar such of rulers of both East and West) by a contemporary (c.900 AD) of the wealth of a Mohamadan Caliph ... and what he thought of it himself:

"... the Abbassides soon disdained the abstinence and frugality of the first caliphs, and aspired to emulate the magnificence of the Persian kings. After his wars and buildings, Almansor left behind him in gold and silver about thirty millions sterling;[1] and this treasure was exhausted in a few years by the vices or virtues of his children. His son Mahadi, in a single pilgrimage to Mecca, expended six millions of dinars of gold. A pious and charitable motive may sanctify the foundation of cisterns and caravanseras, which he distributed along a measured road of seven hundred miles; but his train of camels, laden with snow,[2] could serve only to astonish the natives of Arabia, and to refresh the fruits and liquors of the royal banquet. The courtiers would surely praise the liberality of his grandson Almamon, who gave away four fifths of the income of a province, a sum of two millions four hundred thousand gold dinars, before he drew his foot from the stirrup. At the nuptials of the same prince, a thousand pearls of the largest size were showered on the head of the bride, and a lottery of lands and houses displayed the capricious bounty of fortune. The glories of the court were brightened rather than impaired in the decline of the empire; and a Greek ambassador might admire or pity the magnificence of the feeble Moctader. "The caliph's whole army," says the historian Abulfeda, "both horse and foot, was under arms, which together made a body of one hundred and sixty thousand men. His state-officers, the favourite slaves, stood near him in splendid apparel, their belts glittering with gold and gems. Near them were seven thousand eunuchs, four thousand of them white, the remainder black. The porters or door-keepers were in number seven hundred. Barges and boats, with the most superb decorations, were seen swimming upon the Tigris. Nor was the palace itself less splendid, in which were hung up thirty-eight thousand pieces of tapestry, twelve thousand five hundred of which were of silk embroidered with gold. The carpets on the floor were twenty-two thousand. An hundred lions were brought out with a keeper to each lion. Among the other spectacles of rare and stupendous luxury, was a tree of gold and silver spreading into eighteen large branches, on which, and on the lesser boughs, sat a variety of birds made of the same precious metals, as well as the leaves of the tree. While the machinery affected spontaneous motions, the several birds warbled their natural harmony. Through this scene of magnificence, the Greek ambassador was led by the visir to the foot of the caliph's throne." In the West, the Ommiades of Spain supported, with equal pomp, the title of commander of the faithful. Three miles from Cordova, in honour of his favourite sultana, the third and greatest of the Abdalrahmans constructed the city, palace, and gardens of Zehra. Twenty-five years, and above three millions sterling, were employed by the founder: his liberal taste invited the artists of Constantinople, the most skilful sculptors and architects of the age; and the buildings were sustained or adorned by twelve hundred columns of Spanish and African, of Greek and Italian marble. The hall of audience was encrusted with gold and pearls, and a great bason in the centre, was surrounded with the curious and cosdy figures of birds and quadrupeds. In a lofty pavilion of the gardens, one of these basons and fountains, so delightful in a sultry climate, was replenished not with water, but with the purest quicksilver. The seraglio of Abdalrahman, his wives, concubines, and black eunuchs, amounted to six thousand three hundred persons; and he was attended to the field by a guard of twelve thousand horse, whose belts and scymetars were studded with gold.

In a private condition, our desires are perpetually repressed by poverty and subordination; but the lives and labours of millions are devoted to the service of a despotic prince, whose laws are blindly obeyed, and whose wishes are instantly gratified. Our imagination is dazzled by the splendid picture; and whatever may be the cool dictates of reason, there are few among us who would obstinately refuse a trial of the comforts and the cares of royalty. It may therefore be of some use to borrow the experience of the same Abdalrahman, whose magnificence has perhaps excited our admiration and envy, and to transcribe an authentic memorial which was found in the closet of the deceased caliph. "I have now reigned above fifty years in victory or peace; beloved by my subjects, dreaded by my enemies, and respected by my allies. Riches and honours, power and pleasure, have waited on my call, nor does any earthly blessing appear to have been wanting to my felicity. In this situation, I have diligently numbered the days of pure and genuine happiness which have fallen to my lot: they amount to FOURTEEN: - 0 man! place not thy confidence in this present world."

 

— Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume III, pp 345-346.


[1] at about $17/oz today [March, 2015] that comes to $8,160,000,000 U$D. That was just the gold and silver. The 'Mad Money'. Doesn't count the property, buildings, slaves or income from 'gifts', tribute, taxes and plunder.

[2] Refrigerated shipping containers c. 900 AD.

 

new Sunday, February 22, 2015 6:02 AMMajjhima Nikāya
[MN 82] Discourse with Raṭṭhapāla, the I.B. Horner translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the Lupton, Sister Upalavana, and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translations.
The story of Ratthapala who, inspired by a Dhammatalk given by the Buddha wishes to enter the order but is refused the permission of his parents. (Up to 200 years or so ago even in Europe it was common that 'children' (males and females) up to the age of 25 and older were required by law to ask permission of their parents for such things as marriage. They could be put in jail for disobediance.) He vows to die on the spot unless he receives permission and after many pleadings by his parents and friends finally gets his parents concent. He thereafter quickly becomes arahant. On revisiting his family he is first unrecognized and subjected to abuse, then his father tries to tempt him to return to the world with gold and his former wives. He is not persuaded and delivers a sermon in verses on the subject of the pains in the world. Still later he discourses to the king on four doctrines of the Buddha concerning the futility of living in the world.
An inspiring story of faith. Fully rolled out it paints an interesting picture of dialogue and manners of the time.

 

Threshing Rice In 'Mortar,' Bandipur, Kashmir
Threshing Rice In 'Mortar,' Bandipur, Kashmir

new Thursday, February 19, 2015 8:34 AMTherīgāthā, Psalms of the Sisters:
[THIG Canto I]Psalms of Single Verses, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation. Includes short biographical descriptions of each bhikkhunī: Verses of: Bhikkhunī of Name Unknown, Muttā, Puṇṇā, Tissā, Another Tissā, Dhīrā, Another Dhīrā, Mittā, Bhadrā, Upasamā, Muttā, Dhammadinnā, Visākhā, Sumanā, Uttarā, Sumanā who left the world when old, Dhammā, Sanghā. All on one file. Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translations where available.
Highly recommended as inspiration for women and for information for feminists. The thing to note is where in many cases there is acceptance without complaint of what is understood by these women to be disagreeable positions in life and their transcendence of these situations through entering the order and personal achievement within the system ... as contrasted to the modern effort to change the situations. We are cast into roles, or destinies, in this life and unless the role calls for transgression of ethical bounds the best way to handle a role in terms of not creating new bad kamma and ending old kamma is to play the role well. Playing the role well is the highest form of disparagement of the idea that there is anything of substance in the world, and renouncing the world is the ultimate statement as to the hopelessness of any idea that it is a salvagable thing. Individuals are salvagable, the world goes round and round. Read your history.

 

new Wednesday, February 04, 2015 8:48 AMTheragāthā, Psalms of the Brethren:
CCXXXVI: Cūḷa-Panthaka, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
This story contains an interesting description of a meditation practice wherein the Buddha gives Cūḷa-Panthaka a clean cloth to use while he develops serenity (samādhi.). This is not one of the orthodox kasinas. The way it works is that Cūḷa-Panthaka handles the cloth as he meditates and as he does so the cloth becomes soiled and by that he perceives the inconstance and corruption of existence. The story has become quite famous. Cūḷa-Panthaka was also kown as the bhikkhu most skilled at creating multiple forms of himself.
CCXXXVII: Kappa, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
This story also gives an example of how an original 'subject for meditation' might have been given. Here the Buddha teaches Kappa by way of the 'corrupt' nature of the body.
CCLI: Raṭṭhapāla, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

 

new Thursday, January 01, 2015 9:18 AM Saŋyutta Nikāya
[SN 3.22.112] Dutiya Chandarāga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Desirous-lustful (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to abandon all desire and lust (including the holding of theories, beliefs and prejudices) for shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness.
[SN 3.22.113] Avijjā (or Bhikkhu) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Ignorance (or The Brother), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes blindness in terms of not knowing about shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making or sense-consciousness, not knowing about their arising, not knowing about their ending, and not knowing about the walk to walk to bring about their ending.
[SN 3.22.114] Vijjā (or Bhikkhu) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Wisdom (or The Brother), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes having vision in terms of knowing about shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making or sense-consciousness, knowing about their arising, knowing about their ending, and knowing about the walk to walk to bring about their ending.
Woodward translates 'avijjā' and 'vijjā' as 'ignorance' and 'wisdom'; Bhk. Bodhi translates them 'ignorance' and 'true knowledge'. 'Ignorance' has pretty much established itself in the general consciousness but it is not quite accurate. The word means 'not-vision' and it's opposite should be the opposite of whatever word is used for that (or the other way around). Wisdom is having vision plus having knowledge of the ways that vision is best used in a broad scope of applications. The better translation is closer to Bhk. Bodhi's but there is no 'true' there. It is really 'vision', 'seeing'. Additionally 'wisdom' has been and is better used for 'paññā' (pan knowing).
[SN 3.22.115] Paṭhama Kathika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Teacher, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha defines the Dhamma Teacher, the one who lives the Dhamma following the Dhamma, and the one who has won Nibbana in terms of teaching about, following, and being released from shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness.
[SN 3.22.116] Dutiya Kathika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Preacher, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha defines the Dhamma Teacher, the one who lives the Dhamma following the Dhamma, and the one who has won Nibbana in terms of teaching about, following, and being released from shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness.
There appears to me to be some confusion between this and the previous sutta. In the first the only question asked is what makes a Dhamma teacher but three questions are answered. In the second three questions are asked which correspond to the answers given in both suttas. Further complicating the issue Woodward makes the second question in the second sutta ask about teaching about living the Dhamma following the Dhamma, which is not being asked and does not correspond to the answer. It seems the first sutta should have asked only the first question and been given only the first answer, and the second sutta which asks all three questions should follow (without Woodward's interjection of 'is one a teacher of').
[SN 3.22.117] Bandhanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Bonds, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha distinguishes between the well tamed, well educated, well trained and the commoner by whether or not they regard shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness as the self.
[SN 3.22.118] Paṭhama Paripucchika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Infatuated (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha praises the bhikkhus for understanding that shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are not to be regarded as the self.
[SN 3.22.119] Dutiya Paripucchika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Infatuated (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha praises the bhikkhus for seeing that shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are not the self.
A subtly different version of the previous.
[SN 3.22.120] Saññojaniya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Fetter, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that the things that give rise to what yokes one to rebirth are shapes, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making, and consciousness, whereas the yokes themselves are the wants and desires connected to these things.
The point is to not think that it is the world that needs to change, but to focus on what it is within one's self that needs to change. It is by teaching the opposite of this lession that the activist Buddhists lead people astray.
[SN 3.22.121] Upādāniya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Grasping, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches that the things that give rise to what fuels rebirth are shapes, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making, and consciousness, whereas the fuel itself is the wanting and desires connected to these things.
Again the lesson is to look within, not without, for the solution to the problem of the pain associated with existence.
[SN 3.22.122] Sīla Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Virtue, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
In a dialogue between Sāriputta and Maha Kotthita Sāriputta explains how by tracing out in mind the inconstance of, pain in, diseased nature of, cancerous nature of, knotty nature of, the thorny nature of, the horror of, the oppressive nature of, the otherness of, the corruptability of, the emptiness of, the non-self of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness an ethical person can become a Streamwinner, the Streamwinner can become a Once-Returner, the Once-Returner can become a Non-Returner, the Non-Returner can become an Arahant and the Arahant can live pleasantly in this visible world.
[SN 3.22.123] Sutavatā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Well-Taught, the F.W. Woodward translation,
In a dialogue between Sāriputta and Maha Kotthita Sāriputta explains how by tracing out in mind the inconstance of, pain in, diseased nature of, cancerous nature of, knotty nature of, the thorny nature of, the horror of, the oppressive nature of, the otherness of, the corruptability of, the emptiness of, the non-self of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness the well-taught disciple can become a Streamwinner, the Streamwinner can become a Once-Returner, the Once-Returner can become a Non-Returner, the Non-Returner can become an Arahant and the Arahant can live pleasantly in this visible world.
Identical to the previous substituting 'well-taught' for 'ethical'.
The BJT Pali for both these suttas is mixed up and does not parallel either the PTS or CSCD.
[SN 3.22.124] Paṭhama Kappa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Kappa, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches Kappa how to be sure that all notions of 'I' and 'mine' have been eradicated.
[SN 3.22.125] Dutiya Kappa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Kappa (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches Kappa how to be sure that all notions of 'I' and 'mine' have been eradicated.
A variation of the previous.
[SN 3.22.126] Paṭhama Samudaya-Dhamma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Of A Coming-to-Pass-Nature (1) the F.W. Woodward translation,
Upon being asked the Buddha teaches a bhikkhu the definition of 'blindness' and 'vision' in terms of understanding the nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as things that come to be, cease to be and both come to be and cease to be.
Woodward translates 'ignorance' and 'wisdom'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'ignorance' and 'true kowledge'.
[SN 3.22.127] Dutiya Samudaya-Dhamma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Of A Coming-to-Pass-Nature (2) the F.W. Woodward translation,
Upon being asked, the venerable Sāriputta teaches the venenerable Maha Kotthita the definition of 'blindness' in terms of understanding the nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as things that come to be, cease to be and both come to be and cease to be.
A variation on the first half of the previous sutta. One of many examples where two Arahants teach each other basic Dhamma. This is apparently either to bring the teaching into the record or to teach other novice bhikkhus that are in attendence. Sometimes it may be just simply delight in constructing some 'take' on the Dhamma.
[SN 3.22.128] Tatiya Samudaya-Dhamma Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Of A Coming-to-Pass-Nature (3), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Upon being asked, the venerable Sāriputta teaches the venenerable Maha Kotthita the definition of 'vision' in terms of understanding the nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as things that come to be, cease to be and both come to be and cease to be.
A variation on the second half of the previous sutta.
[SN 3.22.129] Paṭhama Assāda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Satisfaction (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Upon being asked, the venerable Sāriputta teaches the venerable Maha Kotthita the definition of 'blindness' in terms of not understanding the sweetness of, the wretchedness of and the escape from shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
Woodward: 'satisfaction', 'misery' and 'escape'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'gratification', 'danger', 'escape'. Is it 'satisfaction'? Satisfaction means having had enough. That is the way to the end. The idea here is that one must know the pleasure to be found in things to understand why one is addicted to them.
[SN 3.22.130] Dutiya Assāda Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Satisfaction (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Upon being asked, the venerable Sāriputta teaches the venerable Maha Kotthita the definition of 'vision' in terms of understanding the sweetness of, the wretchedness of and the escape from shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
[SN 3.22.131] Paṭhama Samudaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Coming-to-Pass (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Upon being asked, the venerable Sāriputta teaches the venerable Maha Kotthita the definition of 'blindness' in terms of not understanding the nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as things that come to be, cease to be and both come to be and cease to be.
[SN 3.22.132] Dutiya Samudaya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Coming-to-Pass (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Upon being asked, the venerable Sāriputta teaches the venerable Maha Kotthita the definition of 'blindness' in terms of understanding the nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as things that come to be, cease to be and both come to be and cease to be.
[SN 3.22.133] Paṭhama Koṭṭhita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Koṭṭhita (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Upon being asked, the venerable Sāriputta teaches the venerable Maha Kotthita the definition of 'blindness' and 'vision' in terms of understanding the sweetness of, the wretchedness of and the escape from shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
A combination of Ī129 and Ī130. Woodward has this as being simply a repetition of Ī129.
[SN 3.22.134] Dutiya Koṭṭhita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Koṭṭhita (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Upon being asked, the venerable Sāriputta teaches the venerable Maha Kotthita the definition of 'blindness' and 'vision' in terms of understanding the coming-to-pass of, the passing-away of, the sweetness of, the wretchedness of and the escape from shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
An expansion of Ī133.
[SN 3.22.135] Tatiya Koṭṭhita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Koṭṭhita (3), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Upon being asked, the venerable Sāriputta teaches the venerable Maha Kotthita the definition of 'blindness' and 'vision' in terms of understanding shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness, understanding their arising, understanding their passing-away, and understanding the walk to walk to bring about their end.
[SN 3.22.136] Kukkula Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Glowing Embers the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as glowing embers.
The controversy mentioned in this sutta is a tempest in a teapot which eminates from one side ridgidly holding the position that everything is painful, not acknowledging transitory pleasures as being nevertheless pleasures; while the other side refuses to see that seen from the point of view of the ultimate result this is a legitimate position. Pleasure in this world is an observable fact, it is also observable that it always ends in pain. Mrs. Rhys Davids translation of 'sankhārā' as 'conditioned' rather than 'own-made' or, at least 'constructed' in Pts. of Contr. only serves to confuse the issue.
What is going on here is important to note. It is essentially the same problem as trying to understand the notion of 'not-self' versus 'no self'. The difference between the statement (or interpretation of a statement made by another) of an observable fact and the statement of an opinion. Either of the two statements, 'the all (the world, the khandhas, etc.) is painful' or 'there is pleasure in the all ...' are true as far as they go. It is when the idea jumps to the categorical "everything, all (not 'the all') is ..." that the statement has become opinion. And, since an opinion concerning 'all' would require of the opinion holder the knowledge of all things at all times which is not possible, such opinion crosses over into error.
[SN 3.22.137] Paṭhama Anicca Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By the Impermanent (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are inconstant and desire for that which is inconstant should be put away by ending desire for these objects of desire.
Note that what is said is: "There (tatra vo 'in this!') put away desire." The meaning is that desire, arising from objects, needs to be ended by ending the desire for those objects. It is not ended by focusing one's effort on the attempt to end generic desire.
[SN 3.22.138] Dutiya Anicca Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By the Impermanent (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are inconstant and lust for that which is inconstant should be put away by ending lust for these objects of desire.
[SN 3.22.139] Tatiya Anicca Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By the Impermanent (3), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are inconstant and lustful desire for that which is inconstant should be put away by ending lust for these objects of lustful desire.
Chandarāgo. Bhk. Bodhi and Woodward: desire and lust. Since it is possible in Pali to write such a thing as desire and lust were that the intended idea, it seems to me that we should not be translating compounds in this way, but should be seeking to create translations closer in feeling to the idea of a compound. A single idea, not two or three or a half dozen separate ideas.
[SN 3.22.140] Paṭhama Dukkha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Suffering (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are painful and desire for that which is painful should be put away by ending desire for these objects of desire.
[SN 3.22.141] Dutiya Dukkha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Suffering (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are painful and lust for that which is painful should be put away by ending lust for these objects of desire.
[SN 3.22.142] Tatiya Dukkha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Suffering (3), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are painful and lustful desire for that which is painful should be put away by ending lust for these objects of lustful desire.
[SN 3.22.143] Paṭhama Anatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Without A Self (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are not-self and desire for that which is not-self should be put away by ending desire for these objects of desire.
[SN 3.22.144] Dutiya Anatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Without A Self (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are not-self and lust for that which is not-self should be put away by ending lust for these objects of desire.
[SN 3.22.145] Tatiya Anatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Without A Self (3), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are not-self and lustful desire for that which is not-self should be put away by ending lust for these objects of lustful desire.
[SN 3.22.146] Nibbidābahula (aka Kulaputtena Dukkhā) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By the Clansman from Suffering (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes living the Dhamma of the Dhamma as living making much of weariness (having had enough of) of shape, sense-experience, perception own-making and sense-consciousness. So living he understands, understanding he is liberated.
Here we have the definition for the 'anudhamma' in the compound 'dhamma-anudhamma' (things-following after-the teachings; or forms following after the Teaching; or 'Doctrine-following forms' Dhamma-corolaries?). That is, it is along the lines of 'following the Form of the Teaching', 'walking it like you talk it'. Woodward notes: 'conformity to rule,' Bhk. Bodhi: 'what accords with the Dhamma.'
[SN 3.22.147] Aniccānupassanā (aka Kulaputtena Dukkhā) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By the Clansman from Suffering (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes living the Dhamma of the Dhamma as living seeing inconstance in shape, sense-experience, perception own-making and sense-consciousness. So living he understands, understanding he is liberated.
[SN 3.22.147a] Dukkhānupassanā (aka Kulaputtena Dukkhā) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By the Clansman from Suffering (2a), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes living the Dhamma of the Dhamma as living seeing pain in shape, sense-experience, perception own-making and sense-consciousness. So living he understands, understanding he is liberated.
This sutta does not appear in PTS Pali or in Woodward's translation. This is very probably an error. It does occur in the BJT Pali (although with an error that looks like it was an after-thought) and in the CSCD Pali used by the Bhk. Bodhi Wisdom Publications ed. and it belongs here by the logic of the usual construction of this series. Both have been constructed here following the pattern of the previous sutta. To avoid renumbering or having duplicate sutta numbers 'a' has been appended to the previous sutta number for this sutta.
[SN 3.22.148] Anattānupassanā (aka Kulaputtena Dukkhā) Suttaṃ the Pali,
By the Clansman from Suffering (3), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes living the Dhamma of the Dhamma as living seeing non-self in shape, sense-experience, perception own-making and sense-consciousness. So living he understands, understanding he is liberated.
Note: Sutta numbers for the Wisdom Publication edition and the BJT and CSCD Pali from this point to the end of this chapter are off by 1.
The PTS naming of Īs 146-148 seem to me to need rethinking. Bhk. Bodhi has: 'Engrossed in Revulsion', Contemplating Impermanence ... Suffering ... Nonself' which is more logical. To retain the PTS 'by the clansman' (and all of these suttas from 137 on should really be 'by way of ...') they should be: 'By the clansman: aversion; ... impermanence ... suffering ... no soul.'
[SN 3.22.149] Ajjhatta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Personal (inward), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that because of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness personal well-being and pain arise and that the escape therefrom is through seeing the inconstance, pain, and non-self in these things.
[SN 3.22.150] Etaṃ Mama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
This is Mine, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that because of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness the view 'This is mine, this is me, this is my self' arises and that the escape therefrom is through seeing the inconstance, pain, and non-self in these things.
[SN 3.22.151] So Attā (aka Eso Attā) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
This is the Self of Me, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that because of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness the view 'This self, this world, this will become constant, stable, forever incorruptible' arises and that the escape therefrom is through seeing the inconstance, pain, and non-self in these things.
[SN 3.22.152] No ca Me Siyā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
And If It Be Not Mine, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that because of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness the view 'An' not 'were this', and not ''tis my', were no 'will be', nor 'will be mine' arises and that the escape therefrom is through seeing the inconstance, pain, and non-self in these things.
Once again we have this very curious saying. Woodward doubts his own translation. I suggest the doubt that arises is a consequence of the possibility of this saying being heard in the original in multiple meanings according to context. "If I had not held such a thing to be mine in the past, it would not be mine now, if I do not hold such a thing to be mine in the present it will not become mine in the future." Substitute 'this pleasurable thing' for 'such a thing'; then substitute 'this painful thing' for 'such a thing' and reflect on the change in attitude that results.
[SN 3.22.153] Micchā-Diṭṭhi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Wrong, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that because of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness misguided view arises and that the escape therefrom is through seeing the inconstance, pain, and non-self in these things.
My usual warning that 'micchā' should not be being translated 'wrong'. It is not 'wrong' it is 'mis'-something; mis-taken, mis-guided, mis-ccha ... . In the same way 'sammā' should not be being translated 'right' although in that case there is etymological justification. The idea is not of right and wrong as we understand it, it is of 'the best way' versus all other ways. You say 'right' and that makes all other ways 'wrong' and you have set yourself in opposition to the world. The object is not to be in opposition to the world. It is to not be in opposition to or in favor of anything in the world. 'Sammā diṭṭhi' is the 'consummate', 'correct', 'upright' course for those who'se aim is to escape pain.
[SN 3.22.154] Sakkāya-Diṭṭhi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Person-Pack, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that because of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness the view that there is only one correct way of seeing things with regard to body arises and that the escape therefrom is through seeing the inconstance, pain, and non-self in these things.
The word to understand is 'sakkāya.' SA = one, own; KĀYA = 'k-kha-whatever', body as in 'the human body' and as in 'a body of water'. Woodward: 'person-pack'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'personality' (in this sutta 'identity;); Rhys Davids: 'delusion of self'; Bhk. Thanissaro: 'self-identity'; Horner: 'own-body'. The two closest are Horner's 'own-body' and Woodward's person-pack (taking SA as 'own > person' and KĀYA as 'pack'). The 'sakkāya-diṭṭhi' or view that there is a 'sakkāya' is a saŋyojana and is broken when one attains Stream-winning. I personally believe that 'body' here refers to a greater range of things than 'one's own body', and that the term should be understood as 'one-body' (i.e., of truth, set of ideas) that it includes holding any belief that there is but one way of seeing things and that that is the only true way and all other beliefs are foolish — a statement frequently repeated in the suttas as the principle error in holding views and which would encompass the idea that there was such a thing as 'one's own body'. In the meta-data description above I have tried to construct a reasonable compromise in the way this is stated and the more usual translations.
Bhk. Bodhi notes that 'Spk states that the identification of each aggregate individually with the self is the annihilationist view ... [the annihiliationist view is that whatever is identified with as the self comes to be utterly extinguished upon the ending of the thing identified-with] while the other views are variants of eternalism ... thus there are five types of annihilationism [of the five khandhas: "the self is ~"] and fifteen of eternalism [of the five khandhas: 'the self has'; '~ is in the self'; 'the self is in ~']. To my mind this is unacceptable, for eternalist views can clearly be formulated by taking the individual mental aggregates as the self. [this would still be taking the (or a) khandha as the self as the mental 'aggregates' are derived therefrom] It also seems to me questionable that a view of self must implicitly posit one (or more) of the aggregates as self; for a view of self to have any meaning or content, it need only posit a relationship between a supposed self and the aggregates, but it need not identify one of the aggregates as self.' This does not recognize the all encompasing nature of the idea of the khandhas, and proposes a 'self' outside of the khandhas that 'has a relationship' with one or more of the khandhas. This is a view of an eternal self. The Buddhas proposition is that there is no self outside of the khandhas. But the point is that 'self' is not raised at all in the term 'sakkāya.' And 'kāya' in this sutta refers to the other khandhas besides the body. Further, in the next sutta 'self-view' does raise the self as the issue. Why the distinction here if there is no underlying difference?
[SN 3.22.155] Attānu-Diṭṭhi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
About the Self, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that because of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness views about the self arise and that the escape therefrom is through seeing the inconstance, pain, and non-self in these things.
Bhk. Bodhi's note here essentially applies all the arguments made for the previous sutta to this sutta. I believe the distinction is being made between views of 'things in general' and views of 'self.'
[SN 3.22.156] Paṭhama Abhinivesa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Dependence (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that because of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness there arises a tendency to bondage to the yokes to rebirth and that the escape therefrom is through seeing the inconstance, pain, and non-self in these things.
Saññojanābhinivesa-vinibandhāti. One word. A compound. Not three separate ideas. Something like not giving up in spite of seeing the danger, such as with people who cannot give up smoking tobacco. "OK so it's going to kill me and I'm going to be reborn, but I want do do it anyway."
[SN 3.22.157] Dutiya Abhinivesa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Dependence (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that because of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness there arises a tendency to attachment to a bondage to the yokes to rebirth and that the escape therefrom is through seeing the inconstance, pain, and non-self in these things.
Saññojanābhinivesa-vinibandhājjhosānā. One word. A compound. Not four separate ideas. An intensification of the previous.
[SN 3.22.158] Ānandena Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Ānanda, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha gives Ananda as a subject for meditation the idea of impermanance, pain, and not self of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness.
This concludes uploading of the Khandha Book (#22) of the Samyutta Nikaya. A really intensive course on the understanding of the nature of the 5 groups of attributes (the trunk a ji-j-ja junk) that make up existence.

 

Note: The entire samyutta that follows should be read alongside Dīgha Nikāya 1, the sections on Higher Dhamma Speculations where not only is the view itself given but also a more detailed description of how the view is arrived at.
[SN 3.24.1] Vāta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Wind, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the world and the things of the world are static arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.2] Etaṃ Mama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
This is Mine, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that some thing belongs to the self, or that some thing is the self arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.3] So Attā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
That is the Self, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that that which is the self and that which is the world for one will become stable in the hereafter arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.4] No ca Me Siyā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
It May Not Be Mine, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that had it not been considered as belonging to the self in the past, it would not be considered as belonging to the self in the present, that if it is not considered the self in the present it will not be considered self in the future arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
This is the same 'view' as stated in SN 3.22.81 and SN 3.22.152 see discussion above. Here the saying is to be understood as a point of view whereas elsewhere it is to be used as an aspiration. "Had this not been considered mine in the past, it would not be considered mine in the present, if it is not considered mine in the present it will not be considered mine in the future" vs "Having considered this as mine in the past I experience it as mine in the present, let me not consider this mine in the present so that it will not be considered mine in the future." Somehow constructed so that both meanings are seen in the identical wording.
[SN 3.24.5] N'atthi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
There is Not, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that there is no such thing as kamma and it's results arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
The full statement of the view is (Bhk. Bodhi's translation, for comparison; see also DN 2 (Rhys Davids):
"There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing presented in charity; no fruit or result of good and bad actions; no this world, no other world; no mother, no father; no beings who are reborn spontaneously; no ascetics and brahmins faring and practising rightly in the world who, having realized this world and the other world for themselves by direct knowledge, make them known to others. This person consists of the four great elements. When one dies, earth returns to and merges with the earth-body; water returns to and merges with the water-body; fire returns to and merges with the fire-body; air returns to and merges with the air-body; the faculties are transferred to space. [Four] men with the bier as fifth carry away the corpse. The funeral orations last as far as the charnel ground; the bones whiten; burnt offerings end with ashes. Giving is a doctrine of fools. When anyone asserts the doctrine that there is [giving and the like], it is empty, false prattle. Fools and the wise are alike cut off and perish with the breakup of the body; after death they do not exist."
At least here today [USA Monday, February 09, 2015 6:21 AM] the popular belief has not gone as far as to deny the existence of mothers and fathers.
This view is often stated as the belief that 'there is not,' and is what is often cited when the term 'micchā-ditthi' (mistaken views) is used.
[SN 3.24.6] Karoto Suttaṃ, the Pali,
For Him Who Acts, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that there is no such thing as good and evil deeds arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
The view of Pūraṇa Kassapa, on the ineffectiveness of action in the production of consequences.
Bhk. Bodhi's translation of this view:
"When one acts or makes others act, when one mutilates or makes others mutilate, when one tortures or makes others inflict torture, when one inflicts sorrow or makes others inflict sorrow, when one oppresses or makes others inflict oppression, when one intimidates or makes others inflict intimidation, when one destroys life, takes what is not given, breks into houses, plunders wealth, commits burglary, ambushes highways, seduces another's wife, utters falsehood — no evil is done by the doer. If, with a razor-rimmed wheel, one were to make the living beings of this earth into one mass of flesh, into one heap of flesh, because of this there would be no evil and no outcome of evil. If one were to go along the south bank of the Ganges killing and slaughtering, mutilating and making others mutilate, torturning and making others inflict torture, because of this there would be no evil and no outcome of evil. If one were to go along the north bank of the Ganges giving gifts and making others give gifts, making offerings and making others make offerings, because of this there would be no merit and no outcome of merit. By giving, by taming oneself, by self-control, by speaking truth, there is no merit and no outcome of merit."
These views are not the products of simple-minded fools. They are arrived at at a point in deep meditative trances where the atomic nature of things is seen and the conclusion is reached that there is no individuality or even reality to anything and that the world is in fact a static illusion.
[SN 3.24.7] Karoto Suttaṃ, the Pali,
For Him Who Acts, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that there is no such thing as driving forces and their results (kamma) arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
Bhk. Bodhi's translation of this view:
"There is no cause or condition for the defilement of beings; beings are defiled without cause or condition. There is no cause or condition for the purification of beings; beings are purified without cause or condition [There is no action by self, no action by others, no manly action.] There is no power, no energy, no manly strength, no manly endurance. All beings, all living beings, all creatures, all souls are without mastery, power, and energy; moulded by destiny, circumstance, and nature, they experience pleasure and pain in the six classes."
Note here Woodward translates 'hetu' (usually 'cause', but literally 'driving force' as in the force used by the driver to get the ox to move the cart along) as 'condion' and 'paccaya' (usually 'condition', but better as 'result', or 'repercussion') as 'cause'.
[SN 3.24.8] Mahā Diṭṭhi Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By the (Great) Heresy, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the elements are neither made nor caused to be made, that there is no such thing as kamma, and that the world is an illusion arising from a static reality arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
A long, mad, rambling point of view similar to the previous two proposed by Pakudha Kaccāyana and expounded by Makkhali of the Cow-pen.
Note: Woodward here translates 'diṭṭhi' as heresy. This is not a correct translation, but is an interpretation put on the word when used of certain views. From the Buddhist perspective all views are essentially incorrect. Sammā Diṭṭhi (right view, or, better, consummate or high view) is 'high' or 'consummate' only in so far as it serves the goal. Similarly to the issue discussed in SN 3.22.136 above, one must understand 'sammā diṭṭhi' as a view from the perspective of its goal or it becomes at least partially incorrect.
Again perceptions giving rise to views of the sort found in the last three suttas can be encountered by any meditator. The world is seen as arising images, then vibrating atoms and then even the vibration stops as well and it is very easy to conclude that there is no existing as a living being and that therefore there is no doing evil or good deeds as it is just illusions passing through illusions. It is for this reason that a thorough understanding that kamma is action based on intent is so important. Real or not, intentional acts produce subjectively experienced results, and that is as good as saying that the consensus reality must be respected and dealt with as it is subjectively experienced by the ordinary common man and that being the case the view that 'it exists' cannot be rationally denied even when it cannot be rationally aserted.
[SN 3.24.9] Sassata Loka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The World is Eternal the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the world is eternal arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.10] aassata Loka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The World is not Eternal, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the world is not eternal arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.11] Antavā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Limited (is the World), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the world ends arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
'Anta' is literally 'end' or 'preceding' or 'after' or 'opposite' (as in antler, ante-), but can mean 'limit' or (as per Bhk. Bodhi) 'finite'. PED: 'What faces one at the start' which is a good way to access the point of view mentioned in this sutta — looking out (in your mind's eye) from your face as you sit, see how you can view the world as an ending thing or an endless thing. Is it coming to an end at your face, or is it just taking off from there?
[SN 3.24.12] Anantavā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Unlimited (is the World), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the world is endless arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.13] Taŋ Jīvan, Taŋ Sarīra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
What the Life Is, That Is the Body, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that that which is the body is that which is life arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
Bhk. Bodhi translates 'jīva' here and in the next sutta as 'soul'. 'Jīva' is usually just 'life' and the term most usually used for what we understand as 'soul' is the Pali 'attan' (where PED states 'Vedic ātman, not to Gr. a)\nemos = Latin animus, but to Gr. a)tmo/s steam, Ohg. ātum breath, Ags. aepm.'
The question is: Is this a point of view concerning the soul, or life, or individuality? It's probably best to reserve judgment and consider it as dealing with all three.
[SN 3.24.14] Aññaŋ Jīvan, Aññaŋ Sarīra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Life is One Thing, the Body is Another, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that that which is the body is something other than that which is life arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.15] Hoti Tathāgata Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Tathāgata Exists, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the Thathagata (one who has attained the goal) exists arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.16] Na Hoti Tathāgata Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Tathāgata Exists Not, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the Thathagata (one who has attained the goal) does not exist arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.17] Hoti ca na ca Hoti Tathāgata Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Tathāgata both Exists and Exists Not, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the Thathagata (one who has attained the goal) both exists and does not exist arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.18] N'eva Hoti na na Hoti Tathāgata Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Tathagata Neither Exists nor Exists Not, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the Thathagata (one who has attained the goal) neither exists nor does not exist arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.19-36] II.i.1: Purimagamanam (aṭṭhārasa-veyyākaraṇāni), the Pali,
(First Repetition (of the Eighteen Instructions), the Woodward translation.
[As this Chapter is identical to the previous (Suttas 1-18) it is presented in one file and abridged by the inclusion of the first and last suttas (19 and 36) in their complete form and Suttas 20-35 are given by title only but are linked to their corresponding sutta in the previous Chapter.]
I justify this abridgment (and the two others below which follow the same pattern) where not abridging the suttas has been a policy here because these suttas are not the usual form of repetition as found in a wheel where there is always a small change made in each sutta, but are verbatum repetitions of the previous suttas. In other words, these repetitions are exactly what they state they are: repetitions. We likely have here an example of the way the suttas were memorized.
[SN 3.24.37] Rūpī Attā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Self has Form, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the self has shape and is not diseased after death arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.38] Arūpī Attā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Self is Formless, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the self is without shape and is not diseased after death arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.39] Rūpī ca Arūpī Attā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Self Both has Form and Is Formless, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the self both has shape and is without shape and is not diseased after death arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.40] N'eva Rūpī N'ārūpī Attā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Self Neither has Form Nor Is Formless, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the self neither has shape nor is without shape and is not diseased after death arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.41] Ekanta-sukhī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Self Is Sheer Bliss, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the self is only pleasurable after death and is not diseased arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.42] Ekanta-dukkhī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Self Is Sheer Suffering, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the self is only painful after death and is not diseased arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
It seems to me that someone along the line got carried away by the rhythm or just wasn't paying attention when it is said that the self that is only suffering is not diseased. Disease, for example, for the gods can be considered to be something like suffering cold or heat or needing to urinate. Surely a self that is exclusively suffering must be considered diseased.
[SN 3.24.43] Sukha-dukkhī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Self Is Bliss and Suffering, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the self is both pleasurable and painful after death and is not diseased arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.44] Adukkham-asukhī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Self Is without Bliss or Suffering, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states that the view that the self is not painful but not pleasurable after death and is not diseased arises from not understanding the impermanent and painful nature of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness and the seen, heard, sensed, cognized, acquired, investigated, or turned over in mind.
[SN 3.24.45-70] Tatiyagamanam, the Pali,
The Third Repetition, the F.W. Woodward translation,
As the suttas of this Chapter are identical to the previous Suttas 1-18 and 37-44 of the Diṭṭhi Saŋyutta it has been abridged here by the inclusion of the first and last suttas (45 and 70) in their complete form and Suttas 46-69 are given by title only but are linked to their corresponding sutta in the previous Chapters.
[SN 3.24.71-96] Catutthagamanam, the Pali,
The Fourth Repetition, the F.W. Woodward translation,
This group is identical to the previous group. I have just duplicated the previous file and changed the numbers and title. It is not at all clear to me why this group is included. The scheme is complete as: I:19-36 = repetition of 1-18; i: 37-44 (originals); II:45-70: repetition of 1-18 + 37-44. Otherwise the more balanced scheme would be: I:1-18; i: 37-44; II: 1-18 + 37-44, or, if the point really is repetition: I:1-18; i:repetition of 1-18; II: 37-44; IV:repetition of 37-44; IV: repetition of 1-18 + 37-44.
This concludes the uploading of The Kindred Sayings on Views (#24) of the Book of the Kindred Sayings.

[SN 3.25.1] Cakkhu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Eye, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha first lays out the doctrine of the inconstance of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind, and then states that any one who moderately approves of this doctrine is called a Streamwinner by faith, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one has a certain amount of insight into this doctrine one is called one who is a Streamwinner by Dhamma, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one sees these things as they are, one is called a Streamwinner.
The first if he does not forsake his faith will realize full streamwinning at death if not before; the second will also realize full streamwinning at death if not before. The fruit of streamwinning is the knowledge that one has become an Aristocrat among men (Ariyan), one is no longer a 'puthujjana' (commoner) (a word too often applied by bhikkhus without discrimination to all who are not ordained bhikkhus); and one is no longer capable of doing such a deed as would land one in Hell, in an animal birth, or as a deamon or ghost. Note that here it is not stated that there remains but seven further rebirths only.
A sutta that should give hope and inspiration to the many thousands of people out there who have not taken the step of entering the Sangha but who nevertheless appreciate the wisdom found in the Dhamma.
This should guide us to avoid sceptacism concerning claims made to Streamwinning made by those who may seem to be ... somewhat off the highest course. On the other hand, the claims of those aserting Arahantship should be given the most minute examination, comparing their behavior in thought, word and deed to the highest standards. The person claiming Arahantship is also saying that it is wise to follow his example, and such a one, when his view of his accomplishments are a consequence of 'the great blindness element' is dangerous to himself and others. One should assure one's self of the truth or falsity of such a claim in such a case in the most objective manner possible. One would definately prosper upon finding a genuine Arahant while it might be possible to dissuade someone of an incorrect and dangerous view of themselves by educating them to the criteria for such found in the Suttas. (But, just for the record, it is not likely that any genuine Arahant would be heard to claim to be such. This would be itself a violation of a serious Vinaya rule and in the formal (worldly) Sangha or outside, an Arahant would be one who naturally followed the rules as they have their basis either kamma or the good of both individuals and the world.) The claims of those aserting Non-Returner status should also be examined carefully, but there is more latitude there (and consequently more room to make an incorrect judgment) and it is advisable (so says Gotama! [Migasālā, and AN 10 75]: where some woman questions Gotama's declaration of two cases of non-returning where one had returned to the use of alcohol but who had unshakable faith and insight while another had exemplary behavior but somewhat less insight) not to make a judgment in such a case. There are many factors involved in the case of the Non-returner and some may be present and some absent in ways that determine the outcome in ways difficult to predict.
[SN 3.25.2] Rūpa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Body, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha first lays out the doctrine of the inconstance of sights, sounds, scents, savours, touches and things (objects of the mind), and then states that anyone who moderately approves of this doctrine is called a Streamwinner by faith, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one has a certain amount of insight into this doctrine one is called one who is a Streamwinner by Dhamma, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one sees these things as they are, one is called a Streamwinner.
There are two poor translations by Woodward in this sutta which the reader should keep in mind: He translates 'rūpa' as body, but what is being spoken of here are the objects of the senses and that would be 'visible objects' 'sights,' not just the body. Rūpa is basically 'light', and it can be said that at it's most fundamental sight is the perception of light.
'States of Mind' for 'Dhammā' The term must mean an object of the mind sense (mano), not a state of the mind (citta). 'Things.' 'Phenomena.' It cannot be 'The Dhamma' as the use pre-dates the appearance of such. 'Good Form' or 'Norm' is too narrow. The confusion may arise by the association with the fourth of the Satipatthanas where 'Living observing dhammas through The Dhamma' is described as observing the arising and passing away of several elements of The Dhamma. There is a general tendency among the translators to translate the Four Satipatthanas as though all four were aspects of the physical being (so the attempt to force 'dhammesu dhammānupassī' into being the observation of all things mental and by that causing a conflict with the previous, (citta)) where what is being described is 'Dhammesu dhammānupassī' 'observing things through The Dhamma' making the Satipatthana a progression of observation from the body to sense experience to mental states to the abstract realm of The Dhamma. The object of the quest is to become like the Buddha: "Dhamma become." This is not a state downbound to the body or any form of the experience of existence through the senses including the mind as a sense.
[SN 3.25.3] Viññāṇam Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Consciousness, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha first lays out the doctrine of the inconstance of eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness and mind-consciousness, and then states that anyone who moderately approves of this doctrine is called a Streamwinner by faith, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one has a certain amount of insight into this doctrine one is called one who is a Streamwinner by Dhamma, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one sees these things as they are, one is called a Streamwinner.
[SN 3.25.4] Phassa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Contact, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha first lays out the doctrine of the inconstance of eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, body-contact and mind-contact, and then states that anyone who moderately approves of this doctrine is called a Streamwinner by faith, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one has a certain amount of insight into this doctrine one is called one who is a Streamwinner by Dhamma, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one sees these things as they are, one is called a Streamwinner.
[SN 3.25.5] Vedanāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Feeling, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha first lays out the doctrine of the inconstance of eye-contact-born sense-experience, ear-contact-born sense-experience, nose-contact-born sense-experience, tongue-contact-born sense-experience, body-contact-born sense-experience and mind-contact-born sense-experience, and then states that anyone who moderately approves of this doctrine is called a Streamwinner by faith, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one has a certain amount of insight into this doctrine one is called one who is a Streamwinner by Dhamma, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one sees these things as they are, one is called a Streamwinner.
[SN 3.25.6] Sññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Perception, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha first lays out the doctrine of the inconstance of perceptions of sights, sounds, scents, savours, touches and phenomena, and then states that anyone who moderately approves of this doctrine is called a Streamwinner by faith, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one has a certain amount of insight into this doctrine one is called one who is a Streamwinner by Dhamma, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one sees these things as they are, one is called a Streamwinner.
Here Woodward again uses 'body' for 'rūpa', but changes his translation of 'dhamma' to 'phenomena'. See discussion of Ī2 above.
[SN 3.25.7] Cetanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Volition, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha first lays out the doctrine of the inconstance of intentions with regard to sights, sounds, scents, savours, touches and phenomena, and then states that anyone who moderately approves of this doctrine is called a Streamwinner by faith, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one has a certain amount of insight into this doctrine one is called one who is a Streamwinner by Dhamma, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one sees these things as they are, one is called a Streamwinner.
Woodward references a point of controversy which appears to be an argument arising from an understanding that '~sañcetanā' implies an intrensic moral value within or attached to ((sañ)) sights, etc. The counter-argument points to AN 4.171. where it is explained that kamma (good or bad action) is essentially defined by 'sañcetanā' ('intent with regard to' or even possibly 'own-intent' 'identified-with intent'.) Woodward attempts to clarify the matter with his 'acts occasioned by'. Intent is an act (kamma) but this goes too far from the Pali. The literal translation of cetana would be something like 'having the heart for' and this sutta does not go further than that into such things as acts of body related to sights etc. Again in this sutta Woodward speaks of 'body' where he should be speaking of 'sights' and in this sutta he has again switched his translation of dhamma, this time to 'ideas.' (I am not making a judgment here, I am in no position to do so being guilty of the same fault, I am just pointing out the fact to bring it to consciousness. Woodward, as even translators today, have the choice to change their translations as they go along knowing how raggidy it looks, or not publishing at all which would be of benefit to no one ... maybe, depends on if the translation is really misleading. The alternative, to go back and alter all previous occurrances of a term, would stiffle completion of even one book. Further, it is a wonderful phenomena with regard to this Dhamma that if the intent is to provide a true translation the word will likely be of benefit even when it is not quite the precise term that would yield the most insight or magic. This results in a picture of the evolution of understanding of the translator which may actually serve to benefit the serious reader who is likely to go through the same evolution himself even when faced with the most precisely true translation possible. In any case the work is so vast as to make inconsistancies unavoidable until the time when the whole work can be subjected to some kind of analysis that catches all the instances of a term throughout and substitutes the best translation, one that works in all cases. Work for the next generation of translators.)
[SN 3.25.8] Taṇhā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Craving, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha first lays out the doctrine of the inconstance of thirst for sights, sounds, scents, savours, touches and phenomena, and then states that anyone who moderately approves of this doctrine is called a Streamwinner by faith, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one has a certain amount of insight into this doctrine one is called one who is a Streamwinner by Dhamma, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one sees these things as they are, one is called a Streamwinner.
[SN 3.25.9] Dhātu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Element, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha first lays out the doctrine of the inconstance of the earth, water, firelight, and wind characteristics, and then states that anyone who moderately approves of this doctrine is called a Streamwinner by faith, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one has a certain amount of insight into this doctrine one is called one who is a Streamwinner by Dhamma, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one sees these things as they are, one is called a Streamwinner.
The word to understand is Dhātu, 'data', an informative characteristic of things or an element or aspect of their nature. We more commonly speak of these things in more abstract terms: solidity, liquidity, heat, motion, space and consciousness. Woodward has translated 'vāyo' as 'air' which is not correct and precludes the ability to understand it as 'motion'. It is 'wave-form'. You can hear it in the term.
[SN 3.25.10] Khandhena Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By the (Fivefold) Group, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha first lays out the doctrine of the inconstance of the khandhas: shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness, and then states that anyone who moderately approves of this doctrine is called a Streamwinner by faith, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one has a certain amount of insight into this doctrine one is called one who is a Streamwinner by Dhamma, one who will become a Streamwinner at or before death; if one sees these things as they are, one is called a Streamwinner.
This concludes the uploading of the PTS translation of the Kindred Sayings on Entering, Samyutta 25 of the Khandha Vagga of the Samyutta Nikaya.
The sharp-eyed reader will note that the first portion of this samyutta forms the basis for the understanding of where taṇha (thirst) arises and is to be put away as found in the Maha Satipatthana Sutta

[SN 3.26.1] Cakkhu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Eye, the F.W. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that where the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind appear, arise, are established, are born there also appears, arises, is established, is born aging and death, but that where the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind end, vanish, go away, there also ends, vanishes, goes away aging and death.
[SN 3.26.2] Rūpa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Material Form, the F.W. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that where sights, sounds, scents, tastes, touches and phenomena appear, arise, are established, are born there also appears, arises, is established, is born aging and death, but that where the signts, sounds, scents, tastes, touches and phenomena end, vanish, go away, there also ends, vanishes, goes away aging and death.
Here Woodward has come around to the understanding that what is required for the object of the eye-sense is signts in general, not just body. He translates 'material forms'. It has taken him three go-rounds to come to consciousness of this relationship. I remember when I first began reading the suttas I was astounded: This guy (The Buddha) is trying to teaching us about the senses! I learned about the senses in the third grade. (Minus, of course, the idea that the mind was also a sense-organ. ... a little omission.) But the fact of the matter is that we are so accustomed to living in the senses that we do not actually have a clear view of their workings, that it is a struggle to connect in our conscious thinking the objects of sense with the sense organs. And it is essential for the task of attaining freedom from existence that the six senses and their objects be understood for a comprehension of the relationship of the illusion of self to this world. As an aside, I argue that in the same way, the language used for translating the Pali must be as fundamental (literal) as possible for the same reason: It is only when the foundation is firmly established that one can be sure that the abstract is not a distortion. I am completely convinced that Gotama's choice of words was selected precisely for this reason and that that choice should be respected, must be respected to convey his ideas clearly.
[SN 3.26.3] Viññāṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Consciousness, the F.W. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that where eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness and mind-consciousness appear, arise, are established, are born there also appears, arises, is established, is born aging and death, but that where eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness and mind-consciousness end, vanish, go away, there also ends, vanishes, goes away aging and death.
[SN 3.26.4] Phassa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Contact, the F.W. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that where eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, body-contact and mind-contact appear, arise, are established, are born there also appears, arises, is established, is born aging and death, but that where eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, body-contact and mind-contact end, vanish, go away, there also ends, vanishes, goes away aging and death.
[SN 3.26.5] Vedanāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Feeling, the F.W. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that where eye-contact-born sense-experience, ear-contact-born sense-experience, nose-contact-born sense-experience, tongue-contact-born sense-experience, body-contact-born sense-experience and mind-contact-born sense-experience appear, arise, are established, are born there also appears, arises, is established, is born aging and death, but that where eye-contact-born sense-experience, ear-contact-born sense-experience, nose-contact-born sense-experience, tongue-contact-born sense-experience, body-contact and mind-contact-born sense-experience end, vanish, go away, there also ends, vanishes, goes away aging and death.
[SN 3.26.6] Saññāya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Perception, the F.W. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that where sight-perception, sound-perception, scent-perception, taste-perception, touch-perception and phenomena-perception appear, arise, are established, are born there also appears, arises, is established, is born aging and death, but that where signt-perception, sound-perception, scent-perception, taste-perception, touch-perception and phenomena-perception end, vanish, go away, there also ends, vanishes, goes away aging and death.
[SN 3.26.7] Cetanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Volition, the F.W. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that where intentions with regard to sights, sounds, scents, tastes, touchs and thing appear, arise, are established, are born there also appears, arises, is established, is born aging and death, but that where intentions with regard to signts, sounds, scents, tastes, touchs and things end, vanish, go away, there also ends, vanishes, goes away aging and death.
Here Woodward translates 'dhammasañcetanā' as 'volitional acts through things.'
[SN 3.26.8] Taṇhā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Craving, the F.W. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that where thirst for sights, sounds, scents, tastes, touchs and thing appear, arise, are established, are born there also appears, arises, is established, is born aging and death, but that where thirst for signts, sounds, scents, tastes, touchs and things end, vanish, go away, there also ends, vanishes, goes away aging and death.
[SN 3.26.9] Dhātu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Element, the F.W. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that where the characteristics of solidity, liquidity, heat, motion, space, and consciousness appear, arise, are established, are born there also appears, arises, is established, is born aging and death, but that where the characteristics of earth, water, firelight, motion, space and consciousness end end, vanish, go away, there also ends, vanishes, goes away aging and death.
[SN 3.26.10] Khandhena Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Fivefold Mass, the F.W. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that where shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness appear, arise, are established, are born there also appears, arises, is established, is born aging and death, but that where shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness end, vanish, go away, there also ends, vanishes, goes away aging and death.
This completes the uploading of the Uppadasamyutta (#26) of the Khandhā Vagga of the Samyutta Nikāya.

[SN 3.27.1] Cakkhu Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Eye, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches that desire and lust for the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, or mind is a slime over the heart but where this desire and lust have been put away, the heart becomes maliable and fit for seeing the higher knowledge of the Dhamma.
[SN 3.27.2] Rūpa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Material Form, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches that desire and lust for sights, sounds, scents, savours, touches and things is a slime over the heart but where this desire and lust have been put away, the heart becomes maliable and fit for seeing the higher knowledge of the Dhamma.
[SN 3.27.3] Viññāṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Consciousness, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches that desire and lust for eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, mind-consciousness is a slime over the heart but where this desire and lust have been put away, the heart becomes maliable and fit for seeing the higher knowledge of the Dhamma.
[SN 3.27.4] Phassa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Contact, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches that desire and lust for eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, body-contact, mind-contact is a slime over the heart but where this desire and lust have been put away, the heart becomes maliable and fit for seeing the higher knowledge of the Dhamma.
[SN 3.27.5] Vedanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Feeling, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches that desire and lust for sense-experience born of eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, body-contact, mind-contact is a slime over the heart but where this desire and lust have been put away, the heart becomes maliable and fit for seeing the higher knowledge of the Dhamma.
[SN 3.27.6] Saññā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
By Perception, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches that desire and lust for shape-, sound-, scent-, taste-, touch- and things-perception is a slime over the heart but where this desire and lust have been put away, the heart becomes maliable and fit for seeing the higher knowledge of the Dhamma.
[SN 3.27.7] Cetanā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Volition, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches that desire and lust connected to intentions with regard to shape, sound, scent, taste, touch and things is a slime over the heart but where this desire and lust have been put away, the heart becomes maliable and fit for seeing the higher knowledge of the Dhamma.
[SN 3.27.8] Taṇhā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Craving, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches that desire and lust for thirst for shapes, sounds, scents, tastes, touchs and things is a slime over the heart but where this desire and lust have been put away, the heart becomes maliable and fit for seeing the higher knowledge of the Dhamma.
Note: This is desire for desire for. This is missed by Woodward in the PTS ed. but corrected here.
[SN 3.27.9] Taṇhā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Craving, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches that desire and lust for the properties solidity, liquidity, heat/light, motion, space and consciousness is a slime over the heart but where this desire and lust have been put away, the heart becomes maliable and fit for seeing the higher knowledge of the Dhamma.
[SN 3.27.10] Khandena Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The (Fivefold) Mass, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches that desire and lust for shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness is a slime over the heart but where this desire and lust have been put away, the heart becomes maliable and fit for seeing the higher knowledge of the Dhamma. This completes the uploading of The Kindred Sayings on the Corruptions (#27) of the Khandha Book of the Saŋyutta Nikāya.

[SN 3.28.1] Vivekaja Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Solitude, the F.W. Woodward translation,
When Ananda remarks to Sariputta on how clear his aura appears Sariputta explains that he had spent the afternoon in the First Jhana and that entering, attaining or emerging therefrom there did not occur to him any thoughts of 'I-am'.
In this sutta is found an example of the term 'ahaŋkāra' 'I-making'. I suggest this term allows for my 'own-making' for 'saŋkhāra', and that understanding 'saŋkhāra', to be translated in this way makes many things clear, including it's relationship to 'kamma,' where if the word is translated as 'construction' it is needlessly redundant and confusing. saŋkhāra, is kamma when the intent is to create experience of individuality.
[SN 3.28.2] Avitakka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Without Applied Thought, the F.W. Woodward translation,
When Ananda remarks to Sariputta on how clear his aura appears Sariputta explains that he had spent the afternoon in the Second Jhana and that entering, attaining or emerging therefrom there did not occur to him any thoughts of 'I-am'.
[SN 3.28.3] Pīti Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Zest, the F.W. Woodward translation,
When Ananda remarks to Sariputta on how clear his aura appears Sariputta explains that he had spent the afternoon in the Third Jhana and that entering, attaining or emerging therefrom there did not occur to him any thoughts of 'I-am'.
[SN 3.28.4] Upekkhā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Equanimity, the F.W. Woodward translation,
When Ananda remarks to Sariputta on how clear his aura appears Sariputta explains that he had spent the afternoon in the Fourth Jhana and that entering, attaining or emerging from the first jhana there did not occur to him any thoughts of 'I-am'.
I object to the translation of 'Upekkhā' as Equanimity used by Woodward and nearly every other translator. This is a term which must fit not only in the description of the Fourth Jhāna, where because the Fourth Jhāna, is still 'in this world' equanimity would be a possible fit, but it must also work where it is a synonym for Nibbāna and the experience of neither-unpleasant-nor-pleansant sensation ... in other words, not of the world. Equanimity is a term which describes a state of balance 'in the world' and for that reason will not do. The term that will serve both situations is 'detachment'. And that is what the word is telling you it means: 'UP PASS K-KHA'. Look it up. 'Up passed' is not 'balanced between' the two sides (pleasant and painful) of experience, it is the experience of neither of the two sides. For those who wish to develop 'nirutti', ask then why is UPA spelled UPE? PEK. UP PASS PEKKHA KKHA. Up passed wishing and wanting stuff. Grip the index finger of your right hand with the fingers of your left hand and then pull your index finger out of the grip. Don't get discourged if you can't do it. Keep your pecker up! (Be of good cheer!) Pecker = an instrument, like a pick or a beak, used to peck away at what one wishes to have. Upekkha = Detachment.
[SN 3.28.5] Akāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Space, the F.W. Woodward translation,
When Ananda remarks to Sariputta on how clear his aura appears Sariputta explains that he had spent the afternoon in the Sphere of Endless Space and that entering, attaining or emerging therefrom there did not occur to him any thoughts of 'I-am'.
[SN 3.28.6] Viññāṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Consciousness, the F.W. Woodward translation,
When Ananda remarks to Sariputta on how clear his aura appears Sariputta explains that he had spent the afternoon in the Sphere of Endless Consciousness and that entering, attaining or emerging therefrom there did not occur to him any thoughts of 'I-am'.
The PTS translation mistakenly omits to give this it's own number. The next sutta is correctly numbered '7.' It appears as the second paragraph of #5
[SN 3.28.7] Ākiñcañña Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Nothingness, the F.W. Woodward translation,
When Ananda remarks to Sariputta on how clear his aura appears Sariputta explains that he had spent the afternoon in the Sphere of Nothing's Had There and that entering, attaining or emerging therefrom there did not occur to him any thoughts of 'I-am'.
I suggest this 'realm' is mistranslated 'nothingness'. 'Ākiñcaññā' should be understood as a term describing lack of possession. It's not that there is nothing there, it is that there is nothing there which can be or which is possessed, owned, had. To say 'There is nothing' is to hold a wrong view. PED definately brings out the idea of ownership: "From the frequent context in the older texts it has assumed the moral implication of something that sticks or adheres to the character of a man, and which he must get rid of, if he wants to attain to a higher moral condition." In entering these states one is not inclined to great verbosity, so the statement made upon entering here "n'atthi kiñcī" 'There is not a smidgen', needs to be heard from the point of view of the meditator striving ever after more and more refined states, or in this case, states ever more free from 'things' to which one is attached.
[SN 3.28.8] N'eva-Saññā-Nāsaññāyatana (aka Saññī) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Having Neither Perception nor Non-Perception, the F.W. Woodward translation,
When Ananda remarks to Sariputta on how clear his aura appears Sariputta explains that he had spent the afternoon in the Sphere of Neither Perception nor Non-Perception and that entering, attaining or emerging therefrom there did not occur to him any thoughts of 'I-am'.
[SN 3.28.9] Saññāvedayita-Nirodho (aka: Nirodha Samāpatti) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Cessation, the F.W. Woodward translation,
When Ananda remarks to Sariputta on how clear his aura appears Sariputta explains that he had spent the afternoon in the ending of perception of sense-experience and that entering, attaining or emerging therefrom there did not occur to him any thoughts of 'I-am'.
Saññāvedayita-Nirodho. This comes down to where someone decided to break up the Pali, but I say this is not perception and feeling, but Sense-experience-perception-ending. A compound. It must make sense as one word. This is the situation where the meditator is bringing the last contact with the world to an end, not a case where perception is being brought to an end.
[SN 3.28.10] Sūci-mukhī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Pure-Face, the F.W. Woodward translation,
A female wandering ascetic questions Sariputta about his attitude as he eats. Sariputta turns this into a lesson on Dhamma.
This concludes the Kindred Sayings on Sariputta (#28) of the Khandha Book of the Book of the Kindred Sayings.

[SN 3.29.1] Suddhika Suttaṃ, the Pali,
According to Scheme, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha describes the four ways Nagas are born in a scheme ranking them from lowest to highest in order of purity.
"According to Scheme," (Bhk. Bodhi's: Simple Version), Pali: Suddhika, derives from Suddhi = pure. So the idea is, according to this understanding, the simple, pure description of the various ways Nāgas come to birth. But the different sorts of birth can also be seen as a hierarchy going from the most involved form of birth (from egg) to the least involved (spontaneous). Since this is precisely the point of the next sutta, the translation's of Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi do not seem justified. So far this describes the four sorts of birth of all beings, not just Nāgas.
It is not clear what sort of class of beings is referred to here as Nāga. The term is used for large animals such as snakes and elephants and for their mythical equivalants, but also for very large beings of any species. The Buddha is frequently referred to as a Naga. I suspect the term here is meant to indicate a 'monstrosity' of any species. (Upon further reflection upon the suttas that follow this is probably not the case. It appears what is being referred to is the 'sea-monster' or dragon or large snake of 'myth' who live under the sea in great luxory with many concubines and have many supernormal powers.) Two forms of rebirth are not familiar here: 'sweat-born' and 'spontaneous'. Woodward quotes commentary that states that the 'sweat-born' are born through the pores. Bhk. Bodhi translates 'saŋsedajā' as 'moisture-born'. Both definitions are in PED. Birth through the pores is recognized by science, but strictly speaking birth via moisture is not. Insects that appear to have been born via water have in fact been born via eggs. There is a certain sort of frog that gives birth through the pores. It is one of the most nausiating sights ever to be seen, but presumably in other species, was apparently considered of a higher sort than being born via an egg or womb. [EDIT: For a little more on the various sorts of birth and the Pali terms for such see MN 9, Horner, ns 14-17; where the commentator's or translator's understanding is birth from moisture.] The 'spontaneously-born' disappear from one place without undergoing death and re-appear in another place without undergoing birth. This is the form of rebirth of the non-returner, but it obviously applies to other sorts of beings as well. Imagine the case of the untamed, uneducated, untrained common meditator who conceives the wish to spy on someone as if a fly on the wall ... and, snap fingers, there he is. And fly-wit that he now is, it is no easy thing to return to human birth. Splat!

Wrestling with Allies
or
Sympathy for the Devil

There is another way of seing this business of Nagas or other such low-level devas besides that of the knee-jerk dismissal as the product of primative imagination. Actually the idea applies not only to the lower devas, but to all the gods and for that matter all states of existence.

The idea is neatly described in an episode found in Castenada's Don Juan series. In this case Castaneda has been projected into another realm by Don Juan. When he emerges from the situation he describes it to Don Juan as appearing in another world, populated by human-like individuals in a very modern-sounding town, but who find him strange and dangerous. Carlos asks Don Juan if he was there with him in the situation and to describe what he saw. Don Juan replies that he was indeed there, but all he saw was energy fields.

You see the idea? We know the world only through the intervention of our mind. Our mind takes the sensory input given to it by the senses and weaves a story around it fitting everything nicely into the world as we expect it to be. No monsters. No Devas. No gods. No magic. Pleanty of danger.

Other ages, and other cultures even today, do not see the world in the same way. They see the energy fields that result in rain, move the clouds around, or emit thunder and lightning as human-like super-human beings. We call this way of seeing things 'primitive,' 'uneducated,' 'unscientific.' But all that can be said of that way of seeing things applies just as easily to our own. To live and communicate in a community all we require is that a convincing group of individuals agrees that it sees what the other individuals in that group sees.

The other day I watched half a movie about a real-life story that happened in Australia. I got to see only half the movie because the disk was defective. It was the story of an extraordinarily detached psychopathic serial killer. A super-violent, bloody film I cannot recommend anyone ever watch. It was intensely gripping and horrifying. I couldn't get it out of my mind for days. That was especially the case because where the disk stopped working was at a point where a central individual who had been being chased around the out-back and with whom the viewer was intended to identify had been caught and had just awakened to find himself in this monster's dungeon strapped hands and feet to a chair with zip-ties, surrounded by impliments of torture. End of movie.

My thinking went round and round about all the mistakes the victims had made, and what would I do in their place. Many wrong thoughts of means of violent self-defense occurred. But the fact was that this madman was apparently extremely strong and highly skilled in a variety of hand-to-hand martial arts and weapons, alert, intelligent and with his senses finely tuned, could survive in the desert and had an ability to track. Not many senarios played out to a happy ending. As a predator the guy simply out-classed most human beings. The best one could hope for was to wake up and find it was all just a dream.

Finally of course it occurred to me what was probably the real-life solution used by the young man. Stockholm syndrome. Befriend the monster and run away as soon as some opportunity presented itself ... or maybe not. Maybe just stick around. The guy has plenty of survival skills to teach ... . If it were possible to befriend such a one, or be convincing enough to make him believe the effort. "Jeeze, you know, man, I'm just like you in a way. ... You must be very lonely out here all alone with no friends." Etc. But the problem with this solution is that though it might buy some time here, it would almost certainly require some complicity in one or more brutal acts and while a jury here might find such a one innocent, kamma doesn't work that way. Complicity is complicity. The best one could hope for would be to come to one's end just to wake up to find himself once again in some monster's dungeon strapped hands and feet to a chair with zip-ties surrounded by impliments of torture. Wrong answer. Do-over.

Better, I concluded, was to just calm down, project loving kindness onto his energy field and accept whatever death came down the tracks with as much dignitiy as one could muster. Meanwhile try not to lie or try other deceptions or to act with violence if possible or hate if not possible to try for an extension which could result in one dying with a very bad mental attitude which could result in a worse situation than one was already in.

Here, I say, is a perfect case of an energy field that it is not possible to consider to be human, in human form. A yakka. An Assura. An evil Naga or Garuda. Perhaps with a better sense of vision than that with which I am endowed, I might even be able to make distinctions. Certainly there are enough cases now of psychopath serial killers in today's concensus reality for this group to be classed as a non-human species that most people just see as having human form but which better resembles a grotesque monster, or at least pure malevolant energy.

Turn it around. When those arrogant rational educated scientific-minded thinkers pronounce the impossibility of such things as monsters and gods, perhaps it is not the primitive nature of the believer that should be questioned, but the limited vision of the arrogant rational educated scientific-minded thinker.

That you cannot see this as it really is is a combination of ignorance, conditioning and fear. The ignorance can be broken by contact with the Dhamma: That is, that this is not some real individual here, some 'I', some 'mine'; that identification with forces of nature comes to be from wanting to identify with them; that this is essentially a state bound down to pain; that this pain can be escaped by escaping that wanting; and that wanting can be escaped by avoiding any behavior that reflects wanting. Fear can be overcome by the acceptance of Death and the assurance that that Death will not be followed by a bad outcome that results from knowledge and faith in one's practice of the Dhamma. The conditioning is a tougher problem. The first thing to recognize is that if the desire to break through this conditioning and fear is genuine then of the first importance is securing a refuge in solitude apart from the constant re-enforcement the conditioning receives at the hands of society (i.e. movies, but almost everything we see around us today in this modern world is a programming message). Following on that, careful examination of things will show the inconsistancies, weaknesses, feableness of that conditioning and other possible explanations for things. At a certain point behavior that cannot be called human should break down the perception of a being of such behavior as 'human'. When that perception is no longer acceptable, another perception will become possible or another way of perceiving will emerge. Acceptance of the possibility that things are different than they have always appeared will eventually destroy the illusion. It just takes working at it. Some things will need to be given up. Movies for example. It doesn't come about by wishing or pretending or reading or experimenting within pre-defined limits to what it is that can be called reality. Your status as a pompous rational educated scientific-minded thinker will not get you one step closer to perception of things the way they are ... rather it will get you one step closer to being one of those non-human monsters that appear in human form here. How come? Because your world is made up entirely of your own imaginings; you do not really see things as they are; so they can and will get out of hand, that's how come.

[SN 3.29.2] Paṇītatara Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Pre-eminent, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Passing Superior, M. Olds translation.
The Buddha describes the four ways Nagas are born and describes a scheme ranking them from lowest to highest.
Woodward's abridgment (which I have corrected while unabridging using his words and style) messes up and duplicates the first rank in the last rank of the order. (I give his original rendering in a footnote.) Bhk. Bodhi has maintained the proper hierarchy and complete wording but does not follow the Pali order from worst to best in his construction. It's a small thing, and what is usually found in the English, but the original Pali is better for assisting the memory. I have done a translation which I believe both follows more closely the Pali and makes the order clear: The worst is egg-birth, followed by womb-birth, sweat-birth and best, spontaneous birth. This order, which is the usual Pali way of listing hierarchies, is maintained by the suttas that follow this one.
[SN 3.29.3] Uposatha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sabbath, the F.W. Woodward translation,
A bhikkhu is told why some egg-born nagas keep the sabbath and escape the naga form.
[SN 3.29.4] Dutiya Uposatha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sabbath (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
A bhikkhu is told why some womb-born nagas keep the sabbath and escape the naga form.
[SN 3.29.5] Tatiya Uposatha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sabbath (3), the F.W. Woodward translation,
A bhikkhu is told why some sweat-born nagas keep the sabbath and escape the naga form.
[SN 3.29.6] Catuttha Uposatha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Sabbath (4), the F.W. Woodward translation,
A bhikkhu is told why some spontaneously-born nagas keep the sabbath and escape the naga form.
[SN 3.29.7] Paṭhama Tassa (aka Suta) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Hearsay (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
A bhikkhu is told why some persons are reborn among egg-born nagas.
[SN 3.29.8] Dutiya Tassa (aka Suta) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Hearsay (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
A bhikkhu is told why some persons are reborn among womb-born nagas.
[SN 3.29.9] Tatiya Tassa (aka Suta) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Hearsay (3), the F.W. Woodward translation,
A bhikkhu is told why some persons are reborn among sweat-born nagas.
[SN 3.29.10] Catuttha Tassa (aka Suta) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Hearsay (4), the F.W. Woodward translation,
A bhikkhu is told why some persons are reborn among spontaneously-born nagas.
[SN 3.29.11-20] Danupakara or Paṭhavma Dān'Upakārā Sutta Dasakaṃ or Aṇḍajadānūpakāra Sutta Dasakaṃ, the Pali,
Supporters by Gifts, the F.W. Woodward translation,
A bhikkhu is told why some persons are reborn among egg-born nagas.

[The above links to the top of the single file containing all the individual suttas. The below link to the individual suttas. The PTS text and translation abridges into one sutta and gives only the group title.]

11. Annadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ
The Egg-born Food Giver
12. Pānadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ
The Egg-born Drink Giver
13. Vatthadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ
The Egg-born Clothing Giver
14. Yānadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ
The Egg-born Carriage Giver
15. Mālādāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ
The Egg-born Flowers Giver
16. Gandhadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ
The Egg-born Scents Giver
17. Vilepanadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ
The Egg-born Ointment Giver
18. Seyyadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ
The Egg-born Seat Giver
19. Āvasathadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ
The Egg-born Lodging Giver
20. Padīpeyyadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ
The Egg-born Lamps and Oil Giver

[SN 3.29.21-30] Danupakara (2) or Dutiya Dān'Upakārā Sutta Dasakaṃ or Jalābujadānūpakāra Sutta Dasakaṃ, the Pali,
Supporters by Gifts (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
A bhikkhu is told why some persons are reborn among womb-born nagas.

[The above links to the top of the single file containing all the individual suttas. The below link to the individual suttas. The PTS text and translation abridges into one sutta and gives only the group title.]

21. Annadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ
The Womb-born Food Giver
22. Pānadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ
The Womb-born Drink Giver
23. Vatthadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ
The Womb-born Clothing Giver
24. Yānadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ
The Womb-born Carriage Giver
25. Mālādāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ
The Womb-born Flowers Giver
26. Gandhadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ
The Womb-born Scents Giver
27. Vilepanadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ
The Womb-born Ointment Giver
28. Seyyadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ
The Womb-born Seat Giver
29. Āvasathadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ
The Womb-born Lodging Giver
30. Padīpeyyadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ
The Womb-born Lamps and Oil Giver

[SN 3.29.31-40] Danupakara (3) or Tatiya Dān'Upakārā Sutta Dasakaṃ or Saŋsedajadānūpakāra Sutta Dasakaṃ, the Pali,
Supporters by Gifts (3), the F.W. Woodward translation,
A bhikkhu is told why some persons are reborn among sweat-born nagas.

[The above links to the top of the single file containing all the individual suttas. The below link to the individual suttas. The PTS text and translation abridges into one sutta and gives only the group title.]

31. Annadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ
The Sweat-born Food Giver
32. Pānadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ
The Sweat-born Drink Giver
33. Vatthadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ
The Sweat-born Clothing Giver
34. Yānadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ
The Sweat-born Carriage Giver
35. Mālādāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ
The Sweat-born Flowers Giver
36. Gandhadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ
The Sweat-born Scents Giver
37. Vilepanadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ
The Sweat-born Ointment Giver
38. Seyyadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ
The Sweat-born Seat Giver
39. Āvasathadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ
The Sweat-born Lodging Giver
40. Padīpeyyadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ
The Sweat-born Lamps and Oil Giver

[SN 3.29.41-50] Danupakara (4) or Catuttha Dān'Upakārā Sutta Dasakaṃ or Opapātikadānūpakāra Sutta Dasakaṃ, the Pali,
Supporters by Gifts (4), the F.W. Woodward translation,
A bhikkhu is told why some persons are reborn among spontaneously-born nagas.

[The above links to the top of the single file containing all the individual suttas. The below link to the individual suttas. The PTS text and translation abridges into one sutta and gives only the group title.]

41. Annadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ
The Born without Parents Food Giver
42. Pānadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ
The Born without Parents Drink Giver
43. Vatthadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ
The Born without Parents Clothing Giver
44. Yānadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ
The Born without Parents Carriage Giver
45. Mālādāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ
The Born without Parents Flowers Giver
46. Gandhadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ
The Born without Parents Scents Giver
47. Vilepanadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ
The Born without Parents Ointment Giver
48. Seyyadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ
The Born without Parents Seat Giver
49. Āvasathadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ
The Born without Parents Lodging Giver
50. Padīpeyyadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ
The Born without Parents Lamps and Oil Giver

This concludes the uploading of the Pali and PTS Woodward translations of Samyutta Nikaya 3.29: Naga Samyutta.

[SN 3.30.1-46] Supaṇṇāsaŋyutta,
The Kindred Sayings on Harpies, the Woodward translation.

A series similar to the previous but describing various conditions for rebirth as one of the 'Supaṇṇā' devas, a sort of winged fairy or monster with human head and the body and mentality of a raptor.

[All suttas in this Samyutta are contained on one file. The above links to the top of the single file containing all the individual suttas. The below link to the individual suttas.]

1. Suddhaka Suttaṃ, the Pali,
According to Scheme, the Woodward translation.
2. Haranti Suttaṃ, the Pali,
They Carry Off, the Woodward translation.
3. Paṭhama Dvayakāri Suttam the Pali
Double-Dealer (1), the Woodward translation.
4. Dutiya Dvayakāri Suttam the Pali
Double-Dealer (2), the Woodward translation.
5. Tatiya Dvayakāri Suttam the Pali
Double-Dealer (3), the Woodward translation.
6. Catuttha Dvayakāri Suttam the Pali
Double-Dealer (4), the Woodward translation.

Paṭhavma Dān'Upakārā Sutta Dasakaṃ or Aṇḍajadānūpakāra Sutta Dasakaṃ, the Pali
Supporters by Gifts (1), the Woodward translation.

[This is a multi-sutta sub-setion. The above links to the top of the start of the group. The below link to the individual suttas.]

7. Annadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Egg-born Food Giver the Woodward translation.
8. Pānadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Egg-born Drink Giver the Woodward translation.
9. Vatthadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Egg-born Clothing Giver the Woodward translation.
10. Yānadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Egg-born Carriage Giver the Woodward translation.
11. Mālādāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Egg-born Flowers Giver the Woodward translation.
12. Gandhadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Egg-born Scents Giver the Woodward translation.
13. Vilepanadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Egg-born Ointment Giver the Woodward translation.
14. Seyyadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Egg-born Seat Giver the Woodward translation.
15. Āvasathadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Egg-born Lodging Giver the Woodward translation.
16. Padīpeyyadāyaka Aṇḍaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Egg-born Lamps and Oil Giver the Woodward translation.

Dutiya Dān'Upakārā Sutta Dasakaṃ or Jalābujadānūpakāra Sutta Dasakaṃ, the Pali
Supporters by Gifts (2), the Woodward translation.

[This is a multi-sutta sub-setion. The above links to the top of the start of the group. The below link to the individual suttas.]

17. Annadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Womb-born Food Giver the Woodward translation.
18. Pānadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Womb-born Drink Giver the Woodward translation.
19. Vatthadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Womb-born Clothing Giver the Woodward translation.
20. Yānadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Womb-born Carriage Giver the Woodward translation.
21. Mālādāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Womb-born Flowers Giver the Woodward translation.
22. Gandhadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Womb-born Scents Giver the Woodward translation.
23. Vilepanadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Womb-born Ointment Giver the Woodward translation.
24. Seyyadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Womb-born Seat Giver the Woodward translation.
25. Āvasathadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Womb-born Lodging Giver the Woodward translation.
26. Padīpeyyadāyaka Jalābuja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Womb-born Lamps and Oil Giver the Woodward translation.

Tatiya Dān'Upakārā Sutta Dasakaṃ or Saŋsedajadānūpakāra Sutta Dasakaṃ, the Pali
Supporters by Gifts (3), the Woodward translation.

[This is a multi-sutta sub-setion. The above links to the top of the start of the group. The below link to the individual suttas.]

27. Annadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Sweat-born Food Giver the Woodward translation.
28. Pānadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Sweat-born Drink Giver the Woodward translation.
29. Vatthadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Sweat-born Clothing Giver the Woodward translation.
30. Yānadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Sweat-born Carriage Giver the Woodward translation.
31. Mālādāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Sweat-born Flowers Giver the Woodward translation.
32. Gandhadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Sweat-born Scents Giver the Woodward translation.
33. Vilepanadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Sweat-born Ointment Giver the Woodward translation.
34. Seyyadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Sweat-born Seat Giver the Woodward translation.
35. Āvasathadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Sweat-born Lodging Giver the Woodward translation.
36. Padīpeyyadāyaka Saŋsedaja Suttaṃ the Pali
The Sweat-born Lamps and Oil Giver the Woodward translation.

Catuttha Dān'Upakārā Sutta Dasakaṃ or Opapātikadānūpakāra Sutta Dasakaṃ, the Pali
Supporters by Gifts (4), the Woodward translation.

[This is a multi-sutta sub-setion. The above links to the top of the start of the group. The below link to the individual suttas.]

37. Annadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ the Pali
The Born without Parents Food Giver the Woodward translation.
38. Pānadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ the Pali
The Born without Parents Drink Giver the Woodward translation.
39. Vatthadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ the Pali
The Born without Parents Clothing Giver the Woodward translation.
40. Yānadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ the Pali
The Born without Parents Carriage Giver the Woodward translation.
41. Mālādāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ the Pali
The Born without Parents Flowers Giver the Woodward translation.
42. Gandhadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ the Pali
The Born without Parents Scents Giver the Woodward translation.
43. Vilepanadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ the Pali
The Born without Parents Ointment Giver the Woodward translation.
44. Seyyadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ the Pali
The Born without Parents Seat Giver the Woodward translation.
45. Āvasathadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ the Pali
The Born without Parents Lodging Giver the Woodward translation.
46. Padīpeyyadāyaka Opapātika Suttaṃ the Pali
The Born without Parents Lamps and Oil Giver the Woodward translation.

This concludes the uploading of the Pali and PTS Woodward translations of Samyutta Nikaya 3.30: Supanna Samyutta.

[SN 3.31.1-112]Gandhabbakayasamyutta, the Pali

PTS: The Kindred Sayings on Gandharvas, the Woodward translation.

Another series similar to the previous but describing various factors leading to rebirth as a Gandhabba-Deva. These are the beings known in the west as 'fairies', or 'Garden fairies' and which are described here as in habiting aromas of various sorts.

[All suttas in this Samyutta are contained on one file. The above links to the top of the single file containing all the individual suttas. The below link to the individual suttas.]

1. Suddhika Suttaṃ,
According to Scheme,

2. Sucarita Suttaṃ,
Good Conduct,

Dātā the Pali
Givers (1 - 10), the Woodward translation.

[This is a multi-sutta sub-setion. The above links to the top of the start of the group. The below link to the individual suttas.]

3. Mūla-gandha or Dātā (1) Suttaṃ,
Givers (1)

4. Sāra-gandha or Dātā (2) Suttaṃ,
Givers (2)

5. Pheggu-gandha or Dātā (3) Suttaṃ,
Givers (3)

6. Taca-gandha or Dātā (4) Suttaṃ,
Givers (4)

7. Papatika-gandha or Dātā (5) Suttaṃ,
Givers (5)

8. Patta-gandha or Dātā (6) Suttaṃ,
Givers (6)

9. Puppha-gandha or Dātā (7) Suttaṃ,
Givers (7)

10. Phala-gandha or Dātā (8) Suttaṃ,
Givers (8)

11. Rasa-gandha or Dātā (9) Suttaṃ,
Givers (9)

12. Gandha-gandha or Dātā (10) Suttaṃ,
Givers (10)

Dānupakāra the Pali,
Supporters by Offerings 13-100 the Woodward translation

[This is a multi-sutta sub-setion. The above links to the top of the start of the group. The below link to the individual suttas.]

13. Annadāna Mūla-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (1)

14. Pānadāyaka Mūla-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (2)

15. Vatthadāyaka Mūla-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (3)

16. Yānadāyaka Mūla-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (4)

17. Mālādāyaka Mūla-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (5)

18. Gandhadāyaka Mūla-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (6)

19. Vilepanadāyaka Mūla-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (7)

20. Seyyadāyaka Mūla-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (8)

21. Āvasathadāyaka Mūla-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (9)

22. Padīpeyyadāyaka Mūla-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (10)

23. Annadāna Sāra-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (11)

24. Pānadāyaka Sāra-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (12)

25. Vatthadāyaka Sāra-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (13)

26. Yānadāyaka Sāra-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (14)

27. Mālādāyaka Sāra-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (15)

28. Gandhadāyaka Sāra-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (16)

29. Vilepanadāyaka Sāra-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (17)

30. Seyyadāyaka Sāra-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (18)

31. Āvasathadāyaka Sāra-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (19)

32. Padīpeyyadāyaka Sāra-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (20)

33. Annadāna Pheggu-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (21)

34. Pānadāyaka Pheggu-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (22)

35. Vatthadāyaka Pheggu-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (23)

36. Yānadāyaka Pheggu-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (24)

37. Mālādāyaka Pheggu-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (25)

38. Gandhadāyaka Pheggu-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (26)

39. Vilepanadāyaka Pheggu-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (27)

40. Seyyadāyaka Pheggu-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (28)

41. Āvasathadāyaka Pheggu-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (29)

42. Padīpeyyadāyaka Pheggu-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (30)

43. Annadāna Taca-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (31)

44. Pānadāyaka Taca-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (32)

45. Vatthadāyaka Taca-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (33)

46. Yānadāyaka Taca-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (34)

47. Mālādāyaka Taca-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (35)

48. Gandhadāyaka Taca-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (36)

49. Vilepanadāyaka Taca-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (37)

50. Seyyadāyaka Taca-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (38)

51. Āvasathadāyaka Taca-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (39)

52. Padīpeyyadāyaka Taca-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (40)

53. Annadāna Papatika-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (41)

54. Pānadāyaka Papatika-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (42)

55. Vatthadāyaka Papatika-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (43)

56. Yānadāyaka Papatika-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (44)

57. Mālādāyaka Papatika-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (45)

58. Gandhadāyaka Papatika-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (46)

59. Vilepanadāyaka Papatika-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (47)

60. Seyyadāyaka Papatika-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (48)

61. Āvasathadāyaka Papatika-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (49)

62. Padīpeyyadāyaka Papatika-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (50)

63. Annadāna Patta-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (51)

64. Pānadāyaka Patta-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (52)

65. Vatthadāyaka Patta-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (53)

66. Yānadāyaka Patta-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (54)

67. Mālādāyaka Patta-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (55)

68. Gandhadāyaka Patta-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (56)

69. Vilepanadāyaka Patta-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (57)

70. Seyyadāyaka Patta-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (58)

71. Āvasathadāyaka Patta-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (59)

72. Padīpeyyadāyaka Patta-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (60)

73. Annadāna Puppha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (61)

74. Pānadāyaka Puppha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (62)

75. Vatthadāyaka Puppha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (63)

76. Yānadāyaka Puppha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (64)

77. Mālādāyaka Puppha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (65)

78. Gandhadāyaka Puppha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (66)

79. Vilepanadāyaka Puppha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (67)

80. Seyyadāyaka Puppha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (68)

81. Āvasathadāyaka Puppha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (69)

82. Padīpeyyadāyaka Puppha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (70)

83. Annadāna Phala-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (71)

84. Pānadāyaka Phala-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (72)

85. Vatthadāyaka Phala-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (73)

86. Yānadāyaka Phala-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (74)

87. Mālādāyaka Phala-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (75)

88. Gandhadāyaka Phala-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (76)

89. Vilepanadāyaka Phala-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (77)

90. Seyyadāyaka Phala-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (78)

91. Āvasathadāyaka Phala-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (79)

92. Padīpeyyadāyaka Phala-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (80)

93. Annadāna Rasa-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (81)

94. Pānadāyaka Rasa-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (82)

95. Vatthadāyaka Rasa-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (83)

96. Yānadāyaka Rasa-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (84)

97. Mālādāyaka Rasa-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (85)

98. Gandhadāyaka Rasa-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (86)

99. Vilepanadāyaka Rasa-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (87)

100. Seyyadāyaka Rasa-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (88)

101. Āvasathadāyaka Rasa-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (89)

102. Padīpeyyadāyaka Rasa-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (90)

103. Annadāna Gandha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (91)

104. Pānadāyaka Gandha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (92)

105. Vatthadāyaka Gandha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (93)

106. Yānadāyaka Gandha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (94)

107. Mālādāyaka Gandha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (95)

108. Gandhadāyaka Gandha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (96)

109. Vilepanadāyaka Gandha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (97)

110. Seyyadāyaka Gandha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (98)

111. Āvasathadāyaka Gandha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (99)

112. Padīpeyyadāyaka Gandha-gandha Suttaṃ,
Supporters by offerings (100)

This concludes the uploading of the Pali and PTS Woodward translations of Samyutta Nikaya 3.31: Gandhabbakaya Samyutta.

[SN 3.32.1-57]Valāhasamyutta, the Pali

PTS: The Kindred Sayings on Cloud-spirits, the Woodward translation.

Another series similar to the previous but describing various factors leading to rebirth as a Valāha-Deva. These are the beings known in the west as 'fairies', or 'Spirits' and which are described here as in habiting clouds of various sorts.

[All suttas in this Samyutta are contained on one file. The above links to the top of the single file containing all the individual suttas. The below link to the individual suttas.]

1. Desanā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Exposition, the Woodward translation.
2. Sucarita Suttaṃ the Pali
Honesty, the Woodward translation.

Dānupakārā the Pali
Supporters by offerings, (1 - 50), the Woodward translation.

[This is a multi-sutta sub-setion. The above links to the top of the start of the group. The below link to the individual suttas.]

3. Annadāyaka Sītavalāhaka Suttaṃ,
Cool-cloud Food Giver.

4. Pānadāyaka Sītavalāhaka Suttaṃ,
Cool-cloud Drink Giver.

5. Vatthadāyaka Sītavalāhaka Suttaṃ,
Cool-cloud Clothing Giver.

6. Yānadāyaka Sītavalāhaka Suttaṃ,
Cool-cloud Carriage Giver.

7. Mālādāyaka Sītavalāhaka Suttaṃ,
Cool-cloud Flowers Giver.

8. Gandhadāyaka Sītavalāhaka Suttaṃ,
Cool-cloud Scents Giver.

9. Vilepanadāyaka Sītavalāhaka Suttaṃ,
Cool-cloud Unguents Giver.

10. Seyyadāyaka Sītavalāhaka Suttaṃ,
Cool-cloud Seat Giver.

11. Āvasathadāyaka Sītavalāhaka Suttaṃ,
Cool-cloud Lodging Giver.

12. Padīpeyyadāyaka Sītavalāhaka Suttaṃ,
Cool-cloud Lamps and Oil Giver.

13. Annadāyaka Uṇhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Hot-cloud Food Giver.

14. Pānadāyaka Uṇhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Hot-cloud Drink Giver.

15. Vatthadāyaka Uṇhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Hot-cloud Clothing Giver.

16. Yānadāyaka Uṇhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Hot-cloud Carriage Giver.

17. Mālādāyaka Uṇhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Hot-cloud Flowers Giver.

18. Gandhadāyaka Uṇhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Hot-cloud Scents Giver.

19. Vilepanadāyaka Uṇhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Hot-cloud Unguents Giver.

20. Seyyadāyaka Uṇhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Hot-cloud Seat Giver.

21. Āvasathadāyaka Uṇhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Hot-cloud Lodging Giver.

22. Padīpeyyadāyaka Uṇhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Hot-cloud Lamps and Oil Giver.

23. Annadāyaka Abbhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Thunder-cloud Food Giver.

24. Pānadāyaka Abbhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Thunder-cloud Drink Giver.

25. Vatthadāyaka Abbhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Thunder-cloud Clothing Giver.

26. Yānadāyaka Abbhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Thunder-cloud Carriage Giver.

27. Mālādāyaka Abbhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Thunder-cloud Flowers Giver.

28. Gandhadāyaka Abbhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Thunder-cloud Scents Giver.

29. Vilepanadāyaka Abbhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Thunder-cloud Unguents Giver.

30. Seyyadāyaka Abbhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Thunder-cloud Seat Giver.

31. Āvasathadāyaka Abbhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Thunder-cloud Lodging Giver.

32. Padīpeyyadāyaka Abbhavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Thunder-cloud Lamps and Oil Giver.

33. Annadāyaka Vātavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Wind-cloud Food Giver.

34. Pānadāyaka Vātavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Wind-cloud Drink Giver.

35. Vatthadāyaka Vātavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Wind-cloud Clothing Giver.

36. Yānadāyaka Vātavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Wind-cloud Carriage Giver.

37. Mālādāyaka Vātavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Wind-cloud Flowers Giver.

38. Gandhadāyaka Vātavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Wind-cloud Scents Giver.

39. Vilepanadāyaka Vātavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Wind-cloud Unguents Giver.

40. Seyyadāyaka Vātavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Wind-cloud Seat Giver.

41. Āvasathadāyaka Vātavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Wind-cloud Lodging Giver.

42. Padīpeyyadāyaka Vātavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Wind-cloud Lamps and Oil Giver.

43. Annadāyaka Vassavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Rain-cloud Food Giver.

44. Pānadāyaka Vassavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Rain-cloud Drink Giver.

45. Vatthadāyaka Vassavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Rain-cloud Clothing Giver.

46. Yānadāyaka Vassavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Rain-cloud Carriage Giver.

47. Mālādāyaka Vassavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Rain-cloud Flowers Giver.

48. Gandhadāyaka Vassavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Rain-cloud Scents Giver.

49. Vilepanadāyaka Vassavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Rain-cloud Unguents Giver.

50. Seyyadāyaka Vassavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Rain-cloud Seat Giver.

51. Āvasathadāyaka Vassavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Rain-cloud Lodging Giver.

52. Padīpeyyadāyaka Vassavalāhakā Suttaṃ,
Rain-cloud Lamps and Oil Giver.

53. Sīta Suttaṃ
Cool,

54. Uṇha Suttaṃ
Hot,

55. Abbha Suttaṃ,
Thunder-cloud,

56. Vātā Suttaṃ
Winds,

57. Vassa Suttaṃ,
Rain,

This concludes the uploading of the Pali and PTS Woodward translations of Samyutta Nikaya 3.32: Valāha Samyutta.

[SN 3.33.1-55] Vacchagottasamyutta, the Pali

PTS: The Kindred Sayings on Vacchagotta, the Woodward translation.

A series of questions and answers between Gotama and Vacchagotta the Wanderer concerning the origin of various views concerning existence.
The natural thought here is that all these suttas were originally only one sutta. The more interesting view is that here The Buddha was dealing with an outsider and that by breaking up a question that could have been given one answer into 55 individual answers given on separate occasions, each answer, (at least until the pattern was recognized by Vacchagotta) would provoke the repetition of the question. "Could it be that only ignorance (etc.) of body (etc.) results in all these theories?" This would have given the Buddha the opportunity to repeatedly develop for Vacchagotta the Buddhas breakdown of the components: body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness. There is no statement at the end of this series as to the outcome.

[All suttas in this Samyutta are contained on one file. The above links to the top of the single file containing all the individual suttas. The below link to the individual suttas.]

Rūpa Aññāṇā Suttaṃ,
Through Ignorance (1),
Vedanā Aññāṇā Suttaṃ,
Through Ignorance 2,
Saññā Aññāṇā Suttaṃ,
Through Ignorance 3,
Saŋkhāra Aññāṇā Suttaṃ,
Through ignorance 4,
Viññāṇa Aññāṇā Suttaṃ,
Through Ignorance 5,
Rūpa Adssana Suttaṃ,
By Not Seeing (1),
Vedanā Adssana Suttaṃ,
By Not Seeing 2,
Saññā Adssana Suttaṃ,
By Not Seeing 3,
Saŋkhāra Adssana Suttaṃ,
By Not Seeing 4,
Viññāṇa Adssana Suttaṃ,
By Not Seeing 5,
Rūpa Anabhisamaya Suttaṃ,
By Not Comprehending (1),
Vedanā Anabhisamaya Suttaṃ,
By Not Comprehending 2,
Saññā Anabhisamaya Suttaṃ,
By Not Comprehending 3,
Saŋkhāra Anabhisamaya Suttaṃ,
By Not Comprehending 4,
Viññāṇa Anabhisamaya Suttaṃ,
By Not Comprehending 5,
Rūpa Ananubodha Suttaṃ,
By Not Understanding (1),
Vedanā Ananubodha Suttaṃ,
By Not Understanding 2,
Saññā Ananubodha Suttaṃ,
By Not Understanding 3,
Saŋkhāra Ananubodha Suttaṃ,
By Not Understanding 4,
Viññāṇa Ananubodha Suttaṃ,
By Not Understanding 5,
Rūpa Appaṭivedha Suttaṃ,
By Not Penetrating (1),
Vedanā Appaṭivedha Suttaṃ,
By Not Penetrating 2,
Saññā Appaṭivedha Suttaṃ,
By Not Penetrating 3,
Saŋkhāra Appaṭivedha Suttaṃ,
By Not Penetrating 4,
Viññāṇa Appaṭivedha Suttaṃ,
By Not Penetrating 5,
Rūpa Asallakkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Discerning (1),
Vedanā Asallakkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Discerning 2,
Saññā Asallakkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Discerning 3,
Saŋkhāra Asallakkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Discerning 4,
Viññāṇa Asallakkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Discerning 5,
Rūpa Anupalakkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Discriminating (1),
Vedanā Anupalakkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Discriminating 2,
Saññā Anupalakkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Discriminating 3,
Saŋkhāra Anupalakkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Discriminating 4,
Viññāṇa Anupalakkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Discriminating 5,
Rūpa Apaccupalakkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Differentiating (1),
Vedanā Apaccupalakkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Differentiating 2,
Saññā Apaccupalakkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Differentiating 3,
Saŋkhāra Apaccupalakkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Differentiating 4,
Viññāṇa Apaccupalakkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Differentiating 5,
Rūpa Asamapekkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Considering (1),
Vedanā Asamapekkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Considering 2,
Saññā Asamapekkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Considering 3,
Saŋkhāra Asamapekkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Considering 4,
Viññāṇa Asamapekkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Considering 5,
Rūpa Apaccupekkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Looking Into (1),
Vedanā Apaccupekkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Looking Into 2,
Saññā Apaccupekkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Looking Into 3,
Saŋkhāra Apaccupekkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Looking Into 4,
Viññāṇa Apaccupekkhaṇa Suttaṃ,
By Not Looking Into 5,
Rūpa Apaccakkhakamma Suttaṃ,
By Not Making Clear (1),
Vedanā Apaccakkhakamma Suttaṃ,
By Not Making Clear 2,
Saññā Apaccakkhakamma Suttaṃ,
By Not Making Clear 3,
Saŋkhāra Apaccakkhakamma Suttaṃ,
By Not Making Clear 4,
Viññāṇa Apaccakkhakamma Suttaṃ,
By Not Making Clear 5,

This concludes the uploading of the Pali and PTS Woodward translations of Samyutta Nikaya 3.33: Vacchagotta Samyutta.

[SN 3.34.1-55] Jhanasamyutta, the Pali,
Linked Suttas on Brightly-Burning-Brilliant-Knowing the Olds translation, Revised.
The Kindred Sayings on Jhāna (or Samādhi), the Woodward translation.

This is a wheel sutta ranking pairs of types of jhana practitioners and playing them out each against all the others.

Woodward's abridgment has pretty badly mangled the ability to roll out this wheel. It can definately make your eyes cross. I understand that an original practice of the repeaters was to recite the suttas 'in round'. This would absolutely force concentration as even a momentary lapse into listening to one of the other groups would cause one to hopelessly lose one's place.

[All suttas in this Samyutta are contained on one file. The above links to the top of the single file containing all the individual suttas. The below link to the individual suttas.]

1. Samādhi-samāpatti Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Serenity/Attainment, the M. Olds translation,
Attainment in concentration, the Woodward translation,
2. Ṭhiti Kusala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Skill at Keeping Up, the M. Olds translation,
Steadfastness, the Woodward translation,
3. Vuṭṭhāna Kusala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Skill at Withdrawing, the M. Olds translation,
Emerging, the Woodward translation,
4. Kallavā Kusala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Skill at Readyness, the M. Olds translation,
Thorough, the Woodward translation,
5. Ārammaṇa Kusala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Skill at Preliminaries, the M. Olds translation,
Object, the Woodward translation,
6. Gocara Kusala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Skill at Nourishment, the M. Olds translation,
Range, the Woodward translation,
7. Abhinīhāra Kusala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Skill at Coming Down, the M. Olds translation,
Resolve, the Woodward translation,
8. Sakkacca-kāri Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Respectfully-Engaged, the M. Olds translation,
Zeal, the Woodward translation,
9. Sātacca-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Consistently-Engaged, the M. Olds translation,
Perservering, the Woodward translation,
10. Sappāya-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Profitably-Engaged, the M. Olds translation,
Profit, the Woodward translation,
11. Samāpatti/ṭhiti Kusala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Skill at Keeping Up/Attainment, the M. Olds translation,
Steadfastness in Attainment, the Woodward translation,
12. Samāpatti/vuṭṭhāna Kusala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Skill at Withdrawl/Attainment, the M. Olds translation,
Emerging from Attainment, the Woodward translation,
13. Samāpatti/kallita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Readyness/Attainment, the M. Olds translation,
Ease in Attainment, the Woodward translation,
14. Samāpatti Ārammaṇa Kusala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Skill in Preliminaries of Attainment, the M. Olds translation,
Object of Attainment, the Woodward translation,
15. Samāpatti Gocara Kusala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Skill in Nourishment of Attainment, the M. Olds translation,
Range of Attainment, the Woodward translation,
16. Samāpatti Abhinīhāra Kusala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Skill in Coming Down from Attainment, the M. Olds translation,
Resolve for Attainment, the Woodward translation,
17. Samāpatti Sakkacca Kusala Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Skill in Respectfully Engaging Attainment, the M. Olds translation,
Zeal for Attainment, the Woodward translation,
18. Samāpatti Sātacca-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Consistently-Engaged Attainment, the M. Olds translation,
Perseverance in Attainment, the Woodward translation,
19. Samāpatti Sappāya-kāri Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Profitably-Engaged Attainment, the M. Olds translation,
Profiting by Attainment, the Woodward translation,
20. Ṭhiti-Vuṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Keeping-Up/Withdrawing, the M. Olds translation,
Emerging from Steadfastness, the Woodward translation,
21. Ṭhiti Kallita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Keeping-Up/Readyness, the M. Olds translation,
Steatfastness in the Object (Ease), the Woodward translation,
22. Ṭhiti Ārammaṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Keeping-Up/Preliminaries, the M. Olds translation,
Steatfastness in the Object (Object), the Woodward translation,
23. Ṭhiti Gocara Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Keeping-Up/Nourishment, the M. Olds translation,
Steatfastness in the Object (Range), the Woodward translation,
24. Ṭhiti Abhinihāra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Keeping-Up/Coming-Down, the M. Olds translation,
Steatfastness in the Object (Resolve), the Woodward translation,
25. Ṭhiti Sakkacca-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Keeping-Up/Respectfully-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Steatfastness in the Object (Zeal), the Woodward translation,
26. Ṭhiti Sātacca-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Keeping-Up/Consistently-engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Steatfastness in the Object (Perseverance), the Woodward translation,
27. Ṭhiti Sappāya-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Keeping-Up/Profitably-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Steatfastness in the Object (Profit), the Woodward translation,
28. Vuṭṭhāna Kallita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Withdrawing/Readiness, the M. Olds translation,
Ease in Emerging (Ease), the Woodward translation,
29. Vuṭṭhāna Ārammaṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Withdrawing/Preliminaries, the M. Olds translation,
Emerging (Object), the Woodward translation,
30. Vuṭṭhāna Gocara Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Withdrawing/Nourishment, the M. Olds translation,
Emerging (Range), the Woodward translation,
31. Vuṭṭhāna Abhinīhāra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Withdrawing/Coming Down, the M. Olds translation,
Emerging (Resolve), the Woodward translation,
32. Vuṭṭhāna Sakkacca-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Withdrawing/Respectfully-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Emerging (Zeal), the Woodward translation,
33. Vuṭṭhāna Sāttacca-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Withdrawing/Consistently-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Emerging (Perseverance), the Woodward translation,
34. Vuṭṭhāna Sappāya-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Withdrawing/Profitably-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Emerging (Profit), the Woodward translation,
35. Kalalita Ārammaṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Readyness/Preliminaries, the M. Olds translation,
Ease and Object, the Woodward translation,
36. Kallitā Gocara Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Readyness/Nourishment, the M. Olds translation,
Ease (Range), the Woodward translation,
37. Kallita Abhinīhāra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Readyness/Coming Down, the M. Olds translation,
Ease (Resolve), the Woodward translation,
38. Kallita Sakkacca-kārī Suttaṃ,, the Pali,
Readyness/Respectfully-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Ease (Zeal), the Woodward translation,
39. Kallita Sātacca-kāri Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Readyness/Consistently-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Ease (Perseverance), the Woodward translation,
40. Kallita Sappāya-kāri Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Readyness/Profitably-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Ease (Profit), the Woodward translation,
41. Ārammaṇa Gocara Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Preliminaries/Nourishment, the M. Olds translation,
Object (Range), the Woodward translation,
42. Ārammaṇa Abhinihāra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Preliminaries/Coming Down, the M. Olds translation,
Object (Resolve), the Woodward translation,
43. Ārammaṇa Sakkacca-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Preliminaries/Respectfully-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Object (Zeal), the Woodward translation,
44. Ārammaṇa Sātacca-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Preliminaries/Consistently-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Object (Perseverance), the Woodward translation,
45. Ārammaṇa Sappāya-kāri Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Preliminaries/Profitably-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Object (Profit), the Woodward translation,
46. Gocara Abhinīhāra Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Nourishment/Coming Down, the M. Olds translation,
Range and Resolve, the Woodward translation,
47. Gocara Sakkacca-kāri Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Nourishment/Respectfully-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Range (Zeal), the Woodward translation,
48. Gocara Sātacca-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Nourishment/Consistently-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Range (Perseverance), the Woodward translation,
49. Gocara Sappāya-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Nourishment/Profitably-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Range (Profit), the Woodward translation,
50. Abhinihāra Sakkacca-kāri Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Coming Down/Respectfully-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Resolve, the Woodward translation,
51. Abhinihāra Sātacca-kāri Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Coming Down/Consistently-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Resolve and Perseverance, the Woodward translation,
52. Abhinīhāra Sappāya-kāri Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Coming Down/Profitably-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Resolve and Profit, the Woodward translation,
53. Sakkacca Sātacca-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Respectfully-Engaging/Consistently-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Zeal and Perseverance, the Woodward translation,
54. Sakkacca Sappāya-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Respectfully-Engaging/Profitably-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Zeal and Profit, the Woodward translation,
55. Sātacca Sappāya-kārī Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Consistently-Engaging/Profitably-Engaging, the M. Olds translation,
Persevering and Profiting, the Woodward translation.

This concludes the uploading of the Pali, the Olds and the PTS Woodward translations of Samyutta Nikaya 3.34: Jhana Samyutta. and this also concludes the uploading of Samyutta Nikaya, Volume 3: The Khandha Vagga: The Kindred sayings on the Khandhas. (aka: The Book on Elements, which is confusing at this point where the term 'elements' is also the translation of choice for many for 'dhatu'.)

[SN 4.35.1] Ajjhatta Anicca Suttaṃ (Aniccam 1; Ajjhattam), the Pali,
Impermanent (i): the personal, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind are inconstant, painful and not self and that seeing that brings freedom and recognizing that freedom as freedom rebirth is left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an it at any place of atness left for one.
[SN 4.35.2] Ajjhatta Dukkha Suttaṃ (Dukkham 1; Ajjhattam), the Pali,
Ill (i): The Personal, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind are painful and not self and that seeing that brings freedom and recognizing that freedom as freedom rebirth is left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an it at any place of atness left for one.
[SN 4.35.3] Ajjhatta Anattā Suttaṃ (Anattā 1; Ajjhattam), the Pali,
Void of the Self (i): The Personal, the F.L. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind are not self and that seeing that brings freedom and recognizing that freedom as freedom rebirth is left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an it at any place of atness left for one.

 


Friday, January 30, 2015
Previous upload was Wednesday, December 31, 2014


 


I yam'nt wot I yam'nt.
— Popeye, the awakened


 


"Ye dhammā hetuppabhavā||
tesaṃ hetuṃ Tathāgato āha||
tesañ ca yo nirodho,||
evaṃ vādī Mahāsamaṇo."
||
Assaji's explanation of Gotama's teaching to Sāriputta

What things as become by forces driven
The Tathagata says: 'Such are the driving forces
and such their end.'
Thus teaches the Great Shaman.
— Olds translation


 

Exercise: Take your list of names that you made up in preparation for your Recapitulation, (you did do that, yes?) and for each, visualize the individual or state the name (or do both) and make the wish: "May you be well and happy!"

 


 

new Thursday, January 08, 2015 8:16 AMTheragāthā, Psalms of the Brethren:
CXXV: Ajina, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
CXXVI: Melajina, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
CXXVi: Rādha, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
CXXVII: Surādha, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
CXXIX: Gotama, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
XXXVi: The Comrade of Kumā's Son, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
XXXVII: Gavampati, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
XXXIX: Tissa, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
XL Vaḍḍhamāna, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
XLI Sirivaḍḍha, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
XVI Belaṭṭhasīsa, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
XVi Dasaka, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
XVII Singāla-Pitar, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

 

Recommended for diacritical input:

Genovation Keypad  Genovation Keypad
Click for larger image

The Genovation Keypad. A programmable keypad I use to input Pali characters. @ U.S. $140. See specs at Genovation.com It takes about an hour to set up and will save you hours of time and your wrists and fingers much pain. This is not a paid advertisement. I have received no compensation in any form for this recommendation.

 

new Monday, January 05, 2015 3:46 AMVinaya Piṭaka
VP.MV.1.21: The Disquisition on Burning.
21: The Sermon on 'The Burning,' The Rhys Davids Oldenberg translation.
The Vinaya variation of SN 4.35.28 and SN 3.22.61
A hair-raising sutta rendered pablum by abridgment.

 

new Monday, January 05, 2015 3:46 AM Personalities:
Pūraṇa Kassapa. Leader of a sect. Contemporary of Gotama. There is some confusion as to his doctrine, but it is likely to be that which is described by Mahali in SN 3.22.60, namely that there was no ultimate driving force (hetu) for either the degradation of beings or their salvation.
Assaji Thera, One of the 5 who left the world with Gotama. He was the 5th to become Arahant.

 


No c'assaṃ no ca me siyā||
na bhavassati na me bhavissati.|| ||

An' not 'were this', and not ''tis my',
were no 'will be', nor 'will be mine'.


 

Defining/Translating 'Sati'.

I have written about some of the below before, but there is an interesting development which I came across yesterday which I believe warrants a recapitulation as a lead in. So:

It is relatively well known that the word 'sati' stands for both 'mind' and 'memory' (you can look it up in the PED if it is not well known to you), yet the translation 'mindfulness' persists.

I am not saying here that 'mindfulness' is not a correct understanding of an aspect of sati. I am saying that it's use has overbalanced the meaning to the side of 'paying attention' and it does not provide the richness of the term I would suggest, that is, 'mind'.

I believe the translation 'mindfulness' has actually distorted the understanding of, the intent of, the Satipatthana sutta which is to my reading an exercise in the setting up, strengthening and organization of the mind via observation, investigation (comparing memory with memory) and memory.

There is a little puzzle riddle game that I believe shows us both the origin of the word itself and it's meaning:

The word 'sati' is made up of two syllables:

SA = one, once; and TI: three, this, thus

If you use the word 'SATI' as a manta (mantra), repeating it again and again 1,3; 1,3; 1,3 ... there comes a time when the word breaks open and one becomes aware that there is something missing. What is that? 'Two'. It should be 1,2,3. This becoming aware of an issue and recollecting a solution, produces a certain satisfaction in the mind. This, I say, is the true meaning of sati: the satisfaction of a fulfilled memory which is another way of saying a satisfied mind.

Of course modern linguists and philologists will have a conniption fit reading this. But I would remind them that language did not just appear whole bang snap fingers done right from the start. Maybe not this world cycle, but once upon a time it started from scratch. Probably from the sound 'Ah.' And there would have been a period where there was delight in the composition of words and thought given as to how to make words stand for things that one wished to communicate to others. Starting from a language made up of single syllables, how does one describe memory?

And then we have: "Once Thus". What is that but memory?

Mind is, at its most basic, memory. This meaning is lost completely with the translation 'mindfulness.'

On the other hand 'mind' has been and still is used for the idea of 'paying attention'. "Mind the children." "Mind your manners."

'Mind' for 'mind' does not need explanation.

But 'mind' for 'remember' has eluded me until yesterday when in reading a very entertaining and 'worldly-educational' writer of cowboy stories (including Hopalong Cassidy), Louis L'amour, his "The Lonesome Gods", wherein he uses dialogue from c. 1850 I came across this exchange (pg 259):

We were looking at him, waiting. "Paulino Weaver, he's moved in over yonder. Been here for some time."

"Mountain man," Jacob said. "I mind meeting him some while back. He's a good man."

And now that I read this, I mind hearing it before myself in actual conversations.

 

new Thursday, January 01, 2015 9:18 AM Saŋyutta Nikāya
[SN 3.22.56] Grasping (applied to) the Series, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes the stockpiles (kandha) in detail and shows how they are to be analyzed according to the Four Truths.
Note here that sankhara (my 'own-making') is described in terms of intent (sancitana) making it very clear that this term is to be understood as a synonym for kamma. Here is the argument against relying on the commentary for understanding technical terms. There is no need for commentary. Every important term is defined by Gotama himself. What is needed is not consultation with the commentaries, it is thorough examination of the suttas. When you have mastered the suttas it is then sometimes interesting to cosult the commentaries for background stories. There I say is their real value.
[SN 3.22.57] The Seven Points, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha defines one who has mastered Dhamma: He is skilled in knowledge of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness; he knows what results in their arising, he knows what brings about their ending; he knows their satisfaction, their pain and the way to escape them; and he investigates things in three ways: by way of their elementary data, by way of their relationship to the senses, and by way of that on which they depend for their arising (the paticca samuppada).
Compare this with living in the Dhamma overseeing the Dhamma through the Dhamma of the Satipatthana Sutta.
[SN 3.22.58] Fully Enlightened, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha Explains the difference between a Buddha and an Arahant.
Since the distinction is the fact of the Buddha having first discovered the way and made it known wbereas the Arahant obtains the knowledge via a Buddha, the title (Sambuddho) would better be translated 'Self-awakened'.
[SN 3.22.60] Mahāli, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha explains to Mahali that beings become corrupt or pure as a result of reactions to the painful and pleasant features of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness.
[SN 3.22.61] Āditta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
On Fire, the F.W. Woodward translation,
A fire and brimstone sermon teaching that shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness are as if on fire.
This is a variation, using the stockpiles (khandhas) of the following which use 'The All'. VP.MV.I.21, SN 4.35.28 and SN 3.22.61. But I think for the full effect the best rendering is the compilation used for The Sixth Lesson. ... which should tell you that the stockpiles (khandha) = the all (salayatana); Shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and consciousness is another way of saying: the eye and sight, the ear and sound, the nose and scents, the tongue and tastes, the body and touches, and the mind and things.
[SN 3.22.62] Niruttipatha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Mode of Reckoning, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Getting Down to the Fundamentals, the Olds translation,
The Buddha affirms that the most fundamental way of describing things (shapes, sense-experiences, perceptions, the own-make, and consciousness) is relative to their position in Time.
One of the more obscure and unusual suttas it is nevertheless a valuable piece of information for meditators who reach levels of perception outside of time (akalika); one of the attributes of the Arahant.
[SN 3.22.63] Upādiyamāno Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Clinging, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha gives a meditation subject to a bhikkhu: Whatsoever is held on to that belongs to Mara, by letting go of that one is free of the Evil One. And that bhikkhu becomes an arahant.
[SN 3.22.64] Maññamāno Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Imagining, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha gives a meditation subject to a bhikkhu: Whatsoever is imagined that belongs to Mara, by letting go of that one is free of the Evil One. And that bhikkhu becomes an arahant.
[SN 3.22.65] Abhinandana Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Imagining, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha gives a meditation subject to a bhikkhu: Whatsoever one is enamoured of that belongs to Mara, by letting go of that one is free of the Evil One. And that bhikkhu becomes an arahant.
[SN 3.22.66] Anicca Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Impermanent, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha gives a meditation subject to a bhikkhu: Whatsoever is inconstant, that belongs to Mara, by letting go of desire for that one is free of the Evil One. And that bhikkhu becomes an arahant.
[SN 3.22.67] Dukkha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Suffering, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha gives a meditation subject to a bhikkhu: Whatsoever is painful, that belongs to Mara, by letting go of desire for that one is free of the Evil One. And that bhikkhu becomes an arahant.
[SN 3.22.68] Anattā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
No Self, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha gives a meditation subject to a bhikkhu: Whatsoever is not the self, that belongs to Mara, by letting go of desire for that one is free of the Evil One. And that bhikkhu becomes an arahant.
Caution: Here Woodward's translation of Anatta as 'no self' is correct Dhamma because of the construction of the sutta. It says what is anattā, desire for that should be let go. This is not an opinion or point of view concerning the ultimate existence of a self. It is speaking of the nature of body, etc. To say 'body is no self' is not to say 'there is no self.' Still it would have been better to have translated this as 'not self'.
[SN 3.22.69] Anattaniya Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Not Belonging to the Self, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha gives a meditation subject to a bhikkhu: Whatsoever does not belong to the self, that belongs to Mara, by letting go of desire for that one is free of the Evil One. And that bhikkhu becomes an arahant.
[SN 3.22.70] Rajanīyasaṇṭhita Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Lustful, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha gives a meditation subject to a bhikkhu: Whatsoever is inherent in what is lustful, that belongs to Mara, by letting go of desire for that one is free of the Evil One. And that bhikkhu becomes an arahant.
[SN 3.22.71] Rādha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Rādha, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches Radha how to be sure that all notions of "I" and "mine" have been eradicated.
That is that one can see that whatever shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making or consciousness there may be, past, future or present, exalted or lowly, pleasant or unpleasant it is all regarded as not the self or belonging to the self.
[SN 3.22.72] Surādha Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Surādha, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches Suradha how to be sure that all notions of "I" and "mine" have been eradicated.
[SN 3.22.73] Assādo Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Satisfaction, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha explains that the difference between the disciple and the ordinary commoner (puthujjano) is in the understanding of the satisfaction, misery, and escape from shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness.
It is an unfortunate habit of some bhikkhus today to refer to all those who are not actual members of the worldly sangha as 'puthujjano'. Here we see the real meaning. This should be understood also in the parallel case of the sangha when defined as the four pairs of men. "It is not by the color of his cloths, beggars, that one who is close to me is to be known."
[SN 3.22.74] Paṭhama Samudayo Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arising (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha explains that the difference between the disciple and the ordinary commoner (puthujjano) is in the understanding of the arising, ending, and escape from shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness.
[SN 3.22.75] Dutiya Samudayo Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arising (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha explains that the disciple understands the satisfaction, misery, arising, ending, and escape from shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness.
[SN 3.22.76] Paṭhama Arahanta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arahants (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness are inconstant, that what is inconstant is painful, that what is painful is not the self and that such things should be regarded as 'not mine', not the self.
NOTE: This sutta concludes with a statement that among beings up to the highest of those who have become, Arahanship is the culmination and mastery. This is translated in a misleading way such as to indicate that Arahantship is to be included as one of the 'becomings.' Woodward has also mistranslated 'sattavasa' as 'the seven abodes.' This is 'being's vestments', or 'abodes of beings', and there are nine of such.
[SN 3.22.77] Dutiya Arahanta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Arahants (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches that shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness are inconstant, that what is inconstant is painful, that what is painful is not the self and that such things should be regarded as 'not mine', not the self.
Identical to the previous but without the concluding verses.
[SN 3.22.78] Sīhopama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Lion, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha compairs the effect of the teaching of the Dhamma on gods and men to the effect of the lion's roar on the creatures of the forest.
Both cause fear and trembling at the thought of mortality.
[SN 3.22.79] The Prey, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Beginning with a discussion of what it is that one speaks of when one speaks of recollecting past lives, the Buddha then gives some detailed explanation of what is to be understood by shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness. Then speaking of these things as inconstant, painful and not self he describes the arahant as becoming disgsted at them and by that becoming free and by perceiving freedom in that freedom, reaching arahantship. Then further he describes such a one as one who neither heaps up or reduces, neither lets go nor takes up, neither scatters nor gathers.
[SN 3.22.80] Almsman, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha explains that the bhikkhus have entered 'the lowest profession', that of scrap (or 'chunk', or 'glob' or 'mess') (see SN 3.22.96 where it is used for a tiny 'bit' or 'lump' of dung) hunters, not from want of a livlihood or fears, but because it is in this way that some way out of all the pain in the world may be found.||
Although the term here is not 'bhikkhu' (beggar), but 'pindola' scrap hunter, or 'dole-man', someone on the dole, the spirit is the same. Many of the 'monks' of today object strenuously to being called 'beggars' and have completely missed the point: It is by adopting the lowest of callings that pride of birth is humbled and by showing those who are beggars as a consequence of their bad kamma, that such a life can be lived with ease, generosity, virtue and dignity it teaches the way out of their misery. The translation of 'bhikkhu' as 'monk' and of 'pindola' as 'almsman' or 'mendacant' whitewashes the truth and destroys the lesson.
This sutta is also interesting in that it records a feat of magic power in which the bhikkhus are lead to believe they are appearing before the Buddha singly or in pairs though they are all addressed simultaneously.
[SN 3.22.81] Pārileyya, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Describing a method for quickly eliminating the corrupting influences of lust, existing and blindness, the Buddha shows how holding any sort of opinion or view that the self is, or has, or has within or is within shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, or consciousness, or even having doubt about such is own-making, and that which is own-made, is inconstant, and that which is inconstant is painful and that by getting rid of such opinions and doubts, one quickly gets rid of the corrupting influences.
This sutta focuses down on the idea of sankhara in such a way as to make it absolutely clear that the meaning of this term is own-making, personalizing the objective, fabricating the individuality, con-structing the individuality, own-making.
[SN 3.22.82] Puṇṇamā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Full Moon, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha delivers a comprehensive discourse on the fuel stockpiles, the 'panc-upadana-kkhandha'.
Here is a really good example of how the Dhamma was propagated among the bhikkhus. Togethere with his five hundred pupils, face-to-face with the Buddha, a group teacher asks a series of questions which when answered by the Buddha elucidate the entire spectrum of doctrines concerning the 'pañc-upādāna-kkhandhā,' the five fuel-stockpiles. Completely blurred over by abridgment.
[SN 3.22.83] Ānanda, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Ananda relates to the bhikkhus how Punna taught him about the stockpiles (khandha) and how that was the teaching that resulted in him becoming a streamwinner.
Here Woodward translates 'upādā' as 'cause'. This makes four terms the reader must remember to determine what, exactly is the Pali term being translated. Others are 'nidana' (tied to), 'paccaya' (result), and 'hetu' (driving force, engine). Even the usual 'grasping' would be better. Better would be 'support' or 'fueled by'. Bhk. Thanissaro here translates the term 'possessiveness.' Bhk. Bodhi has 'clinging'.
[SN 3.22.84] Tissa the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali the Bhikkhu Thanissaro and the Olds translation.
The Buddha instructs and uplifts the venerable Tissa who has become discouraged.
A very instructive parable on the experiences to be expected by one who is walking the path concludes this sutta.
[SN 3.22.86] Anurādha, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha instructs Anuradha as to how to respond to those of other views who ask about the existence or non-existence of the Tathagata after death (one who has won Arahantship).
[SN 3.22.88] Assaji Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Assaji, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Venerable Assaji is suffering an illness which prevents him from attaining jhana and he is worried about falling away. The Buddha explains to him that the essence of his teaching is not the attaining of jhana, and he instructs him in such a way as to bring about Assaji's arahantship.
There is some problem here with the identification of this Assaji with the Assaji who renounced the world with Gotama and who was the first teacher of Sāriputta. That Assaji would almost certainly have been called here 'Assaji Thera', where this Assaji is called 'āyasmā Assaji, 'Elder'. Either this is the mistake or there is a far more serious error in that 'Assaji Thera' was supposed to have attained arahantship during the second discourse (Pañca Suttam) and this Assaji still has doubts and must be instructed concerning inconstance, pain and not self.
[SN 3.22.89] Khema Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Khema, the F.W. Woodward translation,
A dialogue between Venerable Khema and a group of elder bhikkhus concerning identification with the five fuel stockpiles (khandhas).
This is a very instructive sutta told with a wonderful sense of humor. The very important thing to note here is Khema's explanation of how it can be that though one has thoroughly broken the idea of identification of self with the khandhas, there can remain a subtle inclination towards this identification.
[SN 3.22.90] Channa, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
After Channa has mastered understanding of the inconstance and lack of self in the khandhas, he receives further instruction in the Paticca Samuppada from Ananda.||
Woodward, Bhk. Thanissaro, and Bhk. Bodhi all accept the commentary as to the identification of this 'Channa' as the Buddha's charioteer who left the world with him and was at the last of the Buddha's life given the punishment that he was not to be spoken to. But here we see in this very sutta the bhikkhus teaching him. There must be some part of the story we have not heard that explains the behavior of the bhikhus, or this must be another Channa.
[SN 3.22.91] Paṭhama Rāhula Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Rāhula (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on how to view all things as not-self.
[SN 3.22.92] Dutiya Rāhula Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Rāhula (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on how to view all things as not-self.
[SN 3.22.93] The River, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali theBhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Olds translation.
The Buddha likens the way beings grasp at body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness to the way a man being swept away by a swiftly flowing stream grasps at the reeds and bushes on the bank only to have them break away, giving him no means to escape destrucion.
[SN 3.22.94] The River, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Olds translation.
The Buddha takes the position that it is not he that argues with the world, but it is the world that argues with him, that he agrees with those who are worldly-wise who say 'there is not,' that is that there is any shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making or consciousness which is constant, that he agrees with those who say 'it is' that is that shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness are simply pain. This he says he teaches and he dismisses those who hearing him so teach do not comprehend.
[SN 3.22.95] Foam, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha gives similes for each of the khandhas: shape: foam; sense-experience: a bubble on the water; perception: a mirage; own-making: searching for heartwood in the wrong tree; consciousness: a magician's illusion.
Again, as always, the similes are very helpful in getting a grip on the perception of these phenomena as they really are.
[SN 3.22.96] Gomaya Piṇḍupama Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Cowdung, the F.W. Woodward translation,
A bhikkhu asks if there is any shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, or consciousness which is stable and everlasting. He is told that there is not, and then he is shown by way of example, a past life of Gotama where he was a king of extraordinary wealth and splendor and yet all that wealth and splendor has disappeared.
[SN 3.22.97] Tip of the Nail, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A bhikkhu asks if there is any shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, or consciousness which is stable and everlasting. He is told that there is not, and then the Buddha explains that if there were one of the stockpiles (khandhas) even as small as a bit of dust that were stable and everlasting there would be no need to teach the Dhamma.
This is not 'it would not be possible to teach the Dhamma' it is 'would not be necessary'. How come? because if there were any thing in existence (we might say, even a rock) with which individuals could identify that was stable and everlasting, that would solve the problem of the pain of existence brought about by change. What wise men and teachers would be teaching is how to identify with this thing. Think about what this says about consciousness.
[SN 3.22.98] Suddhika (or Samuddaka) Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Puritan (or Oceanic), the F.W. Woodward translation,
A bhikkhu asks if there is any shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, or consciousness which is stable and everlasting. He is told that there is not.
Identical with the first part of the previous two suttas. Likely this was the first of the series to be delivered.
[SN 3.22.99] The Leash (or The Thong) (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha likens the way the commoner runs around after shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness to the way a dog tied to a post runs round and round the post and never gets free of the post.
The way this is abridged in the PTS Pali is subject to various interpretations as to how it should be expanded. My version of the BJT has it expanded both with mistakes and in a way which is more repetitious than even the usual Pali. Woodward abridges his version in a way different than the PTS Pali. Bhks. Thanissaro and Bodhi abridge closely paralleling Woodward. I have unabridged it in the way I believe is most likely to reflect the original delivery.
[SN 3.22.100] The Leash (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha likens the way the commoner runs around after shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness to the way a dog tied to a post runs round and round the post and never gets free of the post. Then he likens the creativity of mind in devising the taints that corrupt individuals to that of the hypnotist creating an illusion, to nature in devising the various forms of animals, or to an artest creating an image of a man or a woman.
The first of the similes for mind is (caraṇaŋ nāma cittaŋ) "heart called 'wanderer'" or "wandering (so named) heart" or "colors called 'meandering'" or "a meandering painting" or "a wandering bedazzlement" ... Bhk. Thanissaro translates as 'a moving contraption'; Bhk. Bodhi translates 'that picture called 'Faring On'. This is basically a 'fill in the blank' issue. I suggest above that which appeals to my imagination. The commentarial explanation could be understood to apply to almost anything masterful. It is doubtful to me that this refers to a painting because that is the meaning of the third simile.
[SN 3.22.101] Adze-handle (or The Ship), the F.W. Woodward translation,
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha provides several similes which illustrate the fact that it is not by wishing, but by mastering the understanding and behaviors found in the Dhamma that freedom from rebirth is attained.
This sutta contains the famous simile of the hand-prints on the adze handle, where to illustrate how, though it is for some difficult to perceive progress on a daily basis, over time one will be able to view the advantages, he points out that on a daily basis the carpenter does not see how much of the handle is warn away by his grip, over time he will see the imprint of his hand on the wood. This does not contradict the description of the Dhamma as being of immediate consequence. From the moment one abstains from a harmful activity, the possibility of consequences of such activity cease. This is referring to perception of such changes, and even there it is not saying that this ability to perceive is something that will necessarily take a long time. There are cases where a person perceives he is free of debt and has become an Arahant within a half day and sometimes less.
[SN 3.22.102] Aniccasaññā Suttaṃ aka Aniccatā or Saññā the Pali,
Impermanence (or Perception), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha enumerates a string of similes illustrating the benefits of perception of inconstance (anicca).
[SN 3.22.103] Antā Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Separates, the F.W. Woodward translation,
Ends the M. Olds translation
The Buddha describes four goals in detail.
I have done a translation because all the others have blindly followed the commentary and the result makes no sense.
The word to understand is: Antā. 'Ends.' As in 'ends and means,' 'goals.' I have here translated this as 'ends' and 'attainment' to hopefully clear up the use. Rhys Davids in the Sangiti Suttanta translates 'limits.' Bhk. Bodhi footnotes the term as 'ends' but translates 'portions'. Woodward translates 'separates' and notes the commentary defines it as 'koṭṭhāsā' 'divisions'. Woodward notes Childers' more rational "goals of doctrine".
[SN 3.22.104] Dukkha Suttaṃ the Pali,
Suffering, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha teaches about pain, the arising of pain, the ending of pain and the way to the ending of pain.
[SN 3.22.105] Sakkāya Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Person-pack, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha defines individuality, the arising of individuality, the ending of individuality and the walk to walk to the ending of individuality.
A variation of the previous two.
[SN 3.22.106] Pariññeyya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Things to be Understood, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha states the Dhamma briefly in terms of understanding.
[SN 3.22.107] Paṭhama Samaṇa Suttaṃ the Pali,
Recluses (1), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha defines what it means to be a shaman or a Brahmin in terms of understanding shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness.
[SN 3.22.108] Dutiya Samaṇa Suttaṃ the Pali,
Recluses (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha defines what it means to be a shaman or a Brahmin in terms of understanding shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness.
Identical with the previous. It is very unusual for a sutta to be an exact duplicate of another.
[SN 3.22.109] Sotāpanna Suttaṃ the Pali,
Stream-winner, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha defines streamwinning in terms of understanding the arising, ending, satisfaction, misery, and escape from shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness.
[SN 3.22.110] Arahanta Suttaṃ, the Pali,
The Arahant, the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha defines the arahant in terms of understanding the arising, ending, satisfaction, misery, and escape from, and the experience of liberation without further fuel from shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness.
[SN 3.22.111] Paṭhama Chandarāga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Desirous-Lustful (2), the F.W. Woodward translation,
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to abandon all desire and lust for shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness.

 


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