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 [Ditthadhamma Lokadhamma]


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Tuesday, May 27, 2014
Previous upload was Monday, April 28, 2014


 

new Thursday, May 01, 2014 7:08 AM Puggala-Paññatti, Chapters of Designation of Human Types, Division of Human Types by Four, translated by B.C. Law
Chapters 16, 17: Praise and Dispraise
Chapters 19, 20: Dark and Light (same file contains Chapter 20, abridged which is the same as 19 but with headings 'stooping and progressing').
Chapter 21: Persons like trees.

 

new Tuesday, April 29, 2014 9:05 AM [SN 5.56.1] Samādhi Suttaṃ, the Pali
Concentration, Woodward translation
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to develop serenity because the serene individual knows things as they really are and this is essential for seeing the Four Truths.
[SN 5.56.41] Cintā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Reasoning, Woodward translation
This sutta deals with the thoughts one should and should not dwell on. It should be read when the issue of what the Buddha did not discuss comes up (see discussion below), because here by the juxtaposition of the issues not to be considered with those which should be thought about it is made clear that this is not a case of keeping things a mystery but of what is and what is not a matter pertaining to the goal.

 

new Monday, April 28, 2014 6:16 AM [AN 4.75] Paṭhama- Dutiya Agga Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Perfections, Woodward translation.
2 sets of four things to be perfected. This should be two suttas.
[AN 4.76] Kusinārā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Kusinārā, Woodward translation.
In the final moments of Gotama's life he asks the bhikkhus if there is any one of them that is in doubt about him or his teaching. There is no one in the assembly that has any doubts.
[AN 4.77] Unthinkable, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha lists four topics which are imponderable, whose scope is so vast as to cause madness in anyone who allowed them to obsess the mind. A good sutta to read alongside this one is SN 5.56.41 where pondering the world is defined and contrasted with pondering the four truths and where it becomes clear that when the Buddha does not respond to requests for opinions on these subjects it is not a case of keeping things a mystery, but a matter of retaining one's sanity or at least not giving others good reason to doubt of it. The important phrase to understand in this sutta is 'na cintetabbāni.' Woodward's 'unthinkable', Bhk. Thanissaro: 'unconjecturables'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'inconceivable. Childers: 'regard'. Cinteti is the idea of thinking when the mind is conceived of as 'the heart'. "You see?" + abbāni, meaning ? to draw out. To draw out from the heart? That is actually what one does when one does this. You sit down with the intent to see the full scope of a topic and drag out first one train of thought then another.
[AN 4.78] Dakkhiṇā-Visuddhi Suttaṃ the Pali,
Gifts, Woodward translation.
The four states of purity of gifts. The idea here is that the returning good kamma from a gift depends not only on the character of the giver and the nature of the gift, but also on the character of the receiver. Think of the difference between the result of a wet rag thrown by a weak man against a hanging blanket versus a rubber ball thrown by a strong man against a smooth hard wall. 'Purity' is fundamentally a matter of detachment. 'Virtue' is the not-doing of unvirtuous deeds. Detachment allows the force of the deed to be fully discharged on the part of the giver and returned with amplified force to the giver by the receiver.
[AN 4.79] Trade, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
The explanation in terms of Kamma of why the enterprises of some individuals fail, while others turn out differently than expected, others turn out as expected and still others turn out beyond their expectations. In the Pali, Sariputta asks "Ko nu kho bhante hetu ko paccayo ~" Woodward translates "what is the reason what is the cause" (usually 'hetu' is translated 'cause'; when you read 'cause' in translations, look up the Pali, if the Pali is 'hetu' think 'driving force' 'engine'; if it is 'nidana' think 'bound up with' or 'bound down by'; if it is 'paccaya' think 'repercussion', 'result'.); Bhk. Bodhi just has "why", or "the reason why". A translation more helpful in understanding the meaning would be "What is the driving force, what results in these various experiences?" Of the many factors that go into success and failure in one's occupation, what is the one which is most determinant of the outcome? The Buddha uses a gift to a shaman or brahmin as the example, but the same dynamics are at work with any person. Be careful of what you promise! Don't make promises you cannot keep. Make every effort to fulfill promises you have made and if you can see you will be unable to do so, get back to the person to whom the promise was made and make an explanation. Take a care for your future happiness! The feelings of the person expecting the fulfillment of a promise you have made are your feelings later. Woodward footnotes Points of Controversy where an objection is made to the whole proposition that there is such a tie between the giver and receiver based on the notion that since the individual is continuously changing, he cannot be said to be the same person from one minute to the next so that for him there is no return on a gift. A sort of madness that comes from getting high understanding only half the picture. In this case the person has understood the idea that there is no thing there that can be called the self and has come to the conclusion (formed the opinion, arrived at the point of view) that there is no self. It is vital to understand the Buddha's position with regard to subjective experience in order to understand why it is not correct to say that there is no self. There is the subjective experience of a continuing self. Until liberated from that by the understanding that it is not a true perception, that it is only identification with a point of view, that subjective self experiences suffering. ḌIf that were not the case, what would be the point of Buddhas or their Dhamma?! The Buddha's teaching is for the relief of that subjective suffering as well as for the complete liberation from it. Gotama's teaching is for the liberation from Pain. All Pain. Real or imagined.
[AN 4.80] Kamboja Suttaṃ the Pali,
Essence of the Deed, Woodward translation.
Off to Kamboja, Olds translation.
Four reasons women do not occupy stations of importance, engage in commerse or trade. Both Woodward's and Bhk. Bodhi's translations have problems which will put women's backs up. I have done my translation hoping to show an alternative way the sutta can be read. The common problem is the categorical statement "Women are ... x,y,z bad trait. Which is why they do not do x,y,z, manly things." The Pali must be 'heard' without the implication that these are absolute states. The construction is: "Wrath Ananda womenfolk" etc. To translate: "Women are wrathful" must be heard as 'women being ~' or 'if a woman be', or 'are for the most part', 'are generally', 'some women are' etc. Bhk. Bodhi has attempted to mitigate the issue by inserting the words 'are prone,' but 'prone' is not in the Pali and his translation still comes across as an irrational statement on the part of the Buddha. Separately, Woodward has changed the statement 'go to Kamboja' to 'reach the essence of the deed' reading 'kamm'ojaṃ' for 'Kambojam'. The original PTS Pali (since changed), the BJT and the CSCD, the commentary and whatever Pali is being used by Bhk. Bodhi all have 'Kamboja.' Woodward has footnoted the commentary statement that this is to be understood as an idiom standing for 'foreign trade,' but he cannot see the sense of that. But there are too many examples in the suttas of women who have become Arahant to think that the meaning could be that women do not penetrate through to the essence of the deed. The bias of his translation has blinded Woodward to this contradiction in his understanding. As it stands to defend these translations would be to say that Gotama did not forsee the state of women in future time, or even outside the local area at that time and, additionally, or, to put it another way, this would be to say that this sutta was not 'timeless'. I believe my translation overcomes these drawbacks.
[AN 4.81] Pāṇātipātī Suttaṃ the Pali,
Stealing, Woodward translation.
Four behaviors that land one in Hell; four that land one in heaven. Identical to AN 4.64.
[AN 4.82] Musāvādī Suttaṃ the Pali,
Lying, Woodward translation.
Four behaviors that land one in Hell; four that land one in heaven. A different set of four from the previous.
[AN 4.83] Vaṇṇa Suttaṃ the Pali,
Praise, Woodward translation.
Four behaviors that land one in Hell; four that land one in heaven. A different set of four from the previous two.
[AN 4.84] Vaṇṇa Suttaṃ the Pali,
Praise, Woodward translation.
Four behaviors that land one in Hell; four that land one in heaven. A different set of four from the previous two. Identical to AN 4.43 but without the verses.
[AN 4.85] Darkness, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Four sorts of persons characterized with the terms 'dark' and 'light': one born with all the advantages who is of bad behavior, one who is born with all the advantages who is of good behavior; one born with all the disadvantages who is of bad behavior, and one born with all the disadvantages who is of good behavior. A good sutta to remember if you find yourself 'judging a book by it's cover' or if you find yourself being complacent, thinking things will always be as they are. Outward circumstances depended on past behavior, future circumstances depend on current behavior. You know if you're being bad or good — so be good for goodness sake!
[AN 4.86] Oṇatoṇata Suttaṃ the Pali,
Of Low Estate, Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons characterized with the terms 'high' and 'low': one born with all the advantages who is of bad behavior, one who is born with all the advantages who is of good behavior; one born with all the disadvantages who is of bad behavior, and one born with all the disadvantages who is of good behavior.
The PTS Pali and translation omit the definitions which I have included in italics and indented. It appears in full in BJT, abridged in CSCD, and abridged by Bhk. Bodhi.
[AN 4.87] Samaṇa-m-acala-Putta Suttaṃ the Pali,
Kinds of Recluses (a), Woodward translation.
Gotama takes the names commonly given at the time to various sorts of shaman and re-defines them in terms of his Dhamma-Vicaya.
[AN 4.88] Samaṇa-m-acala-Saññojana Suttaṃ the Pali,
Kinds of Recluses (b), Woodward translation.
Gotama takes the names commonly given at the time to various sorts of shaman and re-defines them in terms of his Dhamma-Vicaya.
[AN 4.89] Samaṇa-m-acala-Diṭṭhi Suttaṃ the Pali,
Kinds of Recluses (c), Woodward translation.
Gotama takes the names commonly given at the time to various sorts of shaman and re-defines them in terms of his Dhamma-Vicaya.
[AN 4.90] Samaṇa-m-acala-Khandha Suttaṃ the Pali,
Kinds of Recluses (d), Woodward translation.
Gotama takes the names commonly given at the time to various sorts of shaman and re-defines them in terms of his Dhamma-Vicaya.
If the four suttas were intended to be taken together as a puzzle, there seem to be errors in Blue-Lotus 1 and White-Lotus 1. Both should have been that 'he weakened the asavas', not destroyed them. I recollect that the releases are attainable by even the Streamwinner but still there is a distinction there that would make the relationship rational. Then all four groups would have the structure: Streamwinner, Once Returner, Non-returner, Arahant. Blue Lotus 3 could be experiencing temporary release. Otherwise perhaps Woodward's speculation that the first group only was original and the others made up (carelessly) to form the usual group of four pairs of men (those on the four paths). Or there is also the (doubtful) possibility that there was no intention of making the four sets parallel each other.
Then there is the problem with the translation of 'appattamānaso' (appatta-mānaso) in the situation in Immovable Shaman 4. Woodward translates: 'has not made up his mind', Bhk. Bodhi: 'has not attained his mind's ideal'. Both of these appear to me at least as highly shakable. I sugest taking the word back a step: appa pa atta māmaso 'a little past mastering his mind'. Or 'mastering the mind' could be understood as a higher state than the certainty of attaining the goal of the Streamwinner. To be 'unshakable' he mist have got at least this far.
Bhk. Bodhi argues from an assumption that Blue-Lotus 1 and White-Lotus 1 are correct that there appears to be a weakening of the standards for Arahantship involved. It could be that or it could be an error in the understanding of the situation on the part of the commentator or as I suggest, an error in the recollection of the sutta.

 

Samaṇa-m-acalo
The Immovable Shaman
Samaṇapuṇḍarīko
The Blue-lotus Shaman
Samaṇapadumo
The White-lotus Shaman
Samaṇesu samaṇasukhumālo
The Sweet-faced Shaman among Shaman
1 He aspires to the goal of ultimate release. He has destroyed the āsavas; is released in heart, released by wisdom; but does not attain the eight releases. He has destroyed the āsavas; is released in heart, released by wisdom; and does abide in the eight releases He receives the necessities, good health, and good will when desired and not when not desired; he attains the jhānas; has destroyed the āsavas; and is released in heart, released by wisdom.
2 He has broken the three saŋyojana and has become a Streamwinner He has broken the three saŋyojana and warn down lust, hate and stupidity and has become a Once-Returner. He has completely destroyed the five yokes to lower births will re-appear where he will attain Arahantship without returning to this world. He has destroyed the āsavas; is released in heart, released by wisdom
3 He lives following the eight dimensional way [not so named] He lives following the ten dimensional way [not so named] He lives following the ten dimensional way [not so named] and abides in the eight releases He receives the necessities, good health, and good will when desired and not when not desired; he attains the jhānas; has destroyed the āsavas; and is released in heart, released by wisdom.
4 He is a little developed in mind and aspires to the goal of ultimate release. He lives observing the appearance and disappearance of the stockpiles, but does not experience the releases. He lives observing the appearance and disappearance of the stockpiles, but does experience the releases. He receives the necessities, good health, and good will when desired and not when not desired; he attains the jhānas; has destroyed the āsavas; and is released in heart, released by wisdom.

[AN 4.91] Asura Suttaṃ the Pali,
Asuras, Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons and their followers likened to Monsters and Dieties in four combinations.
[AN 4.92] Paṭhama Samādhi Suttaṃ the Pali,
Concentration (a), Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons classified according to their attainment of calm of heart and the higher wisdom of insight into things. Note that niether of these things by itself is termed 'samādhi'.
[AN 4.93] Dutiya Samādhi Suttaṃ the Pali,
Concentration (b), Woodward translation.
An expansion of the previous sutta. The Buddha describes four sorts of persons classified according to their attainment of calm of heart and the higher wisdom of insight into things and then urges the bhikkhus to make effort to establish their accomplishments and eliminate their deficiencies and further to press on to the elimination of the corrupting influences. Note that neither is calm the goal nor is insight the goal nor are the two together the goal, but that with the two together the corrupting influences may be eliminated and the goal attained. Calm of heart is not exclusively the jhānas. Consummate 'samādhi' is the jhānas, but along the way a serene calm should be the goal throughout the day in every activity. If one's practice is to create insight over here and practice creating serenity over there between the hours of x and y, or while a candle burns down one inch, or during the time a stick of insense burns down, or the effects of a joint wear off, by the sole technique of jhāna, it is likely that the whole practice will suffer. Whether walking or standing still or sitting or lying down, still, calm, tranquillize the entire experience of embodied living.
[AN 4.94] Concentration (c), Woodward translation.
The Third Serenity, Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha describes four sorts of persons classified according to their attainment of centered internal calm and insight into things of higher wisdom. A variation on the previous sutta. This one points to the lines of investigation which should be pursued to overcome deficiencies. The difference in the descriptive paragraph given here compared to the previous two follows my new translation. I do know that the title should be: 'Serenity, the Third'.
[AN 4.95] The Firebrand, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha ranks four persons according to their pursuit of personal profit and the profit of others. The one who pursues neither his own profit nor the profit of others is likened to a stick burning at both ends, smeared with dung in the middle: no good for nuth'n. The one who pursues both his own profit and the profit of others is likened to 'the cream of the cream.'
[AN 4.99] The Precepts, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Types of individuals classed according to whether they are of benefit to themselves only or others only or to both or neither. Continuing the series begun above (the intervening suttas were previously posted). This sutta defines what is of benefit as being the five precepts.
[AN 4.100] Potaliya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Potaliya, Woodward translation.
Gotama convinces Potaliya that of four sorts of persons who speak or withhold praise and dispraise the one who speaks timely, truthful praise of the praiseworthy and timely, truthful dispraise of what deserves dispraise is the most excellent of the four. I have edited this sutta somewhat to eliminate ambiguities in several places in Woodward's translation. The final result follows the Pali and comes closer to Bhk. Bodhi's translation which is clear. The very interesting thing in this sutta (once it is unabridged and straigtened up) is the visibility here of the way in which at least one style of dialog was conducted (there are many examples of this style in the suttas). Gotama lays out four cases and asks Potaliya to say which he thinks is best. Potaliya chooses one which is not the one which Gotama thinks is best. Gotama states that of the choices, a certain one is best. (No "you are wrong, I am right", but no waffling either. He makes the statement "This is the best, and for such and such a reason." In response Pataliya does not say "you are right, I am wrong," but indicates his acceptance of Gotama's case by stating it as Gotama has stated it explaining it as Gotama has explained it. This is the combat of two ideas without bringing in the personalities. Potalia might have disagreed up to three times and Gotama repeated the case up to a third time before Potaliya's head split into seven pieces.
[AN 4.101] Paṭhama Valāhaka Suttaṃ the Pali,
Rain-Cloud (a), Woodward translation.
Gotama likens four sorts of persons to four sorts of rain-clouds: one that thunders but doesn't rain, one that rains but doesn't thunder, one that neither rains nor thunders, one that both rains and thunders.
[AN 4.102] Rain-Cloud (a), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Gotama likens four sorts of persons to four sorts of rain-clouds: one that thunders but doesn't rain, one that rains but doesn't thunder, one that neither rains nor thunders, one that both rains and thunders. He defines mastery of Dhamma as thundering, understanding the Four Truths as raining.
[AN 4.103] Kumbha Suttaṃ the Pali,
Rain-The Pot, Woodward translation.
In this sutta Gotama compares four sorts of persons to the conditions of four waterpots: one that is covered and empty, one that is uncovered and full; one that is both uncovered and empty; and one that is covered and full. He defines 'covered' as charming comportment, 'full' as knowledge of the Four Truths.
The Pali has:
Tuccho pihito,||
pūro vivaṭo,||
tuccho vivaṭo,||
pūro pihito.|| ||

empty and covered
full and uncovered
empty and uncovered
full and covered,
which is followed by Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi:
In the first case the person is charming but has no knowledge,
in the second case he is not charming but has knowledge,
in the third case he has neither charm nor knowledge
and in the fourth case he has both charm and knowledge.
The two good qualities are (according to the order of the details as we find them in the Pali): 'full' of water which stands for charming comportment; and 'covered' which stands for comprehension of the Four Truths.
In the case of water-pots, 'empty' and 'uncovered' are not good things.
So following the details as they are presented, the order should have been:
Pūro vivaṭo,||
tuccho pihito,||
tuccho vivaṭo,||
puro pihito,
||
full and uncovered,
empty and covered,
empty and uncovered,
and full and covered.
If we take it that the headings as they are found are correct and the details have been reversed, we would have comportment standing for 'covered' and knowledge standing for 'full'. This would more closely parallel the thinking in the previous two suttas where 'thunder' stands for speech in the one case and superficial book knowledge in the second, and rain (which, do I need to point out? is water) stands for understanding. This would also better satisfy the mind as indicating that 'full' points to the more significant aspect and 'covered' to the more superficial aspect.
But there is a further complication: The pattern in the previous suttas is that the first person's first quality is a positive one. The second person has the deeper quality but lacks the quality of lesser importance. And considering that, we cannot put understanding of the Four Truths in the place of the second place.
One way or the other the Pali is incorrect and Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi follow and to make the sutta make sense either the headings need to change or the order of the details needs to change. What to do? I have chosen to change the order in the headings from first full, second covered, to first covered and second full (using Woodwards terms 'closed' and 'open', 'full' and 'empty'.)
Pihito tuccho,||
vivaṭo pūro,||
vivaṭo tuccho,||
pihito pūro.|| ||

covered and empty
uncovered and full
uncovered and empty
covered and full,
This allows the details to remain in their current order and puts The Four Truths in the position given most respect.
Long explanation for a simple change, but in this case the Pali and all the translations agree but all are in error and in such as case I need to present all the reasoning in back of a change. I have not changed the Pali.
[AN 4.104] Paṭhama Udakarahada Suttaṃ the Pali,
Pools of Water (a), Woodward translation.
[AN 4.105] Dutiya Udakarahada Suttaṃ the Pali,
Pools of Water (b), Woodward translation.
These two should be one sutta as in the previous and the following; the first is incorporated in the second. Otherwise we have The Buddha teaching people about pools of water. The Buddha compares four sorts of persons to the conditions of four pools of water: one that is shallow but looks deep, one that is deep but looks shallow, one that is shallow and looks shallow, and one that is deep and looks deep. This sutta is a twist on the use of the two sets of terms. Here deepness is a matter of understanding the Four Truths or not, appearing deep or not is a matter of having charming comportment or not.
[AN 4.106] Amba Suttaṃ the Pali,
Mangoes, Woodward translation.
The Buddha compares four sorts of persons to conditions of mangoes: one that is unripe and looks ripe, one that is ripe and looks unripe, one that is unripe and looks unripe, and one that is ripe and looks ripe. Bhk. Bodhi's version of the Pali has two of these suttas on Mangoes one of which is in brief as per the "Pools of Water" suttas above where his text has only one of those. Both probems seem to arise from the summary index at the end of the chapter (uddāna) and are likely the result of an attempt to make the chapter have the usual ten suttas. But there is no sense to the brief versions of either of these suttas. When the Buddha teaches in brief, the brief teaching still makes good Dhamma.
[AN 4.107] Mūsikā Suttaṃ the Pali,
Mice, Woodward translation.
The Buddha compares four sorts of persons to the manners in which mice abide: one that digs a hole but does not live in it, one that lives in a hole it has not dug, one that neiter digs a hole nor lives in one, and one that lives in the hole it has dug.
I tend to think this is another sutta where the headings should be reversed and inverted as per 103 above, but a case can be made either way, so I have left it as it is.
[AN 4.108] Balivadda Suttaṃ the Pali,
Oxen, Woodward translation.
The Buddha characterizes the behavior of leaders of sects as resembling the behavior of bulls leading herds of cattle: one is a terror to the cattle of another herd, not to his own; one is a terror to his own herd but not to other herds; one is a terror to both; and one is a terror to neither.
[AN 4.109] Rukkha Suttaṃ the Pali,
Trees, Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens persons to trees of sapwood or heartwood.
[AN 4.110] Āsivisa Suttaṃ the Pali,
Snakes, Woodward translation.
The Buddha likkens persons to snakes in the matter of their possession of venom and the potency of that venom. This one appears to rely on word-play similar to our double meaning for venom: poison and poisonous temperment. But the word for poisonous temperment means 'terribly-poisonous', which leaves us with the best case being 'not terribly poisonous' which is still poisonous. Bhk. Bodhi probably has the best solution to this one: 'one who'se venom is quick to come up but not virulent', etc. where the best case becomes 'neither quick to come up nor virulent.' But we still end up with a sutta that deals with sorts of people with anger.
[AN 4.111] Kesi, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro Translation.
The Buddha compairs his training methods with those of Kesi the horse trainer.
[AN 4.112] Assājānīya-java Suttaṃ the Pali,
Speed, Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens the straightness, speed, patience and docility of the bhikkhu worthy of offerings to the qualities of a king's thoroughbred horse.
[AN 4.114] Nāga Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Elephant, Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens the qualities of a worthy bhikkhu to the qualities of a king's elephant.
[AN 4.115] Occasions, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro Translation.
The Buddha delineates the peramaters of the four choices one has on the occasion where action is contemplated. Another really handy piece of information, especially if you don't like thinking of your self as a fool and you do like thinking of yourself as one of manly strenth, manly vigour and energy.
[AN 4.117] Ārakkha Suttaṃ the Pali,
On Guard, Woodward translation.
Four occasions when one's guard should be up: when the mind is harassed by lust, hatred, stupidity, and intoxicating pride.
[AN 4.121] Bhaya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Self-Reproach, Woodward translation.
Four reasons based in fear that make people resolve on good behavior. This sutta has that wonderful list of tortures it is always so inspiring to think about during meditation and contimplation of rebirth.
[AN 4.122] Udakoroha Bhaya Suttaṃ the Pali,
The Wave, Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four fearful challenges that face the newly ordained bhikkhu who has gone forth in faith: the need to overcome anger at being instructed in proper forms of behavior for a bhikkhu; the need to overcome desire to indulge the appatite for food in ways that are not suitable for a beggar, the need to over come envy of householders enjoying the pleasurs of the senses; and the need to overcome lust on the sight of attractive members of the opposite sex.
[AN 4.125] Amity (a), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali, Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and Ñanamoli Thera translation
The Buddha describes four paths to deva worlds based on the four devine lifestyles: friendliness, sympathy, empathy and detachment. Then he points out that the destiny of those who are students of the Dhamma is non-returnering while that of those of other beliefs is returning to the round of rebirths. Here is a case where it is clearly stated that practice of even just one of the devine states, as long as it is combined with an understanding of the goal of the Dhamma, leads to non-returning.
[AN 4.126] Amity (b), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali, Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and Ñanamoli Thera translation
The Buddha describes four paths to the Pure Abodes based on the four devine lifestyles: friendliness, sympathy, empathy and detachment in combination with seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self.
These are the Paths described in these two, together with the previous two (already posted):

Practice Co-factor Immediate Destiny Subsequent Destiny
1st Jhāna Non-believer Brahmā-world.
Lifespan 1 kappa.*
Return to the Round of Rebirths
1st Jhāna 'Hearer' of the Buddha† Brahmā-world.
Lifespan 1 kappa.
Arahantship there
2nd Jhāna Non-believer Ābhassara-world (Radiant Ones).
Lifespan 2 kappas.
Return to the Round of Rebirths
2nd Jhāna 'Hearer' of the Buddha Ābhassara-world (Radiant Ones).
Lifespan 2 kappas.
Arahantship there
3rd Jhāna Non-believer Subhakiṇha-world (Luminous Ones).
Lifespan 4 kappas.
Return to the Round of Rebirths
2nd Jhāna 'Hearer' of the Buddha Subhakiṇha-world (Luminous Ones).
Lifespan 4 kappas.
Arahantship there
4th Jhāna Non-believer Vehapphala-world (Fruit of the Sky).
Lifespan 500 kappas.
Return to the Round of Rebirths
4th Jhāna 'Hearer' of the Buddha Vehapphala-world (Fruit of the Sky).
Lifespan 500 kappas.
Arahantship there
1st Jhāna seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there
2nd Jhāna seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there
2nd Jhāna seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there
4th Jhāna seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Friendliness Non-believer Brahmā-world.
Lifespan 1 kappa.*
Return to the Round of Rebirths
Abiding with a heart of Friendliness 'Hearer' of the Buddha† Brahmā-world.
Lifespan 1 kappa.
Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Sympathy Non-believer Ābhassara-world (Radiant Ones).
Lifespan 2 kappas.
Return to the Round of Rebirths
Abiding with a heart of Sympathy 'Hearer' of the Buddha Ābhassara-world (Radiant Ones).
Lifespan 2 kappas.
Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Empathy Non-believer Subhakiṇha-world (Luminous Ones).
Lifespan 4 kappas.
Return to the Round of Rebirths
Abiding with a heart of Empathy 'Hearer' of the Buddha Subhakiṇha-world (Luminous Ones).
Lifespan 4 kappas.
Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Detachment Non-believer Vehapphala-world (Fruit of the Sky).
Lifespan 500 kappas.
Return to the Round of Rebirths
Abiding with a heart of Detachment 'Hearer' of the Buddha Vehapphala-world (Fruit of the Sky).
Lifespan 500 kappas.
Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Friendliness seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Sympathy seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Empathy seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there
Abiding with a heart of Detachment seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self. Pure Abodes Arahantship there

*One complete evolution and devolution of the World-system.

†There is no specification as to the nature of the 'hearer' (Bhagavato sāvaka), but presumably this would at least require the individual to have unshakable faith or to have conceived the yearning to bring rebirth to an end or the idea of Arahantship would not occur to him ... and it would not happen unawares.

Except for the cases of the non-believer, all of these are Non-Returner paths. Note that except where the practice of jhāna leads directly to the Pure Abodes, the implication is that the full lifespan of the destination is to be lived Ḷ. There is a definate progression with regard to rebirth of each succeeding devine abiding, with that of upekha, rebirth in the Vehapphala-world being the most pleasant and long lasting, but that if the time it takes to achieve Arahantship is considered, the heierarchy is reversed. This accords with a theme that runs throughout the suttas that it is better to 'take one's medicine' here — that though the life in lower worlds may be more unpleasant, it is also more conducive to achieving the goal. A note of caution not to take this to extremes! The situation again reverses at the point below human birth where each succeeding lower rebirth is more difficult to escape. For more on this see discussion of AN 3.88 and discussion of AN 3.92 below).

[AN 4.127] Tathāgata Acchariya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Marvels (a), Woodward translation.
A Wonderous light appears when a Buddha descends into his mother's womb, at his birth, at his awakening and upon his first setting to roll the wheel of Dhamma. I wonder if this is not a distortion of what Gotama actually said, maybe a subtle wording misunderstood. At other points he is said to have spoken metaphorically of his appearance as being a light brought into the world, which it certainly was, and that was certainly marvel enough. Also, this light that he brought is said to make it possible for beings living in darkness to see that there are other beings there. This is a remark very frequently made by those who have become converts. I suggest this is a reference to the breaking of Pajapati's problem which unbroken makes it impossible to prove to one's self that there are other beings there. The breaking of this problem does release a sort of vision which could be understood as light making visible other being here.
[AN 4.128] Dutiya Tathāgata Acchariya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Marvels (a), Woodward translation.
The appearance of a Buddha results in the miracle of an open mind and ready ear in beings overcome by habit, pride, excitement, and blindness. This is more in the nature of the sort of miracle praised by Gotama.
[AN 4.129] Ānanda Acchariya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Marvels (c), Woodward translation.
The Buddha points out the marvelous way bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, laymen and lay women take delight when Ananda approaches and teaches.
[AN 4.130] Cakkavatti Acchariya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Marvels (d), Woodward translation.
The Buddha points out the marvelous way nobles, brahmins, householders and ascetics take delight when a Wheel-turning King approaches and speaks and then he compares this phenomena with the similar thing that happens when Ananda approaches and teaches bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, laymen and lay-women.
With this sutta one can see the nature of seeing into the future. At another point Gotama says of Ananda that if he did not attain to Arahantship, he would become a Wheel-turning King. Although for most of us the memory of the last wheel-turning King will be somewhat faint, the mechanism is the same for seeing into the future by way of comparison with past events that are more easily called to mind. This is not the same thing as predicting the future from past events as it is practiced by the weatherman or the general or the political scientist. That is an intellectual exercise which is frequently incorrect. This is 'seeing' in a moment of intuition, the correspondence of two events and 'knowing' the significance. So after three suttas giving us marvels, we have a fourth telling us how to see such things for ourselves. That is, if you have an open mind and a ready ear. Otherwise you are, of course, free to think 'he is just talking through his hat.'

hatta

[AN 4.131] Saŋyojana Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Fetters, Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four sorts of persons in relationship to the sorts of yokes to rebirth [saŋyogana] they have or have not yet got rid of.
This sutta raises important issues. First is an unusual breakdown of the saŋyoganas:
1. those yoking one to rebirth in the lower worlds Woodward translates 'this World' and then, for the Once Returner translates in a way that can be misunderstood as indicating that he has not broken any of the first five fetters (this, apparently, an opinion derived from commentary). But these are yokes to any 'kama-loka' which includes the deva-worlds up to the Tusita Realm — see the Buddhist cosmology here — These first five yokes are: 1. The One-truth (own-body) view, 2. Doubt about kamma, the Awakening of the Buddha, etc., 3. Belief that good deeds, ethical conduct or rituals can bring an end to Pain, 4. Wishing for pleasure, 5. Deviant thinking. When the first three of these are broken by the Streamwinner, he is no longer subject to rebirth lower than the world of humans. He is able to see when he is hanging on to a way of viewing his individuality that will lead him to hell or some other low state and is able to let that go without having the strength to let go of every sort of being. The Once-returner is also a Streamwinner, so he will have at least broken the first three yokes. The Buddha is in this case speaking of the category as a whole, not it's individual components. He does not say 'has not broken any fetters' he says 'has not broken the 'orambhāgiyāni saŋyojanāni.' All five.
2. those yoking one to rebirth
3. those yoking one to existence.
Bhkkhu Bodhi cites the commentary for definition of the last two and the result is a restatement of the terms with nothing informative added.
You are welcome to disagree, but I suggest we do not need to go off into bizarre speculations relying on the commentary to understand these last two categories. It is sufficient to carefully examine the nature of the 10 saŋyojanāni that we are given.
First, to understand the latter two categories, one must understand fetter #1: sakkāyaditthi. The usual understanding is that this means 'view of self' understanding that to mean the idea one has that one has an eternal self, etc. Actually the usual understanding is to flip to the view that there is no self which is why this yoke must be understood in broader terms than 'own-self'. The emphasis should be on the 'view' part of the compound. The holding onto points of view concerning individuality with the idea: 'This alone is the truth, all other views are stupidity.' The Streamwinner who has freed himself from this yoke will have understood that the problem of pain arises as a result of the holding on to a view concerning his having an eternal self, but he will not necessarily have actually abandoned the identification, thoughts, and so forth that arise from having had that point of view in the past. Its like the phantom limb phenomena. He is likened to the person who has come across a well without a bucket to retrieve the water. He can see the solution (as it were) but has not got the means to drink.
In a similar way all the first five fetters have to do with orienting the intellect to the goal and focusing the individual's behavior on elimination of various gross obstructions to perception of his inner workings. These first five do not constitute having uprooted the underlying drive to be. The next two fetters are lust for form and lust for immaterial existence: the underlying drives to be, aka: yokes to actual rebirth.
The final three yokes are pride, a fear-ridden-anxiety, and being subject to misunderstanding (aka blindness). Here we have the case of the person who has sufficient experience to prevent him from behavior that would result in rebirth in any realm of being, but for whatever reason (long habit, experience, difficult circumstances) there remain these subtle states of mind. This is the case of the Non-Returner who no longer own-makes (sankharams) and who obtains final release at some point after the death of the body but before assuming any rebirth.
There is much discussion back and forth concerning the precise state this individual is in caused by trying to imagine a state of existence which does not require rebirth. A between-births. But this is not necessary if one examines AN 11.7 and similar suttas where it is stated that there is the possibility of perception without perception of 'being' in any realm of 'being'. 'Existence' is a matter of perception, rebirth is a matter of having acted upon perception to the effect of having set rolling identification with form or the formless. The Paṭicca Samuppada differentiates between bhava and jāti: existence and rebirth. This person is percipient of these subtle mental states. That is what remains for him of existence. That is what he gets rid of, without assuming rebirth, to become Arahant.
Say I.
[AN 4.132] Paṭibhāno Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Reply, Woodward translation.
Orators, Olds, translation.
A little four-liner about the facility and precision with which persons utter speech or engage in banter or repartee.
The three terms to understand are: paṭibhāna, yutta-paṭibhāno and mutta-paṭibhāno. Yutta = yoked; mutta = free. paṭibhāna = paṭi + bhāna = re(flect back on) + bhāna.
The trouble starts with the meaning of 'bhāna'. PED does not list this term. Points of Controversy has it coming from 'bhā' 'to become apparent'; possibly it comes from 'bhāṇaka' reciting, or 'bhaṇati, to speak, say, tell, recite, preach.
Woodward translates paṭibhāna 'reply'. Bhk. Bodhi translates 'discernment'. In their discussion of terms in Points of Controversy pg. 377, Shwe Zan Ang and Mrs. Rhys Davids describe the meaning as being 'that by which things knowable become represented, are present'. (Which requires some paṭibhāna to understand.) Or 'analytic insight'. A footnote there translates the term 'rhetorical gift'. My reading says this term refers to the product of discernment in speach, not the thinking processes that precede speech. Also it looks to go beyond mere reply and include spontaneous recitation. So I would settle on re-citation. That would result in the 'literal' translation:
One has yoked-recitation not free-recitation;
one has free-recitation not yoked-recitation;
one has yoked-recitation and free-recitation;
and one has neither yoked-recitation nor free-recitation.
Now is that 'yoked to the topic,' 'speaking precisely,' or yoked in the sense of restrained, constrained; or is that 'speaking concisely'? Is 'free recitation' unrestrained recitation or easily flowing recitation and in either case is the negative 'constrained recitation' and does that mean 'constrained to the topic' or 'speaking concisely'? Obo say!
Both Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi appear to be following their understanding of the commentary. Woodward has 'to the point' and 'diffuse'. He has abridged person #3 to: 'he who does both'. Unabridged this becomes 'to the point and diffuse'. At best, this needs to be heard as 'on point and in detail.' Person 4, who is neither, would be one who was 'neither to the point nor difuse' for which we might be thankful at least for the brevity.
Bhk. Bodhi has translated 'incisive and 'free-flowing'. Incisive, in meaning number 2, (not as in #1, cuttingly): precisely and with exactitude. Yoked to the topic, free in terms of readiness of wit. Bhk. Bodhi's translation of 'paṭibhāno' as 'discernment' makes these aspects of 'discernment'. But reciting or discerning, it is at least possible to be both precise and have free-flowing thoughts or speech or to be neither precise nor have free-flowing thoughts or speech.
Woodward complicates the issue noting the commentary on the Puggalapaññatti as suggesting the meaning for 'yutta' as 'succinct'; 'mutta' as 'rambling'. This would alter the meaning to:
One has succinct speech/discernment not rambling speech/discernment;
one has rambling speech/discernment not succinct speech/discernment;
one has succinct speech/discernment and rambling speech/discernment;
one has neither succinct speech/discernment nor rambling speech/discernment.
Between Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi, Bhk. Bodhi's solution works the best if read without discernment. (Sorry, couldn't help myself. To be precise, I was feeling unconstrained.)
I dipped my oar in with my own solution which takes a little from here and a little from there.
[AN 4.133] Neyya Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Quick Witted, Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons: one who grasps a matter intuitively, one who understands hearing the details, one to whom things must be explained and one who is only able (at best) to remember the text.
These are all learners, there is another sort of person who cannot even remember a thing from one minute to the next.
[AN 4.134] Phalupajivī Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Effort, Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons differentiated by whether or not they live depending on the fruit of their prior deeds or on present effort.
[AN 4.135] Vajja Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Blameworthy, Woodward translation.
Four persons differentiated by the degree to which they are subject to blame.
[AN 4.136] Paripūrakāri Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Virtue (a), Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons distinguished by the thoroughness of their mastery of ethical conduct, concentration and wisdom.
[AN 4.137] Garu Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Virtue (b), Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons distinguished by the thoroughness of their mastery of and respect for ethical conduct, concentration and wisdom.
[AN 4.138] Nikaṭṭha Puggala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Subdued, Woodward translation.
Four sorts of persons sorted out according to their having mastered their body or their mind or neither or both.
It is interesting to note that mastering the body is put only in terms of living alone in the forest. This makes it probable that this was an early sutta. Later control of the body would have been phrased in broader terms of living in solitude. Bhk. Bodhi translates the term 'nikaṭṭha,' rendered by Woodward as 'subdued,' as 'retreat'. "gone on retreat by" PED: brought down, debased, low. NI = down; KAṬṬHA= plowed. Plowed under.
[AN 4.139] Dhammakathika Suttaṃ the Pali,
Dhamma-Talk, Woodward translation.
Four sets of speakers and the ways they are judged to be Dhamma-talkers by their gatherings. Bhkkhu Bodhi's reading of this sutta is much better:
One that talks little and that is off point with a following that is incompetent to judge and so considers him a Dhamma-talker;
one that says much and that is off point with a following that is incompetent to judge and so considers him a Dhamma-talker;
one that says little but that is on point and his company is competent to judge and so considers him a Dhamma-talker;
one that says much and that is on point and his company is competent to judge and so considers him a Dhamma-talker.
Woodward would have the competancy of the company judged by the competancy of the speaker.
[AN 4.140] Vādī Suttaṃ the Pali,
Expounder, Woodward translation.
Four persons: one able to convey the intent but not the letter; one able to convey the letter but not the intent; one able to do neither and one able to do both.
The Buddha concludes this sutta with the statement that one who has the four paṭisambhidā could not falter in both the conveyance of the intent and the conveyance of the letter. Paṭisambhidā PAṬI: (reflect back on) + SAM = co, con, with; + BHIDA break apart, analyze. That which is reflected back upon analysis ... in this case of the intent, the form, the roots, and the manner of rethorical exposistion of a teaching. (Woodward: the Four Analytical Powers; Bhk. Bodhi: The Four Analytical Knowledges) These are: attha, the spirit or intent of word, phrase or complete exposition; dhamma, one authority (U. Pandi, pg. 377 Points of Controversy) says this is understanding the word, another (the Abhidhamma) understanding the logic behind an expression — it is possible to merge these two sets of ideas ('this is said this way (the word) because people hear this expression thus (the reason)', 'this is said in this order (the word) because in this way it has such and such an effect on the mind (the reason)' 'this is said this way (the word) because this is the order in which the idea expresses its evolution and logical basis (the reason); etc.), but this may be a confusion of this term with the next, and the meaning of 'dhamma' is 'thing', 'form' or 'the Word' and the Abhidhamma always tries to make things appear more obscure than they are and in this case they are trying to make this into knowledge of Dhamma. But that would make this not a universal set of tools of analysis, but one directed at this Dhamma only and usually when Gotama is speaking about his Dhamma he makes it clear that that is what he is doing; nirutti, the knowledge and intuitive knowledge of the roots of both word and phrase and the proper grammatical construction thereof (for example, etymology, or understanding the origin and meaning of an idiomatic expression); (to digress: in what I have called 'Old Pali' where the letter is a syllable, a syllable is a word, and a word is a sentence, the explanation of the word in the science of Nirutti is more along the lines of the explanation of the origins and meaning of the idiomatic expression than the construction of a 'word' from the meaning of it's 'syllables'. A Pali 'word' is something like a Chinese pictogram. And like such, a Pali word can be read forwards and backwards and assumes different meanings with different inflections (rather than being a separate word with 'different' spelling, long ā, etc.) and is to be understood in multiple ways — that is, not in many separate ways but in many ways simultaneously. (the same thing happens in English even today, but the phenomena goes mostly unnoticed ... except in certain cases of madness Obo say! What we have in the dictionaries is a selection from the possibilities, not the entire scope. Not understanding this is the source of many misunderstandings made by modern linguistic analysis. It is a form of linguistic imprisonment constraining us to one reality. ... and it is always breaking down.) and paṭibhāna (see discussion at 132 above), the knowledge of (and inspired access to) retorical expression, enrapturing turn of phrase, tactics in the conveyance of an idea. Ahum.
[AN 4.146] Kāla Suttaṃ the Pali,
Seasons (a), Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens stages of progress towards the goal (hearing Dhamma, Discussing Dhamma, calming down, and insight) to four seasons.
[AN 4.147] Dutiya Kāla Suttaṃ the Pali,
Seasons (b), Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens stages of progress towards the goal (hearing Dhamma, Discussing Dhamma, calming down, and insight) to four seasons. An expansion of the previous sutta.
Note the order, first after hearing Dhamma is discussing it which is dhamma research. Then is developed all those practices under the heading of calming down: giving, developing ethical practices, developing self-control, and developing the jhānas. The final season is the development of insight. There is no problem with beginning any or all of these practices at the start, but one should understand how progress will unfold.
[AN 4.148] Vacī Duccarita Suttaṃ the Pali,
Wrong Practice, Woodward translation.
Painful practice of speech. Note: not 'miccha vācā', 'vacī duccarita' painful vocal carrying on.
[AN 4.148] Vacī Succarita Suttaṃ the Pali,
Right Practice, Woodward translation.
Pleasant practice of speech. Note: not 'sammā vācā', 'vacī succarita' pleasant vocal carrying on.
[AN 4.150] Sāra Suttaṃ the Pali,
Essences, Woodward translation.
Four essentials: ethical practice, serenity, wisdom and freedom.
PED: Sāra 1. essential, most excellent, strong 2. the innermost, hardest part of anything, the heart or pith of a tree 3. substance, essence, choicest part
[AN 4.151] Indriya Suttaṃ the Pali,
Controlling Powers (a), Woodward translation.
Four forces: faith, energy, mind, serenity.
[AN 4.152] Bala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Controlling Powers (b), Woodward translation.
Four enabling powers: faith, energy, mind, serenity.
The distinction between the 'Indriyāni,' (forces) and the and the 'Balāni,' (enabling powers) is that the forces are impersonal external energy-fields, the enabling powers are personally cultivated uses of forces. When faith, energy, mind, and serenity are 'Indriyāni,' they are forces. When they are put to work, they are controlled by the 'balani'.
[AN 4.153] Dutiya Bala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Powers (a), Woodward translation.
Four enabling powers: faith, energy, faultlessness, and tenacity.

The Blind Leading the Blind

The meaning of the fourth one 'saŋgāha-balaṃ' here is uncertain. Woodward has 'collectedness', Bhk. Bodhi: 'the power of sustaining a favorable relationship'. It has something to do with grouping together by way of attachment or association. Where is the commentator when you need him? Oh, he's over here. He says it is mispelled and should be sangaṇha, 'showing kindness'. PED spells it sanga. If we just go by the word itself, it means SAṂ = with, own; GĀHA = grip as in 'in the grip of passion'; 'own-grip'. Get a grip on yourself mon! Stick-to-it-iveness?
[AN 4.154] Tatiya Bala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Powers (b), Woodward translation.
Four enabling powers: mind, serenity, faultlessness, and tenacity. Everyone is sticking to their previous version of sangaṇha, for this one.
[AN 4.155] Catuttha Bala Suttaṃ the Pali,
Computation, Woodward translation.
Four enabling powers: reconsideration, development, faultlessness and tenacity.
PED spells the first one 'Paṭisankhāna' and defines it along the lines of reflection, judgment, consideration. This is the obvious meaning in the sutta noted by Woodward who nevertheless translates as 'computation'. Bhk. Bodhi: reflection.
[AN 4.162] Computation, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Four paths to the eradication of the corrupting influences: the unpleasant slow path to higer knowledge; the unpleasant fast path to higher knowledge, the pleasant slow path to higher knowlege, and the pleasant swift path to higher knowledge. In detail.
Woodward characterizes these as 'modes of progress', but the word is 'paṭipada' which is 'path-stepping', or the practice itself. Bhks. Thanissaro and Bodhi both use 'practice'. The shift in meaning is necessary to understand that the emphasis is on the description of method not how the practice is experienced. The details in this case are the details of how each mode of practice works. Mechanism of action.
[AN 4.163] The Unlovely, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Four paths to the eradication of the corrupting influences: the unpleasant slow path to higer knowledge; the unpleasant fast path to higher knowledge, the pleasant slow path to higher knowlege, and the pleasant swift path to higher knowledge.
A variation on the previous, with this sutta providing the methods of practice used by those following each path. Of note here is something that could be used to support the idea of arahantship without the jhānas. The first two modes of pratice do not use the jhānas as their samādhi practice; they use meditation on the foul. (If we stretch our minds all the way over to SN 5.54.9 we can see that it appears that meditation on the foul was at an early point the main practice employed by the bhikkhus to establish serenity (samādhi).) The distinction is clear. The difference is that by using the jhānas the practice is pleasant. All four paths depend on the practitioners powers (balāni) of faith, modesty, self-restraint, energy, and wisdom. Speed of insight depends on the degree to which the forces (indriya) of faith, energy, mind, serenity and wisdom are found in him. These latter are characterized (in the previous sutta) as 'givens' depending on the individual's basic nature in terms of the degree to which he is passionate, malicious, infatuated. ('Given' does not mean unalterable. It's just what you start with.)
So the method described here is that one who works at reducing his passionate, malicious, infatuated nature, controlling himself by way of faith, modesty, self-restraint, energy, and wisdom, would experience a proportionate rise in the forces of faith, energy, mind, serenity and wisdom and by that an increase in the speed of his attainment of higher knowledge, if he is indifferent as to whether or not his path is pleasant, he uses the meditation on the foul, if he wishes his path to be pleasant he uses the jhānas. Who would choose the unpleasant path? Maybe it is that jhāna practice requires great long stretches of solitude, calm, peace, quiet to develop. Such things are not always easy to come by. Meditation on the foul is a practice which can be worked into a more turbulant life situation.
[AN 4.164] Patient (a), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Four paths of practice: marked by intolerant irritation, marked by endurance, marked by self-control, marked by calming down.
[AN 4.165] Patient (b), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Four paths of practice: marked by intolerant irritation, marked by endurance, marked by self-control, marked by calming down. A variation on the previous sutta. The word translated 'patience/impaience' by Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi, and 'tolerance' by Bhk. Thanissaro is 'Khamā/Akkhamā.' What is needed is a word for the impatience/intollerance/inability to endure things that give rise to emotional reactions. None of these quite works. The word also means 'earth' which in the simile does not react when filth is thrown at it, etc. Good/ill humored? Forgiving/unforgiving? Indulgent/unindulgent?
[AN 4.166] Chaṭṭha Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, The Pali,
In Further Detail, Woodward translation.
Four paths to the eradication of the corrupting influences: the unpleasant slow path to higer knowledge; the unpleasant fast path to higher knowledge, the pleasant slow path to higher knowlege, and the pleasant swift path to higher knowledge. The factors of unpleasantness and slowness are considered less than advantageous while those factors of pleasantness and speed are considered advantageous. A development of AN 4.162 above.
[AN 4.167] Moggallāna Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Sāriputta and Moggallāna (a), Woodward translation.
Questioned by Sariputta, Moggallana reveals that of the four paths to the eradication of the corrupting influences his was the one that was unpleasant but with speedy attainment of higher knowledge.
[AN 4.168] Sāriputta Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Sāriputta and Moggallāna (b), Woodward translation.
Questioned by Moggallana, Sariputta reveals that of the four paths to the eradication of the corrupting influences his was the one that was pleasant and with speedy attainment of higher knowledge.
[AN 4.169] Kilesa-Parinibbāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
With Some Effort Woodward translation.
Afflicted Extinguishment, Olds translation.
The Buddha distinguishes between two sorts of persons in accordance with their path: one pair meditates on the foul and one pair uses the jhānas. Of each pair one attains extinguishment here and one hereafter. In the case of the first pair, meditating on the foul, extinguishment either here or hereafter comes after own-making (saŋkhāra). In the case of the second pair, using the jhānas, extinguishment either here or hereafter comes without own-making.
In the description of the type of person Woodward translates 'saŋkhāra' as 'with- and without effort'; but in the list of contemplations, he translates it 'activities'. Bhk. Bodhi does a similar thing using 'exertion' and 'conditioned phenomena'. 'Saŋkhāra' does have the dual meaning of the activity used to create personal existence and the identified-with existing thing, but the translation should make it more obvious that it is the two sides of this one idea that are being spoken of. 'Confounding' and 'the confounded' or 'fabricating' and 'the fabricated'. And it is not 'conditioned'! (see the discussion: Is Nibbana Conditioned) And the idea is not just 'activity' but 'identification with the intent to create the experience of pleasure through action of thought, speech, and body; and the identified with result. It is essential to grasp this idea in order to understand how the Buddha is distinguishing the two sets of individuals. The contemplation of the unpleasant involves saŋkhāra (it involves personal, identified-with perceptions and thoughts and intentions and behavior), where the jhānas do not (or, at least they evolve towards and culminate in detachment precluding own-making). In other words both paths get one there, but the one using contemplation of the foul involves a battle with issues of the self which must be resolved first. This is a very important sutta to read when trying to understand the meaning of saŋkhāra. If you do not have the concept correctly, the sutta makes no sense.
[AN 4.170] Coupled Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Ananda describes four ways Arahantship is arrived at, stating that all those who declare Arahantship do so having followed one or another of these courses.
This sutta seems strangely out of context. It must have been spoken by Ananda some time after the Buddhas's death. Another sutta which points out the need to develop both calm and insight.
[AN 4.171] Sañcetanā Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Intention Woodward translation.
Intentions (a), Olds translation
The Buddha describes how it is intent that is the mechanism of action of kamma of body, speech and mind that results in the personal experience of pleasure or pain in body, speech, or mind. Intent, in turn, is shown to be impersonal. The intent driving a deed can arise in the self or in another. Further, the groundwork for action can be known or unknown. In whatever combination of factors it is blindness that is at the bottom of it and the elimination of blindness that ends kamma.
An example of other-instigated (or motivated) intent and preparation for action would be the case of the soldier being commanded to act by the general, the employee by the boss, etc. In the case of an other-instigated intent, both the instigator and the one who is instigated experience the consequences in accordance with the intent. There is no escape by saying 'I was just following orders.' Better to refuse to act when the action (e.g., killing, lying, theft, etc., for whatever reason) deviates from one's own perspective on the kammic outcome and take the consequences than to follow orders and take consequences resulting from another's intent (e.g., to inflict pain from motives based in lust, hate, delusion)! At least you won't end up in hell from refusing to do some foul deed.
This sutta is, in some versions of the Pali and in Bhk. Bodhi's translation, combined with the next sutta. Whether or not it was at one time a single sutta, it should be read in conjunction with that sutta.
[AN 4.172] Sañcetanā Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Intention, Woodward translation.
Intentions (a), Olds translation
The Buddha describes how it is intent that is the mechanism of action of kamma of body, speech and mind that results in the personal experience of pleasure or pain in body, speech, or mind. Hearing this exposition, Sariputta explains the details of how this works for the self-instigated action that results in rebirth, the other-instigated action that results in rebirth, the both self and other-instigated action that results in rebirth and asks the Buddha for an explanation of how there can be rebirth or not in the case where there is neither self-instigation nor other instigation. Gotama explains.
[AN 4.173] Sāriputta - Paṭisambhidā Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Analysis, Woodward translation.
Sāriputta explains to the bhikkhus that although he early-on grasped both the spirit and the letter of logical analysis and teaches it in detail, still, if, while the Buddha is face-to-face with them, if any of them have doubts, they should ask the Buddha.
[AN 4.175] Upavāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Upavāna, Woodward translation.
Upavāna questions Sāriputta about making an end of Pain. Sāriputta makes the point that it is not by conduct or vision that and end of Pain is to be reached, but that it is by conduct resulting in knowing and seeing things as they really are that brings one to the end of Pain. Perfect theoretical knowledge, behavior that is in accordance with the Magga, and insight into the Four Truths is not sufficient to achieve the end of pain. This behavior and vision must be directed at and result in actual knowledge and actually seeing these things at work in the world. It is only upon this actually seeing that there can be the repulsion that results in letting go, freedom, and seeing freedom in freedom being free. See AN 4.177 (next) for how this is put by Gotama.
[AN 4.177] Rāhula Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Rāhula, Woodward translation.
The Buddha instructs his son Rāhula to regard the characteristics of solidity, liquidity, heat and motion, whether internal or external as not his, not an aspect of himself, not his real self so that seeing things as they really are, he will be repulsed, let go, and by that attain freedom and seeing freedom in freedom be free.
[AN 4.178] The Village Pond, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes two pairs of individuals. One pair is striving to get rid of 'own-body', the other is striving to break up 'blindness'. In each of the pairs the persons have attained peaceful states of mind and liberation of heart and work at their objective but in one case there is no excitement at the task while in the other there is. The Buddha states that where this excitement is missing, the task is unlikely to be accomplished.
The task of the first individual is said to be to eliminate 'own-body' (sakkāya-nirodha). Not 'own-body-view' (sakkāya-diṭṭhi). But there is no 'own-body' there to get rid of. How are we to understand this? Bhk. Thanissaro translates it: 'cessation of self-identification', Bhk. Bodhi: 'cessation of personal existence', but Woodward translates it more closely to what is found in the Pali: 'ending of the person-pack'. The task has two parts: breaking the hold of the view that the way one sees the self is 'the one true view' concerning the self (e.g., that body is the self, or belongs to the self or is a product of the self or has the self within it); and actually attaining liberation from that body. It looks as though what is being spoken of is the latter task, but the wording is not so clear as to allow certainty. If the meaning is breaking the view, what we have here is advanced meditators who have gained liberation of heart working on the attainment of Streamwinning. (Not an impossibility, but it adds a dimension of complexity to the situation which is confusing.) Similarly confusing is the second set of persons, those working on 'breaking up blindness' (avijjāppabheda). (PED: breaking or splitting up, opening. Giving the example of analyzing a word by way of breaking it into syllables). (Bhk. Thanissaro: 'the breaching of ignorance'; Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi: 'the breaking up of ignorance') This also can be divided into two tasks: the first is intelectual comprehension of the truth of the four truths or the seeing that 'all that which has come to be comes to an end' (which would be 'breaching of ignorance'), the second is the actual seeing of the truths at work (or the no longer seeing of things as working in accordance with the previously held view one believed was the 'one true view' because one is now able to know and see 'the dependence of this on that') as in the Paṭicca Samuppada (which would be the breaking up of ignorance). And again here if the first task is being referred to we would have the case of an advanced meditator working on Streamwinning. If it is the second case, the task has gone beyond seeing the truth of the four truths (which is necessary to break through the sakkāya-diṭṭhi) and is now focused on all the peripheral or collateral misbegotten beliefs that accompany holding on to a view of self and things. Since the term in the second group is 'breaking up' as in analyzing (where Bhk. Thanissaro has used a misleading term here that points to the attaining of Streamwinning) we have grounds for understanding the intent of the sutta to be the second stage in both sets of persons, that is that they are Streamwinners working on the higher accomplishments (Arahantship): ending self-view, all-round or complete detachment from body, or any sort of self-identification (we could say: 'the ending of 'own-body' in quotes, meaning not just the ending of the view, but the ending of the experience itself), and breking up blindness.
[AN 4.179] Nibbāna, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Elder Ānanda asks the Elder Sāriputta the reasons that some beings attain Nibbāna in this life when others do not and is told that it depends on their awareness or the lack of awareness upon perception that a thing is or is not connected to deterioration, stability, advance, or attainment. See: How to Judge from Personal Experience where there are only two criteria: "Doing this will result in good conditions increasing and bad conditions decreasing," etc. One of the most handy bits of guidance you will ever find.
[AN 4.180] Nibbāna, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali.
A well-known (and too little used) sutta. The Buddha tells the bhikkhus to determine whether or not a saying is to be considered as his word by comparing the phrases and their construction (padavyañjana: pada: phrase; vyañjana, lubrication, component parts; Woodward: 'words and syllables'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'words and phrases'. The precise meanins of this phrase is worth a deeper look. 'Pada' is literally 'foot', Pāda 'footstep' or 'path'. In the spoken language the 'letter' was a syllable, and the bhikkhus were on occasion remarked to take pride in repeating Gotama's word 'down to the syllable', but vyañjana means 'letter' only in the sense of 'as opposed to the spirit'. It does mean component part and derives from the idea of lubricant (enabling the letters to work together and make sense) and streatching out, drawing out or erecting, i.e. the construction of the phrase) with the phrases and their construction as found in the Suttas and in the Vinaya. This is to be done even in the case of four great authorities: Someone who has reportedly heard a saying face-to-face with the Buddha; some Sangha with a reportedly learned elder; some reportedly learned Sangha; a single reportedly learned monk.
Today this is taught with the idea that we are to accept it as the word of the Buddha if it comes from any of these four 'authorities'. This is exactly the opposite of the meaning found in the sutta. We should also add that this work of comparison should be done with any reportedly true saying heard from any 'authority' or read about (including any translation from the Pali) in any book or anywhere on the internet. 'Any' includes 'is'sef 'ere. p.p. explains it all
[AN 4.181] Fighting Man, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha likens the skills of the bhikkhu to those of a King's Warrior.
[AN 4.182] Pāṭibhoga Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Surety, Woodward translation.
The Buddha states that there is no one, no shamen, no preacher, no god, no devil, no God, who can promise that that which is subject to aging, sickness, death and the consequences of deeds will not suffer aging, sickness, death and the consequences of deeds.
And what is subject to aging, sickness, death and the consequences of deeds? Any being whatsoever that has come into existence.
[AN 4.183] Hearsay, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha explains that a statement should not only be true but should be profitable and not lead to trouble.
Another sutta using the logic found in See: How to Judge from Personal Experience. See also: AN 4.179.
[AN 4.184] Fearless, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha shows Brāhmin Jāṇussoni that not everyone is afraid of death. Those who have overcome desires and lusts, those who have overcome passion for living in a body, those who have done good deeds and abstained from bad deeds, and those who have no doubts as to Dhamma do not fear death.
[AN 4.185] Samaṇa- aka Brāhmaṇa-Sacca Suttaṃ aka Catukoṭika-Suññatā Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Brāhmin Truths, Woodward translation.

Sacca: Maxim. 2a. A general truth, fundamental principle, or rule of conduct, especially when expressed in sententious form, a saying of proverbial nature. Sententious: full of meaning or wisdom. Websters

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

The Buddha approaches some eminant Wanderers and teaches them Four Brahmin maxims: 'All living things are not to be harmed'; 'all sense pleasures are impermanent, painful, changeable'; 'all lives are impermanent, painful, changeable'; and 'I have no part in anything anywhere and here for me there is no attachment to anything'.
[AN 4.186] Ummagga Suttaṃ, aka Bahussuta Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Approach, Woodward translation.
A lucky bhikkhu asks the Buddha a number of questions and gets answers that satisfy him.
[AN 4.187] Dutiya Vassakāra Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Vassakāra, Woodward translation.
Gotama states that it is impossible for a bad man to be able to recognize a bad man or a good man, but that it is possible for a good man to do so. A story follows which illustrates the meaning.
Pay attention! The sutta is subtle. It illustrates all four cases although it appears to illustrate only one.
[AN 4.188] Upaka Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Upaka, Woodward translation.
Upaka, tries to trap Gotama and ends up caught in the trap himself. Gotama then explains that what he teaches is simply what is profitable and what is not.
He tries to get Gotama to agree to the statement that having uttered abusive speech that one cannot back up, one is blameworthy. He is thinking that Gotama's having stated that Devadata was going to Hell was abuse whereas it was simply a statement of fact. But Gotama does not fall into the trap and in stead points out that by approaching him with the intent to trap him Upaka has himself uttered abusive speech which he cannot back up. There is a further twist in the story when Upaka tries to tell the story to King Ajatasattu, a former supporter of Devadata's, but who had recently been converted by Gotama. The King is not pleased to be associated with someone who thinks he can get the better of Gotama.
[AN 4.189] Sacchikaraṇiya Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Realization, Woodward translation.
Make it Real, Olds, translation.
The Buddha describes four things that are to be realized by way of making them real. He describes how in the simplest most direct terms possible.
We do not see what is in front of our eyes and would not believe it if we were told so we must be told in words that excite our curiosity and yet directly reveal the method for seeing for ourselves. An invaluable sutta! There are more things under heaven than are acounted for in your vision of the world, my friends.
[AN 4.190] Uposatha Suttaṃ aka Bhikkhu-Saŋghatho-Mana Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Sabbath, Woodward translation.
The Buddha praises the Sangha on a Full Moon Day observance.
[AN 4.191] Sotānudhata Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Heard with the Ear, Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four advantageous situations that result in the future just from concentrated study of Dhamma.
Hope for those whose practice of Buddhism is lopsided concentration on study of the Suttas!p.p. explains it all
[AN 4.194] Sāpūgiya Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Sāpūgyans, Woodward translation.
Ānanda instructs the men of the Tiger's Path Clan in four ways to exert energy to bring about perfection in ethical conduct, heart, point of view and freedom.
It is interesting that the four practices are introduced in words highly reminiscent of those used for the introduction of the Four Satipatthanas. Why was the Satipatthana not used in stead? It is also curious (as Woodward remarks) that this is a sutta which is a little advanced for laymen and is internally directed at bhikkhus. It seems out of place and awkward. Maybe it is an early attempt by Ananda to construct a sutta.

 


Monday, April 28, 2014
Previous upload was Monday, March 24, 2014


 

new Friday, April 18, 2014 9:23 AM [DN 24] Pāṭika Suttanta, the Pali, (not really 'new', but for the first time proofed against the PTS Pali, and formatted for easy reading.)
Mystic Wonders and the Origin of Things, Rhys Davids translation.
Another suttanta delivered by Gotama towards the end of his life. We have a cross link in this sutta to the events described in MN 12. (see also below) This sutta describes events leading up to the resignation of Sunakkhatta from the order. Sunakkhatta has complained that Gotama works no feats of magic for him nor does he tell him about the origins of the world. But Gotama tells of several events where he worked feats of magic right in front of Sunakkhatta which were acknowledged by him as feats of magic. Then he describes several ways theories of the origin of the world are arrived at. I find this one of the most humorous suttas in the entire collection. This puts me in the class of a schoolboy on holiday in the opinion of Rhys Davids. All things considered that is probably not an insult to me. There are, however, things in this sutta which are extraordinary and worthy of deep thought. The major problem in formatting the sutta was getting the quotation marks correctly. What is at work is a hypnotic technique which does one of two things: throws the listener right off track or raises such a state of concentration as allows virtual transportation to the events being described. That was the point: that is, to create belief in the listener by bringing him to the position of eye-witness. It does this on multiple levels within the range of the contemporary scene and then it juxtaposes all those with visions of the ancient past right back to the origins of the world cycle. It has quotations within stories within quotations within stories within stories with quotations. I have tried to make the sequences more apparent by the use of indentations as well as the progression of quotation marks. There is one passage which is left abridged as it is not clear how Rhys Davids would have translated it. He summarizes which is not helpful. The possibility exists that I have not got the quotation marks perfectly correctly.
[DN 29] Pāsādika Suttanta, the Pali, (not really 'new', but for the first time proofed against the PTS Pali, and formatted for easy reading. This one was mind-boggling to untangle as the bulk of it was in the form of "...pe..." and sometimes the abridgments were not even so noted, and the BJT had omissions and numerous differing readings. I have no great confidence I have got it completely correctly.)
The Delectable Discourse, Rhys Davids translation.
Gotama responds to the news that the death of Nāthaputta the Nigantha has resulted in the break-up and general disorder of his followers by outlining in great detail the solid foundation on which the Sangha has been constructed. This is another sutta given towards the very end of Gotama's life. (see below for another) This is a 'suttanta' or a compilation. In this case there seems no reason to think that it was not 'compiled' by Gotama himself. At one point, one of the themes being discussed is in the form of what is known in old-time religion as a 'devil-downer': a series which gets progressively more complex as it is developed. (The devil, not being so bright, cannot follow ... if you ever are being tracked closely and need to escape.) It takes the form of: If not A, then not 1; if A then 1; but if A and not B, then not 1, but if A and B, then 1; but if not A and B and C, then not 1... X19. Totally lost, as was so much else in this sutta, by abridgment. There is much in this sutta when unabridged as it is here which will tempt one to skip, and this is one of them, but I highly recommend you give it a chance. If you give it alert attention all the way through, or better yet, try to repeat it from memory, you will come close to the concentration it needs to have had to be delivered in the first place. If you do this and note the point where you no longer have an underlying tendency to get on with it or go to sleep, you will have firmly entered into the first jhāna. There is also the possibility in making this effort that you will have insight into and respect for the power of the mind that is giving us this doctrine. You can safely think that whoever this person was, he was something extraordinary.
The translation of this suttanta by Rhys Davids has likely gone a long way towards incresing the confusion over the issue of things the Buddha "did not reveal". [see pg 128 text pg 136] Where Rhys Davids has "Brother, this hath not been revealed by the Exalted One." (Why Rhys Davids makes this error is a mystery, as he seems to have understood the issue clearly elsewhere. It seems the differentiation between a doctrine based on a point of view and one based only on what can be seen directly is not yet clear in his mind.) The Pali is "Etam pi kho āvuso Bhagavatā avyākataṃ:" "Avyākata" would be better translated 'not-explained' or 'not responded to'. The Pali repeats the question: 'This has not been responded to; that is: The Question" The word 'revealed' implies that there is something to reveal that has not been revealed. The meaning is that Gotama has not made any response to this question. It is not that he has not dealt with the issue. He has. It is thoroughly dealt with by the explanation that the khandhas are not the self. The questioner is really asking if the khandhas of one who has attained the goal are reborn and in what condition. Since the one who has attained the goal is no longer defined by the khandhas, the question does not apply. Further, it is not a mystery as to why he does not respond to the question. He explains his reason clearly: it is because for those who do not see the situation as it really is, it is possible to form directly opposing opinions on such an issue. Not knowing, the issue is a matter of speculation, a matter of viewpoint. Debating or offering opinions on matters of viewpoint does not conduce to dispassion or to the attaining of the goal. The Buddha sticks to the goal. Elsewhere in the suttas the same situation is put in the form of the questioner asking: "Do you say ~" or "hold" and the Buddha answering "Not that." He does not say such a thing or hold such a point of view. When asked what he does say, he responds. The idea that there is some mystery there that is to remain unrevealed serves those who would use such a mystery to cloak their own lack of understanding and promote their own agendas — They know the secret, if you want to know it, then it will cost you in one way or another.

The more we see of this whole business of writing down the suttas and translating what has been written down the clearer it becomes as to why Gotama did not want it to be written down or translated: it becomes a matter of endlessly putting out fires that arise as a consequence of misinterpretation. And fires that are written down have a greatly extended persistence. Similarly translations are highly subject to error and quickly get out of control. And "fires" are ideas that have already lead countless beings astray in a matter of importance beyond calculation in terms of misery. Left in the hands of those who had them in memory, the difficult doctrines would be preserved by those with strong, well disciplined minds where the highly motivated could seek them out and be sure of getting the doctrine in a form closely adhering to the original and the populous would be better off with the basic training in giving and the development of higher standards of behavior. Even if the major doctrines quickly vanished and all that remained was the basic training that would have been better for the majority than the propagation of the false doctrines that have arisen through misunderstandings created by the limitations of expression in the written word and through the misundestandings 'caused' by translation. There would have been frauds and the deluded, but they would not have had the ability to point to 'an authoritative body of original documentation' to support misconceptions.

As it is, there is no escaping doubt as to the correctness of any translation. And consequently, with every new translation the true Dhamma becomes more and more difficult to find. Can we justify further translations or the further dissemination of the translations we have? I ask myself this with every new upload.

The remedy for doubt of the correctness of a translation is to turn to the Pali, and because even there are found reasons for doubt, the only reasonable resort is putting the system as it is found and understood (whether in translations or the Pali or from a teacher who has learned it from the translations or the Pali) into practice. There is no knowing for sure until you do it. For those whose interest is in freedom, and who understand that freedom means the freedom from any sort of pain and that that includes birth in any form of existence, the thing that needs to be listened to is the liberating aspect of any statement. That seeing, that there is no bondage whatsoever in a result, is the true guide.

As for writing and translation, that rabbit is out of the hat, the milk has been spilt, the water has passed under the bridge and over the dam, the fly is in the ointment and the hair is in the soup, there is no sense in beating a dead horse, but have too many cooks spoiled the broth? The only thing for us here at this time [Saturday, April 19, 2014 7:10 AM] is to make the best of a poor situation. It was easy, before printing and before the digital age for individuals to claim an understanding of what the Buddha taught that was no more than their pre-conceived notions. Now the essence, the real truth, of what Gotama taught can be found in most of the translations we have if they are read very carefully and cross checked with each other and the Pali and against the wisdom of long personal experience tempered with good sense and the criteria raised by the goal of freedom and altered accordingly. So it seems like the best course is to get at least one or two translations of every sutta out there, free, and in digital form so that the influence of any one translation or unpublished sutta or point of view on what is being said is diminished and the small errors and weighty false doctrines can be countered by placement along side available evidence.

It appears that it is human nature that newcomers will form hasty opinions as to the goal and as to their attainments. These, because of the temptations of fame or profit will be easily persuaded to propagate their notions. There will be those who follow. There will be for some of these the desire to find out more. Where the full scope of the suttas is not easily available there is little hope that these lost sheep will find the path, where, as now, the suttas are completely available, in multiple versions along with the Pali, there is for the mislead at least some hope. To make access to the full spectrum of teachings even more easily accessible is the best justification for dealing with the present situation by the effort to get all available existing suttas on line and available without cost.

 

new Tuesday, April 15, 2014 8:28 AM [SN 3.22.29] Abhinandanaṃ Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Taking Delight In, F.L. Woodward translation,
In Pain, Olds translation.
The Buddha declares that whoever takes delight in the Stockpiles of Existence (khandhā) takes delight in Pain, but whoever takes no delight in them is free from pain. See especially for this, SN 2.14.35.

In putting the translation of this sutta together I came upon the problem of rendering the term 'vedana' (for which issue see the discussion below). I decided the best option in this case would be to render the term 'sense-experience' as when this term is used in the khandhas it implies the experience of the senses of the individual. Then, seeing there also the terms for perception, and consciousness it occurred to me that the same issue applies to these terms as well, that is that they are used for both the Arahant and the Individual but are to be understood differently for each, and that the solution applied to 'vedana' would also be helpful if applied to 'sañña' and 'viññāṇa': that is, to distinguish the term 'consciousness' where it is being used of the consciousness of the ordinary person we should translate it 'sense-consciousness', and similarly for 'perception', 'sense-perception'. Where the terms apply to the Arahant (see discussion of viññāṇa anidassana and AN 11.8 and others there like it) we can just leave them un-augmented. Previously I have tried to point out this distinction with regard to 'consciousness' by translating 'individualized consciousness' which is what it is. It is difficult to understand why there were in these cases no new terms invented to distinguish the ordinary person and the Arahant, but it may have been that in the creation of a new set of terms there would have been seen to be the implication that where they were the states of the Arahant they were 'states of existence' which would be exactly wrong. Or may be it just did not seem important as the ordinary person would not be concerned and the student of this Dhamma would be taught. Or maybe it was thought wise to leave it as a challenge to figure out as bearing down would be needed to comprehend the issue anyway. The best I can do to offer a distinction for the reader is something like: The Arahant has the consciousness of the not-consciousness of sense-consciousness. His consciousness depends on freedom from sense-consciousness as it's basis and by that cannot be said to 'be in existence'. It has not crossed over into personal identification with rūpa, 'matter.' One can experience the idea of 'extra-sensory' sight simply by recollecting an image from a dream or noting the fact of 'seeing' objects in daydreams or jhāna. This is 'seeing' an object other than by way of the eye.

 

new Friday, April 11, 2014 8:16 AM [SN 2.14.12] With Causal Basis C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes how sensual desire, deviance, and cruelty and their opposites arise from perception of information about things of a like nature. Mrs. Rhys Davids uses 'cause' for her translation of 'nidana', tied-to, bound up with or down to. This idea pervades most people's thinking about Buddhism but it needs to be re-examined.

"The era of big data challenges the way we live and interact with the world. Most strikingly, society will need to shed some of its obsession for causality in exchange for simple correlations: not knowing why but only what."

"The ideal of identifying causal mechanisms is a self-congratulattory illusion..."

— quotes coinsidentally found in Mayer-Schönberger and Cukier, Big Data Once again modern science catches up to Buddhsim. But I would say "Most strikingly, society will have to stop calling correlations causes."

Evil does not cause evil. It is through perception of evil - the cognizance of information conveying the idea of evil - that the idea of evil arises in the mind but the evil information did not 'cause' that idea, it came up in association with, bound up in that information. A thing that causes another thing always causes that other thing. That being the case there could be no escape from what that thing caused. But there is escape. Through the analysis of a thing into it's component parts one is able to separate out the information that is giving rise to any specific idea and take measures to counteract it's tendency to arise.
The idea of 'cause' is a sublimation of the idea of self. It requires that there be a force there independent of any given thing which is the 'cause' force. That is the idea of the ultimate existence of a thing and that is a sublimation of the idea of self. That is also at the root of the idea of a Creator God. This is also the problem with the translation of 'dhatū' as 'element': it implies an on-going ultimate existence of a thing.
Elsewhere the word most consistently translated 'cause,' 'hetu', is also being translated so carelessly. The word actually means 'driving force' which is a much clearer idea of what is actualy happening in almost every case where 'cause' is used today in whatever field. The distinction is most helpful when trying to figure out the Paticca Samuppada. The idea is that among factors that result in each phase, there is one which if missing, will prevent the arising of the next phase. The existence of forms of being (bhavas) does not 'cause' living in a form of being, but without forms of being there would be no living in any form of being.
[SN 2.14.13] Brick Hall C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Brick House, Olds translation.
The Buddha teaches that it is because of data, the available information, that perceptions, views and thoughts arise. Mrs. Rhys Davids translates 'dhatū' as 'element'. I have used 'information'. The question is: Is 'dhatū' a thing or material object, or is it that which can be known about things or material objects — A property or characteristic?
Here what would be understood using 'element' is that there is a big mass of 'blindness-element' out there that plops down on someone to cause him not to see what is there to see. This is no more the case than it is the case that there is a chariot there apart from it's constituent parts. Solidity is a dhatū, but in a body of water that has become frozen, there is no 'thing' there that is the solidity of that water. The idea that it is 'solid' is generated within the perceiver through comprehension of the properties of resistance, impenatrability, etc. So here in this sutta the idea is that there is information there which can be resorted to or not; that the individual, reacting to sense experience with liking or disliking, blinds himself to information that would otherwise inform him with a more neutral view.
In the previous suttas in this series, beginning at SN 2.14.1 we learn one of the most important things there is to know about how to set the mind upright: that the diversity in perceptions comes from the diversity in data (my then translation of 'dhatū') and not the other way around. The eye comes into contact with a visible object and visual consciousness arises. To the mind, Eye, visible object and visual consciousness are all received as 'dhatū': information.
The individual begins with the belief at heart that he is the creator of the created. He thinks therefore he is. Things enter his world upon his perception of them. With the information that perception arises from objects and not the other way around, the tendency is to say that one's world is created by an external force. But the Buddha tells us that it is 'within this fathom long body that the beginning of the world, the end of the world and the escape from the world is to be found.' [AN 4.45] What has happened? Without noticing it the idea of self has, in it's effort at 'self'-preservation, switched sides. A visual object comes into contact with my eye and creates my visual consciousness of that object. Put a billion or so of those perceptions together and snap fingers or breath into a lump of clay and there I am. "I did not create the world", "The world created me." But all that has happened in reality is that the properties of sensations, perceptions and consciousness have arisen from contact in conjunction with the view-property "I am this way" or "I am that way." A little information is a dangerous thing!
[SN 2.14.14] Low Tastes C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Inclined to Flow Together or Birds of a Feather Flock Together, Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali. In the past, the future and the present beings gather together in groups based on similarities in their beliefs.
Here the idea that 'dhatū' is information or characteristic or property, not 'element' should have become clear. People do not go with the flow as though the flow were some river which carries them off, they flock together with those of characteristics similar to themselves.
[SN 2.14.15] Conduct, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. Many of the outstanding leaders under Gotama are walking back and forth followed by great numbers of disciples and the Buddha points out to the bhikkhus sitting around him that each is following a leader whos disposition is similar to their own. He then states that in the past, the future and the present beings gather together in groups based on similarities in their beliefs. This is an expansion of the previous sutta. There are links to biographical information on each of the leaders mentioned.
[SN 2.14.16] [Sutta] with Verses, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that just as muck blends with muck and milk blends with milk in the past, the future and the present beings gather together in groups based on similarities in their beliefs. A variation on the theme of the previous suttas.
[SN 2.14.17] Unbelievers, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha Points out that in the past, the future and the present people gather together in groups bsed on similarities in their beliefs: those with no faith in the Dhamma with those of no faith, those with faith in the Dhamma with those of faith. A variation of the previous suttas. The PTS Pali inserts the description of those with faith into the section on those without faith. It could be that this represents another way the sutta was to have been organized, but it is not developed that way in the rest. I have followed the BJT and CSCD. Mrs. Rhys Davids abridges in such a way as to obscure the way the sutta is organized. Both the Pali and Mrs. Rhys Davids translation have been properly unabridged here.
[SN 2.14.18] The Five Based on Unbelievers, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali.
[SN 2.14.19] The Four based on 'The Unconscientiousness', C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali.
[SN 2.14.20] The Three based on 'The Indiscreet', C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali.
[SN 2.14.21] The Two by the term 'The Uneducated,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali.
[SN 2.14.22] The Lazy,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali.

Suttas 18-22 develop the theme begun in the previous suttas that in the past, future and the present people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics in the form of a 'wheel' according to the following scheme (using Mrs. Rhys Davids Vocabulary):
18.: Unbelievers, unconscientious, unwise;
believers, conscientious, wise:
Unbelievers, indiscrete, unwise;
believers, discrete, wise;
Unbelievers, uneducated, unwise;
believers, educated, wise;
Unbelievers, lazy, unwise;
believers, energetic, wise;
Unbelievers, muddleminded, unwise;
believers, levelheaded, wise.
19.: Unconscientiousness, indiscrete, unwise;
conscientiousness, discrete, wise;
Unconscientiousness, uneducated, unwise;
conscientiousness, educated, wise;
Unconscientiousness, lazy, unwise;
conscientiousness, energetic, wise;
Unconscientiousness, muddleminded, unwise;
conscientiousness, levelheaded, wise.
20.: Indiscreet, uneducated, unwise;
Discreet, educated, wise;
Indiscreet, lazy, unwise;
Discrete, energetic, wise;
Indiscrete, muddleminded, unwise;
Discreet, levelheaded, wise.
21.: Uneducated, lazy, unwise;
Educated, energetic, wise;
Uneducated, muddleminded, unwise;
Educated, levelheaded, wise;
22.: Lazy, muddleminded, unwise;
Energetic, levelheaded, wise.

All this in the PTS translation is abridged down into one paragraph giving the titles and a description of the formula from which it would not be possible using it alone to figure out the actual scheme.

I don't know why people are not jumping up and down with delight at seeing these. Except, of course, that we are cool, and do not display our emotions in such a crude way. This is like looking back 2500 years and seeing the way people's minds were working and what they were taking delight in. There just is not anything even approaching this intimate view of another time in any other literature in the world. Simply marvelous!

[SN 2.14.23] The Unconcentrated,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics. He identifies two groups with opposing characteristics that gather together.
[SN 2.14.24] The Vicious,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics. He identifies two groups with opposing characteristics that gather together. Identical to the previous substituting 'vicious/virtuous' for 'unconcentrated/concentrated.'
[SN 2.14.25] The Five Moral Precepts,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that in the past, future and the present people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics. Identical in structure to the previous but substituting the five precepts for the terms.
[SN 2.14.26] The Seven Course of Action,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics. He identifies two groups with opposing characteristics that gather together. Identical in structure to the previous but substituting the last term for three on speech.
[SN 2.14.27] The Ten Courses of Action,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics. He identifies two groups with opposing characteristics that gather together. Identical in structure to the previous but adding three additional characteristics.
[SN 2.14.28] The The Eightfold, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics. He identifies two groups with opposing characteristics that gather together. Identical in structure to the previous but using what we have come to know as The Eightfold Path but which here is simply identified as 'Eightfold' or 'eight-dimensioned'. No 'Magga', no 'Ariya ~ Magga'.
[SN 2.14.29] Ten Factors, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that people gather together in groups based on similarities in their characteristics. He identifies two groups with opposing characteristics that gather together. It is interesting to note that although this sutta is, in the Pali, named 'Dasaŋgika' 'ten-aŋgika' and the previous sutta is 'Aṭṭhaŋgika' 'eight-aŋgika' (no 'magga') Mrs. Rhys Davids translates 'eightfold' and 'ten factors' while Bhk. Bodhi translates 'eightfold path' and 'ten factors'. I believe that in the same way we do not go around putting titles on the various conversations we have with people, that the suttas and such various lists as we find throughout the suttas were only given names when repeated reference to them made naming them a convenience. So it is a reasonable conclusion to think that what we have here is early relative to those places where the Eight-Dimensional Way or the Ariya Eight Dimensional Way and the (Ā)Sikkhāpada are referred to by those names. Again to my mind this would tend to suggest that these 'tedious repetitions' were early, not later 'monkish' additions. This theory is confounded by the fact that in the first sutta (also found in the Saŋyutta Nikāya) the 'Aṭṭhaŋgika' is called ariyo aṭṭhaŋgiko maggo. Could it possibly be that the first sutta was subject to 'monkish' tampering? To attain the Eye of Dhamma it is necessary only to have the first three of the Four Truths (to hear that 'this' is pain, that this pain has it's origin in thirst, and that it can be brought to an end by ending thirst), but the fourth truth, being the Way to do it, is not explained in detail sufficient to make it comprehensible. Even allowing that aŋgikas 2-8 could be guessed at thinking the intent was 'the highest form in which these things are practiced) the first aŋgika, 'ditthi' or 'view,' was unique to Gotama and would not have been known in any way prior to this utterance. But the fact is that the Magga is, in it's details, carefully and uniquely contstructed in units of intentional not-doing. No other contemporary set of instructions for attaining the goal of solving the problem of rebirth and pain in existence was constructed in this way. The Magga without knowledge of it's details is, if not useless in attaining the goal, almost as difficult a task as becoming self-awakened without a teacher. It leaves up to the individual to determine what, exactly is 'sammā' 'consummate' this and that. And while that will in fact be helpful, it will not likely result in the intentional not-doing of all behavior intended to cause personal existence that is required for the goal. So this problem reaches another aŋgika dimension: those places where it is given without the details look to be places where the details were assumed to be known or where it was assumed that they would be explained by the leaders of groups. Those places in the suttas where the details are given are relatively infrequent. All sorts of questions arise when thinking about this. Where were the details first introduced? Was the Magga itself a later compilation from the various aŋgikas as developed individually or in groups? Why is there so little emphasis on the details of the Magga as a unit? Why the distinction between the eight-dimensioned and the ten-dimensioned? And why the change from 'fold' to 'factor'? What was the impulse that lead Bhk. Bodhi to insert 'Path' where it was not in the Pali? But as to that, just remember: 'a rose by any other name will smell as sweet.' This is all just a matter of curiosity.
[SN 2.14.30] The Four,' C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha introduces the four basic bits of information we receive about things in the world: that things are Earth-like, Water-like, Firelight-like and Wind-like. PED gives one of the ideas in back of this term as dhātū, being the equivalent of 'dom' as in surf-dom. A footnote in the next sutta references the commentary in explaining the meaning as 'solidity, liquidity, heat, and motion.' Properties, characteristics, bits of information, not 'elements.' (Mrs. Rhys Davids use of 'elements' is here most easily explained but it should be seen, and will be shown in the following suttas that what is being spoken of here is not a thing in and of itself, but a property of things, and that using the translation 'element' points in the wrong direction.) Here I return to the issue of translating 'dhatū' as element to point out to the reader that he should be aware that in Volume 3 of the Samyutta, the Khandha Vagga, Woodward has used 'element' for his translation of 'khandha'. We need to be on the alert and allow for this sort of inconsistency at this point in the progress towards a translation with a uniform vocabulary which, if it ever is to be, is still some time in the future.
One more thing: Mrs. Rhys Davids translation of 'vāyodhātū' as 'air ~' is just wrong. It is 'wind' or 'wave-form' or 'motion' or the like. Air does not convey the idea of motion which is necessary for understanding this property. The 'vāyo' concentration device, for example, is to look on the motion of leaves blown in the wind. One determines if there is life in a living being through the presence of the tejo and vāyo dhātū. Air exists in dead things.
[SN 2.14.31] Before, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes how it was through perception of the satisfaction in, problems with and escape from the characteristics of solidity, liquidity, heat and motion that he was assured that he had attained awakening and was no more to be subject to rebirth.
[SN 2.14.32] I Walked, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes how it was through seeking, finding and gaining insight into the satisfaction in, problems with and escape from the characteristics of solidity, liquidity, heat and motion that he was assured that he had attained awakening and was no more to be subject to rebirth.
[SN 2.14.33] If There Were Not This, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes how if there were no satisfaction to be got from the properties of solidity, liquidity, heat, and motion, there would be no lust for them, how if there were no pain associated with them there would be no dissatisfaction with them, how if there were no way to escape from them there would be no escaping from them, but since there is, there is, and that it is only insofar as one has understood these things as they are that there is any living of the religious life and attaining to freedom. An apparently simple idea but one which is essential to understand to keep from swinging from the lust for the world that makes one blind to the problems of life to a hate for the world that makes one blind to the reasons one gets attached and bound up.
[SN 2.14.34] Pain, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes how if there were no pleasure to be got from the properties of solidity, liquidity, heat, and motion, there would be no lust for them, how if there were no pain associated with them there would be no repugnance for them, but since there is, there is. If you didn't get it the first time, here it is expressed in another way.
[SN 2.14.35] Taking Delight In, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Free From Pain, Olds, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha declares that he who takes delight in the earthly, the watery, the fiery, and the windy is not free from pain, but he who is free from such delight is free from pain. For my translation of this sutta I have taken advantage of the PED mention of the fact that the term 'dhātū' acts almost as the suffix 'dom' which I have extended to 'y' = 'iness', etc. and which it looks to me now to be for at least some cases where this term is used the best of all solutions. See also: SN 3.22.29
[SN 2.14.36] Uprising, C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha states that whatsoever is the arising of the Earthy, Watery, Fire-like, and Windy is just simply the arising of Pain and that whatever is the ending of such is simply the ending of pain.
[SN 2.14.37] Recluses and Brahmins (1), C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha defines what it means to be a shaman or a Brahmin in terms of understanding the satisfaction, pain, and escape from the Earthy, Watery, Fire-like, and Windy. The definition of the 'recluse and brahmin' is a recurring theme ending many chapters and books.
[SN 2.14.38] Recluses and Brahmins (2), C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha defines what it means to be a shaman or a Brahmin in terms of understanding the rise and fall of the Earthy, Watery, Fire-like, and Windy.
[SN 2.14.39] Recluses and Brahmins (3), C.A.F. Rhys Davids, translation,
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha defines what it means to be a shaman or a Brahmin in terms of understanding earth, water, firelight and wind, understanding the way they arise, understanding the way that they end, and understanding the way to go to bring about their ending. This is The Four Truths verbatum except for the specific reference to the four dhātū. In other words what this is saying is that the four dhātū. is another way of describing everything that exists.

This brings to a conclusion the uploading of Saŋyutta Nikāya, Nidāna Vagga, 14. Dhatu Saɱyutta, in the Pali and the PTS Rhys Davids translation.

 

new Thursday, April 10, 2014 1:11 PM [SN 5.49.001-012] Pācīna: 1: Gaŋgā + 2-12 all in one file. (all untitled) The Pali
1. Ganges — Flows to the East, + 2-12, all in one file. (all untitled), the Woodward translation.
12 for the price of one! The Cattāri Sammā Padhāna (Four Consummate Efforts) lead to Nibbāna in the same way as the Ganges, Yamunā, Acīravatī, Sarabhū, Mahī Rivers flow to the East; and in the same way as the Ganges, Yamunā, Acīravatī, Sarabhū, Mahī Rivers flow to the Ocean. These constitute the first chapter of the Samyutta Nikaya book on the Consummate Efforts.

 

new Monday, April 07, 2014 5:37 AM [SN 5.55.39] Kāḷigodhā Suttaṃ, the Pali,
Kāḷi, The Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches The Four Dimensions of Streamwinning Cattāri Sotāpattiyaŋgāni to Kāḷigodhā, the Sakyan lady, who declares that she is possessed of these four. The Buddha congratulates her and tells her she has declared Streamwinning.

 

new Wednesday, April 02, 2014 5:31 AM The Book of the Gradual Sayings, Vol. II, Introduction, by Mrs. Rhys Davids, and Translator's Preface, by F.L. Woodward. Mrs. Rhys Davids Introduction and F.L. Woodward's Preface to The Book of the Gradual Sayings, Volume II: The Book of the Fours. I recommend you stay away from this Introduction until such a point as the tendency to anger, tearing your hair out, pounding your desk and throwing a brick at your computer is well under control. The arrogance and 'superiority' of this woman is beyond comprehension. If she had stuck to her own discipline she would have emerged a hero, but she has felt a need to 'explain Buddhism' to the world and has by that ventured into territory where she is simply an incompetent. She has passionately embraced her own view of what Gotama's teaching 'must' have been all about and is defending that view against all comers. What she has done is explained from a theoretical intellectual viewpoint based on her own experience and preconceptions what can only be explained properly by a practitioner. It's like a lawyer, untrained and inexperienced in any aspect of medicine, who writes an introductory text on medicine. For her, everything that does not agree with her view is a later 'monkish' construction (she want's Gotama, who spent most of his time addressing bhikkhus, to have directed his teaching pimarily to the less interested common man), and by that she manages to ignore incalculably more than is accommodated by her view.
I include this work here because it is both the basis of controversy and of historical interest and it has been referenced by Woodward in a sutta in his translation of this volume.

 

new Friday, March 28, 2014 6:53 AM Gati. New Glossology entry.

 

new Tuesday, March 25, 2014 7:02 AM [AN 4.11] Deportment, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Whether walking, or standing, or sitting, or lying down, a bhikkhu who does not wish to be known as a slacker, who does not wish to deprive himself of his opportunity for attaining the goal, should rid himself of lustful, deviant, or cruel thoughts.
In the Satipatthana Sutta we learn to pay attention to the four postures. Here we see what we should be observing and doing as we make ourselves aware of the postures. I harp on the mistake of thinking this is a practice intended to focus solely on observation of the posture (or sensations, mental states and Dhamma) and noting 'standing, standing, standing' etc. but this is the extent of the practice as taught by huge numbers of followers of Mahasi Sayadow. We have to acknowledge such persons as pioneers in bringing us Dhamma, but simultaneously we must avoid blindly following what they have taught when the shortcomings of what they have taught become obvious when compared to the greater body of information available later. The goal is not observation of the present moment, it is freedom from identification with the existing. One notes the body, etc., (what is there in front of the eyes) but in context (internal, one's own and what is thought of as one's own, and external, what does not pertain to the self or comes from the outside the 'whole body of available information') relative to sensation, mental state and Dhamma, and all this, even, only to the extent (i.e., not to be made the point of the practice) that it serves the purpose of calming down to such a degree as enables attaining insight through the lens of the Dhamma into the validity of the Four Truths or the Paticca Smuppada, and further to that insight, to determine what needs to be done to attain the freedom from the existing moment that is the ultimate goal.
[AN 4.12] Virtue, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Whether walking, or standing, or sitting, or lying down, a bhikkhu who has trained himself in ethical practices has overcome the hinderances. Then, to become one known as energetic, careful and resolute, he must develop energy, establish his memory, calm his body and concentrate and tranquillize his mind.
This sutta builds on the previous sutta further developing the satipatthanas by way of the postures.
[AN 4.15] Types, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha lists the Four major types of chiefs of beings in the world.
Woodward translates 'chief types', but these are not the chief types of beings, but the four major chiefs of beings.
[AN 4.16] The Subtle, Woodward translation.
Exqisites, Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes four 'exquisites.' The meaning possible to draw from the three translations (including Bhk. Bodhi's) is different in ... um ... exquisitely subtle ways each of which will yield a radically different form of practice. At a certain point in your studies it will be vital, at the least, to understand that there are differences of opinion as to what is being said. I will try and be helpful.

Four of the five 'stockpiles' (rūpa, vedanā, saññā, saṃkhāra) (khandhas) are to be dealt with:

Per Woodward: A monk is possessed of the power to penetrate the subtlty [sokhummāni] of body, feeling, perception, activities; he beholds no other power more excellent, he aspires for no other power.

Per Bhk. Bodhi: A bhikkhu possesses supreme exquisitness [sokhummāni] of form, feeling, perception, volitional activities, he perceives no exquisiteness more excellent, and does not yearn for any other exquisiteness.

Olds: A beggar has beheld a most exquisite [sokhummāni] shape, experience, perception, own-making, cannot conceive of a higher exquisite shape, etc., and aspires to no higher exquisite shape, etc..

The problem with Woodwar's translation begins and ends with the fact that there is no mention of any sort of power in the pali. He is giving us an interpretation in reliance on his understanding of what is said in the commentary: [Per footnote: "Comys. read sukhumāni and define as: 'knowledge of how to penetrate the subtle characteristics.] By this he has, I believe, short-circuited the intent of the sutta and deprived the reader of the little itty bit of visibility of the absolutely essential piece of knowledge it provides. (I'll get to that in a minute and you can judge for yourself.)

The problem with Bhk. Bodihi's translation is that he has the bhikkhu possessing (having become in himself, most exquisite in) these forms, etc. which perceptions would justly be called vanity, self-deception and manifestation of a belief in self. He footnotes; My [insert in italics]:

"Mp's explanation [see quote above] seems to me problematic. I would identify exquisiteness of form with the form perceived in the fourth jhāna, exquisiteness of feeling with the neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling occurring in the fourth jhāna and the formless attainments, exquisiteness of perception with the perception in the base of nothingness, and exquisiteness of volitional activities with the residual volitional activities in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception."

Putting aside that these are just guesses (he says "I would identify" not "These are"), Bhk. Bodhi is trying to identify what is the exquisite form, etc. being spoken of. If the attainment of a certain state had been the point of the sutta, it is certain that that would have been stated. There are much more direct and less uncertain ways to get the states Bhk. Bodhi mentions than leaving it up to the subjective judgment of the individual. But the Buddha says: These are the exquisites. In some way what we have in front of us must be made to be those exquisites. The meaning of a sutta needs to be found in the wording as it is found ... for the most part, except where there is an obvious connection between suttas, a sutta will have been delivered to an audience which might in it's lifetime hear that sutta and only that sutta. Further, if the prose part of the sutta is to be taken alone, Bhk. Bodhi's translation is making the Buddha say that these four exquisites, attained by the bhikkhu, are the most exquisite exquisites, which is not the case. The most exquisite form of a bhikkhu does not compare to the most exquisite form of the Buddha, for an example. The most exquisite form of a bhikkhu at one minute will not be the same as his form will be in the next minute so it will not be possible for him to form the non-desire to have any other exquisiteness since he doesn't have the one he thinks he has in the first place. ... and for many other similar reasons this cannot be the meaning.

My suggestion is that the prose part of the sutta is an instruction in how to identify when one has perceived forms, etc., in a way which requires no further exploration of form to know that one has seen sufficient to understand form as it is. "Having seen the best, I can leave the rest." It is not necessary to have seen the most exquisite (the absolute best) form of all forms, and it is not necessary to have perceived form in any particular state, and it is not necessary to have become form in any particular state, to have reached the point where a form is perceived as exquisite, it is simply necessary to have seen such a form as satisfies. That is, to re-interpret the quote from the commentary: having seen forms in a way that satisfies provides a basis for insight into the characteristics of forms. Or one might say gives the power to penetrate the subtlties of form.

That is the sum total of the sutta, but there is a verse that follows which possibly clarifies and certainly confuses the meaning. It says:
Per Woodward: If he knows the subtlty of form, and sees various things about feelings, perceptions and activities, the monk lives in peace in his final body having conquered Mara.
Per Bhk. Bodhi: Having known the exquisitness of form, and seeing various things about feelings, perceptions, and volitional activities, the bhikkhu lives in peace, bears his final body, having conquered Mara.
Olds: Knowing exquisite form, and understanding certain things about experience and perception he knows that the own-made is painful and not self and aspires to peace, to bearing his final body and to conquering Mara.

Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi essentially agree, I dispute. But the real problem here is that this is only one case of what should be four. We should be finding here that: Knowing exquisite form, exquisite experience, exquisite perception and exquisite own making, and seeing certain things about experience and perception (and I would add 'form') he understands that the own-made is not self and he aspires to peace, bearing his final body and to conquering Mara ... or ... there should be four separate stanzas, one each for exquisite form, exquisite experience, exquisite perception, and exquisite own-making, each with a concluding set of factors.

My guess? The commentator who invented the explanation used by Woodward and objected-to by Bhk. Bodhi (but actually accepted by him in the form of the verses) inserted the verses intending to reveal the meaning, (that is, the verse is the original commentary). As commentary he would not necessarily need to work out all the variations.

[AN 4.17] No Bourn, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes four ways of going wrong. In this and the next three suttas Woodward translates 'gati' as 'bourn' which has the effect in these cases, where the term is 'agati' of turning these suttas upside down. One way of describing the aim of the system is to say that it is to achieve the state where there are no further 'bourns' and one sure way not to achieve that goal is to take hold of desires, hatred, stupidity and give reign to fear. But by Woodwards phrasing this is just what one is to do. Of course the meaning is that these are the four ways of going wrong or getting things or behaving incorrectly or the acting against 'good form' that is mentioned in the gāthās.
If the gāthās were eliminated, the possible meanings for each sutta are dual and opposite depending on whether one understands the intent to be pointing to the goal of the arahant or a worldly goal and whether one is to understand the subject as 'ways of going wrong' or 'what you get from going wrong' i.e., destinies. Aside from the gāthās there is no reason to think that these double meanings were not deliberate, if not, perhaps, hidden to most under the meaning as we hear it now. This sutta paints half of a picture. The other half is in the next sutta, and the sutta following that combines the two. I have translated that sutta just to put in my thought about how it should be read. Otherwise Bhk. Thanissaro's translation would do. The fourth in the series gives a variation which looks to my eye as though it was intended to point to what is to be understood in the lot as it gives an every-day example. (see also on this subject, Ms. Horner's translation of MN 12 just below)
[AN 4.18] Bourn, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes four ways one does not go wrong.
[AN 4.19] Bourn and No-Bourn, Woodward translation.
Going Wrong and Not Going Wrong, Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes four ways of going wrong and four ways one does not go wrong.
[AN 4.20] The Food-Steward, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali The Buddha describes four ways the distributor of food in the Sangha goes wrong whereby he ends up in Hell and four ways that he does not go wrong and thereby ends up in Heaven.
[AN 4.23] The World, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali The Buddha declares his freedom from all things worldly and lists the attributes of the Tathagata. Followed by verses of admiration which have been added to the Renga.
[AN 4.24] Kāḷaka Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha explains that his statement that he knows and understands whatsoever in the world, with its Maras, Brahmas, hosts of recluses and brahmins, devas and mankind, is seen, heard, sensed, cognized, attained, searched into, pondered over by the mind, is to be understood as a simple statement of fact and is not a brag and that because he does know these things, to say otherwise would be a lie.
[AN 4.25] The God-Life Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali The Brahmacariya or Holy Life is lived for the sake of finding the self-control, letting-go, detachment, and bringing to a conclusion to the problem of pain in existence not for the worldly advantages of fame, gains and favors.
[AN 4.26] The Cheat Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali The Buddha states that pretend bhikkhus, stubborn persons, gosips, crafty and undisciplined individuals are not followers of what he has taught and have no chance to gain, grow, or prosper in this system, but those whose interest is genuine, who are open-minded, wise, flexible, not gosips, who exercise self-control are followers of what he has taught and will gain, grow, and prosper in this system.
[AN 4.27] Contented Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali The Buddha praises contentment with basics of clothing, food, shelter and medicine that are worthless, easy to obtain, and blameless.
[AN 4.28] Lineage Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali Among the ancient story-lines running down through the history of mankind — The Warrior's path, the practitioner of the holy life, ordinary people, shaman (sorcerers, wisemen, witch-doctors, curers), powerful families, and Kings — there is also the lineage of the Ariyan, a warrior, holy man, ordinary man, shaman, powerful person, and king all wrapped up in the seeker after the solution to the problem of pain in existence. Here Gotama speaks of the four ancient practices of this latter group. Woodward speaks of four lineages, but what is being spoken of is four practices of one lineage.
[AN 4.29] Factors of Dhamma Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali Four paths of good form that are ancient, long standing, traditional, primeval, pure and unadulterated, unconfused, respected by the wise.
[AN 4.30] Wanderers Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali The Buddha visits a Wanderer's park and teaches the four paths of good form that are ancient, long standing, traditional, primeval, pure and unadulterated, unconfused, respected by the wise. And in this case he adds emphasis by showing that disparaging these four subjects one to ridicule.
We may have in this sutta a valuable opportunity to clarify our understanding of some important terms by their comparison with the factors said to be present when they are absent.
'Sammā-sati' for example, is contrasted with forgetfulness 'muṭṭhassati' and 'asampajāna' 'non-cognizance' (lack of understanding), but also, according to PED, lack of mindfulness and attentiveness. We do have one word that means 'remember', 'mind', and 'pay attention to' in the word: 'mind' — (The mind, mind your manners, mind the children). We should probably use that in spite of the fact that it sounds somewhat old fashioned. Old fashioned is sometimes more clear than the modern, and this is especially important in this system which is so mathematically constructed. 'Sammā-samādhi' is contrasted with 'asamāhitaṃ' literally 'non-confligration' which might seem like a good thing, but the meaning is 'not-kindled,' 'not lit,' (for which remember that one meaning of 'jhāna' is 'to burn') but also not-gathered together, composed, concentrated, collected, and 'vibbhantacittaṃ' 'a roving heart'.
I have spoken out against the translation of 'samādhi' as concentration which is only one factor of samādhi and suggested 'serenity:'

From Latin sernus, clear, fair, calm (of weather) peaceful, cheerful; akin to OHG serawēn, to become dry; GK: xeron, dry land. 1. completely clear, fine, or balmy suggesting or conducive to calm peacefulness free of storms or unpleasant change. Shining bright and steady and unobscured. 2. marked by or suggestive of utter calm and unruffled repose or quietude without suggestion of agitation, trouble, fitful activity, or sudden change. — Websters

After consideration of these contrasting terms, I still believe serenity is the better choice. It contains the germ of concentration while it encorporates ideas such as clarity and calm and lack of disruption caused by activities all of which are aspects of samādhi. One might raise the argument against this choice that there is the existence of 'miccha-samādhi'; or 'low' or 'contrary' or 'mistaken' (but not wrong!) -samādhi, and that where there can be misdirected concentration, how is it possible to have misdirected serenity? My response is that it is possible, as in the case of the serenity that sometimes occurs to those in battle and those engaged in highly worldly activities ... I'm thinking of painting, what were you thinking of? Gotama is in this sutta speaking of 'Sammā-samadhi'. That which is less than perfect serenity could easily be characterized as being less than perfectly composed and subject to a roving heart.
[AN 4.31] The Wheel Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro Translation.
The Buddha describes the four wheels on which rolls prosperity for gods and men.
[AN 4.32] Sympathy Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro Translation.
The four bases for making friends. Woodward translates 'Saŋgaha' as 'sympathy' in the sense of 'being of the same mind', 'in sympathy', 'simpatico'. Bhk. Thanissaro: 'fellowship.' See also: DN 33.4.40
[AN 4.33] The Lion Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali The Buddha compairs the fear and trembling inspired in animals by the lion's roar to the fear and trembling inspired in beings when the teaching of impermanence is heard taught by the Tathagata.
[AN 4.34] Faiths Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali A good word for those who go by faith. Four ways in which faith is placed in the best of things and having been placed in the best yield the best of results.
[AN 4.35] Vessakāra Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Brahman Vassakara visits Gotama and describes what the brahmins call a great man and Gotama replies with what is called a great man in his Dhamma-discipline.
[AN 4.36] As to the World Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Brahmin Dona is walkiing along behind the Buddha when he notices the mark of the Wheel in Gotama's footprints. Drawing near he asks Gotama about what sort of being he may be and is told that he is beyond 'being' and is Buddha.
There are a couple of interesting things about this sutta aside from the lesson. First: though the Arahant is said to be 'trackless' here Dona is able to see his footprints. The commentary aparently attempts to explain that the footprints are invisible, but that this Brahman can 'see'. This is exactly backwards of the essence of the meaning of 'trackless'. Trackless should be understood as a matter of leaving no traces indicating that anything that was done by the 'trackless' one has been done from lust, hate, or stupidity. It is not a matter of leaving no footprints. The need to make Gotama into a supernatural being is to miss the real magic in what Gotama realized.
The other thing is that Woodward speculates that this is the Dona to whom was given the Buddha's bowl on his death. I wonder what happened to this bowl?
[AN 4.37] Incapable of Falling Away Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha enumerates four practices which ensure that one will not fall back.
[AN 4.39] Ujjaya Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Brahmin Ujjaya asks if Gotama praises sacrifices and is told that he does not praise bloody sacrifices and that they are of little worth but that he does praise traditional charitable sacrifices and that they are of much worth. Woodward footnotes the commentary describing a time previous to the Buddha in which sacrifices were not bloody, a story told in KD.SNP.2.7: Brāhmaṇadhammika Sutta.
[AN 4.40] Udayi Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Brahmin Udayi asks if Gotama praises sacrifices and is told that he does not praise bloody sacrifices and that they are of little worth but that he does praise traditional charitable sacrifices and that they are of much worth. Identical to the previous sutta but with different concluding verses.
[AN 4.42] Questions Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. The four ways of dealing with questions. See also on this subject: AN 3.67. Just one of thousands of seemingly simple ways of dealing with ordinary situations that we are not usually taught but which are very helpful in clarifying one's thinking.
[AN 4.43] Wrath (a) Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Eight sorts of persons. Those governed by wrath, hypocrisy, gains, and fame, and those governed by Dhamma. These lists of persons found throughout the suttas are very helpful when it comes to controlling one's reactions to what feels like unreasonable behavior. Not everyone is governed by the reasonableness of the Dhamma. It is not likely, for example, that one will find success in dealing with a person governed by wrath by responding directly to any given episode of wrath. One must approach strategically, understanding the basis from which the person operates, and making one's response appear rational from that perspective.
[AN 4.44] Dutiya Kodhagaru Suttaṃ, the Pali
Wrath (b) Woodward translation.
Eight sorts of respect; respect for wrath, hypocrisy, gains, and fame; and respect for true good form as opposed to each of these.
[AN 4.45] Paṭhama Rohitassa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Rohitassa (a) Woodward translation.
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Gotama converses with the Deva Rohitassa who asks if it is possible to reach the end of the world where there is no more birth and aging and death and rebirth. Gotama explains that it is not possible to get to that end of the world by 'going' but it is not possible to make an end of birth and aging and death and rebirth without reaching the end of the world. The world, he says, the origin of this world, the end of this world, and the way to go to go to the end of this world is to be got by understanding this body with it's perceptions and thoughts.
[AN 4.46] Dutiya Rohitassa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Rohitassa (b) Woodward translation.
Gotama relates to the bhikkhus his conversation with the Deva Rohitassa who asks if it is possible to reach the end of the world where there is no more birth and aging and death and rebirth. Gotama explains that it is not possible to get to that end of the world by 'going' but it is not possible to make an end of birth and aging and death and rebirth without reaching the end of the world. The world, he says, the origin of this world, the end of this world, and the way to go to go to the end of this world is to be got by understanding this body with it's perceptions and thoughts.
This sutta looks like it should just be the second half of the previous sutta. It might be interesting to some to note that in the Pali there is an unusual effort made to make this repetition of the sutta read like a modern narative. Where usually what we find in such cases is an exact repetition of the events as they were previously told, here there is inserted such transitional phrases as: "When he had said that, I responded ..." So now we have three ways repetitions are found: strict repetition, encapsulation ('and they repeated all that had happened') and this narative form.
[AN 4.47] Suvidūra-vidūra Suttaṃ, the Pali
Very Far Away Woodward translation.
Farther apart than the earth and the sky, the two shores of the oceans, the place of the sun's rise and it's setting are the values of the good from those of the bad.
[AN 4.48] Visākha Suttaṃ, the Pali
Visākha Woodward translation.
The Buddha bestows high praise on Visākha for teaching Dhamma with great skill.
[AN 4.49] Vipallāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Perversions Woodward translation.
Linked to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha teaches that holding that the changing is not changing, that pain is not pain, that not-self is self, that what is foul is fair is a perversion of perception, the heart, and point of view, but that to hold that the changing changes, that pain is pain, that what is not-self is not-self, and that what is foul is foul is not a perversion of perception, the heart, and point of view. Seems straight-forward enough ... until you start to examine what you are being told in the news, in ads, by teachers and by example of the leaders of men and of nations. Then you can see that without being taught such basic ideas as are found in this sutta sorting out without bias what is and what is not worth listening to and following is no easy task.
[AN 4.50] Stains Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali, and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Four slimes that slime the life of the recluse, preventing it from blazing up and shining forth: drinking alcohol, sexual indulgence, handling money, and earning a living other than by begging. Kilesa, slime; as in the slime left by a snail.
[AN 4.52] Dutiya Puññābhisanda Suttaṃ, the Pali
Flood of Merit (to Laymen) (b) Woodward translation.
Unwavering confidence in the awakening of the Buddha, the teachings of the Buddha, and respect for the followers on the four stages of progress along with possession of high standards of ethical behavior — each of these things produces a flood of good kamma.
[AN 4.53] Paṭhama Saṃvāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Living Together (a) Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four sorts of couples found in the world: a bad man living with a good woman, a good man living with a bad woman, a bad man living with a bad woman, and a good man living with a good woman.
[AN 4.54] Dutiya Saṃvāsa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Living Together (b) Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four sorts of couples found in the world: a bad man living with a good woman, a good man living with a bad woman, a bad man living with a bad woman, and a good man living with a good woman. Identical with the previous sutta with one term changed in the descriptions.
[AN 4.56] Dutiya Samajīvina Suttaṃ, the Pali
Well matched (b) Woodward translation.
Matched Lives (2) Olds translation.
The Buddha describes the way a couple that desires to find each other in the next life may do so. This sutta was prompted by the events described in the previous sutta, AN 4.055 where a perfectly matched couple ask Gotama how this may be done.
[AN 4.57] Suppavāsā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Suppavāsā Woodward translation.
Suppavasa of the Koliyans gives a meal to the Buddha and is told that the food giver both gives and gets, life, beauty, happiness and ability. Think of it this way: 2500 years later we are still hearing about this woman because of her carefully prepared acts of charity.
[AN 4.58] Sudatta Anāthapiṇḍika Suttaṃ, the Pali
Sudatta Woodward translation.
Anāthapiṇḍika visits the Buddha and is told that the food giver both gives and gets, life, beauty, happiness and ability. Similar to the previous but with different verses.
[AN 4.59] Bhojana-Dāyaka Suttaṃ, the Pali
Food, Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that the food giver both gives and gets, life, beauty, happiness and ability. Identical to the previous but addressed to the bhikkhus.
[AN 4.60] Gihī Sāmīci-Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Householder's Duty, Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells Anāthapiṇḍika serving the Order is a layman's path to a good reputation here and a good rebirth hereafter. Gihī-sāmīci-paṭipadā, Householders High Road, Consummate Path to Walk. Not 'Duty.'
[AN 4.61] Pattakamma Suttaṃ, the Pali
Four Deeds of Merit, Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches Anāthapiṇḍika a wise way to manage accumulated wealth such that at the end it will be seen to have been well used.
[AN 4.62] Debtless, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha teaches Anāthapiṇḍika four sorts of joy to be experienced by a householder: The joy of ownership, the joy of wealth, the joy of debtlessness, and the joy of blamelessness. So in these last three suttas we get a whole course in money management ... completely untained by guilt or fear.
[AN 4.63] Sabrahma Suttaṃ, the Pali
Equal with Brahmā, Woodward translation.
Four terms of admiration applied to families where mother and father are honored and treated with respect: "With Brahma", "with the First Teachers", "with the First Gods", and "Worthy of Offerings."
The veneration given to parents in the Buddha's time is almost unimaginable today — to our great disadvantage when it comes time to review one's life and think about those who have been of great service to us ... not to mention the guilt eminating from neglect or actual mistreatment. The names for mother and father given here are of deep psychological importance. For the infant, the parents are indeed the Creator, the first teachers, the first gods and for the service they do for their child when it is young and helpless they are indeed worthy of offerings. Even the most neglectful parents have given their child life, food, clothing and much else. Most parents will have done more for their child than anyone else in the world will ever do. Those ideas which were not well articulated in infancy do not abandon the individual but underlie and support his entire relationship with the world throughout his life and returning again in old age they ask for their due and for the one who has neglected his parents this is a heavy debt to pay. If you have living parents now, make an effort now. Do not regret hereafter.
[AN 4.64] Niraya Suttaṃ, the Pali
Purgatory, Woodward translation.
Four behaviors that land one in Niraya. Hell. Woodward's translation 'Purgatory' reflects his understanding that Hell is permanent and endless where Purgatory is temporary. For the Buddhist all states are temporary including rebirth in Hell.
[AN 4.65] Rūpappamāṇa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Outer Form, Woodward translation.
Four ways people take measure: those who judge by outer appearances and trust in outer appearances; those who judge by hearsay and trust in hearsay; those who judge by self-abjigation and trust in self-abjigation; those who judge by good form and trust in good form.
Also new is a chapter of Designation of Human Types, Division of human Types by Four, Chapter 22 which is referenced by this sutta as an explanation of the terms. I question the definitions for the latter two types. In the first of those two, what is being spoken about is the sort of person who looks for humility, modesty, self-deprication, and such sorts of traits and where finding them judges the person to be a good person; for the second type as Woodward points out the Abhidhamma is focused too closely on "Dhamma" with a capital "D" where what is being spoken of is 'Good Form' which absent Dhamma would be based roughly on a refined view of the prevailing morality, not, as Woodward would have it on one's personal standard (though it would be one's personal standard, that personal standard would have a basis in some sort of common agreement as to right and wrong. All of these are in the end judging by personal standard. Standard that has been made personal.)
[AN 4.66] Sarāga (puggala) Suttaṃ, the Pali
Lustful, Woodward translation.
Four types of persons: the lustful, the hateful, the deluded, and the proud.
Also new is a chapter of Designation of Human Types, Division of human Types by Four, Chapter 22 which is referenced by this sutta as an explanation of the terms.
[AN 4.67] Lord of Snakes, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali, Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and Piyadassi Thera translation.
A bhikkhu has died of snake-bite so the Buddha gives the bhikkhus a 'charm' to project friendliness towards snakes. Footnote 4 in Ms. Horner's Vinaya version (below) gives a good idea of what is at work:

Loving-kindness or love, mettā, and the three other modes of the brahmavihāras are transferred from the mind of the suffuser to that of the being who is suffused or infused.

This is a phenomena that is the inverse of mind-reading: Thought projection. Ideas are things. They float around out there available to everyone and only become 'one's own' with identification. If a thought is strongly generated by one person (being) it can be identified with by others. Think of the universe as a gigantic brain in which signals are ever-present and where beings are like signal-receiving, but also signal-boosting stations.
I recommend reading this sutta in the Pali even if you do not understand the Pali ... though having the translation right there it is a simple matter to see what is what. The actual charm is the centered verses below the short introductory story. I also believe this 'charm' will be much more effective if said with comprehension in the Pali if only because it is really 'charming' to the ear. Relax and you can see how a snake would find it so.
And also new Vinaya-Pitaka, Cullavagga 5 #6 the Vinaya version of this story which was (apparently) the reason for allowing bhikkhus to shed (let) blood in order to cure snake bite.
See also: DN 32, Jat. #203
[AN 4.68] Devadatta Suttaṃ, the Pali
Devadatta, Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens the fate of Devadatta to several things that bear fruit to their own destruction and the destruction of others.
There seems to me to be a problem here with Woodward's translation of 'parābhavāya'. The plantain, bamboo, reed and mule are said to 'attavadhāya' 'destruction of self' and 'parābhavāya' which Woodward translates 'destruction of others'. That Devadatta brought about problems for others is obvious, but not so obvious is the harm done to others by these other things. PED just has 'destruction.' 'Others' is not found in the word or outside it. Bhk. Bodhi has 'to his own ruin and destruction' which looks to be the better translation. Maybe 'to his own ruin and general (para) destruction. The problem here is holding on to 'atta' as 'self'. (little joke).
[AN 4.69] Padhāna Suttaṃ, the Pali
Effort, Woodward translation.
The Buddha defines the four best ways of making effort. Here is a good opportunity to see the way Gotama has constructed his system so as to make it 'helpful in the beginning, helpful in the middle and helpful at the end'. What he has done is worded the formula so as to make it generic. Taken as it is, in the beginning, the idea of what is an 'unprofitable state' and what is a 'profitable state' is left undeclared so that it applies to each individual as he himself defines it. That in turn will be a value which is under a constant state of upward revision because no matter how low the individual begins, by pointing himself to what he believes at that point is a profitable state, he moves himself forward to some degree. That is true even in the case of very low ideas of 'profit' such as increase in pleasure or wealth. In no long time success in the pursuit of a low level profit will be seen as the pursuit of the unprofitable. It is a natural course of things, for example, that the sensualist will discover that sensual pleasure is enhanced by abstinance. And if initially only to increase his pleasure he will turn to letting go and the track from there is steadily in the upward direction. It is also the natural course of things that the acquisition of wealth leads to the perception that there are higher degrees and forms of wealth. Because making the effort will result in the gain of profit or the elimination of the unprofitable, etc. there will be instilled faith in the formula and further effort, and so on. Just by beginning a benevolent cycle is set rolling. At a later point one will discover that what is considered 'profitable' in this system is the further set of generic instructions found in the Eightfold Path and later still in the Seeker's Path. Always the particulars will be left to the perception of the indiviual even when these latter are given in detail: the details are themselves generic in form.
[AN 4.70] Effort, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Olds translation.
A wonderful sutta though of a sort likely to be discredited by many of 'modern' thought. The Buddha outlines the effects of leaders of men both good and bad. It has been pointed out here a few times that what needs to be seen is that this world is a work of the collective imagination and the laws of physics that govern it are, so far from being immutable, highly subject to agreement as to what is and what is not possible. Somewhere else here it has been pointed out that however much there is currently disagreement that there is such a thing as the influence on natural events of the behavior of men, what we have today is a corrupt leadership leading a corrupt populace into further corruption while at the same time there is drastic weather alteration, alteration of the position of the earth's pole and the manner in which that alters perception of the courses of the moon and sun, stress on food production and a deterioration of over-all health in the populous. (Some will argue with that last, but I would say that what we have, in so far as there is an increase in longevity, is the prolongation of the lives of a much weaker people through mechanical means. Left to nature, the lifespan of people would be decreasing. People are for the most part trading quality of life for length of life.)
[AN 4.71] Padhāna - Apaṇṇaka Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Effort, Woodward translation.
Four things indicating assurance that one is on the way to Nibbana: being of high ethical behaior, learned, energetic and wise. See also: Points of Controversy IV.8, Of entering on the Path of Assurance
Points of Controversy Appendix 6a: Niyama, Niyāma: 'Assurance.'
[AN 4.72] Diṭṭhi - Apaṇṇaka Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, the Pali
View, Woodward translation.
Four things indicating assurance that one is on the way to Nibbana: thoughts of giving up, non-deviant thought, thoughts of harmlessness, and High View.
[AN 4.73] Worthy, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes four modes of speaking about the self and others which lead to a reputation as a 'fellow man' and four that lead to the reputation of not being a 'fellow man'. The word for the 'fellow man' is 'sappurisa'. Woodward: Worthy; Bhk. Thanissaro: Person of integrity. Bhk. Bodhi: Good person. I have used 'good man' and also 'wiseman, shaman, preacherman, etc.' where the context seemed to speak of a person of more than ordinary good qualities.
[AN 4.74] Vadhukā Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Young Wife, Woodward translation.
The bhikkhus are told to train themselves in sense of shame and fear of blame like the newlywed bride when she is first brought home to the family. This was in the days when several generations of a family might be living together in one home and where the parents of the groom would be the actual heads of the household. This was at a time when there was a lively sense of the respect due to elders. Further, the bride might be almost a stranger to her husband and if she were found unacceptable could be sent home which would bring great shame on her family.

 

§

 

As cattle when the lead bull swerves,
All of a mind to follow, swerve as well,
So with men, if he who is the leader be corrupt,
so much the more will those who follow be.
 
Th'unrighteous king to all the realm brings pain.

 

As cattle when the lead bull's course is straight
All of a mind to follow, go straight as well,
So with men, if he who is the leader be upright,
so much the more will those who follow be.
 
The righteous king to all the realm brings peace.

AN 4. 70 Olds

 


Monday, March 24, 2014
Previous upload was Saturday, February 01, 2014


 

new Sunday, March 23, 2014 5:32 AM [MN 12] Greater Discourse on the Lion's Roar, Horner, translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Ñanamoli Thera translation and the Sister Upalavana translation.
This is a hair-raising sutta. It was delivered by Gotama towards the very end of his life. It is jam-packed with interesting information. And it is a first rate work of literary/oratory art by any standards. A bhikkhu who left the order is going around saying that there is nothing extraordinary about Gotama or his doctrine. Gotama, hearing of this person's opinion replies with a wide-ranging rebuttal listing the wonderous aspects of his awakening and the scope of his knowledge.
There is one statement made in this sutta which has the potential to cause great confusion caused by the current translations including my own. In the section where Gotama is describing his ability to see the destinies [literally 'gettings'] of persons (Ms. Horner translates gati as 'bourn' which is, as they said in those days, an 'unfortunate' translation as it relates to the Arahant who's entire purpose is to escape 'bourns'), the final sort of person he describes is the one who destroys the corrupting influences [see here] [āsavas], that is, the Arahant, and who by that enjoys feelings that are exclusively pleasant. The term translated 'feelings' is 'vedana'. This is the translation most often used. I have translated this 'sensation' and 'sense experience' because 'vedana' is most frequently associated with sense-experience. It is the term between 'touch' (or contact) and 'thirst' in the Paticca Samuppada, and consists of the experience of pleasure, pain, or not-pain-but-not-pleasure, and in the case of the first two it is something which must be let go to attain Arahantship. So what is being spoken of here? The explanation is that 'vedana' is of two sorts: that which is downbound to the world, which would be sense-experience or experience through the senses, and that which is a consequence of letting go (actually 'nirāmisa' meaning putting down meat, or 'carnal-free'). (These two modes of 'vedana' are to be found in the Satipatthana sutta and elsewhere.) So in the case of the use of this term in this sutta the translation 'sensation,' implying experience through the senses, would be ... um ... 'unfortunate'. 'Feeling' with an even stronger association with contact, is also not good. The better translation would be, in all cases, just 'experience' (e.g.: contact of the eye with a visible object gives rise to pleasant experience, unpleasant experience, experience which is neither unpleasant nor pleasant). The word 'vedana' itself means 'the given experience' or the 'thrill-given' or 'the given thrill' associated with the experience of life, especially that experienced by one who attains awakening. This is the only case that I am aware of where the experience of the Arahant is directly put in terms of 'vedana'. It is helpful that we do have this one case at least, in that it clarifies the understanding of the carnal-free sort of ... experience. When the 'vedana' are numbered as eighteen, [see SN 4.36.22] the 'six forms of detachment [upekkha] relating to giving up [of each of the six senses] would be the experiences of the Arahant (or one experiencing temporary release); when the vedanas are numbered as thirty-six, the eighteen related to giving up include six each of pleasure, pain, and detachment. In this latter case, understanding this through MN 12, the experience of the Arahant would be exclusively the experiences of pleasure because he no longer is in danger of the experience of pleasure associated with detachment turning into the experience of pain (which is the case of temporary release) because of it's ending, and he is at all times and in all ways detached. ... or so I understand this. I see this very much as one might imagine the case of living in anti-matter. The Arahant has the not-experience of all that which exists in the world. Because he is free from the hazard of the matter world, which is ending, his experience is endlessly pleasant.
See AN 6.64, AN 4.8 listed below.
I will be changing this translation as I go around. ... well, since writing this I have made some changes and have also found that this is easier conceived of than accomplished. We use the term 'experience' far more broadly than to indicate sensations at the senses and the context often requires this to be made clear. If there is a word that will serve here I do not yet have it and meanwhile I will likely tend towards the use of 'sense-experience' where it is the sensations experienced through the senses that is intended.

 

new Friday, March 21, 2014 1:21 PM [AN 6.64] The Lion-Roar, Hare translation.
Sīhanāda Suttaṃ, the Pali.
Six powers of the Buddha by which he claims leadership, has confidence in addressing any group, and rolls on the wheel of Dhamma.
The key to getting the real feel for this sutta is in understanding the term 'yathābhūta. ' 'suchas-it lives' Hare: 'knows as fact'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'understands as it really is'; Bhk. Thissaro: 'as actually present'. PED: bhūta grown, become; born, produced; nature as the result of becoming. I suggest 'such as it is/was'. We only need the 'really, in fact, actually' because we do not believe the statement on it's face. This emphasis is not in the term itself. And this is the point of this sutta, that is that in three sets of six heavily emphasized statements the Buddha is saying that the powers he is claiming for himself here are things he sees in the same way as any other phenomenon observable in the world is seen. That is why this is called a 'Lion's Roar'; it is a public declaration of some virtue in one's self for the sake of eliminating doubt. Like the Lion's roar as it leaves it's den in the evening to go out into the jungle to take the evening air, it is a strong reminder to creatures large and small as to what they are dealing with and to make themselves safe. In our world where the lie is so commonplace that we no longer believe anything, it is hard to see that in Gotama's time, where even most criminals if asked if they committed a crime would admit it for shame at lying, to make a false asertion, or even a self-deceptive asertion (saying something that is not true), so many times in succession without going crazy on the spot would be a virtual impossibility. This sutta, and those of this type, are close relatives to the magic command/wish/demand made by an 'act of truth'; 'Let lightening strike me dead if such and such is not the truth, or let my people go.' ... usually requiring the public revelation of some deep personal secret.
See MN 12, above and AN 4.8 listed below.

One of the powers as translated here is that the Buddha: ...knows the stain, purity and emergence in musing, deliverance and concentration attainments." This (italicized phrase) is, in the Pali: jhāna-vimokkha-samādhi-samāpattinaṃ. No hyphens. Does this mean, in stead: "jhāna-deliverance-samādhi-attainments" — one compound term? ("jhāna-release-serenity-attainment"), a single idea, not three? The problems in attaining, clarification of, and emergence from a state of release in serenity attained through jhāna? If not, what is the implied distinction between 'jhāna' and 'samādhi'? See also in this regard: MN 12. Bhks. Ñanamoli/Bodhi have this there as here, 3 ideas. Bhk. Bodhi's note there apparently relying on commentary ignores 'samādhi' and explains the releases as liberations (the vimokkha, 'releases' include the four immaterial jhanas and the attainment of the ending of the perception of experience) and samāpatti as 'the attainments': of jhāna, the four immaterial attainments and the cessation of perception and vedana (the cessation of the perception of experience or is this 'ending-perception-experience' that is, ending the experiences arising from perception?). In any case, this translated as three concepts amounts to a heap of confusion.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

Another interesting thing to note in this sutta (ignoring Hare's translation of samādhi as 'concentration') is the statement that these powers, which include the three 'visions' associated with Arahantship, are attained only by those who have (or who 'are') 'samādhi.' Depending on how one understands this term this can be problematic. Samādhi defined as the four jhānas, (but the term was not 'sammā samādhi') it is saying that the four jhānas are necessary for arahantship. Defined as serenity, the highest form of which is the jhānas, and the three modes of which are ambitionlessness, signlessness and emptiness, attainment of the four jhānas, or all four, might not be absolutely required. The first jhāna would certainly qualify as samādhi or serenity.

 

new Wednesday, March 19, 2014 3:41 PM [AN 4.3] Uprooted (a), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Four types of action which amount to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and four types of action which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma. See also: AN 3. 145, 146, 147 148 and many others.
[AN 4.4] Uprooted (b), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Poor behavior towards four persons amounts to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which results in much bad kamma; while good behavior towards four persons does not uproot, does not spoil the self, surrounds one with purity, brings praise by the wise, and results in much good kamma.
[AN 4.5] Uprooted (c), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha describes the commoner, the Streamwinner, the Non-returner and the Arahant in terms of their relationship to the stream or natural flow of life.
[AN 4.6] Uprooted (d), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Whether one's learning be great or small it profits not if one does not understand either the words or the point or if one does not follow the teachings within the Dhamma, but whether one's learning be great or small it profits well if one understands the words and the point and one follows the teaching within the Dhamma. This sutta has in it an unmistakable work of later editing in the list of works that are supposed to be read by one who is to be called well read (having 'heard much'). The list includes books known to be much later in origin than the Suttas. This is both discouraging and hopeful. It is discouraging because seeing work of this sort it is clear that there was some tampering with even the suttas. It is discouraging because it has tainted this work with bias (the desire to have works that are not original documentation considered as original documentation) and allowed in doubt. It is hopeful because it shows the childish stupidity of the tamperers. They could not see that it would be easy to see what they have done. What they do is always clumsy and obvious and consequently if one keeps alert they will not lead one astray. (But clearly they have already lead many astray!).
[AN 4.7] Illuminates (the Order), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Four who are accomplished in wisdom, disciplined, confident, deeply learned, Dhamma-bearers, who live according to Dhamma, that illuminate the Order.
[AN 4.8] Confidence, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. Being able in mind to answer four charges of self-deception that could be made against him the Buddha is confident he is Awakened and teaches a doctrine that will lead those who follow it to the end of Pain. See MN 12, AN 6.64 listed above.
[AN 4.9] Craving, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali. If craving arises in a bhikkhu it arises from one or another of these four sources.

 

new Friday, March 14, 2014 10:56 AM [SN 2.19.1] A Lump of Bones, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Aṭṭhīpesi Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.2] Cattle-butcher, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Gāvaghāṭka Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.3] Morsel and Fowler, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Piṇḍasakuṇiyam Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.4] The Flayed Sheep-butcher, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Nicchavorabbhi Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.5] Sword-pig-butcher, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Asi-sūkariko Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.6] Javelin-deer-hunter, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Satti-māgavi Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.7] Arrow-judge, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Usu-kāraṇiyo Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.8] Sharp-point-driver, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Sūci-sārathi Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.9] The Spy, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Sūcako Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.10] The Corrupt Judge, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Aṇḍabharī-Gāmakuṭako Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.11] The Adulterer Sunk in the Pit, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Kupe Nimuggo Paradāriko Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.12] The Dung-eating Wicked Brahmin, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Gūthakhādi - Duṭṭhabrāhmaṇo Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.13] The Flayed Adultress, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Nicchavitthi-aticārini Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.14] Ugly Woman, Fortune-Teller, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Maɱgulitthi Ikkhanitthi Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.15] The Dried-up Woman, Scatterer of Coals Over One of Her Fellows, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Okilini-Sapattaŋgārakokiri Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.16] The Headless Man, the Bandit, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Sīsachinno-coraghātako Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.17] The Almsman, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Bhikkhu Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.18] The Almswoman, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Bhikkhunī Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.19] The Sister-in-training, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Sikkhamānā Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.20] The Novice, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Sāmaṇera Suttaṃ, The Pali.
[SN 2.19.21] The Woman-novice, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation,
Sāmaṇeriyo Suttaṃ, The Pali.
Both the Rhys Davids translation and the Pali are fully unabridged ... for the first time since they were first set down in writing or maybe even earlier. A series of nearly identical suttas in which Lakkhana asks the venerable Mahā-Moggallāna to explain the reason that he smiled on their way to Rajagaha. Mahā-Moggallāna tells of having seen a ghost suffering great torments. The Buddha says that he too has seen this ghost and reveals the reason it is experiencing such a fate.
Mrs. Rhys Davids notes the commentary as stating that the bodies of these ghosts were very large. I have heard the same thing by way of a Jamaican seer who said they were as large as football fields or even larger and that they sometimes took days to pass through and during that time many people would enter strange moods they couldn't explain.
Imagine the effect on the bhikkhus there as this routine was carried out day after day for 21 days. The Buddha notes that had he told of these things himself he might not have been believed, but by being spoken of by Mahā-Moggallāna and confirmed by Gotama in front of Lakkhana and (probably a growning number of) others that were likely present, there is a triangulation set up which makes doubt very difficult.

 

new Friday, March 14, 2014 6:47 AM [SN 4.35.28] On Fire, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali, Bhikkhus Thanissaro, Ñanamoli Thera and Olds translations.
The Woodward translation is fully rolled out as is the Pali. My translation of this was very early (for me) and was going for drama. None of the other translations is complete. Delivered by someone who can be taken seriously it is enough to make one get busy. Originally delivered to 'the Three Kassapas' and their followers, it resulted in the entire group of one thousand becoming Arahant on the spot. A really good case for those who argue that Arahantship can be had without going through the four jhāanas. This was the third sutta delivered by Gotama.

 

new Friday, March 14, 2014 6:47 AM Lakkhaṇa Thera, new biographical entry in the Personalities section.

 

new Wednesday, March 05, 2014 6:25 AM [AN 4.176] Aspiration, Woodward translation
Āyācamāna Suttaṃ, the Pali. The Buddha points out role models for bhikkhus, bhikkhunīs, upāsakos and upāsikās. The individuals named are linked to pages giving some biographical material and additional links.

 


'Monks, there are gross impurities in gold,
such as dust
and sand,
gravel
and grit.

The dirt-washer
or his prentice
heaps it into a trough
and washes it,
washes it up and down,
and runs the dirt out.

When this process is abandoned and ended,
there still remain moderate impurities in the gold,
such as fine grit
and coarse sand.

The dirt-washer
or his man
repeats the process.

When this is abandoned and ended
there still remain trifling impurities
such as fine sand
and black dust.

The dirt-washer
or his man
repeats the process.

Thereafter the gold-dust alone remains.

2. Then the goldsmith
or his man
heaps that sterling gold
into a crucible
and blows it,
melts it together
but does not run it out of the crucible.

That sterling gold is then blown till it melts:
it is molten but not flawless,
it is not done with yet,
its impurities are not yet strained off.

It is not pliable
nor workable
nor glistening.

It is brittle,
not capable of perfect workmanship.

But a time comes, monks,
when that goldsmith
or his man
blows that gold till it melts,
melts it down
and runs it out of the crucible.

Then that sterling gold is melted,
molten,
flawless,
done with,
its impurities strained off.

It is pliable,
workable,
glistening,
no longer brittle;
it is capable of perfect workmanship.

For whatsoever sort of ornament one wishes,
be it a gold plate,
or a ring
or necklace
or golden chain,
he can make use of it for that purpose.

AN 3.100-Woodward


 

new Wednesday, March 05, 2014 6:25 AM [SN 5.46.54] Metta Suttaṃ, the Pali
Goodwill, Woodward translation.
The Buddha develops the four Brahma Viharas by way of the Seven Dimensions of Self-awakening showing the scope and maximum accomplishment successively of the thorough practice of projecting friendliness, compassion, empathy and detachment while developing memory, Dhamma-investigation, energy building, entheusiasm, impassivity, serenity, and detachment. A very informative sutta as regards technique and the way aspects of the Dhamma integrate with each other. It is a wide-spread practice today [Wednesday, March 05, 2014 6:39 AM] to teach 'loving kindness' without the other three Brahma Viharas and with little or no reference to the other important doctrines of the system. Here it is made clear that however much this is a beneficial practice, it's final result is limited. One should not rest contented at this level! Here is a method for going deeper.
The BJT Pali text beginning at §12 where the Brahma-viharas are linked to the Sambojjhangas, is completely unrelated to this sutta as found in the PTS Pali, the CSCD or the Pali text used by Bhk. Bodhi.

 

new Saturday, March 01, 2014 6:37 AM [MN 22] The Parable of the Water-snake, Horner translation.
Linked to the Pali, Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and Sister Upalavana translation
A wide-ranging very famous sutta that begins with a forceful teaching on the dangers of indulgence in sense pleasures. This sutta contains two famous similes: the simile of the snake illustrating how a wrong grasp of the Dhamma is like taking hold of a poisonous snake from the wrong end; and the simile of the raft illustrating how the Dhamma should be used to attain it's ends and then be let go. The sutta concludes with a thorough examination of the way 'not self' should be considered.
The interesting question here is why would Arittha hang on so stubbornly to his view about the harmlessness of sense-pleasure indulgence? It is possible of course that he was just a fool (but he was not unskilled in meditation, see: SN 5.54.6 where Gotama thought enough of him to give him special instruction on the in-and-out-breathing practice). But the likelihood is that he was trapped by a perception that befalls one who holds the view that there is no self. In this view a number of very dangerous conclusions can be reached because there is perceived to be no individuality there to experience the consequences of deeds. This would justify the simile of the snake and would explain the long dissertation that follows concerning the 'not-self' position. The presence here of the simile of the raft might also be explained as a hint to Arittha that if even the Dhamma could be let go, he could certainly let go his view. There is also in this sutta a very interesting remark made by Gotama as to constructing theories about the self where he states that even if there were a self that was incomprehensible, it would be foolishness to form theories about it. This statement is a little obscure and is made only in this sutta and has caused some confusion. Ms. Horner's translation is the most potentially misleading. The idea is that it is shown that examining things as they really are, there is no comprehension of a self possible, BUT even if there were a self that was incomprehensible, it would be foolish to speculate about it because it's paramaters could not be encompassed by speculations made within the scope of comprehension. This is not, as Ms. Horner's translation would indicate, an asertion that there is a self.

 


The profession of amity, according to Buddhist doctrine, was no mere matter of pretty speech.

It was to accompany and express a psychic suffusion of the hostile man or beast or spirit with benign, fraternal emotion — with mettā. For strong was the conviction, from Sutta and Vinaya to Buddhaghosa's Visuddhi-Magga, that 'thoughts are things,' that psychical action, emotional or intellectual, is capable of working like a force among forces.
— From C.A.F. Rhys David's Introduction to DN 32: Āṭānātiya Suttanta


 

new Saturday, February 08, 2014 4:50 AM [DN 32] The Ward Rune of Āṭānāṭa, Rhys Davids translation
Linked to the Pali, and Grimblot and Piyadassi Thera translations. This does not look like a 'ward-rune' to me. It is a magic spell, but in and of itself it is not a 'ward-rune'. One is first to memorize a lengthy poetic homage (or if not homage, 'statement of recognition') to the Four Kings of the Four Directions. That memorized then if a bhikkhu or bhikkhuni or male or female lay disciple is harassed by some monster, an appeal for help to a number of powerful gods will be answered. An Appendix is added giving references to other places in the Suttas where the various gods to be appealed to are mentioned.
[Edit: See JAT #203: Khandha-Vatta-Jātaka
AN 4.67.]

 

new Tuesday, February 04, 2014 7:19 AM [AN 3.51] Two People (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Two old brahmins panicked by impending death seek comfort from Gotama.
[AN 3.52] Two People (b), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Two old brahmins panicked by impending death seek comfort from Gotama. Slightly different than the previous.
[AN 3.53] The Brāhmin, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha explains the meaning of 'Seen in this life is Dhamma'. Something so transparent it is invisible to many.
[AN 3.54] The Brāhmin Wanderer, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha explains the meaning of 'Seen in this life is Dhamma'. Slightly expanded version of the previous. This Dhamma is not a 'wait-and-see' thing, not a system promising benefits for following it's rules only at some future time. When you eliminate some low way of behaving the fear and dread of the consequences of that deed is let go right there. This is not to say that the results are not long lasting, or that some of the promised benefits of following the system do not take working at or arrive later in Time, but the sage will see in the mechanism of action that there is benefit in the beginning, benefit in the middle and benefit at the end and that even the benefit at the beginning is worth the effort.
[AN 3.55] Nibbāna, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha explains the meaning of 'Seen in this life is Nibbāna'. Except for the change to Nibbāna from 'Dhamma', identical with the previous sutta, but the meaning is on an entirely different level. The previous question points out the immediate advantage of acts of not-doing. Here what must be seen is that Nibbāna is the perception of the not-happening of the consequences of those deeds.
[AN 3.56] The Rich Man, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. A wealthy brahmin has heard the story told by the ancients of a time when this world was densely populated and villages and towns and cities grew up right next to each other. He asks Gotama why it is that this is no longer the case and is told that it is because at this time the people are obsessed with lusts, depravities and wrong views resulting in a number of calamaties that depopulate the earth.
A tough sutta for modern man to digest for several reasons. Nobody I think will argue that the people today are not as depraved as described, and that that results in wars, but that this depravity affects the weather and crops and causes the unleashing of demonic beings will be harder to see. And then there is the issue of feeding such a dense population ... and this was speaking of a time when the lifespan of man was in the tens of thousands of years.
How can this be seen? This world is a work of the imagination, individual and collective. The individual has no way to know the nature of 'the real world', what he can know is simply the three experiences through the senses, what he 'sees' and 'hears' and 'tastes' and 'touches' has no more concrete reality to it than a dream, but because man desires to live collectively he agrees to believe the world is of a certain nature, possesses certain properties beyond solidity, liquidity, heat and light, motion, space and consciousness. Thus the apparent world is one which is arrived at by consensus*. That consensus changes over time. That's how. *Actually that concensus is a concensus that this world is one which is arrived at by concensus; examined closely it will be seen that outside the sangha there are hardly two people in the world that agree with each other about almost anything.
[AN 3.57] Vacchagotta, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha sets straight a rumor that he teaches that it is only to him and his followers that gifts should be given; that it is only gifts to him and his followers that are of great fruit.

 


If one should throw away pot-scourings
or the rinsings of cups
into a pool
or cesspit,
even with the idea of feeding
the creatures that live therein,
I declare it would be a source of merit to him;
to say nothing of his feeding beings that are human.

Nevertheless I say, Vaccha,
that a gift given in the case of the virtuous
is of great fruit,
not those given in the case of the wicked.
AN 3.57 - Woodward


 

[AN 3.59] Jāṇussoṇi, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Brahmin Jāṇussoṇi tells Gotama that those who would make offerings to the dead should give them to brahmins who have the threefold lore. Gotama responds describing the 'three-fold-lore' of the Aristocrats: seeing past lives, seeing the outcomes of kamma, and seeing that one has destroyed the corrupting influences. Almost identical to AN 3.58.
[AN 3.60] Saŋgārava, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Sangarava approaches Gotama with the idea that those who perform sacrifices do more good for more people than those who leave the household life for the homeless state. Gotama then raises the case of a Buddha arising in the world, one who teaches multitudes, gods and men. There follows discussion of the merits of various magic powers. Well it's more than just a discussion. Gotama performs an act of magic power which it is a challenge for the reader to see and which converts Sangarava, and there is also here a direct statement as to Gotama's possession of varous sorts of magic powers. There is enough detail here, in the description of mind-reading, to learn this art.
[AN 3.62] Terror, Woodward translation
Terror, Olds translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Gotama speaks of three terrors of the common people and then shows how their fears go too far in that sometimes there is a happy ending; he follows that by speaking of three terrors not subject to remediation through wishes; and then he points the way to overcome terrors.
This sutta speaks to a deep psychological terror, not simply to the fears caused by natural calamity, but the fears that arise facing death of the self or a loved one; twin drives which underlie the search for rebirth driven by the great bond between mothers and sons.
There are a couple of very difficult terms to understand in this sutta and Woodward, Bhk. Thanissaro and Bhk. Bodhi and myself have as a result each got the intent of it and the construction of the logic differently. To my mind the greatest danger comes from Woodward's understanding of the conclusion which points to the idea as being a way for mother's and sons to be united. This is not the idea of the sutta. The idea is the overcoming of the terror, not the happy solution to the disunity. Bhk. Thanissaro and Bhk. Bodhi and I are at least in agreement concerning this aspect.
I have done a translation which I believe evades the pitfalls of this sutta and shows the way Gotama developed his idea.
[AN 3.63] Venāga, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes how his seat on a pile of leaves at the root of a tree is celestial, sublime and Aristocratic.
[AN 3.64] Sarabha, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali.
Sarabha has quit the sangha believing he understands the Dhamma. He goes around boasting that it is because he understands the Dhamma that he rejects it. The bhikkhus ask the Buddha to set him straight, out of compassion. After repeatedly giving Sarabha an opportunity to explain himself which he is unable to do, not even being able to respond at all, the Buddha departs through the air. Sarabha's friends have a great time at his expense as a result.
[AN 3.66] Sāḷha Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
A variation on the teaching given in AN 3.65: The Kesaputtiya (Kesamutti) Suttaṃ aka The Kalama Sutta. Here, Old Man Nandako teaches two young brahmins not to go by what is accepted tradition, by hearsay, or great learning, not to go by logic and inference, the appeal of some theory, or because it is held by a venerated teacher, but only when a thing is understood for one's self to be beneficial, blameless, approved of by the wise, things that when done result in happiness and well-being undertake them and live by them. Examples of knowing for one's self are given.
The sutta ends with the phrase: 'brahmabhūtena attanā viharatī' Which Bhk. Bodhi ("having himself become divine") and Bhk. Thanissaro: ("he abides [for the remainder of his last life-span] divinely pure in himself") are attempting to avoid translating as per Woodward: "...abides in experience of bliss, by becoming Brahma.' "Becoming Brahma" is problematic because of it's implication of a self having attained an individualized rebirth as 'a Brahma God' as this phrase is understood today by Hindu's. See on this: AN 3.070 n.10
What we have here is a good example of the difference between literal translation and interpretive translation. It is where the translator feels the need to interpret that bias can enter the picture and it is for this reason that the Pali Text Society translations are invaluable in that the predominant effort of these translators was in the direction of the literal because their primary interest (and measure of excellence) was in the usefulness of the translation in elucidating the language. Interpretation at some level can't be avoided in translation. This is just something to keep in mind as you read. Check back to the Pali where something doesn't feel right, where you suspect you are being molly-coddled, or where translators differ widely or where there is a suspicion that one is being pushed in a certain direction, especially towrads known biases, such as "There is no self."
[AN 3.68] Those of Other Views, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Under the pretext of teaching the bhikkhus how to respond to questions of wanderers of other views, Gotama teaches them the distinguishing features, origin and the technique for preventing lust, hate and delusion from arising, or getting rid of them if they have already arisen.
[AN 3.69] Roots of Demerit, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Lust, hatred and stupidity are shown to be at the root of all deeds producing unprofitable outcomes both here and hereafter while letting go of lust, hatred and stupidity are shown to be the roots of all deeds producing profitable outcomes both here and hereafter.
Gotama wearing his Fire and Brimstone preacha-man hat.
[AN 3.70] Sorts of Sabbath, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Not really new, but unabridged, and the Pali was read against the PTS Pali. This was one of the first suttas put up on the original BuddhaDust.
Visakha visits the Buddha and is given a detailed description of how to keep the Sabbath.
[AN 3.71] Channa, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Ananda explains the disadvantages of Lust, Hate and Stupidity and the advantages of letting these things go to Channa the Wanderer. An essential feature of the Dhamma and the Nature of Nibbana is seen in this sutta where the advantages of letting go of Lust, Anger, and Stupidity are not stated in terms of gains but in terms of perception of not experiencing the disadvantages.
Woodward notes here about this sutta that it is the only instance in this volume of a nidana given as just: 'Sāvatthi-nidanaṃ.' A nidana [the opening few lines of a sutta, usually making the statement that what is being said is a repetition of something heard about a teaching given by such and such a person, in such and such a place, under such and such circumstances] of some sort has frequently, but irregularly been inserted for the digital edition we are putting up here where each sutta needs to be able to stand alone and where the abrupt launching into a talk is jarring. Picking up the nidana of the first sutta in a chapter, or from the next previous sutta where a nidana is given, for the rest appears called for where the following suttas begin with 'Atha kho', 'There then'. Otherwise from the context and location of certain characters it is possible to deduce the nidana. Otherwise a generic beginning including only what is known has often, but not always been inserted.
[AN 3.72] Ājīvaka Suttaṃ, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. A householding follower of the Ajivaka's asks Ananda about whose doctrine is taught best, who are those who are conducting themselves the best, who are those who are of benefit to the world. Ananda avoids the trap and speaks only of what doctrine is the best, whether or not those who follow it are well conducted, and whether or not those who follow it are of benefit to the world. Further, the way he speaks of these issues is not by telling the housefather what is what, but by asking the housefather questions getting him to convince himself. The housefather is impressed and becomes a follower of the Buddha.
[AN 3.73] The Sakyan, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Ananda instructs the Buddha's uncle Mahanama concerning the morality, serenity and wisdom of the seeker and the morality, serenity and wisdom of the adept.
[AN 3.74] The Unclothed, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Ananda describes three methods for ending Pain and evading kamma as taught by the Buddha. The key to understanding this sutta is in the phrase: Purāṇañ ca kammaṃ phussa phussa vyantīkaroti. 'And he removes past kamma by way of touch touch.' Repeated contact. There is no explanation in the sutta, and the various translations do not explain well. The idea is that by continuously examining the body, sensations, mental states and the Dhamma and dredging up in memory deeds said and done in the past and examining them from the perspective of Dhamma as it is currently understood [the point of satipatthana, and an evolving process] one is in effect experiencing the consequences of one's past deeds. At this point by understanding the deed in terms of ethical conduct, the detachment of jhāna and by seeing the freedom in the destruction of the corrupting influences [āsava] the deed is resolved and swept away.
Understanding this in this way one is able to resolve the paradox presented by the statement made that there is no ending of kamma without experiencing the results thereof, and the case of Arahants apparently being subjected to the consequences of prior bad kamma as in the cases of Devadatta being able to injure the Buddha's toe, Moggliana being murdered, and Angulimala being subjected to assalt ... and other cases.
How?
By ethical conduct, the calm detached serenity of jhāna, and insight into the freedom that results from the destruction of the corrupting influences of lust, hate, and stupidity [āsavas] it is possible to become arahant before the ending of kamma. The Arahant is, by this behavior and insight, subject to no further births after death. That is what distinguishes Arahantship in this life from pari-Nibbana, and what is meant by the term 'with remainder' when speaking of arahants and non-returners who must experience some delay after death before attaining Nibbana. Those consequences of former deeds that remain to the khandhas (that is, the individuality,) of what is now the Arahant, however far back in time they may have begun, are forced, because their scope is limited to the khandhas, and there will be no further khandhas, into presenting themselves within the narrow limit of the life of the khandhas of the Arahant that remains. Thus the consequences of former actions are experienced (though in the case of the Arahant, as impersonal phenomena, impinging on the khandhas, but not on the mind), but in proportion to the relationship of the finite life remaining to the unbounded scope of Nibbana. A similar thing occurs for the Streamwinner, Once-returner, and Non-returner.
Two similes that were made to make this clear can be found in AN 3.99. Today [Friday, February 21, 2014 8:50 AM] we can use our common understanding of earth's relationship to outer space as a good simile: Imagine the perspective of an ordinary person here on planet earth. In this case the earth appears vast to the point of feeling unlimited. Then send this same person into orbit in the International Space Station. Here his perspective of earth is radically changed. He has become detached from actual experiences on earth though some may still be visible, and he can see the planet as a finite object in space. Take this person further out in space past the solar system and he will hardly be able to make out the existence of earth at all, let alone experience any disturbance from even cataclysmic things that happen there. Then move this person out beyond the Galaxy, and beyond, and beyond the beyond. The various perspectives can be related to the various changes in perspective from Streamwinner to Arahant, while that which is due to be made manifest on planet earth is confined to planet earth.
[AN 3.75] The Unclothed, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Ānanda is advised by the Buddha to instill unwavering confidence in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha in those for whom he has fellow-feelings.
[AN 3.78] Service, Woodward translation
Ethical Practices, Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha shows the bhikkhus Ananda's wisdom by testing him with a question about the fruitfulness of various religious practices. A sutta which shows Ananda at an early stage of his career.
[AN 3.79] Scent, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The scent of flowers and saps and roots go only on the wind, but the scent of the good man goes in all directions with and against the wind.
[AN 3.81] The Recluse, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. Three trainings which should be eagerly taken up by the aspiring bhikkhu: the training in higher ethical practices, higher development of the heart, and higher wisdom. The bhikkhu neglecting to undertake these trainings is compared to a jack-ass following a hurd of cattle thinking he was a stear.
[AN 3.82] The Agriculture, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The three basic trainings of the bhikkhu (training in ethical practices, training the heart, and training in wisdom), are likened to the three basics of farming: preparation of the field, sewing the seed, proper irrigation.
[AN 3.83] The The Vajjian, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. A bhikkhu finds it too difficult to train in all the rules of the Patimokkha so the Buddha instructs him to train in three things: the higher ethical practices, training the heart, and training in wisdom. Compare this with the story in Jātaka #56.
[AN 3.84] The Pupil, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. A 'sekha' (seeker, trainee, pupil, student) is defined as one who is still training in the higher ethical practices, training the heart, and training his wisdom.
[AN 3.85] Recital (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
[AN 3.86] Recital (b), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
[AN 3.87] Recital (c), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali
[AN 3.88] Training (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The above four suttas would most profitably be read together. A fifth, below, provides a variation on the last.
In the first, The Buddha shows how serious commitment to the training in ethical practices interacts with various levels of accomplishment in training the heart and training in wisdom to result in Streamwinning, Once-returning, Non-returning or Arahantship. One who practices a little gets a little; one who practices thoroughly gets much. The fourth provides the definition of what constitutes the higher ethical practice, the higher training of the heart, and the higher training in wisdom. In this sutta Woodward, in note #1 points out the difficulty raised by the translation of 'citta' as 'thought' rather than 'heart,' it's literal meaning. The higher 'citta' is the training in samādhi, 'serenity, which is a state of the heart more than a state of the mind.
The first three together, by first providing a broad categorization, second providing a detailed categorization in ascending order and third by providing the same detailed categorization in descending order produce the following picture:

I. In Brief

I.1.

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture [sīla] In Full
Cultivation of serenity [samādhi] Partial
Cultivation of wisdom [paññāa] Partial

Breaking the three yokes [tini saṃyojana]

Breaking the attachment to views,
clearing up doubt about the Four Truths,
and letting go the belief that ethical conduct, good deeds, or ceremonies and rituals are sufficient to bring an end to Pain (dukkha) or attainment of Nibbāna. (Woodward translates 'release' which is misleading given that this is the usual translation for the vimokkhas which are only temporary releases and are attainable even by the Streamwinner. See discussion for the listing for AN 3.21)

Result:

Streamwinning: Assurance; rebirth in Hell, as a deamon, ghost or animal is precluded; awakening is certain.

Note: No time limit specified.

I.2.

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture: In Full
Cultivation of serenity: Partial
Cultivation of wisdom: Partial

Breaking the three yokes [tini saṃyojana]

Weakening lust, hate and stupidity [rāga-dosa-moha]

Result:

Once-returning: Returning once [sakid eva imam lokam] to this world he brings and end to Pain.

Note: The wording on this leaves open the possibility that between death in this world and the next return to this world there may be rebirths in other realms. This says: 'Returning Once'; this does not say: 'Taking rebirth only one more time.'

I.3.

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture: In Full
Cultivation of serenity: In Full
Cultivation of wisdom: Partial

Breaking the five yokes [pañca orambhāgani saṃyojana]
The above three plus: ending desire for pleasure and deviance (vyāpādo: via-not-path; 'warped'; intentional behavior contrary to the Magga; the usual translation 'malevolence' is too narrow!)

Result:

Non-Returning. Spontaneous rebirth [opapātiko: without the experience of death here, reappearance without the experience of birth there, age: @15] there to attain Final Nibbāna without returning.

Note: Contrast this with the description of this attainment with those below. Here it would seem to justify the idea that following this life there was, for the non-returner, but one further life during which he would attain Final Nibbāna.
Woodward adds (and it is often assumed) that this rebirth is in the Pure Abodes. There are cases however where the rebirth of a non-returner is said to have been in the Tusita realm (see below). This understanding is also that presented for the Non-returner in MN 22 pañc'orambhāgiyāni saṃyojanāni pahīnāni sabbe te opapātikā tattha parinibbāyino anāvatthidhammā tasmā lokā 'the five yokes to the lower let go, all those spontaneously arise there to attain Final Nibbāna, not returning from there to this world.' The 'there' is not specified.

I.4.

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture: In Full
Cultivation of serenity: In Full
Cultivation of wisdom: In Full

Eliminating the Corrupting Influences [Āsavas] of Sense Pleasures, being and blindness [kāma, bhāva, avijja]. Sometimes 'diṭṭhi' [views] is added to this list, but that is not necessary in that it is encompassed by 'avijja.'

Result:

Arahantship in this life.

 


 

II.1. In Ascending Order:

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture In Full
Cultivation of serenity Partial
Cultivation of wisdom Partial

Breaking the three yokes

Result:

Streamwinning: Assurance; rebirth in Hell, as a deamon, ghost or animal is precluded;
awakening is certain.

Type 1: Seven rebirths at most, going up and down among gods and men.

Type 2: Rebirth in two or three good families.

By additionally weakening lust, hate and stupidity [rāga-dosa-moha] he becomes

Type 3: The "One-seeder". He takes rebirth as man once; he is a 'Once-returner' Returning once to this world becomes an Arahant here and attains Final Nibbāna.

Note: Again here the wording on this leaves open the possibility that between death in this world and the next return to this world there may be rebirths in other realms. This does not say: 'Taking rebirth only one more time.'

II.2.

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture: In Full
Cultivation of serenity: In Full
Cultivation of wisdom: Partial

Breaking the five yokes

Result:

Non-Returning

Type 1:

Not returning to rebirth as man, attaining the Akaniṭṭha realm he attains Final Nibbāna [parinibbāyī] there.

Note: Here the wording is 'upstream he gets the Akaniṭṭha realm' [uddhaṃsoto hoti akaniṭṭhagāmi]. This realm is the highest of the Pure Abodes. It is likely, but not absolutely clear that this means he is reborn directly in the Akaniṭṭha realm. It could be (and the commentaries, Bhk. Thanissaro and Bhk. Bodhi assume) he is reborn in lower Pure Abodes and travels upward to this realm. (see discussion below)

Type 2:

With-own-making [sa-saŋkhāra] Final Nibbāna

Note: (saŋkhāra; own-making, confounding, constructing, fabrication. Woodward has "with-" or below "without some trouble"; Bhk. Thanissaro has fabrications, adding '(of exertion)'; Bhk. Bodhi skips right to 'exertion'; presumably these translations are influenced by commentary and work off the translation of saŋkhāra as 'activities'; however this is translated, keep in mind that in this context 'activities' or 'exertion' would imply the intent to create personal experience.) attains final Nibbāna,
There is a contradiction in the PTS Pali in the ordering of this whole group and again with these two in this sutta and the next. Woodward translating saŋkhāra as 'trouble' creates a logic for reversing the order in the Pali of this sutta to match what is an error in the next, but 'not-saŋkhāra' is higher than 'saŋkhāra' always.

Type 3:

Without-own-making [a-saŋkhāra] Final Nibbāna

Type 4:

Cut-down [upahacca] Final Nibbāna

Note: Upahacca 'up-strike' or 'kill', or 'up-cut' or the way we usually have it 'to cut up' or 'cut down' or 'to strike down'; Woodward: 'by reduction of his time'; and relying on commentary: Bhk. Thanissaro: 'on arrival [in a Pure Abode]; Bhk. Bodhi; 'upon landing'; see Bhk. Thanissaro's discussion in his footnote. #4) attains Final Nibbāna, Note that the nature of what is cut down is not specified. What we can infer from the position of this type in the list here and below is that there is less time and effort involved in the attaining of Final Nibbāna for this type than for the previous types.

Type 5:

In-between [antarā] Final Nibbāna

Note: There is no confusion here about the term, but the meaning is subject to much debate. One question put is: "Is this an indication of a state between births?" If we see that in the case of this sutta where these last four are put in the descending order thus confirming their relationships to each other as being a progression from lower to higher, and we take the first type as meaning that the non-returner is reborn in some world to progress from that on towards the Akiniṭṭha Realm where there he attains Final Nibbāna, then these four attainments could be understood as:
Style one: Rebirth in some realm where there is still self-identification or a personal world and thereafter moving on up to the Akiniṭṭha and attaining Final Nibbāna, there;
Style two: Rebirth in some realm where there is no self-identification or personal world, such as the Ākiñcaññāyatana or N'evasannānasannāyatana and thereafter moving on up to the Akiniṭṭha and attaining Final Nibbāna, there;
Style three: Cutting down, killing off, cutting-back, the remainder of whatever life remains in whatever rebirth has been taken, and thereafter moving on up to the Akiniṭṭha and attaining Final Nibbāna, there.
Style four: Between death and subsequent rebirth in one of the previous three styles, moving on up to the Akiniṭṭha and attaining Final Nibbāna, there.
But this is not absolutely required by the wording which is in each case just that in this way (i.e., with own-making) he attains Final Nibbāna.
And, again, this is a list put in ascending order, which when (as in the next sutta) it is put in descending order states that it is a failing not to have attained the previous, higher development: [anabhisambhavaṃ: 'not-higher-self development of such'] and it is not possible to construct these last four styles in such a way as not to have them be successively shorter paths to Final Nibbāna than a progression through the Pure Abodes to the Akiniṭṭha. And why should that be objectionable? Is not attaining Arahantship in this life an even shorter path?
This would still allow the understanding of the first type to be a rebirth in some world below the Akiniṭṭha with a progression to there before the attaining of Final Nibbāna, but this would be inconsistant with the statement in MN 22] that 'all those who have broken the five yokes are spontaneously reborn (no specified location) and attain Final Nibbāna, there.
One more peramater needs to be factord in to the understanding of this list as a progression: that is, that it is frequently stated that the Non-returner reborn in one of the Pure Abodes, attains Final Nibbāna, at some point towards the middle of his lifespan. I am not aware of any place where the lifespan of those reborn in the Pure Abodes is stated. These realms are brahma-lokas, however and are calculated in kappas: aeons.
The construction we are left with then points to the understanding of the first type as a rebirth directly in the Akiniṭṭha (the wording in MN 22 is that he attains Final Nibbāna, there) and the subsequent types as indicating other, shorter, direct routes to Final Nibbāna, not by way of the Akiniṭṭha.
Finally, it should be remembered that at any point along any path, (Streamwinner on up) the practitioner might be able to drive himself to destroy the āsavas and become Arahant.

II.3

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture: In Full
Cultivation of serenity: In Full
Cultivation of wisdom: In Full

Eliminating the Corrupting Influences [Āsavas] of Sense Pleasures, being and blindness [kāma, bhāva, avijja].

Result:

Arahantship in this life.

 


 

III. In descending order.

III.1:

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture: In Full
Cultivation of serenity: In Full
Cultivation of wisdom: In Full

Eliminating the Corrupting Influences [Āsavas] of Sense Pleasures, being and blindness [kāma, bhāva, avijja].

Result:

Arahantship in this life.

III.2:

Note: This and the following types, the way the sutta reads, have all undertaken the training rules and have developed ethical culture, serenity, and wisdom in full and have eliminated the five yokes. Each is said to have not attained the preceding [anabhisambhavaṃ: 'not obtaining self development of such']; often put: 'failing that'.

Note: The PTS Pali, CSCD and apparently the Pali used by Bhk. Bodhi the order of this section is incorrectly reversed.

Type 1:

In-between [antarā] Final Nibbāna

Type 2:

Cut-down [upahacca] Final Nibbāna

Type 3:

Without-own-making [a-sa-saŋkhāra] Final Nibbāna

Type 4:

With-own-making [sa-saŋkhāra] Final Nibbāna

Type 5:

Not returning to rebirth as man, attaining the Akaniṭṭha realm he attains Final Nibbāna [parinibbāyī] there.

Note: In this sutta in the PTS Pali there is an elipsis between 'upstream he gets' and 'goes to the Akaniṭṭha' [uddhaṃsoto hoti ... Akaniṭṭhagāmi]. This would make these into two different sorts of non-returner. The BJT Pali has 'Going to the Akaniṭṭha' as a separate sentence in this sutta, but not the previous. The CSCD Pali would read as Bhk. Bodhi translates: 'one bound upstream, heading toward the Akaniṭṭha realm,' no elipsis, no separate sentence, one category. I think the PTS Pali and translation (Woodward places elipses as with the PTS Pali) must be in error here as it is reletively certain that this sutta is to be understood as a repetition in reverse order of the previous sutta. There is no statement in this, at least in these suttas, that the first rebirth subsequent to this life is in the Pure Abodes. The breaking of the five yokes implies only no further rebirth in the 'Lower' Realms. That is defined by PED as meaning the kāma loka or realms where there is experience through the five senses. But since there is at least one case [that of Anāthapiṇḍika, and see also MN 143, and I believe there is at least one other person who was stated to be a non-returner and also to have been reborn in Tusita] of a non-returner being declared to have been reborn in the Tusita Realm, and since beyond the five yokes is still 'lust for form' [rūparāja] the inference is that the non-returner could be reborn in a realm at least as 'low' as that.

Again note that the order here implies more and more time, effort, involvement, attachment.

Type 6: (There is no separate category created here for the following):

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture In Full
Cultivation of serenity Partial
Cultivation of wisdom Partial

Breaking the three yokes

By additionally weakening lust, hate and stupidity [rāga-dosa-moha] he becomes

Result:

The "One-seeder". He takes rebirth as man once; he is a 'Once-returner' Returning once to this world he brings and end to Pain.

Note: Again here the wording on this leaves open the possibility that between death in this world and the next return to this world there may be rebirths in other realms. This does not say: 'Taking rebirth only one more time.' In fact, if the Once-returner is to be seen as one who is less advanced than the lowest non-returner, (and that is always the implication) some intervening life or lives must be assumed or this would be a case of a Non-returner returning to this world to make an end.

Type 7:

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture In Full
Cultivation of serenity Partial
Cultivation of wisdom Partial

Result:

Rebirth in two or three good families.

Note that except for the fact that human birth involves much more pain and struggle, and so imply increased effort for attainment of Final Nibbāna, the amount of time for this type of Streamwinner would be less than that for the swiftest non-returner. Or is it the case here as with the Once-returner, that there are intervening lives in other worlds?

Type 8:

Practice:

Undertaking the training rules which encompass ethical culture, serenity and wisdom, and having developed them as follows:

Ethical Culture In Full
Cultivation of serenity Partial
Cultivation of wisdom Partial

Result:

Streamwinning: Rebirth in Hell, as a deamon, ghost or animal is precluded;
awakening is certain.
Seven rebirths at most, going up and down among gods and men.

The effort here has only been to make the progression rational and consistent with the various ways this progression is mentioned throughout the suttas. There is no question that it is a matter of interest, but the safest course, if one does not see that one is a Streamwinner, is to aim at that. It is at that point at least that there is certainty without need of 'belief' and perception that one is safe from rebirth in the sorts of lives lower than human status.

An editorial footnote will be appended to these suttas referencing this table: See Outline comparing Suttas 85-86-87.

[AN 3.89] Training (b), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha defines the higher ethical practice, the higher training of the heart, and the higher training in wisdom. A slight variation on the previous sutta, with verses added.
[AN 3.90] Pankadhā, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. While listening to the Buddha speak about the training rules, Kassapa bhikkhu thinks that Gotama goes too far along the lines of strict behavior. After the Buddha departs he has second thoughts and suffers regret mightily. He quickly goes to the Buddha to reveal his error. The revelation is acknowledged and he is given a teaching explaining the importance of being a good example. As well as being the teaching on being a good example, this is a good example of what is meant by 'confession' or 'apology' in the Buddha's system. It is really neither a confession nor an apology, but the making conscious of an error in the presence of a person of such a nature as will make the insident unforgettable and useful as a means for keeping check on one's future behavior. The 'revelation' is made either to the person to whom one has behaved badly or to some highly respected person. This is not easy to do but is powerful medicine! Take a person who habitually lies but who understands the danger in lying. The habit is hard to break when attacked head-on, but if such a one resolves to immediately 'confess' that what he has just said is a lie, the embarassment caused by that will quickly drive him to become more aware when he is speaking.
[AN 3.91] Urgent, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha addresses the anxiousness of the bhikkhus to attain the goal by likening the training to the three basic tasks of the farmer: plowing the field, sowing the seed, and irrigation. In the same way that these three tasks are under the control of the farmer, the training is under the control of the bhikkhu; in the same way as the growth of the crop is out of the hands of the farmer; the time of attaining the goal is out of the hands of the bhikkhu. Nevertheless there is expecation of results in both cases. Very similar to AN 3.82
[AN 3.92] Aloofness, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha compares the practice of living in solitude of those of other views with the practice of living in solitude of those who follow this Dhamma and Discipline. Then he compares the results of this practice with the steps the farmer goes through to harvest and secure his crop. This sutta describes a course to non-returning based on the practice of seclusion and having cultivated the first jhāna wherein the first three saŋyojana are broken and further there is a restraining of abhijjhāya and vyāpādena (Woodward's coveting and malevolance). Note that the usual fourth saŋyojana is, kāmacchanda so that what may be being said is that the restraint of coveting is the essential aspect of wishing for sense pleasures that must at least restrained to attain non-returning.
The BJT and CSCD pali and Bhk. Bodhi break this sutta into two at section 4. The BJT Pali has this section include all four Jhānas; the CSCD and the Pali apparently followed by Bhk. Bodhi have, as is the case with the PTS Pali, only the first Jhāna. Except for following what was done before, there is no sense to breaking the sutta into two at this point.
Bhk. Bodhi notes that the commentary wants to deny that this is a non-returner, but all the commentary does is invent the name 'jhāna-non-returner' and define this in the same way as the non-returner is defined which is just what the sutta does. The essential thing the commentary wants to inject into the thinking about this is that this non-returner does not enter a Brahma-loka or the Pure Abodes, but goes to some kāma world (that would include the Tusita realm) and attains Final Nibbāna there. There is nothing in the sutta itself to confirm or deny this, but attainment of the Brahma Lokas is said to be done by way of attaining the first jhāna even for commoners. Add this to the picture of the non-returner in the outline above. This is a good example of the kind of mess you can get into trusting the commentaries to explain things.

 


Just as in the autumn season
when the sky is clear
and the clouds have fled,
the sun
leaping up into the firmament
drives away all darkness from the heavens
and shines and burns and flashes forth,
even so
in the Ariyan disciple
arises the flawless, taintless eye of wisdom
AN 3.92 — Woodward


 

[AN 3.93] Companies, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes three sorts of groups of companions: one marked by dedication to practice, one marked by discord, and one marked by harmony. Great praise is put on the group marked by harmony.
[AN 3.94] The Thoroughbred (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha likens the ethical practices, dedication, and insight into the Four Truths of the bhikkhu to the qualities of beauty, strength and speed of a king's thoroughbred horse.
[AN 3.95] The Thoroughbred (b), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha likens the ethical practices, dedication, and breaking of the five yokes to the lower worlds of the bhikkhu to the qualities of beauty, strength and speed of a king's thoroughbred horse.
[AN 3.96] The Thoroughbred (c), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha likens the ethical practices, destruction of the corrupting influences (asavas) of the bhikkhu to the qualities of beauty, strength and speed of a king's thoroughbred horse.
[AN 3.97] Rough Cloth, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 3.98] Cloth of Benares, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The above two should be one sutta and are presented together in one file. The Buddha likens the imoral bhikkhu to cloth made from bark fibers and contrasts this with the moral bhikkhu who is like the treasured cloth made in Benares.
[AN 3.99] A Grain of Salt, Woodward translation
The Flower of the Sea Discussion of this sutta below,
Linked to the Pali, Warren, and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translations.
The Buddha illustrates the relativity of kamma using three similes. The repercussions of the same deed for one of undeveloped character and one of developed character are compared to the effects of a small amount of salt on a small amount of water and the effects of the same small amount of salt on a large body of water; and two similes comparing the punishment for a small theft committed by a poor man and the punishment for the same small theft committed by a rich and powerful man.

The key to understanding this sutta is in understanding the following introductory passage:

"For one speaking thus, beggars:

'Yathā yathāyaṃ puriso kammaṃ karoti,||
tathā tathā taṃ paṭisaŋvediyatī' ti.|| ||

'Whatsoever is such as this person intends to create by his deed
such as such as that is the experience that returns to him.'

Such being the case, beggars,
there is not had the living of the godly life
occasioning no thorough understanding of the consummate making of an end to pain.

But for one speaking thus, beggars:

'Yathā yathā vedanīyaṃ ayaṃ puriso kammaṃ karoti,||
tathā tathāssa vipākaṃ paṭisaŋvediyatī' ti.|| ||

'Whatsoever is such as is the experience this person intends to create by his deed,
such as such as that results in the experience that returns to him.'

Such being the case, beggars,
there is had the living the godly life
occasioning thorough understanding of the consummate making of an end to pain."

Kamma is not a matter of 'an eye for an eye'.

The meaning is that if it were the case that one doing an intentional deed of body, speech or mind necessarily were to experience the consequences in the form of experiences of body, speech and mind (it is not even necessary in this case to specify that these results be identical to those deeds, but only that they are of the same form), the nature of that manner of consequence is such as to preclude escape from kamma.

This must be understood in connection with the statement that there is no doing of an intentional deed without the experience of the consequences thereof. [AN 10.208]

Those two ideas together would require, for example, a deed done with body to be experienced by a consequence to the body, and so forth.

This would require identification with, or being downbound to body. And further, since there is no knowing the extent into the past of our intentional deeds of body, and kamma is not a one-for-one thing, but greatly amplifies whatever deed is done, there could be no knowing or saying that 'after such and such a time of doing no more intentional deeds of body, speech or mind, there will be an end of kamma'. And since the time involved in experiences of this sort is extensive, even if one were to practice very earnestly, death would intervene, and there would follow forgetfulness and in the next rebirth there would be the doing of new deeds.

However, if the experience of the repercussion of an intentional deed is in accordance with the sensation to be experienced through the senses that it was intended to cause, (may so-and-so suffer pain, may I enjoy pleasure by way of this deed) then understanding that there are but the three sense-experiences, and that one or another, and only one or another of these experiences accompany all sense experience at whatever level, this allows the results of deeds intended to cause experiences of a certain sort to manifest in connection with any experience through the senses at any level. Then, understanding that sense-experience is limited to the sense-spheres, by so developing one's bodily behavior, heart, and wisdom such as to abandon and rise above sense-experience, there is escape from kamma.

The repercussion of past deeds in the form of sense-experience will follow one up into ever more refined states, but by that very process such perspective is created as encompasses the ultimate past in terms of repercussions in the form of sense-experience (the perspective above sense-experience is the perspective of the totality of existence) and thus is had the experience of the totality of one's past kamma and by this the opportunity is created for the understanding of the consummate making of an end to pain in the understanding that that which is a sense experience is a thing that has come to be and that which has come to be comes to an end, and that by creating no new kamma and by abandoning and rising up above sense experience, kamma is brought to an end.

The theory one has about the nature of the mechanism of action of kamma will determine the nature of the measures one takes to bring kamma to an end. Holding the first of the two points of view above, one will not be able to bring kamma to an end because one will be attempting to bring the wrong things (forms of behavior resulting in things and events (the belief in the effacacy of ethics, rites and rituals to bring about the end of kamma, a yoke to rebirth to be broken by the Streamwinner)) to an end. Looking to the second of these points of view one will be able to bring kamma to and end because one will be looking to bring the cause of the experience of sensation through the senses to an end, that is, identification with the intent to create personal sense-experience.

[AN 3.100] Gold-refiner, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali, and to the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, Part I and Part II. The Buddha compares the process of attaining the higher mind through meditation to the steps required for the refining of gold. The goldsmith balances use of heat, cooling and examination; the bhikkhu must balance his development of serenity, energy and detachment. In the same way that over-emphasis of one aspect of the process by the goldsmith will likely result in the ruination of the gold, the over-emphasis by the bhikkhu on samadhi will result in sloth, overemphasis on energy building will result in anxiety, and overemphasis on objective detachment will result in the lack of serenity necessary to end the corrupting influences. There are in this sutta very helpful descriptions of the faults to be looked for and got rid of for each stage of advancement in the meditative process.

 


So long, monks,
as I did not thoroughly comprehend,
as it really is,
the satisfaction in the world as such,
the misery in the world as such,
the escape therefrom as such,
so long did I not discern the meaning
of being enlightened
with perfect enlightenment
unsurpassed in the world
with its devas,
its Maras and Brahmās,
together with the host of recluses and brahmins,
of devas and mankind.

But, monks, when I fully comprehended,
as it really is,
the satisfaction in the world as such,
the misery in the world as such,
the escape therefrom as such, -
then did I discern the meaning
of being enlightened
with perfect enlightenment
unsurpassed in the world
with its devas,
its Maras and Brahmās,
together with the host of recluses and brahmins,
of devas and mankind.

Then did knowledge and insight arise in me, thus:

Sure is my heart's release.

This is my last birth.

Now is there no more becoming again.

AN 3.101-Woodward


[AN 3.101] Before, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha relates how it was only after he understood, as it really is, the sweet taste of the world, the disadvantages of the world, and the escape from the world, that he considered himself completely awakened.
[AN 3.102] Satisfaction, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha states that it is only those who have understood the sweet taste of the world, the disadvantages of the world, and the escape from the world that are truly free, detached, released with an unconfined heart.
[AN 3.103] Lamentation, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha says that singing is just lamentation, dancing is just madness, and laughter is just childishness. Destroy the bridge, he says, to singing and dancing; It is enough, if something is really worthy of rejoicing, to simply smile.
The Buddha says to 'break the bridge' that leads to singing and dancing. The meaning is that singing and dancing and laughter are reactions to sense stimulus. They are the making of new kamma. There is the sense stimulus and then there follows after an expression which is a statement about that sense stimulus. For the Arahant if what is perceived is worthy, a response is called for, not a reaction. This is what is going on in back of several cases we encounter in the suttas where the Buddha smiles and Ananda understands this to be signficant and worthy of inquiry as to it's cause. [See for example: MN 81
[AN 3.104] Satiety, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha points out that there is no reaching satisfaction in sleep, drink and sexual intercourse.
[AN 3.106] The Peak (2), Woodward translation
Not Warped, Olds translation
Linked to the Pali. A vivid image of the effects of deviant thought. The Buddha likens warped thinking to the effects of a warped roof peak on the straightness of the rest of the house.
Also of interest in this sutta is the issue of the translation of the word Vyāpāda, here Vyāpanna, the fifth saŋyojana, and so very important to understand correctly. The PED has both going to to Vyāpajjati where they derive it from "[vi+āpajjati]" "Vi" = Re, Un, Āpanna [pp.] - 1. entered upon, fallen into, possessed of, having done, or for, Āpādeti [Causative] to produce, make out, bring, bring into; which leads [?] to the usual definition of 'malevolence' spoilt, disagreeing, gone wrong; corrupt; Bhk. Bodhi here "fail", Woodward (in this sutta) 'Warped' and 'askew' with a footnote explaining.' I suggest what we have here in this sutta is the basic intended meaning as it would be understood throughout the world wherever there is construction using wood, that is as Woodward has it, for English, "warped". I suggest the derivation is: via apada; via the not-path. For the behavior and mental state: deviance, for the opposite: not-warped or straight or just as good "warped" and "not-warped" for all cases. In terms of the saŋyojanas, this would mean behavior and thinking that deviated from the Magga ... not just malevolance.
[AN 3.107] Three Causes (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three things from which originate actions, kamma, karma. Nidānās, things from which originate, begin — not cause. Down-bound: things to which kamma is bound. If lust were a cause, it would always cause, there would be no escape from kamma. Lust arises and is intentionally abandoned, got rid of, exterminated, ended, understood to such a degree as to cause detachment from it, to stop it in it's tracks, to see it coming before it arises and thereby to end kamma. Lust can be not acted upon. Ditto dosa and moha.
[AN 3.108] Three Causes (b), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. This version of the Pali has been fixed, but the BJT version picks up the previous sutta without making all the necessary changes.
Three things from which originate actions that end kamma. This is the reverse case of the previous. This pairing of opposites is a frequent practice in the suttas precisely for situations like this where an exact understanding of the terms must be had to put them in both positive and negative form or they turn the sutta into a mess. Woodward notes that here 'Nidana' as 'cause' doesn't work but he uses 'cause'. Bhk. Bodhi also uses 'cause'. It's an ego thing. A reflection of Pajapati's problem. The arrogance of the ego that at heart thinks it is God the Creator of the Created: the cause of all this. It's inconceivable that things arise without being 'caused'. How come? "Because I can see that I exist, and I can see that things arise in the world as I become conscious of them and therefore I am the cause of things arising in the world." But: "This being, that becomes," is not a causual relationship, it's an associative relationship. The beginning of both this and the previous sutta is: "There are these three nidana giving rise to kamma," Here the three are not-lust, etc. Using 'cause' we are saying that a not-thing is the cause of an action. If we understand Nidana to mean, 'bound up in, tied to, (rises in association with)' we then have a sensible translation: Lust is tied to (even based on, even dependent on) the origination of kamma. Not-lust is tied to the origination of kamma. Any kamma tied to lust is no good, any deed not tied to lust is good. In the second case the kamma is the intentional not-doing of any action based on lust. Kamma which ends kamma.
[AN 3.109] Three Causes (c), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 3.110] Three Causes (d), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Two suttas providing a variation on the previous two suttas, also a pair of opposites. The Buddha describes how desire for things in the past, future and present provide three bases for the arising of kamma. One sort of kamma brings a bad result, the other a good result. Note here the order 'past, future present.' This is the standard throughout the suttas, which I say is the case because the mind is a suggestable, ever evolving thing which is by this order pointed into the past, pointed into the future, but made to land in the present. The order used here [USA] today [Monday, March 10, 2014 6:02 AM]; 'past, present, future', shows a mechanical, hierarchical thinking which has the effect of causing the whole population to focus mindlessly on the future, neither learning from the past nor paying attention to (or even enjoying) the present. Get the education to get the job to get the money to get the things that will show everyone else that one is more future oriented than everyone else. Fast tracking, trend setting, fad followers. The latest hairstyle, skirt-length, shoe, college, industry, location, number of children, ... house, car, telephone, radio, tv, hi-fi, walkman, computer. Faster and faster. Faster, smaller, cheaper ... better? Nobody sees they are out of date before they start, they die hoping to leap-frog the next generation. Like sheep they go to the slaughter. They never looked back to see that in the end they have done nothing, what they got comes to nothing. Round and round and round and round, they drive themselves into the ground. Both Woodward and the BJT Pali make errors not keeping this ordering in mind.
[AN 3.111] Doomed to the Downfall, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Persons of three sorts of habitual behavior end up in the Āpāyika PED: Apāya [Sanskrit apāya, from apa + i, cp. apeti] "going away" viz. - 1. separation, loss ... 2. loss (of property) ... 3. leakage, out flow (of water) ... 4. lapse, falling away (in conduct) ... 5. a transient state of loss and woe after death. Four such states are specified purgatory (niraya), rebirth as an animal [tiracchāna], or as a ghost [petaloka], or as a Titan [Asuraloka]. Going to be put away for a while. ... few million years. Sub-human states.
[AN 3.112] Hard to Find, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha speaks of three persons who are difficult to encounter in the world.
[AN 3.113] Immeasurable, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha speaks of three types of persons found in the world: the one that is easy to measure, the one that is difficult to measure, and the one that is beyond measure.
[AN 3.115] Failure and Success, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes what constitutes failure and success in ethical practices, heart, and viewpoint in this dhamma-discipline. Check out your concepts of failure and success against this list. Note that in this sutta 'sammādiṭṭhi' is not defined in terms of the four truths. I have suggested elsewhere that it was likely the definition as given here that was originally understood as High View, and the Four thruths were considered a separate doctrine, included in the Magga only when that is presented as the Seeker's Path, or the Non-seeker's Path where it has ten 'folds' and there as the Ninth fold and then in terms of the Paticca Samuppada. This does not make any difference in terms of doctrine. This sutta as it stands is directed at the commoner interested in avoiding hell and sub-human states and desiring rebirth in pleasant worlds.
Neither Woodward nor Bhk. Bodhi comment on this or quote commentary. Bhk. Bodhi translates 'sammādiṭṭhi' here as 'correct perspective'. The fact that this was left as it is argues strongly against significant changes being made by early editors.
[AN 3.116] Sure, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes what constitutes failure and success in ethical practices, heart, and viewpoint in this dhamma-discipline. Identical to the previous sutta with the addition of the simile of the true die that always lands steadily on whatever side it lands on.
[AN 3.117] Action, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes what constitutes failure and success in works, livlihood, and viewpoint in this dhamma-discipline. A variation on AN 3.15 above.
[AN 3.118] Purity (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes purity of body, speech and mind.
[AN 3.119] Purity (b), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes purity of body, speech and mind. A variation on the previous sutta. Purity of mind is in this sutta given as awareness of the Nivaranas (Obstructions, Bind-ups, Involvements, Distractions). Note that is the presentation given here that is likely the source for it's presentation in the Satipatthana Sutta.
[AN 3.120] Perfection, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha describes perfection of body, speech and mind. A variation on the previous sutta.
[AN 3.121] Kusināra, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes the thinking of two bhikkhus who receive a gift of a meal, one, living carelessly, to whom the gift is of little fruit, the other, living carefully, to whom the gift is of great fruit.
[AN 3.122] Strife, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha describes how living in srife arises from sensual, deviant and violent thinking and that where the bhikkhus live in strife is unpleasant to even think about, let alone visit, but where the bhikkhus live in harmony, without sensual, deviant and violent thinking it is pleasant to visit, let alone think about.
[AN 3.124] Bharaṇḍu, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha teaches his uncle Mahanama the significance of understanding sense desire [kāma], sense objects [forms, rūpa], and sense-experiences [vedana].
This is a very deep sutta in the form of a very short exchange between Gotama and Bharaṇḍu the Kālāman. The result of the exchange is that Bharaṇḍu the Kālāman gets up and leaves town never to be heard from again. Woodward expresses perplexity as to the reason for his departure, Bhk. Bodhi does not comment. My suggested explanation is:
This departure is an act of inwardly re-directed anger (like suicide) at being made to face embarassment at being shown up in front of an important personage. The lesson here is to see how he was shown up — that is, this was not simply a case of his being contradicted three times and taking offense at an afront. Bharaṇḍu's reaction shows that he did not understand the significance of comprehension of the realationship between sense desires, forms and sense-experiences. Holding the position that the result of understanding all three is the same is thinking that understanding sense desires includes understanding as well forms and sense-experiences (that is, that the same desire to experience a sensation from a given sense organ and sense object will always produce the same sense-experience). By aserting this position he is also claiming to understand the three. But if Bharaṇḍu had understood the relative relationship of sense desire, form, and sense-experience, he would have seen what Gotama was doing (which was showing him that the same sense desire and form combination was producing different sense experiences at each repetition) and he would have seen the error in his thinking and in spite of his embarassment, would not have felt anger (at the unpleasant mind sense-experience of being contradicted), could have seen the value of the lesson (that any sense desire/form situation could give rise to three different sorts of sense-experience depending on one's point of view) and could have become a disciple of Gotama.
This entire course of events looks like it was forseen by Gotama, but still he had to give Bharaṇḍu the opportunity to take another path. He didn't say in the beginning: "Set me up with lodgings at the ashram of Bharaṇḍu the Kālāman. He could not have remained silent after Bharaṇḍu's interjection or that would have misled Mahānāma. He let fate take it's course and played out his part as was required by the situation. The fault was really Bharaṇḍu the Kālāman's for putting himself between Gotama and Mahānāma.
[AN 3.125] Hatthaka, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Hatthaka the deva revisits Gotama, describes life in the Aviha Realm, and tells of his strong devotion to the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. Here is another case of a Non-returner returning to this world for a visit. [see also: AN 10 89] In the sutta we get a tiny little glympse of life in a Pure Abode.
[AN 3.127] Anuruddha (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Anuruddha has visions of women being cast into hell and he asks the Buddha to explain the reasons women are subject to such a fate.
[AN 3.129] Secret, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three things which are done in secret and three things which shine out in the open unhidden.
[AN 3.130] Carved on Rock, Earth and Water, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The temperments of three sorts of people are likened to what is carved in stone, carved in earth, and carved in water. Bhk. Thanissaro's is the better translation here, Woodward does not make his objects and similes parallel each other.
[AN 3.131] Fighting Man, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three ways in which the bhikkhu's practice is likened to the archer's skills of the Warrior and which make him worthy of salutation, honors and gifts, a consummate opportunity for the world to make good kamma.
[AN 3.132] Companies, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three sorts of groups classified according to the manner in which they are trained.
[AN 3.132] The Friend, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three qualities by which a friend can be known.
[AN 3.136] Attainments, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three things called attainment in the Buddha's system and three things called growth in the Buddha's system. This probably should be two suttas as is the case with the Wisdom edition and CSCD Pali.
[AN 3.137] Colts, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. This sutta should be read with the next two. The Buddha compares the qualities of speed, beauty and good proportions in a colt to the bhikkhu's understanding of the Four Truths, his ability to answer questions about the deep meaning of the Dhamma and Discipline, and his ease in getting the necessities of life.
[AN 3.138] Thoroughbreds, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha compares the qualities of speed, beauty and good proportions in a thoroughbred to the bhikkhu's having destroyed the five yokes to rebirth in the lower worlds, his ability to answer questions about the deep meaning of the Dhamma and Discipline, and his ease in getting the necessities of life.
[AN 3.139] Trained Steeds, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The Buddha compares the qualities of speed, beauty and good proportions in a thoroughbred to the bhikkhu's having destroyed the āsavas, his ability to answer questions about the deep meaning of the Dhamma and Discipline, and his ease in getting the necessities of life.
[AN 3.140] Peacocks' Feeding-Ground, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three sets of three things that indicate one has attained the goal. The three sets are:
1. having the body of ethical practices of the adept;
2. having the body of serenity (samādhi) of the adept;
3. having the body of wisdom of the adept. I do not recall this being defined, but it would likely consist of knowledge of the Paticca-samuppada, insight into it's implications, knowing the right time to act, and having the skills to act with effect;
1. having the marvel of magic powers;
2. having the marvel of ādesanā which PED, Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi translate 'mind-reading', but which is literally 'to-discourse'. There is a real marvel in the occurance in one of a spontaneous discourse on the Dhamma and this may be the real meaning. There are two sorts of mind-reading found in the Suttas. One is the reading by knowledge of one's own heart, the hearts of others [see DN 22 § 12], and the other is knowing by some sign or just by intuitively knowing the train of thought of another. Since thought-reading is essentially 'hearing' the thinking (the vitakka and vicara, or word-thoughts) of another said to be possible on attaining the second jhāna, so the meaning could be 'to hear the discursive thinking' of another;
3. the marvel of giving efficatious advice, which Woodward translates 'teaching' and Bhk. Bodhi translates 'instruction' but which is more than just teaching (standing in front of a 'class' and muttering recollected words presumed to be knowledge), it is the ability to know what needs to be taught and having the skills to effectively teach it to a specific audience to bring about advancement towards an intended goal,
1. having high view. In this book of the suttas understanding this is complicated by the fact that this term is not, as it is elsewhere, defined as the Four truths. See discussion below for this.
2. having high knowledge, (seeing the Paticca-samuppada as it really is)
3. having attained high liberation (having attained freedom from the āsavas, seeing freedom as freedom, knowing one is free, that rebirth has been ended, one's duty has been done, one has lived the godly life, and that there is no more being some kind of an 'it' at any place of being 'at').
This is not a list of 9 things, it is three lists of three things, each list being a different way of saying the same thing, so by comparing each set with the others to be sure the meanings in it are encompassed by each of the other sets one will arrive at a clearer definition of the meanings of each of the terms. This sutta is divided into three suttas by Bhk. Bodhi and CSCD. Since the usual number of suttas is met by having one sutta here, it looks likely that the original was the first set of three and that the second two sets were added after. This does not make them 'not-Dhamma'. My say.
[AN 3.141] Sinful, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three types of action which land one in Hell and three which land one in a heavenly State. The title of this sutta in the Pali is 'Akusala'. This term is most frequently translated 'unskillful'. 'Sin'; to commit an offense against (God or Law), is not really a Buddhist concept; actions have consequences in accordance with the intent of the actor and the same act can produce various consequences so the idea is really skill at recognizing the intent with which an action is being taken and judging that the consequences will be in accord with that intent and taking the appropriate, or skillful, course. Bhk Bodhi translates as 'Unwholesome.' The synonym is 'unwise.' The term for the converse is 'Kusala' which Woodward translates as 'Righteous' which suffers from the same bias and unrelatedness to the Pali as his 'sinful'.
Woodward footnotes Yathābhataṃ, his 'according to his deserts' and Bhk. Bodhi's 'as if brought there' The whole phrase is yathābhataṃ nikkhitto evaṃ niraye/saggeti. YATHA = like, as, according to; BHATA = support; NIKKHITTA; laid down: 'thus laid down according to support.' The image is of one who is falling (having been 'cast' by his acts) through space and finds a landing place that supports him. So: "Having these three sorts of behavior he is thus placed in ~ such being in accordance with his support.
[AN 3.142] Blameworthy, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three types of action which land one in Hell and three which land one in a heavenly State. Identical to the previous substituting 'Savajja' 'with faults' 'faulty' and 'anavajja' 'faultless' for 'Akusala' and 'Kusala'. Both Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi use 'blameworthy' and 'blameless.' The consequences of one's acts are not in accordance with the will of another but follow on their intent to cause pleasant or unpleasant or not-unpleasant-but-not-pleasant experiences. Not all things held to be blameworthy are faulty and not all things held to be blameless are faultless. Blame is a moral judgment and morality derives it's authority not from a view-based standard of ethical behavior but on popular opinion. One 'fears blame', as a practical matter but trying to determine what is and what is not an act that will further one's progress towards the goal of the Dhamma using 'blame' as a standard is risky.
[AN 3.143] Crooked, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three types of action which land one in Hell and three which land one in a heavenly State. Identical to the previous substituting 'Visama' and 'Sama'. Even, level, like, equal, just. From SA = one, MA = made: made one with. Here Bhk. Bodhi uses Unrighteous and Righteous for which note Woodwards translation of "Kusala" in AN 3.141
[AN 3.144] Foul, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three types of action which land one in Hell and three which land one in a heavenly State. Identical to the previous substituting 'Asuci' and 'Suci' PED: Suci: Pure, clean, white. Note the opposite is 'Asuci' not 'Sansushi' or 'san suci' or 'sans cuchi cuchi cuchi'. We have in English pairs of opposites which would serve and better reflect the Pali: pure/impure, clean/unclean.
[AN 3.144] Lifeless (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three types of action which amount to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and three types of action which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma.
Here Woodward translates 'Akusala' 'Immorality'; 'Kusala' 'Righteous'; 'Avyatto' 'sinful ignorant'; 'Vyatto', 'moral, intelligent'.
[AN 3.146] Lifeless (b), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three types of action which amount to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and three types of action which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma.
Identical to the previous substituting 'Savajja' 'with faults' 'faulty' and 'anavajja' 'faultless'.
[AN 3.147] Lifeless (c), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three types of action which amount to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and three types of action which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma.
Identical to the previous substituting 'Visamena' 'crooked' and 'Samena' 'straight.'
[AN 3.148] Lifeless (d), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three types of action which amount to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and three types of action which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma.
Identical to the previous substituting 'asucinā' 'foul' and 'sucinā' 'clean'.
[AN 3.149] Honour, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three modes of showing respect. The first meaning of 'homage' is that it is an oath of subserviance, vassalage, the making of one's self into 'the man' of some lord. While one who has gained in this system is indebted beyond anything any feudal lord might have conceived of, the idea of bondage makes this word antithetical to the spirit of the Dhamma. The idea is a respectful salute, even to the point of prostration or verbal or mental expression of respect and veneration based on true appreciation.
[AN 3.150] Happy, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The practice of consummate bodily, verbal and mental behavior yields immediate happiness.
[AN 3.151] Practices (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The three modes of attacking the problem of 'pain' (dukkha) in existence: hedonistic self-indulgence, self-torture, and the middle way. The first two are called 'the two extremes' of practice. Providing the 'middle way' as the one alternative that actually worked in attaining the goal of the end of dukkha, was the subject of the first sutta. Note that here the middle way is defined not as the eightfold path, but as the four satipatthanas. It comes to the same thing as the fourth satipatthana includes the Way and the Way includes samma sati which is the end result of setting up sati, but it poses some interesting questions.
[AN 3.152] Practices (b~), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. The PTS has (likely) incorrectly made this into one sutta. It is included here as one sutta, showing section breaks but without repeating the first part of each sutta for the sake of maintaining the PTS sutta numbering system intact. In understanding the sutta however the best course would be to read it as separate suttas. That would mean that the middle way that avoides hedonistic self-indulgence and self-torture would be being variously defined as: 1. (in the previous sutta) as the four settings-up of memory [saṭipaṭṭhānas, not so named],
2. the four best efforts [padhānāni, not so named],
3. the four paths to magic powers [iddipāda,],
4. the the controlling forces [indriya],
5. the controlling powers [bala],
6. the seven dimensions of self-awakening, [sambojjhaŋga],
7. the eight-fold path (not so named).
As for the interesting questions this raises ... well:
Was this the original understanding of the Middle Way, or a later construction. Assuming this was a later construction, when reading the first sutta one must ask how it was so effective when it did not define the terms in the Way, nor did it define the Four Truths as 'Sammā Diṭṭhi'.
This is the group of 'Dhammas' that is understood to be the 'Dhamma' which is to be set up and remembered as 'living in the Dhamma observing the Dhamma', aka the fourth satipatthana. This could explain the apparent confusion in the collections which I would put back in order this way: Both 151 and 152+ are one sutta. The statement is that the Middle way is: The Four Satipatthanas. The Fourth Satipatthana is then further defined (And what, beggars, is living in the Dhamma, overseeing the Dhamma? Herein a beggar ..." remembers to develop items 2-7. ... but in this case, how was 'Sammā Diṭṭhi' defined, and if as usual in this book, where are the Four Truths?
This is all just fun speculation, there needs to be no doubt as to doctrine as with some effort it can be shown that each of these seven Dhammas are equal to each of the others. The Buddha once said that if four wise men were to sit down to question him in turn taking breaks only for food, sleep and the calls of nature, they would all be dead and gone before he had come to the end of the possible ways the four satipatthanas could be constructed. (I wrote this just as I was beginning to format and proof MN 12 where this statement is made.)
[AN 3.153] Put into Purgatory (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Behaviors resulting in one landing in hell and the opposite behaviors which result in one landing in a heavenly state. 1. taking life and abstaining from taking life.
[AN 3.154] Put into Purgatory (b), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. 2. theft and abstaining from theft.
[AN 3.155] Put into Purgatory (c), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. 3. wrong practice in sensual desires and abstaining from wrong practice in sensual desires.
[AN 3.156] Put into Purgatory (d), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. 4. falsehood and abstaining from falsehood.
[AN 3.157] Put into Purgatory (e), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. 5. calumny and abstaining from calumny.
[AN 3.158] Put into Purgatory (f), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. 6. bitter speech and abstaining from bitter speech.
[AN 3.159] Put into Purgatory (g), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. 7. idle babbling and abstaining from idle babbling.
[AN 3.160] Put into Purgatory (h), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. 8. covetousness and abstaining from covetousness.
[AN 3.161] Put into Purgatory (i), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. 9. malice and abstaining from malice.
[AN 3.162] Put into Purgatory (j), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. 10. wrong view and high view.

This completes the Aŋguttara Nikāya, Threes in the Pali and Pali Text Society translation by F.L. Woodward "The Gradual Sayings, Book of the Threes". Still to be completed are the Books of the Fours, Fives, and Sixes. The Sevens, Eights, Nines, Tens and Elevens are completed.

 

new Tuesday, February 04, 2014 7:55 AM Kuddhaka Nikaya, [SNP] Sutta Nipāta, The Pali,
The Sutta Nipāta: A Collection of Discourses Being One of the Canonical Books of the Buddhists; Vol. X Part II of The Sacred Books of the East; edited by F. Max Müller; Translated from the Pali by V. Fausbøll
Linked to the Bhk. Thanissaro translations where available.
This is the complete Sutta Nipāta, in both the Pali and the Fausbøll translation. Fausbøll was one of the original compilers of the Pali texts and also one of the earliest translators of the Pali into English.
Please note that this version of the Pali was proofed against and largely follows the PTS 'New Edition', 2010. The verse numbering follows the PTS. The verse numbers in the PTS, beginning at v. 163 do not agree with the BJT or CSCD Pali and the BJT and CSCD Pali do not agree with each other, there are further disagreements at PTS v. 467 and 762 (at which point I gave up. There are further disagreements). The PTS Pali and the PTS Norman translation are in agreement. The Fausbøll translation ends off by one ? beginning at 163?. Rather than consecutively numbering the verses from the beginning, the more logical thing would have been to let it go at numbering the verses in each sutta.

 


Saturday, February 01, 2014
Previous upload was November 25, 2013


 

Yathā ahaṃ tathā ete||
Yathā ete tathā ahaṃ||
Attānaṃ upamaṃ katvā||
Na haneyya na ghātaye.
|| ||

Suchas I am thus are those,
suchas those are thus am I,
making the assumption of likeness,
neither kill nor rob.
KD.SNP.3.11 — Olds
read Bhikkhu Thanissaro's translation

 


 

 

new Sunday, January 12, 2014 9:28 AM [MN 44] Lesser Discourse of the Miscellany Horner translation.
Linked to the Pali and to the Warren, Bhk. Thanissaro and Sister Upalavana translations. The lay follower Visakha asks his former wife, the nun Dhammadinna a series of questions concerning Dhamma and receives answers approved of later by the Buddha. The questions asked reveal a number of the more subtle points in understanding the internal make up of the Dhamma. This is definately a good sutta to compare with the Pali and other translations.
[MN 79] Lesser Discourse to Sakuludāyin Horner translation.
Linked to the fully rolled-out Pali and the Sister Upalavana translation. It is recommended that this sutta and the next be read together. Ms. Horner has messed up in this translation a few of the most essential points, and better solutions have been noted. It is worth taking the time here to outline the events in this very long sutta so that they may be better carried in mind when reading the follow-up in the next sutta.

The wanderer Sakuludāyin is visited by Gotama. He first asks for an explanation as to why Nātaputta the Jain faultered when asked a question. Gotama answers with the statement that those who know and see the past and the future would not falter and then he teaches Udāyin the paticca samuppada in brief:

If this is,
that comes to be;
from the arising of this,
that arises;
if this is not,
that does not come to be;
from the stopping of this,
that is stopped.

This is not understood by Sakuludāyin, who states that he would be better able to discuss a teaching of his own teachers, namely:

'This is the highest lustre,
this is the highest lustre.'

Gotama points out that this does not reveal much, and when Sakuludāyin, does finally get around to explaining what 'this' is, he does so with a simile.

Gotama then in a towering series of comparisons forces Sakuludāyin, to realize that he has, as well as having said that this 'this' he is speaking of has less lustre than a glow worm, has still not actually pointed out what that 'this' is. And Sakuludāyin, admits to being completely defeated.

Again when questioned about another doctrine of his teachers' — that of a world exclusively pleasureable and a path for attaining that world — his teacher's doctrine is shown to be incapable of realizing that world.

Then, shown the real path to that world, and asking if this is the goal for which people follow him, Gotama explains the real goal for which people follow him. A condition beyond sense pleasures.

[It is interesting to note here that Sakuludāyin's followers raise a ruckus at the point where this path is given. This path consists of the first three of the four jhānas, and Sakuludāyin's followers say that they do not have any experience of anything beyond this. Since what is being spoken of is their ancient tradition, the implication is that at least these three jhānas were known prior to the Buddha's enlightenment. But apparently the commentary goes even further and suggests that at one time the attainment of this world (which is via the fourth jhāna) was once known by this group but had been forgotten. So all four jhānas were apparently known before Gotama. One wonders then what it was that was special about the use of jhāna by Gotama that lead him to awakening.]

Sakuludāyin, is convinced, but is disuaded from entering the order by his followers.

[MN 80] Discourse to Vekhanassa Horner translation.
Linked to the Pali and Sister Upalavana translation.
The wanderer Vekhanassa, teacher of Sakuludāyin, has come to challenge Gotama but is shown to be holding a viewpoint based entirely on hearsay ("This is the highest lustre...") which breaks down under close questioning. He is then led to acceptance of the more realistic doctrine of the Buddha.
What is it that by the end has convinced Vekhanassa that he is holding on to a belief which he himself does not see for himself? What convinces him that Gotama knows a saving dhamma? Challenged by way of a simile, Gotama, using similes, releases Vekhanassa from 'sutta-bondage' (a key use of word-play missed by Ms. Horner). The whole dynamic goes on beyond anything actually stated in the sutta and without 'seeing' what Gotama does or how it is working on Vekhanassa's mind, it makes no sense. This is a exquisite example of the magic of a sutta.
[MN 81] Discourse on Ghaṭīkāra Horner translation.
Linked to the Pali and Sister Upalavana translation. This is one of a few cases in which a story of one of Gotama's previous births is recorded in a sutta. The Buddha's wandering brings him to a spot where the Buddha Kassapa once taught and where at that time in a previous birth as Jotipāla, Gotama had to be dragged by the hair to visit this Buddha and hear his Dhamma. He immediately joined the order. This sutta is a great story told in the manner of the story-tellers of old. Then there is the issue raised by the report in this sutta that in this previous birth Gotama had joined the order of a previous Buddha. The issue is that Buddhas are supposed to attain awakening without the aid of another Buddha. The issue is not whether or not it is 'allowed' for him to join another Buddha's order in the process of evolution to becoming a Buddha, the issue is having got another Buddhas understanding to such a degree as to establish stream-entry. Once stream entry is established Awakening is assured and as such one has become a disciple of the Buddha from whose teaching this experience arose and one may no longer lay claim to being a sammasambuddha. So there is a big debate based on pure speculation as to what Gotama did or did not accomplish under Buddha Kassapa. The debate in it's formal dress (Points of Controversay IV.8) is being put up here to give a taste of old-time debates. The translators' have also attached an appendix dealing with their term for the point at which one has crossed the line or is on a fixed course to (assured of) Arahantship. That is also attached here. The issue bears on the Mahayana position with regard to the Budhisattva. The Mahayana bodhisatva is supposed to stop short of Awakening and wait until all beings attain Awakening together. But short of stream-entry there is no assurance of attaining awakening, and nobody could assure anybody that they would attain awakening eventually if they put it off. Conversely, Stream-entry is not just 'assurance' it is being set on a course which inevitably and within a finite period leads upward (there is no being born in a lower state than the one one is now in) and on to Arahantship, Awakening. The conclusion is that those who are teachers in the Mahayana schools who teach postponing Awakening are not Streamwinners and consequently do not have a clue as to what they are saying. This is understandable. They have an excess of compassion. But it is not a Dhamma that leads to awakening or can give assurance that one will not be reborn in lower states.
This is an excellent example of the sort of debate to avoid. A fruitless spinning of the wheels over a meaningless issue. It does not lead one forward on the path. A complete waste of time. Getting involved with this sort of thing is the hazzard of approaching one's dhamma vicaya from the commentaries first rather than from the original suttas. One could think this was an important issue being debated by learned arahants.
Added in relation to this sutta:
Points of Controversy IV.8, Of entering on the Path of Assurance
Points of Controversy Appendix 6a: Niyama, Niyāma: 'Assurance.'

 

new Thursday, January 09, 2014 4:31 AM [AN 3 1-10] 1. Fear, Sister Upalavana translation.
2. Characteristics, Sister Upalavana translation; linked to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation
3. Considering, Sister Upalavana translation.
4. Pardoning, Sister Upalavana translation.
5. Without Wise Thinking, Sister Upalavana translation.
6. Demeritorias Actions, Sister Upalavana translation.
7. Blamable, Sister Upalavana translation.
8. Troubled, Sister Upalavana translation.
9. Destroyed, Sister Upalavana translation.
10. Blemishes, Sister Upalavana translation..
All linked to the Pali and PTS Woodward translation.
Various suttas dealing with thoughts about the fool and the wise man.
[AN 3.11] Ñāta Suttaṃ, the Pali
Three Qualities, Woodward translation
Well-known, Sister Upalavana translation
Knowingly, Olds translation
Advising three things leads many people astray, advising the three opposite things leads them to their advantage. The question is: is this sutta speaking about the advice of a famous teacher or is it speaking about a teacher who knows what he is teaching?
[AN 3.12] Sāraṇīya Suttaṃ, the Pali
Three Places, Woodward translation
Remembers, Sister Upalavana translation
Three places which should be remembered by a Warlord and in a similar way the three places which should be remembered by a bhikkhu.
[AN 3.13] Āsaṃsa Suttaṃ, the Pali
Three Persons, Woodward translation
Desires, Sister Upalavana translation
The Buddha compares worldly ambitions with those of the bhikkhus.
[AN 3.14] Cakkavatti Suttaṃ, the Pali
Dhamma, Woodward translation
The Universal Wheel, Sister Upalavana translation
The Buddha compares the duty to the Dhamma of a Buddha to the duty to the Dhamma of a Wheel-rolling King.
[AN 3.15] The Wheelwright or Pacetana, Woodward translation
King Pacetana, Sister Upalavana translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation. The Buddha tells a story of his former birth as a wheelwright to illustrate how the person of crooked formation fails and the one of flawless construction stands fast.
[AN 3.16] Apaṇṇaka Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Sure Course, Woodward translation
A Sure Method, Sister Upalavana translation
Since PED gives the derivation of Apaṇṇaka as [a + paṇṇaka] (green-leaf vegetables) and Cone and Childers are non-commital, and in spite of all of them being certain that the meaning is 'certain', how about considering the meaning to be 'towards the wise' [a paṇṇa]? Bhk. Bodhi, referencing the commentary, translates: 'Unmistaken'. Cf. MN 60 title. Anyway: The Buddha describes three practices which conduce to unmistaken certainty of attaining the wise course. One of them is not 'eating your vegetables'.
[AN 3.17] Attavyābādha Suttaṃ, the Pali
Three Qualities, Woodward translation
Causing Trouble to Oneself, Sister Upalavana translation
Three modes of behavior which are oppressive of self, others, and both, three that are not oppressive.
[AN 3.18] Devaloka Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Deva-World, Woodward translation
Heaven, Sister Upalavana translation
All linked to the Warren translation: Heaven Not the Highest Good.
The bhikkhus find the idea of rebirth in heaven repugnant, but more repugnant than that is the idea of bad behavior of body, speech and mind.
[AN 3.19] Paṭhama Pāpaṇika Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Shopkeeper (a), Woodward translation
The First on a Shopkeeper, Sister Upalavana translation
The Buddha compares the reasons for the success or failure of a shopkeeper to the reasons for the success or failure of a bhikkhu's attainment of serenity.
Good advice for businessmen — get down to business! — and good advice for those practicing samadhi.
The advice for bhikkhus turns on the understanding of the phrase: sakkaccaṃ samādhinimittaṃ adhiṭṭhāti: "sincerely bear down on the sign or mark of serenity".
Woodward: "concentrate on the mark of his meditation exercise"; and Bhk. Bodhi: "dilligently apply himself to an object of concentration".
Putting aside the confusion we have here over what is being translated 'concentration' [Woodward: adhiṭṭhāti; Bhk. Bodhi: samādhi], in this case this 'nimitta' has nothing to do with either a 'mark of meditation exercise' or 'an object of concentration' (where in both cases the translators understand the meaning of nimitta to be the 'reflex-image' of a concentration device).
The word 'samādhinimittaṃ' [PED has: 2. Description and characterization of samādhi: Its four nimittas or signs are the four satipaṭṭhānas M I.301] is a compound, which following Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi's understanding would necessitate the translaltion: 'samadhi-reflex image', or 'meditation-reflex image', or 'concentration-reflex image' meaning some sort of reflex image of the state one is attempting to achieve which would require it to be had before the thing being done to acquire it.
The term 'reflex-image' is used by the translators of the commentary. I don't know what Pali word is being so translated or the precise description of the process being recommended, but the risk is that this will be understood as some sort of 'after-image' — something like when concentrating on a red splotch one looks up and sees a green splotch. As that term is being translated and explained it means the image of the kasina or concentration device or object useful for establishing concentration, calm or serenity or detachment; that is, the image itself, and the object is to get, cultivate and maintain this image 'in the mind's eye.'
That is not what is being looked for in this situation. The idea here is 'sign' or 'indication' of samādhi (serenity). Something indicating the way access to serenity has been previously attained or to be watched for if it has not been previously attained.
The thing to be looked for here is the state of having been absorbed directly (fascinated, interested ... don't get hung up on the term!, it's the 'directly' part that's important — without the usual intervening awareness of awareness) in following the breathing, a thought (vitakka or vicara) or in some day-dream-like image, a clear mental picture of something one is working on, planning etc. or of a concentration device (kassina), ... and it is not the object (the image or the thought) that is the sign to be noticed, it is the direct absorbtion, the viewing of the object or situation or observing of the train of thought without self-conscousness (self-awareness, an intervening awareness of awareness) that is the nimitta, the sign or indication of the onset of serenity.
At first becoming aware of this sign will interrupt the processs. That is why one should review the stages after one's practice. This is yonisomanisikaro: (studious etiological examination) trace out in your mind the features of the point of onset, what factors contribute to the maintenance of the serene state, and what brings it to an end. Over time (the practice is to go back and forth between self-conscious observance of the image and the absorbed state: being absorbed, loosing the absorbed state, bringing the mind back to the image) one will loose self consciousness and allow progress. That is achieved by not hanging on to the object and allowing the process to unfold on it's own.
Part of one's careful planning here is to remember to include a command (a mental program) to emerge from this direct absorption: "Let me emerge from this absorption by becoming aware of self-awareness and worldly objects [at such-and-such a time, or after so long, or upon such and such an event, i.e., nightfall, dawn.]" Without taking the precaution of an exit strategy one is highly likely to experience only flashes of the experience of samādhi, or not to enter it in the first place.
[AN 3.20] Dutiya Pāpaṇika Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Shopkeeper (b), Woodward translation
The Second on a Shopkeeper, Sister Upalavana translation
The Buddha compares the attributes of a successful businessman to the attributes of a bhikkhu successful at making headway in the acquiring of skillful states.
[AN 3.21] The Shopkeeper (b), Woodward translation. Footnotes for the previously listed sutta were added.
Venerable Saviṭṭha, Sister Upalavana translation
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation. Three elders differ on which is the best of three forms of Stream-entry and submit the question to the Buddha. There is no definate answer as to the form, individuals are more or less advanced in accordance with the next stage of progress (once returning, non-returning, arahantship) at which they are aimed.
This sutta is helpful in clarifying the fact that the terms kāyasakkhī, (seer in body; Woodward: testifying with body, aka: body-knower; Bhk. Bodhi: body witness ); diṭṭhappatto, (attained to view); saddhāvimutto (freed by faith); all refer to Stream-winners.
Then, the three designations are themselves helpful in clarifying the distinctive features of various sorts of Stream-winning. The one that is a body-seer has experienced temporary freedom from sense-experience, does not rely on faith, but may not have a strong intellectual understanding of what has happened other than that it is the goal. The one who has attained view, is one who has penetrated by insight into the truth of the idea that all things that have come to be are destined to come to an end, does not rely on faith, but he may not have any experience of liberation from body; the one freed by faith has confidence in his liberation, but may have no experience of freedom from body, or any deep insight into the four truths.
Bhk. Bodhi footnotes and explains the differences: "For formal explanations of these three types, see MN 70.17-19, I 478,4-479,3. ... As general classes , they differ, not in their position relative to the final goal, but in their dominant spiritual faculty. The body witness kāyasakkhī, gives prominence to concentration and attains the "peaceful formless emancipations." One attained to view diṭṭhappatto, gives prominience to wisdom and does not attain the formless emancipations. One liberated by faith saddhāvimutto gives prominence to faith and does not attain the formless emancipations."
It would be better to say of these not that they 'do not attain' but that they 'may not have attained'; in fact they may have attained some experience of each. Note here also the fact that is not always clear (especially when vimokkha, 'release', is translated as 'emancipation' (the slave may be temporarily released from chains but not yet be freed) (in AN 4.189 he translates it as 'release') that the 'peaceful formless releases' are not the same thing as Nibbāna or the goal and are temporary states.
[AN 3.22] Sick Persons, Sister Upalavana translation.
Linked to the Pali, and Woodward and Bhk. Thanissaro translations. Sister Upalavana was early to recognize the need for a freely distributed English translation, of the suttas, but unfortunately her English was less than perfect. Her translations should be included in this record for their historical interest, but for the time being will, hereafter, be formatted and posted only when her understanding of the Pali and her Germanic English produce a translation which is revealing. This sutta translation however is particularly badly managed. The unfinished appearance of many of them may reveal the fact that they were not yet intended for publication.
Providing medical treatment to three types of persons is likened to teaching Dhamma to three types of persons. One sort of person will not recover whether he receives treatment or not; one will recover whether he receives treatment or not; and one will recover if he receives treatment, but not if he does not. Similarly one sort of person will not gain the path whether he hears Dhamma or not; one will gain the path whether he hears Dhamma or not; and one will gain the path if he hears Dhamma and not if he does not. It is for the sake of the sick man who will recover if he receives medical treatment that providing medical treatment for the sick is not useless. Similarly it is for the sake of the one who will gain the path if he hears Dhamma that teaching Dhamma is not useless.
[AN 3.23] Cooks Trouble, Sister Upalavana translation.
Linked to the Pali, and Woodward translation. By identification with intentional deviant, non-deviant or mixed deeds one creates personal experience of deviant, non-deviant or mixed worlds.
[AN 3.24] Most Helpful, Woodward translation
Has Done Much, Sister Upalavana translation.
Linked to the Pali.
By having brought him to three things a person is said to have done more than anyone else in the world for another person.
[AN 3.25] The Open Sore, Woodward translation
Comparable to A Diamond, Sister Upalavana translation.
Linked to the Pali.
Three sorts of individuals are found in the world, one with a mind like an open sore, one with lightning-like insight, and one with the diamond's ability to cut through even the hardest matters.
[AN 3.26] To Be Followed, Woodward translation
Should Be Associated, Sister Upalavana translation.
Linked to the Pali.
Advice for selecting one's companions and teachers: except out of compassion and consideration avoid persons less advanced in ethical standards, serenity, and wisdom; associate with those who are equal to one in these things; venerate and follow those who are more advanced.

 


Beggars, I see no other single thing
more conducive to causing
the appearance of unskillful conditions
if not yet in this visible thing,
or to causing
the disappearance of skillful conditions
that are in this visible thing
than keeping bad company.

In one who keeps bad company,
unskillful conditions not yet in this visible thing appear,
and skillful conditions in this visible thing disappear.
AN 1.72 — Olds


 

[AN 3.27] Loathsome, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. More good advice as to the selection of one's companions. Avoid the person of low ethical standards, of suspect and deceptive behavior because even though one may maintain high standards one is held to be an associate of bad persons; avoid the angry and turbulant person because his anger may be directed at one and cause unpleasantness; follow and serve the one of high ethical standards because even though one may not be of such high standards one's self, one is known to be an associate of good persons and there is reason to believe one may improve under such a person's guidance.
[AN 3.29] Blind, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Two sorts of vision: for material gain and for gain of good states; three sorts of persons: one who sees neither, one who has eyes only for material gain and one who sees both.
[AN 3.30] Topsy-turvy, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Three sorts of persons: one who doesn't listen, one who listens but forgets; and one who listens and retains what he has heard.
[AN 3.31] Equal with Brahma, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. High praise for those families where Mother and Father are worshipped. Likened to Brahma, Teacher's of Old, wothy of offerings. Over and above the peace of mind attained and the freedom from remorse it provides, this behavior yields deep insights into the make-up of the personal world.
[AN 3.35] The Lord of Death, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali, and Olds adaptation.
One of several versions of Judgment as dispensed by Yama, Lord of Death who asks 'Didn't you get my message?' Three of Yama's messengers, old age, sickness and death, warn man to shape up as he is subject to the same destiny. Did you get the message?
Also added as a reference for footnote 2 of Woodward's translation is the Jowett translation of Plato's Gorgias, which as well as giving what Woodward sees as a version of this story, is also a wonderful lesson on listening and holding debate.
[AN 3.36] The Four Great Kings, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali.
The gods of the four directions observe the behavior of mankind as to whether or not there is reverence for mother and father, shamen and brahmins, elders of the clan, observance of the uposttha including the wakeful watch and whether or not men do good works. If they see men do these things they are happy, otherwise not so happy.
[AN 3.37] Sakka, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Warren translation.
The Buddha shows how Sakka's pointing to himself as an example of a fitting reward for observing uposatha and behavior in accordance with the precepts is not suitable.
[AN 3.38] Delicately Nurtured, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Gotama describes how even though he was exceedingly delicately nurtured, shame at being subject to aging, sickness and death caused him to let go of pride in youth, health and life itself. We who have been less delicately nurtured hanging on to our pride in youth, health and life can learn to let go of our pride by comparing that life of ours with a life such as was had by Gotama and asking ourselves: "If he came to be disgusted with a life such as that, how much moreso should we be disgusted with our pride in our own miserable stories?"
[AN 3.39] Pride, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Bhks. Bodhi and Thanissaro and the CSCD text have this sutta as part of the previous sutta which looks likely. The Pali text and Woodward translations have been linked to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation where he joins the two.
Gotama describes how pride in youth, health and life lead to behavior that does not end well for bhikkhus as well as commoners.
[AN 3.40] Dominance, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The bhikkhu who has given up the household life to seek an end to pain who then indulges a variety of low thoughts is encouraged to put his better self in charge or to make himself aware that there are those in the world who can read his thoughts and by that put the world in charge, or to remind himself that the Dhamma, was well taught by Gotama for just this purpose and to put the Dhamma in charge, and by one or another of these means overcome his misguided ways.
[AN 3.41] In Presence Of, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali.
Three things that need to be present in order to create great good kamma: faith in the results of good deeds, the good deed, and a detached recipient.
[AN 3.42] Characteristics, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali.
Three things by which one of faith can be recognized: desire to see the ethically advanced, desire to hear true Dhamma, living free of the stingy grip of greed.
[AN 3.43] Qualities, Woodward translation
Conveying the Objective, Olds translation,
Linked to the Pali.
On the factors to be considered by one who would give a dissertation on Dhamma.
[AN 3.44] Respects, Woodward translation
Standing for Profitable Talk, Olds translation,
Linked to the Pali.
Three things which amount to a profitable talk or on which a profitable talk stands. Except for the introductory proposition, this and the previous sutta are identical. It is a spur, therefore, to the translator, as to his understanding of the sutta, for him to make the effort to render the translations, except for the introductory proposition, in identical terms.
[AN 3.45] Duties, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali.
Three things praised by the wise and good: charity, homelessness and care of parents.
[AN 3.46] Virtuous, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali.
A virtuous bhikkhu living in dependence on a village gives the inhabitants a great opportunity to make good kamma.
[AN 3.47] Conditioned, Woodward translation
The Construction of the Characteristics of the Constructed, Olds translation,
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
Three constructed-characteristics of the constructed. Similar to but importantly different than the well-known 'Three Characteristics' — What we have here in the differences between the two sets of characteristics is a valuable clue to the meaning of both.
[AN 3.48] Mountain, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
An inspirational sutta urging leaders of groups to set a good example. It is interesting that in our corrupt day and age [Tuesday, January 28, 2014 4:32 AM] the idea of setting a good example has almost dissapeared.
[AN 3.49] Ardent Energy, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali.
Three occasions for putting forth extra energy.
[AN 3.50] Robber Chief, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali.
Three ways a great bandit and a corrupt bhikkhu are similar.

 

new Tuesday, January 07, 2014 6:59 AM [AN 4 14] Saṃvarappadhāna Suttaṃ The Pali
Restraint, Woodward translation
If this Woodward translation was listed before, (it was on line and listed in the index), it was in error as all that existed previously was a copy of sutta 13 to be used as the template. In any case this is new. A detailed exposition of the four consummate efforts.
[AN 4 244] Seyyā Suttaṃ The Pali
Postures, Woodward translation
The Buddha describes four personality types characterized by their lying down posture.

 

new Wednesday, January 01, 2014 3:21 AM [AN 10 153] Anussaritabba Suttaṃ The Pali
To Be Remembered, Woodward translation
Anussarati Anu + sati. Following-after-rememberance. Memorization. Recollection, but deliberate and again and again. Bringing again and again to mind so as to establish it clearly in memory. The Buddha defines ten things which should be memorized and ten things which should not be memorized.
[AN 10 154] Sacchikātabba Suttaṃ The Pali
To Be Realized, Woodward translation
From Saccika True. To be seen to be true. Realized in the sense of comprehended, not in the sense of made to be real. One does not make 'this' into 'dukkha', 'this' is 'dukkha' and the truth of that statement is to be known for ones self. The Buddha defines the Dhamma which is to be seen to be true and the dhamma which is not to be seen to be true.
[AN 10 Chapter XVI: Puggala-Vagga: Suttas 155-166]
155: Sevitabba Suttaṃ
156: Bhajitabbādi Suttaṃ
157: Payirupāsitabba Suttaṃ
158: Pujja Suttaṃ
159: Pāsaṃsa Suttaṃ
160: Sagārava Suttaṃ
161: Sappatissa Suttaṃ
162: Ārādhaka Suttaṃ
163: Visujjhati Suttaṃ
164: Mānaṃ Adhibhoti Suttaṃ
165: Paññāya Vaḍḍhati Suttaṃ
166: Bahuṃ Puññaṃ Pasavati Suttaṃ
Woodward translations:
155: Not To Be Followed,
156: Not To Be Associated With
157: Should Not Be Cultivated
158: Should Not Be Venerated
159: Is Not Praisworthy
160: Is Not Respected
161: Is Not Shown Deference
162: Is Not Successful
163: Is Not Purified
164: Does Not Conquer Pride
165: Does Not Grow in Insight
166: Works Much Demerit
A single file each for the Pali and for the Woodward translations. A dozen suttas that have not seen the light of day for 2000 years. They follow a similar pattern to the previous suttas contrasting opposites in relation to the steps of the low path and those of the high path.
[AN 10 167] Brāhmaṇa Paccorohaṇī Suttaṃ The Pali
The Ariyan Descent (c), Woodward translation
The Buddha explains the difference between the Brahmin ceremony of Descent into the Fire, with the Descent of the Aristocrats. Similar to but not identical with AN 10.119
[AN 10 168] Ariya Paccorohaṇī Suttaṃ The Pali
The Ariyan Descent (d), Woodward translation
The Buddha explains the difference between the Brahmin ceremony of Descent into the Fire, with the Descent of the Aristocrats. Identical to the previous but told to the bhikkhus.
[AN 10 169] Saŋgāravo Suttaṃ The Pali
Saŋgāravo (b), Woodward translation
The Buddha answers Brahmin Sangaravo's inquiry about what is the hither shore and what is the further shore. Similar to AN 10.117 with a different explanation. Suggested theory about this sort of sutta: (that is a sutta in which some individual asks a question and gets an answer and then at another point asks the same question and gets a different answer — or, as with the following sutta, where an explanation of some point is made in one way at one time and in another way at another time). It happens frequently. The hypothesis is that it was a sort of game played by Gotama, possibly also by the questioner. Could the listener figure out that the two different responses were equivalants (or would he think Gotama was inconsistent?); could Gotama remember his previous response; could he come up with a variation that was an equivalant to the previous answer; how was it equivalent. Whether this hypothesis is correct or not it makes a good exercise in ones comprehension to try to see the equivalence.
[AN 10 170] Orimatīra Suttaṃ The Pali
Hither and Further Shore (b), Woodward translation
The Buddha explains what is the hither shore and what is the further shore to the bhikkhus. Identical to the previous but addressed to the bhikkhus; similar to AN 10.118 with a different explanation.
[AN 10 171] Paṭhama Adhamma Suttaṃ The Pali
Dhamma and Not-dhamma (d), Woodward translation
The Buddha defines what is Dhamma and the goal and what is not dhamma and not the goal. Similar to AN 10.113 but using the heart of the previous suttas as the explanation.
[AN 10 172] Dutiya Adhamma Suttaṃ The Pali
Dhamma and Not-dhamma (e), Woodward translation
The Buddha states that both what is and what is not good form and the goal should be understood and then retires to his cell. The bhikkhus ask Maha Kaccana to elaborate. Maha Kaccana enumerates ten general areas to be considered good form and which are the goal and ten which are not good form and which are not the goal. Similar to AN 10.115 but using the heart of the previous suttas as the explanation. If you can get passed the doubt injected by the theory that these repetitions were invented by the early editors and 'could never have been uttered by Gotama', and can get over the bored reaction to them, you can see here a great game going on. How does MahaKaccana know that this time this set of explanations is to be used rather than the previous set? The Arahant is sitting around waiting for his time to be up, he has no interest in worldly activities to fill the time remaining, he is 'living in the Dhamma'. These games serve to teach others, preserve the Dhamma, and provide a pleasant, even challenging pastime.
[AN 10 173] Tatiya Adhamma Suttaṃ The Pali
Dhamma and Not-dhamma (f), Woodward translation
The Buddha states that both what is and what is not good form and the goal should be understood and then explains this brief teaching in detail.
[AN 10 174] Kammanidāna Suttaṃ The Pali
Due to Lust, Malice and Delusion, Woodward translation
The Buddha explains that it is a consequence of acting upon lust, hatred and stupidity that there is killing, theft, sexual misconduct with other people's mates, children, or wards, lies, spite, bitter speech, idle babble, coveting ones neighbours goods, working harm and wrong view.
[AN 10 175] Saparikkamana Suttaṃ The Pali
All-round Approach, Woodward translation
The Buddha explains how access to the higher path is approached by abstaining from walking the lower path. A method accessible to everyone.
[AN 10 176] Cunda the Silversmith, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. Gotama presents Cunda with a contrast between the purification practices he previously followed and those of the Aristocrats and Cunda is converted.
[AN 10 177] Jāṇussoṇi, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. Brāhmin Jāṇussoṇi asks about the effacasy of offerings to the dead. He is given the criteria based on which such offerings are beneficial to the departed and also to the doner. The explanation is that such gifts are of benefit only to those reborn in the realm of petas (the so-called 'hungry ghosts'). Asked again who would benefit if no relative were reborn there Gotama replies that it is impossible that no relative would be reborn there, but that in any case there is benefit to the giver and he enumerates a number of cases. There are many people in the world, maybe not so many in the U.S., that are very concerned about making their departed relatives happy. For them this should be a very interesting sutta.
[AN 10 Chapter XVIII: Sadhu-Vagga: Suttas 178-188]
#178: Sādhu Suttaṃ, The Pali
Right and Wrong, Woodward translation
#179: Ariyadhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ariyan and unariyan, Woodward translation
#180: Kusala Suttaṃ, The Pali
Good and Bad, Woodward translation
#181: Attha Suttaṃ, The Pali
Aim and Not-aim, Woodward translation
#182: Dhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Dhamma and Not-dhamma, Woodward translation
#183: Sāsava Suttaṃ, The Pali
With Cankers and Without, Woodward translation
#184: Sāvajja Suttaṃ, The Pali
Blameworthy and Blameless, Woodward translation
#185: Tapanīya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Remorse and Not-remorse, Woodward translation
#186: Ācayagāmī Suttaṃ, The Pali
Given to Heaping Up and Diminishing, Woodward translation
#187: Dukkhudraya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Yielding Pain and Pleasure, Woodward translation
#188: Dukkhavipāka Suttaṃ, The Pali
Pain and Pleasure, Woodward translation
Ten pairs of opposites defined as composed of two sets of qualities, one negative and one positive.
[AN 10 XIX: Ariyamagga-Vagga Suttas: 189-198]
#189: Ariyamagga Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ariyan and Unariyan, Woodward translation
#190: Sukkamagga Suttaṃ, The Pali
Bright Way and Dark Way, Woodward translation
#191: Saddhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
True Dhamma and False Dhamma, Woodward translation
#192: Sappurisadhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Very-man Dhamma and Its Opposite, Woodward translation
#193: Uppādetabba Suttaṃ, The Pali
To Be Brought About, Woodward translation
#194: Āsevitabba Suttaṃ, The Pali
To Be Followed, Woodward translation
#195: Bhāvetabba Suttaṃ, The Pali
To Be Made to Grow, Woodward translation
#196: Bahulīkāttabba Suttaṃ, The Pali
To Be Made Much Of, Woodward translation
#197: Anussaritabba Suttaṃ, The Pali
To Be Remembered, Woodward translation
#198: Sacchikātabba Suttaṃ, The Pali
To Be Realized, Woodward translation
Ten attributes defining the low road and ten defining the high road. A very interesting thing arises here in that in this chapter the set of attributes is being called the 'ariya magga.' While this is not the 'ariya atthangika magga' as we know it, it is however the way that the 'ariya atthangika magga' is often analyzed, that is, into the categories body, speech and mind.
[AN 10 199] Sevitabbādi Dvādasa Suttāni,(Consisting of twelve parts) The Pali
Not to be followed, etc, (Consisting of twelve parts) Woodward translation
The Buddha contrasts twelve pairs of persons in accordance to whether they are following the low path or the high path. This sutta is counted as twelve suttas in Be and Ce which is followed by Bhk. Bodhi; the BJT (apparently a version of Ce expanded and edited to closely follow the PTS) has this as one sutta with 12 divisions; the PTS Pali (Ee) numbers this as one sutta to be expanded as here. It is possible this represents an early form of abridgment. It is also possible, if the sutta began with the full list of what was to be taught (e.g., the Ariyan and unariyan, the bright way and the dark way, true dhamma and false dhamma ...) that it was, and by implication the other suttas of this sort were, originally single suttas.
[AN 10 200] Paṭhama Niraya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Purgatory and Heaven (a) Woodward translation
Ten things resulting in one being reborn in Hell, ten resulting in one being reborn in a pleasant or heavenly birth. 'Purgatory' is Woodward's suggested translation for Niraye, Hell, in accordance with a precise understanding of the Judeo-Christian concept where 'Hell' proper is eternal and Purgatory temporary. Since Niraye is a temporary condition, was the thinking, this could not qualify it to be called Hell. The Buddhist position, is that there is no state of existence which is eternal. The common understanding of the idea of Hell today will do for life in Niraye, which can last to the end of a world cycle.
[AN 10 201] Dutiya Niraya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Purgatory and Heaven (b) Woodward translation
Identical with the previous sutta. This and the previous have been left as found, but likely the first should have been 'in brief' and only the second 'in detail'.
[AN 10 202] Mātugāma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Womenfolk Woodward translation
Identical with the previous but concerning women.
[AN 10 203] Upāsikā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Woman Lay-follower Woodward translation
Identical with the previous but concerning women lay-followers.
[AN 10 204] Visārada Suttaṃ, The Pali
Diffident and Confident Woodward translation
Ten negative attributes of a woman lay-follower that lead to her living at home without confidence, ten positive attributes which lead to her living at home with confidence.

 


 

Beings are responsible for their deeds,
heirs to their deeds,
they are the womb of their deeds,
kinsmen of their deeds,
to them their deeds come home again.

Whatsoever deed they do,
be it lovely or ugly,
of that thing they are the heirs.

In this connexion
a certain one takes life,
takes what is not given,
in sexual desires
is a wrong-doer,
a liar,
a slanderer,
is of harsh speech,
is given to idle babble,
is covetous,
is malevolent of heart,
has wrong view.

He goes crookedly in body,
crookedly in speech,
crookedly in mind.

His action with body is crooked,
so is that with speech and mind;
crooked is his bourn
and crooked his rising up again in birth.

Moreover for one whose bourn is crooked,
whose rebirth is crooked,
for him there is one of two bourns,
either downright woe in purgatory
or to be born in the womb of an animal,
one that creeps crookedly along.

And of what sort is that birth in the womb of an animal,
one that creeps crookedly along?

A snake,
a scorpion,
a centipede,
a mongoose,
a cat,
a mouse,
an owl
or whatsoever other animal
goes stealthily on seeing human beings.
— AN 10.205 - Woodward

 

Something that might be of interest to those researching the development of the Dhamma is the use in the past few dozen suttas of the term 'sammā diṭṭhi' (consummate view, high view, 'right' view) as defined in a way that is not the equivalent of the four truths (as 'sammā diṭṭhi' is defined, for example, in DN 22).
It is the converse of this definition of the term which is implied most frequently when speaking of those of low view (miccha diṭṭhi (as above)). Use of this definition when speaking of non-believers is essential for the sake of reason in that prior to Gotama the four truths were unknown and had the criteria for higher births been knowing that, there would be no higher births outside the Buddha's Dhamma or in periods between Buddhas where the Dhamma is all but non-existent, something we are led to believe is not the case.
There is a problem here when it comes to understanding the first sutta (as we have it) where sammā diṭṭhi is not defined. The four truths are given, but it is not stated that this is to be the definition of sammā diṭṭhi. If the definition of sammā diṭṭhi was originally as we have it in these suttas it would be this definition that would be heard by the first five disciples, and that would imply that the Magga was to be understood as separate from the four truths. It could have then been added into the Magga in the form of sammā ñāṇa, the ninth dimension, when the Magga is given with ten dimensions where it is known as the Asekha Pada, the path of the non-seeker or simply the Ariya Magga, no eightfold. There what we usually find for it's definition is the Paticca Samuppada, and that is the equivalent of the Four Truths. This would go a long way to explain what was seen as the need for a change of terms in the Pali for the ninth dimension as discussed in The Pali Line. That is, if the original ten part path began with sammā diṭṭhi as defined here, then sammā ñāṇa as 'knowledge' or 'book knowledge' would make sense where when sammā diṭṭhi is defined as the four truths, the redundancy does not go well. This would mess up any theory as to the precision of the language of Gotama's awakening, but it would not be unreasonable to think of as an evolution in the formulation of the Dhamma. Alternatively what we would need to assume is that the definition of sammā diṭṭhi as the Four Truths was an error in memory or is an editorial construction. There is nothing in either of these two hypotheses which amounts to a contradiction in doctrine. A sacred cow might have to be slaughtered, but that would be a bloodless sacrifice.

 

[AN 10 205] Saṃsappaniyapariyāya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Dhamma-teaching on Crookedness, Woodward translation
A famous and elegant sutta on kamma. Kamma of mind, speech and body of ten low sorts leads to rebrith in hell or as an animal of stealth and timmidity; kamma of ten high sorts leads to rebirth in the heavens or in a prominant human family.
[AN 10 209] Adhammacariyā Suttaṃ, The Pali
After Death (a), Woodward translation
A brahmin asks about the reasons some people are reborn in low states and others in high states. Ten reasons for each case are given.
[AN 10 210] Paṭhama Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ten Qualities, Woodward translation
Ten things which lead to rebirth in lower states, ten which lead to rebirth in higher states. This sutta begins a new Chapter and series using the same ten items as in the previous chapter but to be developed in a completely different way. This is likely how the previous chapter (Sutta 200) should have begun, that is, in brief.
[AN 10 211] Dutiya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Twenty Qualities, Woodward translation
Twenty things which lead to rebirth in lower states, twenty which lead to rebirth in higher states.
[AN 10 212] Tatiya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Thirty Qualities, Woodward translation
Thirty things which lead to rebirth in lower states, thirty which lead to rebirth in higher states.
[AN 10 213] Tatiya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Thirty Qualities, Woodward translation
Fourty things which lead to rebirth in lower states, fourty which lead to rebirth in higher states.
[AN 10 214] Pañcamādi Suttāni, The Pali
Uprooted, Woodward translation
Ten, twenty, thirty, fourty things which amount to carrying around a lifeless, uprooted self, ten, twenty, thirty, fourty which amount to carrying around a self that is not lifeless or uprooted. BJT, CSCD and Bhk. Bodhi have this as four suttas.
[AN 10 215] [Untitled], The Pali
After Death (b), Woodward translation
Ten, twenty, thirty, fourty things which possessing a certain one here when body breaks up, beyond death rises up again in the Waste, the Ill-bourn, the Downfall, in Purgatory, ten, twenty, thirty, fourty which possessing a certain one here when body breaks up, beyond death rises up again in the Happy Bourn, the heaven-world. BJT, CSCD and Bhk. Bodhi have this as four suttas. A chilly one where a person characterized by these qualities will feel as though he were being specifically addressed by Gotama.
[AN 10 216] [Untitled], The Pali
Fool and Wise, Woodward translation
Ten, twenty, thirty, fourty things which possessing one is understood to be a fool, ten, twenty, thirty, fourty which possessing one is understood to be a wiseman. BJT, CSCD and Bhk. Bodhi have this as four suttas.
[AN 10 217] Rāgādipeyyālaṃ 1 and 2, The Pali
Lust (a), Woodward translation
This should have been two suttas. Two sets of ten things which should be developed in order to overcome lust. This and the rest of the suttas in the book are a valuable set of tools for one who would like to become celebate. And anyone who has serious ambitions to attain Arahantship or even to develop magic powers to any significant degree must deal with this requirement.
[AN 10 218] Rāgādipeyyālaṃ 3, The Pali
Lust (b), Woodward translation
Ten things which should be developed in order to overcome lust.
[AN 10 218] Rāgādipeyyālaṃ 4-510, The Pali
Lust, Malice and the Rest, Woodward translation
Seventeen sets of bad qualities the elimination of which is approached in eleven different ways each of which is managed by three sets of Dhammas. The BJT does not match the PTS text which does not match the Pali used by Bhk. Bodhi. Abridgment should have had Sutta 217 as two suttas, followed by the third set of ten as a separate sutta, followed in a separate sutta by the remainder of the first group of eleven (on lust), followed by the remaining sixteen groups. Woodward's translation missed three sets of the seventeen which have been inserted using the Pali and footnoting to the PED definition and Bhk. Bodhi's translation (A quick search did not turn up Woodward's translation of these terms elsewhere). Bhk. Bodhi's version omits one of the groups included in the PTS version. The BJT has 217 as two suttas. This group has not been unabridged except for the first three sets in the first group to show the pattern. The sutta subjects were separated out and given individual numbers in both the Woodward translation and the Pali. As it is here set up it should not be too difficult to unabridge the whole at some later time.
Finally:
At this point the entire Book of the Gradual Sayings, Book of the Tens, along with the corresponding Pali, has been digitized, proofread against the original and formatted. (This completes the PTS Book of the Gradual Sayings, Volumes 4 and 5. The books in this collection completed to this point are:
The Book of the Ones,
The Book of the Twos,
The Book of the Sevens,
The Book of the Eights,
The Book of the Nines.
The Book of the Tens
The Book of the Elevens.)

 


Naga2013


 

jus meDon't miss anything! A separation was made and these listings begin anew at the end of 2013, but this upload begins after November 25, 2013.

 

I will teach you
the Ariyan ablution,
a washing which conduces to downright revulsion,
fading,
ending,
calming,
comprehension,
illumination,
which conduces to nibbāna -
an ablution whereby beings
whose nature it is to be reborn
are released from rebirth;
whereby beings whose nature it is to decay
are released from decay;
whereby beings whose nature it is to die
are released from death;
whereby beings to whom belong sorrow and lamentation,
woe,
dejection
and despair,
are released from
sorrow and lamentation,
woe,
dejection
and despair.

Do ye listen to it attentively
and I will speak.'
AN 10.107 - Woodward


 

new Sunday, December 29, 2013 5:16 AM The Book of the Gradual Sayings V, The Book of the Nines, Tens, Elevens, Indexes, III: Appendix on Soḷasī A reference source for researching the phrase: kalaṃ n'agghati soḷasiṃ, "not worth a sixteenth part."

 

new Tuesday, December 24, 2013 11:58 AM Mrs. Rhys Davids' Editorial Note to Kindred Sayings Part III.
Introductory Notes to Kindred Sayings Part IV

Much of what this woman has to say is simply a projection of her pre-conceived notions of what 'ought' in her mind, to be the way of a great teacher. She does not speak from a mind informed by practice, she does not argue from established fact but from assumption, and she does not hesitate to heap scorn with the astounding arrogance of the academic on those who would believe differently than herself. She ends up aserting a doctrine which is some sort of mish-mash of her own devising. It is a marvel of the suttas themselves, and the basic honest effort she brings to her work, that her views do not intrude much or very harmfully on her translations but are confined to her introductions to books and suttas. For the historical interest and for the sake of allowing voice to the other side (and because there was a reference to her discussion of the translatin of the term 'bhikkhu' in the Introductory Notes to K.S. 4 in Woodward's SN 5.45.1) it is reasonable that they are posted on this site. The reader should be cautioned that this posting does not represent an endorsement of her views and he should read them carefully with a critical mind) ... here is an example:

In numerous places throughout this site will be found explained the view that the repetitions were an original and vital feature of the suttas.
What people who have never tried it can overlook is that it is extremely difficult to repeat a formula again and again without making an error. And that is not to speak of the fact that there is variation within the regularity, something that is orders of magnitude harder to manage than straight repetition. The focus needed for such an effort is, or should be, just as, no! even more inspiring than variation for variation's sake to "a man of originality, of power, of winning charm." That is a demonstration of enormous mental power. Mrs. Rhys Davids asks for originality in the form of variation and then overlooks the fact that this dhamma, stripped down to it's essentials, is a matter of a few paragraphs. These 'repetitive' suttas are the variations! The unique ways the same basic information is conveyed over and over in an age without the printing press or ... internet or cellphone. This has been said before here: these suttas are like mental gymnastic routines. They should be received in the same spirit as one would watch the gymnastics at the Olympics. We, of course do not get much of the 'style' that we would no doubt appreciate in a live performance, the smooth delivery, the lack of hesitation, the pauses, the ques as to humor, etc. but at least we can set the scripts into print with the grace of form they come with.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

"But nothing will convince me that we have, in that stereotyped argument about Attā, the very way in which Gotama fed his questioners over and over again. That is indeed unthinkable. He may conceivably in his long ministry have sanctioned his disciples' drawing up a fixed wording here and there. But as a man of originality, of power, of winning charm, he would be simply unable to repeat himself. It is the way of such elect souls to react with fine sensitiveness to every fresh conjuncture calling for speech. It is the way of such elect souls to be welling up and overflowing in creative will now thus and now thus. Not his the formula of the Suttas any more than was his the terse cryptic gnome of the Sūtras."
Mrs. C.A.F. Rhys Davids

The contrary view is that it is testimony to the clarity of Gotama's original awakening that his doctrine could be stated in terms not needing alteration even down to the syllable (give or take) through the course of 40 years of teaching. We see throughout the collection that disciples used the same phraseology and here and there this phenomenon is actually remarked upon with pride.

It is an interesting phenomena that in so many cases down through history and right up to this day that a slight acquaintance with the Dhamma has inspired so many to think that they understand it all. This appears to come from two aspects of the situation. On the one hand Gotama so constructed his teachings as to be universal and timeless. That means that they used very low-level terms related to broad-based experiences (such as farming and hunting and sex and food). Conversely he avoided abstractions. The result is that much of what he said is immediately comprehensible across cultures, mental states, and time, and because it is by it's nature good and and universally accepted by the wise (giving is good, ethical behavior is good, self-control is good, development of the mind is good), accepted as truth. On the other hand, having understood and accepted this much one naturally believes one is on firm ground in stating one has understood the system and that one's fundamental point of view concerning existence and non-existence is not challenged. The thinking of the reader will not initially be focused at the same ground-level, non-abstract word use as is used by Gotama and there will be a tendency to 'translate' what one is reading into the abstract terms one is used to using. These abstract terms will tend to confirm one's fundamental beliefs. The result is that when doctrine within the suttas that does run counter to one's fundamental beliefs is met with and cannot be translated away, it appears to run against the grain of the 'truth' in the Dhamma that one has initially accepted. The error must be in the document, not in one's self! After all, it is beyond question that one has understood such a clearly put teaching. "The teacher of such a clearly put teaching would never have said that. How do I know? Because I am one who understands the system." Round and round.

 

new Wednesday, December 18, 2013 6:08 AM New Glossology entry: Cattāro Sammappadhānā, The Four Commendable (Consummate, Right, Supreme, Great, Best) Efforts, Strivings.

Here beggars, a beggar generates desire, exerts his heart, seeks out the energy and self-control to prevent the arising of bad, unskillful things not yet arisen;
generates desire, exerts his heart, seeks out the energy and self-control to let go of bad, unskillful things that have arisen;
generates desire, exerts his heart, seeks out the energy and self-control to give rise to skillful things not yet arisen;
generates desire, exerts his heart, seeks out the energy and self-control for the non-confusion, increased standing, and completely fulfilled development of skillful things that have arisen.
These then beggars, are the four commendable efforts.
— [AN 4.13 - Olds]

 

new Saturday, December 14, 2013 2:50 PM New Biographical entries for: Cunda the Great Mahā Cunda (possibly Cūḷa-Cunda, possibly Cunda-Samaṇuddesa, possibly Ekapattadāyaka, possibly Cunda Thera). An eminent bhikkhu, younger brother of Sāriputta and student of Ānanda, ranked among the highest and who apparently had great psychic powers. (possibly that of 'from being one, becoming many').
Cūḷa Kokālika. His is a story (told in AN 10.89 and in the Kokālika Jātaka (#331) and Takkāriya-Jātaka #481) that illustrates the danger of disparaging bhikkhus (as in AN 10.88) Another version of this sutta dealing with Kokalika is SN 1.6.10.
Vajjiyamāhita A lay disciple said to have acchieved arahantship (see AN 6.147) . It is unclear as to whether or not this was achieved before death or at the time of death or before another rebirth. We have suttas featuring him at AN 10 81 and AN 10 94.
Jāṇussoṇī brāhmaṇo. One of a few eminent brāhmin followers of Gotama. He appears in a number of suttas including AN 10.119 and an entire chapter [AN 10 XVII] of Aŋguttara Nikāya, Tens, is named after him.

 

new Friday, December 13, 2013 9:05 AM [AN 5 161] The Putting Away of Malice (a), Hare translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhks. Thanissaro and Ñanamoli translations. Five things which should be employed to overcome anger that has arisen.

 

new Friday, December 13, 2013 4:23 AM [AN 6 36] Vivādamūla Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Roots of Contention, Hare translation
The Buddha lists and condemns six things that foster contention and urges the bhikkhus to get rid of them wherever they appear.
[AN 6 39] Kamma-nidāna Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Means, Hare translation
The Buddha describes the idea that lust, hate and stupidity tend to proliferate and end in unhappy births whereas their opposites tend to breed further good kamma which ends in a happy rebirth. This is a little, apparently simple sutta which could easily be overlooked, but which has within it the kernal of one of the most important phenomena dealt with by Gotama's system: that is, that we tend to do what we remember having done. When hungar arises we recall that last time hunger arose we satisfied it with a big meal from the Greasy Spoon (we omit to remember -moha, stupidity- the indigestion that followed later that night), the pleasant sensations of the memory urge the decision -lobha- to get such food once again, and once again we experience indigestion (and quickly supress the memory after; -dosa, hate-). Had we exercised memory -sati- of the unpleasant result (or taken note of this sutta!), we could have dealt with the hunger with moderation and on later reflection enjoyed the fact that we had satisfied the needs of the body while at the same time we had freed ourself from the repitition of an unpleasantness. Pushed out, this is the same mechanism used in the process of finding rebirth.
[AN 6 44] Migasālā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Migasālā, Hare translation
Another version of AN 10 75 Migasālā confronts Ananda in a huff because of her confusion over the fates of her father and uncle. Both were declared to have been reborn in the Tusita realm as Once-returners by the Buddha. Her father was proficient in ethical conduct but deficient in wisdom, her uncle proficient in wisdom but deficient in ethical behavior, but Migasālā only sees one side: that her father was proficient in ethical behavior and her uncle was not; and she proceds to judge the Buddha and the Dhamma as flawed. Gotama explains the issue to Ananda and gives three similar cases (which are different than those given in the version in the Tens).

[AN 6 46] Mahā Cunda, Hare translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. For the good of one and all, Mahā Cunda exhorts the bhikkhus devoted to Dhamma study not to disparage the bhikkhus who are devoted to jhāna practice and then exhorts the bhikkhus devoted to jhāna practice not to disparage the bhikkhus who are devoted to Dhamma study. For:

Of those devoted to jhāna practice, he says (Olds adaptation):

Acchariyā h'ete āvuso puggalā dullabhā lokasmiṃ,||
ye amataṃ dhātuṃ kāyena phūsitvā viharanti.|| ||

A snapping-fine thing, friends,
and not easy to gain in this world
is the sight of such men
as those who live in bodily contact with the deathless.

Of those devoted to Dhamma study (Hare translates 'dhamma-yoge bhikkhū' as Dhamma-zealots which today has a bad connotation), he says:

Acchariyā h'ete āvuso puggalā dullabhā lokasmiṃ,||
ye gambhīraṃ atthapadaṃ paññāya ativijajha passantī ti.|| ||

A snapping-fine thing, friends,
and not easy to gain in this world
is the sight of such men
as they who pierce with vision
and see in detail
the deep wisdom of the path to the goal.'

There was this early rivalry between the 'repeaters' and the 'jhāyanti pajjhāyanti' 'the inflamed by the flames', that is, jhāna practitioners. It is to our loss that the the jhāna practitioners did not set down more of their techniques and experiences for the repeaters to remember.
[AN 6 131-151] He Sees the Deathless, Hare translation
A declaration by the Buddha that 21 different laymen had achieved the deathless (attained Arahantship). Since some of these were also in other places declared non-returners, the assumption is that they attained Arahantship at or shortly after death but before taking birth as a new individuality.

 


Ye keci mayi aveccappasannā,||
sabbe te sotāpannā
|| ||

Whosoever has unwavering faith in me,
all those are stream-winners.

AN 10.64 Woodward


 

new Friday, December 06, 2013 9:15 AM [AN 4 246] Paññāvuddhi Suttaṃ and Bahukāra Suttaṃ, the Pali
Growth in Wisdom, Woodward translation
Four things which conduce to the growth of wisdom and which are beneficial for one who has become human. This sutta is divided into two suttas in some versions of the Pali and understood to be two suttas by Bhk. Bodhi. On the surface making them into two suttas seems logical as, although the content of both halfs is identical, the point is directed at two different sorts of persons. There is another way to read this which is that the four helpful things can be understood at two different levels. One applied to the bhikkhus, and one applied to all 'beings who have become human' (where the possibility exists that there is no fully awakened one to follow and no Dhamma, capital 'D'.) In this latter case combining the two would serve to emphasize the double meanings.

 

new Wednesday, December 04, 2013 1:15 PM [SN 4.35.117] Kāmaguṇa (Lokakāmaguṇa 2) Suttaṃ, the Pali
Worldly Sensual Elements (ii), Woodward translation
The Cords of Worldly Sense Pleasures, Olds adaptation
The Pali and the Woodward translation have been unabridged in accordance with the indications in the texts and in accordance with their own logic. However it is highly likely that there is an error in the Pali and that it has resulted in confusion and mistranslation all round (including that of Bhk. Bodhi who has made the best sense of it as it is.) What has been done in the version above is not a translation. It should be thought of as a convenient way to explain what is suggested as the correct way the sutta should have been edited. It has just been patched together using Woodward's translation, that of Bhk. Bodhi and some original translation.
[SN 5.45.1] Ignorance, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The Buddha explains in a paticca-samuppada-like style how blindness leads to shameful behavior and that gives rise to mistaken points of view which leads to false release. Where there is vision, 'seeing' the bad consequences of shameful acts, that gives rise to consummate point of view which leads to consummate release. Identical to AN 10.105.
[SN 5.45.2] The Half, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. A lovely sutta. Ananda, probably speaking of friendship with other beggars, declares that it is 'half of the Brahma life' to be associated with the lovely. Gotama corrects him saying it is the whole of the Brahma life, but he is speaking of a close association and companionship with the Dhamma.
[SN 5.45.3] Sāriputta Suttaṃ, the Pali
Sāriputta, Woodward translation
Sariputta declares that it is 'the whole of the Brahma life' to be associated with the lovely. Gotama confirms him in this view repeating what he said in the previous sutta.
[SN 5.46.51] Food, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The Buddha teaches what is and what is not a food for the obstructions (nīvaraṇā) and for the seven dimensions of self-awakening (satta sambojjhaŋga).

 

new Sunday, December 01, 2013 12:18 PM T.W. Rhys Davids, Buddhist India
New HTML edition, digitized and formatted to the style of this site. Navagate from links at the foot of each page. If you want to find a certain page, go to the Contents page, locate the Chapter containing that page, go to that chapter, and add: '#pg1' (without the "'"s) to the end of the URL.
Begin from the front cover.
Begin from the contents page.
Portrays ancient India, during the period of Buddhist ascendancy, from the non-Brahmin point of view. Based on the literary, numismatic and inscriptional records, it throws light on points hitherto dark and even unsuspected [then c. 1903]. Divided into sixteen chapters, the work presents a detailed account of the socio-economic, geo-political and ethico-religious conditions of the country. There are numerous illustrations of very bad quality as the edition used for scanning here was a photo reproduction from another book, done on poor thin paper causing see-through problems. Some of them amount to not much more than place-holders, but it was thought to be better to include something rather than nothing. Still, some interesting detail can be made out. Has anything of the same nature been done more recently?
There is a linked index.
This book is frequently cited in footnotes in the PTS translations and over time will be linked to from them.
Much of the material in the appendix here called "Buddha's India" was taken from this book.
This digital edition and reformatting was partially adapted from someone else's digital edition and reformatting that was in process a while back. Although this version was entirely reformatted for this site a lot of scanning, OCR conversion, and proofing work was already done by someone whose name and link I did not retrieve at the time. If you are this person we would be glad to give you a credit line if you will contact us with the details.

 

new Monday, November 25, 2013 4:27 AM [AN 10 37] Paṭhama Ānanda Saŋghabheda Suttaṃ, The Pali
Schism in the Order (b), Woodward translation
Ananda asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expression: "breaking up (Creating a Schism in) the Order."
[AN 10 38] Dutiya-Ānanda Saŋghabheda Suttaṃ, The Pali [BJT incorporates this sutta in the previous]
Fruits of Causing Schism, Woodward translation
Ananda asks the Buddha about the consequences of causing a breaking up (Creating a Schism in) of the Order.
[AN 10 39] Paṭhama Ānanda Saŋghasāmaggi Suttaṃ, The Pali
Harmony in the Order (b), Woodward translation
Ananda asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expression: Harmony in the Order.
[AN 10 40] Dutiya Ānanda Saŋghasāmaggi Suttaṃ, The Pali
Fruits of Causing Harmony in the Order, Woodward translation
Ananda asks the Buddha about the consequesces of fostering harmony in the Order.
[AN 10 41] Vivāda Suttaṃ, The Pali
Quarrels Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the reasons quarrels arise in the Order.
[AN 10 42] Paṭhama Vivādamūla Suttaṃ, The Pali
Roots of Quarrels (a) Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the roots of quarrels.
[AN 10 43] Dutiya Vivādamūla Suttaṃ, The Pali
Roots of Quarrels (b) Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the roots of quarrels.
[AN 10 44] Kusinārā Suttaṃ, The Pali
At Kusinara Woodward translation
The Buddha cautions those who are eager to criticize others that they should first examine themselves as to their competency to do so and then to set up within themselves the discipline to speak only in a timely manner, according to fact, gently, well said such as to inspire and profit, and with a friendly heart.
[AN 10 45] Rājantepurappavesana Suttaṃ, The Pali
Entering the Royal Court Woodward translation
Ten dangers attending upon a bhikkhu who would habituate the court's of kings. Just a couple of the things one should think about when contemplating fame, favours and flattery.

 


The First Danger
of habituating the Kings Court

... suppose the king is seated with Wife #1 and here comes some beggar who habituates the king's court.

Wife #1, on seeing him, smiles,
or else he, on seeing her, smiles.

Then the king thinks ...

— adapted from AN 10.45


 

[AN 10 46] Sakyans, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. Fullly unabridged. The Buddha admonishes the Sakkyans to keep the Uposatha day in all it's eight parts. This is a hypnotic magic charm. To ignore or abbreviate the series of numbers running up and down is to miss virtually the entire point. Without this feature the whole thing could have been done in one sentence, so one must ask why it was done in this 'tedious' way. Anyone familiar with inducing hypnosis will recognize what is being done here immediately ... unless it is obscured by abridgment. As a secondary mater, both for the Sakkyans then and for the modern reader interested in learning Pali, this was/is a good sutta to study in the Pali to learn to count. Also, and not insidentally, the sutta is great encouragement for those concerned about avoiding hell and securing a foothold in progress in the system.
[AN 10 47] Mahāli, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Mahāli asks the Buddha about the reasons for bad and good deeds. In a very interesting post-script to the direct answer that it is is as a consequence of lust, hatred, delusion, not noticing the beginnings of things, and following wrong views and the reverse of these five, he further states that without these ten things there would be no wrong or deviant living or right or straight living. In other words these things amount to the sum total of what is needed to be done in the system to attain it's goals. No mention of the Magga. In other other words, the Magga is a method for eliminating the first five of these things, so instruction can be given in these two general ways: either by stating the things to be eliminated or by stating the method to eliminate them. The choice, presumably being made based on the listener's inclination and capabilities. Once a request was made for an instruction in brief where the response simply stated: "Whatsoever has to do with hunger (taṇhā), know that is not Dhamma."
[AN 10 48] Conditions, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhks. Piyadassi and Thanissaro translations. Ten things (dhammas) that should be kept in mind by a bhikkhu. Good things for one and all to keep in mind, but of special importance to a bhikkhu, for the fall for one who has joined the order and is therefore representative of the Buddha and the Dhamma is much more serious. For bhikkhus this should be a hair-raising sutta. A good sutta for comparing translations.

 


What am I becoming
as the days and nights fly past?

AN 10.48 Thanissaro


 

[AN 10 49] Sarīraṭṭhadhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Inherent in Body, Woodward translation
Things of this Bone-Supported Corpse, Olds translation,
The Buddha points out 10 things that are bound up in existing in a body.
[AN 10 50] Bhaṇḍana Suttaṃ, The Pali
Strife, Woodward translation
The Buddha instructs a number of bhikkhus who were engaged in bandying words about in unfriendly banter, as to ten things which make for friendly relations and living in unity, saying that living in discord was unworthy of those who had left home for the homeless life.
[AN 10 51] One's Own Heart, (a) By the Master, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 10 52] Sāriputta Suttaṃ, The Pali
One's Own Heart, (b) By Sāriputta Woodward translation
Two identical suttas. The Buddha, then Sāriputta admonish the bhikkhus to examine themselves for faults and then to make a strong effort to get rid of any faults found; this as a key to the comprehension of their hearts. Although this sutta begins with the idea that though one may not be able to read the hearts of others, one should be able to read one's own heart, what is not said here is that this is the very method for learning to read the hearts of others.
[AN 10 53] Ṭhiti Suttaṃ, The Pali
Standing Still Woodward translation
The Buddha spurs on the bhikkhus warning them not only to guard against backsliding but also against accepting the status quo, admonishing the bhikkhus to examine themselves for faults and then to make a strong effort to get rid of any faults found; this as a key to the comprehension of their hearts. (ending as with the two prevous suttas). It is interesting that here he is speaking of a person who has faith, virtue, much knowledge, the habit of casting off things, wisdom and quick wits. One might think this was pretty good, but the warning is not to be complacent even with relatively high accomplishments. This is a monster of a mountain that must be climbed!
[AN 10 54] Samatha Suttaṃ, The Pali
Peace of Heart Woodward translation
Linked to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The Buddha gives two criteria for evaluating the knowledge of one's own heart: attainment of higher wisdom and insight into things (or the insight of the Dhamma), and calm of heart; and then he gives a method for judging the right course to take with regard to clothing, food, location and persons. This is an invaluable sutta with regard to day-to-day practice!
[AN 10 55] Parihāna Suttaṃ, The Pali
Waning Woodward translation
Sariputta explains the meaning in Gotama's system of the expressions "Of a nature to wane," and "Of a nature not to wane." If a person doesn't listen, forgets what he has heard, teachings formerly memorized are not rehearsed, and he has no intuitive understanding he tends to wane; if he listens, remembers what he has heard, rehearses formerly memorized teachings, and cultivates intuitive knowledge he tends not to wane.
[AN 10 56] Paṭhama Saññā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ideas (a) Woodward translation
Perceptions 1, Olds, translation
The Buddha reveals ten perceptions which are very helpful to seekers. I did a translation of this sutta so that we would have here a contrast with Woodward's translation. There is an enormous difference when 'sannā' is translated 'perception' rather than 'idea'. Sannā = 'one-knowing' or 'first-knowing' or 'once-knowing' = perception, not idea. The difference is that an idea is an abstract thing, tending to suggest an intellectual understanding apart from the perception of it being something connected to the self (speaking conventionally, or, rather, since these things are 'helps along the way', speaking with regard to the identification with 'this being'); here the idea is to have actually seen these things as they manifest themselves to one's self... actually seeing, or smelling, or tasting the identical repulsion one has of excrementia, in some otherwise delightful food for example, or the actual feeling of world-wearyness when some ambition arises, or the conscious recognition of release (a deep sigh of relief that feels like it is the first full breath one has had in a long time ... which it is) when one has finally passed the withdrawl stage connected with some habitual practice one has let go.
[AN 10 57] Dutiya Saññā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ideas (b) Woodward translation
Perceptions 2, Olds, translation
This sutta while including some of the perceptions from the previous sutta, adds a few that are in need of a little explanation. Perception of bones, larva, mal-coloration, swelling. These ideas are generally associated in the commentaries with the use of concentration devices (specifically those of observing a corpse). That has the tendency to create the same distance from them as does the use of 'idea' in the translation. These are 'live' perceptions. One sees in one's mind's eye, as clearly as in a vivid dream, maggots heaving around, as often as not within 'one's own' or some live person's body, or one sees all mankind as a mess of maggots roiling around in some open wound, not just in the body of a corpse one is using as a concentration device. One sees a repulsive swelling or bruising in ordinary objects and people, or one sees ordinary objects and people as just a repulsive swelling. Again, in the mind's eye, one perceives this whole universe as a disgusting skelleton, or one sees right into the bones of some person or sees some person as simply a walking skelleton. Woodward does not comment, Bhk. Bodhi has these as perceptions of corpses. The Pali has these as stand-alone concepts; not connected to corpses. The distinction points out the utility: the kasina (observing a corpse) is used to stimulate the perception. The end result is not the perception of these things in a corpse, but the application of the perception of these things to everyday experience, they serve to make one aware on a gut level of the reality of things. One uses the recollection of these perceptions to counter lust or other disadvantageous feelings that have arisen. They instill sobriety.
[AN 10 58] Rooted in the Exalted One Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and to Bhk. Thanissaro, and Olds translations.
The Buddha teaches ten important ideas by posing them as questions that might be asked of bhikkhus (or any Buddhist) by outsiders. There is an interesting manipulation of the term 'dhamma' here which illustates it's dual meaning as 'thing' and 'Form' (in the sense of 'Good Form') or 'The Teaching.' (This translation of 'Dhamma' as 'Good Form' comes from the discussion of the term in Rhys David's Buddhist India pg 292 where he points to the etymological root as "identical with the Latin forma" our 'form'. This serves very well for this word where it must stand for 'thing' and is a synonym for 'rūpa' (often translated 'form') in this sense, and also for 'the best way to do a thing', or 'Good Form'. This use for 'form' is found in asian cultures where the idea is exactly that there is a perfectly correct and efficient way to do even the smallest things. The expression 'Doing Forms' is also used as the English translation for the term in asian martial arts that stands for various groups of moves in practice routines. At this time the word 'Dhamma' for Gotama's teaching is relatively well known here and it will probably stick, but there is confusion that results when the word must be used for 'things' and ... 'Good form' in general.)
[AN 10 59] Pabbajjā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Forthgoing Woodward translation
The Buddha gives the bhikkhus 10 things to aim at in their training.
[AN 10 60] Forthgoing Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and to Bhks. Thanissaro and Piyadassi translations. An important sutta in which the Buddha gives definitions for 'The Ten Perceptions': The idea of discontinuity, of not-self, of the foul, of disadvantages, letting go, dispassion, ending, world-wearyness, of discontinuity in the own-made, of recollection of respriration. In this sutta is a case of 'curing' by way of hearing the Dhamma. Also in this sutta is found a version of what would later become the Satipatthana method.
[AN 10 61] Avijjā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ignorance Woodward translation
A beautiful sutta once unabridged. In the technique of the Paticca Samuppada, the Buddha traces out how blindness rolls on and the way freedom from it is managed. The distinction in the terms used here from those used in the Paticca Samuppada should be enlightening. The term for the relationship between a thing and it's result is 'food'. This is the food of that. The significant difference between the idea of 'food' and the idea of 'cause' should be kept in mind when thinking about the meaning of this sutta and the translation of terms such as 'paccaya'.
[AN 10 62] Taṇhā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Craving Woodward translation
Almost identical with the previous sutta, but beginning with thirst for existence (Woodward's 'craving-to-become').
Together these bracket the first condition of the Paticca Samuppada: Avijjā paccayo saŋkhārā. [see for example SN2.12.001] Blindness (Woodward's 'Ignorance') results in own-making. On one side it answers the question: 'then what is it that results in blindness?' And on the other side it answers the question as to why blindness results in own-making.
Another thing is that since 'taṇhā,' thirst, (Woodward's 'craving'), results in the usual first condition of the paticca samuppada, 'blindness', and is also a 'condition' following sense experience within the formula, we can see by this that the paticca samuppada is to be taken as a series of what Bhk. Thanissaro has called 'feedback loops' and should not be taken exclusively as a direct-line analysis. An interesting comparison could be made to the Mandelbrot Set, where, at any point along a series a new series could be begun, and so on without end.
[AN 10 63] Niṭṭhaŋgata Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Goal Woodward translation
Gotama states that all those who attain the goal are possessed of or are certain about 'view'; some of those reaching the goal here in the human state and some of them reaching the goal after 'departure'. 'View' here would be the 'dhamma eye': "all things that have come into existence are destined to come to an end," or one form or another of the Four Truths.
[AN 10 64] Aveccappasanna Suttaṃ, The Pali
Unwavering Woodward translation
Almost identical to the previous sutta except that here Gotama asserts that all those who have unwavering faith in him are Streamwinners. Something to consider for those insisting that there can be no stream-entry without breaking the first three samyojanas. The catch is of course the 'unwavering' part. It is an easy thing to say one has unwavering faith in something when one has studied it for years or decades or practiced it a little with good results, but this is a wide world and the mind is organized in hierarchies and unless the person has crossed the line marked by the 'dhamma eye': "all things that have come into existence are destined to come to an end" aka, breaking of the one-truth view aka Pajapati's Problem, the mind which had latched onto faith through fear (not a high level in the hierarchy) could find a greater satisfaction in someone dying on the cross for their sins, for example, or in the idea that there was no self, or in the idea that this was a one-shot thing and there was no possibility of having to pay up, than in concepts such as compassion, giving or ethical behavior ... themselves not high up in the pecking order. In fact, faith based on such things is one of the three things that the usual definition of the streamwinner suggests must be broken. Still the possibility exists that a person with no more than a faith that the Buddha taught a way to freedom, or a way to the end of pain, might tenaceously hold on to that faith at death and that tenacious hanging on could drag them into a rebirth where their faith could find growth and develop into knowledge and vision, so it is a true statement to say it can be done by faith alone.
One more thing: there was a point not too far back where many of those of us who had faith in Gotama's teaching were trying to make the idea of faith sound palatable to a population heartily disenchanted with a faith that depended on faith that had proved incapable of inspiring it's leaders to remain on the path of righteousness, so to speak. There was a big effort to convince everyone that faith in Buddhism was not faith, but 'confidence' [e.g. Bhk. Bodhi in his translation of this sutta] or 'conviction' [Bhk. Thanissaro] or 'trust' or 'well-reasoned or grounded trust' [me], but here the plain fact of the case is that this sutta is speaking about blind faith and I think we need to accept the fact that there is this level of trust, conviction and confidence in Gotama and his system as well and that it is not without good results. There are those of us who would like to think of Gotama's system as mathematically pure science, which it is, but we need also to recognze that there are those who have blind faith even in pure mathematics, and that it is not therefore a danger to the system that there are such believers. ... it's when a person has confidence and conviction that their blind faith is well grounded and starts proselytizing that the trouble starts, but that is another story.
[AN 10 65] Weal and Woe (a) Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and K. Nizamis translation. Sariputta gives the Wanderer Samandakani a brief definition of the Buddhist view of Pain and Pleasure.
[AN 10 66] Weal and Woe (b) Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and K. Nizamis translation. Saiputta describes the experience from within this Dhamma and Discipline that it is discontented that one feels pain and contented that one feels pleasure.
[AN 10 67] Paṭhama Naḷakapāna Suttaṃ the Pali
At Naḷakapāna (a) Woodward translation
The Buddha asks Sariputta to deliver a discourse. Sariputta likens the presence or absense of ten qualities leading to decline or growth to the waning and waxing of the moon. Is Gotama giving Sariputta a chance to shine in his home town?
[AN 10 68] Dutiya Naḷakapāna Suttaṃ the Pali
At Naḷakapāna (b) Woodward translation
The Buddha asks Sariputta to deliver a discourse. Sariputta likens the presence or absense of ten qualities leading to decline or growth to the waning and waxing of the moon. Almost identical to the previous with some changes.
[AN 10 72] Kaṇṭaka Suttaṃ the Pali
The Thorn (in the Flesh) Woodward translation
The Buddha teaches of ten things which are thorns to one who is actively practicing.
[AN 10 73] Iṭṭhadhamma Suttaṃ the Pali
Desirable Woodward translation
Ten things that are much wished for, but hard to get in the world; ten things that are obstacles to getting them and ten things that are helpful for getting them.
[AN 10 74] Vaḍḍha Suttaṃ the Pali
Growth Woodward translation
Directed at laymen, the Buddha describes ten things which one should make an effort to grow and which should be considered as consistant with progress on the Way.
[AN 10 75] Migasālā Suttaṃ the Pali
Migasālā Woodward translation
Migasālā confronts Ananda in a huff because of her confusion over the fates of her father and uncle. Both were declared to have been reborn in the Tusita realm as Once-returners by the Buddha. Her father was proficient in ethical conduct but deficient in wisdom, her uncle proficient in wisdom but deficient in ethical behavior, but Migasālā only sees one side: that her father was proficient in ethical behavior and her uncle was not; and she proceds to judge the Buddha and the Dhamma as flawed. Gotama explains the issue to Ananda and gives five similar cases.
Another version of the sutta is at AN 6.44.

 


Judge Not

Tasmā ti h'Ānanda mā puggalesu pamāṇikā ahuvattha,||
mā puggalesu pamāṇaṃ gaṇhattha.|| ||
Khaññati h'Ānanda puggalo puggalesu pamāṇaṃ gaṇhanto||

Take not the measure of men, Ānanda,
be no measurer of men.

A person is eaten away, Ānanda,
by taking the measure of men.
— AN 10.75


 

[AN 10 76] Tayodhamma Suttaṃ the Pali
Unable to Grow Woodward translation
A Paticca-Samuppada-like (this being that becomes, from the ending of this, the ending of that) progression of 10 steps of three factors each showing how lack of sense of shame, a fear of blame and being careful prevents growth in the ability to eliminate lust, hate and delusion, factors necessay for attaining freedom from birth, aging and death. Followed by the reverse course showing how sense of shame, a fear of blame, and being careful end up leading to the elimination of lust, hate, and delusion and the end of birth, aging and death. Here again the dependence is not cast in terms of 'cause' but of ability to grow.
[AN 10 77] Kāka Suttaṃ the Pali
The Crow Woodward translation
The Buddha enumerates 10 qualities of a crow which are found also in a wicked bhikkhu. This is a sutta which must be read in the Pali to see the humor. You can do it! It's very short, and the humor can be easily seen. And you will never forget the Pali word for 'and'. In this sutta and the next there is the use of the word "Dhamma" that falls between the meaning as 'phenomena' or 'thing' and The Dhamma, as in the Teachings of the Buddha. Here it has the meaning of 'Good Form' as given by Rhys Davids, [see Buddhist India pg 292] or of the Chinese 'Tao'.
[AN 10 78] Nigaṇṭha Suttaṃ the Pali
The Unclothed Woodward translation
The Buddha enumerates 10 things about the Nigaṇṭhas, (the naked ascetics), which do not comport with Dhamma, 'Good Form.'
[AN 10 79] Āghātavatthu Suttaṃ the Pali
Occasions of Ill-will Woodward translation
The Buddha lists 10 thoughts that tend to provoke unwarranted anger. These lists are very valuable as they pop into the mind at those times when one is about to cross a line and can give one just enough detachment (self-reflection) to correct course. The secret is in their broad-based generality. Note that these are called 'groundless' (aṭṭhane without standing) reasons for aggrivation. Why is that? Because anger is never a well-grounded response to an unpleasant situation because it only engenders more anger followed by unpleasant deeds carrying further unpleasant consequences. For five methods for overcoming anger see the next, and AN 5.161
[AN 10 80] Āghātapaṭivinaya Suttaṃ the Pali
Ways of Checking Ill-will Woodward translation
Our version of the BJT Pali was incomplete for this and the previous sutta. This may have been corrected, but readers of that version should check. The Buddha suggests ten thoughts as counter-weights to the arising of anger possible from ten situations where anger might arise (those of the previous sutta). Woodward and Bhks. Thanissaro and Bodhi have trouble with the phrase: taṃ kut'ettha labbhā' ti? 'What is to be gained from that?' The meaning is understood if kamma is kept in mind. The idea is to calm one's tendency to an angry reaction by remembering that this deed this fellow does will return to him and that therefore there is no need to seek vengence from a feeling of outrage at injustice.
[AN 10 81] Bāhuna Woodward translation
Old Man Bāhuna Olds translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. Ten barriers that are to be broken down by one who would be free, detached and released; that is, 'One-Who-Get's-It', a 'Tathāgata'.
[AN 10 82] Ānanda Suttaṃ The Pali
Ānanda Woodward translation
Ten things which prevent increase, growth and maturity in this dhamma-discipline and ten things which promise increase, growth and maturity in this dhamma-discipline.
[AN 10 84] Vyākaraṇa Suttaṃ The Pali
Declaration of Gnosis Woodward translation
Mahā Moggallāna describes the examination that will be given to one who declares arahantship by those who are arahants, skilled in the jhānas and able to read the state of and habits of the hearts of others. Possessing any of ten characteristics he will come to an impass and ruin when questioned. But if one abandons all these ten characteristics he may come to increase, growth and maturity in this dhamma-discipline.
[AN 10 85] Katthi Suttaṃ The Pali
The Boaster Woodward translation
Cunda the Great puts his spin on the previous sutta. In this case a boaster brags of attainments and is questioned by one skilled in the jhānas and able to read the state of and habits of the hearts of others. Possessing any of ten characteristics he will come to an impass and ruin when questioned. But if one abandons all these ten characteristics he may come to increase, growth and maturity in this dhamma-discipline.
[AN 10 86] Adhimāna Suttaṃ The Pali
The Question of Gnosis Woodward translation
Kassapa the Great puts his spin on the theme of the prevous two suttas. Maha Kassapa deals with the case of a bhikkhu who, due to confusion of mind created by great learning, thinks he has attained arahantship. He is questioned by one skilled in the jhānas and able to read the state of and habits of the hearts of others. Possessing any of ten characteristics he will come to an impass and ruin when questioned. But if one abandons all these ten characteristics he may come to increase, growth and maturity in this dhamma-discipline. The ten characteristics in each of these cases is slightly different. Each of these versions reflects the character and special interests of the speaker.
[AN 10 87] Adhikaraṇika Suttaṃ The Pali
Kālaka the Monk Woodward translation
The Buddha enumerates ten things which if absent do not conduce to affection, respect, progress, harmony and unity, but which if present do conduce to these things.
[AN 10 88] Akkosaka Suttaṃ The Pali
Disaster (a) Woodward translation
The Buddha declares ten misfortunes one or another of which are unavoidable by a bhikkhu that abuses his fellows in the Brahma Life. This sutta is directed at bhikkhus, but should be taken seriously by laymen as well.
[AN 10 89] Kokālika Suttaṃ The Pali
The Kokālikan Woodward translation
A well-known sutta describing the horrific result of hardening his heart against Sāriputta and Moggalāna by the Kokālikan Monk. This sutta has in it the mention of a 'paccekabrahmā.' Bhk. Bodhi, in a footnote, cites Spk-pṭ I 213 (VRI ed) commenting on SN I 146, as explaining this as "a brahmā who travels about alone, not as a member of an assembly". This possibly throws some light on the term 'pacceka-buddha' which is usually translated 'silent-buddha' or as Woodward has translated it here for the brahmā, 'Individual-'. I have always felt this term, when applied to a Buddha, meant an individual who attained Arahantship without the aid of another awakened individual but who had not the training or charisma or inclination or opportunity to lead a following. There is also here another visit to Gotama by Brahmā Sahampati.
One other interesting thing in this sutta is the case of a non-returner returning to this world for a visit. We need, in thinking of the non-returner in order not to make the mistake made by Kokalika, to think in terms of rebirth, not freedom of movement. [For another case of a Non-returner returning to this world for a visit see AN 3.125.]
[AN 10 90] Khīṇāsavabala Suttaṃ The Pali
The The Powers Woodward translation
The abilities (balani) of one who has destroyed the corrupting influences (asavas) which give him the knowledge to know that he has destroyed the corrupting influences. As well as a good way to know when you really know, this is a good curiculum for plotting one's course to the goal.
[AN 10 91] Kāmabhogī Suttaṃ The Pali
Pleasures of Sense Woodward translation
Gotama speaks to the wealthy banker Anāthapiṇḍika, breaking down the distinctions between sorts of persons who are still enjoyers of sense pleasures according to the extent they earn their wealth legitimately and dispense with it wisely.
Mark Twain used to do a routine where he would stand in front of his audience and tell a feeble, possibly even tedious joke or story. When he got no reaction from the audience except embarrassment, he told the story again without altering a word or changing an inflection. He would repeat this routine as many times as necessary to bring the house down with laughter. It never failed.
My father used to tell the story of a comedian who would enter a bare stage with only a wooden chair on it, sit on the chair, and do nothing more until bit by bit there would be a snicker from someone in the audience, or a smile, and before long this non-act would bring the house down with laughter. It never failed.
There is something about repetition (or it's alter-ego, nothing at all happening, as with the experience of those who seek solitude) that, if endured to a certain point (passed a murkey sloth), forces the mind into an elevated state, wakes it up to a grander scope.
It is just this sort of psychology that is being used by Gotama in the case of this and so many other suttas considered 'tedious' by translators and readers today [Wednesday, December 18, 2013 10:07 AM]. The reader may be given some slack. The written word carries little or none of the magic of a live performance. But the reader must accept his disadvantage and make up for it with imagination. Dwell on such a sutta as this. Place yourself in the situation as you imagine it happening at the time. It will come to life. It never fails.
Something important for translators to remember in this regard is to not yield to the impulse to change the wording for variety. Follow the Pali. The Pali is mathematically consistent, and this is a necessity for the mind to keep track of the variations in the pattern. Inserting difference to break tedium destroys the pattern in exactly the same way as if when weaving a rug one were to alter the pattern simply because it was the same all round. Translators may think they are helping the reader, but they are breaking the spell and this is all the greater crime because it is not suspected that there is a spell there that is being broken and the changes make it much more difficult to discover. This is just as much the case in the case of the whole body of suttas, but is very difficult and has not been managed to this point by any translator. A uniform translation vocabulary across all the suttas should be made the goal of the next generation of Dhamma translators.
[AN 10 92] Guilty Dread Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. Gotama explains to Anāthapiṇḍika how one may know with certainty that one is a Streamwinner and that one has passed beyond the reach of certain unpleasant forms of rebirth and is assured of eventual awakening. The careful reader can see in this sutta how development of ethical behavior leads to unwavering faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and the Sangha which leads to insight into the method.
The term translated 'Guilty Dread' by woodward and 'fear and animosity' by Bhk. Thanissaro and 'perils and emnities' by Bhk. Bodhi is bhayāni verāni. bhayāni = fear, fright, dread; verāni = hatred, revenge, hostile action. A possible better translation is 'fear of retribution', which is what makes up guilty dread and is the peril of emnity and the fear of animosity. These actions are perils and do produce emnities and fear and animosity both in the doer and in others, but the issue in this sutta is a condition for knowing that one is a streamwinner and that condition is the absense of or allaying of bhayāni verāni. within. It has nothing to do with what may result externally from these actions.
This is a good sutta to contrast with AN 10.64 where faith alone is being spoken of as a condition for stream-entry. It should be noted here that in both cases there is no mention of breaking the saŋyojana. That is not to say they are not broken, but only to point out that the formal terminology is not used and because of that there is the possibility of flexible understanding of the conditions. Possessing the four limbs of Stream-winning would be the breaking of doubt and wavering (vicikiccha); true insight into 'the method' would be the breaking of the 'one truth view' (sakkāyadiṭṭhi (usually translated in terms meaning 'own-self-view': 'Person-pack-view' 'views on individuality' etc., my translation, points to the idea that it is getting rid of holding any view concerning the existence of anything that is the necessary meaning in that holding on to a view concerning the existence of anything is a projection of the idea of self, but perhaps that is going farther than is necessary, or even confusing the issue) and attachment to the view that the goal was reachable through giving, ethical conduct, or rituals (sīlabbataparāmāso). One can imagine (or experience) a situation where one or some or all of these conditions are only partially met here, but where with faith in the Dhamma, or in the idea that Gotama achieved Awakening, or in the idea that there were those who had advanced towards the goal, upon death or upon the subsequent rebirth they come to fulfillment. That person would by that faith and partial accomplishment reasonably be called a stream-winner. On the other hand, that person would not be able to state with absolute conviction, that he was a stream-winner. Hopefully reflecting on this sutta would, in that case, inspire greater effort.
[AN 10 93] View Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. Anāthapiṇḍika visits wanderers of other views, listens to their views and shows the wanderers how, in each case, the view is just a grasping after security based on something theoretical, made up, and which will lead to pain. When asked about his own views he responds that it is a not-clinging to things that are graspings after security based on things theoretical, made up, and which will lead to pain. This sutta amounts to a statement by Anathapindika that he was at this time a stream-winner who 'knew and saw', one who had the Dhamma-eye: That all things that have come to be come to an end. After his death he was pronounced a Non-returner by Gotama.
[AN 10 94] Vajjiyamāhita, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
Vajjiyamāhita visits wanderers of other views and corrects their understanding of Gotama's position on austerities pointing out that he teaches discriminating between the profitable and the unprofitable. Vajjiyamāhita reports back to Gotama and the Buddha elaborates this position in terms of austerities, trainings, making effort, letting go, and freedom. Vajjiyamāhita is one of 20 other laymen said to have achieved 'realization of the deathless' in AN 6.147.
[AN 10 95] Uttiya, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
Uttiya the wanderer asks Gotama what he says about ten well-known questions concerning existence and non-existence each of which is answered by the statement by the Buddha that he has not made a declaration concerning the truth of that issue. Two additional question are: What then do you teach? and Will everyone be saved by this teaching?
The ten questions are the ones made famous by those who say that Gotama did not answer certain questions. That statement is a careless reading and mistaken. Here we see Gotama has not not answered the questions, he has answered by saying that he has not made an assertion of the truth or falsity of the proposition. This is not the same thing as not answering. If pressed for his reason for not making a declaration, (which Uttiya does not do in this sutta) Gotama explains that such questions are all based on points of view and consequently are true under only some ways of looking at things, false under others. Consequently if asked the simple question 'is this true?' there is no possible answer but that no one-sided declaration can be made about such an issue. Since with regard to the ten questions Gotama is being asked directly (that is, he is not being asked at this point what he has to say in general about this point of view) and only about his opinion as to the truth or falsity of the view, his only possible truthful answer is that he has not made a declaration (one way or the other) on that issue. When Uttiya askes about what Gotama does teach, he gets the other answer supplied to those who ask such questions: what he teaches, avoiding issues of existence and non-existence, is Pain, the origin of Pain, the ending of Pain and the way to the ending of pain. (Stated in different terms in this sutta ... which is a notable fact in itself: no mention of the four truths or the eightfold way.)
This may look like nit picking, but it is of vital concern as it is a pivotal point for the mind. (It also demonstrates how the awakened mind listens to and responds to questions!) Comprehension of why these are not fruitful inquiries leads to comprehension of the middle way and how it solves the problem of the Pain associated with existence.
For translators also it is vital. Not comprehending this balance between issues of existence and non-existence, translations will tend to use terms bound up in those very issues and by that not point to freedom.
[AN 10 96] Kokanuda, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. Kokanuda the wanderer asks Ananda about whether or not he holds any of ten well-known views concerning existence and non-existence each of which is answered by the statement by Ananda that he does not hold such a view. When questioned further ananda explains that these are just points of view, fixing on points of view, reliance on points of view, obsession by points of view and as such are things that should be let go (risen up from) and rooted out. Nearly identical to the previous sutta.
[AN 10 97] Āhuneyya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Worshipful, Woodward translation
Ten qualities which make for a bhikkhu that is worshipful, worthy of honour, worthy of offerings, worthy of being saluted with clasped hands, a field of merit unsurpassed for the world.
[AN 10 98] Thera Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Elder Monk, Woodward translation
Ten attributes of a Thera (a bhikkhu of long standing) wherewith he is able to live happily wherever he lives.
[AN 10 99] Upāli Suttaṃ, The Pali
Upāli, Woodward translation
Upāli has got it into his head that he wants to become a forest-dwelling bhikkhu. The Buddha, apparently perceiving disaster for him in this course, in that those without mastery of serenity (as was the case with Upāli,) are highly vulnerable, living in the forest, to either failure due to unskillful states of mind or to just not making any headway at all, discourages him with a long discourse on what actually needs to be accomplished in this system to achieve the goal. Upāli, by the way, follows the Buddha's advice and remains dwelling with the sangha and becomes one of the foremost bhikkhus in the understanding of the Vinaya, or rules of the order.
[AN 10 100] Bhabbābhabba Suttaṃ The Pali
Unfit to Grow Woodward translation
The Buddha enumerates ten things which if not abandoned prevent achieving arahantship, if abandoned conduce to arahantship.
[AN 10 101] Samaṇasaññā Suttaṃ The Pali
Ideas Woodward translation
When three things about the reality of his situation as a bhikkhu are perceived, this gives him the motivation to behave in seven highly advantageous ways.
[AN 10 103] Wrongness Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The Buddha explains how the low road leads to failure and the high road leads to success. The exposition of the two paths is in a paticca-samuppada-like formula: 'this being that becomes'; and consists of the positive and negative dimensions of the Seeker's Path, the Eightfold path with the two additional dimensions of knowledge and release. No mention is made of the Eightfold Path or the Seeker's Path. Woodward translates 'sammā' and 'micchā' as right and wrong, which I think would be better as 'high' and 'low', or 'consummate' and 'contrary'. For discussion of these terms see: On "Sammā" "Miccha," "Ariya," and "Angika"
[AN 10 104] The Seed Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The Buddha explains how the low road leads to bad luck and the high road leads to good luck using a simile likening point of view to a seed. If the seed is one of a bitter plant, the results are bitter, if the seed is one of a sweet plant, the results are sweet.
[AN 10 105] Vijjā Suttaṃ The Pali
By Knowledge Woodward translation
The Buddha explains in a paticca-samuppada-like style how blindness (a-vijjā) leads to shameful behavior and that gives rise to mistaken points of view which leads to false release. Where there is vision (vijjā; 'seeing' the bad consequences of shameful acts) gives rise to consummate point of view which leads to consummate release.
[AN 10 106] Nijjara Suttaṃ, The Pali
Causes of Wearing Out Woodward translation
A piticca-smuppada-like progression of things each of which wears out the next ending in release.
[AN 10 107] Dhovana Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Ablution Woodward translation
A beautiful sutta. Taking his inspiration from a bone-washing ancestor-worship ritual the Buddha speaks of his teaching as a washing of a different sort, one leading to Nibbana.
[AN 10 108] Physic Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. As doctors administer a purge, so the Buddha administers a different sort of purge, one leading to Nibbana.
[AN 10 109] Vamana Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ejection Woodward translation
As doctors administer an emetic, so the Buddha administers a different sort of emetic, one leading to Nibbana.
[AN 10 110] Niddhamaniya Suttaṃ, The Pali
To be Ejected Woodward translation
Ten negative things which are ejected by their opposites in a process leading to nibbana.
[AN 10 111] Paṭhama Asekha Suttaṃ, The Pali
Adept (a) Woodward translation
The ten attributes that define the A-sekha (the non-seeker, one who is no longer a seeker because he is an adept.)
[AN 10 112] Dutiya Asekha (Asekhiyadhamma) Suttaṃ, The Pali
Adept (b) Woodward translation
The ten attributes that define the A-sekha (the non-seeker, one who is no longer a seeker because he is an adept.) Probably 'adept' is the best translation we are going to get for this term in so far as the truer negative form 'a-sekha' always seems to come out in English as one who isn't even trying, has given up, or is hopeless. In a certain sense though the idea that one has given up seeking is the original meaning in that there is nothing the 'adept' here is adept at except no longer seeking.
[AN 10 113] Paṭhama Adhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Not-dhamma (a) Woodward translation
The Buddha states that both what is and what is not good form and the goal should be understood and then enumerates ten general areas to be considered good form and which are the goal and ten which are not good form and which are not the goal.
[AN 10 114] Dutiya Adhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Not-dhamma (b) Woodward translation
The Buddha states that both what is and what is not good form and the goal should be understood and then enumerates ten general areas to be considered good form and which are the goal and ten which are not good form and which are not the goal. A variation and expansion of the previous sutta.
[AN 10 115] Tatiya Adhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Not-dhamma (c) Woodward translation
The Buddha states that both what is and what is not good form and the goal should be understood and then retires to his cell. The bhikkhus ask Ananda to elaborate. Ananda enumerates ten general areas to be considered good form and which are the goal and ten which are not good form and which are not the goal. A variation and expansion of the previous sutta. This sutta has been expanded according to the indications in the Pali. The indications, however are not the usual ones, but appear to be attempts to create a style of abridgment close to what we find today where it is merely stated that there is a repetition of a previous passage. That is particularly unfortunate here as what we have from the beginning of this chapter (AN 10.113 on) is otherwise a good example of what was a regular pattern in the dissemination of an approach to the Dhamma. First comes the doctine stated in brief by Gotama. Then comes one or more orthodox expansions by Gotama. Then comes a statement in brief to bhikkhus who then seek out the expansion from one of the elders. There is further evolution as in the next suttas, in some cases with the expansion being given by more than one elder, and sometimes with acceptable variations. Those interested in the history and methods of propagation of the Dhamma should take note.
[AN 10 116] Ajita Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ajita Woodward translation
Ajita approaches the Buddha and describes what he understands to be a sage. Gotama responds by describing that a sage in this sytem is to be understood as one who argues according to dhamma. Gotama then enumerates ten general areas to be considered good form and which are the goal and ten which are not good form and which are not the goal. An expansion on the previous suttas. There is a big problem with this sutta. No single version of the Pali or translation agrees with anything else. Apparently none of them have correctly understood the original sutta. Woodward's translation has been altered according to the most reasonable understanding and it is noted that this is an adaptation and a lengthy analysis of the situation and the proposed solution is made in an editorial footnote. There is no point in putting up Woodward's original version of this sutta which is nothing less than confusing and although Bhk. Bodhi's translation is in accordance with his text, and he notes the issues, it is also not correct.
[AN 10 117] Ajita Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ajita Woodward translation
Brāhmin Saŋgārava asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expressions 'the hither shore' and 'the further shore'.
[AN 10 118] Ajita Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ajita Woodward translation
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus about the meaning of the expressions 'the hither shore' and 'the further shore'. In this and the previous sutta is another frequent method of sutta dissemination. A chance conversation yields a useful exposition. Nothing is wasted. It is repeated to the bhikkhus. Pass the word friends!
[AN 10 119] Paṭhama Paccorohaṇī Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Ariyan Descent (a) Woodward translation
The Buddha explains the difference between the Brahmin ceremony of Descent into the Fire, with the Descent of the Aristocrats.
[AN 10 120] Dutiya Paccorohaṇī Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Ariyan Descent (b) Woodward translation
The Buddha explains the 'Descent of the Aristocrats'. Identical to the exposition given in the previous sutta except this time given to the bhikkhus. Another example of this pattern of dissemination.
[AN 10 121] Pubbaŋgama Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Harbinger Woodward translation
As the dawn is the first sign of sunrise, so high view is the first sign of the arising of all good states.
[AN 10 122] Āsavakkhaya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Cankers Woodward translation
The Buddha enumerates ten steps which lead to the destruction of the corrupting influences.
[AN 10 123] Paṭhama Suttaṃ, The Pali
States of Perfect Purity Woodward translation
Ten states of perfect purity and clarity found only in the Buddha's Discipline.
[AN 10 124] Dutiya Suttaṃ, The Pali
States Not Yet Arisen Woodward translation
Ten states which, if not yet arisen, do not arise except in the Buddha's Discipline
[AN 10 125] Tatiya Suttaṃ, The Pali
States of Great Fruit Woodward translation
Ten states of great fruit and advantage found only in the Buddha's Discipline
[AN 10 126] Catuttha Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ending in Restraint Woodward translation
Ten states that bring lust, hate and stupidity to an end found only in the Buddha's Discipline
[AN 10 127] Pañcama Suttaṃ, The Pali
Conducive Woodward translation
Ten states that lead to disgust, fading out, ending, calm, understanding, awakening, and Nibbana found only in the Buddha's Discipline.
[AN 10 128] Chaṭṭhama Suttaṃ, The Pali
Made to Grow (a) Woodward translation
Ten states which if worked at arise only in the Buddha's Discipline.
[AN 10 129] Satta Suttaṃ, The Pali
Made to Grow (b) Woodward translation
Ten states which if developed are of great fruit only in the Buddha's Discipline.
[AN 10 130] Aṭṭhama Suttaṃ, The Pali
Made to Grow (c) Woodward translation
Ten states which if worked at end in restraint of lust, hate and stupidity, but only in the Buddha's Discipline.
[AN 10 131] Navama Suttaṃ, The Pali
Made to Grow (d) Woodward translation
Ten states which if worked at lead to disgust, fading out, ending, calm, understanding, awakening, and Nibbana are found only in the Buddha's Discipline.
[AN 10 132] Dasama Suttaṃ, The Pali
Wrong Woodward translation
Ten low states.
[AN 10 133] Ekādasama Suttaṃ, The Pali
Right Woodward translation
Ten high states.

 

Many of the previous (and following) suttas give the 10-fold Path in brief. The definitions of these terms can be found, in among other places:

The Method
in MN 22 Mahā Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta (under the section on Dhamma; but the first eight only)
The Pali Line, Lesson 10

I have provided links for many of these suttas to the Rhys Davids translation of the Mahā Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta definitions for the first eight terms and to The Method for the last two terms.

 

[AN 10 134] Sādhu Suttaṃ, The Pali
Right and Wrong Woodward translation
Ten things which are well done and ten things which are not well done.
[AN 10 135] Ariyadhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ariyan and Unariyan, Woodward translation
Ten things which are aristocratic and ten things which are not aristocratic.
[AN 10 136] Kusala Suttaṃ, The Pali
Good and Bad, Woodward translation
Ten things which are skillful and ten things which are not skillful.
[AN 10 137] Attha Suttaṃ, The Pali
Aim and Not-aim, Woodward translation
Ten things which are not the goal and ten things which are the goal.
[AN 10 138] Dhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Dhamma and Not-Dhamma, Woodward translation
Ten things which are Dhamma and ten things which are Not-Dhamma.
[AN 10 139] Sāsava Suttaṃ, The Pali
With Cankers and Without, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines a path that allows in corrupting influences and one which does not allow in corrupting influences.
[AN 10 140] Sāvajja Suttaṃ, The Pali
Blameworthy and Blameless, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines a path which has aspects which should be avoided and one which has no fearful aspects.
[AN 10 141] Tapanīya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Remorse and Not-remorse, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines a path which brings remorse and a path that brings no remorse.
[AN 10 142] Ācayagāmī Suttaṃ, The Pali
Given to Heaping Up and Diminishing, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines a path which heaps up rebirth and a path that is beyond heaping up rebirth. PED has 'apacaya' as 'unmaking' or 'diminishing' which is also the way Woodward (diminishing) and Bhk. Bodhi (dismantling) translate. PED forms the word from 'apa + ci" 'up passed-whatever.' A simpler reading would be that the root is 'caya' 'heap' and the prefixes are 'ā' 'to' and 'apa' 'up-passed.' The importance is in whether or not what is being said is that the path dismantles the existing pile of future rebirths, or does not create any new future rebirths. I think the idea of 'up passed' is the more consistent with a path that is made up of not-doings and lettings-go. One creates no new rebirths, gets beyond the reach of rebirths, gives up future rebirths, one does not sit here and destroy future rebirths. That would be an intentional doing certainly bound up in 'vibhava-tanha' wanting to un-live. The side note is that even in this long series of suttas with only single terms changed the effect of pairing opposites is to sharpen perception of what is being defined. Here opposites that do not work mean either the translation (understanding) of one or another term is not correct or the understanding of the path is not correct (or both are misunderstood).
[AN 10 143] Dukkhudraya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Yielding Pain and Pleasure, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines a path which yields up pain and a path that yields up pleasure.
[AN 10 144] Dukkhavipāka Suttaṃ, The Pali
Pain and Pleasure, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines a path which ripens in pain and a path that ripens in pleasure. Woodward following PED translates 'vipāka' 'ripening', as 'fruit' meaning 'fruition'. Since 'phala' which is 'fruit' is often used in the suttas the better translation would be the literal 'ripening' or 'fruition' or along the lines of 'consequence' 'result', etc.
[AN 10 145] Ariyamagga Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ariyan and Unariyan, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines the way of the Aristocrats and the way that is not the Way of the Aristocrats. Beginning a new set. It's like sandpaper. Round and round the basic two sets of ten 'dimensions' or 'steps' or 'folds' or 'facets' or 'things' or 'forms' or 'Teachings'. At some point or another, if paying close attention as requested, preconceptions about the path (about life!) will be sanded off. ... oops! There goes Mark Twain.
[AN 10 146] Sukkamagga Suttaṃ, The Pali
Bright Way and Dark Way, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines the black way and the white way.
[AN 10 147] Saddhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
True Dhamma and False Dhamma, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines true Dhamma and untrue dhamma.
[AN 10 148] Sappurisadhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Very-man Dhamma and Its Opposite, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines the Dhamma of the good man and what is not the dhamma of the good man.
[AN 10 149] Uppādetabba Suttaṃ, The Pali
To Be Brought About, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines Dhamma that should be made to arise and dhamma that should not be made to arise.
[AN 10 150] Āsevitabba Suttaṃ, The Pali
To Be Followed, Woodward translation
Āsevi 'to revisit'. The Buddha defines Dhamma that should be pursued and that which should not be pursued.
[AN 10 151] Bhāvetabba Suttaṃ The Pali
To Be Made to Grow, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines Dhamma that should be developed and dhamma which should not be developed.
[AN 10 152] Bahulīkāttabba Suttaṃ The Pali
To Be Made Much Of, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines Dhamma that should be made a big thing of and dhamma which should not be made a big thing of.

 


Monday, November 25, 2013


 

new Sunday, November 24, 2013 1:38 PM Book Review: The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich What can an understanding of Hitler's rise to power do to help free us from the fear of accomplishing great things in the Dhamma?

 


"But we that have but span-long lives" must ever bear in mind our limited time for acquisition. And remembering how narrowly this time is limited, not only by the shortness of life but also still more by the business of life, we ought to be especially solicitous to employ what time we have to the greatest advantage. Before devoting years to some subject which fancy or fashion suggests, it is surely wise to weigh with great care the worth of the results, as compared with the worth of various alternative results which the same years might bring if otherwise applied.
— Herbert Spencer, Education, Thinker's Library, 1929.


 

FYI

An old piece of information known to me but unfortunately forgotten probably a few minutes after it was first read, has just returned to consciousness from my giving a re-reading to Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, pg. 168. There Rhys Davids points out that the term 'Suttanta' means 'end of the suttas' in our sense of 'the aim' or 'a summary', that is, compiled from smaller suttas. The suttantas are found in The Digha Nikaya and the Majjhima Nikaya. Since I have 'suspected' for many years that suttas of the Digha and some of those in the Majjhima Nikayas were compilations, I am very glad to see that this was not a matter of anyone trying to sneak these in pretending that they were originally uttered in the form we find them, but that the fact that they were compilations was being stated outright.

 

new Wednesday, November 20, 2013 3:19 PMIf Not Mine Discussion of the difficulty in translating the ditthi:

No c'assa||
no ca me siyā,||
na bhavissati||
na me bhavissati.
|| ||

 


 

new Friday, November 22, 2013 4:57 AM [MN 89] Discourse on Testimonies to Dhamma, Horner translation
Raja Pasenadi pays a visit to the Buddha and shows great respect and enumerates the reasons for his great respect. As well as the content of this sutta being food for thought, the sutta is also interesting as a window on history. It is as this discussion is taking place that the king's son usurps the throne. We get a glimpse into the very moment of decision when Digha Karayana, the commander and chief of the Mallas, who is attending on the king asks himself why he must just stand around while the King fawns on the Buddha. At the time, the authority of kingship was vested in certain symbols: the umbrella, sword, turban ... and Pasenadi had removed his sword and turban out of respect for the Buddha, and had given them to Digha Karayana who went off with them and made Pasenadi's son king.

 


"A world without end
is the round of rebirth.

No beginning can be seen of beings
hindered by ignorance,
bound by craving,
who run on,
who fare on
through the round of rebirth.

The utter passionless ceasing of ignorance,
of this body of darkness,
is this blissful state,
this excellent state,
to wit: -
the calming down of all the activities,[*]
the giving up of all bases (for rebirth),
the destruction of craving,
dispassion,
cessation,
Nibbana."
SN 5.48.50 Woodward translation
[*]sabba-saŋkhāra-samatho 'all-own-making-calmed'; for more on this read: Is Nibbana Conditioned? and What is 2?


 

new Sunday, November 10, 2013 8:22 AM [SN 5.48.50] Saddha or Āpaṇa Suttaṃ, The Pali
Faithful or Market, Woodward Translation
An exposition of five controlling faculties (indriya): faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom and how one established in faith builds up stepwise useing these to attain insight overcoming all doubt as to the teacher or the doctrine. An important sutta for the understanding of the goal of satipatthana practice, and for the over-all goal. The goal of setting up sati is clearly stated to be: 'calling to mind and remembering things said long ago'. (other versions of this have it as 'said and done'; see: AN 10.50 Woodward § 11). This when joined with tranquillity allows for such detachment as makes clear the perception "A world without end is the round of rebirth.' This is a recollection conjoined with a conclusion about what is remembered as it relates to its projection out into the future and to desire for things of the future. Otherwise stated as 'insight into the rise and fall of things.' At a certain point, recollecting and recollecting (as it is said in this sutta) one has made conscious enough various experiences to see that the idea that things come to an end is, without exception, a feature of everything that has come into existence and that this is not a desirable thing. In other words, a worldly goal is futile and painful. This is important to burn into one's consciousness! Try and imagine having lived forever and ever, having lived every variety of form of life times beyond counting. Try and form the idea of a boundless boredom and the dangers in attempting to escape this boredom in strange and unusual forms (usually ending in rebirth in Hell, e.g., being a Hitler) or the utter shame of discovering one has been hiding from the truth in mediocrity. Escape from the world, letting absoltuely everything in the world go, being entirely without worldly ambition is not what is generally taught about the practice of Buddhism but the objection is not that the practice of paying attention, or paying attention to the breathing will not produce clarity and strength of mind which can be put to good use in furthering worldly goals; the objection is to the making of the statement or the implying that this is the goal of Buddhism. It isn't.
[SN 5.52.11-24] Anuruddha Saŋyutta, Sahassa Vagga, Suttas 11-24 The Pali (one file)
Kindred Sayings about Anuruddha, Chapter II: Thousandfold, Suttas 11-24, Woodward Translation (one file)
This was originally either one sutta, or the first sutta has had additions tacked onto it, so it has been made into one file, retains the divisions into suttas, but does not expand them out in a way that would make them 'stand alone'. Taken as it is it is a really powerful statement. A first person declaration of having achieved a thorough mastery of magic powers and how they were attained (through mastery of the four satipatthanas). This is also another way Arahantship is declared. This is in complete accord with the reputation Anuruddha has throughout the suttas. Compare this with AN 10.21 and 22

 


Monks, as low-down thieves
might carve one limb from limb
with a double-handled saw,
yet even then whoever sets his mind at enmity,
he, for this reason,
is not a doer of my teaching.
MN 21 Horner translation


 

new Sunday, November 10, 2013 8:22 AM [MN 21] Discourse on the Parable of the Saw, Horner translation
A famous sutta dealing with the idea that the student of this system should not concern himself with worldly matters, even those so close to home as the abuse of nuns ... to say nothing of abuse of chickens ... (or one might say: concern as to the contents of one's own bowl, let alone the contents of your neighbours bowl) ... also dealing with the need for patience and endurance when faced with disagreeable speech (true or false) ... to be counteracted by training in a heart of friendliness towards one and all.

The Venerable Moliyaphagguna is too attached to the nuns and whenever anyone speaks in dispraise of them he raises a legal issue. He is brought before the Buddha who says this is unworthy behavior of one having gone forth out of faith, and says (my boldface italics):

Wherefore, Phagguna,
even if anyone face to face with you
should speak dispraise of those nuns,
even so should you, Phagguna,
get rid of those which are worldly desires,
those which are worldly thoughts;
and you, Phagguna,
should train yourself thus:

'Neither will my mind become perverted,
nor will I utter an evil speech,
but kindly and compassionate will I dwell
with a mind of friendhness and void of hatred.'

It is thus that you must train youself, Phagguna.

Wherefore, Phagguna,
even if anyone face to face with you
should give a blow with the hand
to these nuns,
should give a blow with a clod of earth,
should give a blow with a stick,
should give a blow with a weapon,
even then, Phagguna,
should you train yourself thus:

'Neither will my mind become perverted,
nor will I utter an evil speech,
but kindly and compassionate will I dwell
with a mind of friendhness and void of hatred.'

It is thus that you must train youself, Phagguna.

This attitude of detachment from what goes on in the world (and by 'world' is meant any form of individualized existence, including in heaven or identification with Brahmā) is extremely important and so totally different than what is taught in virtually every religion in the world that it needs to be brought up again and again. Trying to become a world reforming activist Buddhist is the single biggest mistake being made by people entering the Buddhist Order in these times [Sunday, November 17, 2013 4:29 AM], and it is also at the root of the difference between what is taught in the Pali and what is being taught by the Mahayanist schools.

 

new Saturday, November 09, 2013 5:45 AM[MN 151] Discourse on Complete Purity for Alms-Gathering, Horner translation
A sutta which provides a run-down of most of the major 'dhammas' or groups of concepts central to the Buddha's teaching. These Dhammas are linked to the Glossology section and the result is a useful course of study in the system.

 

new Friday, November 08, 2013 11:29 AM to Sunday, November 17, 2013 4:05 AM [AN 3.58] Tikaṇṇa, Woodward translation
Tikaṇṇa, the brāhman, visits the Buddha and sings the praises of the brāhman 'three-fold lore'. Gotama responds describing the 'three-fold-lore' of the Aristocrats: seeing past lives, seeing the outcomes of kamma, and seeing that one has destroyed the corrupting influences.
[AN 3.80] Abhibhu, Woodward translation

 

new Thursday, October 24, 2013 8:30 AM [AN 10 8] Saddha Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Believer, Woodward translation
[AN 10 9] Santavimokkha Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Blissful, Woodward translation
[AN 10 10] Vijjā Suttaṃ, The Pali
By Knowing, Woodward translation
The Pali is abridged in a way which allows for multiple versions of the missing sections. The BJT has a briefer version than the one used here. The Woodward expansion is based on the more verbose version (based on his suggestion in a footnote).
Three suttas which describe a stepwise method of progression from faith to arahantship. Each slightly different. Since each purports to be a path to Arahantship an equivalence is implied. Your homework is to see if you can see the equivalence. Another challenge is to rationalize the fact that here one sacred cow is left out, there another. For example the Eightfold Path is omitted in all but one of these methods, the jhānas are included in only one. The trick is to let go of any tendency to hang on unyieldingly to terminology while simultaneously being so precise in ones thinking that nothing essential to the process is missing. See also discussion of this same method below for AN 8.71-72. but with eight steps.
[AN 10 11] Senāsana Suttaṃ, The Pali
Lodging, Woodward translation
The Buddha describes five factors in the individual and five factors in his lodging that conduce to rapidly attaining Arahantship.
[AN 10 12] Pañcaŋga Suttaṃ, The Pali
Factors, Woodward translation
Five things to give up and five to develop to be called one who is completely proficient.
[AN 10 13] Fetters, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The Buddha names the ten things which 'yoke' individuals to rebirth [saṃyojana]; five yoking the individual to every possible sort of rebirth including those as an animal, monster, ghost or resident in Hell, but also to this and higher re-births and five yoking one to rebirths in this and higher realms even though one may have seen through the first five. Relates intimately to the conditions necessary to be called a Streamwinner (having seen through the first three of the first five) and to being a Non-returner (having warn down or eliminated most of the last five)
[AN 10 14] Cetokhila Suttaṃ, The Pali
Obstruction, Woodward translation
Five obstructions of the heart that if not abandoned, and five things that twist up the heart that if not uprooted, signal decline in a seeker, but which if abandoned and uprooted signal progress.
[AN 10 16] Āhuneyya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Worshipful, Woodward translation
Ten individuals considered worthy to receive offerings, gifts, signs of respect and who are a peerless opportunity for making good kamma.
[AN 10 17] Warder (a), Woodward translation
Ten things that are protections for the seeker.
[AN 10 18] Dutiya Nāthakaraṇa Suttaṃ, The Pali
Warder (b), Woodward translation
Ten things that are protections for the seeker. Identical to the above but adding the additional protection that having these protections the bhikkhus are inclined to instruct and guide such a seeker.
[AN 10 19] Paṭhama Āriyavāsa Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ariyan Living (a), Woodward translation
A list (in brief) of ten ways in which the Aristocrat (here equal to the Arahant) abides. For the details see the next sutta.
[AN 10 20] Ariyan Living (b), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. A list (in some detail) of ten ways in which the Aristocrat (here equal to the Arahant) abides. There is a strange order of terms here and in the previous sutta, maybe a mistake. Not very important. In the beginning and end both suttas have 'abided, abides, and will abide', (āvasiṃsu, āvasanti, āvasissanti) but just before the end in this sutta is the standard order: 'in the past abided, in the future will abide, and in the present abides'. It is a little strange to see this sort of disagreement.
[AN 10 21] Sīhanāda Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Lion, Woodward translation
The 10 powers of the Tathāgata (One who has 'got it'). Compare with SN 5.52.11-24 where these are powers claimed by Anuruddha, the bhikkhu famed for clairvoyance.
[AN 10 22] Adhivuttipada Suttaṃ, The Pali
Statements of Doctrine, Woodward translation
Identical with AN 10 21 above, but beginning with the statement quoted below.

 


'Whatsoever things, Ānanda,
conduce to realizing the truth
of this or that statement of doctrine,
confidently do I claim,
after thorough comprehension of it,
to teach dhamma about them
in such a way that,
when proficient,
a man shall know of the real that it is,
of the unreal that it is not;
of the mean that it is mean,
of the exalted that it is exalted;
of that which has something beyond it,
that it has something beyond it;
of that which is unsurpassed,
that it is unsurpassed.

For there is the possibility of his knowing
or seeing
or realizing that which can be known,
seen or realized.

This, Ānanda, is knowledge unsurpassable,
the knowledge of this or that thing
as it really is.

Than this knowledge, Ānanda,
there is no other knowledge surpassing it
or more excellent,
I declare.
AN 10.22 Woodward


 

new Thursday, October 24, 2013 8:30 AM [AN 10 23] Kāya Suttaṃ The Pali
With Body, Woodward translation
A categorization by bodily control, control of speech, or by application of wisdom upon seeing them of things which need to be abandoned.
[AN 10 24] Mahā Cunda Suttaṃ, The Pali
Cunda the Great, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The Pali, which existed here previously in abridged form was completely rolled out. The abridgment, which was followed by Woodward, Bhk. Thanissaro and Bhk. Bodhi is in a confused state. It is given as
I, a.b.c...z, II,a,III,b,z;
and should at least have been:
I, a,b,c....z; II, a,b.c....z III, a.b.c....z;
but, I believe it shoud properly be: A,i,ii,iii; B,i,ii,iii. ...Z
I have followed the latter in the unabridgement of both the Pali and Woodward's translation. Just thought you'd like to know.
Cunda puts a twist on the list of things in the previous sutta which upon seeing them need to be abandoned such that he is able to rightfully say he knows Dhamma and has developed bodily control, virtue, heart and wisdom.
[AN 10 25] Kasiṇa Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Devices, Woodward translation
Kasiṇa Olds translation
Enumeration of ten devices used to assist in the development of concentration. My translation puts this series in an entirely new light ... or rather brings them into the light so that those with eyes in their heads that can see can see the object.
[AN 10 28] Dutiya Mahā Pañha Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Great Questions (b), Woodward translation
In an alternate version of the Great 10 Questions, the Kajaŋgala bhikkhunī expands the questions given in brief to a group of lay followers. Her version contains a few answers that differ from those given in the previous sutta [AN 10 27]. This is the set of ten questions on which much of The Pali Line (the introductory course in the Buddhism of the Pali Suttas recommended here) is based. These ten questions can be used in much the same way as the kasina, or concentration device, as a 'theme' of practice. In each individual case it is explicitly stated that thorough comprehension leads to 'the end of dukkha' or Arahantship. The actual experience is that one sees how each of these is of such a nature as to encompass all the rest ... and all the other doctrines of the system.

 


No c'assaṃ,||
no ca me siyā.|| ||

Na bhavissāmi,||
na me bhavissantī|| ||

If Not "Mine"

No 'were that my',
and no 'would that my',
no 'mine' becoming,
no becoming 'my'.

— Mike Olds translation


 

[AN 10 29] The Kosalan (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and the Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The Buddha describes how even the most enduring of phenomena and the most lofty of doctrines are burdened with change and should be regarded with revulsion; he then declares of certain doctrines that if their goals are attained they will provide refuge. Please see If Not "Mine" for some discussion as to the difficulties translators have had with the little ditty quoted above found in this and other suttas. ... and my proposed solution.
[AN 10 30] The Kosalan (a), Woodward translation
Raja Pasenadi pays a visit to the Buddha and shows great respect and enumerates the reasons for his great respect. Woodward notes that this sutta contains statements that would not likely have been known to Raja Pasenadi. This seems an obvious case of tampering by early compilers. Compare this sutta with MN 89 Horner (the much more likely true story). The issue for us is: does it matter? As far as the doctrines contained in the sutta they have no inconsistency with their counterparts in the rest of the suttas (they are in fact mostly verbatum pick-ups). It is distasteful to our sensabilities that the editors should make an explicit claim that this was a true sutta when the fact is insupportable, but the reality is that story telling tradition has always been very liberal in such matters ... right on up to today. In any case, what we should not do is 'throw the baby out with the bath water' and disregard the Dhamma within the sutta as not-dhamma because of a liberty taken by the repeater of the sutta.
[AN 10 31] Upāli Suttaṃ, The Pali
Upāli and the Obligation, Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the reasons for establishing the Patimokkha (the rules of the Order) and about the various reasons for it's suspension. Bhk. Bodhi has the second part of this sutta incorporated into the next sutta.
[AN 10 32] Ubbāhikā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Passing Sentence, Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the qualifications needed for a bhikkhu to be a member of a council concerned with expulsion of a bhikkhu.
[AN 10 33] Upasampadā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Full Ordination, Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the qualifications needed for a bhikkhu to give full ordination.
[AN 10 34] Nisasaya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Tutelage, Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the qualifications needed for a bhikkhu to assign tutelage and to be provided with a novice attendant. The BJT Pali and the Pali used by Bhk. Bodhi have this as two suttas which would make more sense as these are two separate topics. As it is Woodward has possibly been confused by putting them together and has a mixed message in his translation as to whether or not the second part has to do with taking care of a novice or being assigned a novice. In the first case the two suttas would fit together, in the latter, not. A good case for not abridging.
[AN 10 35] Saŋghabheda Suttaṃ, The Pali
Schism in the Order (a), Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expression "breaking up (Creating a Schism in) the Order."
[AN 10 36] Saŋghasāmaggi Suttaṃ, The Pali
Harmony in the Order (a), Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expression "Harmony in the Order."
[AN 10 71] Ākaŋkheyya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Wishing, Woodward translation
Linked to Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The Buddha enumerates 10 frequent wishes of bhikkhus and stresses that to bring them to fruition it is necessary to develop ethical culture following the rules and training principles of the Patimokkha.
[AN 10 83] Puṇṇiya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Puṇṇiya, Woodward translation
Puṇṇiya, asks why it is that sometimes the Buddha will teach and sometimes not. Gotama explains that there are ten factors involved, but that more than the simple ten factors what is needed is to see progress up the ten factors in a bhikkhu. So sometimes a teaching may be given with only some of the factors and other times not when even one is missing. This is the experience of the modern practitioner of the system as well: it gets more demanding the further into it one gets. This sutta looses all it's power and elegance when abridged; here both the Pali and Woodward translation are completely rolled out.

 

new Thursday, October 24, 2013 8:30 AM[AN 6.23] Bhaya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Fear, Hare translation
Six terms that should be considered synonyms for sense pleasures: 'fear', 'pain', 'disease', 'inflammation', 'bondage', and 'swamp.'

 


And how is a monk one who has shaken off individual beliefs?

Herein, monks, whatsoever individual beliefs generally prevail
among the generality of recluses and brahmins,
to wit:

The world is eternal or
The world is not eternal:
The world is finite or
The world is infinite:
What is life,
that is body; or
One thing is life,
another thing is body;
A Tathāgata is beyond death or
A Tathāgata is not beyond death; or,
He both is and is not; or,
He neither is nor is not beyond death, -
all these beliefs of his are given up,
vomited up,
dropped,
abandoned,
and renounced.

That, monks, is how a monk has shaken off individual beliefs.
AN 4.38 Woodward


 

new Tuesday, October 22, 2013 12:58 PM[AN 4.1] Understanding, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. Four reasons beings have been tied to the round of rebirths this long time.
[AN 4.2] Fallen Away, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Four factors that when missing indicate that one has fallen away from the path, when present that one is on the path: ethical conduct, serenity, wisdom, freedom.
[AN 4.21] At Uruvelā (a), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Shortly after his enlightenment Gotama sees no person to whom he should pay reverance and serve. Seeing danger in this situation he decides to place the Dhamma in this position. This sutta is a mixed bag. On the one hand there will be those here today [U.S.A., Saturday, October 26, 2013 6:54 AM] raised on the values of Mark Twain, who will be repelled at the statement:
"For the perfection of the sum total of virtues (serenety, wisdom, freedom) still imperfect I would dwell so doing honour, obeying, reverencing and serving a recluse or brahmin: but not in this world with devas, Maras, Brahmas, not in the host of recluses and brahmins, not in the world of devas and mankind do I behold any other recluse or brahmin more perfect in virtue (serenety, wisdom, freedom) than myself, whom honouring I could dwell reverencing, obeying and serving him."
They will hold that this is an immodest boast which was either not made by Gotama or if made by him shows that he is not what he claims to be. I suggest an alternative understanding: Where this statement reflects the truth, it is not a boast but simply a statement of fact. As such, it forces the hearer into a delimma from which extraction is only possible by a change in values. This change can only come about convincingly through a comprehension of the value of the Four Truths in solving the problem of Pain and Rebirth. So the sutta serves the function of providing a check as to one's real state of understanding: If this statement cannot be accepted, one has not understood the system. Then comes a confirmation of Gotama's decision from Brahmā Sahampati. This, in and of itself, is not the problem. There will be those who cannot accept such a thing. That doesn't matter. There is a way to know, and that is to attain vision. Without vision there is no proving the story so it should be just put to the side if there is doubt.
Brahmā's visit (his second, and we have another in AN 10.89 above) poses another problem (but not one which is impossible to solve!): The Evolution, stasis, and devolution of the universe takes place between the opening and closing of Brahmā's eye. A blink. Putting aside the period of stasis and the period of devolution which our science has not yet come to grips with, that's a third of a blink for the Evolution of the Universe. Let's say that it's a slow blink and comes to 3 seconds, or one second for the Evolution. Let us give our science the benefit of the doubt and accept their estimate of 26 billion years for the Evolution and figure we're right at the end couple of Brahmā-microtrilliseconds. So we have the equation: 1 Brahmā second = 26 billion human years. Let's allow that Brahmā is paying attention to what is going on at the time of the Buddha's awakening. After all it is likely the most interesting thing that is happening, and he does have speaking parts. This part (entry, kneeling, uttering his pronouncement (restricted to the basic statement and tossing out the gāthā) and departing) will take him something like one minute and five seconds human time (that is, if he does not make use of Gotama's ability to 'fast talk' which would speed up things by about 18 times), plus minus, let's say 1 minute.
Now there are 60 sixty minutes in an hour, 24 hours in a day, or 1,440 minutes in a day. 1440 minutes times 365 days times 26,000,000,000 years is 37,440,000,000,000 minutes. (Forget that the Deva year is usually given as only 300 days, we can call that an approximation in a culture where even the educated man was usually unable to count above three.) So what is confronted with in this situation is the need to focus down on what is subjectively, relative to a human, 1/37,440,000,000,000th of a second. On two separate occasions (asking Gotama to teach, and this occasion, if I have not missed others (I have, see above)) in one second. I don't say this is impossible. I say this is possible — I don't know, but suppose Brahmā were able to be a sort of limited omnipresent (able, as with omniscience, to be wherever he wished to be, whenever he wished to be there; there is, in this system, a living outside of time that would permit this. This is a synonym for arahantship, but it may be accessible to non-arahants in a temporary way.) that allowed him to do his bit's here unhindered by time. I just say that this is not going to be something that is done off hand by Brahmā. Not something where he is going to waste words, hang around and chit-chat, show his skill at poetizing or preach to the masses.
[AN 4.22] At Uruvelā (b), Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali. Four things more important than age that make a person an elder.
[AN 4.38] Withdrawn, Woodward translation
Three conditions which must be fulfilled for one to be called 'One who has Withdrawn': having put away personal beliefs, having abandoned ambitions, and having pasified the own-made body. The Buddha defines each of these conditions.
[AN 4.96] Rāgavinaya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Profit of self (a), Woodward translation
[AN 4.97] Khippanisanti Suttaṃ, The Pali
Profit of self (b), Woodward translation
[AN 4.98] Attahita Suttaṃ, The Pali
Profit of self (c), Woodward translation
Types of individuals classed according to whether they are of benefit to themselves only or others only or to both or neither.
[AN 4.118] Saṃvejanīya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Stirring Emotion, Woodward translation
Four places which are looked on with stirring emotion by a believing Buddhist.
[AN 4.119] Bhaya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Fears (a), Woodward translation
Four basic fears.
[AN 4.120] Dutiya Bhaya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Fears (b), Woodward translation
Four basic fears.
[AN 4.141] Ābhā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Splendours, Woodward translation
[AN 4.142] Pabhā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Radiances, Woodward translation
[AN 4.143] Ālokā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Lights, Woodward translation
[AN 4.144] Obhāsā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Brilliance, Woodward translation
Linked to the Bhk. Thanissaro translaion
[AN 4.145] Pajjotā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Lamps, Woodward translation
[AN 4.156] Asaŋkheyya Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Æon, Woodward translation
The evolution, stasis, devolution and stasis of the universe each described as taking a very long time.
[AN 4.161] (Modes of Practice) in Brief, Bhk. Thanissaro translation
[Modes of Progress] In Brief, Woodward translation
The Bhk. Thanissaro translation is from my incarnation as him (if he objects to this and lets me know, I will remove it). It was constructed from his translation of the following sutta on the same subject in detail and which begins with text identical to this sutta. Four ways individuals progress through the system in terms of ease and pleasantness.

Restoration (by w. Simpson) of the Ahin Posh tope. [From the Proceedings of the R.I.B.A.]
Restoration (by w. Simpson) of the Ahin Posh tope. [From the Proceedings of the R.I.B.A.]Rhys Davids, Buddhist India.

[AN 4.245] Thupāraha Suttaṃ, The Pali
Worthy of a Cairn, Woodward translation
Four individuals worthy of an elaborate burial mound. Maybe. There seems to be a problem here between translation, Pali, and commentary.

 

new Tuesday, October 22, 2013 5:49 AM [AN 5.127] Vapakāsa Suttaṃ, The Pali
On Withdrawing, Hare translation
The Buddha gives five things that should be mastered before a bhikkhu goes into seclusion.
[AN 5.169] Khippanisanti Suttaṃ, The Pali
Coming to Know, Hare translation
Quick Witted, Olds, translation,
Five things one should become expert at in order to be quick-witted, handy, of wide knowledge and grasp of things and of retentive memory.
[AN 5.177] Trades, Hare translation
Five trades that should not be taken up by a lay disciple.
[AN 5.205] Cetokhila Suttaṃ, The Pali
Mental Barrenness, Hare translation
Five states of the heart termed 'fallow' (untilled, unplowed, unused, gone to waste, barren) which result in sluggish or no progress.
[AN 5.206] Vinibandha Suttaṃ, The Pali
Mental Bondage, Hare translation
Five things that twist up the heart. Vinibandha Re-down-bond.

 

Before Retiring into Seclusion

Five things which should be mastered before considering retirement into seclusion:

Being content with any clothing.
Being content with any food.
Being content with any lodging.
Being content with any medical treatment.
Having as a principle purpose the elimination of lust.

— Adapted from AN 5.127

 

new Monday, October 21, 2013 6:13 AM[AN 8.52] Bhikkhunovādaka Suttaṃ, The Pali
He Who May Advise, Hare translation
Ānanda asks the Buddha about the qualifications of a bhikkhu who would give instruction.
[AN 8.53] Saŋkhitta Gotamiyovāda Suttaṃ, The Pali
Dhamma in Brief, Hare translation
The Pali was in a confused state and was redone, linked to Bhk. Thanissaro's translation. Mahapajapati Gotami asks the Buddha for an instruction in brief to guide her through a period of intense study that leads to her becomming an arahant. If you find yourself confused about what is and what is not Dhamma or the Practice or the Teaching of the Teacher, this sort of instruction in brief is very helpful for setting things straight.
[AN 8.54] Longknee, the Koḷiyan, Hare translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhks. Narada and Thanissaro translations. The Buddha teaches Longknee four things that are advantageous and make for happiness here, and four things that are advantageous and lead to happiness hereafter.
[AN 8.55] Ujjaya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ujjaya, the Brāhman, Hare translation
The Buddha teaches Ujjaya four things that are advantageous and make for happiness here, and four things that are advantageous and lead to happiness hereafter.
[AN 8.56] Bhaya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Fear, Hare translation
Eight terms that should be considered synonyms for sense pleasures: 'fear', 'pain', 'disease', 'inflammation', 'hook', 'bondage', 'swamp', and 'in-wombed (as in entombed, that is doomed ... to resume).'
[AN 8.57] Paṭhama Āhuneyyabhikkhu Suttaṃ, The Pali
Those Worthy of Offerings (a), Hare translation
Eight attainments which make a bhikkhu worthy to receive offerings, gifts, signs of respect and make him a peerless opportunity for making good kamma.
[AN 8.58] Dutiya Āhuneyyabhikkhu Suttaṃ, The Pali
Those Worthy of Offerings (b), Hare translation
Eight attainments which make a bhikkhu worthy to receive offerings, gifts, signs of respect and make him a peerless opportunity for making good kamma. Partly different from the previous.
[AN 8.59] Paṭhama Aṭṭhapuggala Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Eight Persons (a), Hare translation
Four pairs of individuals worthy to receive offerings, gifts, signs of respect and who are each a peerless opportunity for making good kamma. This group here is in the gatha called 'the sangha of upright living' (Esa sangho ujubhūto), and it is interesting to note that very frequently, if not always, Gotama, when referring to 'the Sangha' qualifies his statement with the definition of such as these four, thus defining the Sangha more in terms of accomplishment than in terms of membership in the worldly order.
[AN 8.60] Dutiya Aṭṭhapuggala Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Eight Persons (b), Hare translation
Four pairs of individuals worthy to receive offerings, gifts, signs of respect and who are each a peerless opportunity for making good kamma. Identical with the previous sutta except here in the gatha the sangha is called 'the sangha of "exalted" beings, eight men' (Esa saŋgho samukkaṭṭho sattānaṃ aṭṭha puggalā). In my version of the BJT Pali this sutta is in an especially mangled section which has this line as: "Esa saŋgho andubhuto..." the sangha of the blind!" Some bhikkhu proofreader having a little dangerous fun?
[AN 8.61] Icchā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Hankering, Hare translation
The Buddha deliniates the difference in attitude of eight sorts of persons who still wish for possessions, pointing out that it is the reaction with sorrow or joy to failure or success in their wishes that indicates that one has fallen from the path and the non-reaction with sorrow or joy that indicates that the other is still on the path.
[AN 8.62] Alaṃ Suttaṃ, The Pali
Enough, Hare translation
Six factors which, depending on their presence or absense in a person in eight combinations make for sufficiency in being of benefit to either the self or others or both. This sutta has two characteristics which are interesting. First is that it is another of the sort which come across as mental exercises: it really stretches the attention to keep track. I really hope that seeing some of these suttas completely rolled out brings home this idea that what we have here in this sort of sutta is an enjoyable challenging way to learn Dhamma...not to mention the benefits in strengthening the memory. The second characteristic found in this sutta is the fact that it is one which is very encouraging to even those whose grasp of the Dhamma is somewhat slender while at the same time points to the path to improvement.
[AN 8.63] Saŋkhittadesita Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Pali for this sutta which existed here in the BJT version was proofed against the PTS and rolled out. The Hare and Bhk. Thanissaro translations already exist on this site. This is a very interesting sutta because it gives a step-by-step instruction in meditation practice. It is notable here that while the factors of jhāna are stated, they are all just classed under 'samādhi' ('serenity'; Hare, Bhk. Thanisaro, Bhk. Bodhi: 'concentration'; which is not a good translation) and are not put in the usual 1-4 grouping and the term 'jhāna' is not mentioned. The method for transitioning out of vitakka and vicāra is inidicated here in a way that is only found in a few suttas: that is, by abandoning one, then the other. Also interesting in this sutta is the way serenity practice is combined with the satipaṭṭānās.
[AN 8.64] Adhideva-ñāṇadassana Suttaṃ, The Pali
At Gayā, Hare translation
A valuable sutta for those interested in the development of the 'Devine Eye' or clairvoyance. Gotama provides a step-by step progression from the seeing of vague lights, to seeing the forms of beings, to associating with them and conversing with them, to learning of various sorts of information about them to knowing whether or not one had one's self at some time been one of them.
This is also a detailed presentation of the cultivation of serenity based on 'light' which is said to be the samadhi most conducive to yielding knowledge and vision. Begin by 'looking at' the vague lights one sees when the eyes are partially closed. Without thinking about the lights, track the lights. The best practice is to not 'focus down,' but to repeatedly glance at, as one does not generally 'focus down' on things in normal seeing, but glances at things. Overcome the obstacle of delight or surprise, or fear, or attachment to the phenomena or pride in the accomplishment when the vague lights become clearly distinguishable shapes, when the shapes become beings, when the beings become pictures, when the pictures become stories, etc.
The Hare translation made the best of a confused PTS Pali which was, as we have it, abridged without so indicating and was a mess, the BJT Pali was similarly messed up. I have put the Pali into the form I believe was originally intended and have reconstructed Hare's translation accordingly. You've been told.
[AN 8.65] Abhibhāyatana Suttaṃ, The Pali
Mastery, Hare translation
The Spheres of Mastery Over Fear, Olds translation
The Buddha describes how to recognize that one has mastered fear in eight fundamental situations [Olds] or how to recognize eight situations in which one is to overcome bias [also Olds, in DN 33.8.10] or he teaches of eight spheres over which one is to attain mastery (the nature of which is not explained) [Hare, or Olds without reading the footnote] or he teaches eight perceptions overcoming the defects of the kasinas [Bodhi (not given)], or he teaches eight paths to jhana access [Rhys Davids; DN 33.8; as with Bhk. Bodhi, based on commentary]. Take your pick, though I think my latest here is the closest to the Pali and makes more sense than anything done so far in revealing this most mysterious set of experiences which appear here and there throughout the suttas.
[AN 8.66] Vimokkha Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Deliverances, Hare translation
The Releases, Olds translation
Eight progressively more encompassing releases from this world.
[AN 8.67] Anariyavohāra Suttaṃ, The Pali
Un-Ariyan Practices, Hare translation
[AN 8.68] Ariyavohāra Suttaṃ, The Pali
Un-Ariyan Practices, Hare translation
Two suttas deliniating the scope of dishonest and honest speech.
[AN 8.69] Parisa Suttaṃ, The Pali
Assemblies, Hare translation
The Buddha delineates eight assemblies of beings and tells how he has visited each and there became like unto them in color, like unto them in manner and there taught them Dhamma and they knew him not.
[AN 8.70] Bhumicāla Suttaṃ, The Pali
Earthquakes, Hare translation
The Buddha states that he is able to extend his lifespan to the end of the evolution of the world. He states this three times but Ananda does not take the hint to ask him to do so. Mara rejoyces but overplays his hand, pushing for the Buddha to enter PariNibbana immediately. The Buddha tells Mara not to be impatient for he will do so within three months thereby renouncing the remainder of his lifespan possible. At this statement there is a world-shaking earthquake. Then Ananda asks about the causes of such earthquakes and Gotama explains the eight causes. A hard sutta for those grounded in modern science to accept. An interesting thing in this regard is the description of the first cause of such a quake which is more or less what we might call a 'normal' quake. In this it is stated that the earth is situated (stands) on water, the water on air and that when the air becomes disturbed, it disturbes the water which disturbes the earth. Our history books record the idea of the earth being on water as ancient ignorant myth. But if the translation of 'water' is it's other meaning as 'liquid' and if the translation of 'air' is as it's other meaning as 'motion'. We could then see that the statement is that the earth's mantal rests on liquid and that when such things as solar flairs and cosmic winds disturb the magnetic field ... . Well ... the scientists will immediately say that it isn't the liquid strata that causes quakes, but the plates rubbing against each other. But what causes their movement? The other causes are much more mystical. ... but what causes the solar winds? Etc.
[AN 8.71] Paṭhama Samantapāsādika Suttaṃ, The Pali
Faith (a), Hare translation
A stepwise method of progression from faith to arahantship.
[AN 8.72] Dutiya Samantapāsādika Suttaṃ, The Pali
Faith (b), Hare translation
A stepwise method of progression from faith to arahantship. Identical with AN 8.71 above but with the deliverances substituted for the four jhanas. What is the significance of this? First one must understand that the deliverances are not 'the final deliverance' as in Nibbana. In both the case of the jhanas and the deliverances, Nibbana is attained upon conscious realization of liberation. Upekkah (detachment), or the fourth jhana (or any state of detachment above involvement with sense pleasures), or the perception of the ending of sense experience, are in and of themselves not enough. The factors that would bring such detached or liberated states to an end and result in re-entry or rebirth, that is, the āsavas, or corrupting influences, must be brought to and end and seen to have been completely eliminated. So what is being said in these suttas is that one uses the detached state of the jhana, or the released state of the deliverances, first working on the ending of the asavas and then attaining freedom from them, and realizing one has got free, one is free.
[AN 8.73] Paṭhama Maraṇasati Suttaṃ, The Pali
Mindfulness of Death (a), Hare translation
A sutta which illustrates the extreme degree of concentration required to be considered careful mindfulness — in this case, of death.
[AN 8.74] Dutiya Maraṇasati Suttaṃ, The Pali
Mindfulness of Death (b), Hare translation
A detailed exposition of the 'mindfulness of death' practice.
[AN 8.75] Paṭhama Sampadā Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Achievements (a), Hare translation
A list of eight achievements helpful for evaluating one's progress in the system.
[AN 8.76] Dutiya Sampadā Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Achievements (b), Hare translation
A list of eight achievements helpful for evaluating one's progress in the system, with detailed explanation of each.
[AN 8.77] Icchā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Hankering, Hare translation
The Buddha deliniates the difference in attitude of eight sorts of persons who still wish for possessions, pointing out that it is the reaction with sorrow or joy to failure or success in their wishes that indicates that one has fallen from the path and the non-reaction with sorrow or joy that indicates that the other is still on the path. Identical with AN 8.61, but spoken by Venerable Sāriputta
[AN 8.78] Alaṃ Suttaṃ, The Pali
Enough, Hare translation
Six factors which, depending on their presence or absense in a person in eight combinations make for sufficiency in being of benefit to either the self or others or both. Identical with AN 8.62, but spoken by Venerable Sāriputta
[AN 8.79] Sekhaparihāniya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Failure, Hare translation
Eight conditions which conduce to failure for a bhikkhu in training; eight which conduce to success. Applies just as well to anyone interested in awakening.
[AN 8.81] Satisampajañña Suttaṃ, The Pali
Mindfulness, Hare translation
How a progression of interdependent steps from paying attention to memory to knowing and seeing freedom fails when paying attention to memory is missing and succeeds when it is present.
[AN 8.82] Puṇṇiya Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Venerable Puṇṇiya,, Hare translation
Punniya, asks why it is that sometimes the Buddha will teach and sometimes not. Gotama explains that there are eight factors involved, but that more than the simple eight factors what is needed is to see progress up the eight factors in a bhikkhu. So sometimes a teaching may be given with only some of the factors and other times not when even one is missing. Identical with AN 10.83 Woodward, with fewer factors.
[AN 8.84] Mahā Coraŋga Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Highwayman, Hare translation
Eight things that if a bandit does them shortens his career or if he refrains from them lengthens his career. This sutta does more than just show compassion even for the bandit, the principles enumerated can be generalized out to other careers, for example, to politicians.
[AN 8.85] Tathāgatādhivacana Suttaṃ, The Pali
Recluse, Hare translation
Eight terms that can be considered synonyms for the Buddha or Tathāgata, or Arahant.
[AN 8.87] Pattanikkujjana Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Bowl, Hare translation
Eight reasons the Sangha may 'overturn the bowl' (refuse to accept food or other gifts) of a lay disciple. A terrible punishment in the light of a belief in kamma and the rarity of the opportunity to give to the 'peerless field for making merit' which is the Sangha.
[AN 8.88] Appasādappasāda Suttaṃ, The Pali
Disapproval, Hare translation
Turn about is fair play. Eight reasons laymen may express disapproval of a bhikkhu.
[AN 8.89] Paṭisāraṇiyakamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Expiation, Hare translation
A layman having brought a complaint against a bhikkhu, the Sangha may meet and impose a punishment of expiation against the bhikkhu or it may elect to cancel the proceedings if he is found innocent of the offense.
[AN 8.90] Tassapāpiyyasikā Sammāvattana Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Proper Practice, Hare translation
Eight sanctions which may be imposed on a bhikkhu by the sangha if he is found guilty of an offense. This sutta seems to me, because of it's nature as vinaya, could be very old, possibly composed prior to the formal putting together of the vinaya rules.
[AN 8.91] Aṭṭhamaggaŋga Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Understanding of Passion (a), Hare translation
Eight things which must be developed for the complete understanding of passion. This is the "Noble Eightfold Path" [Ariya Aṭṭhaŋgika Magga,] but apparently before it became known as that. Here it is simply called the 'Eight-Way' sutta. Additionally it is interesting that the familiar Noble Eightfold Path is not otherwise included among the eights.
[AN 8.92] Abhibhāyatana Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Understanding of Passion (b), Hare translation
The Spheres of Mastery Over Passion, Olds translation
[AN 8.93] Aṭṭhavimokkha Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Understanding of Passion (c), Hare translation
The Spheres of Deliverance from Passion, Olds translation
Almost identical to AN 8.66 above.
[AN 8.94-120] Rāgassa group continued, The Pali. Pariññāya, parikkhayāya, pahānāya, khayāya, vayāya, virāgāya, nirodhāya, cāgāya, paṭinissaggāya, played off against Aṭṭhamaggaŋga, Abhibhāyatana and Aṭṭhavimokkha. Abridged except for the first set as pattern.
The Passion group continued, Hare translation. Comprehension, exhaustion, abandonment, destruction decay, freedom from desire for, ending of quittance, and renunciation, played off against the 'Eight-way', The Spheres of Mastery, and the Eight Deliverances. Abridged except for the first set as pattern.
[AN 8.121-600] Rāgādipeyyālaṃ continued, The Pali.
The Repetition group continued, Hare translation.
Mostly abridged, giving titles and numbers. The first three are unabridged showing the pattern for the rest.
This completes the reformatting and inclusion on this site of the entire PTS Hare translation of the Book of the Eights along with the Pali and other translations where available.

 


Monday, October 21, 2013


 

new Wednesday, October 16, 2013 9:27 AM [SN 3.22.53] Upaya Suttaṃ The Pali
Attachment, Woodward translation
Taking Up, Olds translation
Linked to the Warren and Bhk. Thanissaro translations. The Pali has been completely re-worked to reconcile it with the PTS version. This is one of the few cases where I have seen a difference in versions of the Pali that could make a significant difference in understanding the message of a sutta. My new translation is my statement as to how I think it should be. There is a little bit of comedy here at the end where the various translators struggle with the fact that in the Pali there is a sequence using 'attā' or 'self': vimuttattā ṭhitaṃ ṭhitattā santusitaṃ, santusitattā na paritassati where they have used 'it' for 'self', so they have consciousness walking around liberated, steady, content, not troubled, and become cool. This is not technically wrong, but there needs to be some relaxation in the use of conventional speech in such cases. The beggar is being told about how to attain liberation, so there is no real problem about speaking of him, or his self, as having attained it. I have my own suggested solution as to how to handle this. This is really a sutta that deals with The First Lesson; food. Here consciousness is shown as being dependent on a person's attachment to and taking up of form, sensation, perception, own-making and consciousness, and when that attachment is let go, how that takes the rug out from under consciousness and results in liberation.

 

new Sunday, October 13, 2013 6:13 AM [MN 50] Discourse On A Rebuke To Māra, Horner translation
Linked to the Pali and Sister Upalavana translation. Mara tries to upset Maha Moggallāna and is told of Maha Moggallāna's own experience as Mara attempting to upset bhikkhus where he ends up in Niraya with the body of a man and the head of a fish boiling for many hundreds of thousands of years. The gatha at the end is about as close to an old-time curse as is found in Buddhism.
[MN 84] Discourse at Madhura, Horner translation
The Madhurā Sutta Concerning Caste
Both linked to the Pali and Sister Upalavana translation. King Avantiputta of Madhura has heard a boast by the brahmins that they were superior to all other peoples. He asks Venerable Kaccana the Great about this and receives a discourse showing that this is a lot of hot air. A very good example of the use of questions to bring about understanding in a questioner. The Chalmers translation is very early but is hardly distinguishable from the later translaions. He provides an interesting introduction.
[MN 37] Lesser Discourse on the Destruction of Craving, Horner translation
A well-known and much loved sutta. Sakka, Ruler of the Devas, visits the Buddha and asks about the scope of understanding required of one to be able to know he is arahant. The Buddha instructs him, but Maha Moggallana, who was listening, doubts it has sunk in and visits Sakka in the Tavatimsa Realm. There he is put off with frivolities and in order to rouse Sakka to seriousness Maha Moggallana shakes Sakka's palace with his big toe. With his hair standing on end, Sakka gets down to business.

 

new Saturday, October 12, 2013 9:50 AMThe Last Seven Buddhas A table giving some information about the past seven buddhas and a longer list of the 24 Buddhas preceding Gotama.

 

new Friday, October 11, 2013 5:29 PMThe Sutra of the Forty-two Sections A very early (c A.D. 64), possibly the first work on the Dhamma translated into Chinese. As the English translator of the document mentions, this is not a known old (Pali) 'sutta' and it is not a Mahayana document. It reflects the Dhamma as we have it in the Pali. It looks like a 'quick summary'.

 

new Friday, October 11, 2013 7:21 AM [AN 4.193] Bhaddiya, Woodward translation
A parallel to AN 3.65. Bhaddiya reports a rumor that Gotama knows a spell that converts followers of other sects. In stead of denying the rumor, Gotama teaches Dhamma to Bhaddiya who is converted by the logic. Then Gotama asks him if he cast a spell on him. A wonderful sutta for showing Gotama's teaching skills.

 

new Thursday, October 10, 2013 4:36 PM Index to the Khuddakapāṭha Suttas.

 

new Thursday, October 10, 2013 9:29 AM [AN 3.65] Those of Kesaputta, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhks. Thanissaro and Soma translations. A famous sutta, better known as 'The Kalama Sutta' or 'The Discourse to the Kalamas'. The Kalamas, bewildred by contradictory claims as to whose Dhamma is the best, ask Gotama for his advice. His famous reply (in Woodward's words):

Be not misled by proficiency in the collections,
nor by mere logic or inference,
nor after considering reasons,
nor after reflection on and approval of some theory,
nor because it fits becoming,
nor out of respect for a recluse (who holds it).

But, Kālāmas, when you know for yourselves:

These things are unprofitable,
these things are blameworthy,
these things are censured by the intelligent;
these things, when performed and undertaken,
conduce to loss and sorrow

But if at any time ye know of yourselves:

These things are profitable,
they are blameless,
they are praised by the intelligent:
these things, when performed and undertaken,
conduce to profit and happiness, -

then, Kālāmas, do ye, having undertaken them
abide therein.

 

new Wednesday, October 09, 2013 9:11 AM The Eighteen Schools of Buddhism by Vasumitra The author reproduces a strange work of the 'forecasting the past' sort. For those who are curious.

 

new Wednesday, October 09, 2013 4:46 AM [AN 6.37] Alms, Hare translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The three elements on the part of the giver and the three elements on the part of the receiver that go into the making of a gift of incalculably rich results.

 

new Tuesday, October 08, 2013 2:19 PM [AN 5.45] Puññābhisanda Suttaṃ, The Pali
Yields in Merit, Hare translation.
Five gifts that when given to a bhikkhu who is able to attain unbounded serenity yield incalculably rich results. This sutta serves the double purpose of encouraging the layman to give and to admonish the bhikkhus to be worthy to receive. It illustrates the fact that the consequences of kamma do not rely solely on the actor.
[AN 5.56] Upajjhāya Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Preceptor, Hare translation.
A bhikkhu is discouraged and has become befuddled. Taken to the Buddha by his preceptor he is given instructions as to how to practice and becomes an Arahant.
[AN 5.220] Madhurā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Madhurā, Hare translation.
Five disadvantages of Madhurā

 

new Tuesday, October 08, 2013 8:42 AM [AN 4.51] Paṭhama Puññābhisanda Suttaṃ The Pali
Flood of Merit (to Laymen) (a), Woodward translation.
Four gifts that when given to a bhikkhu who is able to attain unbounded serenity yield incalculably rich results. This sutta serves the double purpose of encouraging the layman to give and to admonish the bhikkhus to be worthy to receive. It illustrates the fact that the consequences of kamma do not rely solely on the actor.

 

new Tuesday, October 08, 2013 6:38 AM [SN 5.55.31] Flood (a), Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro's translation.
A sutta describing the flood of good consquences following from trust in the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha and the ethical standards of the Aristocrats.

 

new Wednesday, October 02, 2013 6:31 AM [SN 5.47.11] Mahapuriso Suttaṃ
The Superman, Woodward translation.
The Great Man, Olds translation, Anuruddha asks about the Great Man and the Buddha explains that one should be called a Great Man only if he has attained freedom of heart. He explains that this is attained by way of the four satipatthanas. Woodward uses the term 'superman' when he did not need to and then it looks like he tried to dissassociate it from it's then current use by the Nazis. Possibly an attempt to short circuit misunderstandings. In fact Hitler was aware of Buddhism and obviously borrowed that term from that source and made use of it in his racial propaganda. It is clear in the suttas however, that in the same way as the word Ariyan does stand for the race, it is it's meaning as 'Aristocratic' in mind and behavior that is the use to which it is put in Gotama's system, so the word MahāPurisas, stands for qualities attained through understanding and behavior and not the natural attributes of a race. The Ayya called themselves Ariyans in a similar way that many peoples around the world call their tribes 'The People'.

 


Gain and loss, honor and dishonor,
Praise and blame, pleasure and pain;
Impermanent, human conditions ... ending things;
things vulnerable to reversal!
Recognizing and reflecting, the wise consider these:
things vulnerable to reversal!
 
By the pleasant not stirred up in heart,
nor by unpleasantries repulsed,
Tranquilized, gone past all that,
neither collaborating nor resisting,
Walking the path free of lust, sorrowless,
knowing the highest knowing
passed beyond.
AN 8.005


 

new Monday, September 23, 2013 5:44 AM[AN 8.1] Mettānisaṃsa Suttaṃ, The Pali
Amity, Hare translation.
[AN 8.2] Insight, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. Eight conditions to be developed which conduce to great wisdom and the respect of fellow seekers.
[AN 8.3] Paṭhama Piya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Qualities not Endearing (a), Hare translation.
Eight conditions which prevent one from being liked and respected by one's fellow seekers and the converse which conduce to being liked and respected by them.
[AN 8.4] Dutiya Piya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Qualities not Endearing (b), Hare translation.
Eight conditions which prevent one from being liked and respected by one's fellow seekers and the converse which conduce to being liked and respected by them.
[AN 8.5] Worldly Failings (a), Hare translation.
[AN 8.6] Worldly Failings (b), Hare translation.
This sutta and the previous deal with the eight broad categories into which all worldly activity can be classified and which, if thoroughly understood lead one to dispassion for the world. One answer to the Eighth Question. In the second sutta the distinction is made between the attitudes of the common man towards these eight conditions and the attitude towards them of the student of the Aristocrats.
Linked to the Pali and to the Olds, and Bhk. Thanissaro translations.
[AN 8.7] Devadattavipatti Suttaṃ, The Pali
Devadatta, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The Buddha gives eight things which should be periodically reviewed to insure one is on track. The fate of Devadatta is given as an example of how badly things can go wrong if one is neglegant in regard to these things.

 


'Monks, well it is for a monk to review,
from time to time,
his own faults;
well it is for a monk to review,
from time to time,
another's faults;
well it is for a monk to review,
from time to time,
his own attainments;
well it is for a monk to review,
from time to time,
another's attainments.
AN 8.007


 

[AN 8.8] Uttara Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Venerable Uttara, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. Venerable Uttara is teaching the bhikkhus that it is well from time to time to review one's own faults and from time to time to review the faults of others. This is overheard by Vesavana who reports the fact to Sakka, King of the Gods. Sakka visits Uttara and asks him if the saying was original with him and Uttara replies that whatsoever is well said is heard from the Buddha. Sakka then repeats to him the entire episode of it's original utterance by Gotama in AN 8.7. and commends him to remember it as an integral factor in the holy life.
[AN 8.10] Kāraṇḍava Suttaṃ, The Pali
Sweepings, Hare translation.
The Buddha gives three similes for the good reasons to eject a corrupt bhikkhu.
[AN 8.13] Ājañña Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Thoroughbred, Hare translation.
The Buddha gives eight ways in which a thoroughbred horse and a worthy bhikkhu share similar traits.
[AN 8.14] The Excitable, Hare translation.
The Buddha gives eight ways in which excitable bhikkhus react like excitable horses when reproved.
[AN 8.15] Mala Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Stains, Hare translation.
The Buddha gives eight imperfections found in eight different things.
[AN 8.16] Dūteyya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Messages, Hare translation.
Four pairs of qualities which make a person worthy to carry messages.
[AN 8.17-18] A Woman's Toils and A Man's Hold, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation. Two suttas describing the tricks women and men use to ensnare each other.
[AN 8.19] Pahārāda Suttaṃ, The Pali
Pahārāda. the Assura Hare translation.
Gotama holds a conversation with an eminant Assura [Monster] and contrasts the eight things held to be delightful to them to eight things delightful to the bhikkhus.
[AN 8.20] Uposatha Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Observance Day Hare translation.
The episode depicting the circumstances causing the Buddha to refrain thereafter from leading the bhikkhus in the recitation of the Patimokkha: the ejection of a deceitful bhikkhu by Mahā Moggallāna. The episode is followed by a repetition to the bhikkhus of the preceding sutta [AN 8.019].
[AN 8.22] Hatthigāmaka Ugga Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ugga of Hatthigāma Hare translation.
The lay follower, Ugga, of Hatthigāma, is spoken of as having eight wonders associated with him, one of which was that he was a Non-returner. This is the same Ugga about whom it was said: "At the top, Beggars, of those of my Upasakas who serves the Order is Uggato gahapati." — [AN 1 254]
[AN 8.23] Hatthaka of Āḷavī Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The lay follower Hatthaka of Āḷavī (a) is spoken of as having seven wonders associated with him. Upon being told such he expresses concern as to whether laymen were present when it was said. Thereafter he is praised as haveing eight wonders associated with him, the eighth being modesty.
[AN 8.24] Hatthaka of Āḷavī (b) Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The lay follower Hatthaka of Alavi describes how he has managed to gather together a great following using the Buddha's four methods for creating alliances; the Buddha then praises Hatthaka as having eight wonders associated with him.

 


 

The Four Methods for Making Alliances

Gifts
Kind words (speaking well of people)
Making one's self useful
Treating all alike according to the same standard
— Olds, translation, see also: AN 4 32; AN 8 24

 


 

[AN 8.25] Mahānamā, the Sakyan Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Kumara Bhikkhu translation. Mahānamā, the Sakyan inquires about the factors that go into the making of a good lay disciple.
[AN 8.29] Akkhaṇa Suttaṃ, The Pali
Untimely, Hare translation.
Eight times when one's rebirth is not best suited (timely) for leading the godly life. Although the optimal time for rebirth is during the lifetime of a Buddha and where one would be able to come into face-to-face contact with him and be of sufficient wits to listen and recognize what was well said as well said, and to seize the opportunity, our time [Tuesday, October 01, 2013 11:27 AM] and our place [the outlying countries, among unintelligent barbarians] is still a good time since the Buddha's teaching is still available even here.
[AN 8.30] The Venerable Anuruddha, Hare translation.
The Hare translation existed previously here only as a short extract, this is a fully rolled-out version. Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. An elegant sutta describing the instructions given Anuruddha which lead to his becoming an arahant. There is also a deep lesson here on the use of psychic power. Gotama first visits Anuruddha by way of 'astral travel' (giving him by this a shock to his system to bring his higher mental powers into play) having overheard him with his supernatural hearing, congratulates him on his thoughts (the seven thoughts of a Great Man), rehearses them with him and instructs him in the attainment of the jhānas, and upon returning rehearses the whole lesson in detail with the bhikkhus. The thing to 'see' is Anuruddha 'hearing' as Gotama rehearses the seven thoughts in detail with the bhikkhus. In this sutta (page 158) there is a definition of set up 'sati' (upaṭṭhitasati) the state achieved by 'satipaṭṭhana' (the setting up of sati) which should be noted by everyone practicing that method, that is (Hare's translation): 'he is endowed in the highest degree with intentness of mind and discrimination; he recollects and calls to mind both the doings and the sayings of long ago' or as in AN 7.4 pg 3: 'he minds and reminds'. — Whereas mindfulness and paying attention are aspects of the practice of setting up sati, the state achieved does not put the emphasis on 'attention' but on the memory. For 'paying attention' we have 'guarding the senses.' So the practice of one who has mastered these two basics is: paying attention to the events occuring at the doors of the senses and using the memory to evaluate those events to the point where they are seen as transient, essentially painful, and not-self at which point there is serenity (samādhi, the peace of detachment) and recognizing this detachment as freedom, freedom. The information is here. The method is well taught. What should be done for you by a teacher, friends, has been done. Getting something from that is up to you. Find your place to be alone, meditate! Do not regret hereafter!
[AN 8.31] Dāna Suttaṃ, The Pali
On giving (a), Hare translation.
Giving, Olds translation.
Eight generic ways giving is done.
[AN 8.32] Dutiya Dāna Suttaṃ, The Pali
On giving (b), Hare translation.
Giving 2, Olds translation.
A little ditty. No nidana. No wonder.
[AN 8.33] Dānavatthu Suttaṃ, The Pali
Grounds for Giving, Hare translation.
Habits of Giving, Olds translation.
Eight habitual ways people give, or eight grounds for giving. You decide. Could be eight habitual grounds for giving.
[AN 8.34] Khettupama Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Field, Hare translation.
The characteristics of an unproductive field contrasted with the characteriscs of a person where gifts when given are not very productive followed by the converse field and person.
[AN 8.35] Dānūpapatti Suttaṃ, The Pali
Rebirths Due to Gifts, Hare translation.
Eight rebirths resulting from the aspirations made by virtuous givers of gifts to those who live the godly life. Seven are to 'lower heavenly realms' (for some the idea of a life lasting millions of years with exclusively pleasant sensations may seem attractive). If you believe in kamma (or even if you don't and want to cover your bets) and can manage to govern your life without lies, theft, intentional injury to living beings, and can keep away from messing with other people's mates or wards, make gifts to virtuous bhikkhus when you get the opportunity. The aspirations of the virtuous prosper because of their clarity! Aspiration for rebirth with Brahma takes a little more work: some degree of serenity (above worldly lusts, i.e., the first jhāna) and the development of the four godly thoughts. Form an 'aspiration' this way: "Let me (or 'May I'), as a consequence of this gift, be reborn among..." These are all rebirths for those whose minds 'are set on lower things.' The higher things are Streamwinning, Once Returning, Non-returning and Arahantship.
[AN 8.36] Puññakiriyavatthu Suttaṃ, The Pali
Action, Hare translation.
Puññakiriyavatthu. Meritorious-action-(habit or ground). Eight outcomes from the performance of meritorous action graded as to extent of the giving and virtuous behavior involved.
[AN 8.37] Sappurisadāna Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Worthy Man (a), Hare translation.
Eight considerations or manners of giving of the good man praised by seers (Vipassino).
[AN 8.38] Sappurisa Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Worthy Man (b), Hare translation.
Eight benefits the birth of a good man brings into the world.
This sutta speaks of the birth of the good man being of benefit to his slaves. There will be those who say such a person could not be a good man, that this condones slavery, and that therefore Buddhism condones slavery, and that the Buddha condoned slavery. I have heard these ideas said.
To understand this from the point of view of the Dhamma, one must bring to the forefront two ideas: The first is that beings are responsible for their own conditions as a consequence of their previous actions: kamma. This is fundamental to the understanding of Buddhism and if this idea cannot be seen or understood in theory, then it must be taken on trust for any of the rest of the doctrine to be comprehensible. It is not that many of the doctrines of the system will not be of benefit whether or not one believes in kamma, it is that without the idea of kamma they are stripped of the logical basis which makes Buddhism otherwise so acceptable to the rational mind. Giving, for example, is beneficial whatever one believes, but without the idea that it produces good results for the self in consequence, it lacks rationality. The idea that beings are responsible for their situations makes the idea of trying to alter the situations of others other than by the attempt to educate them to the benefits of skillful behavior, absurd. If the external form of slavery were abolished (which it has not been, in spite of great effort and much blodshed) beings whose kamma would otherwise result in slavery would find themselves enslaved in other ways. The second thing to be understood in this matter is that the goal of the Dhamma is the complete abandoning of the world. It is not, as many would try to say, to save the world for worldly living or to make good kamma. The goal is to escape kamma. The Buddha does not waste his time on the impossible. The Arahant has no more attachment to the beliefs held in the world than does the theater goer who sees a play in which some of the characters are slaves and some advocate slavery, or the nature-lover who admires the wild-life without judging the carnage that actually occurs in the wild.
When asked, Gotama states that no man should sell himself into slavery, or sell human beings (AN 5.177). Further there can be no question that he does not advocate forcefully taking people as prisoners into slavery. And it is explicitly stated that a man should not deal in the sale of human beings. Those statements cover the issues relevant to the goal.
The nature of the detachment of the Arahant is that when not asked directly about something, to judge, or speak out about it, (let alone take action) would be involvement and such a thing down to the smallest movement conceivable, would not be possible: he is completely detached and thinks only of what leads to the goal in abstract terms.
The arahant can respond about issues if asked directly and where the issue concerns the goal, because, as with the character in a play or movie, that is his role as long as the body remains. To speak out spontaneously about the evils of slavery would be interference indicating attachment and it would be of such a nature as would cause unpleasantness (think of the Civil War in the U.S.A., for an example — the Buddhist is as concerned about not creating unpleasantness for the bad guy as for the good guy) and would be about something that does not lead to the goal.
Such behavior as is advocated is advocated by example. And here the example is the 'attendant' that elders often had. Such a bhikkhu attends on his teacher without pay, and voluntarily and considers it an honor. Where is the difference then between that and the man who has sold himself into slavery? Just words and attitudes. This is not a topic that can be spoken of, for or against, beyond a certain point, as one that leads to the goal or prevents one from attaining the goal. There are shades of understanding.
Conversely, when speaking of a topic it is dealt with objectively whether or not the secondary issues are problematic: a good man will benefit his slaves, whether or not slavery is right or wrong.
Then there is reading this sutta carefully. It in no way precludes that the benefit to the slave of the good man being born might be that the good man frees the slave. Or, if a man had sold himself into slavery because he was unable to make a living otherwise, to treat him as a man who worked for room and board. So it would be going too far to say that this sutta advocated slavery, or that by it the Buddha, or Buddhism advocated slavery, or that the sutta misguides in it's description of the good man.
[AN 8.39] Yields, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
A sutta describing the bountiful harvest of good consquences following from trust in the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha and the ethical standards of the Aristocrats
[AN 8.44] Vāseṭṭhuposatha Suttaṃ, The Pali
Vāseṭṭha, Hare translation.
Vāseṭṭha is told of the eight attributes of the Upasatha and remarks as to how much it would benefit others to so pracice.
[AN 8.45] Bojjhuposatha Suttaṃ, The Pali
Bojjhā, Hare translation.
Bojjhā is told of the eight attributes of the Upasatha.
[AN 8.46] Anuruddhamanāpakāyika Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Venerable Anuruddha, Hare translation.
The Venerable Anuruddha is visited by a group of goddeses who perform various entertaining magic feats. Afterwards he asks Gotama about the characteristics of women who are born as goddesses of lovely form.
[AN 8.47] Visākhamanāpakāyika Suttaṃ, The Pali
Visākhā, Hare translation.
The Buddha tells Visākhā of the eight characteristics of women who are born as goddesses of lovely form.
[AN 8.48] Nakulamātumanāpakāyika Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Nakulamātā, Hare translation.
The Buddha tells Nakulamātā of the eight characteristics of women who are born as goddesses of lovely form.
[AN 8.49] Paṭham Alokavijaya Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Of This World Here (a), Hare translation.
The Buddha tells Visākhā of four things that, for women, lead to power in this world, and four that lead to power in the next.
[AN 8.50] Paṭham Alokavijaya Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Of This World Here (a), Hare translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus of four things that, for women, lead to power in this world, and four that lead to power in the next.
There are going to be a number of women and feminists out there that will react strongly and negatively to the above five suttas. This is for those who may have the same reactions but are open to another point of view. This is very difficult to understand. What we are dealing with here in this world is like a stage play (... in which we strut and fret our hour ... and then are heard again and again). We play parts. De-parting from the script, we mess up the play trying to focus the attention of the audience on ourselves — that is all one is doing — one is having an infantile tantrum. We blur the story line and bring ruin on many. It's like the washer-woman in the background throwing a tantrum in a play concerning princes in conflict over rule of the world. In a real play, one would be fired. Acting our parts according to the demands of the role, but also following the higher demands of the Dhamma (the over-arching plot), we either create good deeds or no deeds and experience consequences or not according to those deeds. Acting against our roles (evidence of our desire to escape), we act in resistance to the outcomes of our previous deeds. Our previous deeds have cast us into our current roles and resistance to the outcome is like complaint (which is the adult form of an infantile tantrum). It doesn't do any good, it shows our ignorance of how things really work and because it is based on misundrstanding, it is the foundation of misconceived acts leading to further unpleasant outcomes not the freedom we seek. Resistance is colaboration. It confirms and re-inforces the incorrect belief that the situation one is in has substantial reality. It doesn't. It is a pretend thing. Like a dream from which one wishes to awaken, struggle is not the way out. A calm, relaxed, detached calculated wise response to the situation one is in and the events that arise is the way out. That calm, relaxed, detached, calculated response is what is being taught in this Dhamma and these suttas. One plays out one's role ... with a twist. In stead of complaining when told to scrub the floor, one scrubs the floor thinking: 'In this way I will wear out my old bad kamma, and I do not set going by complaint and resistance or collaboration any new kamma.' If acting in this way results in death, the consequence of this sort of behavior will not be a bad outcome. How could it have a bad outcome? The deed is scrubbing a floor for someone. That is a good deed. There is no foundation there for a bad outcome. Fighting with one's role is clustered around with foundations for bad outcomes: anger, hatred, vicious talk, taking things that are not given, lazyness, and harmful acts. Let it go and see how pleasantly one sails through one's role and on to better things. The basic generic rules for real escape are what these suttas are about.

 


 

Just as the ocean has but one taste,
the taste of salt;
even so this discipline of Dhamma
has but one flavour,
the flavour of release
AN 8.19, Hare Translation

 


Monday, September 23, 2013


 

new Tuesday, September 17, 2013 7:35 AM[SN 2.16.13] A Counterfeit Norm, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
An Image of the True Teaching Linked to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro, and Sister Upalavana translations.

 

new Tuesday, September 17, 2013 4:58 AM[AN 6.40] The Venerable Kimbila Hare translation.
Interlinked, unabbreviated. Venerable Kimbila asks about the factors involved in the longevity of the Dhamma. Gotama gives him six reasons the True Dhamma will not last long and five reasons it will last long.

 

new Tuesday, September 17, 2013 7:51 AM[AN 5.201] Kimbila Hare translation.
Interlinked, unabbreviated. Venerable Kimbila asks about the factors involved in the longevity of the Dhamma. Gotama gives him five reasons the True Dhamma will not last long and five reasons it will last long.

 

new Friday, September 13, 2013 7:29 PMSīha, The General An addition to the Personalities section.

 

Dhammacakkhu:||
Yaṃ kiñci samudayadhammaṃ||
sabbantaṃ nirodhadhammman.
|| ||

The Eye of Dhamma

Whatsoever things arise
all those things end.

 


 

new Sunday, September 08, 2013 9:10 AM[SN 46.3] Virtue, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olds translation.

 

new Saturday, September 07, 2013 7:24 AM[AN 7.16] Not Always, Hare translation C-O-R-R-E-C-T-E-D. The important line: 'who, destroying the five lower fetters,' has been inserted in the unabbreviated version in the cases from 'after an interval' to 'becomes part of the upward stream' according to the Pali.

 

"There are times when the unknown reveals itself in a mysterious way to the spirit of man. A sudden rent in the veil of darkness will make manifest things hitherto unseen, and then close again upon the mysteries within. ... Solitude generates a certain amount of sublime exaltation. It is like the smoke arising from the burning bush. A mysterious lucidity of mind results, which converts the student into a seer ..."
Victor Hugo, The Toilers of the Sea

 

new Wednesday, September 04, 2013 7:37 AM[AN 8.12] Sīha Senāpati Suttaṃ, The Pali
An important sutta. The conversion of Sīha, the Lacchavi general. An elucidation of the distinctions to be made when applying terms descriptive of Gotama's system "A doctrine of inaction, a doctrine of action, a doctrine of annihilation, a doctrine of abhorrence, a doctrine of abolition, a doctrine of mortification, a docrine against rebirth, a doctrine of consolation." At the meal provided by General Siha after his conversion the issue of eating meat came up and we see a clear illustration of the intent of the rule allowing meat to be eaten if it was not known or suspected to have been killed specifically for one.
Sīha, The General, Hare translation.
[AN 8.41] The Observances (in brief), Hare translation.
[AN 8.42] Vitthata Aṭṭhaŋguposatha Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Observances (in detail), Hare translation.
[AN 8.43] Visākhuposatha Suttaṃ, the Pali
Visākhā, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Khantipalo translation
[AN 8.51] Gotamī Suttaṃ, the Pali
Mahāpajāpatī the Gotamid, Hare translation.
The story of MahāPajāpatī's request that women be allowed to join the Sangha, the 8 special rules that were to be accepted before this was to be allowed, and Gotama's statements concerning the effect on the lifespan of the True Dhamma that would be the result.
[AN 8.80] The Bases of Indolence and Energy, Hare.
The Buddha illustrates eight generic situations giving rise to indolence and the eight counter measures to be taken to arouse energy.
[AN 8.86] Homage, Hare.
The Buddha rejects an opportunity to receive bountiful homage from lay disciples. When his attendent Nigita pleads the case for accepting Gotama replies compairing gifts in homage to a heap of dung next to the happiness of renunciation, seclusion, calm, and awakening.
[AN 8.90a] Sāmañña Vaggo, the Pali
Some Female Lay-disciples, Hare.
Left abbreviated in both the Pali and Hare in the following way: The list of 27 Female Lay disciples is given, but where Vesaka's name appears, the text is developed according to the instructions — that is, it is identical to AN 43 (above). I am a great fan of eliminating the abbreviations, but 27 identical suttas seems a little excessive. (On the other hand it does not seem unreasonable to think that the identical sutta was in fact delivered 27 times under very similar circumstances.)

 

new Friday, August 30, 2013 8:30 AM[AN 5.86] Paṭisamgidā Suttaṃ, the Pali
Analysis, Hare translation, unabbreviated, intrerlinked.
[AN 5.95] Akuppa Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Immovable, Hare translation, unabbreviated, intrerlinked.
[AN 5.201] Kimbila Suttaṃ, the Pali
Kimbila, Hare translation, unabbreviated, intrerlinked. Gotama gives five reasons the True Dhamma will not last long and five reasons it will last long.

 

new Monday, August 26, 2013 5:46 AM[AN 7.20] Vassakāra Suttaṃ, the Pali
Vassakāra, Hare translation, unabbreviated, intrerlinked.
[AN 7.22] Dutiya Bhikkhū Aparihāniya Suttaṃ, the Pali
Action, Hare translation, unabbreviated, intrerlinked.
[AN 7.23] Tatiya Bhikkhū Aparihāniya Suttaṃ, the Pali
Believing, Hare translation, unabbreviated, intrerlinked.
[AN 7.24] Catuttha Bhikkhu Aparihāniya Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Awakening, Hare translation, unabbreviated, intrerlinked.
[AN 7.25] Pañcama Bhikkhū Aparihānīya Suttaṃ, the Pali
Thought, Hare translation, unabbreviated, intrerlinked.
[AN 7.26] Sekha Aparihānīya Suttaṃ, the Pali
Training, Hare translation, unabbreviated, intrerlinked.
[AN 7.28-30] Upāsaka Vipatti Suttaṃ; Upāsaka Parābhava Suttaṃ, the Pali
Unprofitable and Backslidings, Hare translation, unabbreviated, intrerlinked.
The thumb is on the scale here; you get two for three. A possible suggestion for the missing sutta is made by me at text ed n 1
[AN 7.31] Earnestness, Hare translation, unabbreviated, linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 7.32] Conscientiousness, Hare translation, unabbreviated, linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 7.33] Fair Speech, Hare translation, unabbreviated, linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 7.34] 'The Same' (or Fair Speech,) Hare translation, unabbreviated, linked to the Fully-Expanded Pali and to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 7.35] Friends Hare translation, linked to the Pali and to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation. Good advice on the sort of friend to have and the sort of friend to be ... if one has need of a friend.
[AN 7.36] Bhikkhu Mitta Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Same Hare translation, linked to the Pali. More Good advice on the sort of friend to have and the sort of friend to be ... if one has need of a friend.
[AN 7.37] Paṭisambhidā Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Analysis Hare translation, linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.38] Cittavasavattana Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Wish Hare translation, linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.39] Paṭhama Niddasavatthu Suttaṃ, The Pali
Grounds for Praise Hare translation, linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.40] Dutiya Niddasavatthu Suttaṃ, The Pali
Grounds for Praise (2) Hare translation, linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.41] Viññāṇaṭṭhiti Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Stations Hare translation,
The Seven Stations for Consciousness, Sister Upalavana translation
States of Consciousness, Olds translation all interlinked.
[AN 7.43] Paṭhama Aggi Suttaṃ, The Pali
Fire Hare translation,
First on Fire, Sister Upalavana translation
all interlinked.
[AN 7.44] Mahāyañña Suttaṃ aka Dutiya Aggi Suttaṃ The Pali
The same, or Fire (2) Hare translation,
Second on Fire, Sister Upalavana translation
all interlinked.
[AN 7.48] Saṃyoga-visaṃyoga Dhammapariyāya Suttaṃ The Pali
The Bondage Hare translation,
Association, Sister Upalavana translation
interlinked and linked to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
A sutta for anyone trying to deal with celebacy but also a sutta which reveals the real dyanamic of bondage to sexuality. It should also be of special interest to all those concerned with women's liberation as it clearly points out the error of blaming the other sex for one's bondage to it. In essence it is saying that sexual bondage is a reflection of self-love and that to free one's self from the bondage, one must free one's self from the self-love. This is one sutta where I would definately recommend the translation of Sister Upalavana. Not because it is better, but because her choice of words reflects the feminine viewpoint in a more pronounced way than the translations by the males. This is also an unusual sutta in that it begins with the female case rather than the male. I think it may be the only sutta in which this is the case. I can also see this sutta applying to the case of homosexuality, where the obsession with persons of the same sex is coming from an obsession with the marks of the opposite sex within one's self.
[AN 7.49] Dānamahapphala Suttaṃ The Pali
On Giving Hare translation,
The Highest Results from Giving Gifts, Sister Upalavana translation
linked to the Pali and to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
A detailed exposition of the various 'intents' with which a gift may be given and the distinction between the gift given with expectation of enjoyment of the results or with no expectation versus the one given with the intent of attaining mental development.
[AN 7.50] Nandamātu Suttaṃ, The Pali
Nanda's Mother Hare translation,
The Female Lay 'Hearer' Nanda. Sister Upalavana translation
Interlinked.
[AN 7.52] Purisagati Suttaṃ, The Pali
Man's Faring Hare translation,
Seven Gateways for Man, Olds translation.
Interlinked.
[AN 7.53] Tissa Brahmā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Tissa Hare translation,
Interlinked.
[AN 7.54] Sīha Senāpati Suttaṃ, The Pali
Sīha Hare translation,
Interlinked.
[AN 7.55] Arakkheyya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Not Cloaked Hare translation,
The Unguardeds and Unassailables, Olds translation.
Interlinked, unabbreviated. Four things the Buddha does not need to guard against being revealed and three accusations that cannot be laid against him. The unequivocal statement that as it was taught by Gotama, if followed, the Dhamma leads to incorruptable freedom of heart and mind and higher knowledge.
[AN 7.56] Kimbila Suttaṃ, The Pali
Kimbila Hare translation,
Interlinked, unabbreviated. Gotama gives Venerable Kimbala seven reasons the True Dhamma will not last long and seven reasons it will last long.
[AN 7.57] Sattadhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Seven Hare translation,
Interlinked, unabbreviated. Gotama gives seven factors based on which one can expect to see and know for one's self here and now freedom of heart and mind.
[AN 7.59] Sattabhariyā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Wives Hare translation,
The taming of a shrew. Anathapindika's new daughter-in-law is haughty, thinking how great a family she had come from, and she was obstinate, violent, passionate, and cruel; refused to do her part towards her new father and mother, or her husband; and went about the house with harsh words and hard blows for everyone. Gotama describes seven types of wives and their destinies in the next world and she awakens to the Dhamma and is reformed.
Dhamma Vicaya: Check the verses in this sutta, canto 3, the word translated by Hare as 'zeal'. This is pīti. This has significance for jhāna practice where it is said to be present in the first and second jhānas, supressed for the third. The use in this case points to the feeling or emotion or motive of an individual for his work. I think this throws an enlightening light, lightning like on the understanding of this term often translated 'rapture' or 'zest'. According to PED Pīti is a term encompassing a spectrum of emotions from 'mild interest' to 'rapture'. Bhk. Thanissaro translates as 'rapture' and characterizes it [no cite] as a state of mysterious mystical power. I think this is a somewhat more mundane state in, at least, the first jhāna. I think my usual translation: 'entheusiasm,' sneeks through.
[AN 7.60] Anger Hare translation,
Unabbreviated, linked to the Bhks. Thanissaro and Ñanamoli translations.
Seven conditions caused by anger that double back on the angry man.
[AN 7.61] Hirottappa Suttaṃ, The Pali
Conscientiousness Hare translation,
Shame 'n Blame Olds translation,
Unabbreviated, interlinked.
A description of the conditions for attaining the goal using the method of the Paṭicca Samuppada. I have done this translation because Hare was having a bad day when he did this one, made one silly mistake in the first half and got the second half of it completely backwards.
[AN 7.64] Dhamma-wise Hare translation,
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali and to Bhk. Thanissaro's translation. The Buddha gives a list of properties that qualify a person as worthy.
[AN 7.65] Pāricchattaka Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Celestial Coral Tree Hare translation,
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali. The Buddha likens the stages in the flowering of the Koviḷāra Pāricchattaka, Tree of the devas of the Thirty to the stages in the progress towards freedom of the bhikkhu and then describes the glorious shout that rises up through the various deva worlds to the highest Brahma heaven as a consequence of his achievement.
[AN 7.66] Sakkāragarukāra Suttaṃ, The Pali
Whom Should a Monk Respect? Hare translation,
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali. On the surface just a boring repetitious sutta describing seven factors which a bhikkhu, desiring to abandon unrighteous ways, make righteousness become, should respect, revere and rely on. Totally obscured by the abbreviations here re-inserted is a thrilling picture of two great minds at play. A mind-wrestling competition which makes the lesson come alive. Pay attention my friends! Challenge yourself. Ask yourself if you could do this. Try it. You will see another way of thinking about the Dhamma and the mind. We have people here that challenge themselves to run a hundred miles barefoot to strengthen their bodies; how much more should we not be challenging ourselves with exercises like this to strengthen our minds! And one more thing! Those of you who are interested in learning the language could find no better way than to be reading/reciting/translating these 'repetitious' suttas. That is one of the Old-time criteria for a good 'yarn' (sutta), that is that it be educational in a multiplicity of ways. Bhk. Bodhi's translation is more complete, but he abbreviates the beginning and thus obscures our opportunity to see Sariputta's stratagem. The sutta is multi-leveled! ... don't forget the story-teller's role.
PS: If you want to try this practice, and will take my advice, begin with MN 1, the Mulapariyaya Sutta. The 24 'roots' given there are the basic roots for the Pali language and will accelerate your vocabulary building exponentially.
[AN 7.67] Bhāvanānuyutta Suttaṃ, The Pali
Making-Become Hare translation,
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.69] Sunetta Suttaṃ, The Pali
Bright-Eyes Hare translation,
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali. A strong warning not to get careless with one's criticism of one's fellow seekers in the Dhamma.
[AN 7.71] Paṭhama Vinayadhara Suttaṃ, The Pali
Skilled in the Discipline (a) Hare translation,
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.72] Dutiya Vinayadhara Suttaṃ, The Pali
Skilled in the Discipline (b) Hare translation,
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.73] Tatiya Vinayadhara Suttaṃ, The Pali
Skilled in the Discipline (c) Hare translation,
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.74] Catuttha Vinayadhara Suttaṃ, The Pali
Skilled in the Discipline (d) Hare translation,
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.75] Paṭhama Vinayadhara Sobhana Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Illustrious (a) Hare translation,
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.76] Dutiya Vinayadhara Sobhana Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Illustrious (b) Hare translation,
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.77] Tatiya Vinayadhara Sobhana Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Illustrious (c) Hare translation,
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.78] Catuttha Vinayadhara Sobhana Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Illustrious (d) Hare translation,
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.80] Adhikaraṇasamatha Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Settlement of Disputes Hare translation,
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.163-610] Ahuneyya Vaggo, [continued] The Pali, mostly left abbreviated.
The Recital, continued, mostly left abbreviated.
[AN 7.611-1120] Rāgapeyyālaṃ, The Pali
This section has been left unexpanded, but has been linked to the PTS version at each grouping, and similarly the PTS version has been linked back to the Pali.
This completes the reformatting and inclusion on this site of the Pali, and the Pali Text Society suttas of the Anguttara Nikaya, Book of the Sevens. Additionally all Bhk. Thanissaro and Sister Upalavana translations are also here and interlinked with the other versions.

 

new Saturday, August 24, 2013 6:19 AM [MN 70] Discourse at Kīṭāgiri, Horner translation.
Linked to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro and Sister Upalavana translations
A very informative sutta. It opens with the Buddha introducing the practice of abstaining from food after noon to the Bhikkhus. When this is met with resistance by two of the 'Group of Six' Bhikkhus (whose story runs through the suttas and Vinaya as being a group of Bhikkhus who manage to find the loophole in every new rule) Gotama then delivers a scathing rebuke.
Adapted from Horner: "...even a teacher who sets store on material things, is an heir to material things, and lives in association with material things — why, even to him, this kind of higgling and haggling does not apply, that his followers will or will not do this or that according as they like it or not. ... For a disciple who has faith in the Teacher's instruction and lives in unison with it, monks, it is a principle that: 'The Teacher is the Bhagava, a disciple am I; the Bhagava knows, I do not know.' For a disciple who has faith in the Teacher's instruction and lives in unison with it, monks, the Teacher's instruction is a furthering in growth, giving strength. For a disciple who has faith in the Teacher's instruction and lives in unison with it, monks, it ia principel that: 'Gladly would I be reduced to skin and sinews and bone and let my body's flesh and blood dry up if there came to be a vortext of energy so that which is not yet won might be won by human strength, by human energy, by human sttriving.'
Before this Gotama has brought out the reasoning that should be followed in the case of a case where the training initially produces unpleasant sensation, that is, that there are two modes of experiencing sensation, whether pleasant, unpleasant, or not-unpleasant-but-not-pleasant: that which is experienced by the one who is attached to worldly gains, and that which is experienced by the one who is striving after letting the world go. The criteria for judgment is not whether one likes or dislikes the sensation, but whether or not good conditions are increasing and bad conditions are decreasing. (So much for 'if it feels good it's ok' the creed of the common man of the 60's.)
Then he mentions the seven states of liberation attainable by one who follows his methods:

Pali Horner Woodward Thanissaro Ñāṇamoli/Bodhi
ubhato-bhāga-vimutto freed-both-ways freed-both-ways released-both-ways liberated-in-both-ways
paññā-vimutto freed-by-wisdom wisdom-freed released-through-discernment liberated-by-wisdom
kāyasakkhī mental-realizer seer-in-body bodily-witness body-witness
diṭṭhappatto won-to-view view-winner attained-to-view attained-to-view
saddhā-vimutto freed-by-faith faith-freed released-through-conviction liberated-by-faith
dhammānusārī striver-after-Dhamma Dhamma-follower Dhamma-follower Dhamma-follwer
saddhānusārī striver-after-faith faith-follower conviction-follower faith-follower

He gives a definition of each.

Following this he gives the proper method for careful striving, also known as The Gradual Course:
As to this, monks,
one who has faith draws close;
drawing close, he sits down near by;
sitting down near by, he lends ear;
lending ear, he hears dhamma;
having heard dhamma, he remembers it;
he tests the meaning
of the things he has borne in mind;
while testing the meaning
the things are approved of;
there being approval of the things
desire is born;
with desire born
he makes an effort;
having made the effort
he weighs it up;
having weighed it up
he strives;
being self-resolute
he realises with his person
the highest truth itself and,
penetrating it by means of wisdom,
he sees.

 

new Thursday, August 22, 2013 5:36 PM [SN 4.36.22] One hundred and eight, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali, Bhks. Nyanaponika and Thanissaro translations

 

new Tuesday, August 20, 2013 12:09 PMPasenadi. The full article from the Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names. Added to the Personalities section. A good detailed article on this king, one of Gotama's great supporters. A book that should be put together is a collection of the suttas, commentaries, Jātaka Stories of this intereting personality. Almost his entire life is seen as a background story in a large number of suttas.

 

new Monday, August 19, 2013 5:29 AM[AN 7.1] Paṭhama Piyabhikkhū Suttaṃ, the Pali
Grounds for Praise, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
First on Amiability, Sister Upalavana, trans.
All interlinked.
[AN 7.2] Dutiya Piyabhikkhū Suttaṃ, the Pali
Grounds for Praise (2), Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Second on Amiability, Sister Upalavana, trans.
All interlinked.
[AN 7.3] Saŋkhitta Sattabala Suttaṃ, the Pali
Powers in Brief, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Power in Short, Sister Upalavana, trans.
All interlinked.
[AN 7.4] Vitthata Sattabala Suttaṃ, the Pali
Powers in Detail, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Powers Explained, Sister Upalavana, trans.
All interlinked.
[AN 7.5] Saŋchitta Dhana Suttaṃ, the Pali
Treasures in Brief, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Wealth in Short, Sister Upalavana, trans.
All interlinked.
[AN 7.6] Treasures in Detail, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Wealths in Detail, Sister Upalavana, trans.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 7.7] Ugga, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Ugga, the Chief Minister, Sister Upalavana, trans.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 7.8] Satta Saññojana Suttaṃ, the Pali
Fetters, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Bonds, Sister Upalavana, trans.
All interlinked.
[AN 7.9] Saññojanappahāna Suttaṃ, the Pali
Their Riddance, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Dispelling, Sister Upalavana, trans.
All interlinked.
[AN 7.10] Macchariya Saṃyojana Suttaṃ, the Pali
Meanness, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Miserliness, Sister Upalavana, trans.
All interlinked.
[AN 7.11] The Leanings, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 7.12] The Leanings in Detail, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 7.13] Kulūpagamana Suttaṃ, the Pali
The Family, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Interlinked.
[AN 7.14] Āhuneyya-puggala Suttaṃ, the Pali
Persons, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Interlinked.
[AN 7.15] The Water Simile, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Linked to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 7.16] Not Always, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.17] Dukkhānupassi — Anattānupassī — Nibbāne Sukhānupassī Suttaṃ, the Pali
Ill, No Self, the Cool, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Linked to the Pali.
Read with the previous sutta this is another example of the clear distinction being made between the objects of the famous 'Three Characteristics' Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta: that is that all own-made (sankhara, or confounded, or constructed) things are characterized by impermanance and Pain, but that Non-self (Hare erroneously translates as 'no self') applies to all things, own-made or not. This is a vital point for the comprehension of the Buddhist concept of consciousness and Nibbana. For a detailed discussion of this topic see: 'Is Nibbana Conditioned?' in the Forum.

 

new Friday, August 16, 2013 8:55 AM[MN 11][Lesser Discourse on the Lion's Roar,] Horner, translation
linked to the Pali and Sister Upalavana translation.

 

new Thursday, August 15, 2013 6:42 AM[AN 7 611-1120] The Recital, III: The Understanding of Passions: 612-1121,
This is the final highly abbreviated section of the PTS Hare translation of the Book of the Sevens. Containing 1030 suttas, it has been left abbreviated with only a few modifications to make it more readable.

 

new Sunday, August 11, 2013 12:34 PM[AN 10.206] Paṭhama Sañcetanika Suttaṃ The Pali
Ruin and prosperity a, Woodward translation.
[AN 10.207] Dudiya Sañcetanika Suttaṃ The Pali
Ruin and prosperity b, Woodward translation.
[AN 10.208] The Deed-Born Body Olds translation
Linked to the Pali and Woodward and Bhk. Thanissaro translations.
A mind-bending sutta to make good sense out of. A great exercise in Dhamma Research virtually compelling examination of the Pali and intent contimplation. A sutta exposition on the need to work out one's kamma in this life.

 

new Monday, August 05, 2013 6:08 AM[AN 8.11] Verañja Suttaṃ The Pali
Near Verañja, Hare translation

 

new Friday, July 26, 2013 3:01 PM[AN 9.11] Sāriputta Sīhanāda Suttaṃ, The Pali
After the Rainy Season, Hare translation,
The Lion's Roar, Sister Upalavana translation,
All interlinked.
[AN 9.15] A Boil, Hare translation,
An Abscess, Sister Upalavana translation,
Interlinked with the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 9.16] Thoughts, Hare translation,
Perceptions, Sister Upalavana translation,
Interlinked with the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 9.17] Kulopagamana Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Family, Hare translation,
Families, Sister Upalavana translation,
Interlinked.
[AN 9.18] Navaŋāguposatha Suttaṃ, The Pali, The BJT Pali is completely mangled and has been straightened up for this version;
Amity, Hare translation,
Full Moon Observance with Nine Factors, Sister Upalavana translation, (only partially completed by her)
Interlinked.
[AN 9.19] Devatā Suttaṃ, The Pali, unabbreviated;
The Deva Host, Hare translation, unabbreviated
The Gods, Sister Upalavana translation, (left as is)
Interlinked.
[AN 9.20] Velāma Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Velāma, Hare translation
About Velāma, Bhk. Thanissaro translation
The Brahmin Velama, Sister Upalavana translation, (left as is)
All Interlinked.
[AN 9.21] Ṭhāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
In Three Ways, Hare translation
Interlinked.
[AN 9.22] Khaḷuŋka Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Excitable Steed, Hare translation
Both fully rolled out and interlinked.
[AN 9.23] Taṇhā Mūlaka Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Craving, Hare translation
Interlinked.
[AN 9.24] Sattāvāsa Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Beings, Hare translation
Interlinked.
[AN 9.25] Paññāparicita Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Wisdom, Hare translation
Interlinked.
[AN 9.26] Silāyūpopama Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Stone Column, Hare translation
Interlinked. This is a very interesting sutta. On the surface it is simply a lesson as to precision of speech: the huge difference it can make when saying 'heaped around with thought' versus 'well heaped around with thought'. Then there is the contrast of this sutta with the previous which conveys the basic message but using the term for 'wisdom'. But the most interesting thing going on in the sutta is that it is concerning a statment supposedly made by Devadata. It speaks of Devadata in the past tense, and here Sariputta corrects the bhikkhu quoting Devadatta in a way which makes Devadatta sound wiser than would be the case taking the quote as originally given. Now Devadatta is often painted in solid black where we know from stories here and there that he was, in fact, a highly developed individual who was simply overcome with ambition, so in the name of truth and fairness it is well done that he be defended where he was not being represented well, but I suspect the sutta has been remembered confusidly: that is that the bhikkhu is correctly quoting Devadatta's incorrect recollection of Gotama's utterance in AN 9.25, and Sāriputta was correcting that and that his correction has been misremembered. Maybe not, but if it is as I suggest the deeper message would be in the illustration of Devadatta's fate in the difference in the way he remembered Gotama's instruction. There is some slight evidence that the sutta has been misremembered in the differences between different versions of the Pali where in one case at least there is no difference in the way Candikaputto quotes Devadatta and the way Sāriputta corrrects Candikaputto.
[AN 9.27] Paṭhama Verabhaya Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Dread and Hatred (a), Hare translation
Interlinked.
[AN 9.28] Dutiya Verabhaya Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Dread and Hatred (b), Hare translation
Interlinked.
[AN 9.29] Āghātavatthu Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Strife (a), Hare translation
Interlinked.
[AN 9.30] Āghātavatthu Suttaṃ, The Pali,
(Dispelling) Strife (b), Hare translation
Interlinked.
[AN 9.31]
Gradual Endings, Hare translation
Following-earlier-Endings, Olds translation
A short but difficult sutta to understand/translate clearly. This translation offered as food-for-thought.
Linked to each other and to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 9.32]
The Abidings (a), Hare translation
Linked to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 9.33] Anupubbavihārasamāpatti Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Abidings (b), Hare translation
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 9.34] The Cool, Hare translation
Unabbreviated. Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 9.35] Gāvīupamā Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Cow, Hare translation
Linked together and to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation. This is an elegant and very instructive sutta which has been mangled in both the Pali and in translations by abbreviations. The full versions of both the Pali and Hare's translation have been reconstructed here.
[AN 9.36] Musing, Hare translation
Linked to the Pali and to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The full versions of Hare's translation has been reconstructed here; the Pali has been left in the BJT expanded version. There is some food for thought here for those concerned with the tampering that may have gone on in the editing of the Pali. A good sutta for those interested in the jhānas. I would caution readers to examine the meaning of 'nissāya'. Here (and with Bhk. Bodhi and Bhk. Thanissaro) it is translated as 'depend.' Literally the word means 'seated on' and I believe the distinction is important. It is especially so in light of the fact that 'paṭicca' and 'nidāna' are all also being translated 'depend' (as well as 'conditioned' ... along with 'sankhāra' ... confused yet?). It is also interesting that in this sutta the scheme changes at the 'Sphere of Nothing's Had' (Nothingness) in a way which illuminates the understanding of 'attainment of perception' [Hare: as far as 'perception prevails'; Bhk. Thanissaro: 'perception-attainments'; Bhk. Bodhi: (combining this and the next term) 'penetration to final knowledge as far as meditative attainments accompanied by perception reach'] [saññāsamāpatti] and 'penetration of gnosis' [aññā-paṭivedho].
[AN 9.38] Lokāyatika Brāhmaṇa Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Brāhmans, Hare translation
Unabbreviated. Both linked to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
On the theme of reaching the end of the world as in AN 4.45. This sutta ends abruptly and looks to be a fragment only.
[AN 9.39] Devāsurasaŋgāma Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Devas, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Both linked to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 9.40] The Tusker, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 9.42] Pañcālacaṇḍa, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 9.43] The Seer-in-Body, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 9.44] The Wisdom-Freed, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 9.45] The Freed-Both-Ways, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 9.46] Sandiṭṭhiko Suttaṃ, The Pali,
To be Seen for Oneself, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.47] Sandiṭṭhiko Nibbāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
[A Cool] To be Seen for Oneself, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.48] Nibbāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Cool, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.49] Parinibbāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Complete Cool, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.50] Tadaŋga-nibbānaṃ Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Cool by These Means, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.51] Diṭṭhadhamma-Nibbānaṃ Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Cool Here and Now, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.52] Khemaṃ Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Security, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.53] Khemapatto Suttaṃ, The Pali,
One Who Attains The Security, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.54] Amata Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Deathless, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.55] Amatapatto Suttaṃ, The Pali,
One Who Attains the Deathless, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.56] Abhaya Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Fearless, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.57] Abhayapatto Suttaṃ, The Pali,
One Who Attains the Fearless, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.58] Passaddhi Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Tranquillity, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.59] Anupubba-Passaddhi Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Gradual Tranquillity, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.60] Nirodha Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Ending, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.61] Anupubba Nirodha Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Gradual Ending, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.62] Possible by Putting Away Things, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 9.63] The Training, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 9.64] Hindrances, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 9.65] Kāmaguṇa Satipaṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Sense Desire, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.66] Upādānakkhandha Satipaṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Aggregates, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.67] Orambhāgiya Satipaṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Lower Fetters, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.68] Gati Satipaṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Courses, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.69] Macchariya Satipaṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Meanness, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.70] Uddhamabhāgiya Satipaṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
The Upper Fetters, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.71] Cetokhila Satipaṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Mental Barrenness, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.72] Vinibandha Satipaṭṭhāna Suttaṃ, The Pali,
Mental Bondage, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali.
[AN 9.73-82] Sammappadhāna Vaggo, The Pali,
Chapter VIII: Right Effort, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali. Ten suttas grouped together, they each open with the beginning of the corrresponding sutta from suttas 63-72 above, and then each concludes with an admonition to develop the four right efforts.
[AN 9.83-92] Iddhipāda Vaggo, The Pali,
Chapter IX: Psychic Power, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali. Ten suttas grouped together, they each open with the beginning of the corrresponding sutta from suttas 63-72 above, and then each concludes with an admonition to develop the four bases of psychic Power.
[AN 9.93-432] Rāgādipeyyālaṃ Vaggo, The Pali,
Chapter X: Passion, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Linked to the Pali. 340 suttas grouped together. Seventeen concepts (passion, hatred, illusion, anger, enmity, hypocrisy, malice, envy, avarice, deceit, craftiness, obstinacy, impetuosity, pride, arrogance, intoxication and indolence) played off against 10 concepts (understanding, comprehension, exhaustion, abandonment, destruction, decay, freedom from desire, ending, quittance, and renunciation), played off against each of two sets of 9 concepts (1. the thought of foulness, of death, of the repulsiveness of food, of universal wretchedness, of impermanence, of ill inimpermanence, of no self in ill, of renunciation, of freedom from passions; and 2. the first musing (jhāna), second musing, third musing, fourth musing, sphere of infinite space, sphere of infinite consciousness, sphere of nothingness, sphere of neither perception nor non-perception, and the ending of perception and feeling). The Pali has been left in it's abbreviated state as for most users this will actually be easier to compare with the English than if fully rolled out.
Do I need to say that this is the first time these have been seen in English fully rolled out? A truly mind-stretching exercise! Thank goodness for copy and paste. ... and, Oh yes! I almost forgot! This completes the reconstruction and digital conversion and re-formatting of the PTS, Hare translation of the Book of the Nines. Completely unabbreviated, all linked to the Pali.

 

new Thursday, July 18, 2013 2:58 PM[AN 9.1] The Awakening, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro and Sister Upalavana translations.
[AN 9.2] Nissayasampanna Suttaṃ, The Pali
Reliant, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali, Sister Upalavana translation.
[AN 9.3] Meghiya Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Venerable Meghiya, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali, Sister Upalavana translation.
[AN 9.4] Nandaka Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Venerable Nandaka, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali, Sister Upalavana translation.
[AN 9.5] Balasaŋgahavatthu Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Powers, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali, Sister Upalavana translation.
[AN 9.6] Sevitabbāsevitabba Suttaṃ, The Pali
To Be Sought After, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali, Sister Upalavana translation.
[AN 9.8] Sajajhaparibbājaka Suttaṃ, The Pali
Sajjha the Wanderer, Hare translation.
Sajjha the Wanderer, Olds translation.
All interlinked.
[AN 9.9] Puggalā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Persons, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali, Sister Upalavana translation.
[AN 9.10] Ābuneyya-puggala Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Venerable, Hare translation.
Linked to the Pali, Sister Upalavana translation.

 

new Thursday, July 18, 2013 11:37 AMThe Pali Line, pdfPDF zipped download set up for printing. This is intended to be a workbook to be used in conjunction with the version on this website which is linked to all referenced suttas and other available resources. 8-1/2 X 11, 426 pages, paginated, Table of Contents.

 

new Sunday, July 07, 2013 2:36 PM [AN 8.83] Kiṃ Mūlaka Suttaṃ, The Pali.
The Root of Things, Hare, translation.
What is the Root? Olds, translation.
All interlinked.

 

new Friday, July 05, 2013 6:08 AM [AN 8.63] Dhamma Briefly, Hare, translation.
linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.

 

new Wednesday, July 03, 2013 10:45 AM [AN 7.115-122] Jivhā Aniccānupassī Vagga The Pali
[AN 7.115-122] The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of the Tongue Hare Translation,
linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.123-130] Kāyasmiṃ Aniccānupassī Vagga The Pali
[AN 7.123-130] The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of the Touch Hare Translation,
linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.131-138] Manasmiṃ Aniccānupassī Vagga The Pali
[AN 7.131-138] The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of the Mind Hare Translation,
linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.139-146] Rūpesu Aniccānupassī Vagga The Pali
[AN 7.139-146] The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of Shapes Hare Translation,
linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.147-154] Saddesu Aniccānupassī Vagga The Pali
[AN 7.147-154] The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of Sounds Hare Translation,
linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.155-162] Gandhesu Aniccānupassī Vagga The Pali
[AN 7.155-162] The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of Odours Hare Translation,
linked to the Pali.

 

new Wednesday, July 03, 2013 9:58 AM[SN 5.55.2]: Ogadha or Satayham The Pali
Steeped in, Woodward translation.
Linked to the Pali

 

new Tuesday, July 02, 2013 8:40 AM [AN 7.107-114]Ghāna Aniccānupassī Vagga The Pali
AN 7.107-114The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of the Nose Hare Translation,
linked to the Pali.
There are those who say that Gotama would never have wasted his time in the utterance of such a thing as is found in this set of suttas. I beg to differ. There comes a time when thinking over the Dhamma actually becomes interesting fun and doing an exercise in it's manipulation such as is found here becomes a light-hearted challenge. Think of it in terms of mental gymnastics. Don't dismiss it before you have tried it for yourself. It's just not something, as simple as it appears, that can be done by one who has not developed a high degree of concentration.

snap fingersSnap Fingers

[SNAP FINGERS. JUST LIKE THAT — IT'S OVER.]

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

 

§

 

Seyyathā pi mahāsamuddo ekaraso loṇaraso,||
evam eva kho ayaṃ dhammavinayo ekaraso vimuttiraso.
— AN 8.19

In the same way as the one taste of the great ocean is the taste of salt;
even so the one taste of this Dhamma/Discipline is the taste of freedom.
— Olds, trans.

 

§

 

Short is the life of man, my friends,
a mere finger-snap,
a bit of dust in the wind,
filled with pain and sorrow.

By work-of-mind awaken yourselves!

Do good works!

Live under the guidance of Dhamma!

For the born there is no not dying.

Just as a cow,
being lead to the slaughter,
each step she takes
brings her nearer to her death,
even so, friend,
like a doomed cow
short is the life of man,
a mere finger-snap,
a bit of dust in the wind,
filled with pain and sorrow.

By work-of mind awaken yourselves!

Do good works!

Live under the guidance of Dhamma!

For the born there is no not dying.

— after AN 7.70

 

§

 

new Saturday, June 22, 2013 7:23 PM[AN 7.62]The Sun, Hare Translation,
linked to the Pali, Warren and Edmonds translations.
[AN 7.63]The Citadel, Hare Translation,
linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.70]Wheel-Wright, Hare Translation,
linked to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro, translation.
[AN 7.81-90]Samaṇa Vaggo The Pali
The Recital I: The Monk Chapter, Hare Translation,
linked to the Pali. Suttas not elsewhere previously translated in full.
[AN 7.91-98]Cakkhu Aniccānupassī Vagga The Pali
AN 7.91-98The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of the Eye Hare Translation,

[AN 7.99-106]Sota Aniccānupassī Vagga The Pali
AN 7.99-106The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of the Ear Hare Translation,
linked to the Pali. Suttas not elsewhere previously translated in full. With this set fully worked out, the reader can easily work out both Hare's translation and the Pali for the remaining 464 suttas in this group which are otherwise given only by reference to a single word each.

 

new Saturday, June 22, 2013 5:06 PM[MN 28]Greater Discourse on theSimile of theElephant's Footprint, Horner Translation,
linked to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro and Sister Upalavana translations.

 

One for the Leaders of Nations
One for the Saŋgha, and
One for the Lay Disciple

Pay heed Leaders of Nations,
lead not the world further into decline and not growth,
pay heed bhikkhus
lead not the Saŋgha further into decline and not growth,
pay heed lay disciples
fall not further into decline and not growth!
This is the Way:

new Saturday, June 15, 2013 8:36 AM[AN 7.19]At Sārandada, Hare Translation,
linked to the Pali.
[AN 7.21]The Monk, Hare Translation,
linked to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 7.27]Decline, Hare Translation,
linked to the Pali.

 

new Sunday, June 16, 2013 1:43 PM[AN 7.42] Samādhiparikkhāra Suttaṃ, The Pali
The adorning, Hare, translation
Seven Prerequisites for Serenity Olds, trans.
Accessories of Concentration Sister Upalavana, trans.
all interlinked.
An unusual definition of Sammā Samādhi.

 

new Sunday, June 09, 2013 8:29 AM[MN 5]Discourse on No Blemishes, Horner Translation,
linked to the Pali and Sister Upalavana translation.

 

new Thursday, June 06, 2013 8:03 AM[MN 4]Discourse on Fear and Dread, Horner Translation,
linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro, Sister Upalavana translations.

 

new Monday, June 03, 2013 5:43 AM[MN 3]Discourse on Heirs of Dhamma, Horner Translation,
linked to the Pali and Sister Upalavana translation.

 

§

 

If you, monks, should become heirs of material things,
not heirs of dhamma,
not only may you become in consequence
those of whom it is said:

'The Teacher's disciples
are heirs of material things,
not heirs of dhamma'

but I too may become in consequence
one of whom it is said:

'The Teacher's disciples
are heirs of material things,
not heirs of dhamma.'

But if you, monks, should become my heirs of dhamma,
not heirs of material things,
then you may become in consequence
those of whom it is said:

'The Teacher's disciples
are heirs of dhamma,
not heirs of material things,'

and I too may become in consequence
one of whom it is said:

'The Teacher's disciples
are heirs of dhamma,
not heirs of material things,'
— MN 3, Horner, translation

 

§

 

new Sunday, June 02, 2013 11:16 AM[MN 2]Discourse on All the Cankers, Horner Translation,
linked to the Pali, Rhys Davids, Bhk. Thanissaro and Sister Upalavana translations, Olds discussion.

 

new Saturday, June 01, 2013 10:35 AM[MN 75]Discourse to Māgandiya, Horner Translation,
linked to the Pali, Olds, Bhk. Thanissaro and Sister Upalavana translations

 

new Friday, May 31, 2013 8:44 AM[MN 73]Greater Discourse to Vacchagotta, Horner Translation,
linked to the Pali, and Sister Upalavana translation

 

§

 

Not long after the venerable Vacchagotta was ordained,
half a month after he was ordained,
he approached the Lord;
having approached,
having greeted the Lord,
he sat down at a respectful distance.

As he was sitting down at a respectful distance,
the venerable Vacchagotta spoke thus to the Lord:

"Revered sir, I have attained as much as can be attained by a learner's knowledge,
a learner's lore.

Let the Lord teach me some further dhamma" [uttariṃ dhammaṃ]

"Well then, do you, Vaccha, develop two things further:
calm and vision.[samathañ ca vipassanañ ca]

— Not one or the other, both. The result being arahantship.
From MN 73, Horner, translation

 

§

 

new Thursday, May 30, 2013 12:24 PM[MN 57]Discourse on the Canine Ascetic, Horner Translation, linked to the Pali, Ñanamoli, and Sister Upalavana translations

 

new Tuesday, May 28, 2013 7:23 AM[AN 5.73] Dhammavihārī Suttaṃ The Pali
Living by Dhamma, Hare Translation

 

AŋgUttara-Nikāya
Pañcaka-Nipāta

The Numbers Bag
The Book of Fives

Sutta 73

Walk'n the Talk

Retold by Michael Olds

 


 

[1][pts][ati] I HEAR TELL:

A certain Bhikkhu came to pay a call,
and, after paying respect with closed palms,
he sat on a low seat to one side
at a respectful distance
and asked:

"'Walk'n the Talk' is the expression.

To what extent, Bhaggava does one
'walk the talk'
in this Dhamma?"

"In the case of the first case
we have the case of the beggar
who has an all-round understanding of Dhamma.

He spends his day in the mastering of Dhamma.

But he neglects putting down interaction
and does not devote himself to mental tranquillity within.

This beggar, beggar, is said to be big on all-round understanding,
but does not live the Dhamma.

 


 

In the case of the second case
we have the case of the beggar
who teaches Dhamma to others as he has heard and understood it.

He spends his time instructing and inciting others.

But he neglects putting down interaction
and does not devote himself to mental tranquillity within.

This beggar, beggar, is said to be big on wisdom,
but does not live the Dhamma.

 


 

In the case of the third case
we have the case of the beggar
who is a repeater.

He memorizes Dhamma and repeats it to others as he has heard it
and so spends his day.

But he neglects putting down interaction
and does not devote himself to mental tranquillity within.

This beggar, beggar, is said to be big on memory,
but does not live the Dhamma.

 


 

In the case of the fourth case
we have the case of the beggar
who is a thinker.

He thinks about Dhamma
as he has heard it and understood it.

He spends his day thinking about Dhamma.

But he neglects putting down interaction
and does not devote himself to mental tranquillity within.

This beggar, beggar, is said to be big on thinking, but does not live the dhamma.

 


 

In the case of the fifth case
we have the case of the beggar
who has an all-round understanding of Dhamma,
but he does not spend his day in the mastery of Dhamma,
he does not neglect putting down interaction
and does devote himself to mental tranquillity within.

This beggar, beggar, is said to 'Walk the Talk'.

So, Beggar,
I have given you one who is Big on Understanding,
one who is Big on Wisdom,
one who is Big on Memory,
one who is Big on Thinking,
and one Who 'Walks the Talk'.

Beggar! What a teacher should do for his student,
looking after his well-being,
seeking his good,
out of sympathy,
such is such as I have done for you.

There are the roots of trees,
places of solitude.

Do not be negligent,
do not give yourself cause for self-recrimination later.

This is our instruction to you.

 


 

new Monday, May 27, 2013 5:33 AM[AN 5.209] Gītassara Suttaṃ The Pali
The Plain-song, Hare Translation

 

new Monday, May 27, 2013 5:33 AMBhikkhu Jiv chants the Mūlapariyaya Sutta
Ven. Gnanananda chants the Satipatthana Sutta
From the Audio-Tipitaka Project

"Monks, there are these five disadvantages to one preaching Dhamma in a long-drawn, plain-song voice.

What five?

He is either carried away himself by the sound;
or others are carried away thereby;
or householders are offended and say:
"Just as we sing, for sure, these recluse Sakya sons sing!";
or as he strives after purity of sound, there is a break in concentration;
and folk coming after fall into the way of (wrong) views.
— AN 5.209, Hare, translation

'Intoning' though having disadadvantages is not against the rules. See: Cullavagga V 2.3, The Book of the Discipline, Volume 5, Horner, pp146.

 

new Monday, May 27, 2013 5:33 AM[SN 1.10.1-12] Yakkha Saɱyutta. The Pali
The Yakkha Suttas, Rhys Davids translations, linked to the Pali and other available translations:
1. The Yakkha of Indra's Peak
2. Sakka
3. Suciloma
4. Maṇibhadda
5. Sānu
6. Piyankara
7. Punabbasu
8. Sudatta
9. Sukkā (1)
10. Sukkā (2)
11. Vīrā or Cīrā
12. At Āḷavī
This completes the formatting and inclusion on this site of the entire first volume of the Kindred Sayings, the Pali Text Society translation of Samyutta Nikaya I.

 

new Tuesday, May 21, 2013 4:31 AMOn the Importance of the Pali Text Society Translations A long-winded explanaion of why it was so important that the complete set of Pali Text Society translations of the Sutta Pitaka be made freely and easily available.

 

new Thursday, May 16, 2013 3:22 PM[AN 5.32:] Cundī Suttaṃ, the Pali;
Cundī, the Rajah's Daughter, Hare, translation.
Connected to the Pali

 

new Thursday, May 16, 2013 9:33 AM[SN 1.9.3:] The Forest Suttas: Kassapa of the Kassapas (or The Trapper), Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali.
[SN 1.9.4:] The Forest Suttas: Many of Them, or On Tour, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali.
[SN 1.9.5:] The Forest Suttas: Ānanda, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali.
[SN 1.9.6:] The Forest Suttas: Anuruddha, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[SN 1.9.7:] The Forest Suttas: Nāgadatta, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali.
[SN 1.9.8:] The Forest Suttas: The Housewife, or Engrossed, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali.
[SN 1.9.9:] The Forest Suttas: The Vajjian (or Vesāliyan), Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali.
[SN 1.9.10:] The Forest Suttas: Diligence (or Doctrines), Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali.
[SN 1.9.11:] The Forest Suttas: Want of Method (or Fancies), Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali.
[SN 1.9.11:] The Forest Suttas: Want of Method (or Fancies), Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[SN 1.9.12:] The Forest Suttas: Noontide, or Resounding, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali.
[SN 1.9.13:] The Forest Suttas: Uncontolled (or, Very Many Brethren, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali.
[SN 1.9.14:] The Forest Suttas: The Red Lotus_blossom, or White Lotus, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro translation, Olendzki translation.
This concludes the Forest Suttas Chapter.

 

new Thursday, May 16, 2013 7:50 AM[MN 20]: Discourse on the Forms of Thought, Horner, trans.
linked at sections to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro, Soma Thera, Sister Upalavana translations.

 

The complete set of Pali Text Society books of the Sutta Pitaka translations is now available in downloadable zipped pdf files from the Files and Downloads Page.

 

new Wednesday, May 15, 2013 5:39 AM[SN 1.9.1:] The Forest Suttas: Detachment, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
[SN 1.9.2:] The Forest Suttas: Ministry, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali

 

new Sunday, May 12, 2013 5:41 PM[SN 1.8.2:] The Vaŋgīsa-Thera Suttas: Disaffection, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
[SN 1.8.4:] The Vaŋgīsa-Thera Suttas: Ānanda, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[SN 1.8.6:] The Vaŋgīsa-Thera Suttas: Sāriputa, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
[SN 1.8.7:] The Vaŋgīsa-Thera Suttas: Invitation, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
[SN 1.8.8:] The Vaŋgīsa-Thera Suttas: A Thousand and More, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
[SN 1.8.9:] The Vaŋgīsa-Thera Suttas: Koṇḍañña, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
[SN 1.8.10:] The Vaŋgīsa-Thera Suttas: Moggallāna, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
[SN 1.8.11:] The Vaŋgīsa-Thera Suttas: At Gaggarā, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
[SN 1.8.12:] The Vaŋgīsa-Thera Suttas: Vangīsa, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
This completes The Vaŋgīsa-Thera Chapter.

 

§

 

"I am already given to the power that rules my fate.
And I cling to nothing, so I will have nothing to defend.
I have no thoughts, so I will see.
I fear nothing, so I will remember myself.
Detached and at ease, I will dart past the Eagle to be free."
Carlos Castaneda. The Eagle's Gift

This is how this is to be understood:
The Power = Dhamma
The Eagle = Pajapati, Mara, the force of creation and destruction.

 

§

 

new Thursday, May 09, 2013 3:35 PM[AN 4.192] Conditions, Woodward, translation.
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 4.195]Vappa, The Pali.
Vappa, Woodward, translation.
Linked to the Pali

 

new Thursday, May 09, 2013 7:58 AM[SN 1.7.16:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Gainsayer, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
[SN 1.7.17:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: New Works, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
[SN 1.7.18:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Wood-Gathering, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
[SN 1.7.19:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Mother-Maintainer, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
[SN 1.7.20:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Mendicant, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
[SN 1.7.21:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Sangārava, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
[SN 1.7.22:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Khomadussa, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
This completes the Brāhmaṇa Chapter

 

new Wednesday, May 08, 2013 5:32 AM[SN 1.7.13:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Devahita, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali
[SN 1.7.14:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Millionaire, or The Shabby Cloak, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.15:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Pridstiff, Rhys Davids, translation.

 

new Monday, May 06, 2013 1:56 PM[AN 4.157:] Rogā, The Pali
Disease, Woodward, translation.
[AN 4.158:] Parihāṇi, The Pali
The Falling Away, Woodward, translation.
[AN 4.160:] The Wellfarer's Discipline, Woodward, translation.
Factors leading to the decline of the Dhamma. Linked to the Pali, Olds, trans.

 

new Monday, May 06, 2013 8:40 AM[SN 1.7.11:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Plowing, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali and to the translations of Bhk. Thanissaro and Piyadassi Thera both of which have a different ending than this version and the PTS/BJT Pali. It looks very much like the ending they have used was picked up from a previous sutta [The SN 1.7.9: Sundarikdyan] dealing with Arahants and is out of place in this section which deals with Lay Followers.
[SN 1.7.12:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Udaya, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali and Olendzki translation.

 

new Sunday, May 05, 2013 12:33 PM[AN 4.159:] The Nun, Woodward, translation.
The Beggar Lady: Analysis of § 3, Olds.
A comparison of the translations of Olds, Woodward, Bhk. Thanissaro and Bhk. Bodhi with regard to an obscure term. The issue comes up often with the question: How can one eliminate desire without desire and if one uses desire how does one eliminate desire? Here not only using desire is rationalized but also using food and the insanity of self-identification. A fourth, using sexuality, is singled out as not a good idea.

 

new Sunday, April 28, 2013 2:28 PM[SN 1.7.1:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Dhanañjāni Brahminee, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.2:] Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Reviling, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.3:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Asurinda, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.4:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Conjey-man, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.5:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Innocens, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.6:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Tangles, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.7:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Puritan, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.8:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Fire-man, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.9:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Sundarikāyan, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.10:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Of Many Daughters, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali and other available translations.

 

new Thursday, April 25, 2013 5:38 AM[SN 1.6.13:] The Brahmā Suttas: Andhakavinda, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali, Olendzki translation.
[SN 1.6.14:] The Brahmā Suttas: Aruṇavatī, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali.
[SN 1.6.15:] The Brahmā Suttas: The Utter Passing Away, Rhys Davids, translation.
The last exhortation and the last actions of Gotama the Awake. Linked to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro translation.

 

The following works originally published by the Pali Text Society are being offered under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0) licence. The publisher retains commercial rights. Permission has been granted to the public to reproduce, reformat, transmit and distribute these works for gratis, non-commercial use without further need to contact the publisher.

The Book of the Gradual Sayings: The Book of the Ones Translated by F.L. Woodward. Complete. For individual sutta listings see the Ekanipata Index Page
The Book of the Gradual Sayings: The Book of the Twos Translated by F.L. Woodward. Complete. For individual sutta listings see the Dukanipata Index Page
The Book of the Gradual Sayings: The Book of the Threes Translated by F.L. Woodward. Numerous suttas. For individual sutta listings see the Tikanipata Index Page
The Book of the Gradual Sayings: The Book of the Fours Translated by F.L. Woodward. Numerous suttas. For individual sutta listings see the Catukkanipata Index Page
The Book of the Gradual Sayings: The Book of the Fives Translated by E.M. Hare. Numerous suttas. For individual sutta listings see the Pañcakanipata Index Page
The Book of the Gradual Sayings: The Book of the Sixes Translated by E.M. Hare. Numerous suttas. For individual sutta listings see the Chakkanipata Index Page
The Book of the Gradual Sayings: The Book of the Sevens Translated by E.M. Hare. Numerous suttas. For individual sutta listings see the Sattakanipata Index Page
The Book of the Gradual Sayings: The Book of the Eights Translated by E.M. Hare. Numerous suttas. For individual sutta listings see the Atthakanipata Index Page
The Book of the Gradual Sayings: The Book of the Nines Translated by E.M. Hare. Numerous suttas. For individual sutta listings see the Navakanipata Index Page
The Book of the Gradual Sayings: The Book of the Tens Translated by F.L. Woodward. Numerous suttas. For individual sutta listings see the Dasakanipata Index Page
The Book of the Gradual Sayings: The Book of the Elevens Translated by F.L. Woodward. Numerous suttas. For individual sutta listings see the Ekadasakanipata Index Page
All suttas are linked to the Pali and to other digitally available translations.

The Middle Length Sayings, Translated by I.B. Horner. Numerous suttas. For individual sutta listings see
Majjhima Nikaya Index Page I [Mulapanassa: Suttas 1-50]
Majjhima Nikaya Index Page II [Majjhimapanassa: Suttas 51-100]
Majjhima Nikaya Index Page III [Uparipanassa: Suttas 101-152]
All suttas are linked to the Pali and to other digitally available translations.

The Book of The Kindred Sayings III: The Kindred Sayings on Elements. Translated by F.L. Woodward. Numerous Suttas. For individual sutta listings see the Khandhavagga Index There are separate indexes for each Vagga (Chapter): Vaggas 22-34 so you need to go one step beyond this page to see individual sutta listings.
The Book of The Kindred Sayings IV: The Kindred Sayings on the Sixfold Sphere of Sense. Translated by F.L. Woodward. Numerous Suttas. For individual sutta listings see the Salayatanavagga Index There are separate indexes for each Vagga (Chapter): Vaggas 35-44 so you need to go one step beyond this page to see individual sutta listings.
The Book of The Kindred Sayings V: The Great Chapter. Translated by F.L. Woodward. Numerous Suttas. For individual sutta listings see the Mahavagga Index There are separate indexes for each Vagga (Chapter): Vaggas 45-56 so you need to go one step beyond this page to see individual sutta listings.

The Book of the Discipline Translated by I.B. Horner 5 Volumes. No sections of this work are currently available on this site.

Pali-English Dictionary, Edited by T. W. Rhys Davids and William Stede.
Please note: This file is in a crude state at this time, there are many small errors. It is being put up now because in spite of the errors it is one of the most valuable tools around for the Dhamma Researcher. This version is going to be an evolving project and will over time incorporate entries from the Childers Dictionary and from the Critical Pali Dictionary as well as discussions of Pali terms in footnotes and the lists of Pali terms at the ends of the PTS translations.

Points of Controversy Translated by S.Z. Aung and C.A.F. Rhys Davids. This work is not available on this site at this time.

All Three Volumes of The Dialogues of the Buddha Translated by T.W. and C.A.F. Rhys Davids; Volumes I and II of The Book of The Kindred Sayings, Translated by C.A.F. Rhys Davids; Psalms of the Early Buddhists, Translated by C.A.F. Rhys Davids; and Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics Translated by C.A.F. Rhys Davids are in the Public Domain. Numerous suttas from these works are already on this site. Additionally the entire collection of Jātaka Stories 6 Volumes is available on this site. For individual sutta listings the the listing of the Jātaka Stories see the appropriate Index Page

For the latest on progress towards making the entire contents of all these books available visit:
http://www.genaud.net/

 

new Tuesday, April 23, 2013 9:26 AM[SN 1.6.10:] The Brahmā Suttas: The Kokālikan, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali
[SN 1.6.11:] The Brahmā Suttas: The Eternal Youth, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali
[SN 1.6.12:] The Brahmā Suttas: Devadatta, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali

 

new Sunday, April 21, 2013 1:15 PM[AN 4.10:]: Yokes, New Olds translation.
This is a crime in the translations of many of Gotama's suttas: the utter lack of a sense of humor.
Linked to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro, translations.

 

new Friday, April 19, 2013 9:00 AM[SN 1.6.4:] The Brahmā Suttas: Baka the Brahmā God, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali
[SN 1.6.5:] The Brahmā Suttas: Another False Opinion, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali
[SN 1.6.6:] The Brahmā Suttas: Infatuation, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali
[SN 1.6.7:] The Brahmā Suttas: The Kokālikan, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali
[SN 1.6.8:] The Brahmā Suttas: Tissaka, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali
[SN 1.6.9:] The Brahmā Suttas: Tudu Brahmā, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali

 

new Friday, April 19, 2013 5:59 AM [DN 26]: Cakkavatti-sīhanāda Suttantaṃ The Pali
DN 26: War, Wickedness, and Wealth, Rhys Davids, translation.
An incredably long repetitous sutta not at all in the usual style of Gotama which nevertheless conveys a strong message as to the future. The sutta paints a stark picture of the grinding devolution and evolution of man consequent on his behavior with regard to pretty much universally accepted (and today disregarded) fundamental ethical standards: not taking by theft, not lying, not harming living beings, not being promiscuous, not drinking alcohols, respecting family, elders, leaders. Things we see around us everywhere today where the fact of their leading the people astray is incontestable and yet contested at every turn and defended nowhere. "In times past it was to those of good behavior that respect was paid and to whom people listened; in times to come it will be the course setters in disrespect and poor behavior to whom the people will listen." The consolation in this sutta is the additional lesson of the cyclicity of this phenomena. The world devolves and evolves, round and round.

 

§

 

And what, father, is the Duty of an Aristocratic King?

It is this my son:

Guided by Dhamma, paying respect to Dhamma, honoring Dhamma, holding Dhamma sacred, revering Dhamma,
being yourself one whose banner is the Dhamma,
being yourself a beacon of the Dhamma,
with the Dhamma as your Teacher,
you should provide proper protection for your people, for the army, for the managers, for the workers, for the scholar and the layman, for town and country dwellers, for the religious world, for animals and birds.
Throughout your kingdom let no wrongdoing prevail.
And let whoever in your kingdom is poor be provided with economic security.
And when, my son, in your kingdom men leading the religious life, having themselves given up the carelessness that arises from the influence of the senses, devoted to calm, patience, compassion and self-mastery, aiming for self-perfection,
come to you to discuss what is good and what is bad,
what should not be unlawful and what should be unlawful,
what should be done and what should not be done,
and what line of action will in the long run work for benefit or disadvantage,
you should listen to what they have to say,
and for your part you should encourage them to desist from wrong conduct and encourage them in good conduct.

This my son is the Duty of an Aristocratic King.

Excerpt from DN 26, paraphrased by Olds.

 

§

 

 

new Thursday, April 18, 2013 11:13 AM [AN 3 128]: Anuruddha The Pali
AN 3 128: Anuruddha, Olds, translation.
A new translation linked to the Pali. An important sutta in terms of comparing translation with translation. What is presented in this translation is a picture of Sāriputta's keen perception into the various nature of illusion and his ability to translate his perceptions into the precise prescription necessary for attaining the goal. Previous translations have cast this as a case of Sāriputta chastizing Anuruddha for his conceit.

 

Nidāna

I HEAR TELL

Once upon a time, The Lucky Man, Uruvela revisiting, River Nerañjaraya's edge, root of the Goatherd's Banyon, first thing after his Awakening.

There then arose in the heart of The Lucky Man
in the privacy of solitude,
this line of thought:

"This Dhamma,
deep,
difficult to see,
difficult to awaken to,
sane,
lofty,
no contorted conjecture,
subtle,
for the experiencing of by the wise,
has come into my possession,
but dwelling on enjoyment are these children,
dwelling on pleasure,
dwelling on pleasantries,
and for children
dwelling on pleasure,
dwelling on pleasantries,
difficult to see is this position,
that is, this
this-conditions-that rebounding co-founding.

And then just this position too
is difficult to see:
that is, the calming of all own-making,
the resolution of all involvements,
the withering away of thirst,
dispassion,
extinction,
Nibbāna.'
— excerpt from [SN 1.6.1], Olds translation

 

new Sunday, April 14, 2013 6:19 AM Sn.1.6.1: The Entreaty, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro translation
One version of the story of Gotama's hesitation to teach after his Awakening and the request that he teach 'those with little dust on their eyes' made by Brahmā Sahampati.
Sn.1.6.2: Holding in Reverence, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro translation
Sn.1.6.3: Brahmadeva, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali

 

new Friday, April 12, 2013 1:35 PMThe End On the experience of the approach of Death.

 

new Friday, April 12, 2013 9:23 AM [SN 1.5.1-10:] Bhikkhuni Saŋyutta: [untitled] Vagga The Pali
Suttas of the Sisters, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro and Bhk. Bodhi translations

 

new Thursday, April 11, 2013 4:41 PM [AN 3 76-77:] Untitled #76-77 The Pali
Existence 1 and 2, New Olds translation.
These two suttas add to the idea one needs to grasp that existence itself is a thing made by the individual through his own intentional acts. This is also another good sutta to read with the Pali along side. This translation differs significantly from those of Woodward, Bhk. Thanissaro and Bhk. Bodhi. You can do it! These are not long suttas and are mostly repetitions. Look up the words one at a time. We may have a good Dictionary up soon, but meanwhile you can use the one on line at: http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/index.html It won't take too long and you will see the dangers in accepting translations unreservedly.

 

new Tuesday, April 09, 2013 11:20 AM [SN 1.3.21-25:] Kosala Saŋyutta: [untitled] Vagga The Pali
[Untitled] or 'The Parable of the Mountain' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
Further exchanges with the king, the Kosalan Pasenadi. I get the strong feeling that at this stage in his relationship with Gotama the king is testing him. In this case the manner of Gotama's responses are highly instructive in terms of handling difficult situations.

 

§

 

All beings are dying things,
conclude in death,
have death as their end,
just as all pots of the potter,
whether unbaked or baked,
are breaking things,
conclude in breakage,
have breakage as their end.
— SN 1.3.022, Olds trans.

 

§

 

new Monday, April 08, 2013 11:45 AM [SN 1.3.11-20:] Kosala Saŋyutta: Aputtaka Vagga The Pali
[Untitled] or 'Childless' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
Further exchanges with the king, the Kosalan Pasenadi.

 

§

 

A man may spoil another, just so far
As it may serve his ends, but when he's spoiled
By others he, despoiled, spoils yet again.
So long as evil's fruit is not matured,
The fool doth fancy 'now's the hour, the chance!'
But when the deed bears fruit, he fareth ill.
The slayer gets a slayer in his turn;
The conqueror gets one who conquers him;
Th' abuser wins abuse, th' annoyer, fret.
Thus by the evolution of the deed,
A man who spoils is spoiled in his turn.
SN 1.3.15, Mrs. Rhys Davids, translation

 

§

 

new Sunday, April 07, 2013 8:08 AM [SN 1.3.1-10:] Kosala Saŋyutta: Bandhana Vagga The Pali
[Untitled] or 'Bonds' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
Exchanges with the king, the Kosalan Pasenadi. The story of Pasanadi emerges in frequent suttas througout the Sutta Pitaka where we see him progress from an unbeliever to a believer who loses his kingship because of his faith. Here he is seen in this group of suttas at an early stage of his relationship with Gotama where we also get glympses of the manner of kings at the time.

 

new Saturday, April 06, 2013 12:33 PM [SN 1.2.21-30:] Devaputta Saŋyutta: Nānātitthiya Vagga The Pali
'Divers Sectaries' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
Further exchanges with 'Sons of the Gods.'

 

§

 

fathom

 

It is not by walking to the end of the world, friend,
That the end of pain is discovered,
And neither is the end of pain discovered,
Friend, without walking to the end of the world.

It is not by walking the world, friend,
That the origin of the world is discovered,
That the end of the world is discovered,
That the walk to walk to the end of the world is discovered.

It is here in this fathom-measure body, friend,
With it's perception,
With it's mind,
That I say the world is discovered,
The origin of the world is discovered,
The end of the world is discovred,
The walk to walk to the end of the world is discovered.
SN 1.2.26 Olds, paraphrased translation

 

§

 

new Thursday, April 04, 2013 4:27 PM [AN 3.61:] Titthāyatanāni The Pali
Three Philosophical Positions,Olds, translation.
A new Olds translation, linked to the Pali, PTS Woodward translation, and Bhk. Thanissaro translation at the sections.
This is an extremely interesting sutta for anyone attempting to break into the just-above-the-beginner level of understanding this Dhamma. In several places throughout the suttas it is hinted that 'seeing the Four Truths, one sees the Paticca Samuppada. seeing the Samuppada one sees the Four Truths'. Here in this sutta the two are combined in one. I think this only happens in one other sutta. It is very important for understanding the fact that each of the major segments of the Dhamma are in fact just ways of re-stating the Four Truths in other terms. Understanding this will go a long way to eliminate conflicts between various practices that emphasize one or another of the multiplicity of methods put forward in the Suttas and will greatly simplify comprehension of the system as a whole.

 

§

 

As one downsmitten by impending sword,
As one whose hair and turban are aflame,
So let the Brother, mindful and alert,
Go forth, all worldly passions left behind.
Sn.1.2.16, Rhys Davids, translation

 

§

 

new Saturday, March 30, 2013 7:11 AM [SN 1.2.1-10:] Devaputta Saŋyutta: Kassapa Vagga The Pali
Kassapa Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.2.11-20:] Devaputta Saŋyutta: Anāthapiṇḍika Vagga The Pali
Anāthapiṇḍika Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
Exchanges with 'Sons of the Gods', Gods whose names are known, hence the suttas take on depth. Of special interest is Sn.1.2.10: Anāthapiṇḍika which shows that a Non-returner is not incapable of returning to this world for a visit.

 

§

 

Life to its doom is led. Our years are few.
For us led to decay no shelters stand.
Whoso doth contemplate this fear of death,
Let him reject the bait of all the worlds,
Let him aspire after the final Peace.
Sn.1.2.19, Rhys Davids, translation

 

§

 

new Thursday, March 28, 2013 4:12 AM [SN 1.1.41-50:] Devatā Saŋyutta: Āditta Vagga The Pali
The 'Burning' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.1.51-60:] Devatā Saŋyutta: Jarā Vagga The Pali
The 'Decay' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.1.61-70:] Devatā Saŋyutta: Addha Vagga The Pali
The 'Over-Under' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.1.71-81:] Devatā Saŋyutta: Chetvā Vagga The Pali
The 'Slaughter' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
41 short suttas in verse in which The Buddha interacts with Devas in the form of 'riddle and response'.

 

§

 

'Straight' is the name this Road is called,
and
'Free From Fear'
the Quarter whither thou art bound.
SN 1.1.46, Rhys Davids' translation.

 

§

 

new Sunday, March 24, 2013 7:10 AM [SN 1.1.31-40:] Devatā Saŋyutta: Satullapakāyika Vagga The Pali
The 'Satullapa-Group' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
10 suttas in which The Buddha interacts with Devas of various sorts in various ways.

 

MN 60, note 25: MA. iii. 120=DA. i. 161 says creatures, sattā, are camels, oxen, donkeys, etc.; "breathers," pāṇā, are those who have one or two faculties; beings, bhūtā, are those enclosed in eggs or membraneous sheaths; living things, jīvā, are rice, wheat, etc. See Dial. i. 71, n. 2.
This cannot be correct in all respects. In MN 1, for example we have 'bhūtā' as standing for all these groups, 'living beings' which is what I believe all these terms mean in one place or another.

 

new Saturday, March 23, 2013 8:04 AM [DN 30:] Lakkhaṇa Suttaṃ The Pali
The Marks of the Superman, Rhys Davids, translation.
The sutta has three elements: a list of signs to be found on the body of one who is a 'maha-purissa' or 'great-man,' an exposition of the behaviors that resulted in it's acquisition and the consequences of possessing such qualities, and a poetic recapitulation of the prose exposition. There are those who take the descriptions of the signs literally and there are those who take the descriptions of the signs as strictly metaphorical. I suggest that the signs are actual physical attributes which are being given metaphorical descriptions and that the signs themselves are to stand for but are not direct metaphores for supernatural powers — they are more like 'clues'. I have not 'broken the code' for all of them, but here and there in the rest of the suttas we come across clues to their meaning. To provide one example: the Great Man has a long tongue. In this sutta what we hear is that this is a result of blameless pleasant speech and results in a commanding voice that is pleasant to hear. Elsewhere however [KD.snp.3.7] we find out that this tongue is able touch both ears and cover the forehead, and in another place that there is a power of a Great Man known as the Dibbasota, the Devine Ear, which gives the possessor the power to hear both sounds, heavenly and man made, far and near understanding their meaning. I suggest this is the meaning of this attribute of a Great Man and consequently it cannot be taken in the strictly linear way of a metaphore for quality of speech.
As to the physical manifestation of these signs there is a state of mind where this physical world becomes very plastic and where this body is capable of willful distortion and that in this state the physical attribute could be projected (made visible or 'superimposed as a vision') such as to be seen just as described.
I have a further speculation: this is one of a few very strange suttas in the collection which look to me to have been of interest to Gotama himself primarily because of their ancient heritage.
A sutta not for ye of little faith!

 

Sutta references for Bhk. Bodhi's The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha have been added to the Index. Every sutta, Books 1-11, is listed relative to it's position in the Pali Text Society Pali and Translations, to the translations of Bhk. Thanissaro, my own translations, and to numbers of other translations. In other words you should be able to find the PTS Pali and equivalant translations of any Bhk. Bodhi translation by locating it in this Index.

 

new Sunday, March 17, 2013 11:42 AM [AN 7.18:] Niddasavatthu Suttaṃ The Pali
Vestments of the Tenless, Olds, translation.
Describes the abiding interests necessary to be cultivated by a person aspiring after a type of rebirth wherin there is no experience of death or rebirth but one re-appears at some earlier point in this same life spontaneously. Here the idea is that by cultivation of these abiding interests one is reborn at an increasingly older age with no regression to a younger age. This sutta speaks only to the qualities, not to this very intersting form of rebirth which is only indicated by name. The explanation for the term is given by Bhk. Bodhi in a footnote quoting the commentary.

 

new Wednesday, March 13, 2013 9:10 AM [AN 4.206:] The Good Man, Olds, translation.
An exposition of the qualities of the four types of persons: the not-good, the not-good of the not-good, the good and the good of the good. A very important aspect of this sutta is it's description of a Tenfold Way. This tenfold path, usually called the Seeker's Path, in this sutta it is given no name at all.

 

dragon

 

§

 

There's many a slip
Twixt the cup and the lip!

Old Saying. Proper behavior used to be to give to a beggar from one's own hand to his hand (or into his bowl) because a well-trained beggar would not consider something merely placed before him to have been 'given'. Allowance is made for a person to change their mind about giving even in so short a time as it takes to reach out and take hold. Swifter even than that is the ability of the mind to change.

 

§

 

new Wednesday, March 06, 2013 8:40 AM [SN 2.20.7:] The Drum-Peg, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
Interlinked with the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro translations. A parable illustrating how in the future the original Dhamma will become lost through lack of retention of the old suttas and attention to new suttas, mere poetry invented by disciples who are not fully awakened.
[SN 2.20.8:] Kaliŋgaro, The Pali. Straw, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
A parable illustrating the danger of living the soft life. Interlinked with the Pali.
[SN 2.20.9:] Nāgo, The Pali. The Elephant, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
A parable illustrating the danger of enjoying the benefits of living as a bhikkhu without being careful to avoid letting them go to one's head. Interlinked with the Pali.
[SN 2.20.10:] Biḷāro, The Pali. The Cat, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
A parable illustrating the danger of enjoying the benefits of living as a bhikkhu without being careful to guard one's senses. Interlinked with the Pali.
[SN 2.20.11:] Siŋgālaka 1, The Pali. The Jackal 1, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
A hair-raising utterance forecasting the doom of 'a certain bhikkhu' of hypocritical, ungrateful behavior. Interlinked with the Pali.
[SN 2.20.12:] Siŋgālaka 2, The Pali. The Jackal 2, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
A second thought about the contrasing of a 'certain' ungrateful bhikkhu with an old jackal with mange — perhaps the jackal has more gratitude than this fellow! Interlinked with the Pali.

 

§

 

Sleeping on couches of straw, brethren,
such now is the way of the Licchavis;
strenuous are they and zealous in their service.

Against them Ajatasattu,
son of the Vedehi [princess],
king of Magadha, gets no access,
gets no occasion.

In the coming days, brethren,
the Licchavis will become delicate,
soft and tender
in hands and feet.

On soft couches,
on pillows of down
they will lie till rise of sun.

Against them Ajatasattu
son of the Vedehi [princess],
king of Magadha,
will get access,
will get occasion.

Sleeping on couches of straw, brethren,
- such now is the way of the brethren,
strenuous are they
and ardent in their energy.

To them Mara
the evil one
gets no access.

Against them he gets no occasion.

In the coming days, brethren,
the brethren will become delicate,
soft and tender in hands and feet.

On soft couches,
on pillows of down
they will lie till rise of sun.

To them Mara
the evil one
will gain access.

Against them he will find occasion.

Wherefore, brethren,
thus must ye train yourselves:

'We will use couches of straw,
strenuous and zealous in energy
- even thus.
SN 2.20.008: Rhys Davids, translation

 

§

 

new Tuesday, March 05, 2013 12:42 PM [SN 2.20.5:] A parable illustrating the protection from mental harassment achieved through a heart of friendly vibrations.
Satti Suttaṃ the Pali
The Sharp Tempered Sword, Olds translation,
The Blade, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
Interlinked with the Pali, Olds, Bhk. Thanissaro translations.

 

new Sunday, March 03, 2013 8:29 AM [SN 2.20.2:] The parable of the pointy-end of the nail. Illustrating the rarety of birth as a human. This sutta is like a well-cut diamond: it can reflect light in different ways according to the angle at which it is held. This is a short sutta which pays off well to compare to the Pali.
Nakhasikhā Suttaṃ the Pali
The Pointy-end of the Nail, Olds translation,
Tip of the Nail, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
Interlinked with the Pali, Olds, Bhk. Thanissaro translations.

[SN 2.20.3:] A parable illustrating the benefits of liberating the heart through friendliness. The method for warding off demonic harassment.
Kulam Suttaṃ the Pali
The Clans, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
Interlinked with the Pali at sections.

 

new Sunday, February 17, 2013 8:33 AM The Dreaming Body An interesting parallel between the teachings of Don Juan concerning the Dreming body and the development of the Buddhist mind-made body. Also touches on being conscious while sleeping.

 

Introducing: The Renga on BuddhaDust

 

Kāmaṃ taco ca nahārū ca aṭṭhī ca avasissatu||
sarīre, upasussatu maṃsalohitaṃ.||
Yaṃ taṃ purisathāmena purisaviriyena purisaparakkamena pattabbaṃ,||
na taṃ apāpuṇitvā viriyassa saṇṭhānaṃ bhavissatī.|| ||

 

Let skin and sinew and bone wither away;
The flesh and blood of the body dry up;
that by the strength of a man,
the energy of a man,
the might of a man,
'til fulfilled,
energy fail thee not
in striving,
and realized is thy ambition.
sn 2.21.3

 

new Sunday, February 10, 2013 4:17 PM [MN 63:] The Questions Of Malunkyaputta, E. J. Thomas 1913 translation.
Nothing remarkable, just a curiosity. This is the sutta that contains the famous simile of the man who refuses medical treatment for an arrow wound until he knows all there is to know about the wound, the arrow, the shooter, etc. This is also the sutta that is the likely source of the idea that Gotama never answered certain questions. Here he explains why these questions are not explained. This is an important issue to get clear. Gotama does not explain the answers to the questions as to whether or not the world exists etc, but he does answer the questions. He answers both by saying that these are not issues relevant to the ending of suffering, but he also answers that these questions arise from a misunderstanding of conditionality which he does explain. So he does answer the questions, it is just that listeners do not hear the answer.

 

new Wednesday, Sunday, February 10, 2013 8:26 AM [SN 2.20.1:] The parable of the pinnacle. All unskillful states depend on blindness as do all the rafters in a peaked-roof house depend on the pinnacle.
Kūṭam, the Pali
The Pinnacle, Olds translation,
The Roof-Peak, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

 

new Wednesday, February 06, 2013 11:39 AM [SN 2.21.1:] Maha Moggallano describes his initial practice at entering the second jhana, it's obstruction by thinking, and the assistance given him by the Master
Kolito, the Pali
Kolita, Olds translation,
Kolita, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.2:] Sāriputta states that there is nothing in the world which if it changed and became otherwise would cause him grief — including even the passing away of the Master.
Upatisso, the Pali
Upatissa, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.3:] Moggallāna describes to Sāriputta a clarvoyant and claraudient conversation he had with the Master. The two chief disciples give each other high praise.
Ghaṭo, the Pali
The Jar, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.4:] A novice bhikkhu is brought before the Buddha because he is thought to be a slacker by other bhikkhus. The Master reveals that this brother is already an Arahant.
Navo, the Pali
The Novice, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.5:] The Master proclaims Sujato's beauty, both physical and mental.
Sujāta, the Pali
Sujāta, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.6:] The Master proclaims the wisdom of this ugly, hunchbacked dwarf.
Bhaddiya, the Pali
Bhaddiya, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.7:] The Buddha praises this bhikkhu's manner of teaching Dhamma.
Visākha, the Pali
Visākha, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.8:] Wherein Nanda, nephew of the Exalted One's mother, is admonished by the Buddha for wearing fine robes, makeup, and using a new bowl — resulting in Nanda becomeing a forest-dwelling beggar wearing rag-robes.
Nando, the Pali
Nanda, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.9:] Wherein Tissa, nephew to Gotama's father, is admonished by the Buddha not to dominate the conversation.
Tisso, the Pali
Tissa, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.10:] Wherein a bhikkhu named 'Thera' (Elder) who was fond of solitude is summoned before the Buddha who then gives him insruction as to perfecting his practice.
Theranāmo, the Pali
Senior by Name, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.12:] Wherein two comrades are praised by Gotama and declared Arahants.
Sahāya, the Pali
The Comrade, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

New additions, linked to the Pali and where existing, Bhikkhu Thanissaro's translations at sections. Sutta 11 existed previously. This completes Samyutta Nikaya 2: Nidana Vagga: Chapter 21: Kindred Sayings about Brethren

 

new Saturday, February 02, 2013 9:40 AM [SN 2.12.2]
Vibhaŋga:
The Pali
[SN 2.12.3]
Paṭipadā:
The Pali
[SN 2.12.4-10]
Vipassī, Sikhī, Vessabhu, Kakusandho, Koṇāgamano, Kassapo, and Mahā Sakyamuni Gotamo Suttas:
The Pali
PTS: The Book of the Kindred Sayings: II. Kindred Sayings on Cause: 12. The Nidāna Suttas:
Sutta 2: Analysis.
This sutta gives Gotama Buddha's definitions of the terms used in the Paticca Samuppada.
Sutta 3: The Way (or Course).
This sutta presents the Paticca Samuppada as a Path or Course rather than the usual understanding of this doctrine as a description of how kamma works or how beings arise and fall.
Suttas 4-10: Vipassī, Sikhī, Vessabhu, Kakusandho, Koṇāgamano, Kassapo, and Mahā Sakyamuni Gotamo Suttas.
Near identical suttas describing how 7 different Buddhas first understood the Paticca Samuppada.
What might appear to be a meaningless waste of space, these suttas reveal many secrets to the seer if lined up in a row in the mind's eye.
C.A.F. Rhys Davids translations, with all abbreviations restored and linked at sections to the Pali [which was reformatted for clarity and proofed against the PTS Freer text] and, in the case of #2, to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The addition of these suttas to the first which was already up completes the 'Buddha Vaggo' of the Nidāna Samyutta, of the Nidāna Vaggo, of the Saŋyutta-Nikāya. OK?

 

new Saturday, February 02, 2013 9:40 AM [MN 19] Majjhima Nikāya 19: Dvedhāvitakka Sutta
Splitting Up Thought, Olds translation.
A new translation, with links at all sections to the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro translation, Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi translation, and Sister Upalavana's translation.
An interesting and simple method for making one's self conscious of the presence and absence of desructive thoughts while at the same time with the same process eliminating destructive thoughts.

 

new Saturday, February 02, 2013 9:42 AM [SN 1.11.1-25] Sakkasamyutta:

PTS: The Book of the Kindred Sayings: I. Kindred Sayings with Verses: 11. The Sakka Suttas. C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation, with all abbreviations restored:
1. The Sakka Suttas [1-25]

 

new Thursday, January 24, 2013 8:20 AM [DN 34] Digha Nikaya, Sutta 34, DasUttara Suttaṃ
Dialogues of the Buddha, Sutta 34, The Tenfold Series, translated by T.W. and C.A.F. Rhys Davids
Completely rolled out with all abbreviated passages restored and linked to the Pali throughout at sections.
This sutta is very similar to DN 33 in that it is a catalog of various units of the Dhamma organized by way of the number of items in the unit. It becomes a form of mental gymnastics by imposing on the structure that it be limited to ten sets fit within 10 specific concepts: — so that section 1 is 10 units of one item each, each dealing with concepts 1-10; the second is 10 units of 2 items each, each dealing with concepts 1-10; on up to 10 units of 10 items each, each dealing with concepts 1-10.

 


 

Aṭṭha-mahā-purisa-vitakkā

Appicchassa āyaṃ dhammo,||
nāyaṃ dhammo mahicchassa.|| ||

Santuṭṭhassa āyaṃ dhammo,||
nāyaṃ dhammo asantuṭṭhassa.|| ||

Pavivittassa āyaṃ dhammo,||
nāyaṃ dhammo saŋgaṇikārāmassa.|| ||

Āraddhaviriyassa āyaṃ dhammo,||
nāyaṃ dhammo kusitassa.|| ||

Upaṭṭhitasatissa āyaṃ dhammo,||
nāyaṃ dhammo muṭṭhassatissa.|| ||

Samāhitassa āyaṃ dhammo,||
nāyaṃ dhammo asamāhitassa.|| ||

Paññavato ayaṃ dhammo,||
nāyaṃ dhammo duppaññassa.|| ||

Nippapañcassa āyaṃ dhammo,||
nāyaṃ dhammo papañcārāmassa,||
nippapañcaratino ayaṃ dhammo,||
nāyaṃ dhammo papañcaratino'ti.|| ||

 


 

The eight thoughts of a good man.

For one of few wants is this Dhamma;
this Dhamma is not for one of great wants.

For one contented is this Dhamma;
this Dhamma is not for the discontented.

For the loner is this Dhamma;
this Dhamma is not for one desirous of company.

For one of active energy is this Dhamma;
this Dhamma is not for the slacker.

For one of established memory is this Dhamma;
this Dhamma is not for the forgetful.

For one who is even-going is this Dhamma;
this Dhamma is not for the unstable.

For one with wisdom is this Dhamma;
this Dhamma is not for the stupid.

For one who has put down illusions is this Dhamma,
this Dhamma is not for deluded;
for one who has put down deluded behavior is this Dhamma,
this Dhamma is not for one of deluded behavior.

 


 

Well Tamed: Go Unrestrained

Na sabbato mano nivāraye||
Mano yatattamāgataṃ,||
Yato yato ca pāpakaṃ||
Tato tato mano nivāraye'ti.|| ||

 

Not from all things turn away the mind,
if mind be well restrained —
But where whatever evil be,
at that repelled is mind well-trained.

— SN 1.1.24, olds, trans.

 


 

new Friday, January 11, 2013 7:59 AM [SN 1.1.1-10] Devatasamyutta:
1. Nala-Vaggo [Suttas 1-10] with no abbreviations
2. Nandana-Vaggo [Suttas 11-20] with no abbreviations
3. Satti-Vaggo [Suttas 21-30] with no abbreviations

PTS: The Book of the Kindred Sayings: I. Kindred Sayings with Verses: 1. The Devas. C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation, with all abbreviations restored:
1. The 'Reed' Suttas [1-10]
2. The 'Paradise' Suttas [11-20]
3. The 'Sword' Suttas [21-30]
Linked to the Pali at the Nidana of each sutta.

Index to Samyutta Nikaya I. Devatasamyutta, where a number of other translations are listed.

 


 

2012

 


 

Sunday, December 23, 2012 8:29 AM
On Books Emerging from Copyright Protection

The following Pali Text Society Publications suttas have been uploaded to this site as a consequence of the fact that they have entered the Public Domain.

Digha Nikaya Index Suttas: 15, 22, 27, 31, 33

Samyutta Nikaya: I: Sagatha-Vagga Index Suttas:
01.001;
03.4;
04.001-025;
08.1, 3, 5

Samyutta Nikaya: II: Nidana-Vagga Index Suttas:
12.001, 015, 063, 064, 065;
13.001;
14.001, 002, 003, 004, 005, 006, 007, 008, 009, 010, 011;
15.001, 011, 012;
17.001-043;
20.004, 005, 006;
21.011

Edit: At this time [Wednesday, May 22, 2013 5:39 AM] the entire Sutta Pitaka is available for download in zipped pdf files from the Files and Downloads Page.

The intention here with regard to these works and any others that may enter the Public Domain is to convert, format and link them as they are needed in research or for reference in translating. No comprehensive re-publication effort is in the works.

 

Sunday, December 23, 2012 8:29 AM
Is Nibbana Conditioned? Follow-up discussion of Vinnana Anidassana.
Discussing the ramifications of the mistranslation of 'sankhara' as 'conditioned' on the understanding of the consciousness of the Arahant.

 

Wednesday, December 19, 2012 4:02 PM
Book Review: Too High to Fail, Doug Fine
A quick, two-line review of a book of tangential interest to readers here. Another 'The Emperor Has No Clothes' story.

 

Wednesday, December 19, 2012 4:38 PM
New Publication:

Bhikkhu Bodhi, Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: A Complete Translation of the Anguttara-nikaya (published jointly by The Pali Text Society and Wisdom Publications)
10-ISBN 086 013 499 7 / 13-ISBN 978 086 013 498 5

This is a complete translation of the Anguttara-nikaya, the fourth major collection in the Sutta Pitaka.

To obtain this book and all other Pali Text Society books at a discount [20%], become a member. If you become a sponsoring Member this book is the annual free book for 2013.

Sponsoring membership: GBP 25 for one year or GBP 100 for five years.
Sponsoring members also receive free (and post-free) one volume each year. Note that the "Pali Tipitaka Concordance" and the "Dictionary of Pali Proper Names" cannot be chosen as free books.
Ordinary membership: GBP 12 for one year or GBP 48 for five years.
Membership page link: http://www.palitext.com/subpages/mem.htm
Pali Text Society, home page.

 

"You can try to pull the truth closer to your view
and I can try to pull it closer to mine,
but the truth is stubborn:
it just stays where it is."
From a Rastafarian priest
in an unnamed documentary quoted by Doug Fine in
Too High to Fail

 


Thursday, December 13, 2012 9:39 AM
Index to the Milindapañha, The Questions of King Milinda. This is only an Index. Given are page numbers for the chapter heads for the Pali, the PTS Horner translation, and the SBE, Rhys Davids translation. This is not a work that can be recommended here. It begins with a pack of lies, the entire thing was almost certainly made up, it contains numerous statements that are not confirmed by the suttas or which put words in Gotama's mouth that are not confirmed by the suttas, or which directly contradict the suttas, and it places the Abhidhamma above the suttas. It is part of the Theravada school's cannon and it should be read by anyone wishing to call himself educated in the literature but it is a bad source of information on how to progress along the way and should be approached with a high degree of caution. APPAMADA!

 

Sunday, December 09, 2012 5:43 PM
DN 6: Mahāli Suttaɱ An extremely long sutta with massive repetition which has inspired no one to date to translate it in full. Here it is translated in full. Fully linked section by section to the Rhys Davids translation and the Pali. The Rhys Davids translation has been expanded to include the sections included by reference, but does not include sections he himself elected to omit. The Pali is fully expanded with all repetitions and referenced inclusions and is formatted for clarity. The sutta might have some interest for those curious about the practice of magic powers.

 

Thursday, December 06, 2012 8:28 AM
Wonderland Grasping the Dragon by the wrong end. How wrong view ends in rebirth in Hell.

 

Tuesday, November 27, 2012 6:34 AM
Original Sources: Examining the Definition and Constructive Use of Original Sources in the Study of Buddhism.

 

Monday, November 26, 2012 4:58 AM
Careless Reading and Empirical Evidence

 

Sunday, November 11, 2012 2:02 PM
DN 6. Fully 'rolled out' (inserted all abbreviated passages) the Pali and linked to the Rhys Davids translation; inserted all abbreviated passages into the Rhys Davids translation and linked back to the Pali. The Rhys Davids translation still contains passages abbreviated by Rhys Davids relative to the Pali at sections 8-11. Fully rolled out according to the Pali this sutta contains massive numbers of passages with only single terms changed. Anyone interested in the mechanics of actually bringing about someone's awakening should find this of great interest.

 

Wednesday, November 5, 2012 12:48 PM
Kuddhaka Nikaya: Index of the Udāna
A complete listing of all the suttas in the Udana with links to translations available digitally and page numbers for the PTS edition. Links to the Pali.

The Udana is an anthology of suttas found in the four main Nikayas with the common theme of ending with an inspired utterance. There is the appearance of having attempted to create a well-rounded picture of the Dhamma. There also seems to be some subtle editing of the original suttas. On this site the Kuddaka Nikaya is not considered as on a level for reliability with the: Digha Nikaya, Majjhima Nikaya, Anguttara Nikaya, and Samyutta Nikaya.

Is it possible that the yokes to rebirth can be broken in a person,
and yet that person be unaware of that? ...
that that person not yet be an Arahant? ...
In other words:
If having broken the yokes to rebirth equals Arahantship,
Can a person be unaware of being an Arahant?
Question raised by Bhk. Thanissaro's note to UD 1.5.
This strange deviation between the various versions of the Pali looks very much like the work of editors with bias either way the question asked here is answered.

Wednesday, November 5, 2012 12:48 PM
Index to the Therī-Gāthā, The Psalms of the Early Buddhists: The Sisters. This is only the index. I understand that all of Mrs. Rhys Davids' work will enter the Public Domain on January 1, 2013 according to the PTS, but this is worth getting hold of now. This work and it's sister volume the Verses of the Brothers, is highly recommended especially to those of you pretending to be feminists. Here is a bunch of women who are real men!

 


 

What is the sound of one hand clapping?

That man with net might catch the breeze,
Or single-handed bale out seas,
Clap with one hand, who once should dare
His thoughts let range on woman fair.

Jataka 536

Who sees the story here hears the sound of one hand claping.

 


 

The good man
works to enrich
the house
where he enjoys
his food

Jat. 546 [this translated by Olds]

 

A Little Mystery. I don't want to be thought of as joining the sutta fault-finder's, but the other night the simile in this sutta came up in conversation and on reflection it just doesn't seem to work: See SN 2.15.1: Thatch and Twigs. See the footnote on my translation for the issue.

 

Wednesday, October 17, 2012 12:48 PM
DN 15:The Great Downbinding Spell, Olds trans.
This is a revised translation. I hope this one does what I think it will do which is to make this very important sutta clear. It is certainly better than my previous attempt which I have long felt was very poorly done.

 

Friday, October 12, 2012 5:03 AM
Vinaya Texts, Volume I
The first volume of this work formatted into individual html files in the style of this site. This volume and the other two volumes that comprise the complete Vinaya Pitaka are currently available as PDF files from Internet Sacred Text Archives I have reformatted this volume into html so that it may more easily be referenced in discussion, linked to and searched.
The first volume is primarily of interest because it contains the Patimokkha, and I have linked that section to the Pali and to Bhk. Thanissaro's translation.
This volume also contains the Mahavagga Parts I-IV.
Additinally I have added a page to the Indexes section of this site which provides links to these materials and page references to the PTS Norman translation of the Patimokkha.
Index;
SBE: Vinaya Texts, Part I: The Patimokkha, Translated from the Pāli by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann Oldenberg;
BhikkhupātimokkhaPāli, the Pali;
ATI: The Bhikkhu Patimokkha

 

Tuesday, October 02, 2012 5:45 AM
Jataka Stories
The entire collection of The Pali Text Society translation of the Jataka Stories edited by Professor E.B. Cowell is now available on this site. This collection is in the Public Domain and has been previously made available in 5 PDF files from Internet Sacred Text Archives. The collection here has been re-formatted and proofed correcting a few errors ... mostly problems with footnotes. The stories here are each on separate html files which will facilitate different organizations of collections of these stories for text-readers. Not all these stories are sutable or of interest to all audiences.
In the process of putting together this collection I have posted separately below links to stories of special interest.
The primary value of this collection is the vast volume of 'lore' that it contains. Fascinating descriptions of magic powers and potions, customs and rituals and the manner in which tasks of ordinary life at the time were conducted.
Another value, not to be under-estimated, is the inspiration these stories can give to both adults and children. There is here a treasure trove of stories that will instill values such as courage, perserverance, resourcefulness, honesty, generosity, wisdom, learning, self-sacrifice, performance of duty for those in rule and for all to their parents, and many other high values.
It should be remembered, however, that these stories, even where they are very likely genuinely uttered by Gotama, represent the values held by Gotama prior to his having become a Buddha. Most of the stories represent high values acceptable both in the world and for the Buddhist renunciate, but there are exceptions and it should be remembered that what is being suggested by these stories pertains to worldly existence. Doctrines held by characters in these stories should not be used to support arguments concerning what is taught in the Dhamma except where they are in accordance with the Suttas.

 

Friday, September 14, 2012 5:16 AM
Jataka Story 518: Paṇḍara-Jātaka PDF pdf
Jataka Story 519: Sambula-Jātaka. Where the Act of Truth is used as an oath to demonstrate that one has told the truth by the mechanism: 'If I have spoken the truth, let such and such thing happen.'
Jataka Story 522: Sarabhaŋga-Jātaka. A story with a lot of wise advice.

No royal force, however vast its might,
Can win so great advantage in a fight
As the good man by patience may secure:
Strong patience is of fiercest feuds the cure.

It contains 'The Questions of Sakka' which is something that comes up here and there.

Jataka Story 536: Kuṇāla-Jātaka.
A pretty fair picture of womankind, I'd say.

 

Thursday, August 30, 2012 5:13 AM
[AN 7.31]: Heedfulness, Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
AN 7.31: Appamādagārava Suttaṃ, The Pali
[AN 7.32]: A Sense of Shame, Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
AN 7.32: Hirigārava Suttaṃ, The Pali
[AN 7.33]: Compliance (1), Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
AN 7.33: Paṭhama Sovacassatā Suttaṃ, The Pali
[AN 7.34]: Compliance (2), Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
AN 7.34: Dutiya Sovacassatā Suttaṃ, The Pali
[AN 4.161]: Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, The Pali
[AN 4.162]: (Modes of Practice) in Detail, Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
AN 4.162: Dutiya Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, The Pali
[AN 4.163]: Unattractiveness, Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
AN 4.163: Tatiya Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, The Pali
[AN 4.164]: Tolerant (1), Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
AN 4.164: Catuttha Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, The Pali
[AN 4.165]: Tolerant (2), Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
AN 4.165: Pañcama Paṭipadā Suttaṃ, The Pali

 

Sunday, August 26, 2012 8:05 AM
Jataka Story 489: Suruci Jataka
A longish story extolling the virtues of Vishaka. Contains an interesting description of two feats of magic power and describes the performance of an 'Act of Truth': making a wish asking that it be granted if it is true or that one be punished if it is false.
Jataka Story 547: Vessantara Jataka.
A greatly beloved and much written-about story. I find it excruciatingly boring drivel and embarasing for it's values as well.
The Jataka stories, or at least some of them, are held to be of very early origin. I see the collection as a mixed bag. In some cases stories emerge from stories that can be found in the suttas and I don't find even some very fantastic things that appear in them to be too hard to take. This story appears to me to be some poet gone mad with the sound of his own voice and the sway of his emotions and there is what looks to me like a confusion concerning just exactly who it is that is telling this story.
Still, if you are going to call yourself educated in the Buddhist literature, this is a story you need to have read at least once.

 

Saturday, August 18, 2012 4:20 AM
Digital Pali Reader
Download links for a tool in the form of a Mozilla Firefox extension, much like a hard-copy language reader, facilitating study of the Pali language.

 

Friday, August 17, 2012 6:15 AM
Jataka Story 476
The Bodhisattva, born as a goose of great speed catches the arrows of four strong bowmen each aiming towards one of the four directions before they even touch the ground. The king asks the goose: "Well, friend, is there any speed swifter than yours?" "There is, my friend. Swifter than my swiftest a hundredfold, a thousandfold, nay a hundred thousandfold, is the decay of the elements of life in living beings: so they crumble away, so they are destroyed."
See also: [SN 2.20.6] The Bowman.

 

Friday, August 10, 2012 1:54 PM
[AN 10.69] Topics of Talk, Olds, translation.
Note that included in the topics of talk called 'animal talk' which should be avoided is talk about existence and non-exisetence of things. This includes 'self' — the discussion of whether or not there is a self, the statement that 'There is no self', are not proper subjects for discussion. The topic suitable for discussion is that there is 'no thing there that is the self'. The former is an opinion, the latter is something that can be observed.

 

Friday, August 10, 2012 6:11 AM
[Jataka 465]: Bhadda-Sāla-Jātaka
A long, convoluted story which contains a detailed description of the story of Gotama's effort to save the Sakkya clan from slaughter by King Viḍūḍabha, son of King Pasanadi. The story is sometimes used to justify Buddhists taking up political action. Reading the story itself shows that the only lesson to be taken from this event is exercise of compassion for all sides and abstention from futile action. This came up in a curious coinsidence in the old BuddhaDust site where I posted an essay on not taking revenge on September 10, 2001. On reflection it occurred to me that it was also curious that the person to whom I was responding had posted an essay advocating taking revenge and using violence in self-defense just at this time and seemingly out of the blue ... a person not heard from since.

 

Thursday, August 09, 2012 9:25 AM
[AN 10.15]: Appamada, Olds translation.
AN 10.15: Appamāda Suttaṃ, The Pali
Almost identical to SN 5.51.45-54. This is one of the most frequently appearing terms in the Pali. It is curious to me that this term which bears so much weight — in one place it is said that by understanding this one term one could attain Arahantship — it is the term used in the last piece of advice Gotama gave to the bhikkhus at the time of his death — should simply mean: 'no-carelessness', or Woodward's: 'seriousness', or Bhk. Thanissaro's: 'headfulness', or Bhk. Bodhi's: 'dilligence', or my 'caution'. I suggest the term is a 'manta' [Skt. 'mantra'], a door to another understanding of the Pali language and the origins of all languages. ... but! Be Careful! That way mada lies!

Tuesday, August 07, 2012 10:17 AM
[SN 5.51.67-76]: Probings Chapter, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.67-76: Esanā Vaggo, The Pali
[SN 5.51.77-86]: Floods Chapter, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.77-86: Ogho Vaggo, The Pali
Continuing and finishing the translation of the Iddhipada Samyutta series. These 20 suttas also are among those in this series making their first appearance either in the Pali or in translation and this also means that this is the first time the Complete Iddhipada Samyutta has appeared either in Pali or in Translation.
To view the entire Samyutta Series in order see SN 5.51 Iddhipada Samyutta Index

 

Saturday, August 04, 2012 10:22 AM
[SN 5.51.55-66]: Deeds Requiring Balance Chapter, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.55-66: Balakaraniya Vaggo, The Pali
Continuing the Iddhipada Samyutta series. These 12 suttas are also among those in this series making their first appearance either in the Pali or in translation.

 

Thursday, August 02, 2012 11:48 AM
Make it Make sense
On translating similes in parallel with what they are supposed to illustrate.

 

Wednesday, June 20, 2012 11:21 AM
The Old Man

 

Sunday, July 22, 2012 8:46 AM
[SN 5.51.22]: The Glop of Iron, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.22: Ayogu'a Suttaṃ, The Pali
Continuing the Samyutta Nikaya Iddhipada Samyutta, the collection of suttas on developing Magic Powers. In this sutta we get the method for the Magic Power known today as 'shape-shifting'. Vikubbanā-iddhi, 'the power of transformation'. In this example it is the power to visit the brahma world in this body. This sutta is also interesting from the point of view of the fact that it is one of the few instances where Gotama is asked directly about his mastery of magic powers and specifically about one which is always at the top of the list of doubts by skeptics: the ability to do magic deeds in this body — the only state considered 'real' by the skeptic.
[SN 5.51.23]: Beggar, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.23: Bhikkhu Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.24]: Pure and Simple, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.24: Suddhaka Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.25]: Fruits, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.25: Phala Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.26]: Fruits 2, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.26: Phala Suttaṃ 2, The Pali
[SN 5.51.27]: Ananda, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.27: Ānanda, The Pali
[SN 5.51.28]: Ananda 2, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.28: Ānanda 2, The Pali
[SN 5.51.29]: A Congregation of Beggars, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.29: Sambahula Bhikkhu, The Pali
[SN 5.51.30]: A Congregation of Beggars 2, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.30: Sambahula Bhikkhu 2, The Pali
[SN 5.51.31]: Mogallana, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.31: Mogallāno, The Pali
[SN 5.51.32]: Tathāgata, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.32: Tathāgata, The Pali
This ends the third sub-chapter of eight, or the first thirty-two of eighty-six suttas of the Iddhipada Samyutta. All but the first and last of the remaining suttas are completely abbreviated in all translations and in the Pali and consist of similes or benefits of cultivating the Iddhipadas as described to this point. The first and last suttas spell out only the formula for attaching the simile or benefit and only give indicative phrases and elipsis for placement of the details of the Iddhipadas. These suttas consist of a standard ('stock') set used at the end of many collections of suttas relating to a topic under development which are, however, themselves subject to a rotating variation. One can imagine if these series were spelled out here and in all the other places they occur an image in the mind's eye something like what one might experience in the actual view of a vast desert of sand-dunes stretching out to the horizon as compared to the way the same desert might be thought of without the view or indicated image in mind. In the actual view the beauty of the scope is seen and felt where in the thoughts alone all the biases one has with regard to deserts interfere with the awe inspiring direct perception. Or the sea. Or the vastness of outer space. Or a jungle. Or life.

Things talk to us. What this says to me here is that I as well as the other translators and even the editors of the Pali have not yet surpassed this limitation in vision, but here have come to a stop, short of the full scope of possibility. Let me not stop here, boss! If we're going to play 'translator', let's play it for all it's worth!

OK, I did two sets:
[SN 5.51.33-44]: Ganga Repetition, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.33-44: Gaṅgā-Peyyālo, The Pali

[SN 5.51.45-54]: Appamada, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.45-54: Appamāda Vagga, The Pali

The whole of each set is on one page so you can just scroll through to have a look-see. PS: Like a girl I once new whose every new lover was some kind of a first, I claim to be the first one since they were wrtten down 2300 years ago to have read this group of suttas in Pali, the first one ever to have read them all in English, and the first to do a complete translation. Ta da! Who's on second?

 

Monday, July 16, 2012 5:55 AM
O. von Hinuber, Pali as an Artificial Language From Indologica.com, The Online Journal of the International Association of Sanskrit Studies, Volume X (1982), Proceedings of the "Conference-Seminar of Indological Studies", Article #10

Monday, July 16, 2012 5:55 AM
On the Advantages of Not Skipping Over Repetitions

 

§

 

The poets say that Apollo tended the flocks of Admetus; so too each man is a God in disguise who plays the fool.
—Ralph Waldo Emerson, found in "The Complete Short Stories of Marcel Proust" translated by Joachim Neugroschel
Pajapati's Problem — I lefa a ova

 

It is for those who wish to stop playing the fool
that 'beating the drum of Deathlessness' in a world gone blind
Gotama gave us this Dhamma.
Time to quit fooling around, my friends, Time Flies!

 

§

 

Friday, July 13, 2012 9:08 AM
The Eye in the back of the Head
Translating the term pacchāpure-saññī describing how to develop this ability to see both what is in front and in back of one while simultaneously being able to understand and deal with it.

 

Saturday, July 07, 2012 1:16 PM
Wheel 1303 Contemplation of Feeling The Discourse-Grouping on the Feelings, Translated from the Pali, with an Introduction by Nyanaponika Thera.
Not new, but new here. A translation of Samyutta Nikaya 4. 36: Vedana Samyutta.

 

Wednesday, July 04, 2012 8:25 AM
[SN 5.51.16]: Mighty Magic Power, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.16: Samaṇabrāhmaṇā (1) or Mahiddhi Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.17]: Variety, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.17: Samaṇabrāhmaṇā (2) or Vidhā Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.18]: Beggar, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.18: Bhikkhu Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.19]: Delineation, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.19: Desana or Bhavana Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.20]: Analysis, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.20: Vibhaŋga Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.21]: The Way, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.21: Magga Suttaṃ, The Pali
Continuing the Samyutta Nikaya series on the Paths to Magic Power.

 

Sunday, June 24, 2012 8:24 AM
[SN 5.51.10]: Shrine, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.10: Cetiya Suttaṃ, The Pali
End of the first chapter of the Samyutta series on magic powers. A version of the story concerning the Buddha's renunciation of the possibility of extending his lifespan to the end of the world.
[SN 5.51.11]: Before, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.11: Pubbe or Hetu Suttaṃ, The Pali
A very important sutta for those interested in developing the four power-paths and the higher knowledges. There is in this translation also a completely different, and I believe much more instructive, translation given to the way to perceive past lives.
[SN 5.51.12]: Fruitful, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.12: Mahapphala Suttaṃ, The Pali
Same as #11 with slightly different opening.
[SN 5.51.13]: Wishing, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.13: Chando Suttaṃ, The Pali
In this sutta the relationship of the terms in the compound terms of the path are explained.
[SN 5.51.14]: Moggallāna, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.14: Moggalāno Suttaṃ, The Pali
Moggallāna shakes the Palace up a little with his big toe using a super-conjuration of super-conjurating.
[SN 5.51.15]: Brahmin Unnabha, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.15: Uṇṇābha Suttaṃ, The Pali
Unnabha asks Ananda how it is possible to end desire with desire.

 

Wednesday, June 20, 2012 11:21 AM
If This Be Madness

 

Saturday, June 16, 2012 8:27 AM
[AN 4.13]: Commendable Effort, Olds translation.

 

Wednesday, June 13, 2012 6:25 AM
Book Review: The Doctrine of Awakening, Julius Evola

 

Monday, June 11, 2012 8:49 AM
[SN 5.51.1]: To Beyond, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.1: Aparā Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.2]: Fail to Undertake, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.2: Viraddho Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.3]: Aristocratic, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.3: Ariyā Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.4]: Utter Weariness, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.4: Nibbidā Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.5]: Ranging the Paths of Power, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.5: Padesa Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.6]: Mastered, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.6: Samatta Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.7]: Beggars, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.7: Bhikkhū Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.8]: Awake or Worthy, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.8: Buddha or Arahaṃ Suttaṃ, The Pali
[SN 5.51.9]: Knowledge, Olds translation.
SN 5.51.9: Ñāṇa Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Pali in both PTS and BJT versions of this sutta is confused and incomplete (not just abbreviated) and has been corrected and spelled out completely in this version.
The first suttas of the Iddhipada Samyutta, suttas connected with the development of magic powers. Woodward, SN 5.51.2: "... by whomsoever these four bases of psychic power are neglected, by them also is neglected the Ariyan way that goes on to the utter destruction of Ill."

 

Saturday, June 09, 2012 10:09 AM
[SN 5.52.4-6]: Cactus Forest, I, II, and III, Olds translation.
SN 5.52.4-6: Kaṇṭakī Suttaṃ I, II, III, The Pali
Three short suttas showing the advantages of developing and making a big thing of the four settings-up of memory (the 4 satipatthana) and then, once mastered, letting them go.

 

Thursday, June 07, 2012 11:50 AM
[SN 5.46.3]: Ethical Culture, Olds translation.
SN 5.46.3: Sīla Suttaṃ, The Pali.
The benefits of coming into contact with bhikkhus with high degrees of accomplishment. Such contact results in the development of the Seven Dimensions of Self-Awakening and the development of that results in one or another of the stages of Non-returning.

 

Tuesday, May 29, 2012 6:16 AM
[AN 7.46]: Vitthata Satta-saññā Suttaṃ, Seven Perceptions — In Detail, Olds translation. A sutta which presents the system through seven varieties of 'perception'.
Also added is #45 which is identical, but 'in brief', giving only the names of the seven.

 

Friday, May 11, 2012 7:56 AM
[AN 5.177]: Vaṇijjā Suttaṃ, Trades, Olds translation. Trades, modes of livlihood, manners of making a living that should not be undertaken by a Buddhist Lay Follower. Notice here the use of broad general or generic terms for the various occupations thus rendering the list less subject to time. 'Swords' is to imply weapons. It could have been 'knives', but knives are sometimes not used as weapons. Trade in living beings implies more than the slave trade and includes trade in animals raised for slaughter. Trade in 'limbs' or 'members' (parts) points to the role of the butcher. The instruction is not to engage in the selling of meat; there is no prohibition against the eating of meat. This is the tactic used in all such issues. This is the tactic used in the case of the trade in maddening drugs. At the time alcohol was the only problem drug but the term points to the real issue: any substance which causes a person to loose good judgment. And again the prohibition is against selling, not use.

 

Tuesday, May 01, 2012 5:12 AM
[MN 30]: Cū'asāropama Sutta, The Shorter Heartwood-simile Discourse Bhk. Thanissaro, translation.
[MN 35]: Cula-Saccaka Sutta, The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka Bhk. Thanissaro, translation.
[MN 136]: Maha-kammavibhanga Sutta, The Great Exposition of Kamma, revised 2012, Bhk. Thanissaro, translation.
[SN 5.46.53]: Aggi Sutta, Fire,, Bhk. Thanissaro, translation.

 

One Thing followed by Happiness

Monday, April 30, 2012 6:31 AM
PDF BOOK pdf One Thing followed by Happiness A Guide to Serenity through Recollecting Aspiration. Being a translation from the Pāli of Saɱyutta Nikāya V. Mahā-Vagga 10. Ānāpāna-saɱyuttaṃ by Michael M. Olds. — PRELIMINARY  EDITION 2012.
[0.003] Additional minor corrections
[0.002] Added note explaining links — [1][than] — preceding Nidana
[0.001] Updated with some minor corrections and the inclusion of MN 118: Recollecting Aspiration, Olds translation.
The 'Preliminary Edition' part must be emphasized! I am new to creating this sort of file and would welcome feedback as to it's readability. I will, myself, be making changes and will note the edition following the year: 2012 — 1 etc.
This book contains my translations, the Pali, Bhk. Thanissaro's translations, my translation of the Maha Satipatthana Sutta, the Pali for the Maha Satipatthana Suttanta, a table giving the translations of other translators for important terms, a number of appendixes providing both directly relevant and tangential information, and a version of The Method describing one view of the Course through the Buddha's system. Most technical terms are defined and discussed in footnotes.
The book was intended to provide a single-volume original sources 'Meditation Manual' for the Recollecting Aspiration (Minding the Breaths) meditation practice.
This is a big file: 432 pages.

 

Sunday, April 29, 2012 8:42 AM
Book Review: Zen Simply Sitting, Philippe Coupey. A small book which is a commentary on the Fukanazengi [Universal Guide on the Correct Practice of Zazen] by Master Dogen.

 

Friday, April 27, 2012 12:45 PM
I have eliminated the section on this site that contained the un-annotated versions of my sutta translations. This for reasons of simplification. The section now points to the annotated translations.

 

Wednesday, April 18, 2012 12:04 PM
A Greeting for All

 

Wednesday, April 18, 2012 11:45 AM
[SN 5.54.13]: Ānanda Suttaṃ, Ananda, Olds translation. Number 13 in the series on Minding the Breathing.

In this sutta Ananda approaches The Buddha with what appears to have been a puzzle put to him or an inspiration that came to him. He asks about whether or not Dhamma taught one way might be the equivalent of Dhamma taught another way. The Buddha confirms and explains. This is a very important point that solves many of the issues troubling Buddhist students out there. It provides yet another tool for confirming whether or not a teaching or translation is consistant with the whole. If a teaching or translation renders another teaching or translation invalid, then there is a problem with one or the other or both. It explains how 'The One and Only Way' can be taught 84,000 different ways. It helps a person with a bias overcome that bias by presenting the approach in different ways. For the person with a bias, there is a paradox which must be resolved and resolving paradoxes is always mind-expanding. A very interesting sutta.

This translation is completely 'rolled out' which is not the case in any other translation, and in addition, I have rolled out the Pali which otherwise is very confusing.

SN 5.54.14]: Dutiya Ānanda Suttaṃ, Ananda 2, Olds translation. Identical with #13 except that the question was asked by Gotama.
SN 5.54.15]: Bhikkhū Suttaṃ, Beggars 1, Olds translation. Identical with #13 except that the question was asked by a large number of beggars.
SN 5.54.16]: Dutiya Bhikkhū Suttaṃ, Beggars 2, Olds translation. Identical with #15 except that the question was asked by Gotama.
SN 5.54.17]: Saŋyojanam Suttaṃ, Self-yokes to rebirth, Olds translation. How respiration-minding serenity, developed and made much of, evolves into the letting go of the Self-yokes to rebirth.
SN 5.54.18]: Anusaya Suttaṃ, Self-remnants, Olds translation. How respiration-minding serenity, developed and made much of, evolves into the ultimate eradication of the Self-remnants.
SN 5.54.19]: Addhāna Suttaṃ, Knowledge of the Stretch, Olds translation. Knowing when one's time is up.
SN 5.54.20]: Āsavakkhaya Suttaṃ, Destruction of the Corruptions, Olds translation.
SN 5.54.12]: Kankheyyaṃ Suttaṃ, Clearing up An Uncertainty, Olds translation.

If you havn't been keeping track, this means that the entire Anapana Samyutta has been translated, completely rolled out in both English and Pali. I cannot recommend the study of this group of suttas more! It presents the breath meditation technique stripped of anything unnecessary and shows how it can be used in all sorts of ways right up to the end-game!

 

Friday, April 13, 2012 12:22 PM
[SN 5.54.11]: Icchānangala Suttaṃ, Icchanangala, Olds translation. Number 11 in the series on Respiration that was likely the source for the Satipatthana Sutta. Whatever, the description of this meditation practice in this series is very simple and clear. For the complete method start at #1. If you are confused by all the various practices out there that tell you to focus on the breathing this way and that way, 'thinking,' 'thinking,' 'thinking' this and that, then check this series out to see the original method in all it's simplicity ... though deeper than the deep blue see. Point of interest: Number 9 in the series tells the story of the first introduction of the method to the bhikkhus. Very dramatic.

 

Thursday, April 12, 2012 7:45 AM
[AN 9.12]: Sa-upādisesa Suttaṃ, With Holding-on, Olds translation. The nine destinies of those who die while still holding on to existence in various ways that are nevertheless safe from hells, animal births, ghostly births, and states of heavy-duty suffering and who are certain to reach Nibbana within a limited number of lives. Be warned! This is not an invitation to get lazy!

 

Sunday, April 08, 2012 6:45 AM
[AN 9.13]: MahāKoṭṭhita Suttaṃ, MahāKoṭṭhita, Olds translation. What's the point? If it isn't to change one's kamma, then what is the reason one becomes a Buddhist?

 

Friday, April 06, 2012 1:03 PM
[AN 9.37]: Ānanda Suttaṃ, Ananda, Olds translation. Another in a growing collection of suttas which describes an impersonal consciousness. Not 'Bodhi Mind'! Not something that is always there and simply needs to be realized, not something which when attained is the same as that which was left behind, but a stable, happy, fear-free mind-made freedom-sustained serenity where eye is such that of the realm of shapes there is no resultant personal experience.

 

Wednesday, April 04, 2012 5:09 PM
[AN 9.14]: Samiḍḍhi Suttaṃ, Samiddhi, Olds translation. A short but very instructive sutta pointing to the junction of nama/rupa and consciousness where liberation is to be found. The sutta is a dialog between Samiddhi and Sāriputta and amounts to the testing of this bhikkhus level of understanding. The translation is very close to the Pali in style, so note the severity of the style! Sāriputta's caution at the end would indicate that Samiddhi was not yet Arahant.

 

Tuesday, April 03, 2012 8:57 AM
[AN 7.47]: Methuna Suttaṃ, Intercourse, Olds translation. The Brahma Carriage in detail. The complete, faultless, spotless, unblemished, fulfilled, clean clear through, carriage of the Brahma carriage.
See also, in this context, the BuddhaDust archive: Sex and the Lay Buddhist

 

Saturday, March 31, 2012 9:14 AM
[AN 9.7]: Sutavāparibbājaka Suttaṃ, The Wanderer Sutava, Olds translation. Manners in which a beggar who is arahant,
corruptions eliminated,
un-ocupied,
duty's doing done,
load laid down,
his own good gained,
yokes to living thoroughly broken,
highest answer-knowledge free,
cannot behave.

 

Sunday, March 18, 2012 6:42 AM
[MN 112]: Chabbisodhana Sutta, The Sixth Cleansing, Olds translation. The questions to be asked when in doubt about some person's claim to be Arahant. I believe this is the first full translation of this sutta. The PTS and Bhks. Nanamoli and Bodi's translations have abbreviations and both re-use previous translations of the last section whereas it contains differences from the previously translated Pali. Sister Upalavana's translation is linked. She often mangles English, but her predisposition is to accurate translation independant of the other translators and consulting her choices is sometimes helpful. The sutta is linked to the Pali. There are links also to the PTS and Wisdom Publications translations which indicate only that I have them and could put them up if there were no copyright restrictions.

 

Wednesday, March 14, 2012 5:13 AM
On Translating 'Dhatū'

 

Wednesday, March 07, 2012 2:53 PM
MN 130 The Deva Messengers, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans. Linked to the Pali. This is the sutta which is the basis for the simile for Hell found in the Advantages and Disadvantages section of The Pali Line: The Horrors and Woes of Niraya

 

Wednesday, March 07, 2012 9:21 AM
The Truth of Rebirth: And Why it Matters for Buddhist Practice, by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. An exploration of the Buddha's teaching on rebirth. pdf file

 

Friday, March 02, 2012 2:28 PM
Is Nibbana Conditioned? Putting forth the idea that it is mistranslation that is the source of this debate.

Thursday, March 01, 2012 9:23 AM
Understanding the Distinctions between Kamma, Ethics, Morality, the Rules of the Sangha, and the Behavior Required of One Seeking Awakening

Saturday, February 18, 2012 9:50 AM
New Translations.
SN 5.47.35: Mindful, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
SN 5.47.35: Minding, Olds, trans.
SN 5.47.35: Sato, The Pali

SN 5.47.37: Desire, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
SN 5.47.37: Wishing, Olds, trans.
SN 5.47.37: Chandaṃ, The Pali

SN 5.47.38: Comprehension, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
SN 5.47.38: Encyclopedic Knowledge, Olds, trans.
SN 5.47.38: Pariññāta, The Pali

SN 5.47.41: Deathless, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
SN 5.47.41: Deathless, Olds, trans.
SN 5.47.41: Amatam, The Pali

SN 5.47.42: Origination, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
SN 5.47.42: Arising, Olds, trans.
SN 5.47.42: Samudayo, The Pali

AN 10 65: First Discourse on the Pleasant K. Nizamis, trans.
AN 10 65: Pathama Sukha Sutta The Pali

AN 10 66: Second Discourse on the Pleasant K. Nizamis, trans.
AN 10 66: Dutiya Sukha Suttaṃ The Pali

Thursday, February 09, 2012 8:17 AM
Discussion of the final paragraph of MN 29.

Beggars! The best course does not have a gains-honour-reputation-core,
nor an accomplishment-in-ethics-core,
nor a accomplishment-in-serenity-core,
nor a knowledge-vision-core.

But there is beggars, unshakable heart-release —
here, beggars the best course is for attainment of this.

This is it's hardwood.

This is it's encompassing end.

Wednesday, February 08, 2012 3:54 AM
New Sutta Translations
AN 5 29: Cankama Sutta: Walking, Aggacitta Bhikkhu and Kumara Bhikkhu, translation, from ATI.
MN 29: The Longer Heartwood-simile Discourse, Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, from ATI
SN 2.21.1: Kolita, Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, from ATI
SN 2.21.1: Kolito, the Pali.

Tuesday, January 10, 2012 7:32 AM
A bunch of new sutta translations:
 
AN 3 83 The Vajjian Monk, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
 
AN 3 85 One in Training (1), Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
AN 3 86 One in Training (2), Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
 
MN 41 (Brahmans) of Sala, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
 
SN 5 55.54 Ill, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
SN 5 55.54 Gilāyanaṃ Suttaṃ, the Pali
 
SN 5 56.35 One Hundred Spears, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
SN 5 56.35 Sattisata Suttaṃ, the Pali
 
SN 5 56.36 Animals, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
 
SN 5 56.20 Real, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
SN 5 56.20 Suchas Such Are Such as Such Are, Olds, trans.
SN 5 56.20 Tathā Suttaṃ, the Pali
 
SN 5 56.102-113 Dust, Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.
SN 5 56.102-131 Five Destinations, Olds, trans.
SN 5 56.102-131 Gatiyo Pañcaka, the Pali

Wednesday, January 04, 2012 5:52 AM
What is Two? An extensive discussion of Nama/Rupa+Vinnana (Named/Shapes+Consciousness)

Monday, January 02, 2012 6:04 AM
How is Translation Possible? Not as tough as understanding the lingo of today's kids!

 


 

2011

 


 

Monday, November 07, 2011 6:06 AM
Reflecting Mirrors An update to the Archive post The Mirror Image after reading of a debate using the simile of the mirror between two contenders for the title of the Sixth Patriarch of the Zen sect by D.T. Suzuki, found in the JPTS 1906.

Sunday, October 23, 2011 8:52 AM
Don Juan's Table

Thursday, October 20, 2011 6:25 AM
Jataka Story 334 Story of the Buddha's Former Birth where he advises a king about righteous rule.

Thursday, October 20, 2011 5:19 AM
Note for Ms. MacLaine The End of the World is at Hand, II.

Sunday, October 16, 2011 2:27 PM
Note for the goat-starers New comment.

Sunday, October 16, 2011 2:27 PM
AN 8.40: Landing One's Self in the Pay-up New sutta translation by Mike Olds.

Friday, October 14, 2011 5:49 PM
Until Sickness Do Us Part

Thursday, October 13, 2011 2:36 PM
Kuvera or Vessavana
Biography: Kuvera, the God of Wealth.

Thursday, October 13, 2011 2:36 PM
Desolation Angels, Jack Kerouac

Friday, October 07, 2011 12:43 PM
Same-ol' Same-ols'

Monday, October 03, 2011 8:07 A"
New Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation of MN 38
MN 38 discussion

Sunday, September 25, 2011 8:32 AM
Book Review: Junky by William S. Burroughs

Sunday, September 25, 2011 5:01 AM
MN 75: The Magandiya Sutta PDF pdf
MN 75: The Magandiya Sutta EPUB
MN 75: The Magandiya Sutta MOBI
Reworked into a script for dramatization possibly as a radio play, stage play, video.

Sunday, August 21, 2011 2:55 PM
Book Review: I Am A Strange Loop, by Douglas Hofstadter

Monday, August 15, 2011 6:26 AM
Sappurisa Sutta: A Person of Integrity A new translation by Bhikku Thanissaro, with links to the Pali and to the translation of Sister Upalavana.

 


 

2010

 


 

Friday, July 09, 2010 3:56 AM
Ditthadhamma Lokadhamma! Current events — Worldly Matters; 'slow blog'. [DISCONTINUED]


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