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Monday, September 19, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, August 22, 2016


 

Announcement

At this time [August 2016] a mirror of this site has been set up by Nicolas Kermarc at http://www.buddhadust.net. This has been done partly as a measure to help insure the preservation of the materials found here, but will have in addition a library of audio and video sutta recitations and Dhamma discussions and perhaps some additional interesting features which Nick has in mind such as e-books.

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pdf The Pali Line in Zipped PDF file. This is substantially the same as the on line version. Intended for printing 8-1/2 X 11 format 359 pages. For use as a workbook.

 

new Monday, August 29, 2016 4:50 AMThe Thera-Gāthā: Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
#6. Sīta-Vaniya, #7. Bhalliya, #8. Vīra, #9. Pilinda-Vaccha, #10. Puṇṇamāsa, #11. Gavaccha the Less, #12. Gavaccha the Great, #13. Vana-Vaccha, #19. Kula, #20. Ajita, #21. Nigrodha, #22. Cittaka, #23. Gosāla, #27. Lomasakangiya, #31. Gahvaratīriya, #32. Suppiya, #33. Sopāka, #34. Posiya, #42. Khadira-Vaniya, #43. Sumaŋgala, #44. Sānu, #45. Ramaṇīyavihārin, #47. Ujjaya, #48. Sañjaya, #49. Rāmaṇeyyaka, #50. Vimala, #51-54. Godhiko, Subāhu, Valliyo, Uttiyo, #55. Añjana-vaniya, #56. Kuṭivihārin (1), #57. Kuṭivihārin (2), #58. Ramaṇiyakuṭika, #59. Kosalavihārin, #71. Vacchapāla, #72. Ātuma, #73. Māṇava, #74. Suyāmana, #75. Susārada, #76. Piyañjaha, #77. Hatthāroha-Putta, #78. Meṇḍasīra, #79. Rakkhita, #80. Ugga, #81. Samitigutta, #82. Kassapa, #83. Sīha, #84. Nīta, #85. Sunāga, #86. Nāgita, #87. Paviṭṭha, #88. Ajjuna, #89. Devasabha, #90. Sāmidatta, #91. Paripuṇṇaka, #92. Vijaya, #93. Eraka, #94. Mettaji, #95. Cakkhupāla, #98. Abhaya (2), #99. Uttiya, #100. Devasabha (2), #101. Belaṭṭhakāni, #102. Setuccha, #103. Bandhura, #113. Vana-Vaccha (2), #114. Adhimutta, #115. Mahanāma, #116. Pārāpariya, #123. Valliya, #124. Gaŋgātīriya, #132. Jotidāsa, #133. Heraññakāni, #134. Somamitta, #135. Sabbamitta, #136. Mahākāḷa, #140. Sirimat, #144. 'Valliya', #145. Vitasoka, #146. Puṇṇamāsa, #147. Nandaka, #148. Bharata, #149. Bhāradvāja, #150. Kaṇhadinna, #151. Migasira, #152. Sivaka, #155. Sambula-Kaccāna, #156. Khitaka, #157. Soṇa-Poṭiriyaputta, #158. Nisabha, #159. Usabha, #160. Kappaṭa-Kura, #161. Kumāra-Kassapa, #162. Dhammapāla, #163. Brahmāli, #164. Mogharājan, #165. Visākha, Pañcālī's Son, #166. Cūḷaka, #167. Anūpama, #168. Vajjita, #172. Bākula, #173. Dhaniya, #175. Khujja-Sobhita, #176. Vāraṇa, #177. Passika, #178. Yasoja, #179. Sāṭimattiya, #180. Upāli, #181. Uttarapāla, #182. Abhibhūta, #183. Gotama (2), #184. Hārita (2), #185. Vimala (2), #186. Nāgasamāla, #190. Jambuka, #191. Senaka, #194. Candana, #197. Mudita, #198. Rājadatta, #199. Subhūta, #200. Girimānanda, #201. Sumana, #203. Kassapa of the River, #207. Yasadatta, #210. Kassapa of Uruvelā, #211. Tekicchakāri, #212. Mahā-nāga, #213. Kulla, #216. Katiyāna, #223. Sabbakāma, #224. Sundara-Samudda, #227. Sopāka (2), #227. Sarabhanga, #230. Sirimitta, #231. Panthaka Major, #232. Bhūta, #233. Kāḷudāyin, #235. Kappina the Great, #238. Upasena, Vanganta's Son, #239. Gotama, #243. Soṇa-Koḷivisa, #244. Revata, #248. Adhimutta, #249. Pārāpariya, #250. Telakāni, #257. Pārāpariya

This concludes the html formatting and uploading of The Thera-Gāthā: Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

 


[v. 947]
Saritvā pubbake yogī tesaɱ vatta-manussaraɱ,||
Kakiñ cā pi pacchimo kālo phuseyya amataɱ padaɱ.
|| ||

Remembering the saints of other days,
And recollecting how it was they lived,
E'en though to-day be but the after-time,
He may yet win the Ambrosial Way of Peace.

THAG #257: Pārāpariya Mrs. Rhys Davids, trans.


 


Kali's bones

Kāḷi itthī brahatī dhaŋkarūpā||
Satthiɱ ca bhetvā aparaɱ ca satthiɱ,||
Bāhaɱ ca bhetvā aparaɱ ca bāhuɱ||
Sīsaɱ ca bhetvā dadhithālakaɱ' va||
Esā nisinnā abhisaddahitvā.|| ||

Kāḷī woman huge shinny-black as crow
A thigh breaks off, and another thigh,
An arm breaks off, and another arm,
A skull breaks fashioning a bowl ere
this one sits won o'r to faith.

— THAG 136


 

Saŋsāra

Saŋsāra. Saŋ = on, own, with, one's own; sarati: to go, flow, run, move along. On-flow, own-flow. Another case where the 'saŋ' would be well-served by being translated 'own'. The identification with an aspect (a living being) in the on going flow of existence.

 

Hunger

"We received no food. We lived on snow; it took the place of bread. The days resembled the nights, and the nights left in our souls the dregs of their darkness. The train rolled slowly, often halted for a few hours, and continued. ... There followed days and nights of traveling. ... One day when we had come to a stop, a worker took a piece of bread out of his bag and threw it into a wagon. There was a stampede. Dozens of starving men fought desperately over a few crumbs. ... A crowd of workmen and curious passersby had formed all along the train. They had undoubtedly never seen a train with this kind of cargo. Soon, pieces of bread were falling into the wagons from all sides. And the spectators observed these emaciated creatures ready to kill for a crust of bread.

A piece fell into our wagon. ... I saw, not far from me, an old man dragging himself on all fours. He had just detached himself from the struggling mob. He was holding one hand to his heart. At first I thought he had received a blow to his chest. Then I understood: he was hiding a piece of bread under his shirt. With lightning speed he pulled it out and put it to his mouth. His eyes lit up, a smile, like a grimace, illuminated his ashen face. And was immediately extinguished. A shadow had lain down beside him. And this shadow threw itself over him. Stunned by the blows, the old man was crying: "Meir, my little Meir! Don't you recognize me ... You're killing your father ... I have bread ... for you too ... for you too ..." He collapsed. But his fist was still clutching a small crust. He wanted to raise it to his mouth. But the other threw himself on him. The old man mumbled something, groaned, and died. Nobody cared. His son searched him, took the crust of bread, and began to devour it. He didn't get far. Two men had been watching him. They jumped him. Others joined in. When they withdrew there were two dead bodies next to me, the father and the son.

Elie Wiesel, Night, pg 100 ff., translated by Marion Wiesel, Hill and Wang, New York 2006. First published in French 1958 by Les Éditions de Minuit, France, as La Nuit.

 

new Sunday, August 21, 2016 8:30 AMSaɱyutta Nikāya, Salayatana Vagga
[SN 4.35.85] Empty Is the World, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda asks about the extent of what is encompassed by the idea 'Empty is the World.'
[SN 4.35.86] The Dhamma in Brief, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda asks for a teaching in brief. The Buddha gives him a walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
[SN 4.35.87] Channa, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sariputta and Maha Cunda visit Channa who is dying a painful death. Channa announces he will 'take the knife' (commit suicide). Sariputta questions him as to his understanding of Dhamma and Maha Cunda recites for him a saying of the Buddha warning against the wavering that results from attachments. Later, after Channa has 'taken the knife' Sariputta questions the Buddha as to Channa's fate. The Buddha states that his was a blameless end.
[SN 4.35.88] Puṇṇa, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Punna, after being given an instruction 'in brief' by the Buddha, is questioned as to how he will deal with the fierce people of Sunaparanta where he intends to dwell. He gives a series of answers which shows he has the patience to deal with them even to the point of death.
[SN 4.35.89] Bāhiya, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Bahiya asks for a teaching in brief and The Buddha gives him a walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
[SN 4.35.90] Being Stirred 1 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents a method for eliminating passion which he characterizes as a sickness, a boil a being pierced by an arrow.
[SN 4.35.91] Being Stirred 2 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents a method for eliminating passion which he characterizes as a sickness, a boil a being pierced by an arrow.
[SN 4.35.92] The Dyad 1 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the ultimate duality and states that no one could reject this duality and point out another duality.
[SN 4.35.93] The Dyad 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that it is a consequence of the meeting of a sense organ and a sense object that sense-consciousness, sense-contact, sense-experience, feeling, and self-awareness appear and that each of these individual elements being changeable, the resulting consciousness is changeable.
[SN 4.35.94] Untamed, Unguarded, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that united with the six spheres of touch is the experience of pain or pleasure in accordance with whether or not the senses have been tamed, trained and are well guarded or not.
[SN 4.35.95] Māluŋkyaputta, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha gives Malankaya-Putta a teaching in brief which inspires him to attain arahantship.
[SN 4.35.97] Dwelling in Heedlessness, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha defines living dangerously as living with the forces of the senses uncontrolled. Living carefully is defined as living with the sense-forces controlled.
[SN 4.35.98] Restraint, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes restraint and lack of restraint in terms of whether or not one indulges and hangs on to the six senses.
[SN 4.35.99] Concentration, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha urges the Bhikkhus to develop serenity (samadhi) in order to see things as they are.
[SN 4.35.100] Seclusion, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha urges the Bhikkhus to develop solitude in order to see things as they are.
[SN 4.35.101] Not Yours 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to let go of experience through the senses. He compares their nature as not belonging to the self to the nature of the twigs and branches of the Jeta Grove.
[SN 4.35.102] Not Yours 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to let go of experience through the senses as such does not belong to the self.
[SN 4.35.103] Uddaka, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus the requiements for stating that one is knowledgable, has mastered the word, and dug out the root of pain.
[SN 4.35.104] Secure from Bondage, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha provides a general rule for the attainment of freedom from yokes in general through yoking one's self to abandoning the realms of the senses.
[SN 4.35.105] By Clinging, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that it is the senses that support personal pain and pleasure, and that seeing that the senses are impermanent and that impermanence is painful and letting go of taking delight in sense-experience leads to freedom and the end of rebirth.
[SN 4.35.108] I Am Superior, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha points out that where the senses are seen as inconstant and painful the idea that the self is better or worse or equal to any other does not find any basis.
[SN 4.35.109] Things That Fetter, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha defines the yokes to rebirth (sanyojana) distinguishing between the object (the senses) and the yoke itself which is desire and lust.
[SN 4.35.110] Things That Can Be Clung To, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha defines that which supports life distinguishing between the thing (the senses) that supports and the supporting which is desire and lust.
[SN 4.35.111] Things That Can Be Clung To, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha states flat out that without understanding, without thoroughly knowing about, without becoming dispassionate towards, and without letting go of the six spheres of sense one is incapable of attaining the end of pain (dukkha).
[SN 4.35.114] Mara's Snare 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that indulging in the pleasures of the senses one is known as someone inhabiting the house of the Evil One, under the influence of the Evil One, trapped by the Evil One's noose, bound by the Evil One, subject to the pleasure of the Evil One.
[SN 4.35.115] Mara's Snare 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that indulging in the pleasures of the senses one is known as someone in bondage to sensory objects perceived by the sense organs, one inhabiting the house of the Evil One, under the influence of the Evil One, trapped by the Evil One's noose, bound by the Evil One, subject to the pleasure of the Evil One.
[SN 4.35.116] Going to the End of the World, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha states that the end of the world is not to be reached by finding the end of the world but also that the end of pain cannot be reached without finding the end of the world. The bhikkhus question Ananda about this teaching in brief and Ananda explains that the meaning is that in the Buddha's system the world is to be understood as experiencing through the senses. The Buddha confirms Ananda's explanation.
[SN 4.35.117] Cords of Sensual Pleasure, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to be careful even concerning sense impressions that have passed in that memories of such are still capable of of influencing the mind.
[SN 4.35.118] Sakka's Question, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sakka, king of the devas, asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
[SN 4.35.120] Sāriputta, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sariputta teaches a bhikkhu about guarding the sense, moderation in eating and keeping the wakeful watch.
[SN 4.35.121] Exhortation to Rāhula, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Perceiving that Rahula, the Buddha's son, is ripe for Arahantship, the Buddha teaches him how to see the senses as not self and to let them go.
[SN 4.35.124] At Vesālī, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ugga (Hugo), the householder, of Vesālī, asks the Buddha why it is that some people attain Nibbana in this life while others do not. He is told that it is dependent on whether or not a person does those things which support sense-consciousness.
[SN 4.35.127] At Vesālī, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Udena, the king of the Vangsas, questions the venerable Bharadvaja as to why respectable young men of family would renounce the world and live their entire lives as beggars in the Dhamma taught by Gotama. Bharadvaja provides him with several answers the last of which satisfies the king who then becomes a lay follower.
[SN 4.35.129] Ghosita, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ghosita the householder asks Ananda about the Buddha's understanding of the diversity of informative data.
[SN 4.35.130] Hāliddakāni, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Haliddaka the householder asks Maha Kaccana about the diversity of informative data.
[SN 4.35.132] Lohicca the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Maha Kaccana teaches a brahmin the meaning of guarding the senses.
[SN 4.35.133] Lohicca the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Elder Udayin teaches by example the respect that should be paid to the Dhamma and Dhamma teachers. He then teaches the different situations where the Arahant will or will not point out pleasure and pain.
[SN 4.35.134] At Devadaha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha makes a distinction between the seeker and the Arahant with regard to being careful about guarding the senses.
[SN 4.35.135] The Opportunity, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha delivers a real fire-and-brimstone sutta urging the bhikkhus to take advantage of the lucky fact that they have been reborn when Dhamma was being taught and make strong effort.
[SN 4.35.136] Delight in Forms, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that it is because of the instability of the objects of the senses that gods and men come to grief, but that the Arahant actually finds this instability his source of living at ease.
[SN 4.35.137] Not Yours 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to let go of experience through the senses. He compares their nature as not belonging to the self to the nature of the twigs and branches of the Jeta Grove.
Note: WP Sutta numbers do not agree with the Pali or PTS translations from here to the end of this chapter.
[SN 4.35.139-144 WP: 140-145] Impermanent/Suffering/Nonself with Cause (Internal/External), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translations.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the sense organs and objects, however they originated, are a product of the impermanent/painful/not-self and as a consequence are themselves impermant/painful/not-self. Then he instructs them that when this is seen as it is, one lets go one's taste for experience through the senses.
[SN 4.35.145 WP: 146] Kamma, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Deeds, the M. Olds translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus about old kamma, new kamma and the way to end kamma.
[SN 4.35.146-149 WP: 147-150] Suitable for Attaining Nibbana 1-4, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translations.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that a helpful tool in the effort to attain Nibbana is to regard the sense organs, the sense objects, sense-consciousness, contact with the senses, and the sensations that result from contact with the senses all as impermanent.
[SN 4.35.150 WP: 151] A Student, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens allowing unprofitable states to arise from sensory perception to having a resident student and being under the power of a teacher, for these states dwell within and boss him around.
[SN 4.35.151 WP: 152] For What Purpose the Holy Life?, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains to the bhikkhus how they should respond to questions about why one leads the bhikkhu's life under him.
[SN 4.35.152 WP: 153] Is There a Method?, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the manner in which knowledge can be had (right up to knowledge of arahantship) without resort to faith, inclination, hearsay, methodological deduction, reflection on reasons or approval of a speculative theory.
[SN 4.35.153 WP: 154] Equipped with Faculties, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains what it means to have brought the forces to perfection, or to say that someone has brought their forces to perfection.
[SN 4.35.154 WP: 155] A Speaker on the Dhamma, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells a bhikkhu what is to be understood by the terms 'Dhamma teaching bhikkhu', 'an In Form-according-to-Dhamma bhikkhu,' and 'a Nibbana-in-this-seen-thing-winning bhikkhu.'
[SN 4.35.187 WP: 228] The Ocean 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens sense experience to the ocean with the sense objects being the source of it's turbulance. He who can transcend the turbulance is called free.
[SN 4.35.188 WP: 229] The Ocean 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens sense experience to the ocean in which the world, for the most part is drowned, tangled up and bound down. He who can get rid of lust, anger and blindness has transcended this ocean with it's great dangers.
[SN 4.35.189 WP: 230] The Fisherman Simile the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens indulgence in sense experience to a fish being hooked by a fisherman's bait.
[SN 4.35.190 WP: 231] The Milk-Sap Tree the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens lust, hate and blindness to sap flowing from a cut in a sappy tree. In such a one even insignificant contact with sense objects overwhelms the heart, he has no hope when he comes into contact with powerful sense objects.
[SN 4.35.192 WP: 233] Kāmabhū, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda teaches Kamabhu the Buddha's doctrine that the sense organs are not bound to the sense objects nor are the sense objects bound to the sense organs, but desire binds the two together.
[SN 4.35.194 WP: 235] The Exposition on Burning the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha delivers a real old-time fire and brimstone sermon on the dangers associated with the senses.
[SN 4.35.195 WP: 236] The Simile of Hands and Feet 1 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha points out that without hands and feet, limbs and belly there would not be seen those activities that lead to personal pleasure and pain.
[SN 4.35.196 WP: 237] The Simile of Hands and Feet 2 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha points out that without hands and feet, limbs and belly there would not be seen those activities that lead to personal pleasure and pain.
[SN 4.35.197 WP: 238] The Simile of the Vipers, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha makes and explains similes for the four great characteristics, the five fuel stockpiles, desire, the six sense organs, the six sense objects, the corrupting influences, the eightfold path, Nibbana and the Arahant.
[SN 4.35.198 WP: 239] The Simile of the Chariot, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a formula for living fully and at ease here with good grounds for attaining arahantship in the future: guard the senses, exercise moderation in eating and practice wakefulness.
[SN 4.35.199 WP: 240] The Simile of the Tortoise, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens guarding the senses to the safety of the tortoise when it draws into it's shell it's head and limbs to protect itself from predators.
[SN 4.35.200 WP: 241] The Simile of the Great Log 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that by following high view (samma ditthi) one naturally drifts towards and ends up in Nibbana in the same way that a log in the Ganghes, if it avoids all the obstacles, will drift towards and end up in the ocean.
[SN 4.35.201 WP: 242] The Simile of the Great Log 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that by following high view (samma ditthi) one naturally drifts towards and ends up in Nibbana in the same way that a log in the Ganghes, if it avoids all the obstacles, will drift towards and end up in the ocean.
[SN 4.35.202 WP: 243] Exposition on the Corrupted, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Maha Moggallana delivers a discourse on what constitutes a leaky bhikkhu. If a bhikkhu dwells attached to the pleasures of the senses, averse to the pains of the senses then he is conquored by the senses and subject to old age, sickness and death and is a leaky bhikkhu. If he is not attached to the pleasures of the senses, averse to the pains of the senses then he is conquoror of the senses and not subject to old age, sickness and death and is not a leaky bhikkhu.
One of a very few places where we get to hear the voice of Maha Moggallana.
[SN 4.35.203 WP: 244] States That Entail Suffering, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains what it means to know and see the appearing and disappearing of all states of pain and how, so seeing one is freed from sense experience.
[SN 4.35.204 WP: 245] The Kimsuka Tree, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A bhikkhu questions a number of bhikkhus about the nature of perfection and receives different answers from each. Consulting the Buddha it is explained that there are many different approaches to Nibbana.

 

A Few of the Major
Approaches to Nibbāna

By Way of The Magga:
High View, high principles, high talk, high works, high lifestyle, high self-control, high mind, and high serenity.
The Magga The Magga The Magga
Focused on

The arising as owned[a] and settling down of the six spheres of contact.

Vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch and mentation.

The arising as owned and settling down of the five fuel stockpiles.

Body, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness.

The arising as owned and settling down of the four great elemental characteristics.

Earth (solidity), water (liquidity), fire (heat), and Wind (motion).

The thought: "Whatsoever has come into existence, all that is subject to ending."

—SN 4.35.204

 


[a] Samudaya. Own-arising = Arising as own-this or that. I have said that no other translator has recognized the 'sam' in this word, but this is not correct. Bhk. Thanissaro periodically but not in the case of SN 4.35.204, has 'co-arising' (but I am not sure what he has in mind with/by this translation: 'co' = 'with', but with what? It has arisen, consequent upon thirst, as a result of the intent to experience some experience of some individual; it arises attached to the notion 'my' or 'I am'.). Most translators use just 'arising' or 'origination', but this misses the vital information that this 'arising' is the arising of a thing in the shape of something of one's own.

 

[SN 4.35.205 WP: 246] The Simile of the Lute, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus two similes: one for understanding the way mindfulness works to develop control over the inclination to indulge in sense pleasures, and the other, the famous simile of the Lute, to illustrate the emptiness of the pleasures of the senses.
[SN 4.35.206 WP: 247] The Simile of the Six Animals, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches a simile for the control of the six senses by way of contrasting the result of tying each of six different animals with six different tastes when they are each tied to the others versus when they are each tied to a central stake.
[SN 4.35.207 WP: 248] The Sheaf of Barley, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens sense experience to a shief of wheat being beaten by six farmers, then he likens the desire for rebirth to that same shief of wheat being beaten again by a seventh farmer. He then instructs the bhikkhus that any notion of things being the self or belonging to the self, any theories concerning such are vain, prideful assumptions with shaky unstable foundations.
Is it barley or corn? PED says 'corn', but in Britain 'corn' is wheat. Corn, 'maize', was not introduced into India until somewhere around 300 AD (so they say — actually they say it was much later than that, (c. 1400), but there is good evidence that the Chinese were trading with the Mexicans as well as the Indians around 300 AD.). Bhk. Bodhi does not explain his choice of 'barley'. ? Barley corns?
[SN 4.35.1 Concentration, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Nyanaponika Thera translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha defines 'vedana' (sense-experience) as consisting of three sensations: pleasant sensation, unpleasant sensation, and sensation that is not pleasant but not unpleasant.
[SN 4.35.2 Pleasure, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Nyanaponika Thera translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha defines 'vedana' (sense-experience) as consisting of three sensations: pleasant sensation, unpleasant sensation, and sensation that is not pleasant but not unpleasant.
[SN 4.35.3 Abandonment, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Nyanaponika Thera translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
After defining the three sensations, the Buddha describes how the residual inclination to lust for these sensations must be abandoned.
[SN 4.35.4 The Bottomless Abyss, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Nyanaponika Thera translation the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Using the figure of the maelstrom the Buddha describes the difference between the ordinary commoner and the arahant when experiencing the unpleasant.
[SN 4.35.5 Should Be Seen, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Nyanaponika Thera translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Seeing pleasant sensation as painful, painful sensation as a thorn, and not-painful-but-not-pleasant sensation as temporary, the bhikkhu is seeing things in the best way and by perfect understanding of pride brings pain to an end.
[SN 4.35.6 Should Be Seen, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Nyanaponika Thera translation the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Both the common person and the Arahant experience painful sensations, pleasant sensations and sensations that are not painful but not pleasant. The Buddha explains that the difference between the two is that the Arahant does not add to his pain by an emotional or 'follow-on' component.
[SN 4.35.7 The Sick Ward 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Nyanaponika Thera translation the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha visits the sick ward and delivers a sermon on being prepared for death through recollectedness and self-awareness.
[SN 4.35.8 The Sick Ward 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Nyanaponika Thera translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha visits the sick ward and delivers a sermon on being prepared for death through recollectedness and self-awareness.
[SN 4.35.9 Impermanent the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Nyanaponika Thera translation the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha defines the three sensations and describes them as inconstant, own-made, originating as a result, things under destruction, things fading away, ending things.
[SN 4.35.10 Rooted in Contact the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Nyanaponika Thera translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha points out that sensations rooted in contact are dependent on that contact and come to an end when that contact comes to an end.

This completes the html formatting of the suttas released by Wisdom Publications of the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation of Saɱyutta Nikāya IV. Saḷāyatana Vagga. This also completes the uploading of all of the html formatted Bhikkhu Bodhi sutta translations released for free distribution by Wisdom Publications.

 


Monday, August 22, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, July 25, 2016


 

 

The Load
or
The Abyss
or
The Fragile

The Five Fuel-Piles

The form fuel-pile,
the sense-experience fuel-pile,
the perception fuel-pile,
the own-making fuel-pile,
the consciousness fuel-pile.

This is called The Load, or The Abyss or the Fragile

The Load Bearer

That man called So-and-So,
constructed from form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness,
of such and such a clan.

Grabbing Hold of The Load
or
The Root of the Abyss

That thirst leading to further existence,
together with delight and lust
finding delight now here, now there —
that is:
thirst for sensual pleasure,
thirst for existence,
thirst for non-exisence
arising from form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness,.

The Enjoyment to be Had from the Load

The pleasure and ease which may arise
from form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.

The Impoverished Nature of the Load

The instability, pain and turn of events
connected with form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.

Dumping The Load
The Termination of The Load
or
Free from the Abyss,
or
The Unfragile

The complete dispassionate ending of,
the giving up,
the release from,
the annihilation of that thirst
for form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.

 

new Monday, July 25, 2016 6:32 AMSaɱyutta Nikāya, Khandha Vagga
[SN 3.22.22] The Burden, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Buddhism in Translations, H.C. Warren translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Walshe translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that the five stockpiles (khandha: body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness) amount to a burden, that the asumption of individuality can be termed the grasping of the burden, that desire for experience through the senses, desire to be, and the desire for more being, un-being, or re-being is the lifting up of the burden, and that the laying down of the burden is the utter eradication of desire.
[SN 3.22.23] Full Understanding, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that what is to be understood is body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness and what is called understanding is having completely eradicated lust, hatred and blindness.
Another way of saying this is that until you have completely eliminated lust, anger and blindness you have not yet fully understood body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
[SN 3.22.24] Directly Knowing, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that it is only by thoroughly understanding, being detached from, and giving up body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness that attainment of the ending of pain is possible.
The word to understand here is abhijāna: abhi + jñā; abhi = over; jñā = to know. PED relates this to memory or recollection and knowledge achieved through experience; Bhk. Bodhi appears to go with it's association with abhiññā which is a higher form of knowledge especially associated with magic powers. His translation in this context ('directly knowing') would imply knowing extra sensorily, seeing things without the intervention of identification with an experiencer of them. Here in this sutta abhijāna is found in a list which would seem to point to an understanding at a somewhat lower level, that is an intellectual, (accomplished by way of recollection) comprehension which would remind one of the instability, painful and selfless nature of the object. In other words to understand this as 'directly knowing' would be to start out at too high a level, beginning at the end result. Starting out at that point would not require becoming detached and giving up; these things are already aspects of directly knowing. ... but perhaps this is an instruction that is intended to be heard at two levels. I hear jñā or ññā as our 'Yes?' or 'Yeah? or Germanic 'Ja?' with pointing finger or hand jesture meaning 'is this not so?', 'do you see?' = 'you know?''you understand?' So I would hear 'above knowing' in this way as 'comprehensive knowledge' or 'knowledge beyond doubt' because achieved through experience. So in that sense 'direct', but 'direct' is not found in the etymology. The alternate title for this sutta 'Parijana' would indicate that abhiññā was a synonym and meant something like 'thorough' knowledge (Woodward's translation).
[SN 3.22.25] Desire and Lust, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that it is by putting away wish-lust associated with body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness that these things are abandoned in such a way as to prevent their arising again in the future.
Chanda-Rāga, and other similar compounds are mostly translated 'x and y'. But Pali can be constructed 'x and y' as easily as English, and I suggest that the intent of making these a compound is to have them understood as a compound. Here literally 'wish-rage' (rage as in 'it's all the rage') 'wish-lust' (the madness of wishing which would emphasize that what was being spoken of was a broad spectrum of wishes more clearly than the two ideas 'wishing' and 'lust' separately) or 'lust-wishing' (wishing for things giving rise to lust); at least 'lustful wishing' or 'wishful lusting'. In cases where we have two persons linked in a compound (Sariputta-Moggallana) too I suggest that they are, when spoken of this way, to be understood as more closely linked than if separated by the 'and'. Something to be thought of as a single unit. The 'Sariputta-Moggalana' team. So such compounds were intended to 'unite to emphasize'.
[SN 3.22.26] Gratification 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes how he attained certainty as to his awakening by thoroughly understanding the enjoyment to be had from, the poverty of and the way to terminate body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
Assāda, ādīnava, and nissaraṇa. Woodward: satisfaction, misery, escape. Bodhi: Gratification, danger, escape. Assāda is neither satisfaction, which is the state of having had enough; nor gratification which is the state of having reached a point where one is thankful to have had an experience; it is just the experiencing itself of whatever pleasure is to be had. Ādīnava im-poverished, miserable. That is the danger, but the word is not 'danger'. Nissaraṇa out-the on-flow. It is less the escape from than the stopping of the on-flow of body, etc. The difference being that 'escape' more even than 'release from' or 'freedom from' implies an escapee, but the emphasis here is much more on the stopping of the on-rolling of the khandhas than the freedom from them.
[SN 3.22.27] Gratification 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes how he attained certainty as to his awakening by thoroughly understanding the enjoyment to be had from, the poverty of and the way to terminate body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
[SN 3.22.28] Gratification 3, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes how it is that beings may gain awakening by thoroughly understanding the enjoyment to be had from, the poverty of and the way to terminate body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
Note the description of Nibbana here as 'dwelling with a heart (center/mind) out of the flow, unyoked, let loose, made without boundry-lines.' nissaṭā visaññuttā vippamuttā vimariyādi-katena cetasā viharantī.
[SN 3.22.29] Delight, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha declares that he who takes delight in the form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness is not free from pain, but he who is free from such delight is free from pain.
How does this work? Delight is one step removed from sensation. Delight is not the arising of pleasant sensation, it is the indulging in the enjoyment of that sensation, and is therefore fuel for the furtherence of existence. The act of indulging in delight has as it's counterpart existence. By not indulging in delight upon the arising of pleasant sensation, there is no fuel with counterpart in existence. (see the next sutta)
[SN 3.22.30] Arising, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that that which is the platform for body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness is the platform for pain and that when the platform is eliminated the pain is eliminated.
[SN 3.22.31] The Root of Misery, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as the abyss and thirst for pleasure and existence as the root of the Abyss.
[SN 3.22.32] The Fragile, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as fragile and the having brought these things to an end as the unfragile.
[SN 3.22.33] Not Yours 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as not belonging to one and something that should be put away.
[SN 3.22.34] Not Yours 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as not belonging to one and something that should be put away.
Identical with the previous but omitting the simile.
[SN 3.22.35] A Certain Bhikkhu, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Buddhism in Translations Warren translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A bhikkhu is given a teaching in brief that it is through a bias towards body, sense-experience, perception, own-making or consciousness that a personality is got, without such bias, there is no attaining such a personality.
[SN 3.22.36] A Certain Bhikkhu 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A bhikkhu is given a teaching in brief that it is through an inclination towards body, sense-experience, perception, own-making or consciousness that one is measured and known.
[SN 3.22.37] Ānanda, 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha quizzes Ananda on his understanding of the characteristics of arising, ending, standing still and changing of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
[SN 3.22.38] Ānanda, 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha quizzes Ananda on his understanding of the characteristics of arising, ending, standing still and changing of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness in the past, future and present.
[SN 3.22.39-42] In Accordance with the Dhamma 1-4, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translations, the M. Olds translations and the F.L. Woodward translations. (for which see the Index.
Following the teachings within the Dhamma one becomes disenchanted from, lives seeing instability in, seeing pain in, seeing not-self in, understanding of, and rid of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
[SN 3.22.44] The Way, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that to view body, sense-experience, perception, own-making or consciousness as the self is the way to living in a body and the resultant pain.
[SN 3.22.45] Impermanent 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that to view body, sense-experience, perception, own-making or consciousness as impermanent, to view that which is impermanent as painful, and to view that which is painful as not the self or an aspect of the self, is seeing things as they are. So seeing, if one turns the heart away from these things and releases the heart by not fueling self through thirst for pleasure, thirst for existence and blindness, the heart becomes steady, happy, untroubled and well and in this freedom, seeing freedom, one knows that rebirth is ended, lived is the godly life, done is duty's doing and there is no more being any sort of an 'it' at any sort of an 'atness'.
[SN 3.22.46] Impermanent 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that whether it is in the past, the future or the present, to view body, sense-experience, perception, own-making or consciousness as impermanent, to view that which is impermanent as painful, and to view that which is painful as not the self or an aspect of the self, is seeing things as they are. So seeing, if one turns the heart away from these things and releases the heart by not fueling self through thirst for pleasure, thirst for existence and blindness, the heart becomes steady, happy, untroubled and well and in this freedom, seeing freedom, one knows that rebirth is ended, lived is the godly life, done is duty's doing and there is no more being any sort of an 'it' at any sort of an 'atness'.
[SN 3.22.47] Ways of Regarding Things, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Whoever holds opinions concerning the self does so with the body, sense-experience, perception, own-making or consciousness in mind. With one or another of these things giving rise to thoughts of 'I am' or 'it is', there arises experience through the six senses and with the experience, the conviction that these things exist. Seeing this as it is, it can be let go and those convictions disappear.
[SN 3.22.48] Aggregates, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha defines what he calls the stockpiles (khandha) and what he calls the fueled stockpiles (upadana-kkhandha).
A very important distinction is made here between khandha and upādānakkhandha. It is not form, sense-experience, perception, the own-made, and consciousness themselves that are the fuel supporting existence and rebirth; it is the delight with, the obsession with the lust, anger and blindness associated with these things that is that fuel. The distinction is being made between that which is already done, or that which exists externally, and that which is being contemplated, the subject of obsession, lust, anger and blindness. Body as seen objectively and body as seen in conjunction with the idea 'my'. If one is going to use the translation 'grasping' or 'clinging' for 'upadana', then the translation of 'upadanakkhandha' would be 'grasped-after-form...' or 'clung-to-form.' Woodward here uses 'factor that has to do with grasping' which passes, elsewhere he has used 'grasping-heaps' which gives the wrong sense: the heap is not grasping! That's something out of a horror movie. Bhk. Bodhi has 'subject to clinging' and has used 'affected by clinging' both of which are misdirections: the idea is that it is clinging to, or grasping after or the fueling based on or connected with body, etc, that gives rise to existence; this is not pointing to a thing there that is a clinging-affected body or a body that has been subjected to clinging. ... or maybe it is. Body is something that has become by way of clinging. But then if this term is to stand for both the obsessing that arises based on body and the body that arises based on obsessing, the term to be found must reflect both sides of the picture.
[SN 3.22.49] Soṇa 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha advises Sona that making judgments about the superiority or inferiority or equality of the self with regard to others is just not seeing things as they are and then he leads him through the reasoning involved in seeing shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness as not self because they are inconstant and that which is inconstant is painful and that so seeing one is free, and seeing freedom in freedom one knows rebirth has been left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing is done and there will be no more being any sort of an 'it' at any place of 'atness'.
[SN 3.22.50] Soṇa 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches Sona that whatever shamen or brahmin there are who do not understand body, its arising, its ending and the way going to its ending are not recognized among shamen and brahmin as shamen or brahmin nor have they experienced the benefits of being a shaman or brahman.
[SN 3.22.51] Destruction of Delight 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Seeing shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as inconstant is consummate view (samma-ditthi), so seeing distaste arises, with the arising of distaste the attraction diminishes, with the diminishing of the attraction lust diminishes, with the destruction of lust one is free.
[SN 3.22.52] Destruction of Delight 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to thoroughly exmine body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness, seeing these things as impermanent and regarding them with distaste and by that achieving freedom.
[SN 3.22.53] Engagement, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Buddhism in Translations Warren translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
In this sutta individualized consciousness is shown as being dependent on a person's attachment to and taking up of form, sensation, perception, and own-making, and that when attachment is let go consciousness is liberated.
Please note: I have revised my translation of this sutta in an important way. What is being taught in this sutta is what is called 'The Four Sticking-Points of Consciousness', [catasso viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo PED: "[pp. of tiṭṭhati = Gr. stato/s, Latin status, Celt. fossad (firm) (ed: ? fossilized)] standing, i. e. (see ṭhāna I) either upright (opp. nisinna, etc.), or immovable, or being, behaving in general."] usually translated 'The Four Stations of Consciousness'. I suggest 'sticking-points' here more clearly points to the idea that when consciousness is 'stuck' on these four it is not free, but that when unstuck, it is the equivalent of Nibbana. With consciousness anchored to these four 'sticking-points' it is bound up in individuality, is said to have come into existence, to have been own-made and to be subject to further own-made existence, and is not free. Free from this attachment to these four things and lust, anger and blindness related to consciousness itself it is not bound up in individuality, has not come into existence, is not subject to further own-made existence, and is free. In my previous translation, blindly misunderstanding an abridgment of the four as an abridgment of the five khandhas, I had included Consciousness as a fifth station. The distinction between the five khandhas and the four sticking points is important. Understanding that there is a distinction, allows for the idea that consciousness, free from lust can be freed from existence. The asavas in connection with consciousness must be eliminated, but consciousness connected with the asavas is always consciousness fueled by thoughts and obsessions concerning the four 'sticking points'. It is not, in and of itself a sticking point. But in a turn of words not uncommon in the suttas consciousness, when freed from the asavas, is said to be 'stuck' on consciousness of freedom.
This is a very important sutta! It is in this sutta we get the very important idea that there is no individualized consciousness apart from form, sensation, perception and own-making. That is that consciousness is conditioned. But here also we see that consciousness (when freed from attachment to the Four Sticking-Points) is equated with Nibbana.
The difficult idea to understand is that the consciousness that results from the elimination of the asavas is conditioned by not-doing. That which is not-done is not own-made and that which results from non-doing is similarly not own-made. That which is not own-made has not come into existence. Not having come into existence it does not pass out of existence. The object of this consciousness (that which it is 'stuck' on) is freedom from existence. This is the nature of that freed consciousness.
It is also important these days (Sunday, July 31, 2016 9:19 AM) to see that that latter consciousness was not there all the time waiting for you to become aware of it (as with the idea of the Bodhi mind) (it was conditioned, it arose consequent upon not-doing). It is something that must be cultivated such that it becomes a habitat of mind: Nibbana. The way to do that is the Aristocratic Eight-dimensional High Way.
It's: "All own-made things are unstable."
It is not: "All conditioned things are unstable."
Look it up.

 

The Four Sticking-Points of Consciousness
Catassa Viññāṇaṭṭhitiya

Rūp'upāya: Form-fueled
Vedan'upāya: Sense-experience-fueled
Saññ'upāya: Perception-fueled
Saŋkhār'upāya: Own-made-fueled

Consciousness, bound up in any one of these four rolls on to further own-made existence subject to ending.

Consciousness, freed from lust, anger and blindness concerned with any of The Five Stockpiles is not bound up in any of these Four Sticking-Points and is free, it is disconnected from own-making, it is, as it were, 'stuck' on freedom, thus stuck it is happy, healed, well, and is aware that rebirth has been left behind, the holy life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an 'it' at any place of 'atness'.

—SN 3.22.53

There could hardly be a clearer statement that Consciousness, when freed of the āsavas, is another name for Nibbāna. That this consciousness cannot be said to have existence, and is not 'pinned down' explains the much-debated term: 'Viññāṇa Anidassana', another term for Nibbāna.

 

[SN 3.22.54] Seeds, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are, like the five means for the propagation of plants, the five means for the propagation of consciousness. Shapes, sense-experience, perception, and own-making are like the earth. Delight is like water. By eliminating delight in shapes, sense-experience, perception and own-making, consciousness is not propagated and when not propagated it is set free.
[SN 3.22.55] Inspired Utterance, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains how if shapes, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness were not identified with now, there would be no future existence of identified-with shapes, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness and the pain they bring with them.
Note here the translation of 'sankhata' (a synonym for saŋkhārā) is translated by Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi (and as one possibility in the PED) as 'conditioned.' This carries with it the same problems that translating saŋkhārā as 'conditioned' creates. One is supposed to see that 'sankhata-ed' consciousness is a problem (because it has been sankhta-ed it has come into existence and will pass out of existence), but translating it this way we must also accept the idea that the consciousness that is equivalant to Nibbana cannot be 'conditioned'. But it is conditioned. It is just not sankhata-ed: own-made. It has come about as a result of not-doing — the not-doing of those things described in the Magga. It has not been made as a result of the identification by an individual with the intent to create experience which is sankhata-ing. If you don't have this distinction you cannot find Nibbana. You will find yourself in an endless battle with the idea of the obliteration of consciousness and the idea that Nibbana is not annihilation. Consciousness arises based on conditions. Some conditions cause consciousness to arise as to a self: those forms of consciousnes which have been own-made. The forms of consciousness which have been own-made are unstable. That form of consciousness which has been conditioned by not-doing has not been own-made. Not having been own-made it does not enter existence. Not having entered existence it does not pass out of existence. It has as it's object freedom from the own-made. With that as it's object, it is stable.

 


"He did sometimes think he had been ill-used by fortune, so far as to say that to be born is a palpable dilemma, and that instead of men aiming to advance in life with glory they should calculate how to retreat out of it without shame.

— Clym contemplating the horrorshow of the events of his life in T. Hardy, The Return of the Native, The Easton Press, Norwalk, 1978, p 389. Originally published 1878.


 

[SN 3.22.56] Phases of the Clinging Aggregates, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the stockpiles (kandha) in detail and shows how they are to be analyzed according to the Four Truths.
In this sutta where it is translated: Woodward: "And what is body ... consciousness? It is these six seats of ... "; Bhk. Bodhi: "And what is form ... consciousness. There are these six classes of ..."; Bhk. Thanissaro: "And what is form ... consciousness? These six classes of ...", what is being translated as "And what is ..." is "Katamāñ ca x?", and what is being translated as "seats of", "classes of", is "x-kāyā". Normally translating "Katamāñ ca x?", as "And what is ..." does not create problems, but it should be heard in this case (and perhaps in every case for clarity) as it is in the Pali: "And what x?" (of x's, which is being spoken of here?) and "x-kāyā" (x-body), should be heard, so say I, as "embodied-form," ... "embodied-consciousness". This needs to be the case in this case because there is, at least in the case of consciousness, consciousness which is not embodied, that is, that has not come into existence, has not become identified-with by an individual and does not need to be escaped from. As currently translated this leaves us with the idea that consciousness is to be annihilated and contradiction in the suttas where it is clearly pointed out (see —SN 3.22.53) that freed consciousness is Nibbana.
[SN 3.22.57] The Seven Cases, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha defines one who has mastered Dhamma: He is skilled in knowledge of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness; he knows what results in their arising, he knows what brings about their ending; he knows their satisfaction, their pain and the way to escape them; and he investigates things in three ways: by way of their elementary data, by way of their relationship to the senses, and by way of that on which they depend for their arising (the paticca samuppada).

 

Triangulated Research

Examine things in terms of their component parts.

Examine things in terms of their compass.

Examine things in terms of what it is that results in their appearing as owned.

 

[SN 3.22.58] The Perfectly Enlightened One, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha Explains the difference between a Buddha and an Arahant.
The Pali title of this sutta is 'Sambuddho'; the full description of a Buddha is 'Sammā-sambuddha'. An Arahant could be said to be Consummately (or Perfectly or fully) Awakened (sammā-buddho). The 'sam' is important. Here this sutta is showing the difference between the consummately awakened Arahant and a Buddha. What is that difference? It is that a Buddha is 'Self-Awakened'. Awakened without the assistance of another.
I emphasize this here, of course, in order to point out that in other cases the sa', sam, saŋ, saɱ (as in the case ... ahum ... of saŋkhārā) should not be ignored.
[SN 3.22.59] The Characteistic of Nonself, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Nanamoli Thera translation, the N.K.G. Mendis translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The second discourse of Gotama the Buddha. This is the occasion of the attaining of Arahantship of the first five Arahants under Gotama the Buddha. See First Sutta Resources for the full story. The Mendis translation also has a description of the events surrounding this sutta and an exposition of his understanding of the whole doctrine, but has two flaws: he speaks of 'No Self' in his discussion (which is an extreme view and an incorrect understanding of 'anatta') but has it correctly as 'not-self' in his translation; and he says that the disciples had insight into 'the impermanence of anything which had a conditioned origin' — another case of the misunderstanding that arises from the mis-translation of saŋkhārā (own-making). Not everything that is conditioned is unstable; everything that is own-made is unstable.

 

How to Reason Out the Idea of Not-Self

If body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness were one's own or one's self, then it would not be subject to aging, sickness and death, grief and lamentation, pain and misery and despair, and one would be able to command:

'Let my body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness be such and such and not such as so.'

Body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are unstable.

What is unstable is painful.

What is unstable,
painful,
painful in essence,
is not fit to be thought of as:

"This is mine."

"I am this."

"This is the self of me."

This is the way to regard body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness,
whether past, future or present,
personal or external,
gross or subtle,
low or high,
far or near.

So seeing,
one experiences distaste for body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.

Experiencing distaste one becomes distanced.

Distanced one is freed.

In freedom,
Seeing Freedom as Freedom,
One is free,
and one knows:

"Rebirth is behind me,
lived is the best of lives,
duty's doing's done,
there is no more it'n-n-at'n for me."

 

[SN 3.22.60] Mahāli, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains to Mahali that beings become corrupt or pure as a result of reactions to the painful and pleasant features of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
[SN 3.22.61] Burning, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A fire and brimstone sermon teaching that shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are as if on fire.
[SN 3.22.62] Pathways of Language, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha affirms that the most fundamental way of describing things (shapes, sense-experiences, perceptions, the own-make, and consciousness) is relative to their position in Time.
Nirutti-patha 'the path down to the root'. Nirutti is actually a super-normal power: the ability to see or intuit the etymology of words, idioms, expressions. Here that power is being spoken of relative to the perception of the seer of a world outside of Time where what is seen can give the appearance that all things already exist in every potential variation, and that it is essential for communication (and even perception) in ordinary or concensus reality to describe (and even experience) things relative to their order in what is understood to be Time. This sutta describes how that order is determined. This sutta will seem simple-minded to some. This is, however a serious problem for some who have chanced upon perception outside of time accidentally, and we can imagine a time before Time when the Great Spirit was contimplating individual existence and trying to figure out how that could be accomplished. Think of the situation where because Time has not yet been invented, you come across yourself able to see yourself simultaneously as an adult, as a child or as an old man, able to go in any and all directions at the same time. This way Madness lies.
[SN 3.22.63] In Clinging, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha gives a meditation subject to a bhikkhu: Whatsoever is supporting fuel belongs to Mara, by letting go of that one is free of the Evil One. And that bhikkhu becomes an arahant.
[SN 3.22.64] In Conceiving, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha gives a meditation subject to a bhikkhu: Whatsoever is imagined that belongs to Mara, by letting go of that one is free of the Evil One. And that bhikkhu becomes an arahant.
The Pali word to understand here is PED: "Maññati [man, Vedic manyate and manute, Av. mainyeite; Idg. *men, cp. Gr. me/nos mood, anger = Sanskrit manah mind; me/mona to think of, wish to, Latin memini to think of, mens > mind, meneo; Goth. munan to think, muns opinion; Oisl. man, Ags. mon; Ohg. minna love, Ags, myne intention.] 1. to think, to be of opinion, to imagine, to deem"
[SN 3.22.65] In Conceiving, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha gives a meditation subject to a bhikkhu: Whatsoever one is enamoured of that belongs to Mara, by letting go of that one is free of the Evil One. And that bhikkhu becomes an arahant.
[SN 3.22.66-70] Impermanent, Suffering, Nonself, What Does Not Belong to Self, Whatever Appears Tantalizing, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translations.
The Buddha gives meditation subjects to a number of bhikkhus.
All following the format of the initial sutta. All showing how certain single concepts, understood in their broadest possible application can lead to Arahantship.
[SN 3.22.71] Rādha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches Radha how to be sure that all notions of 'I' and 'mine' have been eradicated.
[SN 3.22.72] Surādha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches Suradha how to be sure that all notions of 'I' and 'mine' have been eradicated.
[SN 3.22.73] Gratification, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that the difference between the disciple and the ordinary commoner (puthujjano) is in the understanding of the satisfaction, misery, and escape from shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
[SN 3.22.74] Origin, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that the difference between the disciple and the ordinary commoner (puthujjano) is in the understanding of the arising, going out, and escape from shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
Samudaya Saŋ + udaya = Own, Self up-and-out. Translated throughout, including PED as 'arise' or 'origin', but which translation does not account for the 'saŋ'. In meaning 3 'produce, revenue', I believe we see the intent. It is the 'in-come' or arising to the self of something. Alternatively it could be 'arising as the self' of something. This, along with translating 'saŋkhāārā' as own-making shakes to it's foundations the existing translations and understanding of what the Buddha taught. The difference in this case is the difference between saying "This is how pain arises." versus "This is how your own personal pain arises." The second is much more likely to inspire engagement.
[SN 3.22.75] Origin 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that the disciple understands the satisfaction, misery, arising, ending, and escape from shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
[SN 3.22.76] Arahants 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness are inconstant, that what is inconstant is painful, that what is painful is not the self and that such things should be regarded as 'not mine', not the self.
[SN 3.22.77] Arahants 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and sense-consciousness are inconstant, that what is inconstant is painful, that what is painful is not the self and that such things should be regarded as 'not mine', not the self.
[SN 3.22.78] The Lion, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha compairs the effect of the teaching of the Dhamma on gods and men to the effect of the lion's roar on the creatures of the forest.
[SN 3.22.79] Being Devoured, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Consumed, the M. Olds translation.
Linked to each other and to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Beginning with a discussion of what it is that one speaks of when one speaks of recollecting past lives, the Buddha then gives some detailed explanation of what is to be understood by form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness. Then speaking of these things as unstable, painful and not self he describes the arahant as becoming disgsted at them and by that becoming free and by perceiving freedom in that freedom, reaching arahantship. Then further he describes such a one as one who neither heaps up or reduces, neither lets go nor takes up, neither scatters nor gathers.
[SN 3.22.80] Alms-Gatherer, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that the bhikkhus have entered 'the lowest profession', that of scrap (or 'chunk', or 'glob' or 'mess') hunters, not from want of a livlihood or fears, but because it is in this way that some way out of all the pain in the world may be found.
[SN 3.22.81] Pārileyya, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Describing a method for quickly eliminating the corrupting influences of lust, existing and blindness, the Buddha shows how holding any sort of opinion or view that the self is, or has, or has within or is within shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, or consciousness, or even having doubt about such is own-making, and that which is own-made, is inconstant, and that which is inconstant is painful and that by getting rid of such opinions and doubts, one quickly gets rid of the corrupting influences.

 

Dhamma

When speaking of 'The Dhamma', capital "D", it is the following that is being spoken of:

The Four Settings-up of Mind

Living in a body, over-seeing body energetic, alert, careful; observing it's arising, observing its ending, with such penetrating knowledge that one drops one's anger and ambition and is bound down to nothing at all in the world.

Living in sense-experience, over-seeing sense-experience energetic, alert, careful; observing it's arising, observing its ending, with such penetrating knowledge that one drops one's anger and ambition and is bound down to nothing at all in the world.

Living in mental states, over-seeing mental states energetic, alert, careful; observing it's arising, observing its ending, with such penetrating knowledge that one drops one's anger and ambition and is bound down to nothing at all in the world.

Living in the Dhamma, over-seeing things, energetic, alert, careful; observing their arising, observing their ending, with such penetrating knowledge that one drops one's anger and ambition and is bound down to nothing at all in the world.

The Four Consummate Efforts

Generating desire, exerting the heart, seeking out the energy and self-control to prevent the arising of bad, unskillful things not yet arisen;

Generating desire, exerting the heart, seeking out the energy and self-control to let go of bad, unskillful things that have arisen;

Generating desire, exerting the heart, seeking out the energy and self-control to give rise to skillful things not yet arisen;

Generating desire, exerting the heart, seeking out the energy and self-control for the non-confusion, increased standing, and completely fulfilled development of skillful things that have arisen.

The Four Paths to Magic Power

Developing a serene state of energetic intent to create for the self that which is wished.

Developing a serene state of energetic intent to create for the self that energy which is necessary to realize one's intent.

Developing a serene state of energetic intent to create for the self the heart to accomplish one's intent.

Developing a serene state of energetic intent to create for the self the investigation necessary to accomplish one's intent.

The Five Powers

Faith that the Buddha was an Awakened one and has taught the Dhamma well.

Sense of shame

Fear of blame.

Energy

Wisdom

The Five Forces

Faith that the Buddha was an Awakened one and has taught the Dhamma well.

Sense of shame

Fear of blame.

Energy

Wisdom

The Seven Dimensions of Self-Awakening

Mind, Researching the Dhamma, Energy, Entheusiasm, Impassivity, Serenity, and Detachment.

The Aristocratic Eight-Dimensional High Way

High View,
High Principles,
High Talk,
High Works,
High Lifestyle,
High Self-control
High Mind,
High Serenity.

See: SN 3.22.81 SN 3.22.101

 

[SN 3.22.82] The Full-Moon Night, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha delivers a comprehensive discourse on the fuel stockpiles, the 'panc-upadana-kkhandha'.
[SN 3.22.83] The Full-Moon Night, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda relates to the bhikkhus how Punna taught him about the stockpiles (khandha) and how that was the teaching that resulted in him becoming a streamwinner.
[SN 3.22.84] Tissa the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha instructs and uplifts the venerable Tissa who has become discouraged.
[SN 3.22.86] Anurādha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha instructs Anuradha as to how to respond to those of other views who ask about the existence or non-existence of the Tathagata after death (one who has won Arahantship).
[SN 3.22.88] Assaji the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Venerable Assaji is suffering an illness which prevents him from attaining jhana and he is worried about falling away. The Buddha explains to him that the essence of his teaching is not the attaining of jhana, and he instructs him in such a way as to bring about Assaji's arahantship.
[SN 3.22.89] Khemaka the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A dialogue between Venerable Khema and a group of elder bhikkhus concerning identification with the five fuel stockpiles (khandhas).
Note the statement made in this sutta: "Friends, even though a noble disciple has abandoned the five lower fetters, still, in relation to the five aggregates subject to clinging, there lingers in him a residual conceit 'I am,' a desire 'I am,' an underlying tendency 'I am' that has not yet been uprooted."
There is a difference between being convinced that there is no thing there that is the self and actually seeing what is there as not-self.
[SN 3.22.90] Channa the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
After Channa has mastered understanding of the inconstance and lack of self in the khandhas, he receives further instruction in the Paticca Samuppada from Ananda.
[SN 3.22.91] Rāhula (1) the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Rahula, Gotama's son, receives instruction on how to view all things as not-self.
[SN 3.22.92] Rāhula (2) the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Gotama's son, receives instruction on how to view all things as not-self.
[SN 3.22.93] The River the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens the way beings grasp at body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness to the way a man being swept away by a swiftly flowing stream grasps at the reeds and bushes on the bank only to have them break away, giving him no means to escape destrucion.
[SN 3.22.94] Flowers the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha takes the position that it is not he that argues with the world, but it is the world that argues with him, that he agrees with those who are worldly-wise who say 'there is not,' that is that there is any shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making or consciousness which is constant, that he agrees with those who say 'it is' that is that shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness are simply pain. This he says he teaches and he dismisses those who hearing him so teach do not comprehend.
[SN 3.22.95] A Lump of Foam the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha gives similes for each of the khandhas: shape: foam; sense-experience: a bubble on the water; perception: a mirage; own-making: searching for heartwood in the wrong tree; consciousness: a magician's illusion.
[SN 3.22.96] A Lump of Foam the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A bhikkhu asks if there is any shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, or consciousness which is stable and everlasting. He is told that there is not, and then he is shown by way of example, a past life of Gotama where he was a king of extraordinary wealth and splendor and yet all that wealth and splendor has disappeared.
[SN 3.22.97] The Fingernail the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A bhikkhu asks if there is any shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, or consciousness which is stable and everlasting. He is told that there is not, and then the Buddha explains that if there were one of the stockpiles (khandhas) even as small as a bit of dust that were stable and everlasting there would be no need to teach the Dhamma.
[SN 3.22.98] Simple Version the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Pure or Oceanic Version, the M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A bhikkhu asks if there is any shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making, or consciousness which is stable and everlasting. He is told that there is not.
[SN 3.22.99] The Leash 1 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens the way the commoner runs around after shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness to the way a dog tied to a post runs round and round the post and never gets free of the post.
[SN 3.22.100] The Leash 2 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha likens the way the commoner runs around after shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness to the way a dog tied to a post runs round and round the post and never gets free of the post. Then he likens the creativity of mind in devising the taints that corrupt individuals to that of the hypnotist creating an illusion, to nature in devising the various forms of animals, or to an artest creating an image of a man or a woman.

 


Saɱsāra

Anamataggoyaɱ bhikkhave saɱsāro.|| ||

Pubbākoṭi na paññāyati||
avijjānīvaraṇānaɱ sattānaɱ||
taṇhāsaɱyojanānaɱ||
sandhāvataɱ saɱsarataɱ.
|| ||

A bottomless pit, beggars,
is this round-and-round.

The earliest extremity is not discerned
of beings diverted by blindness
yoked to thirst
running-round this round-and-round

SN 3.22.99

 


 

[SN 3.22.101] The Adz Handle (or The Ship) the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha provides several similes which illustrate the fact that it is not by wishing, but by mastering the understanding and behaviors found in the Dhamma that freedom from rebirth is attained.
[SN 3.22.102] Perception of Impermanence the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha enumerates a string of similes illustrating the benefits of perception of instability (anicca).

This completes the formatting and uploading of those Bhikkhu Bodhi translations of Samyutta Nikaya, Volume 3, which have been released for free distribution by Wisdom Publications.

 

Non-existent Consciousness

At SN 3.22.96-97-98 the Buddha says:

"N'atthi kho bhikkhu, kiñci viññāṇaɱ yaɱ viññāṇaɱ niccaɱ||
dhuvaɱ sassataɱ,||
avipariṇāma-dhammaɱ sassatisamaɱ tath'eva ṭhassati."
|| ||

There is no consciousness that is stable, true, eternal,
an unswayable eternal thing, such as will stick fast."

And at SN 3.22.53 He says:

[... patiṭṭhā viññāṇassa na hoti.]|| ||

Tad appatiṭṭaṭhitaɱ viññāṇaɱ avirūḷhaɱ anabhisaŋkhārañ ca vimuttaɱ,||
vimuttattā ṭhitaɱ
ṭhitattā
santusitaɱ||
santusitattā na paritassati aparitassaɱ paccattaññ eva parinibbāyati:
|| ||

'Khīṇā jāti ...|| ||

[If beggars, a beggar has let go of lust for the characteristic of consciousness with lust let go, there is no foothold for the sticking of consciousness.]

This consciousness,
without even a miniscule foothold for sticking:
without growth,
without on-going own-making and free;
stuck on it's own-freedom;
stuck on it's own self-contentment;
with it's own self-contentment not unsatisfied;
in and of itself thoroughly cool:

Knows:
'Left behind is rebirth ...'

Bhikkhu Thanissaro: Consciousness, thus unestablished, not proliferating, not performing any function, is released. Owing to its release, it is steady. Owing to its steadiness, it is contented. Owing to its contentment, it is not agitated.

Bhikkhu Bodhi: "When that consciousness is unestablished, not coming to growth, nongenerative, it is liberated. By being liberated, it is steady; by being steady, it is content; by being content, he is not agitated.

Woodward: Without that platform consciousness has no growth, it generates no action and is freed: by freedom it is steady: by its steadiness it is happy: owing to happiness it is not troubled.

 


 

How is this apparent contradiction to be resolved?

I think the complication rests on the translation of 'atthi' as 'is' ("is there?") rather than 'exists' ("does there exist?") Translating as "does there exist" we can call in the Buddha's definition of 'existing' as that which has been sankaram-ed, or has come into existence through contact with named form, or been experienced through the senses and we can set up the contrast between these suttas as follows:

Does there exist any consciousness that is stable?

No there does not exist any consciousness that is stable.

Consciousness that has not been own-made, that has not been fueled by lust for form, sense-experience, perception, own-making or consciousness, has not come into existence, is un-stuck, stuck only on freedom from being stuck, and is a name for Nibbana.

 

[SN 4.35.1] The Internal as Impermanent the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind are inconstant, painful and not self and that seeing that brings freedom and recognizing that freedom as freedom rebirth is left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an it at any place of atness left for one.
Note that in terms of the senses, the sixth sense organ is 'mano', 'mind', and refers to the mind of an individual. 'Mano' in other places will refer to the mind of the Arahant, freed from the corrupting influences. When 'mind' refers to an individual it incompasses 'citta', 'heart' (the center of the emotions and mental states), and 'sati', 'mind' (meaning remembering, investigating and paying attention).
[SN 4.35.2] The Internal as Suffering, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind are painful and not self and that seeing that brings freedom and recognizing that freedom as freedom rebirth is left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an it at any place of atness left for one.
[SN 4.35.3] The Internal as Nonself, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind are not self and that seeing that brings freedom and recognizing that freedom as freedom rebirth is left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an it at any place of atness left for one.
[SN 4.35.4] The External as Impermanent, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that shapes, sounds, scents, savours, touches and things perceptable to the mind are inconstant, painful and not self and that seeing that brings freedom and recognizing that freedom as freedom rebirth is left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an it at any place of atness left for one.
Note that here the object of the mind sense is 'dhamma', 'things'. Bhk. Bodhi: 'mental phenomena'; Woodward: 'mind-states' (which would be better reserved for 'citta' — look at the distinction between citta and dhamma in the the Maha Satipatthana Sutta). 'Dhamma' (lower case 'd') can correctly be translated 'phenomena', but the addition of 'mental' to this term here is an explanation, not a translation. The objects of the mind sense are the sense-consciousnesses of the other five senses plus memories. In the same way that a computer program is built up from short bits of information — some directly input, others held in memory — which interact in such a way as to produce intelligible images, actions, conclusions and new memories, the images produced by the five lower senses are composed in ways directed by memory into composite pictures which are in turn composed into animated stories ... (whether they make good sense or not! ... garbage in - garbage out.)
[SN 4.35.5] The External as Suffering, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that shapes, sounds, scents, savours, touches and things perceptable to the mind are painful and not self and that seeing that brings freedom and recognizing that freedom as freedom rebirth is left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an it at any place of atness left for one.
[SN 4.35.6] The External as Nonself, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that shapes, sounds, scents, savours, touches and things perceptable to the mind are not self and that seeing that brings freedom and recognizing that freedom as freedom rebirth is left behind, the godly life has been lived, duty's doing has been done and there is no more being any sort of an it at any place of atness left for one.
[SN 4.35.7] The Internal as Impermenent in the Three Times, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind were impermanent in the past, will be impermanent in the future and are impermanent now and that seeing that one should strive to be repelled by them, become dispassionate towards them, and look for their ending.
[SN 4.35.8] The Internal as Suffering in the Three Times, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the bhikkhus that the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind were painful in the past, will be painful in the future and are painful now and that seeing that one should strive to be repelled by them, become dispassionate towards them, and look for their ending.
[SN 4.35.9-12] The Internal as Nonself in the Three Times, Etc. the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Suttas #9-12 are combined on one file.
Sutta #9 only is linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
All variations of the previous suttas.
[SN 4.35.13-14] Before My Enlightenment 1-2 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Suttas #13-14 are combined on one file.
Sutta #13 only is linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the reasoning that went on in his mind concerning the personal (and external) sense spheres that lead to his enlightenment.
[SN 4.35.15-16] Seeking Gratification 1-2 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Suttas #15-16 are combined on one file.
Sutta #15 only is linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the perceptions he had concerning the personal/external six senses that lead him to conclude he was enlightened.
[SN 4.35.17-18] If There Were No 1-2 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Suttas #17-18 are combined on one file.
Sutta #17 only is linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that one must see the satisfactions, disadvantages, and the way of escape from the personal/external sense spheres in order to attain enlightenment.
[SN 4.35.19-20] Delight 1-2 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Suttas #19-20 are combined on one file.
Sutta #19 only is linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
He who takes delight in the personal/external senses is not free from Pain; he who does not take delight in the personal/external senses is free from pain.
[SN 4.35.21-22] Arising of Suffering 1-2 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Suttas #21-22 are combined on one file.
Sutta #21 only is linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that the setting up of the personal/external sense organs is the setting up of pain, the ending of the personal/external sense organs is the ending of pain.
[SN 4.35.23] The All the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes what in his system accounts for absolutely everything in existence, calling it 'The All.'
[SN 4.35.24] Abandonment 1 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches Dhamma for letting go of The All.
[SN 4.35.25] Abandonment 2 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches Dhamma for letting go of The All through thoroughly known higher knowledge.
Accomplish letting go by way of abhiññā pariññā. Abhiññā could be, as Bhk. Bodhi has it, 'direct knowledge', if one thinks of over-knowing as observing directly, but the term is most frequently associated with higher knowledge or at least superior knowledge close to magic powers. I think now that 'superior knowledge' would work best for all situations. Seeing the origin and passing away of things is superior to the common way of seeing things as stable in one's world. Pariññā is easier. Pari = pass around = all-round = thorough. One is to see the unstable nature of a thing by obsering that it comes to be and passes out of existence. That is your superior knowledge. Then one applies one's understanding that that which is unstable is painful because we do not like our pleasures to end and that which is painful is not worthy to be called the self or one's own. Seeing and understanding in this way one sees that a thing can give no lasting satisfaction and is therefore not worth pursuiing and one lets one's desire for it fade out. By the ending of desire, the thing is let go.
[SN 4.35.26] Full Understanding 1 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that it is because of lack of mastery, thorough knowledge, dispassion, and letting go of The All that the body of pain is not destroyed, but that with mastery, thorough knowledge, dispassion towards and letting go of The All, the body of pain may be destroyed.
[SN 4.35.27] Full Understanding 2 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that with mastery, thorough knowledge, dispassion towards and letting go of The All, the body of pain may be destroyed.
[SN 4.35.28] Burning the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Nanamoli Thera translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A fire-and-brimstone preaching in which the Buddha declares the realms of the senses to be in flames.
[SN 4.35.29] Weighed Down, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that the six sense realms are afflicted by aging, sickness and death, grief and lamentation, pain and misery and despair.
[SN 4.35.30] Appropriate for Uprooting, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents the best method for the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
The important word to understand here and in the next two suttas is maññati: to think about, to form an opinion about, to adopt a point of view about. PED: to think, to be of opinion, to imagine, to deem. Woodward's 'conceit' introduces more complexity to the idea than is necessary, and does not well fit the usual way the word is used (e.g.: in the expression: 'What do you think about this?' or 'What is your opinion about this?'). 'Conceit' is frequently used in the PTS translations with the apparent intent 'to have an unwarranted notion that a certain thing is the self or one's own', but in most cases, as here, would would better be understood in the sense of 'having an opinion about', 'having a point of view about'. It is not observation that is the danger, it is forming opinions about what is observed that is the danger. Bhk. Bodhi appears to be using the word 'conceive' in the sense of create, to think up, to imagine the thing itself, which is I suggest a misunderstanding of the suttas. At the least it doesn't hold up across the set of applications that are to be avoided. "He does not think about; he does not think about the sensations that arise from; he does not think 'in that', 'of that'; he does not think 'I am that' 'this is my'. What is being spoken of here is the formation of points of view subsequent to observation where it is being pointed out that whatever opinion one forms is immediately wrong because things being in a constant state of becoming, change and cannot, because of that, be or belong to the self. See also for this idea The Mulapariyaya Sutta.
[SN 4.35.31] Suitable for Uprooting 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents a walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
[SN 4.35.32] Suitable for Uprooting 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha presents a walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
[SN 4.35.33-42] Subject to Birth, Subject to Aging, Etc., the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations.
All on one file and severely abridged.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translations.
The Buddha lists ten things that are aspects of the senses which when seen as they really are lead to dispassion and freedom from them leading to Arahantship.
[SN 4.35.43-52] Impermanent, Etc., the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations.
All on one file and severely abridged.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translations.
The Buddha lists ten things that are aspects of the senses which when seen as they really are lead to dispassion and freedom from them leading to Arahantship.
[SN 4.35.53-62] Ignorance, Etc., the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations.
All on one file with individual sutta linked to and from the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translations.
[SN 4.35.63] Migajāla 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha defines what it really means to be considered one who lives in solitude.
[SN 4.35.64] Migajāla 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Migajala asks for a teaching in brief and is told that with desire for things of the senses there comes bondage, with the end of desire for things of the senses, the end of bondage.
This sutta should be read along with the previous.
[SN 4.35.65-68] Samiddhi 1-4, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations.
All on one file with individual sutta linked to and from the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translations.
Samiddhi inquires about Mara, the Evil One, about Beings, about Pain, and about the World and is told that whatever there is of the realm of the senses, that is Mara and that is what defines a being, and that is where there is Pain and that is a description of the world.
[SN 4.35.69] Upasena, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Upasena has been bitten by a snake and wishes to die outdoors. He is taken out and before he dies is questioned by Sariputta as to why it is that he shows no change in his sense-faculties or countenance. Upasena declares that there is not in him any idea of I-making or mine-making with regard to the senses.
[SN 4.35.70] Upavāṇa, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The venerable Upavana inquires about the description of the Dhamma as being within view, timeless, come-see-able, leading-on, individually to be experienced by the cognizant.
A very informative sutta! As well as being a description of what it means when it is said that this Dhamma is to be seen by one's self in this visible state, it describes the awakened and the blind mind as being identical in the experience of the sense-realms but differing only in the presence or absense of lust for such together with knowledge of it's internal presence or absense.
[SN 4.35.71-73] The Six Bases for Contact 1-3, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations.
All on one file with individual sutta linked to and from the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translations.
The Buddha presents a walk to walk to begin the uprooting of thoughts about 'I am' and 'me.'
[SN 4.35.74-75] Sick 1-2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations.
All on one file with individual sutta linked to and from the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translations.
Two suttas relating to sick bhikkhus who are then given a Dhamma talk. One becomes a streamwinner, the other becomes an arahant.
[SN 4.35.76-78] Rādha 1-3 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations.
All on one file with individual sutta linked to and from the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translations.
Radha asks the Buddha for a teaching in brief and is told desire for that which is impermanent, painful and not self must be let go.
[SN 4.35.79-80] Abandoning Ignorance 1-2 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations.
All on one file with individual sutta linked to and from the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation (of Sutta 80), the M. Olds translation (of Sutta 80) and the F.L. Woodward translations.
Learning about letting go of blindness.

 


Letting Go of Blindness

Evañ ce taɱ bhikkhu,||
bhikkhuno sutaɱ hoti|| ||

'Sabbe dhammā nālaɱ abhinivesāyā,' ti;|| ||

so sabbaɱ dhammaɱ abhijānāti,||
sabbaɱ dhammaɱ abhiññāya,||
sabbaɱ dhammaɱ parijānāti||
sabbaɱ dhammaɱ pariññāya||
sabba-nimittāni aññato passati.|| ||

There is the case, beggar,
that when a beggar, having heard:

"All things are hollow over-indulgences,"

he understands all things,
comprehends all things,
thoroughly knows all things,
sees all signs as "other."

—SN 4.35.80


 

[SN 4.35.81] A Number of Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A group of bhikkhus inquires as to how they should answer when questioned as to the point of the Buddha's teaching.
[SN 4.35.82] The World, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A bhikkhu asks about the meaning of the term 'the world'.
[SN 4.35.83] Phagguna, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Phagguna asks the Buddha if there are sense organs capable of perceiving the past Buddhas. He is told that there are not.
[SN 4.35.84] Subject to Disintegration, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda asks about the extent of what is encompassed by the idea of 'the world'.
In this sutta and in #82 'world' is defined through the etymology of the term 'loka' to mean that which is broken apart or which disintegrates. The deeper meaning is that this word is to be understood to be a term for 'the all'. All that which has come to be is subject to breaking apart, disintegration; that is 'the world'.

 


Monday, July 25, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, June 27, 2016


 

C. Wright Mills, writing about modern conditioning of mass opinion by the media, but applicable to all the forms of conditioning beings are subjected to from birth:

"Very little of what we think we know of the social realities of the world have we found out first-hand. Most of 'the pictures in our heads' we have gained from these media — even to the point where we often do not really believe what we see before us until we read about it in the paper or hear about it on the radio. The media not only give us information; they guide our very experiences. Our standards of credulity, our standards of reality, tend to be set by these media rather than by our own fragmentary experience.

Accordingly, even if the individual has direct, personal experience of events, it is not really direct and primary: it is organized in stereotypes. It takes long and skillful training to so uproot such stereotypes that an individual sees things freshly, in an unstereotyped manner. One might suppose, for example, that if all the people went through a depression they would all 'experience it,' and in terms of this experience, that they would all debunk or reject or at least refract what the media say about it. But experience of such a structural shift has to be organized and interpreted if it is to count in the making of opinion.

The kind of experience, in short, that might serve as a basis for resistance to mass media is not an experience of raw events, but the experience of meanings. The fleck of interpretation must be there in the experience if we are to use the word experience seriously. And the capacity for such experience is socially implanted. The individual does not trust his own experience, as I have said, until it is confirmed by others or by the media. Usually such direct exposure is not accepted if it disturbs loyalties and beliefs that the individual already holds. To be accepted, it must relieve or justify the feelings that often lie in the back of his mind as key features of his ideological loyalties.

Stereotypes of loyalty underlie beliefs and feelings about given symbols and emblems; they are the very ways in which men see the social world and in terms of which men make up their specific opinions and views of events. They are the results of previous experience, which affect present and future experience. It goes without saying that men are often unaware of these loyalties, that often they could not formulate them explicitly. Yet such general stereotypes make for the acceptance or the rejection of specific opinions not so much by the force of logical consistency as by their emotional affinity and by the way in which they relieve anxieties. To accept opinions in their terms is to gain the good solid feeling of being correct without having to think. When ideological stereotypes and specific opinions are linked in this way, there is a lowering of the kind of anxiety which arises when loyalty and belief are not in accord. Such ideologies lead to a willingness to accept a given line of belief; then there is no need, emotionally or rationally, to overcome resistance to given items in that line; cumulative selections of specific opinions and feelings become the pre-organized attitudes and emotions that shape the opinion-life of the person.

These deeper beliefs and feelings are a sort of lens through which men experience their worlds, they strongly condition acceptance or rejection of specific opinions, and they set men's orientation towards prevailing authorities."

—C. Wright Mills, The Power Elite, Oxford University Press, 1956, p311 f.


 

new Sunday, June 26, 2016 4:01 AMSaɱyutta Nikāya, Nidana Vagga,
[SN 2.12.012] Moḷiyaphagguna, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Top-Knot-Phagguna, the M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali, the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
After the Buddha has taught the four foods, Moliya Phagguna asks who it is that feeds on the consciousness food. Gotama responds correcting his thinking from 'who feeds?' to 'what results from feeding on?', which leads into the chain of interdependent factors (paticca samuppada).

 

#1: What's to Eat?

Food for Thought

SN 2.12.16 is a sutta which explains the meaning of the statement in 'The One Question' that the idea of 'food' must be understood both in it's breadth and in it's depth. The breadth is the way food is defined as the Four foods; the depth is the way the four foods are shown to be related to the Paticca Samuppada. In meditation you should try to 'see' this construction in three dimensions.

One Question
One Answer
One Explanation.

What is One?

Understanding the Problem and the Dhamma as it's solution through the thorough comprehension of this one subject will bring one to the complete destruction of pain in the absolute freedom of detachment.

Āhāra — Food.

All beings live on, on Food.

A-har a,
Hurrah, Hooray
We have Food
To Eat Today!

The Four Foods

Made-edible food, substantial or subtle;
contact is the second;
intentions the third;
consciousness the fourth.

With any of these four foods, together with consciousness, beings project themselves into further existence.

The living being is in a state of constant change. Consequently what is intended here is not the maintaining of a being, but the understanding that these foods further or bring about or have brought about further existence.

In dependence on Edible Food, the living being (defined as the six-sense realms);
in dependence on the six-sense realms, contact;
in dependence on contact, sense-experience;
in dependence on sense experience, intentions;
in dependence on intentions; conscious existence.

Reference: SN 2.12.12

 

[SN 2.12.013] Ascetics and Brahmins (1) the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that any seeker or brahman who does not know and see the links in the chain of interdependent factors (paticca samuppada) has not realized the benefits of being a seeker or brahmin.
[SN 2.12.014] Ascetics and Brahmins (2) the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that any seeker or brahman who does not know and see the links in the chain of interdependent factors (paticca samuppada) has not realized the benefits of being a seeker or brahmin.
[SN 2.12.015] Kaccānagotta, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha explains the reasoning behind the consummate view of things and the result in the attitude of one of such views.
An important sutta for understanding why the Four Truths are constructed the way they are. Also in this sutta the 'Middle Way' is defined as the Paticca Samuppada, not, as in the First Sutta the Eightfold Way. This is not a contradiction: the two are equivalants. "He who sees the Four Truths, sees the Paticca Samuppada; He who sees the Paticca Samuppada sees the Four Truths."

 


This world for the most part reposes on the extreme views:
"This is" and "This is not".

But

Who sees with consummate wisdom the way the world arises,
has no
"This world is not."

Who sees with consummate wisdom the way the world ends
has no
"This world is."

—SN 2.12.15

 


 

[SN 2.12.016] Kaccānagotta, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha describes how if one teaches even only one link in the Paticca Samuppada one may be called a Dhamma Teacher; if one practices only one link one may be called one who lives the Dhamma of the Dhamma; if one experiences freedom as a consequence of the experience of only one link one may be said to have won Nibbana in this life. He repeats this three-fold formula for each of the links.
[SN 2.12.017] The Naked Ascetic Kassapa, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Kassapa, a naked ascetic, asks the Buddha a series of questions about the source of pain and to each of his questions receives the response, 'it is not such as that.' When Kassapa asks for an explanation, The Buddha teaches him the 'Doctrine of the Middle': that is, the Paticca Samuppada, the chain of interdependent factors giving rise to the experience of individualized existence and the resulting pain.
[SN 2.12.018] Timbaruka, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Timbaruka asks the Buddha a series of questions about the source of pain and pleasure and to each of his questions receives the response, 'it is not such as that.' When Timbaruka asks for an explanation, The Buddha teaches him the 'Doctrine Going Down the Middle': that is, the Paticca Samuppada, the chain of interdependent factors giving rise to the experience of individualized existence and the resulting pain.
[SN 2.12.019] The Wise Man and the Fool, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha draws the distinction between the fool born identifying with body and pulled around by desires and the wise man born identifying with body and pulled around by desires: the wise man takes on the burden of the holy life and gives up his blindness and thirsts for pleasures of the senses where the fool does not.
[SN 2.12.020] Conditions, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha teaches that whether a Buddha arises or not, existence arises as a consequence of a chain of interdependent factors, that each of the factors is impermanent, and that one who sees coming into existence and existence in this way will not have ideas of self with regard to the past, future or present.
[SN 2.12.021] The Ten Powers (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha states that it is because he has ten powers and is confident in four ways that he is able to teach about the components of existence, their arising and their ending.
[SN 2.12.022] The Ten Powers (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha states that it is because he has ten powers and is confident in four ways that he is able to teach about the components of existence, their arising and their ending and then adds an inspiring admonition to give up lazy ways and take on energy to accomplish the goal.
[SN 2.12.023] Proximate Cause, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, a second Bhikkhu Bodhi translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha teaches a variation of the Paticca Samuppada which works back from the elimination of the corrupting influences (asavas) and he states that there is no destroying the corrupting influences without knowing and seeing this progression.
A very important sutta! Sometimes called the positive version of the Paticca Samuppada.
This is the issue with regard to this sutta: If you follow the sequence through without careful reflection on the idea that there is no thing that is the self, you can come to the conclusion that once a living being has become, it will end in Nibbana. No need to do anything. This statement has been made, and is one of the fundamental bases of Mahayana Buddhism. The formulation in this sutta lead to the statement that all things (dhammas) end in Nibbana and from there to the belief that this means 'all beings', and that this could and would be attained by all beings simultaneously (and further, that we should put off attaining Nibbana until that happens). But the Buddha is not saying this. He is saying that it is seeing the process which leads to the conclusion in Nibbana. There is no statement there that the whole process occurs for each occurance of blindness bringing consciousness into existence. There is nothing in this formula which stipulates the Time the process will consume. There is no statement in the suttas and there is no basis in the theory of the arising of living beings that is the Paticca Samuppada, for a belief that there is a fixed number of beings, or that new beings are not arising all the time. In fact the opposite is clearly indicated. There is no thing there that is 'the living being.' Like bubbles in beer, living beings arise as a result of conditions; it is a construction made up of name/form and consciousness brought into self-aware existence from factors, primarily blindness, the idea 'I am', and the desire to be, and the supply of these factors, and primarily of blindness in the limitless universe is limitless. The statement is also made in the form: "All Dhammas (teachings of the Buddhas) end in Nibbana." This statement, while true in spirit, is not absolutely true. The Buddha taught many things at many different levels, not all of which pointed directly to and end in Nibbana. For example he taught generosity, loving kindness, care for parents, and self-control as a matter of making good kamma.
[SN 2.12.024] Wanderers of Other Sects, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Sariputta teaches Wanderers that ask about who causes kammic consequences that it is in all cases contact that results in kammic consequences. This is repeated to the Buddha by Ananda, and confirmed by Gotama and then Ananda remarking on how interesting it is that the whole doctrine could be stated with one word like this, when asked to do so, gives a version of the sequence in detail.
[SN 2.12.025] Bhūmija, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Sariputta teaches Venerable Bumija who asks about who causes kammic consequences that it is in all cases contact that results in kammic consequences. This is repeated to the Buddha by Ananda, and confirmed by Gotama and then Gotama goes on to explain that pleasure and pain corespond to the intent with which deeds of body, speech and mind are done. He further explains that intent can originate with the self or with another and can be done by the self either knowingly or without reflection.

 

On Kamma

When one reaches the point where one can see the ever-changing nature of all existing things, and one has not heard the thoughts, and seen that this is the way things are, that is:

"All own-made things change.

All own-made things are essentially Painful.

All things are not-self."

one can come to confusion as to 'who' originates and 'who' experiences deeds and their results.

The opinions can be formed:
"One being does the deed, another experiences the result."
"One and the same being does the deed and experiences the result."
"Both the self and another do the deed and experience the result."
"Neither the self nor another do the deed or experience the result."

SN 2.12.25 clarifies the issues: What is actually the case is that the doing of a deed and the experience of the result are both results of connection (phassa, touch, contact).

Where there are deeds of body, speech, and mind, identified-with consequences are experienced in the form of sensations of pleasure or pain or sensation that is neither painful nor pleasant. Ignorance results in connection to the doing of deeds of body, speech and mind. Connection to the deed results in connection to, being identified with, the experience.

Deeds are instigated connected to (consequent upon) ignorance of the painful consequences.

Deeds are instigated either by the self, or by another. In either case the deed results in being connected to, being identified with, the experience.

Deeds are instigated with self-awareness, or without self-awareness. In either case the deed results in being in connected to, being identified with, the experience.

This is the explanation of the short and long forms of the Paticca Samuppada:

This being, that becomes.

Connected to ignorance there is connection to own-makng,
connected to own-making there is connection to (identification with) consciousness,
connected to consciousness there is connection to name/form,
connected to name/form there is connection to the six sense realms,
connected to the six sense realms there is connection,
connected there are identified-with sensations of pleasure or pain or neither pain nor pleasure arising from sense-experience, and taking form in accordance with the intent connected with the doing of the deed whether done to cause pain, to cause pleasure or to end kamma, and in magnitude relative to the detachment of the doer, the usefulness for detachment of the deed, and the detachment of the recipient of the deed,
connected to sensations there is connection to hungers, (to get, to get away from, to attain Nibbana)
connected to hungers there is connection to the thinking and pondering, the wishing and wanting, the dreaming of, mooning after, desire for, grasping after, the getting bound up in and to, the intending to get that fuels the fire of existence,
connected to the fuel there is connection to existence,
connected to existence there is connection to birth,
connected to birth there is connection to aging, sickness and death,
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair.

From the ending of this, the ending of that.

From the disconnection from ignorance, from seeing things as they are there is disconnection from own-making,
disconnected from own-making there is disconnection from (identified-with) consciousness,
disconnected from (identified-with) consciousness there is disconnection from name/form,
disconnected from name/form, there is disconnection from the six sense-realms,
disconnected from the six sense-realms, there is disconnection from contact,
disconnected from contact there is disconnection from sensations of pleasure or pain or neither pain nor pleasure,
disconnected from sensations there is disconnection from hungers,
disconnected from hungers there is disconnection from fueling the fire,
disconnected from fueling the fire there is disconnection from existence,
disconnected from existence there is disconnection form birth,
disconnected from birth there is disconnection from aging, sickness and death,
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair.

Viewing the Paṭicca Samuppada this way, we should go back and revise our thinking of the translation of the P.S. as it is usually put, that is that what nidāna, 'down-bound' (literally); and piṭacca 'rebounding off', 'resulting in,' 'depending on'; means is 'being tied up to or connected to', that is 'identified with'; and what 'arises' means is that there being such a connection to a thing, there is the 'own-arising' — an identified-with-arising — (saɱ-upada) of such. This accounts for the otherwise unaccounted for in all translations 'saɱ'.
Think of an un-identified with consciousness identifying with consciousness of named-forms, acting to create further identified-with experience and identifying with the resulting phenomena. Think of it as the world occurring and rolling on in front of this unidentified-with consciousness and that a big mistake was made in identifying with that world and an individual in it (contacting it) and which can be corrected only by letting go of this identification (this contact).
The translations have been conditioning us to view the Paṭicca Samuppada from within the personal world, rather than as a process that is occuring externally. This sutta does much to break down that conditioning.

As Ananda puts it: It is marvelous to think that this whole Damma could be summed up in this one idea that the origin of Pain is Contact. That is, identification with the world and an individual in it.

 

 

[SN 2.12.026] Upavāṇa, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha teaches Venerable Upavana who asks about who causes kammic consequences that it is in all cases contact that results in kammic consequences.
[SN 2.12.027] Upavāṇa, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha gives the chain of interdependent links leading from blindness to pain and then gives definitions of the individual links.

 

 

Defining the Terms
of
Rebounding Conjuration
Paṭicca Samuppada

Avijja. Non-Vision. The not seeing as it is that this is Pain; that Pain originates with hunger; that to end the Pain, one must end the Hunger; that the Way to end the Hunger is to conform one's behavior to high view, high principles, high talk, high works, high lifestyle, high self-control, high memory, high serenity.

Saŋkhārā. Own-making, Con-struction. Identification with the intent to create experience for the self through acts of body, speech and mind, and the resulting identified-with thing that is made.

Viññāṇa. Consciousness. Knowing knowing. Awareness of being aware. Where it is a result of Own-making, it is 'Identified-with consciousness'. There is visual consciousness, auditory consciousness, olfactory consciousness, consciousness of taste, and the mind's consciousness of consciousness.

Nāma/rūpa. Named and Shape or a Named shape. The entity and it's identity. Name encompasses sense-experience, perception, intent, contact, and work of mind. Shape encompasses the Four Great Characteristics of solidity, liquidity, heat and motion and those shapes derived from these.

Saḷāyatana. The six sense spheres. Eye and sight; ear and sound, nose and scents, tongue and tastes; body and contact; mind and things.

Phassa. Touch, contact, connection. There is personal, or identified-with contact with the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind.

Vedanā. The personal or identified-with or connected-to sensations of pleasure, pain, and neither pleasure nor pain connected with experience of the senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste, contact and consciousness.

Taṇhā. Hunger/thirst. Desire, wanting, craving. There are these thirsts: for visual objects, sounds, scents, savours, touches and mental objects; thirst for pleasure; thirst for existence; and thirst for non-existence.

Upādāna. Bind-ups. The thinking about and pondering over and formation of intentions to obtain the pleasure of sensate existence that give fuel to and support the fire of existence. There are these fuels which support existence: Sense-pleasure, view, ethical practices, self-experience.

Bhava. Existence. Living. Becoming. The being in existence as a living being in some realm of being. All things being in constant change the Pali idea of 'existence' or 'being' is of 'becoming'. There is Sense-pleasure-existence, formed-existence, formless-existence

Jāti. 'Born this.' Whatsoever in this or that being in this or that set body of beings is birth, own-birth, re-occurance, rolling-on in, rolling-on-in-upon, taking up existence in the piled-up heap, the regaining of the spheres of sense.

 

[SN 2.12.028] Bhikkhu, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha gives an exposition of the chain of interdependent links leading from blindness to pain and then gives definitions of the individual links.
[SN 2.12.029] Ascetics and Brahmins 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that any recluse or brahmin who does not understand the chain of interdependent factors that result in Pain has not realized the goal of being a recluse or brahmin, but any one who does understand has realized that goal.
[SN 2.12.030] Ascetics and Brahmins 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that any recluse or brahmin who does not understand the chain of interdependent factors that result in Pain will be able to stand up to passing beyond Pain is something that cannot happen, but any one who does understand will be able to do so.
[SN 2.12.031] What Has Come to Be, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Prompted by a question from the Buddha which at first perplexes him, Sariputta explains in detail the meaning of what is is that is practiced by the bhikkhu in training and what it is that is different in the practice of the adept.
[SN 2.12.032] The Kaḷāra, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Kalara in bringing Sariputta the news that Moliya Phagguna has left the order discovers by Sariputta's responses that Sariputta has become Arahant. He reports this to the Buddha and the Buddha summons Sariputta to question him about the manner of his declaration and questions him further asking him about the paticca samuppada.
[SN 2.12.033] Cases of Knowledge 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha casts the Paticca Samuppand in terms of Fourty-four basis of knowledge, explains of what that knowledge consists, and applies that knowledge to the future and the past.
The Bhk. Bodhi sutta is abridged to the point of incomprehensibility. See the Rhys Davids, fully expanded version.
[SN 2.12.034] Cases of Knowledge 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha casts the Paticca Samuppada in terms of seventy-seven aspects: The relatedness of this to that put positively and negatively; positively and negatively with regard to the past; positively and negatively with regard to the future; and the implication when cast in general terms.
[SN 2.12.035] With Ignorance as Condition 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Warren (Buddhism in Translations) translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
In response to a series of questions concerning 'who' experiences the various stages of the Paticca Samuppada, The Buddha explains that these questions assume the idea of an individual or experiencer, and a differentiation between the experience and the experiencer and that such an assumption falls into the trap of postulating an eternal self or a self that is annihilated and that with either of those two extreme views it is not possible to end pain and reach the goal of Arahantship and that this amounts to blindness, but by bringing this blindness to an end and seeing that the process is impersonal the end of pain is attainable and the goal of Arahantship can be reached.
[SN 2.12.036] With Ignorance as Condition 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha explains that questions concerning 'what and who' experiences the various stages of the Paticca Samuppada assume the idea of an individual or experiencer, and a differentiation between the experience and the experiencer and that such an assumption falls into the trap of postulating an eternal self or a self that is annihilated and that with either of those two extreme views it is not possible to end pain and reach the goal of Arahantship and that this amounts to blindness, but by bringing this blindness to an end and seeing that the process is impersonal the end of pain is attainable and the goal of Arahantship can be reached.
Bhk. Bodhi merely references the previous sutta for this one. For the fully expanded version see the Rhys Davids translation.
[SN 2.12.037] Not Yours the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha explains that body belongs neither to the self nor to another and arises as a result of action and it's repeated reappearance is brought to a halt by the ending of that action.

 


Nāyaɱ bhikkhave, kāyo tumhākaɱ,||
nā pi aññesaɱ.
|| ||

Purāṇam idaɱ bhikkhave kammaɱ abhisaŋkhataɱ||
abhisañcetayitaɱ vedayitaɱ daṭṭhabbaɱ.
|| ||

Nothing whatever of body, beggars, is yours
nor is it simply another's.

Of the past is this, beggars —
it should be seen as the construction of deeds that are over-with,
intentions to experience sense that are over-with.

— SN 2.12.37

 


 

[SN 2.12.038] Volition 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha states that where there is the heart, or intent, or resolve or even pre-occupation with doing or acting, that provides a basis for consciousness of self, or re-birth, in the future.
[SN 2.12.039] Volition 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha states that where there is the heart, or intent, or resolve or even pre-occupation with doing or acting, that provides a basis for consciousness and the rest of the links in the chain of dependent factors leading to birth and old age, sickness and death.
[SN 2.12.040] Volition 3, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha states that where there is the heart, or intent, or resolve or even pre-occupation with doing or acting, that provides a basis for consciousness and there follows a bending down to a going to a coming into rebirth, aging and death in the future.

 

Bound up in Intent, Consciousness
Bound up in Consciousness, Name/Form

In SN 2.12.39 we have another way of stating the Paṭicca Samuppada. This sequence could be placed between 'There being blindness, ownmanking'; or 'There being consciousness, name/form;' or, leapfroging: 'There being blindness, name/form' or 'There being fuel, existence'. Put this sutta together with SN 2.12.16 and you will be able to see that the Paṭicca Samuppada is more than a linear description of the coming to be of pain and it is also more than a three-life description and it is also more than a moment-to-moment description. It is all of these and more. Each link is in effect the entire process and the focus of the link should be seen in each case as being just the surface representation of one salient feature.

"Yaṇ ca bhikkhave, ceteti||
yañ ca pakappeti,||
yañ ca anuseti,||
ārammaṇame taɱ hoti viññāṇassa ṭhitiyā.
|| ||

Ārammaṇe sati patiṭṭhā viññāṇassa hoti.|| ||

Tasmiɱ patiṭṭhite viññāṇe virūḷhe nāma-rūpassa avakkanti hoti.|| ||

Whatsoever, beggars, for which one has the heart,
and whatsoever one plans,
and whatsoever one ponders,
such becomes an object for the seating of consciousness.

There being an object, consciousness stands fast.

There being growth of established consciousness, there is coming down into name/form.

You should see that this 'pondering' or 'planning' must be being done by an already established relationship between consciousness and name/form, i.e., a thinking being. So this is not intended to show 'original' origination; it is intended to show a continuation of origination. It focuses for the time being on a single aspect.

Bound up in Contact of Sense Organ, Sense Object and Consciousness, Sense Experience
Bound up in Sense Experience, Hunger Thirst
Bound up in Hunger/Thirst, Pain.

Still another way of putting the Paṭicca Samuppada. Found in SN 2.12.043:

The Point? Let your understanding be thorough — it is: "This being, that becomes; from the ending of this the ending of that" — so that in it's thoroughness it can be flexible, so that in it's flexibility it is adaptable.

 

[SN 2.12.041] Five Fearful Animosities 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha tells Anathapindika that when a layman is able to identify in himself that he is free from the five sources of guilty dread in poor ethical behavior, when he has solid faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, and when he has wised up to the aristocratic method, he may call himself a Streamwinner and assure himself that rebirth below human states is finished.
[SN 2.12.042] Five Fearful Animosities 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha tells a number of bhikkhus that when a person is able to identify in himself that he is free from the five sources of guilty dread in poor ethical behavior, when he has solid faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, and when he has wised up to the aristocratic method, he may call himself a Streamwinner and assure himself that rebirth below human states is finished.

 

 

Qualifications for Stream-Entry*

With these things solidly established one is able to see and know for himself that he is a Streamwinner, incapable of falling back, destined for Awakening within seven lifetimes at the most, free hense-forth from rebirth in any state of misery lower than that of human beings.

Ethics of the Aristocrats:

He abstains from taking life.

He abstains from taking what is not given.

He does not abandon his ethical standards in the pursuit of sense-pleasures.

He abstains from saying that which he knows is not true.

He abstains from indulgence in substances that result in careless behavior or sloth.

With Penetrating Wisdom, He knows and sees:

All that which has come to be, must, of necessity, come to an end."

All own-made things are impermanent.

All own-made things are essentially painful.

All things are not-self.

This being, that comes to be;
this not being, that does not come to be;
from the arising of this, that arises;
from the ceasing of this, that ceases.
Namely:
Tied down to blindness, ownmaking comes to be;
tied down to own-making, consciousness comes to be;
tied down to consciousness, name-and-shape come to be;
tied down to name-and-shape, the six sense realms come to be;
tied down to the six sense-realms, contact comes to be;
tied down to contact, sense experience comes to be;
tied down to sense-experience, hunger/thirst comes to be;
tied down to hunger/thirst, supporting fuel for existence comes to be;
tied down to supporting fuel for existence, existence comes to be;
tied down to existence, birth comes to be;
tied down to birth, Old Age, Sickness, and Death,
Grief and Lamentation,
Pain and Misery,
and Despair all come to be.

But:

From the complete disapearance of blindness, own-making ceases;
from the disappearance of own-making, consciousness ceases;
from the disappearance of consciousness, name-and-shape cease;
from the disappearance of name-and-shape, the six sense realms cease;
from the disappearance of the six sense realms, contact ceases;
from the disappearance of contact, sense experience ceases;
from the disappearance of sense-experience, hunger/thirst ceases;
from the disappearance of hunger/thirst, supporting fuel for existence ceases;
from the disappearance of supporting fuel for existence, existence ceases;
from the disappearance of existence, birth ceases;
from the disappearance of birth, Old Age, Sickness, and Death,
Grief and Lamentation,
Pain and Misery,
and Despair all cease to be.

He knows for a certainty:

This Buddha was supremely awakened, an arahant, possessed wisdom and consummate behavior
Walked the walk well,
Knew this world and the next,
and taught this Dhamma the way it should be taught.

This Dhamma is a saving Dhamma,
capable of being seen and understood in this visible world,
with immediate results, not a matter of awaiting some future destiny,
inviting examination,
comprehensible for himself by an intelligent person.

The Order of Disciples, that is to say: The Streamwinner, the Once Returner, the Non-Returner and the Arahant, and those that are striving after becoming such, are on the right track, walking the straight path, following proper form within the Dhamma.

*These qualifications are for what I call 'Stream-entry Proper'; there is also Stream-entry based purely on faith. The common ground between the two is the conviction that the Buddha has found a way to end pain.

 

[SN 2.12.43] Suffering, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha explains a version of the Paticca Samuppada that begins with the six realms of the senses.
[SN 2.12.44] The World, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha explains a version of the Paticca Samuppada that wherein the origin of the world begins with the six realms of the senses.
Note that as well as being another version of the Paticca Samuppada, this is an answer to the question "What is the origin of the world?" which is often said to be one of the questions that the Buddha did not answer.
[SN 2.12.45] At Ñātika, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha utters to himself a version of the Paticca Samuppada that begins with the six realms of the senses.
[SN 2.12.46] A Certain Braman, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
A question about who experiences the consequence of deeds leads to an exposition of the Paticca Samuppada.
[SN 2.12.47] Jāṇussoṇi, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
A question about the existence or non-existence of the all leads to an exposition of the Paticca Samuppada.
[SN 2.12.48] The Cosmologist the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Questions about the existence and nature of the all lead to an exposition of the Paticca Samuppada.
[SN 2.12.49] The Noble Disciple 1 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha describes how the student of the Aristocrats is free from doubts concerning the origin and ending of pain (dukkha).
[SN 2.12.50] The Noble Disciple 2 the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha describes how the student of the Aristocrats is free from doubts concerning the origin and ending of pain (dukkha).
This and the previous sutta are identical with the exception that in the first, in all editions but the Burmese, the Paticca Samuppada sequence begins with nama/rupa. This 'omition' has been added in in brackets by Bhk. Bodhi and Rhys Davids, but I suggest that this is really two different suttas and that the idea of it beginning with nama/rupa is itself instructive. Blindness yielding up own-making is done by an existing nama/rupa with consciousness. The beginning point of the S.P. is not iron-bound to one of it's links. This sort of 'clarification' is frequent in the Burmese edition of the Pali.
[SN 2.12.51] Thorough Investigation the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
An outline of the practice to be used by the person interested in comprehending the Paticca Samuppada.
An important sutta for understanding the method of investigation. The word used here is Parivīmaɱsa. Pari = pass-around; vīmaɱsa: re-member, in the sense of pondering over bringing to mind the various aspects of a thing. This is translated by Bhk. Bodhi as 'thorough investigation' which is also used for the translation of yoniso-manisikara (tracing back in memory the origin of a thing). The distinction is that Parivīmaɱsa encompasses yoniso-manisikara and then projects it forward into those insights which should arise from the determination of the origin of a thing. Generally, however, yoniso-manisikara is more frequently encountered and apparently is assumed to result in these insights.
[SN 2.12.52] Clinging the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha likens contimplation of delight in sense pleasures to throwing fuel on a fire.
Upādāna again. This is a great example of how early translations influence later translations to the exclusion of reasoned reflection. We must credit Bhk. Thanissaro for a break from 'grasping' and 'clinging' even though he has used 'clinging' in his translation of this sutta. He was first to note that what Upādāna really stood for was 'fuel' that which supports coming into existence. It is not just 'grasping' but must encompass a much broader spectrum of ideas. The literal meaning of the word is 'Up-giving' or 'up-binding'. We say 'fuel-up'. I have used 'bind-up' and 'support' in an effort to stick closer to the etymology and have used 'fuel' or 'fueling' occasionally. In any case this sutta should have openened everyone's eyes, but the early translator's understanding of the Paticca Samuppada as a progressive series of causes made them seek out a word which more closely fit their idea of what would result in the coming to be of an individual and blinded everyone to the idea that what this was was the work of mind, pondering, wishing and intending that fueled the fire of existence.
[SN 2.12.53] Fetters, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha likens the yokes to rebirth to the maintenance necessary to keep an oil lamp burning.
[SN 2.12.54] Fetters 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha likens the yokes to rebirth to the maintenance necessary to keep an oil lamp burning.
This sutta is included in Bhk. Bodhi's book only by reference to the previous sutta which is nearly identical, omitting only the repetition of the explanation of the origin and ending of pain.
[SN 2.12.55] The Great Tree, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha likens the prospects for continued growth for one who delights in contimplation of whatever is included under the heading of fuel to the condition of a great tree with healthy roots sucking up it's nourishment.
[SN 2.12.56] The Great Tree 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha likens the prospects for continued growth for one who delights in contimplation of whatever is included under the heading of fuel to the condition of a great tree with healthy roots sucking up it's nourishment.
This sutta is included in Bhk. Bodhi's book only by reference to the previous sutta which is nearly identical, omitting only the repetition of the explanation of the origin and ending of pain.
[SN 2.12.57] The Sapling, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha likens the contimplation of that which yokes one to rebirth to the prospects of a young tree that is well tended and recommends in stead chopping that young tree down and destroying it completely.
[SN 2.12.58] Name-and-Form, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha likens the prospects for continued growth for one who delights in contimplation of whatever is included under the heading of fuel to the condition of a great tree with healthy roots sucking up it's nourishment.
[SN 2.12.59] Consciousness, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha likens the prospects for continued growth for one who delights in contimplation of whatever is included under the heading of fuel to the condition of a great tree with healthy roots sucking up it's nourishment.
[SN 2.12.60] Causation, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
After Ananda praises the exposition of the Paticca Samuppada to him, The Buddha cautions him that this is no easy thing to see and he goes on to liken the prospects for continued growth for one who delights in contimplation of whatever is included under the heading of fuel to the condition of a great tree with healthy roots sucking up it's nourishment.

 


Paṭicca-samuppādo||
gambhirāvabhāso||
ca etassa.
|| ||

Dhammassa aññāṇā||
ananubodhā||
appaṭivedhā||
evam ayaɱ pajā||
tantākulakajātā guḷāguṇṭhika||
jātā muñjababbajabhūtā||
apāyaɱ||
duggatiɱ||
vinipātaɱ||
saŋsāraɱ||
nātivattati.
|| ||

Deeply lusterous appears
Rebounding Owned-appearance
and such it is.

It is through not knowing,
not awakening to,
not penetrating this Dhamma,
that the multitude —
become straw dolls,
like a tangled ball of string,
held fast by a glob of boils,
is sucked into the vortex,
the bottomless pit,
the painful getting,
the downfall,
of the endless round-and-round.

—SN 2.12.60


 

[SN 2.12.60] Uninstructed 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Nizamis translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha points out that because it is easier to become repelled by body than by mind, that it would be better for most people if they thought of the body as the self that way they would not be attached to it and might more easily become free from it. Then he compairs the mind to a monkey traveling from branch to branch.
An interesting point to be noted in this sutta is the way the Buddha speaks of 'this very heart' (citta) or 'this very mind' (mano) or 'this very consciousness' (viññāṇa) as being synonyms for each other in essentially the same way we think about these things. K. Nizamis argues in a footnote that the use here of these terms as we find them is not to be understood this way. That they are not to be understood as synonyms. And that this is an Abhidhamma interpretation. That being the case, I find myself for the first time agreeing with the Abhidhamma! I do not say that these terms do not have specialized meanings. Indeed I have argued for translating them with terms that more precisely point out their differences than are currently used, but in the case we have here what the Buddha is talking about is the common way of understanding what we call our mind which various forms are all thought of as the same thing, that is 'mind'. Here to take Nizamis' understanding would be to warp the sutta and to miss the meaning which is not directing our attention to the precise forms of mind, but to the common understanding. It might be better to understand all these things (including also 'sati') as 'ways mind works'. Some people see it one way or are of predominantly one form of it, some another, some a mixture, but the point of this sutta is that however it is experienced the common denominator is that it changes rapidly. This is how I believe this matter should be seen: 'citta' is our 'heart' and means our mental center; mano is our 'mind' and has no discretely defined form or function or rather it has multiple meanings or serves as a unifying concept and can stand for the ordinary mind or the mind of the arahant; 'sati' is our 'memory' and is used as English 'mind' as in 'pay attention' and 'remember'; 'vinnana' is our 'consciousness' and is our knowing that we know and self-awareness. There are other terms as well that relate to functions we call 'mind': vimansa, investigation, vitakka and vicara, thinking, etc. All of these are the work of memory. What we consider the focus or center of our being is a consequence of the arising of memories; what we call our mind is a consequence of the piecing together of memories; what we call memory is the remembering of things; what we call paying attention is the remembering to notice what we are trying to remember to do. On top of the basic workings of memory, we apply views according to the use to which the memory is being put. When we want to remember how we feel about a thing we call it heart. When we want to think of ourselves as intelligent beings (man) we call it mind; when we want to use it to pay attention and recall things we call it memory; when we want to remember that we should stay awake when the Professor is speaking, we call it consciousness. They are all synonyms and they are not synonyms depending on the point you are trying to make.
[SN 2.12.62] Uninstructed 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Warren, Buddhism in Translations translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha points out that because it is easier to become repelled by body than by mind, that it would be better for most people if they thought of the body as the self that way they would not be attached to it and might more easily become free from it. Then he describes how it is that consciousness arises through contact, sense-experience and perception and that it is by perceiving that that detachment leads to freedom and the knowledge of freedom.
[SN 2.12.66] Exploration, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha teaches a method for self-mastery based on conceptualizing the world and it's pleasures and delights as inherantly painful.
[SN 2.12.67] The Sheaves of Reeds, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Maha-Kotthita puts questions about the Paticca Samuppada to Sariputta. He frames his questions in the form of the four basic propositions about existence put into questions about whether or not the links in the Paticca Samuppada are created by the self or other or both or neither.
[SN 2.12.68] Kosambī, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Venerable Savittha questions the Venerable Musila about whether or not apart from belief, inclination, hearsay, argument as to method, reflection on and approval of an opinion, he has, as his very own, the knowledge of the various steps of the Paticca Samuppada and of the knowledge that the ending of becoming is Nibbana. In all cases he states that he has such knowldge. And when the Venerable Savittha declares him an arahant he remains silent. Then the Venerable Narada, who has overheard this dialogue asks that the same questions be asked of him and when asked he responds in the same way. But when Savittha pronounces him too an arahant, Narada explains that while he has personal knowledge of these things, he has not attained them. And he gives the simile of the thirsty man who comes across a well with no means to retrieve the water.
[SN 2.12.69] The Surge, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha likens the momentum of ignorance to the way the rise and fall of the sea-level influences the momentum of the flow of water in the great rivers, streams, lakes, and feeder streams.
There is a phenomena seen in rivers emptying into the ocean of a reverse of flow at flood-tide; but it effects the flow of the river for only a short distance back into the land and it's hard to think that there is any effect at all on the feeder streams or further back. It may happen at a certain very subtle level. I would read the Pali: 'A rise in the ocean impeeds access to it by the river, etc.'
[SN 2.12.70] Susīma, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Susima enters the order to learn the secret of Gotama's ability to generate respect and donatives. There he hears about bhikkhus gaining Arahantship and quesions them about super-normal powers. These bhikkhus tell him they have no super-normal powers and have been awakened through wisdom. Questioning the Buddha about this he learns to appreciate the Dhamma and confesses his earlier bad intentions.
Apart from the controversy as to whether or not this sutta is evidence that Arahantship can be gained without experience of jhana (it isn't; it doesn't raise the issue), this sutta has another difficult issue to deal with. The bhikkhus that have declared Arahantship (Aññā) have said they did so by way of Wisdom. The thing to note is that in response to being questioned by Susima about this, the Buddha asks him a series of questions which when complete imply the definition of the method of attaining arahantship by way of wisdom (knowing and seeing the Paticca Samuppada) along with the idea that knowledge and vision have arisen without attaining magic powers. We can see that that Susima knows and sees, but he has not declared Arahantship. Knowing and seeing are not the same thing as Arahantship. But Susima (and the reader) can, on knowing and seeing according to this method see that it does not necessarily involve these attainments.
[SN 2.12.71-81] Aging-and-Death, Birth, etc., the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Any shaman or brahman who does not understand the Paticca Samuppada in all it's details has not realized the benefits of being a shaman or brahman.
[SN 2.12.82-93] A Teacher, Training, Exertion, etc. the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and other translations only through the Index.

[SN 2.16.1] Content, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha exhorts the bhikkhus by extolling the satisfaction Maha Kassapa obtains through his contentment with whatever he gets.
[SN 2.16.2] Unafraid of Wrongdoing, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Maha Kassapa explains the Four Consummate Efforts in detail.
[SN 2.16.3] Like the Moon, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Warren, Buddhism in Translations translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha admonishes the bhikkhus with the example of Kassapa, who approaches the world with an alert mind and extreme caution.
[SN 2.16.4] A Visitor of Families, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha councils the bhikkhus on the thoughts to eliminate and those to keep in mind when they go on their begging rounds. He cites Kassapa as one who is a good example in this practice.
[SN 2.16.5] Old, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Maha Kassapa extolls the virtues of living the austere life.
[SN 2.16.6] Exhortation 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha rebukes two bhikkhus who have been one-upping each other.
[SN 2.16.7] Exhortation 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Maha Kassapa describes the states which amount to decline in the bhikkhus and which make the bhikkhus hard to exhort and the states which amount to advancement and which make them easy to exhort. The Buddha confirms his analysis.
[SN 2.16.8] Exhortation 3, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Gotama laments with Maha Kassapa about the lax state of practice of the bhikkhus compared to the early days.
Can you imagine what he would think of the state of things today!
[SN 2.16.9] Jhānas and Direct Knowledges, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha extolls the accomplishments of Maha Kassapa by comparing him with his own accomplishments.
[SN 2.16.10] The Bhikkhunis' Quarters, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Was Maha Kassapa the needle peddler and Ananda the needle maker? or was it the other way around. Maha Kassapa sets the matter straight.
[SN 2.16.11] The Robe, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Maha Kassapa criticizes Ananda for going around with a great crowd of novices and relates the story of his first encounter with the Buddha, his exchanging robes with the Buddha and the Buddha's high praise of him.

 


Was the Bhagava really a Satthā?
A Sugata?
A Sammāsaɱbuddha?

If ever there was a Master,
it would be this Lucky Man we read about here
that would be that Master.

If ever there was a Well Going One,
it would be this Lucky Man we read about here
that would be that Well Going One.

If ever there was a Consummately Self-Awakened One
it would be this Lucky Man we read about here
that would be that Consummately Self-Awakened One.


 

[SN 2.16.12] After Death, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Maha Kassapa and Sariputta discuss why the Buddha did not state an opnion concerning whether or not an awakened one lives again after death.
[SN 2.16.13] The Counterfeit of the True Dhamma, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Sister Upalavanna translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha enumerates five things which lead to the disappearance of the Authentic Teaching.

[SN 2.21.1] Kolita, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Maha Moggallana describes his initial practice at entering the second jhana, it's obstruction by thinking, and the assistance given him by the Master.
[SN 2.21.2] Upatissa, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Sariputta states that there is nothing in the world whatsoever that would cause him suffering even including the passing away of the Master.
For those who object to my translation of 'saŋkhāra' as 'own-making' note the presence in this sutta of the terms 'ahiŋkāra' and 'mamaŋkāra': 'I-making' and 'My-making.' If these, why not 'own-making'? The reason, of course is simply the weight of the tradition of past translations and academic authority over common sense.
[SN 2.21.3] The Barrel, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Sariputta and Moggallana speak of a conversation between Maha-Moggalana and Gotama via clairvoyance and clariaudience, the topic being consummate energy.
[SN 2.21.4] The Newly Ordained Bhikkhu, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
A novice bhikkhu is brought before the Buddha because he is thought to be a slacker by other bhikkhus. The Master reveals that this brother is already an Arahant.
[SN 2.21.5] Sujāta, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Master proclaims the beauty of Sujata, both physical and mental.
[SN 2.21.6] Lakuṇṭaka Bhaddiya, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Nizamis translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Master proclaims the wisdom of this ugly, huntchbacked dwarf.
[SN 2.21.7] Visākha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha praises Visaka's manner of teaching Dhamma.
[SN 2.21.8] Nanda, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Nanda, nephew of the Exalted One's mother, is admonished by the Buddha for wearing fine robes, makeup, and using a new bowl — resulting in Nanda becomeing a forest-dwelling beggar wearing rag-robes.
[SN 2.21.9] Tissa, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha admonishes Tissa, nephew to Gotama's father, to learn to accept criticism as well as give it.
[SN 2.21.10] A Bhikkhu Named Elder, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
A bhikkhu who was fond of solitude is summoned before the Buddha who then gives him insruction as to perfecting his practice.
[SN 2.21.11] Mahā Kappina, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
The Buddha informs the bhikkhus about the mighty magic powers of Maha Kappina.
[SN 2.21.12] Companions, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation.
Two comrades are praised by Gotama and declared Arahants.

This completes the formatting and uploading of the sutta translations of Bhikkhu Bodhi of the Samyutta Nikaya, Volume II, the Nidana Samyutta released for free distribution by Wisdom Publications.

Saɱyutta Nikāya, Khandha Vagga
[SN 3.22.2] At Devadaha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sariputta teaches a number of bhikkhus what to respond when asked what the Buddha Teaches.
[SN 3.22.3] Hāliddikāni, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Maha Kaccana explains in detail the meaning of a saying made in brief by the Buddha.
[SN 3.22.4] Hāliddikāni 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Maha Kaccana explains in detail the meaning of a saying made in brief by the Buddha.
A different brief saying.
[SN 3.22.5] Concentration, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Serenity, the M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha instructs the bhikkhus to develop serenity for seeing the origin and ending of form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
Note in my translation the use of 'counterpart' as a translation for 'paṭicca' in an effort to get away from 'cause' and even 'condition'; the use of 'serenity' for 'samādhi' in order to point to the fact that samādhi is more than just concentration; and the use of 'arising to self' for 'samudaya' in an effort to point out the 'sam' that never appears in the translation 'arising' or 'origin'. What the Buddha is always talking about is not the original creation of things, but the identified-with existence of things. Form has existence only in so far as it is experienced by an individual. That does not mean that the individual is creating form. It only means that the individual has created the experience of form. 'It is the diversity of data that results in the diversity of perceptions; it is not the diversity of perceptions that results in the diversity of data. SN 2.14.8 - olds
[SN 3.22.6] Seclusion, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha instructs the bhikkhus to develop solitude for seeing the origin and ending of form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness.
[SN 3.22.7] Agitation through Clinging 1, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains how it is that a person who thinks of body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as self, or in self or as of self, has anxiety and agitation about self when these things change.
[SN 3.22.8] Agitation through Clinging 2, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains how it is that a person who thinks of body, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as me or mine, or self, has anxiety and agitation about self when these things change.

 

Kammic Returns

Not seeing that this is Pain, that this pain arises to the self from thirst; that to end the pain it is necessary to end the thirst and that the way to do that is to align one's behavior with the 8-Dimensional Way of the Aristocrat returns as own-making: — the identification with acts of body, speech and mind intended to create experience of pleasure for the self and the identified-with results of those acts.

The counterpart of own-making is consciousness. The kammic return of own-making is consciousness of named form. Consciousness of named forms follows in the footsteps of own-making.

The counterpart of consciousness is named form.

The counterpart of named form is consciousness.

The counterpart of consciousness of named forms is the six realms of sense.

The counterpart of the six realms of sense is contact: — identified-with experience through the senses.

The counterpart of contact is pleasant or unpleasant sensation.

The counterpart of sensation is thirst: — for pleasure, for being or for not-being.

The counterpart of thirst is the obsession, pondering, thinking, imagining, intending that constitutes the fuel that supports existence.

The counterpart of supporting fuel is the coming into existence of being some sort of living being in some sort of realm of being. The kammic return of the mental acts of obsessing, pondering, thinking, imagining, and intending that support existence is the coming into existence of being some sort of living being in some sort of realm of being. Becoming some sort of being in some sort of realm of being follows in the footsteps of supporting fuel.

The counterpart of coming into existence is birth.

The counterpart of birth is aging and death
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair.

We are not thinking in terms of 'cause'. That is deeper than we can know. We are examining the occurance of the coinsidental phenomena that we can see with our own eyes that end in aging and death. Our concern is just at the level of knowing that when such and such is the case with us what returns to us is such and so; that when such and such is not the case with us, such and so does not follow after.

 

[SN 3.22.9] Impermanent in the Three Times, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha points out that form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness were unstable in the past, will be unstable the future and are unstable in the present and that therefore the wise person practices to let these things go.
Note the order: Past, Future, Present. This is the order used throughout the suttas (in spite of some translations indicating otherwise). The reason is to be found in the understanding of the nature of mind to proceed according to instructions. Think of the way a search tool looks for what is saught as literally described. [First examine the past, then examine the future, then examine the present.] We do not want it dwelling in the past or anticipating the future, so we direct the mind to reflection on the way things were in the past, then the way things will be in the future, then set it down to reflect on the way things are in the present. Also note that there is no actual term in Pali for 'the present'. Here it is Paccuppanna 'that which confronts' or has risen up in our face, literally the 'percussively-uprisen'. Elsewhere it is 'diṭṭha-dhamma' this 'seen thing'. The reason? Change is seen to make it impossible to locate any point in time that could be called a 'present moment'. Even in that which confronts us different objects are changing at different rates and further, by the nature of perception being consequent on contact giving rise to consciousness, all that which we understand to be 'the present' is really already in the past.
[SN 3.22.10] Suffering in the Three Times, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha points out that form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness were painful in the past, will be painful the future and are painful in the present and that therefore the wise person practices to let these things go.
[SN 3.22.11] Suffering in the Three Times, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha points out that form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness were not-self in the past, will be not-self the future and are not-self in the present and that therefore the wise person practices to let these things go.

[SN 3.22.12] Impermanent, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that seeing form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as impermanent is sufficient to be repelled by them and that being repelled one is free.
[SN 3.22.13] Suffering, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that seeing form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as painful is sufficient to be repelled by them and that being repelled one is free.
[SN 3.22.14] Nonself, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that seeing form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness as without the self is sufficient to be repelled by them and that being repelled one is free.
[SN 3.22.15] What is Impermanent, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that that which is impermanent is painful and that which is painful should not be regarded as the self. So seeing form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness is sufficient to be repelled by them and that being repelled one is free.
[SN 3.22.16] What is Suffering, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that that which is painful is not self and that which is not self and should not be regarded as the self. So seeing form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness is sufficient to be repelled by them and that being repelled one is free.
[SN 3.22.17] What is Nonself, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches that that which is not self should not be regarded as the self. So seeing form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness is sufficient to be repelled by them and that being repelled one is free.
[SN 3.22.18] Impermanent with Cause, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the understanding that a thing built on the changeable is itself subject to change.
[SN 3.22.19] Suffering with Cause, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the understanding that a thing built of the painful does not result in the pleasant.
[SN 3.22.20] Nonself with Cause, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches the understanding that a thing built of the not-self does not become a self.
The Buddha teaches the understanding that a thing built of the painful does not result in the pleasant.
[SN 3.22.21] Ānanda, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains to Ananda that the saying of seers of old 'Its Ending! Its Ending!' points to the perception that form, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consiousness are ending things.

 

It Ends! It Ends!

Develop serenity and the appreciation of solitude, my friends —

It is through developing serenity and the appreciation of solitude
that one comes to know things as they really are.

What things?

The arising in the appearance of self of form
and the ending of form;
the arising in the appearance of self of sense experience,
and the ending of sense experience;
the arising in the appearance of self of perception,
and the ending of perception,
the arising in the appearance of self of own-making,
and the ending of own-making;
the arising in the appearance of self of consciousness,
and the ending of consciousness.

Taking pleasure in form one is tied down,
taking pleasure in sense-experience one is tied down,
taking pleasure in perception one is tied down,
taking pleasure in own-making one is tied down,
taking pleasure in consciousness one is tied down.

Regarding forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness as self,
or the self as having forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness,
or forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness as having self,
or self as being in forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness,
upon the alteration and change of forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness there is experience anxiety and fear.

Taking pleasure or experiencing anxiety and fear concerning forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness,
one obsesses about forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness,
forms intentions with regard to forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness.

Obsession and forming intentions are the fuel that drives existence.

The counterpart of existence is birth.

The counterpart of birth is aging and death,
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair.

This was the case in the past,
this will be the case in the future,
and this is the case in what we see arising in front of us as self right now.

This is what one sees in the serenity of solitude.

Forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness are unstable.

Being tied down to,
taking pleasure in,
experiencing anxiety and fear concerning
that which is unstable is the experience of pain.

That which is painful is not wanted,
experience of that which is not wanted is something that is not under one's control.

Something that is not under one's control
is not reasonably to be seen as:
"This is mine."
"I am this."
"This is my self."

That on which forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness depend,
that which is the fuel which supports their existence,
the driving force of their existence,
is unstable, painful, and not-self.

How could that which is dependent on,
fueled and supported by,
driven by,
the unstable, painful, and not-self
be stable, pleasant and self?

Such a thing o b,
can no be.

So seeing, one is repelled by forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness.

Repelled one is not tied down to forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness;
one does not experience anxiety and fear at the instability of forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness.

Not taking pleasure or experiencing anxiety and fear concerning forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness,
one does not obsess about forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness,
one does not form intentions with regard to forms, sense-experiences, perceptions, own-making and consciousness.

Not obsessing and forming intentions,
there is no fuel to drive existence.

Without existence there is no birth.

Without birth there is no aging and death,
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery
and despair.

This is what one sees in the serenity of solitude.

Develop serenity and the appreciation of solitude, my friends —

It is through developing serenity and the appreciation of solitude
that one comes to know things as they really are.

 


Monday, June 27, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, May 30, 2016


 

Pali Letter-order bookmark

Bookmark image

Pali/English Dictionary

On the right is an image which you can save and print for use as a bookmark for your PED and NPD and CPD. The 'Pali/English' dictionaries are organized on the Pali alphabetical order. The Pali alphabetical order is informative and is much more logical than is the English, but if your interest in Pali is not such as has caused you to memorize it, it can be frustrating to look up the word you need to find to clarify an issue. Hense the usefulness of this bookmark.

 

new Thursday, June 16, 2016 8:46 AMSaɱyutta Nikāya The Connected Discourses of the Buddha, I. The Book with Verses, 1. Connected Discourses with Devatās, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations. (All Suttas of each chapter in a single file)
All linked to the Pali, the Mrs. Rhys Davids' translations and other available translations.
[SN 1.1.11-20]
11. Nandana
12. Delight
13. None Equal to That for a Son,
14. The Khattiya
15. Murmuring
16. Drowsiness and Lethargy
17. Difficult to Practice
18. A Sense of Shame
19. A Little Hut
20. Samiddhi
[SN 1.1.21-30]
21. A Sword
22. It Touches
23. Tangle
24. Reining in the Mind
25. The Arahant
26. Sources of Light
27. Streams
28. Those of Great Wealth
29. Four Wheels
30. Antelope Calves
[SN 1.1.31-40]
31. With the Good
32. Stinginess
33. Good
34. There Are No
35. Faultfinders
36. Faith
37. Concourse
38. The Stone Sliver
39. Pajjunna's Daughter 1
40. Pajjunna's Daughter 2
[SN 1.1.41-50]
41. Ablaze
42. Giving What?
43. Food
44. One Root
45. Perfect
46. Nymphs
47. Planters of Groves
48. Jeta's Grove
49. Stingy
50. Ghaṭīkāra
[SN 1.1.51-60]
51. Old Age
52. Undecaying
53. The Friend
54. Support
55. Produces
56. Produces 2
57. Produces 3
58. The Deviant Path
59. Partner
60. Poetry
[SN 1.1.61-70]
61. Name
62. Mind
63. Craving
64. Fetter
65. Bondage
66. Afflicted
67. Ensnared
68. Shut In
69. Desire
70. World
[SN 1.1.71-81]
71. Having Slain
72. Chario
73. Treasure
74. Rain
75. Afraid
76. Does Not Decay
77. Sovereignty
78. Love
79. Provisions for a Journey
80. Source of Light
81. Without Conflict
[SN 1.11.1-25]
1. Suvira
2. Susima
3. The Crest of the Standard
4. Vepacitti (or Patience)
5. Vicotry by Well-Spoken Counsel
6. The Bird Nests
7. One Should Not Transgress
8. Verocana, Lord of the Asuras
9. Seers in a Forest
10. Seers by the Ocean
11. Vows
12. Sakka's Names
13. Mahali
14. Poor
15. A Delightful Place
16. Bestowing Alms
17. Veneration of the Buddha
18. The Worship of the Teacher (or Sakka's Worship)
19. The Worship of the Teacher (or Sakka's Worship) 2
20. The Worship of the Teacher (or Sakka's Worship) 3
21. Having Slain
22. Ugly
23. Magic
24. Transgrssion
25. Nonanger
This concludes the formatting and uploading of the Samyutta Nikaya, Sagatha Samyutta (Volume 1) translations by Bhikkhu Bodhi released by Wisdom Publications for free distribution.

 

[SN 2.12.2] Samyutta Nikaya, Nidana Samyutta (Volume 2) Analysis of Dependent Origination, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Analysis which gives Gotama Buddha's definitions of the terms used in the Paticca Samuppada.
A very important sutta!
[SN 2.12.3] The Way (or Course), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation
The Way which presents the Paticca Samuppada as a Path or Course rather than the usual understanding of this doctrine as a description of how kamma works.
[SN 2.12.4-10] Vipassi, Vessabhū, Kakusandha, Koṇāgamana, Kassapa, and Gotama the Great Sakyan Sage, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translations. All on one file.
Linked to the Pali, the C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation
Seven identical suttas describing the thinking processes involved in the discovery by the past 7 Buddhas of the Paticca Samuppada with the result that new knowledge, vision, insight, wisdom and light arose in them.

 

Reasoning out
the
Paṭicca Samuppāda

Consequential Self-Appearance

What being is there Aging and Death?

Aging and Death. Jarā-maraṇa. Growing old in years, becoming feeble, the weakening of the sense faculties, dying, the departure from this life, mortality, the breaking apart into their basic elements of the factors that support life.

What results in Aging and Death?

There being Birth, there is Aging and Death.

Birth. Jāti. Being born, becoming an identified-with living individuality in some class of living beings.

Birth results in Aging and Death.

What being is there Birth?

What results in Birth?

There being Existence there is Birth.

Existence. Bhava. Existing in a place of existence; as a human in human existence; as an animal, ghost, deamon or being in hell; as a god among gods; as a being in the realms of sense experience; in the realms of formed existence; in the realms of formlessness existence.

Existence results in Birth.

What being is there Existence?

What results in Existence?

There being Supporting Fuel there is Birth.

Supporting Fuel. Upādāna. Contimplation of delight in pleasures of the senses, in existing as some sort of being in some sort of place of being.

Supporting Fuel results in Birth.

What being is there Supporting Fuel?

What results in Supporting Fuel?

There being Hunger and Thirst there is Supporting Fuel.

Hunger and Thirst. Taṇhā. Wanting, wishing, desire for, hunger for, thirst for the re-experiencing of pleasant, unpleasant or neither pleasant nor unpleasant sensation of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and thinking.

Hunger and Thirst results in Supporting Fuel.

What being is there Hunger and Thirst?

What results in Hunger and Thirst?

There being Sense-Experience there is Hunger and Thirst.

Sense-Experience. Vedanā. Sensations of pleasure, pain or neither pleasure nor pain arising from contact of sense organ with sense object: eye and visible objects; ear and sounds; nose and scents; tongue and tastes; body and touches; the mind and things.

Sense Experience results in Hunger and Thirst.

What being is there Sense-Experience?

What results in Sense-Experience?

There being Touch there is Sense-Experience.

Touch. Phassa. Contact, being in contact with, identification with the perception of sense-organ, sense-object, and sense consciousness.

Touch results in Sense-Experience.

What being is there Touch?

What results in Touch?

There being The Six-Sense Realms there is Touch.

The Six-Sense Realms. Saḷāyatana. The eye, visible objects, visual consciousness, the pleasant, unpleasant and the neither pleasant nor unpleasant sensations that arise from contact with visual consciousness, thinking about sights, hunger and thirst for sights, intentions relating to sights.
The ear and sounds, auditory consciousness, the pleasant, unpleasant and the neither pleasant nor unpleasant sensations that arise from contact with auditory consciousness, thinking about sounds, hunger and thirst for sounds, intentions relating to sounds.
The nose and scents, olfactory consciousness, the pleasant, unpleasant and the neither pleasant nor unpleasant sensations that arise from contact with olfactory consciousness, thinking about scents, hunger and thirst for scents, intentions relating to scents.
The tongue and tastes, consciousness of tastes, the pleasant, unpleasant and the neither pleasant nor unpleasant sensations that arise from contact with savours, thinking about tastes, huger and thirst for tastes, intentions relating to tastes.
The Body and touches, tactile consciousness, the pleasant, unpleasant and the neither pleasant nor unpleasant sensations that arise from contact with tactile consciousness, thinking about touches, hunger and thirst for touches, intentions relating to touches.
The identified-with Mind (mano)* and Things, mental consciousness, the pleasant, unpleasant and the neither pleasant nor unpleasant sensations that arise from contact with mental consciousness, thinking about things, hunger and thirst for things, intentions relating to things.

The Six-Sense Realms result in Touch.

What being is there The Six-Sense Realms?

What results in The Six-Sense Realms?

There being Name-and-Form there is The Six-Sense Realms.

Name-and-Form. Nāma-rūpa. The shape or form of an object, whether material or immaterial (all of those things described above as belonging to the six=sense=realms are nama/rupas), and the terms used to identify it.

Name-and-Form result in The Six-Sense Realms.

What being is there Name-and-Form?

What results in Name-and-Form?

There being Consciousness** there is Name-and-Form.

Consciousness. Viññāṇa. Knowing Knowing. Awareness of knowing of being conscious.

Consciousness results in Name-and-Form.

[This step is omitted in SN 2.12.4. It is implied by the next Step, and it is explained in the Maha Nidana Sutta, DN. 15 ]

What being is there Consciousness?

What results in Consciousness?

There being Name-and-Form there is Consciousness.

Name-and-Form results in Consciousness.

What being is there Consciousness?

What results in Consciousness?

There being Own-Making† there is Consciousness.

Own-making. Saŋkhāra. Con-struction. Identification with the intent to create experience of existence for the self through acts of thought, word, and deed and the resulting identified-with experience.

Own-Making results in Consciousness.

What being is there Own-Making?

What results in Own-Making?

There being Lack of Vision there is Own-Making.

Lack of Vision. Avijjā. Not 'seeing' the self-made nature of existence. Not seeing that deeds rebound on the deed-maker in accordance with the intent of the deed. Not seeing that the result is essentially pain. Not seeing that it is hunger and thirst that is the fundamental source of that pain. Not seeing that to end that pain, one must end that hunger and thirst. Not seeing that the way to end that hunger and thirst is:
High View: the view that this is pain, that it originates with hunger and thirst, that it can only be brought to an end by eliminating the hunger and thirst, and that the way to do that is High View, High Principles, High Talk, High Works, High Lifestyle, High Self-control, High Mind, and High Serenity;
High Principles: Letting go, no mental cruelty, non- Violence;
High Talk: abstention from lies, slander, abusive speech;
High Works: works done without lies, theft, or violence
High Lifestyle: living abandoning what is perceived as a low lifestyle;
High Self-control: Making an Effort, seeking to get rid of bad states, keep off bad states, obtain good states, retain good states;
High Mind: Awareness of the arising, maintaining, and passing off of body, sense-experience, states of mind, and the Dhamma such that one abandons all anger and unhappiness, is satisfied, and above it all.
High Serenity: By rising above sense pleasures and unskillful things, entering into and making a habitat of appreciation of the peace of solitude; the peace of meditation, ease, and detachment.

Lack of Vision results in Own-Making.

So:
Lack of Vision results in Own-Making;
Own-Making results in Consciousness;
Consciousness results in Name-and-Form;
Name-and-form results in the Six Sense Realms;
The Six Sense Realms result in Contact;
Contact results in Sense-Experience;
Sense-Experience results in Hunger and Thirst;
Hunger and Thirst result in Supporting Fuel
Supporting Fuel results in Existence
Existence results in Birth
Birth results in Old Age, sickness, suffering and death
Grief and Lamantation
Pain and Misery
and Despair.

 

§

 

What then, not being is there no†† Aging and Death?

What ending ends Aging and Death?

Birth not being there is no Aging and Death.

Ending birth ends Aging and Death.

What then, not being is there no Birth?

What ending ends Birth?

Existence not being there is no Birth.

Ending Existence ends Birth.

What then, not being is there no Existence?

What ending ends Existence?

Supporting Fuel not being there is no Existence.

Ending Supporting Fuel ends Existence.

What then, not being is there no Supporting Fuel?

What ending ends Supporting Fuel?

Hunger and Thirst not being there is no Supporting Fuel.

Ending Hunger and Thirst ends Supporting Fuel.

What then, not being is there no Hunger and Thirst?

What ending ends Hunger and Thirst?

Sense-Experience not being there is no Hunger and Thirst.

Ending Sense-Experience ends Hunger and Thirst.

What then, not being is there no Sense-Experience?

What ending ends Sense-Experience?

Contact not being there is no Sense-Experience.

Ending Contact ends Sense-Experience.

What then, not being is there no Contact?

What ending ends Contact?

The Six Sense Realms not being there is no Contact.

Ending The Six Sense Realms ends Contact.

What then, not being is there no Six Sense Realms?

What ending ends The Six Sense Realms?

Name-and-form not being there is no Six Sense Realms.

Ending Name-and-form ends The Six Sense Realms.

What then, not being is there no Name-and-form?

What ending ends Name-and-form?

Consciousness not being there is no Name-and-form.

Ending Consciousness ends Name-and-form.

What then, not being is there no Consciousness?

What ending ends Consciousness?

Own-Making not being there is no Consciousness.

Ending Own-Making ends Consciousness.

What then, not being is there no Own-Making?

What ending ends Own-Making?

Lack of Vision not being there is no Own-Making.

Ending Lack of Vision ends Own-Making.

So it is that:

Ending lack of vision ends own-making;
ending own-making ends consciousness;
ending consciousness ends name-and-form;
ending name-and-form ends the six sense realms;
ending the six sense-realms ends contact;
ending contact ends sense-experience;
ending sense-experience ends hunger and thirst;
ending hunger and thirst ends support fuel;
ending support fuel ends existence;
ending existence ends birth;
ending birth ends old age, sickness, suffering and death
grief and lamentation,
pain and misery,
and despair.

—SN 2.12.4

 


 

*Mano. There are numerous forms of 'mind', and the word can indicate the unidentified-with mind of the Arahant. Here the term is qualified by it's inclusion as a sense-sphere as being the mind of an identified-with, existing being.

** Consciousness. Here this is just the fact of consciousnes. Consciousness as a phenomena. Like 'Mind', there are many forms of consciousness, each depending on it's object. Consciousness does not arise without having an object of it's awareness. If consciousness arises in conjunction with consciousness of an unidentified-with (un own-made) named-form it is called 'the unseen consciousness) which is a term for the consciousness of the Arahant and is an equivalent of Nibbana. Who made the un-identified-with named form? Someone else. This 'unidentified=with consciousness' arises with consciousness that the object is not own-made as it's object.

† Own-making. In different words, an 'identified-with consciousness of existince as named-form' (i.e., an already existing conscious living being) acts with intent to create identified-with experience by bringing together in thought: consciousness, name and form. So we can say that 'named-form created consciousness' and 'consciousness created named-form'. Conceiving in mind a desired object and taking steps by way of thought, word and deed to obtain that object; that object being realized (being made up from named forms) there is consciousness arising from that situation.

†† "is there no". This statement is absolute and relative. It would be that if there were 'no' anywhere there would be 'no' anywhere; but directed at the individual this means: "if you personally had no/did no". "If there were in you no" etc.

 

new Thursday, June 02, 2016 7:10 AMAŋguttara Nikāya
[AN 8.30] Anuruddha: The Eight Thoughts of a Great Man, the M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Hare translation, the Bhk. Thanissaro translation, and the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
An elegant sutta describing the instructions given Anuruddha which lead to his becoming an arahant.
[AN 8.31] Giving (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Hare translation, and the M. Olds translation.
Eight generic ways giving is done.
[AN 8.32] Giving (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Hare translation, and the M. Olds translation.
Qualities followed by the good person that lead to the gods.
An oddity, this sutta consists of only verses, and verses unlikely to have been spoken by the Buddha at that. Possibly this was originally attached to the previous sutta and detached to make the standard 10 suttas of a chapter.
[AN 8.33] Grounds, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Hare translation, and the M. Olds translation.
Eight ways people habitually give.
[AN 8.34] The Field, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation,
The characteristics of an unproductive field contrasted with the characteriscs of a person where gifts when given are not very productive followed by the converse field and person.
[AN 8.35] Rebirth on Account of Giving, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation,
Eight rebirths resulting from the aspirations made by virtuous givers of gifts to those who live a holy life.

 


Ijjhati bhikkhave sīlavato cetopaṇidhi visuddhattā — vītarāgattā.|| ||

Successful, beggars, are the heart's aspirations of the ethical
for they are clear — for they are free from lust.


 

[AN 8.36] Actvity, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation,
Eight outcomes from the performance of meritorous action graded as to extent of the giving and virtuous behavior involved.

 

The Outcome in Rebirth
of
Three Ways of Making Kamma

1. Made by Giving with a wise objective as the result.

Active generosity, done poorly, done moderately well, done in a superior way; and always accompanied by a similar development of ethical conduct.

2. Made by Ethical Conduct with a wise objective as the result.

Abstention from unskillful behavior (deeds causing harm to self or others); cultivation of self-control, done poorly, done moderately well, done in a superior way.

3. Made by Developing Self-Awakening with a wise objective as the result.

Developing the mind, Dhamma research, energy, entheusiasm, impassivity, serenity, and detachment, done poorly, done moderately well, done in a superior way.

Depending on the degree of development #s 1 and 2, practiced together, result in rebirths from luckless human birth through rebirth among the gods with power over the creations of others. See: A Map of the Mind, for the Buddhist Cosmology.

Generosity practiced by itself, though always productive of good results, does not necessarily affect birth. It can, for example, explain a bad man with good luck, or an animal, ghost, or deamon with powers or good luck.

Rebirth in the company of Brahmā and above, and attainment of Nibbāna, all require developing the mind to one degree or another.

Keep in mind that in Buddhist India the idea of 'superior' development of a thing was truly heroic in scope.

AN 8.36

 

[AN 8.37] The Good Person's Gifts, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation,
Eight considerations or manners of giving of the good man praised by those with insight.
[AN 8.38] The Good Person, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
Eight benefits the birth of a good man brings into the world.
[AN 8.39] The Good Person, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Hare translation.
A sutta describing the bountiful harvest of good consquences following from trust in the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha and the ethical standards of the Aristocrats.
[AN 8.40] Conducive, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation the M. Olds translation and the Hare translation.
Eight things which becoming habitual lead to rebirth in Hell, as an animal, as a ghost and here as a human lead to short life, loss of wealth, being hated, being slandered and accused falsely, breaking-up of friendships, hearing unpleasant sounds, hearing unpleasant speech, and going mad.
[AN 8.41] In Brief, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Ñanavara Thera and Bhikkhu Kantasilo translation the M. Olds translation and the Hare translation.
Eight essential factors in the observation of the Buddhist Sabbath.
[AN 8.42] In Detail, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
Eight essential factors in the observation of the Buddhist Sabbath with an explanation of why this practice is so fruitful.
Very interesting from the point of view of the comparative life-spans of some of the gods above the human realm. In this we have an anticipation by about 2500 years of Einstein's Theory of Relativity ... adding some things Einstein didn't think of. Combine this with an understanding that the Paticca Samuppada anticipates quantum physics and whole new worlds of possibilities open up ... But not so long as we have the seven-day work week throwing off the natural rhythm of life as would be lived according to lunar and solar time. In balance with the cosmos, one can see into the cosmos, find one's place, achieve balance; off balance, the sight of man is continually seeking just to find balance. We see the result of that in the focus on the buck. Organize the calendar according to the convenience of the merchant in the seven-day work-week and the mind naturally concludes that the goal of the merchant (the buck) is the source of balance in the world. Think of the ramifications in terms of health, status, power, satisfaction. I suggest that the powers that be when the world grinds to a halt (some time after the election) from the utter bordom of this meaningless pursuit, that in stead of instigating a new war to liven things up, they change the calendar.
[AN 8.43] Visākhā (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Khantipalo translation and the Hare translation.
Eight essential factors in the observation of the Buddhist Sabbath with an explanation of why this practice is so fruitful.
[AN 8.44] Vāseṭṭha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
Vasettha is told of the eight attributes of the Upasatha and remarks as to how much it would benefit others to so pracice.
[AN 8.45] Bojjhā, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
Bojjha is told of the eight attributes of the Upasatha.
[AN 8.46] Anuruddha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
The Venerable Anuruddha is visited by a group of goddeses who perform various entertaining magic feats. Afterwards he asks Gotama about the characteristics of women that would result in being reborn in such a way.
[AN 8.47] Visākhā (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
The Buddha tells Visaka of the eight characteristics of women who are born as goddesses of lovely form.
[AN 8.48] Nakula, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
The Buddha tells Nakulamata of the eight characteristics of women who are born as goddesses of lovely form.
[AN 8.49] The Present World (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
The Buddha tells Visakha of four things that, for women, lead to power in this world, and four that lead to power in the next.
[AN 8.50] The Present World (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus of four things that, for women, lead to power in this world, and four that lead to power in the next.
[AN 8.91-600 WP: 118-627] Lust and So Forth Repetition Series, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the Hare translation.
The Wheel exercise which concludes The Book of the Eights.

[AN 10.1 What Purpose?
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
In a Paticca Samuppada-like sutta the Buddha explains how skillful ethical behavior leads directly to knowing and seeing freedom.
[AN 10.2 What Purpose?
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains why when one has established perfect ethical conduct there is no need to make an effort of will to bring forth freedom from regret, joy, entheusiasm, calm, happiness, serenity, knowing and seeing things as they are, disgust with things as they are, and knowing and seeing freedom, for these things arise naturally as a consequence of perfect ethical conduct.
[AN 10.3 Virtuous Behavior,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains, in a Paticca-Samuppada-like sutta, how each step from ethical conduct to freedom from regret, joy, entheusiasm, calm, happiness, serenity, knowing and seeing things as they are, disgust with things as they are, and knowing and seeing freedom depends on the previous condition.
The term to understand here is hat'upanisa. Hata: struck, destroyed. Upanisa (which I take to be from Upanisīdati which lead to Upanissaya (basis, support, foundation)): to set up seated upon. Not 'cause'. So: 'The seating for lack of regret is struck down by lack of ethical conduct. etc.' It is not just that with lack of ethical conduct there is no basis [or 'cause'] for non-regret; lack of ethical conduct actually destroys the basis for non-regret. A person of poor ethical conduct is not just missing out on the benefits of good conduct, he is actively working against his best interests. One is never just passively letting things slide. Poor ethical behavior is a matter of choice. It is not more work to make ethical choices. In fact, since most ethical choices in this system involve abstention from choosing a wrong course, it is much easier to behave ethically. The wording is a matter of the life or urgency of the sutta.
[AN 10.4 Virtuous Behavior,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sariputta explains, in a Paticca-Samuppada-like sutta, how each step from ethical conduct to freedom from regret, joy, entheusiasm, calm, happiness, serenity, knowing and seeing things as they are, disgust with things as they are, and knowing and seeing freedom depends on the previous condition.
[AN 10.5 Ānanda,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ananda explains, in a Paticca-Samuppada-like sutta, how each step from ethical conduct to freedom from regret, joy, entheusiasm, calm, happiness, serenity, knowing and seeing things as they are, disgust with things as they are, and knowing and seeing freedom depends on the previous condition.
[AN 10.6 Concentration,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
In response to a question by Ananda, the Buddha confirms that there is perception beyond existence.
This and the next are two very important suttas! But 'samādhi' is not 'concentration'! It's 'serenity', being calm and at peace above it all. Concentration is an aspect of serenity in that this level of serenity can only be attained with a high degree of concentration or single-mindedness.
[AN 10.7 Sāriputta,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
In response to a question by Ananda, the Buddha confirms that there is perception beyond existence.
Mrs. Rhys Davids scoffs at this sutta and states that Sariputta could never have said such a thing. With this she begins her major deviation into what amounts to Mahayana Buddhism. Her difficulty stems from her not having thoroughly worked out in her mind the notion of what 'existence' meant in this system: that is that it is, in precisely the way it is stated in one version of Quantum Physics, only upon experience by an individual that a thing comes into existence. Again: the concept of existence is limited to that which is experienced by the individual as an individual. Without the notion of individuality, perception exists. This, by the way is something that I have not heard explained by the Quantum Physicists, that is how it comes to be that a thing is perceived by an individual and by that brought into existence without there being a prior perception of that thing. The eye comes into contact with a visible object and visual consciousness arises. For that to become an individualized experience of seeing, that visual-consciousness must be perceived by an already identified-with mind. (We don't ask where that first identified-with mind came from. Not even Buddhas perceive that. But if we push for some sort of explanation of it's origin it is explained as a function of thirst, desire. Mind, perceiving pleasant objects, experiences sensation and desire to repeat that sensation arises. For it to be experienced by the mind with the desire, some sort of identification (location in Time and Space) of the mind that is to experience the experience must be made. How about we call it: "Me" and say that the experience from that perspective is the experience of an "I", or is "My experience." Oops! How do I get out of here?!!
[AN 10.8 Faith,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A stepwise method of progression from faith to arahantship.
[AN 10.9 Peaceful,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A stepwise method of progression from faith to arahantship.
[AN 10.10 True Knowledge,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A stepwise method of progression from faith to arahantship.
[AN 10.11 Lodging,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes five factors in the individual and five factors in his lodging that conduce to rapidly attaining Arahantship.
[AN 10.12 Five Factors,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Five things to give up and five to develop to be called one who is completely proficient.
[AN 10.13 Fetters,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha names the ten things which 'yoke' individuals to rebirth [samyojana]; five yoking the individual to every possible sort of rebirth including those as an animal, monster, ghost or resident in Hell, but also to this and higher re-births and five yoking one to rebirths in higher realms even though one may have seen through the first five.
For more on the Yokes to Birth, see the Glossology: Saɱyogana.
[AN 10.14 Mental Barrenness,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Five obstructions of the heart that if not abandoned, and five things that twist up the heart that if not uprooted, signal decline in a seeker, but which if abandoned and uprooted signal progress.
[AN 10.15 Heedfulness,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A sutta giving 10 similes for the importance of being careful.
The term to understand here is 'appamāda': A = non; PAMĀDA = carelessness. One of the most frequently occuring concepts in the whole of the Pali Cannon. This word is a mantra. A magical word which if concentrated upon, repeatedly pronounced to the point where it induces a hypnotic trance, opens up to reveal the memory embedded in it's creation. A memory which goes far beyond the admittedly valuable idea of being cautious.
[AN 10.16 Worthy of Gifts,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten individuals considered worthy to receive offerings, gifts, signs of respect and who are a peerless opportunity for making good kamma.
[AN 10.17 Protector (1),
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten things that are protections for the seeker.
[AN 10.18 Protector (2),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten things that are protections for the seeker with the additional protection that having these protections the bhikkhus are inclined to instruct and guide such a seeker.
[AN 10.19 Abodes of the Noble Ones (1),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A list (in brief) of ten ways in which the Aristocrat (here equal to the Arahant) abides.
[AN 10.20 Abodes of the Noble Ones (1),
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A list (in some detail) of ten ways in which the Aristocrat (here equal to the Arahant) abides.
[AN 10.21 The Lion,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A list of the ten powers of the Buddha that qualify him to set rolling the Wheel of Dhamma.
[AN 10.22 Doctrinal Principles,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha makes a bold statement about his knowledge and right to turn the Wheel of Dhamma. He then gives a list of the 10 Powers of a Buddha.
[AN 10.23 Body,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A categorization by bodily control, control of speech, or by application of wisdom upon seeing them of things which need to be abandoned.
[AN 10.24 Cunda,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Cunda spins a twist on a list of things which upon seeing them need to be abandoned such that he is able to rightfully say he knows Dhamma and has developed bodily control, virtue, heart and wisdom.
[AN 10.25 Kasiṇas,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Enumeration of ten devices used to assist in the development of concentration.
[AN 10.26 Kāḷī,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Maha Kaccana explains to Kali the meaning of one of the Buddha's brief sayings: Understanding the limitations of the devices used for the development of concentration, one does not form attachment to them and by extention one does not form attachment to anything or anyone and by that one is free.
[AN 10.27 Great Questions (1),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Some bhikkhus are asked that since both they and the Buddha teach a goal of understanding all things, what is the difference between the two systems. The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that when this question is asked the response should be: 'The 10 Questions." (Giving them in full as found in this sutta)
This is a subtle response to this question in that The 10 Questions is a broad and deep exposition to the 10th power of how everything in the world is to be let go. Each of 'the 10' is a complete path to utter detachment seen from a different perspective. A sutta no serious student of the Dhamma should neglect! For more on this subject see the footnotes to Woodward's translation, the next sutta, and The Pali Line.
[AN 10.28 Great Questions (2),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
In an alternate version of the Great 10 Questions, the Kajangala bhikkhuni expands questions given in brief to a group of lay followers.
It is important to note that there are several versions of the ten questions. They are all equally valid in terms of their scope and use. Numerous other sets could be constructed by reviewing the whole of the Anguttara Nikaya.
[AN 10.29 Great Questions (2),
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes how even the most enduring of phenomena and the most lofty of doctrines are burdened with change and should be regarded with revulsion; he then declares of certain doctrines that if their goals are attained they will provide refuge.
[AN 10.30 Great Questions (2),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
rāja Pasenadi pays a visit to the Buddha and shows great respect and enumerates the reasons for his great respect.
[AN 10.31 Upāli,
The Buddha tells Upali of the ten things that are taken into consideration before he formulates a rule for the order.
[AN 10.31 (WP #32) Suspending,
Upali asks the Buddha about the reasons for suspending the reading of the Patimokkha (the brief summary of the rules of the order).
BJT Pali and Bhk. Bodhi have this as a separate sutta. In fact it is very likely that PTS Suttas #31-34 (WP #31-36) were but one sutta.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
[AN 10.32 (WP #33) Adjudication,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Upali asks the Buddha about the qualities of one agreed upon to act as an adjudicator in a dispute.
[AN 10.33 (WP #34) Full Ordination,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Upali asks the Buddha about the qualifications needed for a bhikkhu to give full ordination.
[AN 10.34 (WP #35) Dependence,
Upali asks the Buddha about the qualifications needed for a bhikkhu to give dependence.
(WP #36) Novice,
Upali asks the Buddha about the qualifications needed for a bhikkhu to be attended upon by a novice.
BJT Pali and Bhk. Bodhi have this as a separate sutta.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
[AN 10.35 (WP #37) Schism (1),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Upali asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expression: breaking up (Creating a Schism in) the Order.
[AN 10.36 (WP #38) Schism (2),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Upali asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expression: 'Harmony in the Order'.
[AN 10.37-38 (WP #39) Ānanda (1),
Ananda asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expressions: breaking up (Creating a Schism in) the Order and the fruit of such.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Bhk. Bodhi's sutta combines this sutta with the next of PTS (translation.)
[AN 10.39-40 (WP #40) Ānanda (1),
Ananda asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expressions: creating harmony the Order and the fruit of such.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Bhk. Bodhi's sutta combines this sutta with the next of PTS (translation.)
[AN 10.51 One's Own Mind,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha admonishes the bhikkhus to examine themselves for faults and then to make a strong effort to get rid of any faults found; this as a key to the comprehension of their hearts.

 

Know Thyself

Do I live largely obsessed with burning desires?

Do I live largely not obsessed with burning desires?

Do I live largely devious at heart?

Do I live largely not devious at heart?

Do I live largely overcome by lazy ways and inertia?

Do I live largely without lazy ways and inertia?

Do I live largely anxious?

Do I live largely not anxious?

Do I live largely filled with doubts?

Do I live largely having overcome doubt?

Do I live largely angry?

Do I live largely without anger?

Do I live largely with corrupted heart?

Do I live largely not with corrupted heart?

Do I live largely bodily aggrivated?

Do I live largely not bodily aggrivated?

Do I live largely listless?

Do I live largely with roused up energy?

Do I live largely without composure?

Do I live largely composed?

Is there within me tranquility of heart?

Is there not within me tranquility of heart?

Is there within me insight into the higher wisdom?

Is there not within me insight into the higher wisdom?

AN 10.51, AN 10.54

Note: "largely" means does this thing occur very frequently in me? Is it a 'big thing' 'bahula'. Woodward: 'Live generally'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'often'. Bhk. Thanissaro omits the qualification. The qualification is important because a single occurance, or a rare occurance of these things is much less of a problem with regard to the bad things and much more of a problem with regard to the good things. Also, stating the case in the form 'do I or do I not' does not put the proper emphasis on the knowledge of the self of both the positive and negative.

 

[AN 10.52 Sāriputta,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sāriputta admonishes the bhikkhus to examine themselves for faults and then to make a strong effort to get rid of any faults found; this as a key to the comprehension of their hearts.
[AN 10.53 Standstill,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha spirs on the bhikkhus warning them not only to guard against backsliding but also against accepting the status quo, admonishing the bhikkhus to examine themselves for faults and then to make a strong effort to get rid of any faults found; this as a key to the comprehension of their hearts.
[AN 10.54 Serenity,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha gives two criteria for evaluating the knowledge of one's own heart: attainment of higher wisdom and insight into Dhamma, and calm of heart; and then he gives a method for judging the right course to take with regard to clothing, food, location and persons.
Bhk. Bodhi has translated 'Samatha' as 'serenity'; Woodward uses 'peace'; Bhk. Thanissaro uses 'tranquility. 'Samatha' is a term that both encompasses and is subordinate to 'samādhi'. It stands for the general goal of the calm necessary for unbiased vision of things the way they really are, and it is the practice of stilling, calming and tranquilizing the body in preparation for samādhi. What is required for this word then, is one that implies the general idea of calm (applicable to both body and mind, or as here, heart), plus the specific idea of calm of body. 'Serenity' is more of a mental quality. It is the idea of being calmly above it all. Therefore I suggest that for 'samatha' we use 'calm' or 'tranquility'; and reserve 'serenity' for 'samādhi.'
[AN 10.55 Serenity,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sariputta explains the meaning in Gotama's system of the expressions: -Of a nature to wane-, and -Of a nature not to wane-.
[AN 10.56 Perceptions (1),
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha reveals ten perceptions which are very helpful to seekers.
[AN 10.57 Perceptions (2),
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha reveals ten perceptions which are very helpful to seekers.

 

Helpful Perceptions

Perception of the inauspicious (asubha)

Perception of bones (aṭṭhika)
Perception of larva (pulavaka)
Perception of mal-coloration (vinīlaka)
Perception of spongiformity (vicchiddaka)
Perception of swelling (uddhumātaka)

Perception of the body encased by skin as filled from the top of the tips of the hairs of the head above to the bottom of the soles of the feet below with diverse sorts of putrid filth, thinking: "in this body hair of the head, body hair, nails, teeth, skin, meat, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, innerds, intestines, stomach, excrement, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, wax, spit, snot, synovial fluid, urine and brain.

Perception of danger (ādīnava)

Perception of death (maraṇa)

'This body is the source of much pain and danger; for all sorts of afflictions arise in this body, that is, eye-disease, inner ear-disease, nose-disease, tongue-disease, body-disease, head-disease, outer ear-disease, mouth-disease, tooth-disease, cough, asthma, catarrh, pyrexia, fever, stomachache, fainting, dysentery, gripes, cholera, leprosy, boils, eczema, tuberculosis, epilepsy, ringworm, itch, scab, chickenpox, scabies, hemorrhage, diabetes, hemorrhoids, cancer, fistula; illnesses originating from bile, phlegm, wind, or their combination; illnesses produced by change of climate; illnesses produced by careless behavior; illnesses produced by assault; or illnesses produced as the result of kamma; and cold, heat, hunger, thirst, excretion, and urination.' — Bhk. Bodhi AN 10.60

Perception of disinclination for (because of the disgusting nature of) food (āhāre paṭikakūla)

Perception of change (impermanance, discontinuity) (anicca)

Perception of discontinuity in all the own-made (sabba-saŋkhāresu anicca)
Perception of the pain of discontinuity (anicce dukkha)

Body changes, sense-experiences change, perceptions change, what is own-made changes, consciousness changes.

Perception of non-self (anatta)

Perception of non-self in pain (dukkhe anatta)

The eye is not self, visual objects are not self; the ear is not self, sounds are not self, the nose is not self, scents are not self; the tongue is not self, tastes are not self; the body is not self, touches are not self; the mind is not self, mental objects are not self. That which is painful is not logically to be called the self, for if it were the self, it could be controlled by the self and the self would not have pain.

Perception of displeasure with all the world (sabbaloke anabhirata)

There is not anything, anywhere in any way that is for me.

Perception of letting go (pahāna)

Letting go of thoughts of sensual pleasure, deviance, violence and whatever else is an unskillful thought.

Perception of dispassion (virāga)

Having the perception:
'This is it!
This is the culmination!
That is, the calming of all own-making,
the resolution of all involvements,
the withering away of thirst,
dispassion,
extinction,
Nibbāna.'

Perception of ending (nirodha)

Having the perception:
'This is it!
This is the culmination!
That is, the calming of all own-making,
the resolution of all involvements,
the withering away of thirst,
dispassion,
extinction,
Nibbāna.'

Helpful for Attaining These Perceptions

Here beggars, a beggar
having gotten himself off to the forest
or to the root of some tree,
or to some empty hut,
and having taken up his seat there
sitting down,
setting the body upright,
legs bent-across-lapwise,
minding around the mouth,
just so he recollects inspiration,
just so he recollects expiration.

If he inspires deeply, he knows: 'I am inspiring deeply.'
If he breaths out deeply, he knows: 'I am expiring deeply.'

If he inspires shallowly, he knows: 'I am inspiring shallowly.'
If he exspires shallowly, he knows: 'I am breathing out shallowly.'

'Reflecting on the totality of bodily experience I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Reflecting on the totality of bodily experience, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Pacifying own-body-making, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Pacifying own-body-making, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Observing enthusiasm, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Reflecting on enthusiasm, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Observing pleasure, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Observing pleasure, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Reflecting on the own-making of the heart, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Reflecting on the own-making of the heart, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Pacifying the own-making of the heart, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Pacifying the own-making of the heart, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Reflecting on the heart, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Reflecting on the heart, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Abundantly content in heart, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Abundantly content in heart, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Composing the heart, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Composing the heart, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'Liberating the heart, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'Liberating the heart, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'On the look-out for inconsistancy, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'On the look-out for inconsistancy, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'On the look-out for the end of lust, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'On the look-out for the end of lust, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'On the look-out for ending, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'On the look-out for ending, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

'On the look-out for opportunities to let go, I will inspire,' this is the way he trains.
'On the look-out for opportunities to let go, I will expire,' this is the way he trains.

Olds, SN 5.54.1

 

[AN 10.58 Roots,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches ten important ideas by posing them as questions that might be asked of Buddhists by outsiders.

 

All Things Considered

If Asked:
'What, friend, is the root of all things?
What brings all things to life?
What is the support of all things?
What is the confluence of all things?
What is at the interface of all things?
Ruled over by what are all things?
Directed at what are all things?
What is at the heart of all things?
What is the pitfall of all things?
What is the end of all things?'

Properly answered, the answers would be:
Wanting is the root of all things, friend.
Work of mind brings all things to life.
Contact supports all things.
All things converge in sense experience.
Serenity is at the interface of all things.
Ruled over by mind are all things.
Directed at wisdom are all Dhammas.
Freedom is at the heart of all Dhammas.
Falling into the deathless are all Dhammas.
Ending in Nibbana are all Dhammas.

 

[AN 10.59 Going Forth,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha gives the bhikkhus 10 things to aim at in their training.
[AN 10.60 Girimānanda,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Piyadassi Thera translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha gives definitions for 'The Ten Perceptions': The idea of discontinuity, of not-self, of the foul, of disadvantages, letting go, dispassion, ending, world-wearyness, of discontinuity in the own-made, of recollection of respriration. In this sutta is a case of 'curing' by way of hearing the Dhamma. Also in this sutta is found a version of what would later become the Satipatthana method.
In this sutta Bhk. Bodhi translates 'sankhara' both as 'conditioned phenomena' and as 'activities'. The first is simply incorrect (all own-made phenomena are impermanent, but not all conditioned phenomena are impermanent: Nibbana is conditioned), the second is one-sided and too narrow, the two together are confusing. For the issues raised by the mistranslation of this term see the article: 'Is Nibbana Conditioned?'
[AN 10.61 Ignorance,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
In the technique of the Paticca Samuppada, the Buddha traces out how blindness rolls on and the way freedom from it is managed.
[AN 10.62 Ignorance,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
In the technique of the Paticca Samuppada, the Buddha traces out how hunger to exist rolls on through blindness and the way freedom from it is managed.
[AN 10.200 (Wisdom Pubs: #211) Hell (1),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten things resulting in one being reborn in Hell, ten resulting in one being reborn in a pleasant or heavenly birth.
[AN 10.201 (Wisdom Pubs: #212) Hell (2),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten things resulting in one being reborn in Hell, ten resulting in one being reborn in a pleasant or heavenly birth.
[AN 10.202 (Wisdom Pubs: #213) Women,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten things resulting in women being reborn in Hell, ten resulting in women being reborn in a pleasant or heavenly birth.
[AN 10.203 (Wisdom Pubs: #214) Female Lay Follower,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten things resulting in women lay followers being reborn in Hell, ten resulting in women being reborn in a pleasant or heavenly birth.
[AN 10.204 (Wisdom Pubs: #215) Self-Confidence,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Ten negative attributes of a woman lay-follower that lead to her living at home without confidence, ten positive attributes which lead to her living at home with confidence.
[AN 10.205 (Wisdom Pubs: #216) Creeping,
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Kamma of mind, speech and body of ten low sorts leads to rebrith in hell or as an animal of stealth and timmidity; kamma of ten high sorts leads to rebirth in the heavens or in a prominant human family.
[AN 10.206 (Wisdom Pubs: #217) Volitional (1),
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha speaks to the issue of the need to understand one's past deeds before one is able to attain Arahantship. He suggests development of the heart of friendliness, sympathy, empathy and detachment.
I suggest reading the introduction to my translation of #208 to understand the problems with translation of this sutta, namely that as translated the Buddha is saying that there is no ending kamma without experiencing the consequences of all previously done deeds which is impossible. ... Well, it is possible, twisting one's understanding of what 'experiencing' means. I have explained this elsewhere as being a matter of the degree of effort made to liberate oneself being such as to alter the nature of the consequences so that all consequences get jamed into what remains of one's lifespan and is experienced more mentally than in any other way. But my explanation in #208 uses a different translation of the term being translated 'experiencing' and makes the same case in simpler terms.
[AN 10.207 (Wisdom Pubs: #218) Volitional (1)
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha speaks to the issue of the need to understand one's past deeds before one is able to attain Arahantship. He suggests development of the heart of friendliness, sympathy, empathy and detachment.
[AN 10.217-219 (Wisdom Pubs: #237-746) Volitional (1)
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The wheel sutta(s) that concludes the Book of the Tens.

This completes the formatting and uploading of those suttas of Bhk. Bodhi's translation of the Anguttara Nikaya which have been released for free public distribution.

 

new Wednesday, June 01, 2016 12:06 PMThera-Gāthā Psalms of the Early Buddhists, II. Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translations.
[THAG 256] Anuruddha

 


Monday, May 30, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, April 25, 2016


 

new Friday, May 13, 2016 6:57 AMGallery: A short biography and new image for Lord Chalmers.

 

new Wednesday, April 27, 2016 8:32 AMThera-Gāthā Psalms of the Early Buddhists, II. Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translations.
[THAG 65] Ukkhepata-Vaccha
There are some interesting traces of old thoughts to be found in the background story for the verses of this Thera: that the 3 Piṭakas existed prior to the first council; (of course a 'basket' is not the same thing as what is contained in the basket); that at least some believed that the 3 Piṭakas exist as a sort of cosmic force that is recollected by each succeeding Buddha; that for the most part bhikkhus at the time specialized in one or another branch of Dhamma study: Dhamma or Vinaya, or what is called "Abhidhamma" with a capital "A" but which more likely ought to be referring to "abhidhamma" meaning the study of actual practice, especially in the cultivation of the jhanas, release, and the super-normal powers, in which case calling it a 'basket' would indicate that such was not so much a collection of stories about specific occurrances as a collection of ideas. (The Patimokkha vs. the Sutta Vibhanga; the Anguttara and Samyutta Nikayas -- with some exceptions -- vs the Majjhima and Digha Nikayas) Given this latter understanding the idea of the pitakas existing throughout time becomes more reasonable: A Buddha, his two main disciples, and the main and corrolary ideas relative to awakening and to the ethical conduct of one who follows the Dhamma would all be cosmic principles which resurface periodically at various points in the evolutions of the world.
[THAG 66] Meghiya
[THAG 67] Ekadhamma-Savanīya
[THAG 68] Ekuddaniya
[THAG 60] Sīvali
[THAG 61] Vappa
[THAG 62] Vajji-putta
[THAG 28] Jambugāmika's Son
[THAG 29] Hārita
Note in the biographical material Mrs. Rhys Davids use of the phrase "make straight the heart" and the referenced simile of straightening out the shaft of an arrow. Is this the intended meaning of ceto-ekodhibhava? I think so. Hence my translation "whole-hearted single-mindedness".
[THAG 121] Uttara

 

new Monday, April 25, 2016 4:36 AMAŋguttara Nikāya
[AN 4.31] The Wheel, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the four wheels on which rolls prosperity for gods and men.
[AN 4.32] Sustaining, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The four bases for making friends.
[AN 4.33] The Lion, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha compairs the fear and trembling inspired in animals by the lion's roar to the fear and trembling inspired in beings when the teaching of impermanence is heard taught by the Tathagata.
[AN 4.34] Confidence, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four ways in which faith is placed in the best of things and having been placed in the best yield the best of results.
[AN 4.35] Vassakāra, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Brahman Vassakara visits Gotama and describes what the brahmins call a great man and Gotama replies with what is called a great man in his Dhamma-discipline.
[AN 4.36] Doṇa, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Brahmin Dona is walkiing along behind the Buddha when he notices the mark of the Wheel in gotama's footprints. Drawing near he asks Gotama about what sort of being he may be and is told that he is beyond 'being' and is Buddha.
Bhk. Thanissaro notes [AN 4.36.than#n2] that there is a great deal of discussion (see notes in both the Bhk. Bodhi and Woodward translations (notes are missing from the Bhk. Bodhi versions permitted to be published on line)) concerning the use of the future tense in Dona's inquiries. Bhk. Thanissaro's solution here is that this is a manner of speech. I would only express it slightly differently as a contracted form of: "Will you be being about being a ..." From the perspective of the awakened mind there is actually no true 'present' to base a present tense upon in the case of asking a person what he is in the present. Things are under constant change, so a being is always about becoming something. There should really be a special tense for this case: The present-future or the future-present.
[AN 4.37] Non-Decline, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha enumerates four practices which ensure that one will not fall back.
[AN 4.38] Drawn Back, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Three conditions which must be fulfilled for one to be called 'Withdrawn': having put away personal beliefs, having abandoned ambitions, and having pasified the own-made body. The Buddha defines each of these conditions.
[AN 4.39] Ujjaya, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Brahmin Ujjaya asks if Gotama praises sacrifices and is told that he does not praise bloody sacrifices and that they are of little worth but that he does praise traditional charitable sacrifices and that they are of much worth.
[AN 4.40] Udāyī, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Brahmin Udayi asks if Gotama praises sacrifices and is told that he does not praise bloody sacrifices and that they are of little worth but that he does praise traditional charitable sacrifices and that they are of much worth.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 4.51] Streams of Merit (1), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four gifts that when given to a bhikkhu who is able to attain unbounded serenity yield incalculably rich results.
[AN 4.52] Streams of Merit (2), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Unwavering confidence in the awakening of the Buddha, the teachings of the Buddha, and respect for the followers on the four stages of progress along with possession of high standards of ethical behavior — each of these things produces a flood of good kamma.
[AN 4.53] Living Together (1), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four sorts of couples found in the world: a bad man living with a good woman, a good man living with a bad woman, a bad man living with a bad woman, and a good man living with a good woman.
[AN 4.54] Living Together (2), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four sorts of couples found in the world: a bad man living with a good woman, a good man living with a bad woman, a bad man living with a bad woman, and a good man living with a good woman.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 4.55] The Same in Living (1), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Sister Upalavanna translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Nakula's mother and father each approach the Buddha and each, in identical words, states that they are not aware of the other ever having transgressed against them either in thought or deed and then state that they are desirous of seeing each other in lives to come. The Buddha instructs them in how such a thing is to be attained.
This is an excellent example of the performance of an act of truth: A wish put in the form of: "If this is true, let this wish be granted."
[AN 4.56] The Same in Living (2), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes the way a couple that desires to find each other in the next life may do so.
The Buddha's instruction and the verses from the previous.
[AN 4.57] Suppavāsā, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Suppavasa of the Koliyans gives a meal to the Buddha and is told that the food giver both gives and gets, life, beauty, happiness and ability.
Part of a remarkable story in which Suppavasa is pregnant for seven years and a day and when the child (Sivali) is born it is ordained by Sariputta seven days later and becomes Arahant a day after that.
[AN 4.58] Sudatta, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Anathapindika visits the Buddha and is told that the food giver both gives and gets, life, beauty, happiness and ability.
[AN 4.59] Food, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that the food giver both gives and gets, life, beauty, happiness and ability.
[AN 4.60] The Layperson's Proper Practice, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha tells Anathapindika serving the Order is a layman's path to a good reputation here and a good rebirth hereafter.
[AN 4.60] Worthy Deeds, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches Anathapindika a wise way to manage accumulated wealth such that at the end it will be seen to have been well used.
[AN 4.60] Freedom from Debt, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha teaches Anathapindika four sorts of joy to be experienced by a householder: The joy of ownership, the joy of wealth, the joy of debtlessness, and the joy of blamelessness.
[AN 4.271] = WP: 274-783 Lust and So Forth Repetition Series, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The concluding Wheel style sutta(s) of the Book of the Fours in which to gain higher knowledge, thorough understanding, utter destruction, letting go, eradication, fading away, dispassion, ending, giving up, and renunciation of lust, anger, stupidity, malevolence, hostility, hypocrisy, spite, denegration, deceit, treachery, obstinacy, vehemence, pride, arrogance, intoxication, and negligence, the practices of the Four Settings-up of Memory, the Four Consummate Efforts and the Four Power-Paths are to be applied.

AN 5.1 In Brief, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the E.M. Hare translation and the M. Olds translation.
An undefined list of five Powers or Allys of the Seeker.
AN 5.2 In Brief, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the E.M. Hare translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the M. Olds translation.
The Allys or Powers of the Seeker analyzed separately.
Alternatively 'broken apart', i.e., analyzed in detail. The problem with translating Vitthāra as 'in detail' is that the way the Buddha taught, everything he says is 'in brief'; one can take each level and break it down further. So, for example this sutta is giving us 'more detail', but cannot be said to be a fully detailed analysis. There is much more to be learned about the Balas of the Seeker.
AN 5.3 Suffering, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the E.M. Hare translation, and the M. Olds translation.
Five things that conduce to pain here and hereafter and five things that conduce to pleasure here and hereafter.
AN 5.4 As If Brought There, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the E.M. Hare translation, and the M. Olds translation.
Five things which conduce to being brought to a state such as Hell and five things which conduce to being brought to a state such as Heaven.
AN 5.5 Training, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the E.M. Hare translation, the Sister Upalavanna translation, and the M. Olds translation.
A bhikkhu or bhikkhuni rejecting The Seeking out of hand returning to lesser things, is subject as it were visibly, to five sorts of critical and deprecating thought from a standpoint consistant with Dhamma. The one who sticks with it, no matter how painful, incurs praise.
AN 5.6 Entering, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Unskillful Aquirements, the M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha explains how when faith, sense of shame, fear-of-blame, energy and wisdom are established as instinctive responses, unskillful states find it impossible to gain access.
The word to understand here is paccupaṭṭhitā. PED: Paccupaṭṭhita [pp. of paccupaṭṭhahati; [paṭi+upa+sthā] "to stand up before," to be present;] (re)presented, offered, at one's disposal, imminent, ready, present. I would say rather to have at one's disposal (uprising, upa) the reflex (paṭi) previously established (sthā, stood up) of ... In other words at the first appearance of danger faith etc. reflexively also appears: what we call an 'instinctive response' or 'muscle response' a habitual response recollected more by the musclulature than through thought processes. Hare: "is set on"; Bhk. Bodhi: "is securely settled in."
The point is to give assurance that one has not fallen off track simply because one is harassed in mind by unskillful things; as long as the skills of faith, etc. have been thoroughly ingrained in one's thought processes they will come forward and the skillful will prevail.
AN 5.7 Sensual Pleasures, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha explains how when faith, sense of shame, fear-of-blame, energy and wisdom are not yet established as instinctive responses, a bhikkhu is one who has gone forth from faith. But when these things are established as instinctive responses, one is able to protect oneself.
AN 5.8 Falling Away (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha explains how when faith, sense of shame, fear-of-blame, energy and wisdom are lacking a bhikkhu is subject to falling away. But possessing these things he does not fall away.
AN 5.9 Falling Away (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha explains how when in a disrespectful bhikkhu faith, sense of shame, fear-of-blame, energy and wisdom are lacking he is subject to falling away. But possessing these things he does not fall away.
A qualified version of the previous. There is confusion in titles between the PTS and Bhk. Bodhi, but the suttas are the same.
AN 5.10 Irreverent, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha explains how when in a disrespectful bhikkhu faith, sense of shame, fear-of-blame, energy and wisdom are lacking he is incapable of progress in this Dhamma. But possessing these things he is capable of progress.
The inverse of the previous sutta. In terms of content there is a closer relationship of #9 to #10 than of #9 to #8.
AN 5.11 Not Heard Before, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha claims to have discovered and mastered things that had not been heard of before. He then states that faith, sense of shame, fear-of-blame, energy and wisdom are Powers of one who has 'got it' and that it is because he possesses these Powers, of those who have 'got it', he claims the place of chief.
There is no direct claim here that these Powers were unheard of before or that he was the discoverer of them. It is because he had these powers that he discovered what was unheard-of before (which would have been essentially the Four Truths) and set rolling the Dhamma wheel.
AN 5.12 Peak (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Between the powers of faith, conscientiousness (sense of shame), fear of blame, energy and wisdom, wisdom is considered the peak.
AN 5.13 In Brief, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The five Powers: faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom.
AN 5.14 In Detail, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha defines faith-power, energy-power, mind-power, serenity-power and wisdom-power.
AN 5.15 To Be Seen, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Practices and accomplishments where faith-power, energy-power, mind-power, serenity-power and wisdom-power may be seen as they actually are.
AN 5.16 Peak (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Between the power of faith, the power of energy, the power of mindfulness, the power of concentration, and the power of wisdom, the power of wisdom is considered the peak.
Compare with Ī12.
AN 5.17 Welfare (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
By perfecting ethical behavior, serenity, release and knowledge and vision of release in himself, but not working to perfect these things in others one is working for one's own good, but not that of another.
AN 5.18 Welfare (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
By striving to perfect ethical behavior, serenity, release and knowledge and vision of release in others, but not in himself, one is working for the good of others, but not for his own good.
AN 5.19 Welfare (3), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
By neither striving for the perfection of ethical behavior, serenity, release and knowledge and vision of release in him self nor in others one is working for neither the good of himself nor of others.
AN 5.20 Welfare (4), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the E.M. Hare translation, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
By both striving for the perfection of ethical behavior, serenity, release and knowledge and vision of release in himself and in others one is working for the good of himself and of others.
AN 5.21 Irreverent (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
A Paticca Samuppada-like sutta showing the progressive interdependence of living respectfully and harmoniously with others, keeping the minor precepts, adhering to the seekers training, living ethically, understanding high views, and attaining serenity.
AN 5.22 Irreverent (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
A Paticca Samuppada-like sutta showing the progressive interdependence of living respectfully and harmoniously with others, keeping the minor precepts, adhering to the seekers training, fully developing ethical behavior, attaining every degree of serenity, and fully developing wisdom.
AN 5.23 Defilements, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha likens the process of purifying the mind to the process of purifying gold. Then he describes five super-normal powers attainable with the purified mind.
AN 5.24 Immoral, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha outlines the progressive interdependence of ethical behavior, serenity, knowing and seeing, disenchantment and dispassion, and knowing and seeing freedom.
AN 5.25 Assisted, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things of great assistance in the development of freedom of heart and mind and the things that result from freedom of heart and mind.
AN 5.26 Liberation, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Access to Freedom, the M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five detailed descriptions of situations that result in freedom.
AN 5.27 Liberation, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Serenity, the M. Olds translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five knowledges that arise in one who developes immeasurable serenity.
AN 5.28 Liberation, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Consummate Samadhi described as consisting of five dimensions (the four usual jhanas and observation of the sign) and yielding skill in the higher knowledges.
AN 5.29 Walking Meditation, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Aggacitta Bhikkhu and Kumara Bhikkhu translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five advantages to be gained from use of a place to pace.
AN 5.30 Nāgita, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha explains to his attendant Nagita why he will not accept the food-gifts of a large number of people who have gathered together to do him homage on hearing of his arival in their town.
AN 5.31 Sumanā, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Sumana, rāja Pasanadi's sister, has waited a long time to join the order as she first felt the need to take care of her grandmother. Before even she is initiated she becomes a non-returner and then an arahant. In this sutta she asks the Buddha about the results of making gifts.
AN 5.32 Cundī, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Cundi asks the Buddha about trust in what teacher, what Dhamma, what Order, what practices in ethical conduct yield the best results.
AN 5.33 Uggaha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Uggaha invites the Buddha to a meal to instruct his daughters in the behavior that will profit them in this life and the life hereafter.
AN 5.34 Sīha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Siha the General asks the Buddha if there is any visible result of giving. He is given five examples.
AN 5.35 The Benefits of Giving, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five advantages to be gained as a result of giving.
AN 5.36 Timely, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five occasions when it is the right time to give.
AN 5.37 Food, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five benefits from giving food to a bhikkhu.
AN 5.38 Faith, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five advantages of faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha.
AN 5.39 Son, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five thoughts in the minds of those who wish for a son.
AN 5.40 Sal Trees, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Supported by a clan chief that has faith, a family grows in five ways.
AN 5.41 Utilization, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Wealth management for the Buddhist. Five steps to take to enjoy and protect one's wealth that leave one satisfied that one has done the best one could whether wealth increases or is lost.
AN 5.42 The Good Person, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
When a good person is born into a family it brings advancement, benefits and happiness to many people.
AN 5.43 Wished For, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha tells Anathapindika, that long life, beauty, happiness, honor and rebirth in heaven hereafter is not to be got by prayers or wishing — one must walk the walk-to-walk ('patipada') to get these things.

 


Manāpa-dāyī labhate manāpaɱ,||
Aggassa dātā labhate pun'aggaɱ,||
Varassa dātā vara-lābhi hoti,||
Seṭṭhaɱ dado seṭṭham upeti ṭhānaɱ.
|| ||

'The pleasing'-giver gains the pleasing,
'The best' a giver gains in turn the best,
'The desireable' a giver the desirable gain he gets,
'The treasured' a giver in treasured state arises.


 

AN 5.44 Wished For, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
A sutta about Ugga the Housefather of Vesālī who is a giver of good things in a very gracious manner.
AN 5.45 Streams, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five gifts that when given to a bhikkhu who is able to attain unbounded serenity yield incalculably rich results.
AN 5.46 Accomplishments, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which are real achievements when brought to perfection.
AN 5.47 Wealth, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which should be considered treasures.
AN 5.48 Situations, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The distinction between the disciples of Gotama and the commoner in facing aging, sickness and death, passing away, and dissapearance.
AN 5.49 Kosala, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Helmuth Hecker and Sister Khema translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Pasenadi, king of Kosala is visiting the Buddha when he is told of the death of his chief Queen, Mallika. He is very upset and Gotama instructs him with the distinction between the disciples of Gotama and the commoner in facing aging, sickness and death, passing away, and dissapearance.
AN 5.50 Nārada, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Venerable Narada instructs rājah Munda with a sutta that draws the distinction between the disciples of Gotama and the commoner in facing aging, sickness and death, passing away, and dissapearance.
AN 5.51 Obstructions, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha likens a person mastered by wishing for sense pleasure, hate, lazy ways and inertia, fear and trembling, and doubt and vacillation (the Nivaranas — diversions) to a stream which has been diverted and no longer has it's original strength or free will. Then he likens a person who has mastered desire for sense pleasures, hatred, lazy ways and inertia, fear and trembling and doubt and vacillation to a stream whose diversions have been closed off and which has regained its strength and free will.
The Pali word to understand here is Nīvaraṇa: 'Diversion', not 'obstruction' or 'obstacle, or check. The psychology is completely different when dealing with an obsticle or obstruction or check than it is when dealing with a diversion. An obstacle, etc. stops one's forward motion until the obstacle is eliminated; a diversion weakens but does not arrest completely the forward motion. The simile is of a diversion, not of an obstruction. Words are very important. You must see yourself as if in a stream. The hippies said "Go with the flow". The Buddhist says: "Escape the flow". The Buddhist does not say: "Try to stop the flow," or "Try to stop flowing within the flow."

SNP 5.1.56 See Bhk. Thanissaro's note in his translation. "Culaniddesa (Nd.II), the streams that 'flow every which way' are the streams of craving, views, conceit, defilement, corruption, and ignorance that flow out the six sense media."
SN 2.12.28: dhamma-sotaɱ: the Dhamma-stream

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

The Buddhist idea of the stream is two-sided. On the one hand it symbolizes the flow of the world; on the other hand it symbolizes the flow of one who has latched on to the idea of escaping the worldly stream. First one must recognize the worldly stream and it's dangers, then one can understand the value of making the effort to escape. That is the meaning of Stream-entry. The ability to see that everything, including oneself is in constant motion, flow, and that one has taken a portion of that flow and identified with it and that if that identification is not broken, that flow will take one on endlessly against one's will. The stream flows into the river, the river into the ocean the ocean evaporates into the clouds and falls back to earth again as the rain which flows down the mountain into the stream. It is constantly ending and reviving. Lust is a diversion from the task of escaping identification with the flow. If one considers lust, etc. to be an obstruction to escape, it conduces to despair because it is felt that there is no progress at all in other areas as long as one has any lust remaining at all. And this is not the case. Progress is gradual. It is a progressive diminution of lust, etc. Progress, escape, liberation, freedom is pleasurable, enjoyable. Something that is desired once it is seen in even a small way. When lust, etc. is seen to slow down that progress, to divert one's energy from effort to enlarge that enjoyment, it is seen as something to be got rid of for the sake of that higher enjoyment.
AN 5.52 A Heap, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha declares the diversions as a constillation of the unskillful.
AN 5.53 Factors, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes five personal dimensions to making effort.
AN 5.54 Occasions, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha describes features of the seasonable and unseasonable time for making effort.
AN 5.55 Mother and Son, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
A mother and son bhikkhu and bhikkhuni engaging in incest is the occasion for a lecture on the dangers of womankind.
AN 5.56 Preceptor, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha instructs a bhikkhu who is suffering from sloth and torpor to guard the senses, be moderate in eating, live intent on wakefulness, and to cultivate day and night his understanding of the way.
AN 5.57 Themes, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha urges everyone interested in their own salvation to give contemplation to aging, being subject to sickness and death, changeability and separation from the things we love, and the idea that one's deeds return to one in kind. He further explains why it is important to think of these things and the way to think of these things that will bring about escape from them.

 


Five Contemplations

"Jarā-dhammo'mhi jaraɱ anatīto.|| ||

Vyādhi-dhammo'mhi vyādhiɱ anatīto.|| ||

Maraṇa-dhammo'mhi maraṇaɱ anatīto.|| ||

Sabbehi me piyehi manāpehi||
nānā-bhāvo,||
vinā-bhāvo.
|| ||

Kammassako'mhi,||
kamma-dāyādo,||
kamma-yoni,||
kamma-bandhu,||
kamma-paṭisaraṇo.
|| ||

Yaɱ kammaɱ karissāmi,||
kalyāṇaɱ vā pāpakaɱ vā,||
tassa dāyādo bhavissāmī".
|| ||

An aging thing am I aging not-conquered.

An unhealthy thing am I sickness not-conquered.

A dying thing am I death not-conquered.

All that is loved by me,
pleasing to me
becomes different,
becomes not so.

Truly, deed-made am I
deed-inheritor,
deed-inwombed,
deed-bound,
deed-refuged.

Of whatsoever deeds I do,
good or bad,
from such comes what I receive.

AN 5.57


 

AN 5.58 Licchavi Youths, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
A gang of young toughs out hunting come upon the Buddha and are inspired to pay reverence. An elder of their clan is astounded and remarks as to how they will become like a neighbouring clan of gentle manners. The Buddha then, within earshot of the youths, teaches him about the advantages of paying reverance to mother and father, wife and children, workers, gods and holy men.
AN 5.59 Gone Forth in Old Age (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha lists five attributes hard to find in a bhikkhu who has joined the order when old.
AN 5.60 Gone Forth in Old Age (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha lists five attributes hard to find in a bhikkhu who has joined the order when old.
A different set of five.
AN 5.61 Perceptions (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which if they can be well perceived are very helpful in attaining the deathless.
AN 5.62 Perceptions (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which if they can be well perceived are very helpful in attaining the deathless.
A variation of the previous.

 


Helpful Perceptions

Perception of transience,
perception of non-self,
perception of impurity,
perception of death,
perception of disadvantage,
perception of the disgusting nature of food,
perceiving nothing to delight in in all the world.

Saññā. Once knowing. Perception. Not, as per Hare, 'thought'. The idea is the perceiving of impurity, etc., not the thought of impurity, etc. It makes all the difference.


 

AN 5.63 Growth (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which if they are developed are very helpful to growth in the Buddhist system.
AN 5.64 Growth (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Five things which if they are developed are very helpful to growth in the Buddhist system.
As the previous but addressed to women.
AN 5.303-1152 Lust and So Forth Repetition Series, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Not linked to the Pali or PTS translations as it is highly abridged and there are numbering issues. To locate specific sutta-groups, refer back to the index.

AN 8.1 Loving Kindness, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Eight benefits from undertaking the liberation of the heart through loving kindness.
AN 8.2 Wisdom, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Eight conditions to be developed which conduce to great wisdom and the respect of fellow seekers.
AN 8.3 Pleasing (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Eight conditions which prevent one from being liked and respected by one's fellow seekers and the converse which conduce to being liked and respected by them.
AN 8.4 Pleasing (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Eight conditions which prevent one from being liked and respected by one's fellow seekers and the converse which conduce to being liked and respected by them.
A different set of eight.
AN 8.5 World (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Eight broad categories into which all worldly activity can be classified and which, if thoroughly understood lead one to dispassion for the world.
AN 8.6 World (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Eight broad categories into which all worldly activity can be classified and which, if thoroughly understood lead one to dispassion for the world. In this sutta the distinction is made between the attitudes of the common man towards these eight conditions and the attitude towards them of the student of the Aristocrats.

 


The Eight Worldly Obsessions

Gain and loss
honor and dishonor
praise and blame
pleasure and pain


 

AN 8.7 World (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha gives eight things which should be periodically reviewed to insure one is on track. The fate of Devadatta is given as an example of how badly things can go wrong if one is neglegant in regard to these things.
AN 8.8 Uttara on Failing, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Venerable Uttara is teaching the bhikkhus that it is well from time to time to review one's own faults and from time to time to review the faults of others. This is overheard by Vesavana who reports the fact to Sakka, King of the Gods. Sakka visits Uttara and asks him if the saying was original with him and Uttara replies that whatsoever is well said is heard from the Buddha. Sakka then repeats to him the entire episode of it's original utterance by Gotama in AN 8.7. and commends him to remember it as an integral factor in the holy life.
AN 8.9 Nanda, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha praises the way Nananda, who is of a lustful nature, manages to live the spiritual life in purity by way of his practice of garding the senses, moderation in eating, wakefulness, and minding and self-awareness.
AN 8.10 Trash, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha gives three similes for the good reasons to eject a corrupt bhikkhu.
AN 8.11 Verañjā, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha explains why it is that he should be considered the eldest among gods and men.
AN 8.12 Sīha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The story of the conversion of Siha the General who was formerly a disciple of the Niganthas.
There is in this sutta an example of the precise nature of the rule concerning the eating of meat. The General has ordered that meat was to be obtained from an animal that was already butchered. This is comparable to purchasing meat on display in a supermarket today. There is no adverse kamma from either the purchase or the eating of such meat. There is also in this sutta the strange statement by the General that he would not kill a living being even for his life's sake. Perhaps he was retired.
AN 8.13 Thoroughbred, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha gives eight ways in which a thoroughbred horse and a worthy bhikkhu share similar traits.
AN 8.14 Wild Colts, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha gives eight ways in which excitable bhikkhus react like excitable horses when reproved.
AN 8.15 Stains, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha gives eight imperfections found in eight different things.
AN 8.16 Mission, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Four pairs of qualities which make a person worthy to carry messages.
AN 8.17-18 Mission, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Two suttas describing the tricks women and men use to ensnare each other.
AN 8.19 Pahārāda, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Gotama holds a conversation with an eminant Assura [Monster] and contrasts the eight things held to be delightful to them to eight things delightful to the bhikkhus.

 


In the same way as the ocean always and throughout tastes of salt,
so the Dhamma always and throughout tastes of freedom.

AN 8.19


 


The Great Beings
AKA
The Saŋgha

The Stream-Enterer
One practicing for Stream-Entry
The Once-Returner
One practicing for Once-Returning
The Non-Returner
One practicing for Non-Returning
The Arahant
One practicing for Arahantship

AN 8.19


 


The Core Dhammas

The Four Settings-up of Mind
The Four Consummate Efforts
The Four Paths to Supernormal Powers
The Five Forces
The Five Powers
The Seven Dimensions of Self-Awakening
The Aristocratic Eight-Dimensional High Way

AN 8.19


 

 


In this Dhamma and Discipline
penetration to final knowledge
occurs by gradual training,
gradual activity,
and gradual practice,
not abruptly.

AN 8.19 — Bhk. Bodhi, trans.


 

AN 8.20 Uposatha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The episode depicting the circumstances causing the Buddha to refrain thereafter from leading the bhikkhus in the recitation of the Patimokkha: the ejection of a deceitful bhikkhu by Maha Moggallana.
AN 8.21 Ugga (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Ugga of Vesālī, a householder, described by the Buddha as having eight wonderful things about himself, tells a bhikkhu of those eight wonderful things.
AN 8.22 Ugga (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
The lay follower, Ugga of Hatthigama, is spoken of as having eight wonders associated with him, one of which was that he was a Non-returner.
AN 8.23 Hatthaka (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
The lay follower Hatthaka of Alavi is spoken of as having seven wonders associated with him. Upon being told such he expresses concern as to whether laymen were present when it was said. Thereafter he is praised as haveing eight wonders associated with him, the eighth being modesty.
AN 8.24 Hatthaka (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
The lay follower Hatthaka of Alavi describes how he has managed to gather together a great following using the Buddha's four methods for creating alliances; the Buddha then praises Hatthaka as having eight wonders associated with him.
AN 8.25 Mahānāma, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Kumara Bhikkhu translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Mahanama the Sakyan inquires about the factors that go into the making of a good lay disciple.
AN 8.26 Jīvaka, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Jivaka Komarabhacca inquires about the factors that go into the making of a good lay disciple.
AN 8.27 Powers (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the M. Olds translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
The Buddha points out the various tools of children, women, thieves, kings, fools, wise men, the learned, and the holy man.
AN 8.28 Powers (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation the M. Olds translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
Sariputta lists the eight powers of one who has destroyed the corrupting influences (asavas) that enable him to know that he has destroyed the corrupting influences.
The first of these is seeing as it is that all things own-made (saŋkhārā-ed) are transitory. Bhk. Bodhi has translated saŋkhārā here as 'conditioned', which is a serious mistake. See the discussion "Is Nibbana Conditioned?" for an explanation of why this is a mistake.
AN 8.29 Inopportune Moments, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, and the E.M. Hare translation.
Eight times when one's rebirth is not best suited (timely) for leading the godly life.
AN 8.30 Anuruddha, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the E.M. Hare translation.
An elegant sutta describing the instructions given Anuruddha which lead to his becoming an arahant.
Also useful as an instruction as to how to attain the jhānas.

 

The Eight Thoughts of the Great Man

A thing[1] for those who are of small[2] wishes, this is,
not a thing for those of great wishes.

A thing for those who are contented, this is,
not a thing for those of discontentment.

A thing for those who are retiring, this is,
not a thing for those who take pleasure in community.

A thing for those who seize at energy, this is,
not a thing for those who are cozy.

A thing for those who are present-minded, this is,
not a thing for those who are absent-minded.

A thing for those who are serene, this is,
not a thing for those who are not serene.

A thing for the wise, this is,
not a thing for the stupid.

A thing for the undistracted, this is,
for one loving the undistracted,
not a thing for the distracted,
for one loving distractions.

AN 8.30

 


[1] Dhamma. 'Form' in accordance with the practice of this system.

[2] Not 'few' as per Bhk. Bodhi. Bhk. Thanissaro has the sense, but his 'modest' and 'self-aggrandizing' is an explanation, not a translation. Hare's translation is closer but all miss the fact that the meaning is defined later in the sutta when the Buddha gives as examples: A small wish is one which is focused on one's own attainments, a great wish is one which is focused on fame for such attainment.

 


 

Monday, April 25, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, March 28, 2016


 


"Times have changed from the times they used to be"

"Truly, now," said Michael Mail, clearing the corner of his throat in the manner of a man who meant to be convincing; "there's a friendly tie of some sort between music and eating." He lifted the cup to his mouth, and drank himself gradually backwards from a perpendicular position to a slanting one, during which time his looks performed a circuit from the wall opposite him to the ceiling overhead. Then clearing the other corner of his throat: "Once I was sitting in the little kitchen of the Three Choughs at Casterbridge, having a bit of dinner, and a brass band struck up in the street. Sich a beautiful band as that were! I was sitting eating fried liver and lights, I well can mind - ah, I was I and to save my life, I couldn't help chawing to the tune. Band played six-eight time; six-eight chaws I, willy-nilly. Band plays common; common time went my teeth among the fried liver and lights as true as a hair. Beautiful 'twere! Ah, I shall never forget that there band!"

— Old Michael Mail, in Under the Greenwood Tree by Thomas Hardy, 1872
pgs 33 & 70, Collins' Illustrated Pocket Classics,
London and Glasgow: Collins' Clear-Type Press,
Leather Gilt top. No date of publication.
To give another example of the use of 'mind' as 'remember'. So we justify using 'mind' as the translation throughout for 'sati', whether the intent is to be saying: 'the mind', 'remember', 'pay attention', or 'look after.' It makes no never-mind that this usage has fallen out of the common memory. We can recollect it. - 'lights' = lung - O.E.D.


 

new Thursday, April 14, 2016 8:14 AMIndex of Personalities: Mandhāta. A primeval king, ancestor of the Sakyans, who is declared by the Buddha (in AN 4.15) to be the all time top among enjoyers of sense-pleasures.

 

new Thursday, April 14, 2016 8:14 AMThera-Gāthā Psalms of the Early Buddhists, II. Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translations.
[THAG 24] Sugandha
[THAG 25] Nandiya
[THAG 26] Abhaya

 

new Wednesday, April 13, 2016 9:12 AMAŋguttara Nikāya
[AN 3.55] Nibbāna, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains the meaning of 'Seen in this life is Nibbana.
[AN 3.56] Nibbāna, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali and the F.L. Woodward translation.
A wealthy brahmin has heard the story told by the ancients of a time when this world was densely populated and villages and towns and cities grew up right next to each other. He asks Gotama why it is that this is no longer the case and is told that it is because at this time the people are obsessed with lusts, depravities and wrong views resulting in a number of calamaties that depopulate the earth.
[AN 3.57] Vaccha, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha sets straight a rumor that he teaches that it is only to him and his followers that gifts should be given; that it is only gifts to him and his followers that are of great fruit.
[AN 3.58] Tikaṇṇa, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Tikanna, the brahman, visits the Buddha and sings the praises of the brahman 'three-fold lore'. Gotama responds describing the 'three-fold-lore' of the Aristocrats: seeing past lives, seeing the outcomes of kamma, and seeing that one has destroyed the corrupting influences.
[AN 3.59] Jāṇussoṇi, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Janussoni, the brahman, visits the Buddha and suggests that brahmins with the threefold knowledge should always be invited to sacrificial events. The Buddha asks him to describe what the brahmins call the threefold lore. Then Gotama responds describing the 'three-fold-lore' of the Aristocrats: seeing past lives, seeing the outcomes of kamma, and seeing that one has destroyed the corrupting influences.
[AN 3.60] Saŋgārava, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Sangarava approaches Gotama with the idea that those who perform sacrifices do more good for more people than those who leave the household life for the homeless state. Gotama then raises the case of a Buddha arising in the world, one who teaches multitudes, gods and men. There follows discussion of the merits of various magic powers.
Here we can see the origin of the Chinese Mahayana idea that attaining arahantship is selfish. Another interesting thing revealed here is the statement that even in the Buddhas own time his followers numbered in the hundreds of thousands.
There is also in this sutta an interesting description of four different methods of mind-reading.
Now: who sees why brahmin Sangarava got stuck on Ananda's question and how it was that he got un-stuck by the way the issue was approached by the Buddha?
[AN 3.61] Sectarian, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha lays out three positions concerning what is going on here which lead to making no effort to extract oneself from a bondage which entails pain and the endless continuation of pain in rebirth. He then explains his doctrine which does inspire activity towards ending pain and rebirth.
[AN 3.62] Perils, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the M. Olds translation.
Gotama speaks of three terrors of the common people and shows how their fears go too far; he follows that by speaking of three terrors not subject to remediation through wishes; and then he points the way to overcome terrors.
[AN 3.63] Venāga, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes how his seat on a pile of leaves at the root of a tree is celestial, sublime and Aristocratic.
[AN 3.64] Sarabha, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the the F.L. Woodward translation.
Sarabha has quit the sangha believing he understands the Dhamma. He goes around boasting that it is because he understands the Dhamma that he rejects it. The bhikkhus ask the Buddha to set him straight, out of compassion, and he does so. After repeatedly giving Sarabha an opportunity to explain himself which he is unable to do, not even being able to respond at all, the Buddha departs through the air. Sarabha's friends have a great time at his expense as a result.
[AN 3.65] Sarabha, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the the Soma Thera translation.
The Kalamas, bewildred by contradictory claims as to whose Dhamma is the best, ask Gotama for his advice. He responds without praising his own doctrine or disparaging that of others by outlining criteria for judging for oneself whether or not some doctrine is beneficial or harmful.
[AN 3.163 or (wp): 183-352] Lust and So Forth Repetition Series, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, and the the M. Olds translation.
A wheel sutta memory exercise playing off Lust, hate, stupidity, anger, grudge-bearing, deception, ruthlessness, irritation, selfishness, illusion, treachery, stubbornness, quarrellousness, madness, conceit, intoxication and carelessness against higher knowledge, comprehensive knowledge, utter destruction, letting go, waining, putting down, eradication, disposal and rejection. The solution for each set is the development of the states of emptiness, signlessness and purposelessness.
Bhk. Bodhi following the Pali as found in CSCD has this as 170 suttas; the PTS (Pali and translation) has it as one sutta. This version could reasonably be broken into 17 suttas and even more likely considering the pattern followed later in the AN, into the 170 suttas of the CSCD and Bhk. Bodhi versions. However I have followed the PTS Pali. As an exercise it should certainly be one unit, however one sub-divides it.

[AN 4.1] Understood, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, and the the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Four reasons beings have been tied to the round of rebirths this long time.
[AN 4.2] Fallen, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the the F.L. Woodward translation,
Four factors that when missing indicate that one has fallen away from the path, when present that one is on the path: ethical conduct, serenity, wisdom, freedom.
[AN 4.3] Maimed (1), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the the F.L. Woodward translation,
Four types of action which amount to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and four types of action which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma.
[AN 4.4] Maimed (2), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the the F.L. Woodward translation,
Poor behavior towards four persons amounts to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which results in much bad kamma; while good behavior towards four persons does not uproot, does not spoil the self, surrounds one with purity, brings praise by the wise, and results in much good kamma.
A variation of the previous.
[AN 4.5] Along with the Stream, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, and the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
The Buddha describes the commoner, the Streamwinner, the Non-returner and the Arahant in terms of their relationship to the stream or natural flow of life.
[AN 4.6] One of Little Learning, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Whether one's learning be great or small it profits not if one does not understand either the words or the point, does not follow the teachings within the Dhamma, but whether one's learning be great or small it profits well if one understands the words and the point and one follows the teaching within the Dhamma.
[AN 4.7] They Adorn, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four who are accomplished in wisdom, disciplined, confident, deeply learned, Dhamma-bearers, who live according to Dhamma, that illuminate the Order.
[AN 4.8] Self-Confidence, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Being able in mind to answer four charges of self-deception that could be made against him the Buddha is confident he is Awakened and teaches a doctrine that will lead those who follow it to the end of Pain.
[AN 4.9] Craving, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
If craving arises in a bhikkhu it arises from one or another of these four sources.
[AN 4.10] Bonds, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the F.L. Woodward translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the M. Olds translation.
The Buddha explains the way that sense pleasures, existence, opinions and blindness are yokes to the constant round of rebirths.
[AN 4.11] Walking, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation,
Whether walking, or standing, or sitting, or lying down, a bhikkhu who does not wish to be known as a slacker, who does not wish to deprive himself of his opportunity for attaining the goal, should rid himself of lustful, deviant, or crule thoughts.
Woodward notes that the Pali word used for the title of this sutta, 'cara' means 'walking' but he is then forced to say that this includes all the postures. PED: "[from car, carati] 1. the act of going about, walking; one who walks or lives." We say 'carries on'. This is 'carriage' the manner in which one carries oneself ... whether walking, or standing still, or sitting or lying down ... or acting with mind and speech. The term has wide use and is worth remembering. It has come down even to us in our: 'carriage' (both the vehicle and the way one carries oneself) 'cart' 'car' 'carry'.
[AN 4.12] Virtuous Behavior, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation,
Whether walking, or standing, or sitting, or lying down, a bhikkhu who has trained himself in ethical practices has overcome the hinderances. Then, to become one known as energetic, careful and resolute, he must develop energy, establish his memory, calm his body and concentrate and tranquillize his mind.
[AN 4.13] Striving, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation,
An exposition in brief of the four consummate efforts.
[AN 4.14] Restraint, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation,
A detailed exposition of the four consummate efforts.
An important sutta: we do not get what is encompassed by the four consummate efforts described in detail very often.
Be careful to note Bhk. Bodhi's translation of vossagga as 'release' at the culmination of each of the seven dimensions of self-awakening. Do not confuse with either vimutti or vimokkha. 'Release' really doesn't work here. PED has: "Vossagga: relinquishing, relaxation; handing over, donation, gift". So the meaning is 'releasing the world', not 'attaining release.' "letting go" "giving up".
[AN 4.15] Proclamations, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha lists the Four major chiefs of beings in the world.
Both Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi translate the individuals in the list in this sutta as being spoken of in the present tense. This creates a small problem when it comes to Mandhata. In the Jataka story, Mandhata is identified with The Buddha. So from these two sources of information, as translated, we are told: Gotama is his own early ancestor. (Not a problem given the nature of rebirth.) Gotama was two of the pre-eminant beings he is describing. (Somewhat of a problem as they are incompatable, for this would be telling us that The Buddha (as Tathāgata) is one who possesses or enjoys sense-pleasures. when it is clearly stated in numerous places that one does not speak of the 'Tathāgata' in this way.) But if Gotama is not to be identified with Mandhata, how can Mandhata be being spoken of in the present tense as the mythical Mandhata is long dead?
Trying to resolve this problem if we conclude that the Jataka story, as a story of a previous life of the Buddha is a later invention, but that the story of Mandhata was likely one well known to at least the Sakyans, we are left thinking that the mention of Mandhata in the present tense in this sutta is hardly a useful example of what it means to be supreme in the enjoyment or possession of sense-pleasures as we know 1. that he is dead, and 2. we know nothing about his current location or experiences. Either we have here a case where the teaching of the Buddha is not well done, or that this is not a true sutta given by the Buddha, or we have to conclude that the Jataka story is a true story of one of the Buddha's former lives and that the point of using Mandhata as an example was to create this question in our minds and force us to see that Gotama and Mandhata were one and the same individuality and that this is a way for the Buddha to tell the bhikkhus that a Tathāgata enjoys sense-pleasures. (Just a little too twisted even in my view of Gotama's subtlety, and still amounting to a view rejected by the Buddha.) I suggest a different construction:
etad aggaɱ bhikkhave kāmabhogīnaɱ yad idaɱ rājā Mandhātā;
At the top, beggars, that is to say of sense-pleasure possessors/enjoyers: King Mandhata.
'At the top' meaning 'at the all-time top'.
[AN 4.16] Exquisiteness, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four 'exquisites.'
Careful reading will show that the three different translations will yield three different modes of practice. See the Introduction to my translation for details.
[AN 4.17] Wrong Courses (1), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four ways to not get there.
[AN 4.18] Wrong Courses (2), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four ways of getting there.
[AN 4.19] Wrong Courses (3), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four ways of not getting there and four ways of getting there.
Combines the previous two suttas.
[AN 4.20] Wrong Courses (3), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha describes four ways the distributor of food in the Sangha goes wrong whereby he ends up in Hell and four ways that he does not go wrong and thereby ends up in Heaven.
[AN 4.21] Uruvelā (1), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Shortly after his enlightenment Gotama sees no person to whom he should pay reverance and serve. Seeing danger in this situation he decides to place the Dhamma in this position.
[AN 4.22] Uruvelā (2), the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four things more important than age that make a person an elder.
[AN 4.23] The World, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha declares his freedom from all things worldly and lists the attributes of the Tathagata.
[AN 4.24] Kāḷaka, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha explains that his statement that he knows and understands whatsoever in the world, with its Maras, Brahmas, hosts of recluses and brahmins, devas and mankind, is seen, heard, sensed, cognized, attained, searched into, pondered over by the mind, is to be understood as a simple statement of fact and is not a brag and that because he does know these things, to say otherwise would be a lie.
[AN 4.25] The Spiritual Life, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Brahmacariya or Holy Life is lived for the sake of finding the self-control, letting-go, detachment, and bringing to a conclusion to the problem of pain in existence not for the worldly advantages of fame, gains and favors.
[AN 4.26] Deceivers, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha states that pretend bhikkhus, stubborn persons, gosips, crafty and undisciplined individuals are not followers of what he has taught and have no chance to gain, grow, or prosper in this system, but those whose interest is genuine, who are open-minded, wise, flexible, not gosips, who exercise self-control are followers of what he has taught and will gain, grow, and prosper in this system.
[AN 4.27] Contentment, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha praises contentment with basics of clothing, food, shelter and medicine that are worthless, easy to obtain, and blameless.
[AN 4.28] Noble Lineages, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Gotama speaks of the four ancient practices of the lineage of the Ariyan, a warrior, holy man, ordinary man, shaman, powerful person, and king all wrapped up in the seeker after the solution to the problem of pain in existence.
[AN 4.29] Dhamma Factors, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
Four paths of good form that are ancient, long standing, traditional, primeval, pure and unadulterated, unconfused, respected by the wise.
[AN 4.30] Wanderers, the Bhk. Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, and the F.L. Woodward translation.
The Buddha visits a Wanderer's park and teaches the four paths of good form that are ancient, long standing, traditional, primeval, pure and unadulterated, unconfused, respected by the wise, and he adds emphasis by showing that disparaging these four subjects one to ridicule.

 

new Saturday, April 09, 2016 7:43 AM Book Review: Uncle Tom's Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe
A very moving story. So powerful that it is considered to have been one of the contributing causes of the U.S. Civil War. It is, in story form, a thorough examination (almost mathematically elegant) of the evils of the institution of slavery. The review shows how this story is relevant today to the Buddhist.

new Thursday, March 31, 2016 7:41 AM Book Review: Remembrance of Things Past, The definitive French Pleiade edition translated by C.K. Scott Moncrieff and Terrence Kilmartin, with Volume III, Part 7: Time Regained, translated by Andreas Mayor
A classic of French literature that deals with an individual's experience of 'Temporary Release' without the knowledge of Buddhist theory.

 

new Tuesday, March 29, 2016 9:03 AMMajjhima Nikāya
[MN.57] Kukkuravatika-Suttaɱ, Of Emulating Dogs, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Two ascetics, one who's asceticism was to practice the behavior of a dog, the other who's asceticism was to practice the behavior of an ox question the Buddha as to the outcomes of their practices.
[MN.58] Abhaya-Rājakumāra-Suttaɱ, Of Choosing One's Words, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Explaining to Prince Abhaya how it might come to happen that the Buddha says something to someone that upsets them greatly, he outlines the various ways in which an awakened one approaches taking opportunity to speak.
[MN.59] Bahu-vedanīya-Suttaɱ, Pleasant and Unpleasant, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Nyanaponika Thera translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha speaks of seven ways he classifies experience (vedana); and ten ways he classifies happiness the last of which is not to be found classed within experience.
[MN.60] Apaṇṇaka-Suttaɱ, The Sound Doctrine, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains a logical way to behave when faced with uncertainty as to what one should believe.
[MN.61] Ambalaṭṭhikā-Rāhulovāda-Suttaɱ, Against Lying, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha teaches his son the importance of refraining from intentional false speech and the need for reflection prior to, during, and after doing deeds of body, speech, and mind.
[MN.62] Mahā-Rāhulovāda-Suttaɱ, Breathing Exercises, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha teaches his son how to develop minding the breathing.
A Satipatthana Sutta of a different sort.
[MN.63] Cūḷa Māluŋkya-Suttaɱ, Of the Irrelevant, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the Warren translation, the Thomas translation, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Malunkyaputta, dissatisfied that the Buddha has not answered a number of questions concerning existence and non-existence confronts Gotama who explains to him that these questions are not expounded upon because they are not relevant to the goal of ending suffering. This sutta contains the famous simile of the man who refuses to accept medical treatment for an arrow wound until he knows all about the arrow, the shooter, etc.
[MN.64] Mahā Māluŋkya-Suttaɱ, Of Bursting Bonds Asunder, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A detailed discussion of the five fetters to lower rebirths and the practice by way of which these five fetters are eliminated so as to result in non-returning.
This sutta is incomprehensable in any of the translations we have. See the discussion: 'The Five Fetters to the Lower Rebirths' for an analysis of why this is the case. In brief: The Buddha objects to Malunkayaputta's statement that he has taught that x,y, and z are yokes to rebirth because what he has taught is that it is obsession with x,y, and z that is the yoke, not the x,y, and z itself.
In the second part of this sutta the Buddha describes five paths to either arahantship or by the abandoning of the five yokes to rebirth (remember: obsession with views of own-body, etc.,), non-returning: the first burning-knowledge (jhāna), the second, the third, the fourth, the realm of limitless space, the realm of limitless consciousness and the realm of nothing's-to-be-had, each, if accompanied by the perception that the khandhas are painful and not-self, and if one turns his mind from those things and dwells in stead on the deathless thinking:

'Etaɱ santaɱ||
etaɱ paṇītaɱ||
yad idaɱ||
sabba-saŋkhāra-samatho||
sabb'ūpadhi-paṭinissaggo||
taṇhakkhayo||
virāgo||
nirodho||
nibbānan' ti.|| ||

'This is the real,
this is the ultimate,
that is
the calming of all own-making,
the ejection of all fuel,
the destruction of thirsts,
dispassion
ending,
Nibbāna.'

(In the abridged Chalmers and Bhk. Bodhi translations it is easy to read this as being one path, but it is five discrete paths — for a clearer picture of what is being said read the fully expanded Horner translation.)

Then, at this point Ānanda asks: "This being the Way, this being the walk to walk to the abandoning of the yokes to rebirth, how is it that some persons are heart-freed (ceto-vimutti) and some are wisdom-freed (paññā-vimutti)?"

Ānanda's question arises from the fact that each path terminates in the same insight and thought (as above); and that being the case, how is it possible that it could result in two sorts of freedom.

The Buddha's response is that this is a result of differences in forces (indriya-vemattata).

Ms. Horner quotes commentary as follows (Bhk. Bodhi paraphrases in a footnote): [I have inserted the underlying pali in square brackets; Bhk. Bodhi's translation in parenthesis:]

MA. iii. 147-8; If when a monk goes after calm [samatha = samādhi] (Bhk. Bodhi: serenity), one-pointedness of mind [cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ](B.B.: unification of mind) is to the forefront - this monk is called freed in mind [ceto-vimutti](BB: deliverance of mind); but if wisdom [paññā] is to the forefront - such a monk is called freed through wisdom [paññā-vimutti]. When one goes after insight [vipassana], if wisdom is to the forefront, such a monk is called freed through wisdom; if his one-pointedness of mind is to the forefront, he is called freed in mind. The two chief disciples attained arahantship with calm and insight to the forefront; Sāriputta was freed through wisdom and Moggallāna was freed in mind.

I say that what all this is saying is that of the multiple Ways and Walks to Walk to the one end result, there are two prominant interdependent modes of approach: by way of calm and serenity (samatha and samādhi) and by way of insight (vipassana). Both are necessary but emphasis is placed on one or another of these forces by different personality types.

Within each of the two modes there are two further sub-forces (really just echos of their opposite number) at work: intent to gain focus (or whole-hearted single-mindedness or to become 'centered')(cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ)(which is really just another term for samādhi); and intent to gain wisdom (paññā)(which is really just another way of speaking about vipassana).

'Heart' or 'Whole-hearted single mindedness' here is single-minded focus on the attaining of liberation without necessarily understanding the various mechanisms by which that liberation is attained (you must, at least, have knowledge of the meaning of freedom in the Buddha's Dhamma). You sit down to get freedom and you know if you are free and you know if you are not free and you intend to get free period. Intent on wisdom is the intent to attain freedom through the understanding of each step of the way. Wisdom is the ability to use that understanding both to advance the self and advance others of similar inclination. Some persons are more inclined one way others the other way, some both ways.

These are (back to describing what the commentary is saying) the different forces that in different combinations result in either heart-freedom or wisdom-freedom or freedom-both-ways.

1. samatha and samādhi --> cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ --> ceto-vimutti;
2. samatha and samādhi --> paññā --> paññā-vimutti
3. vipassana --> cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ --> ceto-vimutti;
4. vipassana --> paññā --> paññā-vimutti

I question the need to introduce samatha and vipassana except as a means of staking out territory. Vipassana is not listed among the forces (indriana;) samādhi and paññā are. If one understood that cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ could be classed as equivalent to samādhi = samatha (see MN 44) and paññā as vipassana we could have checked the list and not have had the complication of information not provided by the Buddha in the sutta. As explanation it could all have been said by saying that if in your approach to awakening you emphasize the direct attaining of freedom of heart through samādhi, you will end up heart-freed; if you emphasize the acquisition of wisdom through insight you will end up wisdom-freed, if you balance both or follow one with the other, you end up freed-both-ways.

It is interesting to note how the Chalmers translation (here and elsewhere) shows us the powerful influence of first translations on those that follow.

[MN.65] Bhaddāli Suttaɱ, Of Obedience, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A sutta describing the laying down of the rule about not eating at improper times and of one bhikkhu's rebellion against this rule. Contains an explanation of why there are so many rules and so few who attain the goal when at an earlier time there were few rules and many attained the goal. Also contains the simile of the thoroughbred steed.
[MN.66] Laṭukikopama Suttaɱ, The Parable of the Quail, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha shows how letting go of the pleasure of eating at wrong times sets the pattern for letting go of each step of the way from pleasures of the senses through each of the jhanas to the ending of perceiving experience.
[MN.67] Cātumā Suttaɱ, Of Land Sharks, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha instructs a number of bhikkhus about the various pitfalls facing the bhikkhu. He provides four similes: one for anger, one for gluttony, one for the five cords of sense pleasures and one for sexual lust.

 


Bhagavam-mūlakā no bhante dhammā||
Bhagavan-nettikā||
Bhagavam-paṭisaraṇā.
|| ||

We-uns* things, bhante, are Lucky-man-rooted,
Lucky-man-channeled,
Lucky-man-housed.

*We-uns = We ones. 'Our'; U.S. dialect. Sometimes "We's"


 

[MN.68] Naḷakapāna Suttaɱ, The Stimulus of Example, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains the importance of having joyous entheusiasm in the pursuit of the goal and explains that it is in the service of this that he occasionally relates the rebirth of some bhikkhu or bhikkhuni or layman or laywoman.
[MN.69] Gulissāni Suttaɱ, Of Rusticity, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Sariputta delivers a discourse on the proper training for one who lives alone in the forest.
[MN.70] Gulissāni Suttaɱ, Of Rusticity, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Two bhikkhus are taken to task for disparaging the rule about eating at impropper times. Includes a description of Seven sorts of Persons pointing out which have nothing more to do and which have something more to do.

 

Seven Persons

The Both-ways freed
The Wisdom-freed
The Body-knower,
The View-secured,
The Faith-freed,
The Dhamma-follower,
The Faith-follower.

'Freed' in this set means not necessarily that such a one is freed, but that such a one is working at being freed in this way. It might be better to understand this in the sense of 'freed or partially freed'.

The Both-ways freed: One who has attained arahantship by having both attained in body The Eight Releases [see below 'releases'] and who has also seen with wisdom that he has destroyed the Corrupting Influences [Āsavas].

This individual has nothing more to do in that he has secured unshakable freedom.

The Wisdom-freed: One who has attained arahantship only having seen with wisdom that he has destroyed the Corrupting Influences [Āsavas].

This individual has nothing more to do in that he has secured unshakable freedom.

The distinction here is between freedom attained through experience of having trained with the body — the individual who sits down to attain freedom without necessarily understanding the details for attaining such, so that it is said that 'his body knows' — and freedom attained by having destroyed the corrupting influences by way of insight gained working through knowledge and seeing things as they really are. Today [Sunday, April 24, 2016 6:39 AM] modern science recognizes something called "muscle-memory". Having performed an action enough times it becomes such as can be performed almost without use of conscious thought. If this is not the same thing it is closely related.

Body-knower [aka: witness; Ms. Horner 'mental realizer' (which translation is inexplicable)] One who has attained temporary release through experience of having attained in body The Eight Releases, but who has not yet completely destroyed the Corrupting Influences.

This individual has more to do in that he has not yet secured unshakable freedom.

The View-secured: One who is essentially on the same path as the Wisdom-freed, but whose wisdom has got only as far as a comprehension of The Four Truths and who has by this much partly destroyed the Corrupting Influences.

This individual has more to do in that he has not yet secured unshakable freedom.

The Faith-freed: One who has faith that the Buddha was an Arahant, a fully self-awakened one, one who got what was to be got, a seer of this world and the worlds beyond, who understood the way to the End of Pain and whose teaching of that way was consummately done, and who also by this faith has partly destroyed the Corrupting Influences.

This individual has more to do in that he has not yet secured unshakable freedom.

Dhamma-follower: One who is able to see that the Corrupting Influences are not destroyed in him; in whose wisdom there is moderate approval of the Buddha's Dhamma; and in whom there are the forces of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom.

This individual has more to do in that he has not yet secured unshakable freedom.

Faith-follwer: One who is able to see that the Corrupting Influences are not destroyed in him; but who has sufficient faith and respect for the Buddha; and in whom there are the forces of faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom.

This individual has more to do in that he has not yet secured unshakable freedom.

 

[MN.71] Tevijja-Vacchagotta Suttaɱ, The True Three-Fold Lore, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains to Vacchagotta the difference between claiming to be all-knowing and all-seeing at all times and claiming to be possessed of the three-visions: the ability to see past lives, the ability to see the relationship of rebirth to deeds, and the knowledge that one is free from corrupting influences.
[MN.72] Aggi-Vacchagotta Suttaɱ, On Fuel, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Warren translation, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha converts Vacchagotta by an explanation of why speculative views do not apply to the attaining of the ending of pain.
[MN.73] Mahā-Vacchagotta Suttaɱ, The Meed of Service, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Vacchagotta is given a lesson in brief concerning what is skillful and what is not skillful and becomes a bhikkhu. Having mastered what is necessary as a foundation he is told to master calm and insight in order to attain magic powers, recollection of past lives, knowledge of the outcome of deeds, and the destruction of the Asavas. He masters all this and becomes an Arahant.
[MN.74] Dīghanakha Suttaɱ, Consistency in Outlook, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Dighanakha is given an instruction in the abandoning of points of view, then in detachment from body, and sensation.
A very early sutta. It is by listening to this sutta that Sariputta becomes arahant. Dighanakha becomes a Streamwinner.

 

Evaɱ vimutta-citto bhikkhu||
na kenaci saŋvadati,||
na kenaci vivadati,||
yañ ca loke vuttaɱ tena voharati aparāmasan.
|| ||

Thus heart-freed, a beggar
does not comply with anyone
does not reply to anyone
and whatever is expressed in worldly terms is not siezed at.

This statement is made as a sort of summary to the discourse at [MN 74] where Dighanaka makes a statement of a point of view and hearing Gotama's response thinks that the Buddha has agreed with him.

The issues raised come up now and again. The Arahant does not agree with points of view that are expressed, nor does he negate them. This is expressed in other cases as 'neither collaborating with nor rebelling against'. He does not 'confront' in debate or in any other form of behavior. He sees things as they are, without intervening 'interpretation' and so when himself confronted by the expression of a viewpoint he does not respond directly, but responds with a statement of what he actually sees. And the corollary (in response to the challenge that by using terms such as "I" and "mine" in common speech he (the arahant) is expressing a point of view): In ordinary speech the Arahant uses the words 'I', 'My' etc., without attaching any idea of ownership.

I have translated saŋvadati and vivadati (literally: co-say and re-say or un-say; agree (say along with) and retort or refute; Ms. Horner: 'concur' and 'dispute'; Nanamoli/Bodhi/Thanissaro: side-with and dispute;) reaching into the obscure and contorted: O.E.D.: Comply. 3.: To be complaisant with, make oneself agreeable to (persons) in conduct or action, to accommodate oneself to the desires or wishes of; the notion of politness often passing to that of obsequiousness or servility;
Reply. 4b: To retort upon one.
He does not contort (ply) himself to agree; he does not try to bend (ply) the other when he disagrees.

See: SN 3.22.94
SN 1.1.14

 

[MN.75] Māgandiya Suttaɱ, Of Keeping Watch and Ward, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., the M. Olds translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Wanderer Magandiya is raised from a view based on faith that health is the greatest good and that this is Nibbana to an understanding of the satisfactions, the dangers and he escape from pleasures of the senses.
[MN.76] Samdaka Suttaɱ, Of False Guides, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked tothe Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Sandaka, a wandering ascetic, asks Ananda a series of questions and is so impressed by his answers that he joins the Order. The questions and answers range from discussion of the problems with the prevailing doctrines to a complete course in the Buddha's Dhamma from the bottom up.

This concludes the uploading of Sacred Books of the Buddhists, Chalmers, Further Dialogues of the Buddha, Volume I. I do not have and have not yet found a copy of Volume II that I could scan, so this series must remain incomplete for the time being.

 


Monday, March 28, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, February 29, 2016


 

On Style: After having thoroughly purged almost all the translations of their references to Pali pages, I have seen the value of these references and will begin to restore them as I go along. They will have the following appearance: [348] and will be links to the PTS Pali Text Page number as located on this site's BJT/PTS hybrid Pali Text. These links can themselves be linked to by appending "#pt000" (without the quotation marks; zeros do not precede single or double digit numbers) to the url.
Along these same lines, I can see at some point a future generation editor adding/restoring the alternative readings and the page numbers of other versions of the Pali. At this point, for the following reasons, I have not included/kept these items: 1. Alternate readings are 99% irrelevant to the understanding of the doctrine (occasionally they are significant, but on these occasions they will almost certainly have been noted in footnotes); 2. are needlessly confusing; 3. would take more time than seems reasonable to me considering their utility; 4. page numbers to Pali texts that are not readily available are a time consuming luxory.
While we're at it, let's add to this list the insertion of the various corrections found in errata sheets, footnotes, and on errata pages at the end of some of the books.

 

new Friday, March 04, 2016 8:21 AMThera-Gāthā Psalms of the Early Buddhists, II. Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translations.
[THAG 169] Sandhita
[THAG 170] Angaṇika-Bhāradvāja
[THAG 171] Paccaya
[THAG 241] Sīlavat
[THAG 242] Sunīta
[THAG 263] Moggallāna the Great
[THAG 264] Vaŋgīsa
[THAG 15] Kuṇḍa-Dhāna
[THAG Envoi] Envoi

 

new Monday, February 29, 2016 4:06 AMMajjhima Nikāya
[MN.36] Mahā Saccaka-Sutta, Saccaka Again, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha teaches Saccaka about training the body and training the heart.
In this sutta we once again come upon Gotama's description of his extreme austerities in his attempt to attain Awakening, his subsequent rejection of such practices, and his recollection of an insident in his youth that pointed to a successful practice.
Sitting there he finds himself in a very peaceful state of mind which he describes in a formula that later becomes know as 'the First Jhāna' — 'knowing'; it is a point at which two things are seen with absolute clarity: 1. it is got by letting go of (separating from) lesser states; and 2. it is a higher form of happiness than sense pleasure; that is at this point one knows for certain one is on the right track.

Separated from Sensuaity,
Separated from Unskillful things,
With Thinking and With Pondering
with the Pleasureable-Enthusiasm born of Separation,
One enters and abides in the First Knowing.

Here we have, side-by-side, both the formula and an illuminating image of this entry point to the attaining of Awakening.

At ease sitting at the root of the rose-apple tree, the young prince is seen just prior to his entry into puberty (separated from sensuality). He is separated from his father and the commencement of the ceremony (separated from unskillful things), yet is observant of the situation. What you need to know is that the Plowing Ceremony is a 'rite of spring', a 'fertility rite', a ceremony that would introduce a youth to sensual pleasures.

[MN.37] Cūḷa-Taṇhā-Saŋkhaya-Sutta, Deliverance from Cravings, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A well-known and much loved sutta. Sakka, Ruler of the Devas, visits the Buddha and asks about the scope of understanding required of one to be able to know he is arahant. The Buddha instructs him, but Maha Moggallana, who was listening, doubts it has sunk in and visits Sakka in the Tavatimsa Realm. There he is put off with frivolities and in order to rouse Sakka to seriousness Maha Moggallana shakes Sakka's palace with his big toe. With his hair standing on end, Sakka gets down to business.
[MN.38] Mahā-Taṇhā-Saŋkhaya-Sutta, Consciousness A Process Only, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The well-known sutta in which the Buddha explains the idea that consciousness is a conditioned phenomena and is not the self that transmigrates from one birth to the next.
This is a very important sutta to understand clearly. (The Chalmers translation is too abridged to be of much help, see the other translations for a better perspective.)
All consciousness is a result of the coming together of conditions.
There are various sorts of consciousness depending on the conditions which give rise to it.
Consciousness is not a self that transmigrates from one existence to the next.
The subjective aparent continuity of individuality from moment to moment and life to life is a matter of illusion. A case of mistaken identity: Identification with conscousness assumed to be the continuation of an identification with consciousness that performed deeds with the intent of creating this consciousness.
After determining that it is individualized consciousness (among the various sorts of consciousness) that Sati believes transmigrates from birth to birth, the Buddha deals with that form of consciousness from the point of view of the factors on which it is dependent and the mechanism of rebirth itself. The mechanics of the arising of consciousnes in ordinary rebirth must be understood before it can be seen how there arises a second sort of consciousness that is not dependent on individualized existence.
There are then two general categories of consciousness: Consciousness conditioned by things of Time; and consciousness conditioned by things not of Time.
Consciousness conditioned by things of time (the six senses) is a thing of time and comes to an end.
This is the consciousness of the ordinary individual.
When consciousness is conditioned by consciousness of freedom from things of time, it is consciousness conditioned by things not of time.
That consciousness, though it is conditioned, has not been own-made, identified-with, and is not an 'existing thing' but is only a consciousness of not being a thing, is not identified-with as "I" or "mine", and because not dependent on something that comes to an end, does not itself come to an end and is the goal of this system.
Again: Consciousness arises dependedent on conditions.
If the conditions present are consciousness of freedom from things of Time, the resulting consciousness is consciousness of consciousness of things not of Time. It has arisen as a result of conditons, not as a result of the willing of an individual (i.e., own-making, or sankharaming.) Consciousness, freed from things of time, is unlimited, not bound to Time, deathless... Nirvana: Out of the Woods; Nibbana, unbound.
Returning to the sutta: An individual who sees consciousness like this does not speculate about the past, future or present nature of a self. He may have vision of past lives, but he also sees that none of them were the self of him. He knows of the future that there is no thing which will be identified with as the self. He knows of the present that there is no thing there that is the self. This is a simpler way of seeing things than the divisions that are created by the assumption of individuality and consequently he is not confused about things of the past, future or present. Things come to be as a consequence of conditions (kamma); without conditions they do not come to be; on the ending of the conditions that brought them about, they cease to be. For all things. Not just "me" or "them".
If you can see how ordinary rebirth-consciousness arises as a consequence of conditions, you can then see how with different conditions (consciousness of consciousness of things not of Time) a different sort of consciousness can arise and you can direct 'mind' to that second sort of consciousness which, unending, deathless, and free from time is clearly superior.
[MN.39] Mahā-Assapura-Sutta, The Ideal Recluse, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha gives the bhikkhus a full curiculum for the realization of Nibbana.
[MN.40] Cūḷa-Assapura-Sutta, The Recluse's Regimen, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains the unreasonableness of such superficial practices as the wearing of robes, going naked, living in filth, ceremonial bathing, living at the root of a tree, eating according to a set regimin, chanting, or wearing matted hair in the hope of ridding one's self of malevolence, wrath, grudge-bearing, hypocracy, spite, jealousy, stingyness, treachery, craftyness, evil desires and wrong views. Then he explains the manner in which practicing friendliness, sympathy, empathy and detachment rids one of those bad characteristics and leads on to attaining arahantship.
[MN.41] Sāleyyaka-Sutta, Our Weird, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera translation, the the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains to the people of Sala how it is that some end up being reborn in Hell and other bad states while others end up being reborn in Heavens and other good states.
On Chalmers' title: Weird = fate, destiny. Hence to a person able to see and alter events in the future; wizzard, > wierd'o = wizzard of.

 


The Wierd'O Oz Nose

When the Wierd-o tells you
He talks with God
You laugh
And think him mad.
But God knows
The Wierd-o knows
When he laughs
And tells you he talks with God
That God knows who's God
And who is
And who is not Mad


 

[MN.42] Sāleyyaka-Sutta, Our Weird, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains to the people of Veranja how it is that some end up being reborn in Hell and other bad states while others end up being reborn in Heavens and other good states.
Identical with the previous with only a change of location and audience.
[MN.43] Mahā Vedalla-Sutta, The Long Miscellany, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., the Sister Upalavanna translation and an outline and analysis by M. Olds.
A very important sutta!
For the sake of teaching the bhikkhus gathered round, Sariputta and Maha Kotthita engage in a question and answer discussion that goes into subtle points of Dhamma.
[MN.44] Cūḷa Vedalla-Sutta, The Short Miscellany, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Warren translation (fragment), the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The lay follower Visakha asks his former wife, the nun Dhammadinna a series of questions concerning Dhamma and receives answers approved of later by the Buddha.

 

Subjective existence, what is considered the individuality (sakkāya), is that which is identified with and made up from the five support piles pañca upādānakkhandhā.

The five support piles:

The form support pile (rūp'upādānakkhandhā);
the sensation support pile(vedan'upādānakkhandhā);
the perception support pile(saññ'upādānakkhandhā);
the own-making support pile(saŋkhār'upādānakkhandhā); and
the consciousness support pile(viññāṇ'upādānakkhandhā).

The arising of individuality is a consequence of thirst (taṇhā) —
thirst for this and that,
thirst for sensual pleasure,
thirst for existence,
thirst for increased existence,
accompanied by delight,
results in attachment
that leads on to rebirth.

To bring about the end of individuality,
end the thirst.

The walk to walk to bring about the end of thirst is:

High Working Hypothesis,
High Principles,
High Talk,
High Works,
High Lifestyle,
High Self-control,
High Mind,
High Serenity,
High Vision, and
High Detachment.
(see: The Method for details.)

That which is support for individuaity arises from the five support piles and
there is no support for individuality apart from the five support piles.

The five support piles are not the support itself,
but the support does not exist without the five support piles; it is the wanting and lust arising from the five support piles that is the support for individuality.

The idea of individuality arises as a consequence of seeing beyond what is self-seen holding the views:

Shape is the self
the self has shape,
shape is in the self,
self is in shape.

Sensation is the self
the self has sensation,
sensation is in the self,
self is in sensation.

Perception is the self
the self has perception,
perception is in the self,
perception is in shape.

The own-made is the self
the self has the own-made,
the own-made is in the self,
self is in the own-made.

Consciousness is the self
the self has consciousness,
consciousness is in the self,
self is in consciousness.

The idea of individuality is got rid of by:

Not regarding shape as the self
or the self as having shape,
or shape as in the self,
or self as in shape.

Not seeing sensation as the self
or the self as having sensation,
or sensation as in the self,
or self as in sensation.

Not seeing perception as the self
or the self as having perception,
or perception as in the self,
or perception as in shape.

Not seeing the own-made as the self
or the self as having the own-made,
or the own-made as in the self,
or self as in the own-made.

Not seeing consciousness as the self
or the self as having consciousness,
or consciousness as in the self,
or self as in consciousness.

The Aristocratic Multi-Dimensional High Way, that is, High Working Hypothesis, High Principles, High Talk, High Works, High Lifestyle,
High Self-control, High Mind, High Serenity, High Vision, and High Detachment,
is own-made or constructed,
not not own-made.

There are three own-makings (saŋkhāra):

Own-made body;
own-made speech;
own-made heart (willing, intention).

The broadest generalized way of speaking of the own-made body is to call it respiration;
respiration is bodily, and
the body is tied up in respiration.
(This definition accommodates other forms of body than are generally familiar, such as those who have multiple shapes but a single mind.)

Own-made speech is essntially thinking and pondering;
first one thinks and ponders,
then one utters speech.

The own-made locus of focus is essentially perceiving and experiencing the senses
perceiving and experiencing the senses are the heart of the matter (are central to),
and the heart is tied up in perceiving and experiencing.

Serenity (samādhi = 'even-over'; here is where the term 'equanimity' even-mindedness, imperturbability should be being used as opposed to using it for upekkha, detachment) is the state of having become whole-heartedly single-minded (cittassa ekaggatā). This definition encompases the entire practice, from undertaking generosity to the attainment of the ending of perception of sense-experience.

The signs of serenity are having set up
minding the body,
minding sense experience,
minding states of the heart,
minding Dhamma.

The pre-requisites for serenity are the four consummate efforts:

The effort to get rid of unskillful states that have arisen;
the effort to keep off unskillful states that have not yet arisen;
the effort to aquire skillful states that have not yet arisen; and,
the effort to preserve skillful states that have arisen.

This is the way Serenity is said to be being cultivated.

The culmination of Serenity is the knowledge and wisdom attained in the freedom of deliverance from things of Time. Serenity being a state of mind of an individual, beyond that, the freedom of deliverance from things not of time is not counted as serenity.

Here first own-making of body ceases first,
then own-making of speech,
then own-making of heart (perception and experience of sense).

This state is reached by way of conditioning the mind, not by the intent to attain. There is in attaining this state no thought "I am attaining".

The difference between this state and the state of a dead body is that there is here the remaining lifespan to be lived out and there is caloric energy.

In re-entering serenity from the point where there is the freedom of delivery from where perception of sense experience ends, one enters signlessness, aimlessness, and emptiness, where here signs are signs of lust, anger and blindness; aims are towards things involving lust, anger, and blindness; and emptiness is a state empty of lust, anger, and blindness.

Here first own-making of heart (perception and experience of sense) is revived,
then own-making of speech,
then own-making of body.

 

[MN.45] Cūḷa Dhamma-Samādāna-Sutta, On Living Up to Professions (1), the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Four modes of practicing Dhamma: Pleasureable in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with pleasurable consequences; and pleasurable in the present with pleasurable consequences.
[MN.46] Mahā Dhamma-Samādāna-Sutta, On Living Up to Professions (2), the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Four modes of practicing Dhamma: Pleasureable in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with painful consequences; painful in the present with pleasurable consequences; and pleasurable in the present with pleasurable consequences.
The same theme as the previous sutta, but differently expanded.
[MN.47] Vīmaɱsaka-Sutta, Study of the Truth-Finder, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., the M. Olds translation [excerpt] and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha goes into detail concerning how one should examine one who claims to have attained the goal.
[MN.48] Kosambiya-Sutta, Amity and Its Root, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the M. Olds translation (outline) and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains how to think to achieve Stream-entry and then describes seven fruits of Stream-entry.
[MN.49] Brahmā Nimantanika-Sutta, Brahmā's Appeal, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha visits Baka Brahma who has come to the belief that he is immortal. The Buddha disabuses him of this idea and demonstrates his authority with an act of psychic power.
As I have said elsewhere, I believe what is intended by the word 'Nimantanika' 'Inviting' is in this case the equivalant of our 'Bring it on!' or the 'Invitation Hand' of Wu Dan kung-fu indicating that the opponent should commense if he is going to fight.
[MN.50] Māra Tajjaniya-Sutta, The Rebuke to Māra, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Mara tries to upset Maha Moggallana and is told of Maha Moggallana's own experience as Mara attempting to upset bhikkhus where he ends up in Niraya with the body of a man and the head of a fish boiling for many hundreds of thousands of years. The gatha at the end is about as close to an old-time curse as is found in Buddhism. (But note that Moggallana clearly shows how this is not a curse, that he holds no ill-will, and that it is strictly this Mara's own deed that will bring about the dread consequences. In fact what we may be seeing here is the way the curse originated, that is as a simple statement of what a real seer sees as the consequences to someone of what they have done. Only later to be transformed into a wish.)
[MN.51] Kandaraka-Sutta, Against Asceticism, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha, from a brief discussion of the four types of individuals found in the world, when asked to elaborate expounds on the habits of those intent on harmful ascetic practices, those who follow a bloody calling, those who torment both themselves and others, and those who neither torment themselves nor torment others. By way of the last group he teaches a detailed course of progress from layman to the benefits of Arahantship.
[MN.52] Aṭṭhaka-Nāgara-Sutta, The Portals of Nirvana, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
In this sutta Ananda explains to a householder how Arahantship can be attained via any single one of eleven different avenues. It is important to note that here is an unequivocal statement that it is possible to attain Arahantship directly from the First Jhana. I stress this point to the readers here not to make out that it is any easy task, but only to refute the notion that it is an impossible one, or that it is absolutely necessary to attain all Four Jhanas which is to make the task appear to be absolutely out of reach for most people today. To attain the First Jhana one must abandon all desire for sensual pleasures, give up foolish conduct, and become entheusiastic about the enjoyment of solitude. Most people can do this much. It requires a little effort. You need to find some place where you can be alone and undisturbed for several hours. Then remember: The Jhanas are not the goal, they are just the platform. At this point one must see the impermanance of all things that have been constructed to form one's individual world including this very mental state called the Jhana, any body, sensation, perception, personal construction, and individualized consciousness. Then one must see that this impermanance, for one attached to the world, inevitably brings pain, and that what is painful cannot be the self. So seeing, one is repelled by constructed things, repelled one abandons them and constructs no more, having abandoned construction one is free, in freedom, seeing freedom, one can know: rebirth is left behind (it requires construction), lived is the best of lives, duty's duty has been done and there is no more being any kind of an 'it' at any place of 'atness' left for one. This is Nibbana, Arahantship, being no longer subject to Time and Death, the Unseen Consciousness of the utterly purified Mind void of any identification with 'self'.
[MN.53] Aṭṭhaka-Nāgara-Sutta, The Portals of Nirvana, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Ananda delivers a variation on The Gradual Course. Here he gives the laymen of Kapilavatthu a discourse on undertaking the quest for awakening from the point of undertaking the training in ethical behavior right on up to the eradication of the Corrupting Influences in Nibbana. It is possible this sutta was intended for laymen directly, (in which case it is encouraging laymen to become arahants) but I believe rather that it was intended to encourage some to enter the order, and to show the others the nature of the practice of the bhikkhus.
[MN.54] Potaliya-Sutta, True Retirement, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains in detail what it means to have given up all avocations in this Dhamma.
Note that here, speaking to a layman, the Buddha is describing the attainment of the three visions of the Arahant as being attained just subsequent to the abandoning of pleasures of the senses. That is, without any specific mention of even the first jhana.
Based on this one could say that Arahantship is attainable without jhana; or one could say: The conditions for the first jhana are met with, and the conditions for the fourth jhana are met with, so there is here the attainment of arahantship with jhana.
Why is jhana not mentioned here? I suggest it is because the discussion proceeds from the request to provide the entire giving up in every way of all occupations. Jhana, as jhana, is essentially an occupation.

 

Kāma
Sense-Pleasures

When trying to determine what is meant by the Buddha when using the term kāmā one should picture not a single state or class of states, but a spectrum of classes of states from the own-making (sankhara-ing) born of the yearning of the deluded Pajapati for the companionship of other beings, to common experience of [caring about] enjoyment of the sensations produced at the senses, to sexual intercourse. Visualize these images as superimposed over one-another. (A = B = C) It's not Freud's 'everything is just sex' and it's not 'ultimately everything is Pajapati's problem'. It depends on where your mind is at present. Start there. It's from there that detachment is possible. To help cultivate the mind to detachment from wherever it is focused, the Master has concocted (cooked up; sankhara'd) a number of similes: Pleasures of the Senses are:

Like A Bone thrown to a Dog

Imagine a dog,
overcome with hunger and thirst
who chances upon a slaughter-house
and the cattle-butcher,
or his skillful apprentice,
tosses him a bone,
scraped,
much-scraped,
devoid of meat,
but with a shmere of blood.

What do you think?

Could that dog,
gnawing that bone,
scraped,
much-scraped,
devoid of meat,
but with a smere of blood
find in that
the satisfaction of his hunger and thirst?

Of course not.

How come?

Because he would wear himself out
before ever he got satisfaction from that bone
scraped,
much-scraped,
devoid of meat,
but with a smere of blood.

Like Carrion

Imagin a Raptor
— a Condor or Eagle or Falcon or Hawk —
that has torn off a piece of carrion
and flown off
and that other Raptors
— Condors or Eagles or Falcons or Hawks —
are circling round diving at that piece of meat
trying to grab a piece for themselves.

What do you think?

If that Raptor
— that Condor or Eagle or Falcon or Hawk —
did not quickly let go of that piece of carrion,
would it not come to death,
or deady pain?

Like Carrying a Torch against the Wind

Imagine a man coming forth
carrying a flaming grass torch
against the wind.

What do you think?

If that man did not quickly let go of that flaming grass torch
would it not burn his hand,
or burn his arm,
or burn another part of his body
and because of that
would he not come to death,
or deady pain?

Like a Pit of Glowing Coals

Imagin a pit of glowing coals,
deeper than a man is high
— coals neither flaming up nor smoking —
and here a certain person comes along,
loving life, not wishing death
wanting happiness, averse to pain
and two strapping men,
taking his arms
were to drag him off to that pit of glowing coals,
deeper than a man is high
— coals neither flaming up nor smoking.

What do you think?

Would not that man
twist and turn his body
this way
and that thinking:

'If I fall in
that pit of glowing coals
I will come to death,
or deady pain!'

Like a Dream

Imagine seeing beautiful parks,
and beautiful forests,
and beautiful plains,
and beautiful mountain ranges,
and beautiful lakes,
in a dream,
and then waking up
to find they have vanished.

snappy

Like a Loan

Imagine a man who has taken out a loan,
got himself rigged up with a new car,
right snappy duds,
rings, earrings, buttons and studs
a glitter with diamonds and rubies
and other precious gems,
gold and silver chains and medallions,
pockets stuffed with cash,
delighting in the admiration of the crowd
that thinks this is the way
a wealthy man struts his stuff.

Then imagine that right there
the collector
or his skillful apprentice
comes along and repossesses the new car,
the new duds,
his jewels and his cash.

Strips 'im right down to 'es boxers
right there in front of everyone.

Then he has second thoughts ...
and takes the boxers too.

What do you think about that?

Would that man's embarassment
convince him
that he had had enough of pretending?

Like Being Up A Tree

Imagine a fruit tree
growing in the dense forest
laden with ripe fruit
but with no fruit yet fallen to the ground,
and here comes a certain person
hungry and thirsty for fruit
looking around for fruit,
with a wanna, needa gotta hafta hava
piece
of fruit.

And he thinks:

Although this fruit tree is laden with fruit,
no fruit has yet fallen to the ground.

But I know how to climb a tree —
How about if I climb this tree
and eat as much as I want
and stuff my pockets for later?

And that is just what he does.

Then imagine that
a certain man with an axe
comes along
hungry and thirsty for fruit
looking around for fruit,
with a wanna, needa gotta hafta hava
piece
of fruit.

And seeing that tree, thinks:

Although this fruit tree is laden with fruit,
no fruit has yet fallen to the ground
and I do not know how to climb a tree —
How about if I chop down this tree
and eat as much as I want
and stuff my pockets for later?

What do you think?

If that first man did not quickly climb down from that tree,
would he not come to death,
or deady pain?

 


 

In the same way as in these similes
Pleasures of the Senses
are of much grief and aggrivation at the time
and lead to real danger later.

Seeing the meaning of these similes
as they really are
with consumate wisdom —
you avoid
whatsoever is that which is diversity-situated diversity detachment —
whatsoever is that which is unity-situated unity detachment —
and develop that detachment
wherein all support for the world is completely desolved.

 


 

Diversity-situated diversity detachment is the detachment of an individual who is himself diverse in nature from that which is diverse in nature. What is diverse in nature is form, sensation, perception, own-making and individualized consciousness. Ordinary detachment: aka: Poise, equanimity, unflappability, detachment.

Unity-situated unity detachment is the detachment of an individual who is himself unified in nature from that which is unified in nature. What is unified in nature is the four formless realms and the state of ending perception of sense-experience. Temporary Release. Delivery from things of Time.

Detachment wherein all support for the world is completely desolved is Nibbana, the unseen consciousness, deathlessness, being outside Time. This is called "Release from things Not of Time," and is an unshakable, permanent freedom.

See MN.29, and discussion that follows it, and MN.38 and the discussion that follows that.

This is precisely the difference between 'equanimity' and 'detachment' and why 'detachment' is the better translation for upekkhā.

There can be a worldly sort of detachment (equanimity) but there cannot be an equanimity without worldly objects.

Equanimity = Equal minded. Equal meaning towards either side of something. Something with two sides is not a unity. Balanced between two alternatives. You cannot be equal minded within unity.

Go back to the Seven Dimensions of Self-Awakening: Put Memory in charge. After doing your Dhamma Research so that you have a basis in knowledge; develop energy and entheusiasm; then progress from equanimity to serenity to detachment = equal-minded within it, serenely above it, detached from it.

So, in response to:

[Bhk. Bodhi's edited version of Ñanamoli Thera's translation]:
Having avoided the the equanimity that is diversified,
based on diversity,
do not develop the equanimity that is unified,
based on unity —
develop that detachment
wherein all support for the world is completely desolved.

[Lord Chalmers]:
Having shed any equanimity
which is scattered and diffused
do not develop that real poise
which is one-centred and concentrated —
develop that detachment
wherein all support for the world is completely desolved.

[Bhk. Thanissaro]:
Having avoided the equanimity coming from multiplicity,
dependent on multiplicity,
do not develop the equanimity coming from singleness,
dependent on singleness —
develop that detachment
wherein all support for the world is completely desolved.

[Ms. Horner]:
Having avoided that which is equanimity in face of multiformity,
resting on multiformity,
do not develop that equanimity
which is equanimity in face of uniformity,
resting on uniformity,
ask yourself: 'What is "equanimity in the face of uniformity based on uniformity"'? and
how could there be an equanimity towards such without grasping?
and instead of following this advice —
develop that detachment
wherein all support for the world is completely desolved.

Go back to the Mulapariyaya: "He does not think about unity. He does not think: 'I am unity, unity is mine, I am of unity, unity is of me.'"

This discourse has been about how,
in the discipline for an ariyan,
there is an entire giving up in every way
of all avocations;
about what makes up the plenitude of universal giving-up
according to the Law of the Noble;
about how the cutting off of affairs in the Noble One's Discipline is achieved entirely and in all ways.

This discourse has not been about how to achieve a menatally balanced position in the world. That would be an avocation, an affair.

 

[MN.55] Jīvaka-Sutta, Lawful and Unlawful Meats, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha refutes the accusation that he allows the eating of the flesh of animals killed specifically for him and he explains the peramaters that allow the eating of meat.
[MN.56] Upāli-Suttaɱ, A Jain's Conversion, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the I.B. Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A debate with the Buddha concerning the Jain proposition that of deeds of mind, word, and body, the deed of body carried the strongest kammic consequences where the Buddha holds that it is the deed of mind that carries the strongest kammic consequences.

 


Monday, February 29, 2016
Previous upload was Monday, February 01, 2016


 

new Saturday, February 20, 2016 1:20 PMThera-Gāthā Psalms of the Early Buddhists, II. Psalms of the Brethren, Mrs. Rhys Davids translations.
[THAG 174] Mātanga's Son

 

new Saturday, February 20, 2016 5:54 AMDīgha Nikāya
[DN.31] Sigālovada Suttanta, Gogerly's 1847 translation
The Segala Homily, Rhys Davids translation, includes the introduction,
pdfThe Segala Homily, pdf file of Rhys Davids translation, stripped of footnotes and the introduction, for reading pleasure. Pass it along to those you regard as friends.
Of this sutta Buddhaghosa writes, 'nothing in the duties of housemen is left unmentioned. This Suttanta is called the Vinaya of the Houseman. Hence in one who practises what he has been taught in it, growth is to be looked for, and not decay.' And Rhys Davids adds: 'And truly we may say even now of this Vinaya, or code of discipline, so fundamental are the human interests involved, so sane and wide is the wisdom that envisages them, that the utterances are as fresh and practically as binding to-day and here as they were then at Rājagaha.'

Relative to the way one is to minister to one's teacher by 'eagerness to learn' (sussūsāya), the translators remark: "Childers has obedience. [PED has this as a possible meaning.] This is quite wrong. Considering the enormous importance attached in the autocratic states and religious Orders of Europe to obedience, it is most worthy of notice that obedience does not occur in Buddhist ethics. It is not mentioned in any one of the 227 rules of the Buddhist Order. It does not occur in any one of the clauses of this summary of the ethics of the Buddhist layman, and it does not enter into any one of the divisions of the Eightfold Path nor of the thirty-seven constituent qualities of Arahantship. Hence no member of the Buddhist order takes any vow of obedience; and the vows of a Buddhist layman ignore it."

 


Buddhism
The Science of Awakening
Not a Religion — Not a Philosophy
The Revalation of A Way of Life
Without Pain
Without Death and Rebirth
Outside of Time

As well-taught by
The Getter of the Getting
Aristocrat
The Consummately Self-Awakened One
Walker of the Walk
Who Knows and Sees
Teacher Supreme of Gods and Men
Trainer of the Trainable
The Awake

Having Known and Seen for Himself
He Reveals
To Gods and Men
This Universe,
With its Gods, Devils and Brahmās,
Shamen and Brahmins.

He Teaches A Thing
In both Spirit and Letter,
Helpful from the Start
Helpful in the Middle,
Helpful at the End;
A Come-See for Yourself Thing;
Timeless;
Not Just Pointing to a Future Outcome;
A To-Be-Seen in this Visible World Thing
A Thoroughly Satisfying
Utterly Blameless
Higher Way of Life

 


 

new Tuesday, February 02, 2016 5:53 AMMajjhima Nikāya
[MN.18] Madhu-Piṇḍika Sutta, Honeyed Lore, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha cuts off an argumentative questioner by telling him that in his teaching there is no arguing with anyone about anything and by this he is free. In repeating the insident to the bhikkhus he is questioned as to what this teaching is that argues with no one about anything. The Buddha explains in brief that it is by having no interest in the obsessions and perceptions that assail the mind. Then further the bhikkhus ask for a clarification of this of Maha Kaccana, who speaks of the obsessions and perceptions that arise from sense experience.
[MN.19] Dvedhā-Vitakka Sutta, On Counter-Irritants, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., the M. Olds translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha describes a method for categorizing thought which makes it less difficult to supress disadvantageous thoughts, still advantageous thoughts and attain tranquillity of mind.
[MN.20] Vitakka-Saṇṭhāna Sutta, On Governance of Thoughts, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Soma Thera translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha describes five stands the seeker after higher states of mind can adopt in his effort to eliminate unwanted, degenerate, debilitating thoughts.
[MN.21] Kakacūpama Sutta, The Parable of the Saw, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A famous sutta dealing with the idea that the student of this system should not concern himself with worldly matters, even those so close to home as the abuse of nuns; also dealing with the need for patience and endurance when faced with abusive speech ... to be counteracted by training in a heart of friendliness towards one and all.
[MN.22] Alagaddūpama Sutta, The Venomous Snake, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A wide-ranging very famous sutta that begins with a forceful teaching on the dangers of indulgence in sense pleasures. This sutta contains two famous similies: the similie of the snake illustrating how a wrong grasp of the Dhamma is like taking hold of a poisonous snake from the wrong end; and the simile of the raft illustrating how the Dhamma should be used to attain it's ends and then be let go. The sutta concludes with a thorough examination of the way 'not self' should be considered.
[MN.23] Vammīka-Sutta, The Smouldering Ant-Hill, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the M. Olds translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains a riddle which details the process of awakening.
[MN.24] Ratha-Vinīta-Sutta, On Relays, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Venerable Sariputta having heard a good report about the Venerable Punna Mantaniputto tracks him down and questions him about attaining Nibbana.
[MN.25] Nivāpa-Sutta, Gins and Snares, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha provides a complex simile illustrating by way of a herd of deer and a crop of corn set up to trap it the relationship of the arahant to the realm of the senses.
Following the allegory in this sutta would have us understand that, in the non-identified-with state of arahantship, the arahant may, even after death, still have at least awareness of the world. He makes his 'residence' the states of mind between the first jhana and the ending of experience of sense perception, again, not depending on any of these for identification, and makes use of these states and the sense faculties — the five senses are being made use of by the fourth group, though not to the point of wiggling those sticks!
If this sounds like herasy to you, then you need to bring to mind two other aspects of the Dhamma which dove-tail with it and explain them all in some other way. What two? The so called 'unseen consciousness', (vinnana anidassana), and the three 'visions' of the arahant (see for example MN 4 and many others) (which include knowing past lives and knowing the outcome of deeds, both of which involve perceptions of the world.) Nowhere does it say that these two visions and this sort of consciousness are lost in the state of arahantship at death. In fact what it does say is: "And, monks, as a man might be bound in a prison, but after a time might be freed from those bonds, safe and sound, and with no loss of his property," (MN 39).
[MN.26] Nivāpa-Sutta, Gins and Snares, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Warren translation, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha describes the method of his quest for Nibbana as consisting of avoiding that which was, like himself at that time, subject to change and pain, and seeking only for that which lead to the unborn, the secure from bondage, Nibbana.
[MN.27] Cūḷa Hatthi-padopama-Sutta, The Short Trail, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha teaches brahman Janussoni a way to confidently come to the conclusion that the Buddha is an awakened one: an instruction that delineates the steps from layman to arahant in great detail.

 

 

Seeing Dhamma — Seeing Repercussive Self-Arising

In the same way, friends,
as of all the creatures that roam the world using feet,
the footprint of the elephant is considered pre-eminant,
that is, in terms of size;
in the same way,
of all the doctrines describing the skillful mind,
the Four Aristocrats of Truths are considered pre-eminant,
that is, in terms of scope.

What four?

The Truth that 'This is Pain.'

The Truth that 'The origin of Pain is Thirst.'

The Truth that 'The ending of Thirst is the Ending of Pain.'

The Truth that 'The walk to walk to the ending of Pain is the Aristocratic Multidimensional High Way, that is:

High Point of View;
High Principles;
High Talk;
High Works;
High Lifestyle;
High Self-control;
High Mind;
High Serenity;
High Seeing;
High Detachment.

And what, friends, is this 'Pain'?

Birth is Pain,
Sickness is Pain,
Aging is Pain,
Death is Pain,
Grief and Lamentation,
Pain and Misery,
and Despair are Pain.

Not getting what is wished for is Pain.

Getting what is not wanted is Pain.

In a word: 'These five support-compounds[1] are Pain.'

And what, friends, is to be understood by
"In a word: 'These five support-compounds are Pain'"?

What are the five support compounds?

The shape-support-compound;
the sense-experience[2] support-compound;
the perception support-compound;
the own-making[3] support-compound;
the consciousness support-compound.

Of these the shape-support compound is made up of the four great properties:
solidity, liquidity, heat, and motion
and the shapes that are compounded from these.

These four can be either relating to an individual or be external
and in either case they are unstable,
change,
and come to an end.

And that which is unstable and changeable,
and that which is compounded from
that which is unstable and changeable
and comes to an end
cannot sanely and rationally be understood as:

"This I am;
This is mine;
This is my 'self.'"

How come?

Because that which is not under one's control
cannot sanely and rationally be called one's own
or to be said to belong to one.

And to hold that a thing
that comes into being by being derived from
that which is unstable and changeable
and which comes to an end
is the self
amounts to saying:

"That which is myself
comes and goes,"
which is absurd.

So the sane, rational individual thinks:

That Pain which has arisen
in that which I erroneously believed was myself
has arisen as a result,
or repercussion of something.

A result of what?

Contact of sense-organ with sense-object and consciousness.

For example:

If someone says something disagreeable about him, he thinks:

This unpleasant experience has come to me through my sense of hearing.

It is the result of something,
it is not not a result of something.

Of what is it the result?

Contact of that shape called sound and that shape called ear together with consciousness.

The sense-experience;
the perception;
the own-made aspect;
the consciousness of that shape,
made up from solidity, liquidity, heat and motion
that is sense-organ and sense-object consciousness —
all that is unstable and changeable
and comes to an end.

If being abused he should become angry and upset,
he should recollect the Parable wherein the Buddha says that even if downright bad guys should cut him to pieces with a saw,
were he to get angry
he would not be following the Teacher's instructions.

He should think:

'This body is so constituted that it is subject to abuse'
and he sets up recollection, investigation, energy, entheusiasm, impassivity, serenity and detachment
for the attaining of freedom from body.

By that focus of his mind
on the component parts
on the made-up nature of the experience
on the task of attaining freedom,
he is detached.

Detached he is free.

Seeing this freedom as freedom,
he sees the end of Pain.

In that freedom he can know:

"Left behind is rebirth,
lived is the best of lives,
done is duty's doing,
no more is there being any sort of 'it'
at any place of 'at-ness' left for me."

 


 

Suppose a collection of sticks and straw and mud enclosing a space were to be called a house.

Just so the collecting, assembling, combining together of shape, sense-experience, perception, own-making and consciousness in skin and bones, flesh and blood, urine and vineger, hot air and gas enclosing a space is called a living being.

If, friends, a sense organ is functioning,
and an appropriate sense-object comes within it's range,
and there is contact of the two
there arises sense-consciousness.

That which is shape in such that has thus come to be,
that is known as a 'shape-supported-compound';

that which is sense-experience in such that has thus come to be,
that is known as a 'sensation-supported-compound';

that which is perception in such that has thus come to be,
that is known as a 'perception-supported-compound';

that which is own-made in such that has thus come to be,
that is known as an 'own-made-supported-compound';

that which is consciousness in such that has thus come to be,
that is known as a 'consciousness-supported-compound'.

In this way it is to be understood that
within any given conscious experience
resulting from contact of sense-organ with sense object
there is the collecting, assembling, combining together of the support-compounds.

The Buddha said:

"Whoever sees repercussive-self-arising[4]
He sees Dhamma.

Whoever sees Dhamma
He sees repercussive-self-arising."

We have seen:

The five support compounds are repercussively-self-arisen.

Whatever is wishing for, roosting upon, inclination for, being tied to
in these five support compounds,
that is the arising of Pain.

Whatever is the disciplining of wishing and lust among these five support compounds, that is the ending of Pain.

Whatever is the walking of the Aristocratic Multi-dimensional High Way,
is the walking of the walk for the disciplining of wishing and lust among these five support compounds.

This is how
"In a word: 'These five support-compounds are Pain'"
is to be seen.

 


[1] khandha. 'heap, pile'.

[2] Experience of pleasure, of pain, of neither pain nor pleasure.

[3] Saŋkhāra san = own; khāra = make; that which is constructed by identification with acts of thought, word or deed intended to create experience of sense-experience for the self.

[4]

'Yo paṭicca-samuppādaɱ passati||
so dhammaɱ passati
|| ||

Yo dhammaɱ passati||
so paṭiccasamuppādaɱ passatī.
|| ||

Adapted from MN 28

 

[MN.28] Mahā Hatthi-Padopama-Sutta, The Long Trail, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Sariputta teaches the bhikkhus about how the scope of the Four Truths encompasses the Paticca Samuppada by way of focusing on the details of sense-experience to create detachment.
[MN.29] Mahā Sāropama-Sutta, Timber: Or Discoveries, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha uses a simile to warn the bhikkhus not to mistake fame, or achievement of ethical culture, or attainment of concentration, or attainment of knowledge and vision for attainment of permanent freedom disconnected from Time, which is the goal of his system.

 

Unshakable Freedom

There is release (or deliverance) (vimokkha) and there is freedom (vimutti).

Release is the having been released from something. The having been set free.

Freedom is the state attained subsequent to having been released.

There is release relating to things 'of Time' (samaya)
and there is release relating to things 'not of Time' (asamaya).

There is freedom relating to things 'of Time' (samaya)
and there is freedom relating to things 'not of Time' (asamaya).

Things of time are things that have come into existence,
have been own-made;
this includes the five support-compounds (kkhandha); the six sense spheres (salayatana) and such mental states as the four jhānas, the four arūpa-jhānas, and even the state perceiving ending sense experience. Or, in other words, every existing thing.

Things not of time are things that have not come into existence, have not been own-made.

There are 3 releases and there are 8 releases. The three are:
attaining a state empty (suññata), of lust, hate and blindness;
attaining a state without signs (animitta), of lust, hate and blindness;
attaining a state without ambitions regarding (intentions aimed at getting) (appaṇihita) things involving lust, hate and blindness.
The eight are:
coming to know and see shape (rūpa) as it really is (that is, as compounded of the properties: solidity, liquidity, heat and motion; or, ultimately as aspects of light);
attaining a state of formlessness (arūpa) while recognizing forms;
attaining the perception 'How Pure!";
attaining the four arūpa jhānas:
the Sphere of Endless Space,
the Sphere of Endless Consciousness,
the Sphere of Nothing is to be had,
the Sphere of Neither-perception-nor-non-perception;
and attaining the state where perception of sense-experience ends.

The three releases and the eight releases are releases from things of Time.

The states themselves are not the release;
release is the freedom resulting from attaining these states.

The eight releases are a heierarchy only in one dimension;
in terms of their being vehicles of release, each is of an equality.

Focused on the release mechanism
one is only freed from the thing that came before,
a relative freedom,
which is called:
"Freedom as to things of Time".

Attaining the topmost mechanism,
the state where perception of sense-experience ends,
is not freedom
and is not the goal
and the freedom attained by way of release from that is a matter of an intellectual comprehension that the state was own-made and that to attempt to construct higher mental states would only lead to getting more bound up than before.
In other words, it is an arbitrary end point to the process.
One could have stopped anywhere earlier to the same effect.

Release from that freedom
that is that freedom attained by release from things of Time —
is release from something not of time.

Things of Time > Release from Things of Time > Unstable Freedom from Things of Time (A Thing Itself Free from things of Time, but temporary because relative to things of Time) > Release from Things Not of Time > Stable Freedom from Things Not of Time.

If that freedom that resulted from release from things 'of Time' were not a thing itself 'not of Time', it would not be freedom from things 'of Time'.

Once again: Focus on the fact of being free from X and that is 'freedom as to a thing of Time'; focus on the freedom itself and that is 'freedom as to a thing 'not of Time.'

Think of it like this: 'focus' is a detachment (an awareness of awareness; a being one step beyond) which is another way of saying 'freedom'.

The Buddha is saying that if you can do this, the resulting freedom is unshakable or is what is also also known as 'the unshakable freedom of heart and freedom of wisdom'.

This is having been released from things of time,
and having recognized in the resulting freedom,
that this freedom
is freedom from the corrupting influences āsavas:
(sensual pleasure, existence, blindness, points of view)
with such clarity
that it is known and seen
that this state is of such a nature as to guarantee
rebirth is left behind,
lived is the best of lives,
duty's doing is done,
and that there is no more being any kind of an 'it' at any place of 'atness' left
that could cause one to again own-make (saŋkhārā) this world
or any other 'thing of time'.

The freedom is too sweet;
the pain of the alternative too obvious.

There is nothing missing from or incorrect about the PTS version of the Pali.
In fact I suggest that the versions of the Pali that differ are efforts to 'correct' this version and are themselves in error. The alteration requires slightly more than the simple addition of 'a' before two words. There is enough there to say that the change is conscious.

In the first portion of the last case the seeker has attained release from things of Time with the resultant freedom being freedom based on things of Time. Such freedom is not stable because the base is not stable.

This is the man searching for heartwood who has found heartwood and has taken it away with him seeing that it will be useful for things requiring heartwood.

In the second portion, (which in other similes in other suttas is usually a repetition of the first portion) using the same method, one attains release from things of Time then release from things not of Time (the freedom attained by release from the freedom based on things of Time).

The key is seeing the distinction between release, relative freedom and absolute freedom. The first man becomes the second man by using the heartwood.

The problem seen by the translators, (that the first half of the sequence does not match the second half) is not a problem, it is intentional. It points to the otherwise missing (unstated) path to the freedom based on things 'not of time' resulting from release from things 'not of time.'

As long as the seeker is thinking that there is something there which is giving him his freedom (something released from which he attains this freedom); his freedom is temporary because that 'something' has been own-made and is unstable. When he lets go of that, (not thinking 'This is the real me', 'I have attained this') there is no longer an unstable basis for his freedom and that freedom is absolute.

The only thing that has changed between the two situations (the first portion and the second portion of this case) is the perception of the situation. It doesn't need to be re-stated in an additional case, it just needs to be seen differently.

The first, temporary release, will be noted because the seeker is after permanent release, but he also knows he has the right method because temporary or not it is freedom, so he focuses on that and discovers ultimate freedom.

This business of consciousness being able to be conscious of consciousness and of consciousness being able to be conscious of not being consciouss of things is an essential skill needed to realize Nibbana.

Presenting the issue in the combined way we have it presents a problem (the problem the translators are reacting to) which when focused on with the idea 'how can this be understood to be correct' rather than 'this does not follow the usual pattern and so must be a mistake' results in insight. It is a pedagogical technique, not a mistake. This sort of shift in the use of a frequently-used pattern is not unique in the suttas. Keep'nja onjatoz.

Warning: There is frequent inconsistency in the terms used to translate vimokkha and vimutti with the terms 'Release' and 'Freedom' being used for both. Ms Horner speculates where she should be able to see the certainty: Vimokkha is an objective reference to the things one is freed from; while vimutti is the subjective experience of (mental) freedom.

— Commentary on the translations of MN 29
See also: MN 122,
AN 5.149
And for more: Glossology Pages: Vimutti and Vimokkha

 

[MN.30] Cūḷa Sāropama-Sutta, More about Timber, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha uses a simile to teach brahman Pingalakoccha that in his system one must not mistake fame, or achievement of ethical culture, or attainment of concentration, or attainment of knowledge and vision for attainment of unshakable freedom of heart which is it's goal.

 

Relative to MN 30, the following is adapted as commentary for this sutta from a discussion where it was stated that it was an example of an internal contradiction in the suttas. The discussion begins with this quote:

Leigh Brasington on Possible Altered Sutras to do with Jhana

The Culasaropama Sutra (Majjhima Nikaya #30) in addition to being an excellent teaching on the dangers of spiritual materialism, also refers to the Jhanas. However, it shows signs that suggest the text has been altered.

Its beautiful mathematical harmony of the sutra suddenly breaks down in section 12 with a discussion of the Jhanas.

The Jhanas are a concentration practice and concentration has already been stated in section 10 to be a lesser state than knowledge and vision. But when the Jhanas are introduced in section 12, they are said to be "higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision." [Bhk. Thanissaro, trans.] The inclusion of the Jhanas here actually makes the sutta self-contradictory.

It also contradicts other pro-Jhana sutras. The formulation of the eight Jhanas is the standard "short" one, (similiar to what is found in the Mahasatipatthana Sutta) but with the addition of a last sentence in each of the paragraphs: "This [too] is a state higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision." This sentence directly contradicts the last sentence of section 84 of the Samannaphala Sutta (Digha Nikaya #2). [Horner, Bhk. Thanissaro]

In the previous paragraph of the Samannaphala Sutta, the recluse directs the concentrated, pure, bright mind resulting from the fourth Jhana towards knowledge and vision. The understanding gained "is a visible fruit of recluseship more excellent and sublime than the previous ones".

Many other suttas show signs of this type of tampering and we are left today with the task of puzzling out the original teaching.

 


 

First some definitions.

Pali: Samādhi, ñāṇa-dassana, jhāna
SAMĀ = Even, ADHI = Higher;
ÑĀÑA: a blend of 'Na's' 'knows';
JHĀNA = burn, shine, know, chan, zen.
Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi: concentration, knowledge and vision, jhāna
Horner: concentration, knowledge and vision, meditation
Olds: serenity, book-knowledge and understanding, attainment of a degree of detachment in the burnings.
DASSANA = seeing.

There is no word for 'meditation' in the Pali, unless you understand the term literally in which case it is using sati (thinking about a thing). Otherwise the place is also sometimes taken by 'bhavana', development.

Jhāna is not 'concentration.'
Concentration is an aspect of Jhāna,
and the second jhāna is characterized by cetaso ekodi-bhāvaɱ: the heart having become whole-heartedly single-minded (my double-meaning translation) (whole, unified, one-pointed, concentrated).

Samādhi is a general term that is defined in different ways. If it is defined as the jhānas as in Sammā Samādhi, High serenity, it is the first four jhānas. It can be just ordinary serenity, it can be a fruit of the practice of loving kindness, it can be any number of practices of other doctrines, and in this doctrine it can also be the three: Aimlessness, Signlessness, Emptiness.

Within this doctrine, samādhi can be higher or lower than knowing and seeing (ñāṇa-dassana) depending on if it is attained in a manner that is informed by ñāṇa book-knowledge of and dassana seeing or understanding the goal, which in this case is described as the ending of the corruptions (āsava: lust, anger, and blindness).

Suppose a person came upon the description of jhāna in Gotama's system without being informed about any of the rest of the system or it's goals such as could be the case in the case of this sutta (he is going after the heart-wood without knowing what it is). In the case of such a one, even able to attain the jhāna, such jhāna would be meaningless in terms of the Buddhist goal. For one understanding and striving after the goal then, samādhi by any definition, when not informed by knowledge of the goal, would be lower than the Buddhist idea of knowing and seeing. Informed by the goal, jhāna is an actual step in the direction of letting go of the world and therefore higher than mere book knowledge and understanding (aka, intellectual knowledge).

So so far, we might put it this way:

Samādhi is lower than
ñāṇa-dassana which is lower than
jhāna attainment informed by Ñāṇa-dassana;

Serenity is lower than
knowing and seeing which is lower than
jhāna attainment informed by knowing and seeing.

In dealing with the Dīgha, our understanding of ñāṇa-dassana becomes important.

This is a term which is applied to the Streamwinner, not the arahant. It does not imply accomplishment of the goal which is vision of the Paṭicca Samuppada and because of that vision the ending of the āsavas (corruptions). It is essentially the acceptance of Sammā Diṭṭhi, the Four Truths as a working hypothesis, whereas Sammā Diṭṭha, which is actually seeing it at work.

Without the book knowledge and understanding one could look for a long time from the mental state called the ending of perception and sense-experience (saññā-vedayita-nirodhaɱ) (if you had even heard of such a state and knew what to look for) and not see what is valuable to be seen from the point of view of the goal of this system.

So in the Sāmañña-phala Sutta of the Dīgha the jhānas are used to rise to a point where knowing and seeing can be used to attain wisdom — the vision (vijja) which makes it possible to see what is going on and to see also that because of that it is impossible that lust and anger could arise again. But it is the freedom gained through the vision that is the fruit of the way, not the knowing and seeing. You need to go forward to section 97 to see this.

This is a great example of the 'Magic' of sutta study. Going to the Abhidhamma first this would never have come up, having come up it breaks up a clot of blindness and moves the story forward. We see that this sutta must have been set up just to provoke such a question or at least to make those who believe jhāna is the end-all stop and think.

The note to Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi's translation: "Although the jhānas may also have been included in the attainment of concentration set forth in Ī10, and knowledge and vision was described as higher than the attainment of concentration, the jhānas now become higher than knowledge and vision because they are being treated as the basis for the attainment of cessation and the destrucion of the taints (in Ī21)."

A non-explanation. Why, How does the change of use alter their position relative to attaining the goal? Because at this point they are informed by knowledge and vision. First he gets samādhi, then he gets knowledge and vision, then he uses samādhi with knowledge and vision for the purpose of attaining the goal.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

Going to the commentators and the Abhidhamma for clarification would have given you the vague hint that is found in the note to Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi's translation which was apparently read by Leigh.

We need to read this writing, even in the Pali, with a great deal of flexibility of mind. They said things then in ways that are heard differently today. Gotama says things using puns and other word-games. Some of these are impossible to translate. Things appear in the suttas that nobody can believe would be in 'a religious work' ... some very raunchy stuff! Things are said that are much deeper than they look at first glance. Gotama doesn't keep anything back, but his teachings are certainly layered. He always tells the truth, always answers the question asked, but what he says can go much further than what the questioner intended when asking the question. Things are said in ways that deliberately make one stop and think. So stop and think when you read these suttas.

 

[MN.31] Cūḷa Gosinga-Sutta, In Gosinga Wood, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha visits the Anuruddhas and learns of their having attained arahantship.
[MN.32] Mahā Gosinga-Sutta, The Shining Light, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, (which has now been completely unabridged, reformatted and has had the footnotes restored) the Ñanamoli Thera, trans., Bhk. Bodhi, ed., and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A group of the Buddha's great disciples gather together on a beautiful moonlit night in Gosinga Woods with the air perfumed by the Sal Tree blossoms. They each, in turn, describe the sort of bhikkhu they feel would illuminate this woods. Then, unable to descide whose proposition was best, they visit the Buddha to ask his opinion. The Buddha approves all their opinions and adds his own contribution.
It is interesting to note here that Venerable Moggallāna the Great is referred to as being a talker on Dhamma where usually he is noted for his supreme magic powers. As I recall it, the repeaters of the Majjhima Nikāya were organized under Mahā Moggallāna ... which fact, (I do not have a citation) if true, would show that the sutta collections were begun well before Gotama's death and not at the First Council. I think it likely that this was the case, and if so it is misguided to speak of this or that Nikaya as preceding the others. They were more likely all begun about the same time, well prior to Gotama's death, and were all added-to as time went on.
[MN.33] Mahā Gopālaka-Sutta, Pastoral Duties, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Greater Discourse on the Cowherd the I.B. Horner translation, omitted previously,
Linked to the Pali, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha likens eleven skills needed by the skillful cowherd to eleven skills needed by the skillful bhikkhu.
[MN.34] Cūḷa Gopālaka-Sutta, Pastos, Good and Bad, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Greater Discourse on the Cowherd the I.B. Horner translation, omitted previously,
Linked to the Pali, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha likens those seekers who follow a teacher who does not know what he is talking about to a herd of cows lead by a cowherd that sends his herd across a river where there is no ford.
[MN.35] Cūḷa Saccaka-Sutta, Saccaka's Onslaught, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Warren translation, the I.B. Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Saccaka, who has been boasting and bragging that he can defeat the Buddha in debate when he meets him in debate is upset after his first utterance. The Buddha then teaches him Dhamma.

 


The issue of the right to privacy should not be being cast as a matter of 'expectation of privacy';
it should be being cast as a matter of 'respect for privacy'.

How is the privacy of an individual any different than the right of a copyright owner to determine the uses and terms of use of his copyrighted work?

The author of a written work is presumed to own and have copyrighted his work upon it's creation.

In the same way an individual by his various activities should be presumed to own and have protection similar to copyright (the right to publish or dispose-of as he wishes, whether for profit or not) of the various personal facts, attributes, habits and practices of his life; and this, upon their creation and regarless of their visibility.

Conversely, if the private details of an individual are not to be respected, what is the just basis for giving protection via copyright or patent to any other sort of knowledge or information that can be discovered in various ways?


 

Monday, February 01, 2016
Previous upload was Thursday, December 31, 2015

 

Towards a Uniform Style
for Pali Texts and Translations

This will form a new 'Topic' in the Forum, under the Ditthadhamma Lokadhamma Subject heading.

If, in the Pali text or a translation you see a number, and it looks like this: [1] that is the page number of the original source of that text and that page number is an identified object to which you may link by appending to the url for the page "#pg1" (without the quotation marks.) When the page number is in other formats, it has not yet been given an identity. You may, however, link to it in the same way in the expectation that at some point it will be given such an id. So doing will not invalidate the link it will just point to the top of the page.

Example: Use: "../../dhamma-vinaya/pts/mn/mn.013.horn.pts.htm#pg119" for Horner's MN.13, page 119.

Similarly, in the cases of those books primarily composed of verses, verse numbers appear like this: [1] and may be linked to by appending to the url for the page "#v1"

Example: Use "../../dhamma-vinaya/pts/kd/thag/thag.240.rhyc.pts.htm#v601" for Mrs. Rhys Davids' THAG.240, verse 601

 

§

 

Section numbers and symbols separating sections are unreliable. Different versions of the Pali have used different section numberings as have different translations. Editing of such has altered the numbering inconsistently. The precise 'rule' for determining a section is not defined consistently.

Suggested style:

[1] The first, (location,) portion of the Nidana.

[2] The second, (occasion,) portion of the Nidana.

Where the first portion of the Nidana is missing, the occasion portion should still be numbered [2]. At some point someone will have the enterprise to figure out the proper location portion for all suttas. Some 'Chapter' collections (where the second and subsequent suttas often begin: "Then ..." will be determined to consist of only one sutta.

Sections should be given a number when a new idea is introduced and between it's sub-sections and sub-sub-sections.

There are two categories of things: A and B.

There are two A things.

What two?

[3]

[4]

These are the two.

 


 

There are two B things things.

What two?

[5]

[6]

These are the two.

These are the A and B catagories of things.

 

§

 

Complete change of direction or major category change.

 

§

 

Of all the problems with diacriticals that of the use of the 'mg' (anusvara) is the worst offender. Again different parts of the different versions of the Pali and translations use different symbols 'ɱ', 'ɱ', 'ṁ', and 'ŋ'. Second in terms of confusion is the 'ng' (velar n) which is found as 'ŋ' and 'ṅ', 'ɱ'.

Suggested style:

'ɱ' for the 'mg' (anusvara). It most clearly indicates pronunciation. Evaɱ me sutaɱ. Pronounce: Evam me sutam holding the 'm' sound thinking 'ming' and distinctly concluding the word.

'ŋ' for the 'ng' (velar n). Aŋguttara Pronounce: Ang-guttara.

'nya' for the ñ. Controversial, but think about it: While a good portion of the population does understand the pronunciation of this letter, a good portion does not and a further good portion of the portion that does understand it's pronunciation does not do it properly. How do you pronunce: Suññata? (sunya-nyatta) or Aññā (anya-nyaa)

The underdot 'ḍ', 'ṇ', 'ṭ', and ' ḷ ', if understood to mean 'pronounce dis inc ly, work as is; as do the long vowels, though in both cases for the most part they would be pronounced in the same way without any diacritical at all.

I have not yet, but will begin at this point to take steps to introduce at least the changes suggested for the mg and ng.

 

 

new Wednesday, January 20, 2016 3:33 AMLimitless, Bradley Cooper, Abbie Cornish and Robert De Niro
Director: Neil Burger
Movie Review. Take a pill, experience great super-normal powers, murder, steal, write a best-seller, have lots of sex, get rich, become President of the U.S. Relevance to Buddhism: dangers of supernormal powers for the untrained.

 

new Friday, January 15, 2016 6:53 AMMajjhima Nikāya
[MN.1] Mūla-Pariyāya-Sutta, How States of Consciousness Originate, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the M. Olds translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The first translation into English of the first sutta of the Majjhima Nikāya.
Here the Buddha reveals the root concepts of all things.
In it's expanded form (found in my translation) it is certainly a hypnotic spell, and will, as if by magic, take one back to the very origins of the world. It builds up from that by way of fundamental concepts at the root of all things, verbal and physical and beyond to Nibbana. It is an excellent sutta, by the way, for learning the Pali language. In the myth that isn't told, this sutta, prior to Gotama was a magic spell used with the idea that it would by guiding focus on fundamentals, generate wealth (mula > moola = remuneration). Hense the otherwise mysterious name for the suttas as 'The One Up Passed the Mulapariyaya.'
[MN.2] Sabb-Āsava-Sutta, Coping with Cankers, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the T.W. Rhys Davids translation, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha describes how one who applies his mind studiously to the point is able to rid himself of disrupting influences in seven ways: by seeing them as problems; by self-control, by proper use; by patience; by avoidance; by elimination; and by awakening. Examples of each case are given.
I have done an outline of this sutta which some may find helpful.
[MN.3] Dhamma-Dāyāda-Sutta, Unworldly Goods, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha urges the bhikkhus to become heirs of Dhamma, not of worldly things. By heirs of Dhamma he explains, he means putting the Dhamma into practice as he himself puts it into practice. Sariputta follows up on this exhortation with details. It is by not putting this Dhamma into practice as the Buddha did that senior bhikkhus, middle-ranked bhikkhus and juniors, one and all come to blameworthiness, and it is by putting it into practice in this way that one and all come to praiseworthiness.
[MN.4] Bhaya-Bherava-Sutta, Of Braving Fears, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Brahman Janussoni questions the Buddha about the fears and distractedness of mind that arise on living alone in the wilderness. The Buddha explains that for those with corrupt behavior in body, speech and thought; with passionate desires, corrupt at heart, lazy, nervous, doubt-ridden, proud and arrogant, fearful, hungary for fame and gains, weak in energy, confused, without concentration, and weak in wisdom such a life does inspire fear, but for one without these corruptions such a life strengthens one in pursuit of the goal.
[MN.5] Anangaṇa-Sutta, Of Blemishes, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Sariputta and Maha Moggallana engage in a dialogue which points out the advantages of self awareness when it comes to character faults.
[MN.6] Akankheyya-Sutta, Of Yearnings, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Warren, Buddhism in Translations translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Gotama emphasizes again and again the importance of perfecting ethical behavior, internal tranquillity of heart, not dispising jhana practice, penetrating insight, and the making much of empty places for the gaining of every stage in his system from the very most elementary to the most advanced.
[MN.7] Vatthūpama-Sutta, On Fulling, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha likens a dirty cloth incapable of taking dye to the mind corrupted by greed and covetousness, malevolence, anger, malice, hypocrisy, spite, envy, stinginess, deceit, treachery, obstinacy, impetuosity, arrogance, price and conceit — incapable of attaining a good rebirth. He then likens the cleansing of a dirty piece of cloth that renders it capable of taking dye to the process of cleansing the mind of these corruptions, and he describes this cleansing process.
[MN.8] Sallekha-Sutta, Of Expunging, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Nyanaponika Thera translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Maha Cunda approaches the Buddha to ask how to eliminate ideas of 'I' and 'mine'. The Buddha's response is to give him fourty-four pairs of opposites to be resolved upon, thought of, used as guides to follow, things leading upward and which will scour out ideas of 'I' and 'Mine.'
[MN.9] Sallekha-Sutta, Of Expunging, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Sariputta explains the path to attaining of consummate view in thirty two different ways.
In this sutta we find Lord Chalmers first encounter with the Paticca Samuppada. Some things to note: He translates 'upadana' as 'attachments' where it no doubt lead others to 'grasping', but where it should better be 'supports or fuel'; he translates 'bhava' as 'existence' which is unusual and most accurate; he translates 'sankhara' as 'plastic forces' and goes way afield trying to rationalize this choice. It is very hard when trying to translate what one can see is a very deep and profound system to simply get down to earth in one's translation. Because of this exotic translation, the step from sankhāra to consciousness is made obscure. I will clarify: Blindness results in own-making; own-making results in consciousness by way of having brought the sixfold sense sphere (aka nama-rupa) into existence. The PS is presented both this way (one instance of 'consciousness') and with two instances of 'consciousness.' #2 being: Blindness results in own-making, own-making results in consciousness, consciousness results in named-form, named form results in consciousness, consciousness results in the six-fold sense-sphere.
[MN.10] Sati-Paṭṭhāna-Sutta, On Mindfulness, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
With the exception of the Nidana just a reference to the Rhys Davids translation of DN 22.
[MN.11] Cūḷa-Sīhanāda-Sutta, The Short Challenge, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains the logic behind the difference between the Buddhist proclaiming faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha and those of other beliefs proclaiming faith in their teacher, teachings and fellow-believers.
A very interesting sutta! Essentially the difference is in the perception that the Buddha's system works or ought to work in accomplishing what is in effect the goal of all seekers, that there is nothing left unexplained, and that since this is not the case in other faiths, that the faith of those who follow such is never, can never be fully vested. The inference is that faith is not fully vested by a Buddhist until such time as he has perceived that the system works, or ought to work.
[MN.12] Mahā-Sīhanāda-Sutta, The Long Challenge, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A bhikkhu who left the order is going around saying that there is nothing extraordinary about Gotama or his doctrine. Gotama, hering of this persons opinion replies with a wide-ranging rebuttal listing the wonderous aspects of his awakening and the scope of his knowledge.
[MN.13] Mahā-Dukkha-kkhandha-Sutta, The Longer Story of Ill, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A detailed exposition of what constitutes the pleasure, the danger, and the escape from the five senses, forms, and sense experience.
[MN.14] Mahā-Dukkha-kkhandha-Sutta, The Longer Story of Ill, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, Ñanamoli Thera trans., edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Mahanama the Sakkyan, lamenting over his state of confusion with regard to pleasures of the senses, is given a detailed exposition of what constitutes the pleasure and the danger of the five senses, the thing that is binding Mahanama to confusion, and the way the Buddha himself escaped such confusion. The Buddha then describes an encounter with some Jains wherein he defeats their claim that the end of pain is to be got through pain by showing them that they are practicing their painful austerities without any support in knowledge or understanding and concludes with a description of the exceptional pleasure which he is able to attain.
[MN.15] Anumāna-Sutta, Reflection, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Maha Moggallana gives the bhikkhus a discourse on self-evaluation.
[MN.16] Ceto-Khila-Sutta, The Heart's Fallows and Bondages, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Rhys Davids 'Buddhist Suttas' translation, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Five things that are like spikes through the heart.
[MN.17] Vana-Pattha-Sutta, Ubi Bene, the 1926 Lord Chalmers Sacred Books of the Buddhists translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha gives a dissertation on how to evaluate whether or not a bhikkhu should continue to live in a forest, in a small town, in a city, in a district or dependent on the support of an individual.
A very useful sutta for day-to-day practice.

 

new Sunday, January 10, 2016 5:12 AMAŋguttara Nikāya, Tika Nipāto
[AN.3.1-10] The Book of the Threes, I. The Fool, Suttas 1-10, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Linked to the Pali, the Woodward translations, (the Woodward suttas are on individual files, this link is to the Index) and for #2, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation.
Various suttas dealing with thoughts about the fool and the wise man.
The following Bhikkhu Bodhi suttas are all linked to the Pali and whatever other translations there are available for this sutta.
[AN.3.11] Well Known, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Advising three things leads many people astray, advising the three opposite things leads them to their advantage.
[AN.3.12] To Be Remembered, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three places which should be remembered by a Warlord and in a similar way the three places which should be remembered by a bhikkhu.
[AN.3.13] A Bhikkhu, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha compares worldly ambitions with those of the bhikkhus.
[AN.3.14] Wheel-Turning, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha compares the duty to the Dhamma of a Buddha to the duty to the Dhamma of a Wheel-rolling King.
[AN.3.15] Pacetana, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha tells a story of his former birth as a wheelwright to illustrate how the person of crooked formation fails and the one of flawless construction stands fast.
[AN.3.16] The Unmistaken, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha describes three pracices which conduce to certainty of attaining the wise course.
[AN.3.17] Oneself, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three modes of behavior which are oppressive of self, others, and both, three that are not oppressive.
[AN.3.18] Deva, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The bhikkhus find the idea of rebirth in heaven repugnant, but more repugnant than that is the idea of bad behavior of body, speech and mind.
[AN.3.19] Shopkeeper (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha compares the reasons for the success or failure of a shopkeeper to the reasons for the success or failure of a bhikkhu's attainment of serenity.
[AN.3.20] Shopkeeper (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha compares the attributes of a successful businessman to the attributes of a bhikkhu successful at making headway in the acquiring of skillful states.
[AN.3.21] Saviṭṭha the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three elders differ on the best of three forms of Stream-entry and submit the question to the Buddha.
This sutta deals with three sorts of attainments: Kāya-sakkhī, the 'body-with-eyes' one who has seen the true nature of body with his own eyes, so at least provisionally: 'body-knower'; Diṭṭha-ppatto, the 'view-secured' (bowled, in-the-bowl, bagged); and Saddhā-vimutto, the 'faith-freed'. The Buddha makes it clear that these are modes or types of practice that have lead to stream-entry, they are not levels in a heierarchy. Any one of the three may be working for arahantship, or non-returning or once-returning. The body witness is one who has made jhāna practice his main focus. The view-attainer has made perception of the truth of the teachings the main focus of his practice. The faith-freed has made faith in the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha the main focus of his practice.
[AN.3.22] Patients, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Providing medical treatment to three types of persons is likened to teaching Dhamma to three types of persons. One sort of person will not recover whether he receives treatment or not; one will recover whether he receives treatment or not; and one will recover if he receives treatment, but not if he does not. Similarly one sort of person will not gain the path whether he hears Dhamma or not; one will gain the path whether he hears Dhamma or not; and one will gain the path if he hears Dhamma and not if he does not. It is for the sake of the sick man who will recover if he receives medical treatment that providing medical treatment for the sick is not useless. Similarly it is for the sake of the one who will gain the path if he hears Dhamma that teaching Dhamma is not useless.
[AN.3.23] Volitional Activities, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
By identification with intentional deviant, non-deviant or mixed deeds one creates personal experience of deviant, non-deviant or mixed worlds.
"Volitional Activities' is Bhk. Bodhi's translation of Saŋkhāra. The reader should keep in mind that this word is very much like and almost a synonym of 'kamma' and needs to accommodate both the act of creation and the thing that results. The differentiation between this term and kamma is essentially the emphasis put on the personal nature of the creating and the results. To 'sankhara' one identifies with the intent to create personal experience by way of thought, word or deed. The result is personal experience formed by the nature of the intent when creating. (This sutta describes the process.) The word, properly translated must convey this dual nature and this personalizing process. I have suggested 'own-making' Saŋ = own; + khāra = make. and 'the own-made'. What is is not is just 'activities' or 'mental formations' or 'fabrications' or anything else without the sense of those activities etc being the means of constructing one's own personal world. But 'activities' although sankharing is activity, does not relate etymologically with the word at all, and 'mental ... and volitionl' are also 'explanations' unrelated to the word. Sticking closely to the Pali we could get: 'con-struction', 'con-fection,' 'con-juration,' 'co-formation,' etc. But where we have elsewhere the terms 'I-making' and 'My-making' why not also 'Own-making?' What it absolutely is not is 'conditioning'...which translation leads into major misunderstanding of Dhamma. [see: Is Nibbana Conditioned?] For the various terms used by other translators visit the Glossology page.
[AN.3.24] Helpful, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
By having brought him to three things a person is said to have done more than anyone else in the world for another person.
[AN.3.25] Diamond, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three sorts of individuals are found in the world, one with a mind like an open sore, one with lightning-like insight, and one with the diamond's ability to cut through even the hardest matters.
[AN.3.26] To Be Associated With, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Advice for selecting one's companions and teachers: except out of compassion and consideration avoid persons less advanced in ethical standards, serenity, and wisdom; associate with those who are equal to one in these things; venerate and follow those who are more advanced.
[AN.3.27] Disgust, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Further advice as to the selection of one's companions.
[AN.3.28] Speech Like Dung, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha characterizes three sorts of speech: The one who gives false testimony is like dung; the one who gives true testimony is like flowers; the one who having abandoned harsh speech, abstains from harsh speech, speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and lovable, as go to the heart, are courteous, desired by many, and agreeable to many is like honey.
[AN.3.29] Blind, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Two sorts of vision: for material gain and for gain of good states; three sorts of persons: one who sees neither, one who has eyes only for material gain and one who sees both.
[AN.3.30] Inverted, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three sorts of persons: one who doesn't listen, one who listens but forgets; and one who listens and retains what he has heard.
[AN.3.31] Brahmā, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
High praise for those families where Mother and Father are worshipped. Likened to Brahma, Teachers of Old, worthy of offerings.
[AN.3.32] Ānanda, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Ananda asks the Buddha whether or not there is a state of samadhi in which there is no I-making or My-Making and yet there is liberation of the heart by wisdom. The Buddha replies that this state is attained thinking: "This is sanity, this is the pinnacle, that is, the calming of all own-making, the forsaking of upkeep, the destruction of thirst, dispassion, ending, Nibbana."
I don't know what better case I could make for the translation of 'saŋkāra' as 'own-making' than this sutta where the ideas "I-making" ahaŋkāra and "my-making" mamaŋkāra and "own-making" saŋkāra are set side by side. If you wanted to say "I-making" and "my-making" in one word what would you say if not "own-making"?
[AN.3.32 (WP 33)] Sāriputta, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The PTS Pali and Woodward's translation and my translation have this as a continuation of #32 and the numbering of these Wisdom Publications suttas will be off by one from here to #38/39 where a condensation occurs which brings the numbering back in sequence with the PTS Pali on which the numbering system of this site is based.
The Buddha speaks about his ability to teach in brief or in detail or both ways and the rarity of those who understand.

 

In brief, do I, Sāriputta set forth Dhamma;

In detail, do I, Sāriputta, set forth Dhamma;

In brief and in detail, do I, Sāriputta, set forth Dhamma —

Yet those who understand are hard to find.

 

[AN.3.33 (WP 34)] Causes, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The three points at which kamma originates and the three where kamma is ended.
The word here to understand is 'nidāna'. Nidana = Down-bound. The 'nidana' is the first knot beginning the weaving process (kamma — pun certainly intended). Too often inappropriately translated 'cause' (as here in all translations but my own). In casual English, 'cause' is understood less as the force of creation than as simply something that happens co-insidentally: 'just because'; in precise English, 'cause' is always an imprecise concept. To make a cup of tea what is required is a cup, water, tea-leaves, a heat source, the effort of an individual and a thousand other things that are necessary for these things to exist. Which of these is the 'cause' of a cup of tea? Or a disease? Or Pain? At best one should always use 'proximate cause' or 'economic cause' but better would be to forget this idea altogether and train your thinking to understanding the idea of 'dependence'. Nidana means more like 'tied up in/to' involved with, but also 'beginning' which is the basis for the other often used translation 'foundation', 'basis.' It is also the first 'condition' necessary to begin weaving. Here what is indicated by the context is a way to say 'There are three "factors based on which" "tied to which" "dependent upon which" action begins.' "Tied-up with," "bound-up in" "Tied down to".
[AN.3.34 (WP 35)] Hatthaka, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha explains to Prince Hatthaka how it is that he can sleep well outdoors in the cold of winter.
[AN.3.35 (WP 36)] Messengers, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three of Yama's messengers, old age, sickness and death, warn man to shape up as he is subject to the same destiny.
[AN.3.36 (WP 37)] Kings (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The gods of the four directions observe the behavior of mankind as to whether or not there is reverence for mother and father, shamen and brahmins, elders of the clan, observance of the uposttha including the wakeful watch and whether or not men do good works. If they see men do these things they are happy, otherwise not so happy.
[AN.3.37 (WP 38)] Kings (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha shows how Sakka's pointing to himself as an example of a fitting reward for observing uposatha and behavior in accordance with the precepts is not suitable.
[AN.3.38-39 (WP 39)] Delicate, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Gotama describes how even though he was exceedingly delicately nurtured, shame at being subject to aging, sickness and death caused him to let go of pride in youth, health and life itself. Then Gotama describes how pride in youth, health and life lead to behavior that does not end well for bhikkhus as well as commoners.
[AN.3.40] Authorities, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The bhikkhu who has given up the household life to seek an end to pain who then indulges a variety of low thoughts is encouraged to put his better self in charge or to make himself aware that there are those in the world who can read his thoughts and by that put the world in charge, or to remind himself that the Dhamma was well taught by Gotama for just this purpose and to put the Dhamma in charge, and by one or another of these means overcome his misguided ways.
[AN.3.41] Present, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three things that need to be present in order to create great good kamma: faith in the results of good deeds, the good deed, and a detached recipient.
[AN.3.42] Cases, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three things by which one of faith can be recognized: desire to see the ethically advanced, desire to hear true Dhamma, living free of the stingy grip of greed.
[AN.3.43] Advantages, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
On the factors to be considered by one who would give a dissertation on Dhamma.
[AN.3.44] Smooth Flow, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three things which define the meaning of 'profitable talk.'
[AN.3.45] The Wise, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three things praised by the wise and good: charity, homelessness and care of parents.
[AN.3.46] Virtuous, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
A virtuous bhikkhu living in dependence on a village gives the inhabitants a great opportunity to make good kamma.
[AN.3.47] Conditioned, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three constructed-characteristics of the constructed. Similar to but importantly different than the well-known 'Three Characteristics'
See the introduction to my translation for my argument as to why translating 'saŋkhata' as 'condition' is a serious mistake.
[AN.3.48] Mountains, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
An inspirational sutta urging leaders of groups to set a good example.
[AN.3.49] Ardor, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three occasions for putting forth extra energy.
[AN.3.50] A Master Thief, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Three ways a great bandit and a corrupt bhikkhu are similar.
[AN.3.51] Two Brahmins (1), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Two old brahmins panicked by impending death seek comfort from Gotama.
Note how casually it is mentioned, and how expected it appears to be that these men should have reached 120 years of age.
[AN.3.52] Two Brahmins (2), the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
Two old brahmins panicked by impending death seek comfort from Gotama.
[AN.3.53] A Certain Brahmin, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha explains the meaning of 'Seen in this life is Dhamma'.
[AN.3.54] A Wanderer, the Bhikkhu Bodhi translation.
The Buddha explains the meaning of 'Seen in this life is Dhamma'.

 

new Tuesday, January 05, 2016 6:00 AMThera-Gāthā, The Psalms of the Early Buddhists, Volume II: Psalms of the Brethren, translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids.
Linked to the Pali and where available to the translations of Bhikkhu Thanissaro.
[THAG 1] Subhūti.
[THAG 4] Puṇṇa of the Mantānis
[THAG 5] Dabba of the Mallas
[THAG 240] Sankicca

 

new Sunday, January 03, 2016 8:31 AMTherī-Gāthā, The Psalms of the Early Buddhists, Volume I: Psalms of the Sisters, translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids.
Linked where available to the translations of Bhikkhu Thanissaro.
Verses which should be especially inspiring to women. Frequently making a declaration of arahantship, often expressing relief from being oppressed by the role of woman.
[THIG.III] Canto III. Psalms of Three Verses.
There is one case [XXXIII] in this Canto of a woman becoming Arahant while still a lay-woman.
[THIG.IV] Canto IV. Psalms of Four Verses.
[THIG.V] Canto V. Psalms of Five Verses.
See especially the story of Paṭācārā!
[THIG.VI] Canto VI. Psalms of Six Verses.
In this Canto see especially Great Pajāpatī, the Gotamid, the Buddha's aunt and the first bhikkhunī and Sujātā, another who attained arahantship while still a lay-woman.
[THIG.VII] Canto VII. Psalms of Seven Verses.
[THIG.VIII] Canto VIII. Psalm of Eight Verses.
[THIG.IX] Canto IX. Psalm of Nine Verses.
[THIG.X] Canto X. Psalm of Eleven Verses.
These are the verses of the woman who, asking the Buddha for a cure for her dead child was sent out to look for a mustard seed from a house where no death had occurred.
[THIG.XI] Canto XI. Psalm of Twelve Verses.
[THIG.XII] Canto XII. Psalm of Sixteen Verses.
[THIG.XIII] Canto XIII. Psalms of About Twenty Verses.
[THIG.XV] Canto XV. Psalm of Over Fourty Verses.

All of the verses and biographical sketches of Mrs. Rhys Davids translation of the Therīgāthā, The Psalms of the Sisters have now been posted and can be accessed through the Index.

 


"People never cease to change place in relaion to ourselves. In the imperceptible but eternal march of the world, we regard them as motionless, in a moment of vision too brief for us to perceive the motion that is sweeping them on. But we have only to select in our memory two pictures taken of them at different moments, close enough together however for them not to have altered in themselves - perceptibly, that is to say - and the difference between the two pictures is a measure of the displacement that they have undergone in relation to us."

- Marcel Proust, Remembrance of Things Past, Volume II: Cities of the Plain, pg 1054. The definitive French Pleiade edition translated by C.K. Scott Moncrieff and Terence Kilmartin.


 

new Friday, January 01, 2016 6:59 AMMajjhima Nikāya,
[MN 8] Effacement, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Nyanaponika Thera translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Maha Cunda approaches the Buddha to ask how to eliminate ideas of 'I' and 'mine'. The Buddha's response is to give him fourty-four pairs of opposites to be resolved upon, thought of, used as guides to follow, things leading upward and which will scour out ideas of 'I' and 'Mine.'
[MN 22] The Simile of the Snake, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A wide-ranging very famous sutta that begins with a forceful teaching on the dangers of indulgence in sense pleasures. This sutta contains two famous similies: the similie of the snake illustrating how a wrong grasp of the Dhamma is like taking hold of a poisonous snake from the wrong end; and the simile of the raft illustrating how the Dhamma should be used to attain it's ends and then be let go. The sutta concludes with a thorough examination of the way 'not self' should be considered.
[MN 32] The Greater Discourse in Gosinga, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
A group of the Buddha's great disciples gather together on a beautiful moonlit night in Gosinga Woods with the air perfumed by the Sal Tree blossoms. They each, in turn, describe the sort of bhikkhu they feel would illuminate this woods. Then, unable to descide whose proposition was best, they visit the Buddha to ask his opinion. The Buddha approves all their opinions and adds his own contribution.
[MN 47] The Inquirer, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the M. Olds exerpt/translation/discussion and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha goes into detail concerning how one should examine one who claims to have attained the goal.
[MN 52] The Man from Aṭṭhakanāgara, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
In this sutta Ananda explains to a householder how Arahantship can be attained via any single one of eleven different avenues.
The avenues are any one of the four jhanas, the brahmaVihāras, or the arupa jhanas up to the Realm of No Thing's to be Had. The effeciant cause of the attainment, it is clear, is not the jhana or meditative state, but the insight that that state itself has been own-made and is impermanent.
[MN 54] To Potaliya, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains in detail what it means to have given up all avocations in this Dhamma.
[MN 57] The Dog-duty Ascetic, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Two ascetics, one who's asceticism was to practice the behavior of a dog, the other who's asceticism was to practice the behavior of an ox question the Buddha as to the outcomes of their practices.
A good, clear explanation of the workings of kamma.
[MN 60] The Incontrovertible Teaching, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha explains a logical way to behave when faced with uncertainty as to what one should believe.
This sutta should be read by every skeptic and every realist who can see of himself that he does not know or see such things as the workings of kamma, rebirth according to one's deeds, the existence of Heaven and Hell, gods, God or the Devil, etc. The logic of the sutta is incontrovertable, indeed. It only makes sense to cover your bets. To hold the position that 'there is no' (kamma, God, etc.) is actually to say that one 'knows,' and to say that one knows means that one is claiming to know all. How else could one know that 'there was not'? If a thing exists, it can be seen. Perhaps not by everyone, but sooner or later it can be seen. If a thing does not exist, one would need to see absolutely everything to know that it did not exist. And then, maybe you missed something. Then, too, to say that one knows that 'there is not' is to say that one knows more than those who have said that 'there is.' That is 'exalting one's self and disparaging others.'
I think Bhk. Bodhi's understanding of what he calls 'The Doctrine of Non-doing' is not well reflected in his choice of sub-title for this section. The idea is not that this is a doctrine of 'Not-doing', but that this is a doctrine where people believe that there is no kammic result of deeds, no 'doing' in the sense of creating consequences. It is saying that there is 'no bad (or good) action' 'kamma' 'action' or 'doing,' not 'no doing'. The idea 'bad' or 'good' implies 'consequences.' Certainly we can see with our own eyes that 'doing' has occurred. 'Kamma' here is being translated one-sidedly, that is only as the 'doing', but the idea of the 'doctrine' is that there is no 'result' (the other side of 'kamma'.) Buddhism itself can be characterized as a doctrine of 'not-doing': 'the not doing of unskillful deeds.' For example, the intent to not do a kammic deed identified with own-making in thought, word, or deed.
There is a similar misplaced emphasis in Bhk. Thanissaro's "Action and Non-Action."
[MN 70] At Kīṭāgiri, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
Two bhikkhus are taken to task for disparaging the rule about eating at impropper times. Includes a description of Seven sorts of Persons pointing out which have nothing more to do and which have something more to do.
[MN 75] To Māgandiya, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the M. Olds translation and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Wanderer Magandiya is raised from a view based on faith that health is the greatest good and that this is Nibbana to an understanding of the satisfactions, the dangers and he escape from pleasures of the senses.
[MN 77] The Greater Discourse to Sakuludāyin, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
In a discourse which amounts to a full course in Awakening the Buddha teaches Sakuludayi and his followers the reasons his disciples admire and follow him.
[MN 82] On Raṭṭhapāla, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, the Walter Lupton translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The story of Ratthapala who, inspired by a Dhammatalk given by the Buddha wishes to enter the order but is refused the permission of his parents. He vows to die on the spot unless he receives permission and after many pleadings by his parents and friends finally gets his parents concent. He thereafter quickly becomes arahant. On revisiting his family he is first unrecognized and subjected to abuse, then his father tries to tempt him to return to the world with gold and his former wives. He is not persuaded and delivers a sermon in verses on the subject of the pains in the world. Still later he discourses to the king on four doctrines of the Buddha concerning the futility of living in the world.
[MN 95] With Caŋkī, the Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed.,
Linked to the Pali, the Horner translation, the Bhikkhu Thanissaro translation, and the Sister Upalavanna translation.
The Buddha points out the flaws in reliance on faith, inclination, report, consideration of reasons, reflection on and approval of an opinion and describes the path that leads to seeing the truth of a proposition for one's self.

At this point all the available Ñanamoli Thera, translation, Bhk. Bodhi, ed. suttas of the Majjhima Nikaya have been uploaded and linked to the Pali and the various other translations available.

 

Five Unreliable Ways of Determing the Truth

Five things that cannot be relied upon for concluding that a thing is true because they can be seen to be sometimes true and sometimes not and the reverses of each are similarly sometimes true and sometimes not.
For example: Something held to be true because it is agreeable can be incorrect; something held to be false because it is disagreeable can be true.

Pāli Olds Horner Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro
Saddhā Faith Faith Faith Conviction
Ruci Delight Inclination Approval Liking
Anussava Hear-say Report Oral Tradition Unbroken Tradition
Ākāra-parivitakka Formulating through reasoning Consideration of Reasons Reasoned Cogitation Reasoning by Analogy
Diṭṭhi-nijjhānakkhan Acceptance or satisfaction with an insight arising from a point of view Reflection on and approval of Opinion Reflective Acceptance of a View Agreement through Pondering Views

These same five things, however are the ways truth may be preserved down through time.

How to Awaken to the Truth

Examine the teacher as to bodily and verbal behavior with regard to states of Lust, Anger and Delusion.

Is he in the contol of these states such that he might, not knowing, not seeing, say: "I know" or "I see"?

Is he in the control of these states such that he might urge others to act to their detriment?

Does the Doctrine of this teacher lead to dispassion, giving up, letting go, detachment and freedom? A Doctrine that is profound, hard to see and hard to understand, peaceful and sublime, unattainable by mere reasoning, subtle, to be experience by the wise each for himself here in this visible state, for such Doctrine is not easily taught by one in the control of lust, anger and delusion.

After determining that this teacher is in control of these states such that he would not, not knowing, not seeing, say: "I know' or "I see," and would not urge others to act to their detriment, then only:

Pāli Olds Horner Bhks. Nanamoli/Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro
saddhaɱ Niveseti Repose Faith Upon Reposes Faith in Places Faith Places Conviction
upasaŋkamanto payirupāsati Reposing Faith, approach respectfully near Draws close and sits down near by Visits and pays respect Visits and grows close
payirupāsanto sotaɱ odahati Respectfully give ear Lends Ear Gives Ear Lends Ear
dhammaɱ suṇāti Giving Ear, Listen to Dhamma Hears Dhamma Hears Dhamma Hears Dhamma
sutvā dhammaɱ dhāreti Having Listened, Retain Heard Dhamma Remembers Memorizes Remembers
dhāritānaɱ dhammānaɱ atthaɱ upaparikkhati Having Retained, Grasp the Profit in the Retained as Heard Tests the Meaning Examines the Meaning Penetrates the Meaning
dhammā nijjhānaɱ khamanti Having Grasped the Profit, repose satisfaction with or acceptance of the insight arising from this Dhamma Approves Reflectively Accepts Comes to Agreement through Pondering
dhamma-nijjhānakkhantiyā sati chando jāyati There Being Satisfaction with the insight arising from this Dhamma, Wish is born Desire is born Zeal Springs Up Desire Arises
ussahati Wish Born, there is daring to do Makes an Effort Applies Will Becomes Willing
tulayati Daring to Do there is Taking Measures Weighs Up Scrutinizes Contemplates, Weighs Up
pahadati Taking Measures there is Taking Steps Strives Strives Makes Exertion
pahitatto samāno kāyena c'eva paramasaccaɱ sacchikaroti,||
paññāya ca taɱ ativijjha passati
Having taken steps, the shaman, bodily embraces the truth and thus wisely, with his very own vision, sees. being self-resolute he realises with his person the highest truth itself; and penetrating it by means of intuitive wisdom, he sees. Resolutely striving, he realises with the body the ultimate truth and sees it by penetrting it with wisdom. Exerting himself, he both realizes the ultimate meaning of the truth with his body and sees by penetrating it with discernment.

Securing Truth

The above practice brings one to the state of having wakened to the truth. To secure that awakening one must repeat this practice again and again.

 

Caution! While is is often very helpful for understanding a term to know the translations of that term in another language, many translations of the Suttas in languages other than English are not translations from the Pali at all, but are translations from English language translations. Consequently there is the possiblity of error being propagated across languages. So both those reading about Buddhism for the first time from a language other than English, and those English-speakers consulting other languages for insight should be careful to check the source! Your refuge is the Pali.

 


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