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Sacred Books of the Buddhists
Volume IV

Dīgha Nikāya

Dialogues of the Buddha
Part III

Sutta 25

Udumbarikā Sīhanāda Suttantaɱ

The Lion's Roar to the Udumbarikans:
ON ASCETICISM

Translated from the Pali by T.W. Rhys Davids and
C.A.F. Rhys Davids

Public Domain

Originally published under the patronage of
His Majesty King Chulālankarana,
King of Siam
by The Pali Text Society, Oxford

 


 

[1] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

Vulture Head, not Peak

The Exalted One was once staying near Rājagaha, on the Vulture's Peak.

Now at that time
there was sojourning in Queen Udumbarikā's Park
assigned to the Wanderers,
the Wanderer Nigrodha,[1]
together with a great company of Wanderers,
even three thousand.

Now the householder Sandhāna
went forth in the afternoon
from Rājagaha,
to call on the Exalted One.

Then it occurred to him:

"It is not timely to call just now on the Exalted One;
he will be in retirement.

Nor is it the hour for calling on the brethren
who are practising mind-culture;
they will be in retirement.

What if I were to go to Udumbarikā's Park
and find out Nigrodha, the Wanderer?

And Sandhāna did so.

2. Now at that time Nigrodha the Wanderer
was seated with his large company,
all talking with loud voices,
with noise and clamour,
carrying on childish[2] [34] talk of various kinds,
to wit:

Tales of kings,
robbers,
and state officials;
tales of armies,
panics,
and battles;
talk about foods and drinks,
and clothes,
beds,
garlands,
and perfumes;
talk about relatives;
talk about carriages,
villages,
towns,
cities,
and countries;
talk about women,[3]
talk of heroes;
gossip from street-corners
and the places for drawing water;
ghost-stories:
desultory talk;
speculative talk on the world and the sea;
on existence and non-existence.

3. And Nigrodha the Wanderer
saw the householder Sandhāna approaching in the distance,
and called his own company to order,
saying:

"Be still, sirs, and make no noise.

Here is a disciple of the Samaṇa Gotama coming,
the householder Sandhāna.

Whatever white-robed lay disciples of Gotama
there be dwelling at Rājagaha,,
this Sandhāna is one of them.

Now these good gentlemen
delight in quiet;
they are trained in quiet;
they speak in praise of quiet.

How well it were
if seeing how quiet the assembly is,
he should see fit to join us.

And when he spake thus,
the Wanderers kept silence.

 

§

 

4. Now the householder Sandhāna came on to where Nigrodha the Wanderer was,
and exchanged with him the greetings and compliments of civility and courtesy,
and sat down beside him.

So seated, Sandhāna said to Nigrodha:

"Different is the way
in which these reverend Wanderers,
holding views of their own,
talk when they have met
and are come together,
from the practice of the Exalted One.

They talk with loud voices,
with noise and clamour,
carrying on childish [35] talk of vanous kinds, to wit:

Tales of kings,
robbers,
and state officials;
tales of armies,
panics,
and battles;
talk about foods and drinks,
and clothes,
beds,
garlands,
and perfumes;
talk about relatives;
talk about carriages,
villages,
towns,
cities,
and countries;
talk about women,
talk of heroes;
gossip from street-corners
and the places for drawing water;
ghost-stories:
desultory talk;
speculative talk on the world and the sea;
on existence and non-existence.

But the Exalted One haunts the lonely and remote recesses of the forest,
where noise,
where sound there hardly is,
where the breezes from the pastures blow,[4]
yet which are hidden from the eyes of men,
suitable for self-communing."

5. And when Sandhāna had spoken,
Nigrodha to him made answer:

"Look you now, householder,
know you with whom the Samaṇa Gotama talks?

With whom he holds conversation?

By intercourse with whom
does he attain to lucidity in wisdom?[5]

The Samaṇa Gotama's insight is ruined
by his habit of seclusion.

He is not at home
in conducting an assembly.

He is not ready in conversation.

He is occupied only
with the fringes of things.[6]

Even as a one-eyed cow
that, walking in a circles
follows only the outskirts,
so is the Samaṇa Gotama.

Why forsooth, householder,
if the Samaṇa Gotama were to come to this assembly,
with a single question only
could we settle him;
yea, methinks we could roll him over
like an empty pot.

 

§

 

6. Now the Exalted One heard
with his clairaudient sense of hearing,
pure, and surpassing that of man,
this conversation between Sandhāna the householder
and Nigrodha the Wanderer.

And descending [36] from the Vulture's Peak,
he came to the Peacocks' Feeding-ground
on the bank of the Sumāgadha[7]
and there walked to and fro
in the open air.

Then Nigrodha saw him thus walking,
and on seeing him
he called his company to order, saying:

"Be still, sirs, and make no noise.

The Samaṇa Gotama is walking to and fro in the open air
at the Peacocks' Feeding-ground,
by the bank of the Sumāgadha.

Now this good gentleman delights in quiet,
speaks in praise of quiet;
how well it were
if, seeing how quiet the assembly is,
he should see fit to join us.

If the Samaṇa Gotama should come to this assembly,
we might ask him this question:

What, lord, is this religion of the Exalted one
wherein he trains his disciples,
and which those disciples,
so trained by the Exalted One as to win comfort,
acknowledge to be their utmost support
and the fundamental principle of righteousness?"[8]

When he had said this
the Wanderers kept silence.

7. Then the Exalted One went up to Nigrodha the Wanderer,
and Nigrodha spake thus to him:

"Let the lord the Exalted One approach.

Welcome is the lord the Exalted One!

Long has the lord the Exalted One taken
ere deciding on this step
of coming hither.

May it please the lord the Exalted One
to take a seat.

Here is one ready."

The Exalted One sat down on the seat made ready,
and Nigrodha, taking a low seat,
sat beside him.

To him so seated
the Exalted One spake thus:

"On what talk, Nigrodha,
are ye here and now engaged
as ye sit together,
and what conversation between you
have I interrupted?"

Thereupon Nigrodha replied to the Exalted One and said:

"Lord, we have just seen the Exalted [37] One
walking in the open air
at the Peacocks' Feeding-ground,
by the Sumāgadha,
and seeing him thus, we said:

'If the Samaṇa Gotama should come to this assembly,
we could ask him this question:

What, lord, is this religion of the Exalted one
wherein he trains his disciples,
and which those disciples,
so trained by the Exalted One as to win comfort,
acknowledge to be their utmost support
and the fundamental principle of righteousness?"

"Difficult is it, Nigrodha,
for one of another view,
of another persuasion,
of another confession,
without practice and without teaching,
to understand that wherein I train my disciples,
and which they,
so trained as to win comfort,
acknowledge to be their utmost support
and the fundatnental principle of righteousness.

Come now, Nigrodha,
ask me a question about your own doctrine,
about austere scrupulousness of life:[9]
in what does the fulfilment,
in what does the non-fulfilment
of these self-mortifications consist?

When he had said this,
the Wanderers exclaimed loudly,
with noise and clamour:

"Wonderful, sir!

Marvellous is it, sir,
the great gifts and powers of the Samaṇa Gotama
in withholding his own theories
and inviting the discussion
of those of others!"

 

§

 

8. Then Nigrodha bade the Wanderers be quiet,
and spake thus to the Exalted One:

"We, lord, profess self-mortifying austerities;
we hold them to be essential;
we cleave to them.

In what does the fulfilment,
in what does the non-fulfilment of them
consist?"

 

§

 

"Suppose, Nigrodha, that an ascetic[10] goes naked,
is of certain loose habits,
licks his hands,
respects no 'Approach, sir',
nor 'Stop, sir';
accepts nothing ex-pressly brought,
nor expressly prepared,
nor any invitations.

He accepts nothing
taken from mouth of cooking-pot,
nor placed within the threshold,
nor within a mortar,
[38] nor among sticks,
nor within a quern;
nor anything from two eating together,
nor from a pregnant woman,
nor from a nursing mother,
nor from a woman in intercourse with a man,
nor food collected in drought,
nor from where a dog is,
nor from where flies are swarming,
nor will he accept fish or meat,
nor drink strong drink,
or intoxicants,
or gruel.

He is either a one-houser,
a one-mouthful man;
or a two-houser,
a two-mouthful man;
or a three-houser,
a three-mouthful man;
or a four-houser,
a four-mouthful man;
or a five-houser,
a five-mouthful man;
or a six-houser,
a six-mouthful man;
or a seven-houser,
a seven-mouthful man.

He maintains himself on one alms,
or he maintains himself on two alms,
or he maintains himself on three alms,
or he maintains himself on four alms,
or he maintains himself on five alms,
or he maintains himself on six alms,
or he maintains himself on seven alms.

He takes food once a day,
or he takes food once every two days,
or he takes food once every three days,
or he takes food once every four days,
or he takes food once every five days,
or he takes food once every six days,
or he takes food once every seven days.

Thus does he dwell addicted
to the practice of taking food
according to rule,
at regular intervals,
up to even half a month.

He feeds either on potherbs,
or wild rice,
or nivara seeds,
or leather parings,
or on hata,
or on the powder in rice rusks,
on rice-scum,
on flour of oil-seeds,
on grasses,
on cowdung,
on fruits and roots from the woods,
or on windfalls.

He wears coarse hempen cloth,
coarse mixture cloth,
discarded corpse-cloths,
discarded rags,
or tirita-bark cloth;
or again,
he wears antelope-hide,
or strips of the same netted,
or kusa-fibre,
or bark garments,
or shale cloth,
or a human-hair blanket,
or a horse-hair blanket,
or an owl's-feather garment.

He is a hair-and-beard plucker,
addicted to the practice
of plucking out both;
a stander-up;
a croucher on heels,
addicted to exerting himself
(to move forward) when thus squatting;
a bed-of-thorns man,
putting iron spikes or thorns on his couch;
he uses a plank-bed;
sleeps on the ground;
sleeps only on one side;
is a dust-and-dirt wearer
and an open-air man;
a where-you-will sitter;
a filth-eater,
addicted to the practice of eating such;
a non-drinker,
addicted to the practice
of never drinking (cold water);
an evening-for-third-time-man
addicted to the practice
of going down into water thrice a day.

What think you, Nigrodha?

If these things be so,
is the austerity of self-mortification carried out,
or is it not?"

"Truly, lord, if these things be so,
the austerity of self-mortification is carried out,
and not the contrary."

 

§

 

"Now I, Nigrodha, affirm
that austerity by self- [39] mortification,
thus carried out,
involves blemish[11]
in several ways."

"In what way, lord,
do you affirm
that blemish ts involved?"

"In case, Nigrodha,
when an ascetic undertakes a course of austerity,
he, through that course,
becomes self-complacent,
his aim is satisfied.[12]

Now this, Nigrodha,
becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And then again, Nigrodha,
when an ascetic undertakes a course of austerity,
he, through that undertaking,
exalts himself and despises others.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
when an ascetic undertakes a course of austerity,
he, through that undertaking,
becomes inebriated and infatuated,
and grows careless.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
when an ascetic undertakes a course of austerity,
it procures for him
gifts, attention, and fame.

Thereby he becomes complacent
and his aim is satisfied.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
by the winning of gifts, attentions, and fame,
the ascetic exalts himself
and despises others.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
by the winning of gifts, attentions, and fame,
he becomes inebriated and infatuated,
and grows careless.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
when an ascetic undertakes a course of austerity,
he comes to make a distinction[13] in [40] foods, saying:

'This suits me;
this doesn't suit me.'

The latter kind he deliberately rejects.

Over the former
he waxes greedy and infatuated,
and cleaves to them,
seeing not the danger in them,
discerning them not as unsafe,
and so enjoys them.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
because of his longing for gifts, attentions and fame,
he thinks:

'Rājas will pay me attentions,
and so will their officials;
so, too, will nobles,
brahmins,
householders
and founders of schools.'

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
an ascetic gets grumbling
at some recluse or brahmin,
saying:

'That man lives on all sorts of things:
things grown from tubers,
or shoots,
or berries,
or joints,
or fifthly, from seeds,[14]
munching them all up together
with that wheel-less thunderbolt of a jawbone -
and they call him a holy man!'[15]

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
an ascetic sees a certain recluse or brahmin
receiving attentions;
being revered,
honoured
and presented with offerings
by the citizens.

And seeing this he thinks:

'The citizens pay attentions to this fellow
who lives in luxury;
they revere and honour him,
and present him with offerings,
while to me
who, as ascetic,
live a really austere life,
they pay no attentions,
nor reverence,
nor honour,
nor offerings!'

And so he cherishes envy and grudging
at the citizens.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
an ascetic becomes one
who sits in public.[16]

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

[41] And again, Nigrodha, the ascetic,
when on his round for alms among the people,
slinks along furtively[17]
as if to say:

'This is part of my austerity;
this is part of my austerity.'

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic affects the mysterious.

When asked:

'Do you approve of this?'

he, not approving, says:

'I do,'

or approving, says:

'I do not.'

Thus he consciously tells untruths.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

12. And again, Nigrodha,
when the Tathāgata,
or a disciple of the Tathāgata,
teaching the Narm,
uses a method worthy of appreciation,
the ascetic does not appreciate it.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is liable to lose his temper
and bear enmity.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is liable to be hypocritical.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is liable to be deceitful.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is liable to be envious and grudging.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is liable to be cunning and crafty.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is liable to be hard-hearted and vain.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is liable to entertain evil wishes
and becomes captive to them.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is liable to entertain false opinions.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is liable to be become possessed of metempirical dogma[18].

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is liable to misinterpret his experience;[19].

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is liable to be avaricious
and adverse from renunciation.

This, too, becomes a blemish in the ascetic.

What think you of this, Nigrodha?

Are these things blemishes
in the austerities of self-mortification,
or are they not?"

"Verily, lord, these things are blemishes
in the austerities of self-mortification.

It is possible, lord, that an ascetic
may be possessed even of all these blemishes,
much more by one or other of them."

 

§

 

13. "Now take the opposite case, Nigrodha:
an [42] ascetic undertakes a course of austerity.

Through that course
he does not become self-complacent,
nor are his aims fulfilled.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And then again, Nigrodha,
when an ascetic undertakes a course of austerity,
he, through that undertaking,
does not exalt himself and despises others.[20]

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
when an ascetic undertakes a course of austerity,
he, through that undertaking,
does not become inebriated and infatuated,
and grow careless.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
when an ascetic undertakes a course of austerity,
it procures for him
gifts, attention, and fame.

He thereby does not becomes complacent
and his aim is not satisfied.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
by the winning of gifts, attentions, and fame,
the ascetic does not exalt himself
and despise others.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
by the winning of gifts, attentions, and fame,
he does not become inebriated and infatuated,
and grow careless.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
when an ascetic undertakes a course of austerity,
he does not come to make a distinction in foods, saying:

'This suits me;
this doesn't suit me.'

He does not deliberately reject the latter.

Over the former
he does not wax greedy and infatuated,
and cleave to them,
seeing not the danger in them,
discerning them not as unsafe,
and so enjoying them.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
he does not think,
out of his longing for gifts,
attentions and fame:

'Rājas will pay me attentions,
and so will their officials;
so, too, will nobles,
brahmins,
householders
and founders of schools.'

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
an ascetic does not grumble
at some recluse or brahmin,
saying:

'That man lives on all sorts of things:
things grown from tubers,
or shoots,
or berries,
or joints,
or fifthly, from seeds,
munching them all up together
with that wheel-less thunderbolt of a jawbone -
and they call him a holy man!'

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
an ascetic sees a certain recluse or brahmin
receiving attentions;
being revered,
honoured
and presented with offerings
by the citizens.

And seeing this he does not think:

'The citizens pay attentions to this fellow
who lives in luxury;
they revere and honour him,
and present him with offerings,
while to me
who, as ascetic,
live a really austere life,
they pay no attentions,
nor reverence,
nor honour,
nor offerings!'

And thus he does not cherish envy and grudging
at the citizens.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
an ascetic does not become one
who sits in public.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha, the ascetic,
when on his round for alms among the people,
does not slink along furtively
as if to say:

'This is part of my austerity;
this is part of my austerity.'

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic does not affect the mysterious.

When asked:

'Do you approve of this?'

he, not approving, says:

'I do not,'

or approving, says:

'I do.'

Herein he avoids telling deliberate untruths.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

12. And again, Nigrodha,
when the Tathāgata,
or a disciple of the Tathāgata,
teaching the Narm,
uses a method worthy of appreciation,
the ascetic appreciates it.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is not liable to lose his temper
and bear enmity.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is not liable to be hypocritical.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is not liable to be deceitful.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is not liable to be envious and grudging.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is not liable to be cunning and crafty.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is not liable to be hard-hearted and vain.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is not liable to entertain evil wishes
or become captive to them.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is not liable to entertain false opinions.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is not liable to be become possessed of metempirical dogma.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is not liable to pervert experience.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

And again, Nigrodha,
the ascetic is not avaricious
and adverse from renunciation.

This being so, he is to that degree purified.

What think you, Nigrodha?

That being so,
does the austerity by these things
become genuinely pure,
or not?"

"Verily, lord, the austerity of these things
becomes genuinely pure,
and not impure;
it wins topmost rank,
it reaches the pith."[21]

"Nay, Nigrodha,
not yet does the austerity
become of topmost rank,
nor reach the pith;
for that matter
it has but reached the outside splinters."

 


 

16. "In what way, lord,
does an austerity win top-most rank,
and reach the pith?

Good were it
if the Exalted One caused my austerity
to win topmost rank
and reach the pith!"

"Take the case, Nigrodha,
of an ascetic self-restrained
by the Restraint of the Fourfold Watch.

What is the Restraint of the Fourfold Watch?

It is when an ascetic inflicts injury
on no living thing,
nor causes injury to be inflicted
on any living thing,
nor approves thereof.

He takes not what is not given,
nor approves thereof.

He utters no lies,
nor causes lies to be uttered,
nor approves thereof.

He craves not for [44] the pleasures of sense,[22]
nor leads others to crave for them,
nor approves thereof.

Now it is thus, Nigrodha,
that the ascetic becomes self-restrained
by the Restraint of the Fourfold-Watch.

Now in that he is thus self-restrained,
and his austerity is made to consist in this,
he advances upwards[23]
and turns not back to lower things.

He chooses[24] some lonely spot for his seat -
in the forest,
at the foot of a tree,
on the hillside,
in mountain glen,
or rocky cave,
in the charnel place,
or on a heap of straw in the open fields.

And returning thither
after his round for alms,
he seats himself
when his meal is done,
cross-legged,
keeping his body erect,
and his intelligence alert,
intent.

Putting away the hankering after the World,
he abides with unhankering heart,
and purifies his mind of covetousness.

Putting away the canker of ill-will,
he abides with heart free from enmity,
benevolent and compassionate towards every living thing,[25]
and purifies his mind of malevolence.

Putting away sloth and torpor,
he abides clear of both;
conscious of light,
mindful and self-possessed,
he purifies his mind of sloth and torpor.

Putting away flurry and worry,
he abides free from excitement;
with heart serene within,
he purifies his mind of flurry and worry.

Putting away doubt,
he abides as one
who has passed beyond perplexity;
no longer in suspense
as to what is good,
he purifies his mind of doubt.

17. He, having put away these Five Hindrances,
and to weaken by insight
the strength of the things
that defile the heart,
abides letting his mind,
fraught with love,[26]
pervade one quarter of the world,
and so [45] too, the second quarter,
and so the third,
and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world,
above,
below,
around
and everywhere,
and altogether
does he continue to pervade
with love-burdened thought,
abounding,
sublime,
and beyond measure,
free from hatred and ill-will.

And he lets his mind,
fraught with pity
pervade one quarter of the world,
and so too, the second quarter,
and so the third,
and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world,
above,
below,
around
and everywhere,
and altogether
does he continue to pervade
with pity-burdened thought,
abounding,
sublime,
and beyond measure,
free from hatred and ill-will.

And he lets his mind,
fraught with sympathy with joy[27]
pervade one quarter of the world,
and so too, the second quarter,
and so the third,
and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world,
above,
below,
around
and everywhere,
and altogether
does he continue to pervade
with sympathy with joy-burdened thought,
abounding,
sublime,
and beyond measure,
free from hatred and ill-will.

And he lets his mind, fraught with equanimity,
pervade one quarter of the world,
and so too, the second quarter,
and so the third,
and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world,
above,
below,
around
and everywhere,
and altogether
does he continue to pervade
with equanimity-burdened thought,
abounding,
sublime,
and beyond measure,
free from hatred and ill-will.

What think you of this, Nigrodha?

Does austerity by these things become genuinely pure or not?"

"Verily, lord,
austerity by these things
becomes genuinely pure
and not impure,
wins topmost rank
and reaches the pith."

"Nay, Nigrodha,
not yet does the austerity win top-most rank,
or reality;
for that matter
it does but reach into the bark."[28]

 


 

18. "In what way, lord,
does an austerity win top rank
and reach the pith?

How good it were
if the Exalted One could make my austerities
win top rank
and reach the pith!"

"Take the case, Nigrodha,
of an ascetic who is self-restrained
by the Restraint of the Fourfold Watch.

What is the Restraint of the Fourfold Watch?

It is when an ascetic inflicts injury
on no living thing,
nor causes injury to be inflicted
on any living thing,
nor approves thereof.

He takes not what is not given,
nor approves thereof.

He utters no lies,
nor causes lies to be uttered,
nor approves thereof.

He craves not for the pleasures of sense,
nor leads others to crave for them,
nor approves thereof.

Now it is thus, Nigrodha,
that the ascetic becomes self-restrained
by the Restraint of the Fourfold-Watch.

In that he is thus self-restrained,
and his austerity is made to consist in this,
he advances upward
and turns not back to lower things.

He chooses some lonely spot
for his seat -
in the forest,
at the foot of a tree,
on the hillside,
in mountain glen,
or rocky cave,
in the charnel place,
or on a heap of straw in the open fields.

And returning thither
after his round for alms,
he seats himself
when his meal is done,
cross-legged,
keeping his body erect,
and his intelligence alert,
intent.

Putting away the hankering after the World,
he abides with unhankering heart,
and purifies his mind of covetousness.

Putting away the canker of ill-will,
he abides with heart free from enmity,
benevolent and compassionate towards every living thing,
and purifies his mind of malevolence.

Putting away sloth and torpor,
he abides clear of both;
conscious of light,
mindful and self-possessed,
he purifies his mind of sloth and torpor.

Putting away flurry and worry,
he abides free from excitement;
with heart serene within,
he purifies his mind of flurry and worry.

Putting away doubt,
he abides as one
who has passed beyond perplexity;
no longer in suspense
as to what is good,
he purifies his mind of doubt.

Having put away those Five Hindrances,
and to weaken by insight
the strength of [46] the things
that defile the heart,
abides letting his mind,
fraught with love,
pervade one quarter of the world,
and so too, the second quarter,
and so the third,
and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world,
above,
below,
around
and everywhere,
and altogether
does he continue to pervade
with love-burdened thought,
abounding,
sublime,
and beyond measure,
free from hatred and ill-will.

And he lets his mind,
fraught with pity
pervade one quarter of the world,
and so too, the second quarter,
and so the third,
and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world,
above,
below,
around
and everywhere,
and altogether
does he continue to pervade
with pity-burdened thought,
abounding,
sublime,
and beyond measure,
free from hatred and ill-will.

And he lets his mind,
fraught with sympathy with joy
pervade one quarter of the world,
and so too, the second quarter,
and so the third,
and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world,
above,
below,
around
and everywhere,
and altogether
does he continue to pervade
with sympathy with joy-burdened thought,
abounding,
sublime,
and beyond measure,
free from hatred and ill-will.

And he lets his mind, fraught with equanimity,
pervade one quarter of the world,
and so too, the second quarter,
and so the third,
and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world,
above,
below,
around
and everywhere,
and altogether
does he continue to pervade
with equanimity-burdened thought,
abounding,
sublime,
and beyond measure,
free from hatred and ill-will.

He recalls to mind[29]
his various temporary states in days gone by
— one birth,
or two or three or four or five births,
or ten or twenty or thirty or forty or fifty
or a hundred or a thousand
or a hundred thousand births,
through many an aeon of dissolution,
many an aeon of evolution,
many an aeon of both dissolution and evolution.
"In such a place such was my name,
such my family,
such my caste,
such my food,
such my experience of discomfort or of ease,
and such the limits of my life.

When I passed away from that state,
I took form again in such a place.
There I had such and such a name
and family
and caste
and food
and experience of discomfort or of ease,
such was the limit of my life.

When I passed away from that state
I took form again here."
— thus does he call to mind
his temporary states in days gone by
in all their details,
and in all their modes.

What think you of that, Nigrodha?

Does the austerity by these things
become genuinely pure or not?"

"Verily, lord, the austerity by these things
becomes genuinely pure
and not impure,
wins topmost rank
and reaches the pith."

Nay, Nigrodha,
not yet does the austerity win to topmost rank
and reach the pith,
although it does reach the underlying fibre."

 


 

19. "But in what Way, lord,
does an austerity reach to the top
and to the pith?

How well it were
if the Exalted One could make my austerities attain to the top
and to the pith!"

"Take the case, Nigrodha,
of an ascetic who is self-restrained
by the Restraint of the Fourfold Watch.

What is the Restraint of the Fourfold Watch?

It is when an ascetic inflicts injury
on no living thing,
nor causes injury to be inflicted
on any living thing,
nor approves thereof.

He takes not what is not given,
nor approves thereof.

He utters no lies,
nor causes lies to be uttered,
nor approves thereof.

He craves not for the pleasures of sense,
nor leads others to crave for them,
nor approves thereof.

Now it is thus, Nigrodha,
that the ascetic becomes self-restrained
by the Restraint of the Fourfold-Watch.

In that he is thus self-restrained,
and his austerity is made to consist in this,
he advances upward
and turns not back to lower things.

He chooses some lonely spot
for his seat -
in the forest,
at the foot of a tree,
on the hillside,
in mountain glen,
or rocky cave,
in the charnel place,
or on a heap of straw in the open fields.

And returning thither
after his round for alms,
he seats himself
when his meal is done,
cross-legged,
keeping his body erect,
and his intelligence alert,
intent.

Putting away the hankering after the World,
he abides with unhankering heart,
and purifies his mind of covetousness.

Putting away the canker of ill-will,
he abides with heart free from enmity,
benevolent and compassionate towards every living thing,
and purifies his mind of malevolence.

Putting away sloth and torpor,
he abides clear of both;
conscious of light,
mindful and self-possessed,
he purifies his mind of sloth and torpor.

Putting away flurry and worry,
he abides free from excitement;
with heart serene within,
he purifies his mind of flurry and worry.

Putting away doubt,
he abides as one
who has passed beyond perplexity;
no longer in suspense
as to what is good,
he purifies his mind of doubt.

Having put away those Five Hindrances,
and to weaken by insight
the strength of the things
that defile the heart,
abides letting his mind,
fraught with love,
pervade one quarter of the world,
and so too, the second quarter,
and so the third,
and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world,
above,
below,
around
and everywhere,
and altogether
does he continue to pervade
with love-burdened thought,
abounding,
sublime,
and beyond measure,
free from hatred and ill-will.

And he lets his mind,
fraught with pity
pervade one quarter of the world,
and so too, the second quarter,
and so the third,
and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world,
above,
below,
around
and everywhere,
and altogether
does he continue to pervade
with pity-burdened thought,
abounding,
sublime,
and beyond measure,
free from hatred and ill-will.

And he lets his mind,
fraught with sympathy with joy
pervade one quarter of the world,
and so too, the second quarter,
and so the third,
and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world,
above,
below,
around
and everywhere,
and altogether
does he continue to pervade
with sympathy with joy-burdened thought,
abounding,
sublime,
and beyond measure,
free from hatred and ill-will.

And he lets his mind, fraught with equanimity,
pervade one quarter of the world,
and so too, the second quarter,
and so the third,
and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world,
above,
below,
around
and everywhere,
and altogether
does he continue to pervade
with equanimity-burdened thought,
abounding,
sublime,
and beyond measure,
free from hatred and ill-will.

He recalls to mind
his various temporary states in days gone by
— one birth,
or two or three or four or five births,
or ten or twenty or thirty or forty or fifty
or a hundred or a thousand
or a hundred thousand births,
through many an aeon of dissolution,
many an aeon of evolution,
many an aeon of both dissolution and evolution.
"In such a place such was my name,
such my family,
such my caste,
such my food,
such my experience of discomfort or of ease,
and such the limits of my life.

When I passed away from that state,
I took form again in such a place.
There I had such and such a name
and family
and caste
and food
and experience of discomfort or of ease,
such was the limit of my life.

When I passed away from that state
I took form again here."
— thus does he call to mind
his temporary states in days gone by
in all their details,
and in all their modes.

He with the pure deva-vision,
surpassing that of men,
he sees beings as they pass away
from one form of existence
and take shape in another;
he recognises the mean and the noble,
the well favoured and the ill favoured,
the happy and the wretched,
passing away according to their deeds:

"Such and such worthy folk[30],
evil-doers in act and word and thought,
revilers of the Ariyans,
holding to wrong views,
acquiring for themselves that Karma
which results from wrong views,
they, on the dissolution of the body, after death,
are reborn in some unhappy state of suffering or woe.

But such and such beings,
good in act and word and thought,
no revilers of the Ariyans,
holding to right views,
acquiring for themselves that Karma
that results from right views,
they, on the dissolution of the body, after death,
are reborn in some happy state in heaven."

Thus with the pure deva-vision,
surpassing that of men,
he sees beings as they pass away from one state of existence,
and take form in another;
he recognises the mean and the noble,
the well favoured and the ill favoured,
the happy and the wretched,
passing away according to their deeds.

What think you of that, Nigrodha?

Does austerity by these things
become genuinely pure
or not?"

"Verily, lord, austerity by these things
becomes genuinely pure,
and not impure;
it wins topmost rank
and reaches the pith."

Note that this is not the topmost rank or the pith of Gotama's Dhamma, it is the topmost rank and the pith of the austerity practice.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

"Thus, Nigrodha, does austerity
win topmost rank
and reach the pith.

And so, Nigrodha, when you say to me:

'What, lord, is this religion of the Exalted One,
wherein he trains his disciples,
and which those disciples,
so trained by the Exalted One
as to win comfort,
acknowledge to be their utmost support
and the fundamental principle of righteousness?

I say that it is matter
of a higher
and more excellent degree
wherein I train my disciples,
so that they,
so trained by me
therein as to find comfort,
acknowledge it to be their utmost support
and the fundamental principle of righteous living.

[48] When he had thus said,
the Wanderers raised a clamour,
exclaiming loudly and noisily:

"Herein are we and our teachers
set at naught.

We know of nothing beyond their teaching
that is higher."

 


 

20. When the householder Sandhāna realized:

'Surely now these Wanderers,
though of other views,
are listening to what the Exalted One has said,
are paying attention,
are applying their minds to understand',

he then spake thus to Nigrodha:[31]

"You were saying to me just now, Nigrodha:

'Look you now, householder,
know you with whom the Samaṇa Gotama talks;
with whom he holds conversation;
by intercourse with whom
does he attain to lucidity in wisdom?

The Samaṇa Gotama's insight is ruined
by his habit of seclusion.

He is not at home
in conducting an assembly.

He is not ready in conversation.

He is occupied only with the fringes of things.

Even as a one-eyed cow
that, walking in a circle,
follows ever the outskirts,
so is the Samaṇa Gotama.

Why forsooth, householder,
if the Samaṇa Gotama were to come to this assembly,
with a single question only
could we settle him;
yea, methinks we could roll him over
like an empty pot.'

Now then the lord
the Exalted One,
the Arahant Buddha Supreme,
has arrived among us;
show ye him
as not at home in an assembly;
show him to be
as a one-eyed cow
walking in a circle;
with your single question
settle him now,
roll him over
me thinks like an empty pot."

When he had thus said,
Nigrodha sat silent
and annoyed,
with hunched back
and drooping head,
brooding
and dumbfounded.

21. Now When the Exalted One perceived Nigrodha
silent
and annoyed,
with hunched back
and drooping head,
brooding
and dumbfounded,
he said:

"Is it true, Nigrodha,
that you made this speech?"

"It is true, lord,
that I made that speech,
so foolish was I,
so stupid,
so wrong."

"What think you of this, Nigrodha?

Have you ever heard it said
by Wanderers who were venerable,
aged,
your teachers
and teachers of your teachers,
thus:

'They who in past ages were Arahants,
Buddhas Supreme, forsooth,
those Exalted Ones,
when they were met and assembled,
used to talk with loud voices,
with noise and clamour,
carrying on childish talk of various kinds,
to wit,

tales of kings,
robbers,[32]
and state officials;
tales of armies,
panics,
and battles;
talk about foods and drinks,
and clothes,
beds,
garlands,
and perfumes;
talk about relatives;
talk about carriages,
villages,
towns,
cities,
and countries;
talk about women,
talk of heroes;
gossip from street-corners
and the places for drawing water;
ghost-stories:
desultory talk;
speculative talk on the world and the sea;
on existence and non-existence'

as you and your teachers do now?

Or did they say:

'Thus were those Exalted Ones wont
to haunt the lonely
and remote recesses of the forest,
where noise,
where sound
there hardly is,
where breezes from the pastures blow,
yet which were hidden from the eyes of men,
meet for self-communing,

even as I do now?"

"Lord, I have heard it said
by Wanderers who were venerable,
aged,
our teachers,
and teachers of our teachers, thus:

'They who in past ages were Arahants,
Buddhas Supreme,
not theirs was it,
when met and assembled,
to talk with loud voices,
with noise and clamour,
carrying on childish talk of various kinds kinds,
to wit,

tales of kings,
robbers,
and state officials;
tales of armies,
panics,
and battles;
talk about foods and drinks,
and clothes,
beds,
garlands,
and perfumes;
talk about relatives;
talk about carriages,
villages,
towns,
cities,
and countries;
talk about women,
talk of heroes;
gossip from street-corners
and the places for drawing water;
ghost-stories:
desultory talk;
speculative talk on the world and the sea;
on existence and non-existence,'

even as I do now in my own persuasion,

'but theirs was it
to haunt the lonely
and remote recesses of the forest,
where noise,
where sound
there hardly is,
where breezes from the pastures blow,
yet which were hidden from the eyes of men,
meet for self-communing',

even as the Exalted One does now."

"You yourself, Nigrodha,
being intelligent
and advanced in years,
has not this occurred to you?

Enlightened is the Exalted One;
he teaches the religion of Enlightenment.

Self-mastered[33] is the Exalted One;
he teaches the religion of Self-mastery.

Calm is the Enlightened One;
he teaches the religion of Calm.

Saved is the Enlightened One;
he teaches the [50] religion of Salvation.[34]

At peace is the Enlightened One;
he teaches the religion of Peace."[35]

12. When this was said,
Nigrodha the Wanderer spake thus
to the Exalted One:[36]

"An offence has overcome me, lord,
foolish
and stupid
and wrong
that I am,
who spoke thus about the Exalted One.

May the Exalted 0ne accept it of me, lord,
that do so acknowledge it as an offence,
to the end that in future
I may restrain myself."

"Verily, Nigrodha,
it was an offence that overcame you
in acting thus,
foolish
and stupid
and wrung
that you were,
in that you spakc thus of me.

And inasmuch as you, Nigrodha,
looking upon it as an offence,
confess according to your deeds,
we accept your confession.

Fur that, Nigrodha,
is custom in the discipline of the Ayriyans,
that whosoever looks upon his fault
as a fault,
and rightfully confesses it,
shall in the future
attain to self-restraint.

 

§

 

But I, Nigrodha, say this to you:[37]

Let a man of intelligence come to me,
who is honest,
candid,
straightforward -
I will instruct him,
I will teach him the Norm.

If he practise
according as he is taught,
then to know himself
and to realize even here and now
that supreme religion and goal,
for the sake of which,
clansmen go forth from the household life
into the homeless state,
will take him seven years.

Nay, Nigrodha, let be the seven years.

Let a man of intelligence come to me,
who is honest,
candid,
straightforward -
I will instruct him,
I will teach him the Norm.

If he practise
according as he is taught,
then to know for himself
and realize even here and now
that supreme religion and goal,
for the sake of which
clansmen go forth from [51] the household life
into the homeless state,
will take him six years.

Nay, Nigrodha, let be the six years.

Let a man of intelligence come to me,
who is honest,
candid,
straightforward -
I will instruct him,
I will teach him the Norm.

If he practise
according as he is taught,
then to know for himself
and realize even here and now
that supreme religion and goal,
for the sake of which
clansmen go forth from the household life
into the homeless state,
will take him five years.

Nay, Nigrodha, let be the five years.

Let a man of intelligence come to me,
who is honest,
candid,
straightforward -
I will instruct him,
I will teach him the Norm.

If he practise
according as he is taught,
then to know for himself
and realize even here and now
that supreme religion and goal,
for the sake of which
clansmen go forth from the household life
into the homeless state,
will take him four years.

Nay, Nigrodha, let be the four years.

Let a man of intelligence come to me,
who is honest,
candid,
straightforward -
I will instruct him,
I will teach him the Norm.

If he practise
according as he is taught,
then to know for himself
and realize even here and now
that supreme religion and goal,
for the sake of which
clansmen go forth from the household life
into the homeless state,
will take him three years.

Nay, Nigrodha, let be the three years.

Let a man of intelligence come to me,
who is honest,
candid,
straightforward -
I will instruct him,
I will teach him the Norm.

If he practise
according as he is taught,
then to know for himself
and realize even here and now
that supreme religion and goal,
for the sake of which
clansmen go forth from the household life
into the homeless state,
will take him two years.

Nay, Nigrodha, let be the two years.

Let a man of intelligence come to me,
who is honest,
candid,
straightforward -
I will instruct him,
I will teach him the Norm.

If he practise
according as he is taught,
then to know for himself
and realize even here and now
that supreme religion and goal,
for the sake of which
clansmen go forth from the household life
into the homeless state,
will take him one year.

Nay, Nigrodha, let be the one year.

Let a man of intelligence come to me,
who is honest,
candid,
straightforward -
I will instruct him,
I will teach him the Norm.

If he practise
according as he is taught,
then to know for himself
and realize even here and now
that supreme religion and goal,
for the sake of which
clansmen go forth from the household life
into the homeless state,
will take him six months.

Nay, Nigrodha, let be the six months.

Let a man of intelligence come to me,
who is honest,
candid,
straightforward -
I will instruct him,
I will teach him the Norm.

If he practise
according as he is taught,
then to know for himself
and realize even here and now
that supreme religion and goal,
for the sake of which
clansmen go forth from the household life
into the homeless state,
will take him five months.

Nay, Nigrodha, let be the five months.

Let a man of intelligence come to me,
who is honest,
candid,
straightforward -
I will instruct him,
I will teach him the Norm.

If he practise
according as he is taught,
then to know for himself
and realize even here and now
that supreme religion and goal,
for the sake of which
clansmen go forth from the household life
into the homeless state,
will take him four months.

Nay, Nigrodha, let be the four months.

Let a man of intelligence come to me,
who is honest,
candid,
straightforward -
I will instruct him,
I will teach him the Norm.

If he practise
according as he is taught,
then to know for himself
and realize even here and now
that supreme religion and goal,
for the sake of which
clansmen go forth from the household life
into the homeless state,
will take him three months.

Nay, Nigrodha, let be the three months.

Let a man of intelligence come to me,
who is honest,
candid,
straightforward -
I will instruct him,
I will teach him the Norm.

If he practise
according as he is taught,
then to know for himself
and realize even here and now
that supreme religion and goal,
for the sake of which
clansmen go forth from the household life
into the homeless state,
will take him two months.

Nay, Nigrodha, let be the two months.

Let a man of intelligence come to me,
who is honest,
candid,
straightforward -
I will instruct him,
I will teach him the Norm.

If he practise
according as he is taught,
then to know for himself
and realize even here and now
that supreme religion and goal,
for the sake of which
clansmen go forth from the household life
into the homeless state,
will take him one month.

Nay, Nigrodha, let be the one month.

Let a man of intelligence come to me,
who is honest,
candid,
straightforward -
I will instruct him,
I will teach him the Norm.

If he practise
according as he is taught,
then to know for himself
and realize even here and now
that supreme religion and goal,
for the sake of which
clansmen go forth from the household life
into the homeless state,
will take him half a month.

Nay, Nigrodha, let be half a month.

Let a man of intelligence come to me,
who is honest,
candid,
straightforward -
I will instruct him,
I will teach him the Norm.

If he practise
according as he is taught,
then to know for himself
and realize even here and now
that supreme religion and goal,
for the sake of which
clansmen go forth from the household life
into the homeless state,
will take him seven days.

 

§

 

23. Maybe, Nigrodha, you will think:

'The Samaṇa Gotama has said this
from a desire to get pupils';

but you are not thus to explain my words.

Let him who is your teacher
be your teacher still.

Maybe, Nigrodha, you will think:

'The Samaṇa Gotama has said this
from a desire to make us secede from our rule';

but you are not thus to explain my words.

Let that which is your rule
be your rule still.

Maybe, Nigrodha, you will think:

'The Samaṇa Gotama has said this
from a desire to make us secede from our mode of livelihood';

but you are not thus to explain my words.

Let that which is your mode of livelihood
be so still.

Maybe, Nigrodha, you will think:

'The Samaṇa Gotama has said this
from a desire to confirm us
as to such points of our doctrines
as are wrong,
and reckoned as wrong -
by those in our community';

but you are not thus to explain my words.

Let those points in your doctrines
which are wrong
and reckoned as wrong
by those in your community,
remain so still for you.

Maybe, Nigrodha, you will think:

'The Samaṇa Gotama has said this
from a desire to detach us
from such points in our doctrines
as are good,
reckoned as good
by those in our community';

but you are not thus to explain my words.

Let those points in your doctrines
which are good,
reckoned to be good
by those in your community,
remain so still.

Wherefore, Nigrodha,
I speak thus,
neither because I wish to gain pupils,
nor because I wish to cause [52] seceding from rule,
nor because I wish to cause
seceding from mode of livelihood,
nor because I wish to confirm you
in bad doctrines,
or detach you from good doctrines.

But, 0 Nigrodha,
there are bad things not put away,
corrupting,
entailing birth re-newal,
bringing suffering,
resulting in ill,
making for birth,
decay
and death
in the future,
and it is for the putting away of these
that I teach the norm,
according to which
if ye do walk,
the things that corrupt
shall be put away,
the things that make for purity
shall grow and flourish,
and ye shall attain to
and abide in,
each one for himself
even here and now,
the understanding
and the realization
of full
and abounding insight."

24. When he had thus said,
the Wanderers sat silent
and annoyed,
with hunched back
and drooping head,
brooding
and dumbfounded,
so were their hearts criven over to Māra.

Then the Exalted One thought:

"Every one of these foolish men
is pervaded by the Evil One,
so that to not even one of them
will the thought occur:

'Come, let us now live
the holy life taught by the Samaṇa Gotama,
that we may learn to know it.

What does an interval of seven days matter?'"

Then the Exalted One
having uttered his Lion's Roar
in the park Queen Udumbarikā had assigned to the Wanderers,
rose up
and went through the air,
and alighted on the Vulture's Peak.

And then, too, the householder Sumāgadha
returned to Rājagaha.

The Udumbarika Sihaniida-Suttanta is ended.


 


[1] Pronounce Nigrô'dha. The conversation reported in this Suttanta is referred to above, I, 239.

[2] Tiracchāna-kathā, literally animal-talk, but the adjective 'animal' as applied to talk is meaningless to Europeans. Brutish, brutal, beastly would all be literal, but very bad renderings. The fact is that the mental attitude of Indians towards animals is quite different from our own. They regard animals as on a lower plane indeed than men, but different (not in kind), only in degree. They take for granted the very real relationship between men and animals which we fail to realize, and often deny. The phrase animal-talk is therefore untranslatable. Buddhaghosa (Sum. I, 89) says, not leading to heaven or to emancipation. This is good exegesis of the whole passage, but throws little light on the exact connotation of the particular phrase animal-talk. It was translated above at I, 13 by low, and at I, 245 by worldly. Neither of these gives the exact force of the original, which must be akin to childish. For as the child is to the man with us now, so then in India (only one stage removed) was the animal to the man.

[3] Here the Siṇhalese MSS. again (as above I, 13) omit purisa-kathan - talk about men, the Siamese and Burmese modern printed editions inserting it. Probability is all on the side of the Siṇhalese. From the male standpoint, all the other subjects are about Ourselves, directly or indirectly, i.e. in relation to this or that; itthi-kathā is about Ourselves in relation to women. Hence, to add talk about men is entirely redundant and a later gloss.

[4] Vijanavātāni. Both reading and meaning are doubtful See Rhys Davids' Quest of King Milinda I, 30; E. Windisch, Mara und Buddha, 242; H. Oldenberg, Vinaya I, 367. The epithet is usually applied to a residence for members of the Order, but it is also applicable to a place of meditation. Both must be near enough to the homesteads for the confidence necessary to peace of mind, and yet far enough off to be free from disturbance. The first part of the word may well have been originally from v.rjana, as Buddhaghosa's explanation from jana seems very forced.

[5] Cf. M. I, 82, 175; II, 209. Veyyattiya = vyattibhāva. By way of reply and rejoinder with whom? says Buddhaghosa. The word is not in Childers, but see Majjhima I, 82, 175; II, 208-g. Perhaps we should render lucidity and Wisdom.

[6] Antamantāni eva sevati. Perhaps: 'so he keeps apart from others, in solitary places.'

[7] A lotus-pool or tank in the park. Cf. M. II, I; A. I, 29I; V, 326 as to the Peacocks' Feeding-ground in the same park.

[8] Ajjhāsayaṃ ādihrahmacariyaṃ. Cf. above, II, p. 262, n. 2. (Tbe reference has there, by a printer's error and our oversight, been made to refer to Ī 10, instead of to Ī 12, 1. 4.) In the present connexion the Comy. paraphrases ajjhāsayaṃ by uttama-nissaya-bhūta q1ṃ, and ādibrahmacariyaṃ by The Ariyan Path termed the ancient brahmacariya (holy life).

[9] This question is referred to above, I, 239. The catalogue of austerities is identical with the list in that Suttanta where the various practices are explained.

[10] Tapassī One who depends on tapas, austerities, self-mortification.

[11] Upakki1eso. An auxiliary or subsidiary corruption (no doubt with the connotation that it may lead on to worse), spot, flaw, defect, blemish.

[12] Paripuṇṇa -saŋkappo ti a1am ettāvatā ti evaṃ pariyosita-saŋkappo: Comy. his aims are completed means thinking: 'thus far is enough; my aims are ended.' Again: he thinks: 'Who is equal to me in this practice?' With this may be compared our comment on Dr. Neumann's different rendering in M. I, 192; III, 276; in J.R.A.S., 1902, p. 482.

[13] Vodāsam āpajjati. Buddhaghosa explains: dvedhaṃ āpajjati, dve bhāge karoti.

[14] On these varieties of bīja see above, I, 6, n. 2.

[15] The sentence is not clear. The reading asani-vicakka is confirmed by Saṃyutta II, 229. As to the metaphor, the Atthasālinī, p. 404, has five, equally vigorous.

[16] Buddhaghosa explains: He sits in some meeting-(lit. seeing-) place, and where they can see him, he executes the bat-rite (cf. Jāt III, 235; IV, 299; I, 493) of hanging head downwards like a sleeping bat, the fivefold austerity (see ibid.) or stands on one leg, or worships the sun.

[17] Attānaṃ adassayamāno. Buddhaghosa thinks the negative a- in the latter word a mere particle.

[18] Antaggahikā-diṭṭhi, which the Comy. limits to the Annihilationist heresy (ucchedanta); cf. above, I, p. 46.

[19] Sandiṭṭhi: what he himself can see, says the Comy.

[20] [Ed.: the PTS edition here abridges this entire section and notes that fact here.]

[21] Sārappattā. Sāra (pith) is the usual Buddhist metaphor for the essence, the heart, root, or core of the matter.

[22] Na bhāvitaṃ āsiṃsati. Perhaps: he does not rest complacently on that in which he has so trained himself. But we follow Buddhaghosa.

[23] Abhiharati, paraphrased as upari upari vaḍḍhati - he grows upward upward.

[24] See above, I, p. 82.

[25] This phrase was inadvertently omitted from the corresponding sentence in I, 82.

[26] Lit.: accompanied by. These paragraphs occur above at I, p. 318; II, pp. 219, 279, but not at p. 82.

[27] Our modern tongues sadly lack a word for muditā: joy in others' good, the obverse, so to speak, of sympathy. We have only another obverse: malice, Schadenfreude!

[28] Lit.: has reached the bark, as distinct from the pith (sāra).

[29] See above, I, p. 90.

[30] Bhonto sattā. Cf. bho satta, Digha III, 89 f., and below, Sampasadaniya Suttanta, Ī 17, n.

[31] Buddhaghosa imputes to Sandhāna the charitable intention of so forcing Nigrodha's hand as to bring about the Buddha's forgiveness of his insolent assertion (§ 5). By overthrowing this banner of conceit he would cause Nigrodha to reap lasting benefit.

[32] [Ed.: The PTS abridges the whole list of subjects.]

[33] Lit., tamed.

[34] Lit., crossed over, and crossing over, a figure applied always to the Four Floods (sensuality, renewed existence, speculative opinion, ignorance) which whelm mankind in everlasting living. Asl., p. 49. On the form of the sentences, cf. Paṭisambhidāmagga I, p. 126 f., On the Great Pity of a Tathāgata.

[35] Parinibbāna - i.e., says the Comy., the driving away for mankind of all the Corruptions (ki1esa's). For the Ten Corruptions, see Bud. Psych. Ethics, pp. 327 ff.

[36] Cf. above, I, p. 94.

[37] Cf. M. II, 44.


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