Digha Nikaya


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Sacred Books of the Buddhists
Volume IV

Dīgha Nikāya

Dialogues of the Buddha
Part III

Sutta 29

Pāsādika Suttantaɱ

The Delectable Discourse

Translated from the Pali by T.W. Rhys Davids and
C.A.F. Rhys Davids

Public Domain

Originally published under the patronage of
His Majesty King Chulālankarana,
King of Siam
by The Pali Text Society, Oxford

 


 

[1] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

The Exalted One was aTone time sojourning among the Sākyans,
[at the technical college[1]] in the Mango Grove
of the Sakyan family named The Archers.

Now at that time Nāthaputta the Nigantha
had just died at Pāvā.[2]

And at his death
the Nigaṇṭhas[3] became disunited
and divided into two parties,
in mutual strife and conflict,
quarrelling and wounding each other
with wordy weapons: —

"Thou dost not understand this doctrine and discipline;
but I do understand it."

"How shouldst thou understand it?"

"Thou art in the wrong;
I am in the right!"

"I am speaking to the point;
thou art not!"

"Thou sayest last
what should be said first,
and first
what ought to come last!"

"What thou hast so long excogitated
is quite upset!"

"Thy challenge is taken up;
thou'rt proved to be wrong!"

"Begone to get rid of thy opinion,
or disentangle thyself if thou canst!"[4]

Truly the Nigaṇṭhas,
followers of Nāthaputta,
were out methinks to kill.

Even the lay disciples of the white robe,
who followed Nāthaputta,
showed themselves shocked,
repelled and indignant
at the Nigaṇṭhas,
so badly was their doctrine and discipline
set forth and imparted,
so ineffectual was it for guidance,
so little conducive to peace,
imparted as it had been
by one who was not supremely enlightened,
and [112] now wrecked as it was
of his support[5]
and without a protector.[6]

Now Cunda the Novice,[7]
having passed the rainy season at Pāvā,
came to see the venerable Ānanda at Sāmāgama,
and coming,
saluted him
and sat down beside him.

So seated
he said to the venerable Ānanda:

"Nāthaputta, sir,
the Nigaṇṭha,
has just died at Pāvā.

And he being dead,
the Nigaṇṭhas have become disunited
and divided into two parties,
in mutual strife and conflict,
quarrelling and wounding each other
with wordy weapons: —

'Thou dost not understand this doctrine and discipline;
but I do understand it.'

'How shouldst thou understand it?'

'Thou art in the wrong;
I am in the right!'

'I am speaking to the point;
thou art not!'

'Thou sayest last
what should be said first,
and first
what ought to come last!'

'What thou hast so long excogitated
is quite upset!'

'Thy challenge is taken up;
thou'rt proved to be wrong!'

'Begone to get rid of thy opinion,
or disentangle thyself if thou canst!'

Truly the Nigaṇṭhas,
followers of Nāthaputta,
were out methinks to kill.

Even the lay disciples of the white robe,
who followed Nāthaputta,
showed themselves shocked,
repelled and indignant
at the Nigaṇṭhas,
so badly was their doctrine and discipline
set forth and imparted,
so ineffectual was it for guidance,
so little conducive to peace,
imparted as it had been
by one who was not supremely enlightened,
now wrecked as it was
of his support
and without a protector."

Then said the venerable Ānanda
to Cunda the Novice:

"Friend Cunda,
this is a worthy subject
to bring before the Exalted One.

Let's go to him,
and tell him about it."

"Very good, sir", replied Cunda the Novice.

So the venerable Ānanda
and Cunda the Novice
sought out the Exalted One
and saluting him,
and sitting down beside him,
said this:

"Nāthaputta, sir,
the Nigaṇṭha,
has just died at Pāvā.

And he being dead,
the Nigaṇṭhas have become disunited
and divided into two parties,
in mutual strife and conflict,
quarrelling and wounding each other
with wordy weapons: —

'Thou dost not understand this doctrine and discipline;
but I do understand it.'

'How shouldst thou understand it?'

'Thou art in the wrong;
I am in the right!'

'I am speaking to the point;
thou art not!'

'Thou sayest last
what should be said first,
and first
what ought to come last!'

'What thou hast so long excogitated
is quite upset!'

'Thy challenge is taken up;
thou'rt proved to be wrong!'

'Begone to get rid of thy opinion,
or disentangle thyself if thou canst!'

Truly the Nigaṇṭhas,
followers of Nāthaputta,
were out methinks to kill.

Even the lay disciples of the white robe,
who followed Nāthaputta,
showed themselves shocked,
repelled and indignant
at the Nigaṇṭhas,
so badly was their doctrine and discipline
set forth and imparted,
so ineffectual was it for guidance,
so little conducive to peace,
imparted as it had been
by one who was not supremely enlightened,
now wrecked as it was
of his support
and without a protector."

(The Buddha:) "Here, Cunda, we have a teacher
who was not supremely enlightened,
and a doctrine badly set forth,
badly imparted,
ineffectual to guide,
not conducing to peace,
imparted by one
who was not supremely enlightened.

In such a doctrine, moreover,
the disciple does not come to master[8]
the lesser corollaries
that follow from the larger doctrine,
[113] nor to acquire correct conduct,
nor to walk according to the precepts,
but is perpetually evading that doctrine.

To him one might say:

'Friend, thou hast got [thy gospel],
and thou hast got thy opportunity.[9]

Thy teacher is not supremely enlightened;
his Norm is badly set forth,
badly imparted,
ineffectual for guidance,
not conducive to peace,
not imparted by one supremely enlightened.

Thou in that doctrine
hast not mastered the lesser corollaries
that follow from the larger doctrine,
nor acquired correct conduct,
nor walkest thou
according to those corollaries,
but thou dost perpetually evade that doctrine.'

Thus, Cunda, both that teacher
and that doctrine
are shown blame­worthy,
but the disciple is praiseworthy.

Now he who should say to such a disciple:

'Come, your reverence,
practise even according to the doctrine taught
and declared by your teacher!'

Both he who instigates,
and he who is instigated,
and he too who,
being instigated,
practises accordingly, -
they all of them generate much demerit.

And why?

Because their doctrine and discipline
are badly set forth,
badly imparted,
ineffectual for guidance,
not conducive to peace,
not imparted by one supremely enlightened.

But consider, Cunda,
where, the teacher
not being supremely enlightened,
and the doctrine being badly set forth,
badly imparted,
ineffectual for guidance,
not conducive to peace,
not imparted by one supremely enlightened,
the disciple abides in that doctrine,
practising the lesser corollaries
following on the larger doctrine,
acquiring correct conduct and,
walking according to the precepts,
perpetually conforms to that doctrine.

To him one might say:

'Friend, thou hast been unlucky
[in thy teacher],
and in thy opportunity;
thy teacher is not supremely enlightened;
thy doctrine is badly set forth,
badly imparted,
ineffectual for guidance,
not conducive to peace,
not imparted by one supremely enlightened;
and thou abide in that doctrine,
practising the lesser corollaries
following on the larger doctrine,
acquiring correct conduct and,
walking according to the precepts,
perpetually conformest to that [114] doctrine.'

By these words, Cunda,
teacher
and doctrine
and disciple
are all blameworthy.

And he who should say:

'Verily his reverence[10]
mastering the system
will carry it to a successful end!' -

He thus commending
and he who is commended
and he who, thus commended,
redoubles the energy he puts forth, -
all they generate much demerit.

And why?

Because their doctrine and discipline
have been badly set forth,
badly imparted,
ineffectual for guidance,
not conducive to peace,
not imparted by one supremely enlightened.

But consider, Cunda,
where the teacher is supremely enlightened,
and the doctrine well set forth,
well imparted,
effectual for guidance,
conducive to peace,
imparted by one supremely enlightened,
but where the disciple in that norm
has not mastered the lesser corollaries
following on the larger doctrine,
nor learnt to practise correct conduct,
nor walks according to the precepts,
but perpetually evades that doctrine.

To him one might say: -

'Friend, thou hast not succeeded,
thou hast missed thy opportunity.

Thy teacher is supremely enlightened,
and his doctrine is well set forth,
well imparted,
effectual for guidance,
conducive to peace,
imparted by one who is supremely enlightened,
but thou hast not mastered the lesser corollaries
following on the larger doctrine,
nor learnt to practise correct conduct,
nor walk according to the precepts,
but perpetually evade that doctrine.'

By these words, Cunda,
teacher and doctrine are commended,
but the disciple is held blameworthy.

Now if one were to say to such a disciple: -

'Come, your reverence,
practise in accordance with the doctrine taught
and declared by your teacher!' -

he who instigated,
he who was instigated,
and he who being instigated practised accordingly,
would all of them generate much merit.

And why?

Because that doctrine and discipline
were well set forth,
well imparted,
effectual for guidance,
conducive to peace,
imparted by one who is supremely enlightened.

But consider, Cunda,
where the teacher is supremely enlightened,
the doctrine well set forth,
well imparted,
effectual for guidance,
conducive to peace,
imparted by one who is supremely enlightened
and where the disciple has mastered
the lesser corollaries
following on the larger doctrine,
learnt to practise correct conduct,
walks according to the precepts,
and perpetually conformest to that doctrine.

To him one might say:­

[115] 'Thou, friend, hast been successful in teacher
and in opportunity
thy teacher is supremely enlightened,
the doctrine well set forth,
well imparted,
effectual for guidance,
conducive to peace,
imparted by one who is supremely enlightened
and you have mastered
the lesser corollaries
following on the larger doctrine,
learnt to practise correct conduct,
walk according to the precepts,
and perpetually conformest to that doctrine.'

By these words, Cunda,
teacher
and doctrine
and disciple
are all three deemed praiseworthy.

And if one should say to such a disciple: -

'Verily his reverence has mastered the system
and will carry it to a successful end,
he who commends,
he who is commended
and he who, commended,
redoubles the energy he is putting forth,
do all of them generate much merit.'

And why?

Because, Cunda, that is so
when a doctrine and discipline
well set forth and well imparted,
effectual for guidance,
conducive to peace,
have been imparted
by one who is supremely enlightened.

But consider, Cunda,
where a teacher hath arisen in the world,
Arahant,
supremely enlightened;
where a doctrine hath been well set forth,
well imparted,
effectual for guidance,
conducive to peace,
imparted by one who is supremely en1ightened;
but where his disciples
have not become proficient in the good Norm,
nor has the full scope
of the higher life
become manifest to them,
evident,
with all the stages in it co­ordinated,
nor has it been made a thing
of saving grace[11] for them,
well proclaimed among men,[12]
when their teacher passes away.

Now for such a teacher to die, Cunda,
is a great affliction for his disciples.

And why?

'Our teacher arose in the world for us,
Arahant,
supremely enlightened;
and a Norm was well set forth,
well imparted,
effectual for guidance,
conducive to peace,
imparted by one who was supremely enlightened.

But we have not become proficient
in the good Norm,
nor has the full scope
of the higher life
become manifest to us,
evident,
with all the stages in it coordinated,
nor has it been made a thing
of saving grace for us,
[116] weil proclaimed among men.

Now has our teacher passed away!'

For such a teacher to die, Cunda,
is a great affliction for his disciples.

But consider, Cunda,
where a Teacher has appeared in the world who is Arahant,
supremely enlightened;
where a Norm has been well set forth,
well imparted,
effectual for guidance,
conducive to peace,
imparted by one who is supremely enlightened;
and where the disciples
have become proficient in the good Norm,
and where the full scope of the higher life
has become manifest to them,
evident,
with all its stages coordinated,
and made a thing of saving grace,
well proclaimed among men,
when that teacher passes away.

Now for such a teacher, Cunda,
to die is not an affliction for his disciples.

And why?

'A Teacher arose in the world for us,
Arahant,
supremely enlightened;
and a Norm was well set forth,
weil imparted,
effectual for guidance,
conducive to peace,
imparted by one who is supremely enlightened.

And we have become proficient in the good Norm,
and the full scope of the higher life
has become manifest to us,
evident,
with all its stages coordinated
and made a thing of saving grace,
well proclaimed among men.

'Now is our Teacher passed away!'

For such a Teacher to die, Cunda,
is not an affliction to his disciples.

If a religious system
be placed in these circumstances, Cunda,
and there be none to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
then is that system
by this circumstance
imperfect.

But if a religious system
be placed in these circumstances, Cunda,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
then is that system
by this circumstance
made perfect.

Again, if a religious system, Cunda,
be placed in these circumstances,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
but there be no senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,[13]
who are able to pro- [117] pagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace:
then is that system
by this circumstance
imperfect.

But if a religious system
be placed in these circumstances, Cunda,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace:
then is that system
by this circumstance
perfect.

Again, if a religious system, Cunda,
be placed in these circumstances,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
but if there be no bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
imperfect.

But if a religious system
be placed in these circumstances, Cunda,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
perfect.

Again, if a religious system, Cunda,
be placed in these circumstances,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
but if there be no novices who are disciples,
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
imperfect.

But if a religious system
be placed in these circumstances, Cunda,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
perfect.

Again, if a religious system, Cunda,
be placed in these circumstances,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
but if there be no senior[14] Sisters
who are disciples
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
imperfect.

But if a religious system
be placed in these circumstances, Cunda,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
and if there be senior Sisters
who are disciples
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
perfect.

Again, if a religious system, Cunda,
be placed in these circumstances,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
and if there be senior Sisters
who are disciples
but if there be no Sister novices
who are disciples
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
imperfect.

But if a religious system
be placed in these circumstances, Cunda,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
and if there be senior Sisters
who are disciples
and if there be Sister novices
who are disciples
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
perfect.

Again, if a religious system, Cunda,
be placed in these circumstances,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
and if there be senior Sisters
who are disciples
and if there be Sister novices
who are disciples
but if there be no laymen
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,[15]
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
imperfect.

But if a religious system
be placed in these circumstances, Cunda,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
and if there be senior Sisters
who are disciples
and if there be Sister novices
who are disciples
and if there be laymen
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
perfect.

Again, if a religious system, Cunda,
be placed in these circumstances,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
and if there be senior Sisters
who are disciples
and if there be Sister novices
who are disciples
and if there be laymen
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
but if there be none among those,
laymen who are wealthy,[16]
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
imperfect.

But if a religious system
be placed in these circumstances, Cunda,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
and if there be senior Sisters
who are disciples
and if there be Sister novices
who are disciples
and if there be laymen
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
and if there be among those,
laymen who are wealthy,
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
perfect.

Again, if a religious system, Cunda,
be placed in these circumstances,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
and if there be senior Sisters
who are disciples
and if there be Sister novices
who are disciples
and if there be laymen
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
and if there be among those
laymen who are wealthy,
but if there be no lay­women
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
imperfect.

But if a religious system
be placed in these circumstances, Cunda,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
and if there be senior Sisters
who are disciples
and if there be Sister novices
who are disciples
and if there be laymen
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
and if there be among those,
laymen who are wealthy,
and if there be lay­women
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
perfect.

Again, if a religious system, Cunda,
be placed in these circumstances,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
and if there be senior Sisters
who are disciples
and if there be Sister novices
who are disciples
and if there be laymen
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
and if there be among those
laymen who are wealthy,
and if there be lay­women
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
but if there be none among those,
lay­women who are wealthy,
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
imperfect.

But if a religious system
be placed in these circumstances, Cunda,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
and if there be senior Sisters
who are disciples
and if there be Sister novices
who are disciples
and if there be no laymen
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
and if there be among those,
laymen who are wealthy,
and if there be lay­women
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
and if there be among those,
lay­women who are wealthy,
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
perfect.

Again, if a religious system, Cunda,
be placed in these circumstances,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
and if there be senior Sisters
who are disciples
and if there be Sister novices
who are disciples
and if there be laymen
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
and if there be among those
laymen who are wealthy,
and if there be lay­women
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
and if there be among those,
lay­women who are wealthy,
but if the system be not successful,
prosperous,
widespread
and popular
in its full extent,
well proclaimed among men,
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
imperfect.

But if a religious system
be placed in these circumstances, Cunda,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
and if there be senior Sisters
who are disciples
and if there be Sister novices
who are disciples
and if there be no laymen
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
and if there be among those,
laymen who are wealthy,
and if there be lay­women
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
and if there be among those,
lay­women who are wealthy,
and if the system be successful,
prosperous,
widespread
and popular
in its full extent,
well proclaimed among men,
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
perfect.

Again, if a religious system, Cunda,
be placed in these circumstances,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
and if there be senior Sisters
who are disciples
and if there be Sister novices
who are disciples
and if there be laymen
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
and if there be among those
laymen who are wealthy,
and if there be lay­women
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
and if there be among those,
lay­women who are wealthy,
and if the system be successful,
prosperous,
widespread
and popular
in its full extent,
well proclaimed among men,
but if the system be all this
but have not attained the foremost place
in public fame and support
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
imperfect.

But if a religious system
be placed in these circumstances, Cunda,
and there be one to take the lead
who is a senior brother,
experienced,
of long standing in the order,
of ripe age,
arrived at years of discretion,
and there be senior bhikkhus who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the goal of religion,
who are able to propagate the truth,
who, having well confuted uprisen opposing schools
with their doctrines,
are able to teach the Norm
with saving grace,
and if there be bhikkhus
of middle age or standing
who are disciples,
and if there be novices who are disciples,
and if there be senior Sisters
who are disciples
and if there be Sister novices
who are disciples
and if there be no laymen
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
and if there be among those,
laymen who are wealthy,
and if there be lay­women
who are disciples,
householders of the white robe,
holy livers,
and if there be among those,
lay­women who are wealthy,
and if the system be successful,
prosperous,
widespread
and popular
in its full extent,
well proclaimed among men,
and if the system be all this
and have attained the foremost place
in public fame and support
then is the holy life
by this circumstance
perfect.

But I, Cunda, have now arisen
as a teacher in the world
who am Arahant,
supremely enlightened.

And the Norm is well set forth,
well imparted,
effectual for guidance,
conducive to peace,
imparted by one who is supremely enlightened.

And my true hearers
are proficient in the good Norm,
and the full scope of the holy life
has become manifest to them,
evident,
with all its stages coordinated,
and made a [118] thing of saving grace for them,
well proclaimed among men.

But I, Cunda, the teacher
am now grown old,
many are the nights I have known,
long is it since I went forth,
I have reached full age,
l have come to my journey's end.

Yet senior bhikkhus of mine are there, Cunda,
who are disciples,
wise and well trained,
ready and learned,
who have won the peace of the Arahant,
who are able to propagate the good Norm,
who when others start opposed doctrine,
easy to confute by the truth,
will be able in confuting it
to teach the Norm
and its saving grace.

And bhikkhus of middle age and standing
now are there, Cunda;
disciples of mine
and wise.

And novices now are there, Cunda,
disciples of mine.

And senior Sisters now are there, Cunda,
disciples of mine.

And Sisters of middle age and standing
now are there, Cunda,
and novices also,
disciples of mine.

And lay­men now are there, Cunda,
householders of the white robe,
men of holy life,
disciples of mine;
and among these
are men of wealth.

Laywomen now are there, Cunda,
householders of the white robe,
disciples of mine;
and among these
are women of wealth.

And my religion,[17] Cunda,
is successful,
prosperous,
widespread
and popular in all its full extent,
well proclaimed among men.

To what extent, Cunda,
there now are teachers arisen in the world,
I cannot discern any teacher,
who has attained to such a leading position
in renown and support
as I have.

To what extent, Cunda,
there now are Orders and companies arisen in the world,
I cannot discern any one
that has attained to such a leading position
in renown and support
as the Order of Bhikkhus.

If any one,
in describing a religion
as in every way successful,
in every respect complete,
neither defective nor redundant,
well set forth in all its full extent,
were to be speaking rightly,
it is this religion
that he would be describing.

[119] Uddaka the son of Rama,[18] Cunda,
used to say:

'Seeing he seeth not.'

And on seeing what does one not see?

Of a well sharpened razor
one sees the blade,
but one does not see the edge.

This is what he meant.

And a low pagan thing
was this that he spoke,
unworthy,
unprofitable,
suitable to the worldly majority,
about a razor forsooth.

Now were one to wish to use rightly that phrase,

'Seeing he does not see,'

it is thus that he should say:

'Seeing he seeth not.'

But what is it that seeing
he does not see?

A religion that is in every way successful,
in every respect complete,
neither defective nor redundant,
well set forth
in all its full extent: ­
this is what he sees.

Were he to abstract some feature
at a given point,
thinking to make it clearer,
then he does not see it.

Were he to fill in some feature
at a given point,
thinking to make it more complete
then he does not see it,

and thus Seeing he seeth not.

Hence, Cunda,
if anyone wishing to describe a religion
in every way successful,
in every respect complete,
neither defective nor redundant,
well set forth in all its full extent,
were to be speaking rightly,
it is this religion
of which he should speak.

Wherefore, Cunda, do ye,
to whom I have made known
the truths that I have perceived,[19]
come together in company
and rehearse all of you together
those doctrines
and quarrel not over them,
but compare meaning with meaning,
and phrase with phrase,
in order that this pure religion
may last long
and be perpetuated,
in order that it may continue to be
for the good and happiness of the great multitudes,
out of love for the world,
to the good
and the gain
and the weal
of devas and men!

Which then, Cunda, are the truths which,
when I [120] had perceived,
I made known to you?

Which when ye have come together
and have associated yourselves,
ye are to rehearse,
all of you,
and not quarrel over,
comparing meaning with meaning,
and phrase with phrase,
in order that this pure religion
may last long
and be perpetuated,
in order that it may continue
to be for the good and happiness
of the great multitudes,
out of love for the world,
to the good
and the gain
and the weal
of devas and men?

They are these: -

The Four Onsets of Mindfulness,
the Four Supreme Efforts,
the Four Paths to Efficacy,
the Five Powers,
the Five Forces,
the Seven Factors of Enlightenment,
the Ariyan Eightfold Path.

These, 0 Cunda, are the truths
which when I had perceived,
I made known to you,
and which, when ye have come together
and have associated yourselves,
ye are to rehearse,
all of you,
and not quarrel over,
comparing meaning with meaning
and phrase with phrase,
in order that this pure religion
may last long,
and be perpetuated,
in order that it may continue
to be for the good and the happiness of the great multitudes,
out of love for the world,
to the good
and the gain
and the weal
of devas and men.[20]

You, Cunda,
thus met together in concord
and in courtesy,
suppose that a co-religionist
expresses an opinion before the Chapter.

Then if you judge that this honourable member
has laid hold of the meaning wrongly,
or is proposing a wrong form of words,
ye are neither to approve of,
nor to blame him.

Unapproving,
unblaming,
ye are to address him thus: ­

Of this meaning, brother,
either this is the phraseology
or that:
which fits it better?

Or: -

of these phrases
either this is the meaning,
or that:
which fits them [121] better?

If he reply:

Of this meaning, brother,
just that phraseology
is the more fitting, or,

Of these phrases, brother,
just that meaning
fits them better,

he is neither to be set aside
nor upbraided.

Neither setting him aside
nor upbraiding him,
ye are
with careful attention
to explain to him
both meaning
and phraseology.

Again, Cunda,
suppose that a co-religionist
expresses an opinion before the Chapter.

Then if you judge that if this honourable member
has laid hold of the meaning wrongly,
but propagates a right form of words,
ye are neither to approve of,
nor to blame him.

Unapproving,
unblaming,
ye are to address him thus:

Of these different phrases, brother,
either this is the meaning
or that:
which fits them better?

If he reply:

Of these phrases, brother,
just this meaning
is the more fitting,
he is neither to be set aside,
nor to be upbraided.

Neither setting him aside,
nor upbraiding him,
ye are thoroughly to explain to him,
with careful attention,
the right meaning.

So also must ye act,
if ye judge that such a speaker
has laid hold of the right meaning,
but is propagating a wrong form of words;
ye are thoroughly to explain to him,
with careful attention,
the right phraseology.

But if, Cunda,
such a speaker say and mean
what ye judge to be right,
then saying

'Weil said!'

ye should approve of
and congratulate him.

And so saying and doing,
ye should thus address him:

'We are fortunate, brother,
this is most fortunate for us
that in your reverence
we see a co-religionist so expert in the spirit
and in the letter!

A new doctrine, Cunda,
do I teach
for subduing the mental intoxicants
that are generated
even in this present life.

I teach not a doctrine
for the extirpating of intoxicants
in the future life only,
but one for subduing them now
and also for extirpating them
in the after-life.

Wherefore, Cunda,
the raiment sanctioned by me [122] for you,
let it suffice for the purpose of warding off cold,
for warding off heat,
for warding off the touch of gadfly and mosquito,
of wind
and sun
and snakes.[21]

The alms which are sanctioned by me for you,
let that suffice to sustain the body in life,
to keep it going,
to prevent injury,
to aid you in living the holy life,
you taking thought that:

'Thus shall I overcome the former sensation,
nor cause new sensation to arise.

So far shall I both be at ease
and incur no blame.'[22]

The lodging which is sanctioned by me for you,
let that suffice for you
to ward off cold,
to ward off heat,
to ward off the touch of gadfly and mosquito,
of wind
and sun
and snakes,
just for the purpose of avoiding
the dangers of the climate
and of enjoying seclusion.

The provision in drugs
and other necessaries for sickness
which is sanctioned by me for you,
let that suffice you
so far as it may ward off sensations of illness
that have arisen
and preserve your health.

It may happen, Cunda,
that wanderers holding other views than ours may say: -

'Those recluses who follow the Sakyan
are addicted and devoted
to a life of pleasure.'[23]

Teachers alleging this, Cunda,
should be answered thus:

'What, brother,
is it to be addicted and devoted to pleasure?'

For there are many
and manifold modes
in which one may be
so addicted and devoted.

There are four such modes, Cunda,
which are low and pagan,
belonging to the average majority,
un­worthy,
not associated with good,
not conducing to unworldliness,
to passionlessness,
to cessation,
to peace,
to higher knowledge,
to enlightenment,
to Nibbāna.

What are the four?

Firstly, there is the case
of the fool who takes his pleasure
and finds gratification
in slaying living creatures.

Secondly, there is the case
of one who takes his pleasure
and finds gratification
in taking what is not given.

Thirdly, there is the case
[123] of one who takes his pleasure
and finds gratification
in false statements.

Fourthly, there is the case
of one who dwells surrounded by,
and in the enjoyment of
the five kinds of sensuous pleasures.

These, Cunda, are the four modes
of being addicted and devoted
to pleasure which are low and pagan,
belonging to the average majority,
unworthy,
disconnected with good,
not conducive to unworldliness,
to passionlessness,
to cessation,
to peace,
to insight,
to enlightemnent,
to Nibbāna.

It may happen, Cunda,
that other teachers may ask:

'Are those recluses who follow the Sakyan
addicted and devoted
to these four modes?'

They should be answered:

'Nay, that is not so!'

They would not be speaking rightly;
they would be misrepresenting you
by what is not fact,
by what is not so.

These are the four modes
of being addicted and devoted to pleasure, Cunda,
which conduce absolutely to unworldliness,
to passionlessness,
to cessation,
to peace,
to higher knowledge,
to enlightenment,
to Nibbāna.

What are the four?

Firstly, Cunda, when a brother,
aloof from sensuous appetites,
aloof from evil ideas,
enters into and abides in the First Jhāna,
wherein there is initiative and sustained thought
which is born of solitude
and is full of zest and ease.[24]

Secondly,
when suppressing initiative and sustained thought,
he enters into and abides in the Second Jhāna,
which is self-evoked,
born of concentration,
full of zest and ease,
in that, set free from initial and sustained thought,
the mind grows calm and sure,
dwelling on high.[25]

Thirdly, when a brother,
no longer fired with zest,
abides calmly contemplative,
while mindful and self-possessed
he feels in his body
[124] that ease where of Ariyans declare:

'He that is calmly contemplative and aware,
he dwelleth at ease,'

so does he enter into and abide in the Third Jhāna.

Fourthly, by putting aside ease
and by putting aside malaise,
by the passing away
of the joy and the sorrow he used to feel,
he enters into and abides in the Fourth Jhāna,
rapture of utter purity of mindfulness and equanimity,
wherein neither ease is felt
nor any ill.

These four modes
of being addicted and devoted tu pleasure, Cunda,
conduce to utter unworldliness,
to passionlessness,
to cessation,
to peace,
to insight,
to enlightenment,
to Nibbāna.

If then it happen, Cunda,
that wanderers teaching other doctrines
should declare:

'The Sākyan recluses
live addicted and devoted to these four modes of pleasure,
to them ye should answer:

'Yea.'

Rightly would they be speaking of you,
nor would they be misrepresenting you
by what is not fact,
by what does not exist.

It may happen, Cunda,
that Teachers teaching other doctrines than ours
may declare:

'For those who live addicted and devoted
to these four modes of pleasure, brother,
how much fruit,
how many advantages are to be expected?'

Them ye should answer thus:

'Four kinds of fruit, brother,
four advantages
are to be expected.

What are the four?

Firstly, the case of a brother
who by the complete destruction of the three fetters[26]
becomes a Stream-winner,
saved from disaster hereafter,
certain to attain Enlightenment.

Secondly, the case of a brother
who by the complete destruction of three fetters
has so diminished
passion and hate and illusion
that he has become a Once­Returner,
and returning but once to this world
will make an end of Ill.

Thirdly, the case of a brother who,
by the complete destruction
of the five last fetters,
will be reborn in another world,
thence never to return,
there to pass away.

Fourthly, the case of the brother
who, by the destruction of the mental intoxicants,
has come to know and realize for himself,
even [125] in this life,
emancipation of intellect
and emancipation of insight,
and therein abides.

These, brother, are the four kinds of fruit,
the four advantages to be expected
by those who are addicted and devoted
to those four modes of pleasure.'

It may happen, Cunda,
that wanderers teaching other views than ours
may declare:

'The Sakyan recluses are inconsistent in the doctrines they hold.'

To them thus declaring, this might be replied:-

'Brother, the Exalted One who knows, who sees,
Arahant,
supremely enlightened,
hath taught and made known to his disciples
doctrines not to be trans­gressed
so long as life shall last.

Just as a pillar of stone or iron,
with base deep planted,
well fixed,
unshaking,
unquivering,
even so are those doctrines.

The brother who is arahant,
in whom the intoxicants are destroyed,
who has lived the life,
who has done his task,
who has laid low his burden,
who has attained salvation,
who has utterly destroyed the fetter of rebirth,
who is emancipated by the true gnosis,
he is incapable of perpetrating nine things: ­

He[27] is incapable
of deliberately depriving a living creature of life.
2. He is incapable
of taking what is not given
so that it constitutes theft.
3. He is incapable of sexual impurity.
4. He is incapable of deliberately telling lies.
5. He is incapable of laying up treasure
for indulgence in worldly pleasure
as he used to do in the life of the house.
6. He is incapable
of taking a wrong course through partiality.
7. He is incapable
of taking a wrong course through hate.
8. He is incapable
of taking a wrong course through stupidity.
9. He is incapable
of taking a wrong course through fear.

[126] These nine things
the arahant in whom the mental intoxicants arc destroyed,
who has lived the life,
whose task is clone,
whose burden is laid low,
who has attained salvation,
who has utterly destroyed the fetter of becoming,
who is emancipated by the true gnosis
is incapable of perpetrating.'

It may happen, Cunda,
that Wanderers who hold other views than ours
mav declare:

'Concerning the past
Gotama the Recluse reveals
an intinite knowledge and insight,
but not so concerning the future,
as to the what and the why of it.'

[If they were to say so],
then those wanderers would fancy,
like so many silly fools,
that knowledge and insight
concerning one kind of thing
are to be revealed
by knowledge and insight
engaged upon another kind of thing.

Concerning the past, Cunda,
the Tathāgata has cognition
reminiscent of existences.

He can remember as far back as he desires.

And concerning the future
there arises in him
knowledge born of Enlightenment[28]
to this effect:

This is the last birth;
now is there no more coming to be.

If, 0 Cunda, the past mean
what is not true,
what is not fact,
what does not redound to your good,
concerning that
the Tathāgata reveals nothing.[29]

If the past mean
what is true,
what is fact,
but what does not redound to your good,
concerning that
the Tathāgata reveals nothing.

If the past mean
what is true,
what is fact,
and what does redound to your good,
concerning that
the Tathāgata knows well
the time when to reveal it.

If, 0 Cunda, the future mean
what is not true,
what is not fact,
what does not redound to your good,
concerning that
the Tathāgata reveals nothing.

If the future mean
what is true,
what is fact,
but what does not redound to your good,
concerning that
the Tathāgata reveals nothing.

If the future mean
what is true,
what is fact,
and what does redound to your good,
concerning that
the Tathāgata knows well
the time when to reveal it.

If, 0 Cunda, the present mean
what is not true,
what is not fact,
what does not redound to your good,
concerning that
the Tathāgata reveals nothing.

If the present mean
what is true,
what is fact,
but what does not redound to your good,
concerning that
the Tathāgata reveals nothing.

If the present mean
what is true,
what is fact,
and what does redound to your good,
concerning that
the Tathāgata knows well
the time when to reveal it.

And so, 0 Cunda,
concerning things past,
future
and present
the Tathāgata is a prophet[30] of the hour,
a prophet of fact,
a prophet of good,
[127] a prophet of the Norm,
a prophet of the Discipline.

For this is he called Tathāgata.[31]

Whatever, 0 Cunda, in this world
with its devas and Māras and Brahmās,
is by the folk thereof,
gods or men,
recluses or brahmins,
seen,
heard,
felt,[32]
discerned,
accomplished,
striven for,
or devised in mind, -
all is understood by the Tathāgata.

For this is he called Tathāgata.

And all that
in the interval between the night, 0 Cunda,
wherein the Tathāgata was enlightened
in the supreme enlightenment,
and the night
wherein he passed away
without any condition of rebirth remaining, -
all that,
in that interval,
he speaks in discourse
or conversation
or exposition: -
all that is so,
and not otherwise.

For that is he called Tathāgata.

As the Tathāgata says, 0 Cunda
so he does;
as he does,
so he says.

Inasmuch as he goeth
even according to his word,
and his word
is according to his going,
for that is he called Tathāgata.

As to the world, 0 Cunda,
with its Māras and its Brahmās,
of all its folk,
divine or human,
recluses or brahmins,
the Tathāgata hath surpassed them,
hath not by them been surpassed,
surveys them with sure vision,
disposer of things.

For that is he called Tathāgata.

It may happen, Cunda,
that wanderers teaching other doctrines than ours
may say:

'How is it, brother,
does a Tathāgata exist after death?[33]

Is that true,
and is any other view absurd?'

They so asking are thus to be answered:

'Brother, this hath not been revealed [128] by the Exalted One.'

Or they may say:

'Does a Tathāgata not exist after death?'

Is that true,
and is any other view absurd?'

They so asking are thus to be answered:

'Brother, this hath not been revealed by the Exalted One.'

Or they may say:

'Does a Tathāgata neither exist nor not exist after death?'

Is that true,
and is any other view absurd?'

They so asking are thus to be answered:

'Brother, this hath not been revealed by the Exalted One.'

Or they may say:

'Does he both exist and not exist after death?

Is that true,
and is any other view absurd?'

They so asking are thus to be answered:

'Brother, this hath not been revealed by the Exalted One.'

But it may happen, Cunda, that they may ask:

'But why, brother, is this not revealed by Gotama the Recluse?'

They are thus to be answered:

'Because, brother,
it is not conducive to good,
nor to true doctrine,
nor to the fundamentals of religion,
nor to unworldliness,
nor to passionlessness,
nor to tranquillity,
nor to peace,
nor to insight,
nor to enlightenment,
nor to Nibbāna.

Therefore is it not revealed by the Exalted One.'

It may happen, Cunda, that they may ask:

'But what, brother, is revealed by Gotama the Recluse?'

They are thus to be addressed: -

'This is Ill: -

that, brother, is revealed by the Exalted One.

This is the Cause of Ill: -

that, brother, is revealed by the Exalted One.

This is the Cessation of Ill: -

that, brother, is revealed by the Exalted One.

This is the Path leading to the Cessation of I11: -

that, brother, is revealed by the Exalted One.'

It may happen, Cunda, that those wanderers may ask:

'But why, brother, is just that revealed by the Exalted One?'

They so asking are to be thus addressed: -

'Because that, brother,
is fraught with Good,
that belongs to the Norm,
that is fundamental to religion,
and conduces to absolute unworldliness,
to passionlessness,
to cessation [of ill],
to peace,
to insight,
to enlightenment,
to Nibbāna.

Therefore is it revealed by the Exalted One.'

Those comments on views
concerning the beginning of things, Cunda,
which have been revealed by me to you
even as they should be revealed: -
as they should not be revealed
shall I thus reveal them unto you?[34]

And those comments on views
concerning [129] the end
or the beginnings of things,
which have been revealed by me to you
even as they should be revealed: ­
as they should not be revealed
shall I thus reveal them unto you?

There are, Cunda,
some recluses and brahmins
who believe and profess one or another
of the following views; saying:

'This alone is true, any other opinion is absurd': ­

'The soul and the world are eternal.'

'The soul and the world are not eternal.'

'The soul and the world are neither.'

'The soul and the world are both.'

'The soul and the world are self-made.'

'The soul and the world are made by another.'

'The soul and the world are both self-made and made by another.'

'The soul and the world are neither,
having come into being fortuitously.'[35]

Or they believe and profess
one or other of these same views
concerning pleasure and pain.[36]

Now, Cunda, to those recluses and brahmins
who believe and profess any one of these views
I go and say thus:

'Is this so, friend?'

And if they reply:

'Yes!

This alone is true, any other view is absurd'

I do not admit their claim.

Why is this?

Because persons hold different opinions on such questions.

Nor do I consider this [or that] view
on a level with my own,[37]
let alone higher.

'Tis I who am higher,
that is
with regard to exposition.[38]

And thus I say
regarding each of these opinions aforesaid.

Concerning all these comments
concerning the beginning of things,
I have revealed to you
what should be revealed;
shall I then reveal to you
what should not be revealed?

And what, Cunda, are the comments concerning [130] the things after this life,
both which should be revealed
and which should not be revealed?

There are, Cunda,
certain recluses and brahmins
who believe and profess one or other
of the following views and say regarding it:

'That alone is true,
any other view is absurd': ­

'The soul becomes after death of visible shape free from infirmity.'

'It becomes invisible.'

'It becomes both visible and invisible.'

'It becomes neither visible nor invisible.'

'It becomes conscious.'

'It becomes unconscious.'

'It becomes both.'

'It becomes neither.'

'The soul is abolished,
destroyed,
does not come to be after death.'

Now, Cunda, to those recluses and brahmins
who believe and profess any one of these views,
I go and say, as before: -

'Is this even as you say, friend?'

And if they reply:

'Yes!

This alone is true, any other view is absurd,'

I do not admit that.

And why is this?

Because persons hold different views on such questions.

Nor do I consider this or that view
on a level with mine own,
let alone higher.

'Tis I who am higher,
that is
with regard to exposition.

And thus I say regarding all those opinions aforesaid.

Concerning all these cornments
concerning the things after this life,
I have revealed to you
what should be revealed;
shall I then reveal to you
what should not be revealed?

For the expungeing of all these comments
on opinions concerning the beginning
and the hereafter of things,
and for getting beyond them, Cunda,
I have taught
and laid down[39] the Four Onsets of Minclfulness.

What are the Four?[40]

Herein, let a brother,
as to the body,
continue so to look upon the body
that he remains ardent,
self-possessed
and mindful,
that he may [131] overcome both the hankering
and the dejection
common in the world.

Herein, let a brother,
as to feeling,
continue so to look upon the feelings
that he remains ardent,
self-possessed
and mindful,
that he may overcome both the hankering
and the dejection
common in the world.

Herein, let a brother,
as to thought,
continue so to look upon the thoughts
that he remains ardent,
self-possessed
and mindful,
that he may overcome both the hankering
and the dejection
common in the world.

Herein, let a brother,
as to ideas,
continue so to look upon ideas
that he remains ardent,
self-possessed
and mindful,
that he may overcome both the hankering
and the dejection
common in the world.

These have I taught
and laid down
for the expungeing of
and the getting beyond
all those comments on opinions.

Now at that time
the venerable Upavāna was standing behind the Exalted One fanning him.[41]

Thereupon he said to the Exalted One:

Wonderfu11y, lord, and marvellously delectable
is this exposition of the Norm;
exceeding great is the charm thereof.

How, lord, is this exposition named?

"We11 then, Upavāna, bear it in mind as the Delectable Discourse.

Thus spake the Exalted One.

And pleased and delighted was the venerable Upavāna at his words.

Here ends the Pāsādika Suttanta.


 


[1] Sippuggahanatthāya kato dighapāsādo atthi: There is a long terraced mansion made for the learning of crafts. Comy.

[2] In the reference given in Majjhima II, 243 f., to the death of Nāthaputta, the Buddha is stated to have been staying at Sāmāgama, among the Sākyans. See below, Ī 2. The episode is repeated below, Sangīti Suttanta, XXIII, I,Ī 6.

[3] On the Nigaṇṭhas see Vol. I, 74 f., 220 f.

[4] On these wrangling phrases see Vol. I, 14 f. and nn.

[5] Bhinnathūpe, lit. having its stūpa broken - a metaphor, says the Comy., for foundation (platform, patiṭṭhā).

[6] Paṭisaraṇaṃ, lit. a resort, to whom, as B. elsewhere explains, all go for injunctions, etc. See Bud. Psy., 1914, p. 6g.

[7] Pronounce Choonda, the oo as in 'good.' According to Buddhaghosa this is none other than the youngest brother of Sāriputtta (and of Revata), called in the Theragātha Mahācunda. See Pss. of the Brethren, pp. 118 and 350 (where we have tentatively inferred that the Cundas were not identical).

[8] Cf. for the following phrases Vol. II, 112.

[9] Tassa te su1addhaṃ lit. for thee [is] the well-gotten; paraphrased as: for thee humanity (rebirth as human) is well gotten.

[10] Read Addhāyasmā.

[11] Sappaṭihīrakataṃ. The apparently elastic imporTof this term is here (Cf. Vol. I, 257, n. 3) further varied by Buddhaghosa, who paraphrases it simply by niyyānikaṃ, rendered above (following freely his definition on Dhammasangaṇi, Ī 277) by 'effectual for guidance.'

[12] On this reading see Vol. II, 235 f.

[13] Patta-yogakkhemā. 'Arahantship' — so the Comy. paraphrases.

[14] Therā (sic).

[15] Brahmacārino. Paraphrased as brahmacariyavāsaṃ vasamānā ariyasāvakā.

[16] Wealthy converts (sotāpannā), qualifies Buddhaghosa.

[17] Brahmacariya.

[18] One of Gotama's two teachers. Vin. Texts I, 89; Majjhima I, 165; Dhammapada Comy. I. 85; Buddhist Birthstories, 89.

[19] Cf. Vol. II, 127, where the nature of the solemn charge is similar, yet not the same.

[20] This summary of Buddhism is word for word the same as that laid before the disciples on the Buddha's last journey (above II, 127 ff. The note there explains the details). It will be seen that the list amounts to thirty-seven items; and they are often referred to in later books as the thirty-seven Factors of Enlightenment, the Bodhi-pakkhiya-dhammā. (p. 93; 97).

[21] Cf. Majjhima I, p. 10; Buddhist Suttas, S.B.E. XI, p. 303. Buddhaghosa refers to Visuddhi Magga for details.

[22] Cf. Dhammasangaṇi, § I, 348.

[23] Cf. above, p. 107, Ī 20.

[24] It should be borne in mind that the one a11-expressive word in Pali for pleasant sensation, pleasure, happiness, ease is sukha. Ease here, therefore, must be taken as representing exactly, generically considered, the foregoing term pleasure.

[25] On the Jhāna-term ekodibhāva Cf. Expositor, i, p. 226. It is there taken to mean literally state of unique or lonely exaltation.

[26] Cf. supra, p. 102, Ī 13; Vol. I, p. 200 f.

[27] Cf. below Sangīti, p. 225 (x); Anguttara IV, 370.

[28] Buddhaghosa explains this as bodhimūle jātaṃ: evolved, or born, at the root of the Bo-tree.

[29] Or, does not answer (ṇa vyākaroti).

[30] Literally, declarer, or speaker of (-vādī).

[31] Tathā-gado, putting d for t, says Buddhaghosa.

[32] Here, as in Papañca Sūdani on Majjhima I, 1, Buddhaghosa calls mutaṃ, mutvā, an equivalent term for the other three senses. And he refers viññātaṃ: discerned, to ideas pleasant and unpleasant. See Buddh. Psychological Ethics, 239, n. I ; and Cf. Saɱyutta I, 186: diṭṭhasute paṭighe ca mute ca (Cf. Kindred Sayings I, 23 7, n. 1).

[33] The four alternatives are enumerated among Eel-wriggler speculations, Vol. I, p. 39 f. In this connexion, says Buddhaghosa, Tathāgata means a person (being, satto), presumably any arahant, not the Buddha only.

[34] Read, for no, vo, as in the following similar phrase.

[35] Cf. above, I, 186-188.

[36] Cf. Saɱyutta ii., 19 f.

[37] Attano sama-samaṃ. That is, says the Comy., on a level of knowledge (ñāṇena).

[38] Adhipaññatti.

[39] Paññattā.

[40] Vol. II, 327.

[41] Cf. Psalms of the Brethren, p. 140, for his poem and his ministry; and p. 350 for another allusion to this incident.


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