Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
III. Upari Paṇṇāsa
3. Suññata Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
III. The Final Fifty Discourses
3. The Division on Emptiness

Sutta 128

Upakkilesa Suttaɱ

The Discourse on Defilements

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1959

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


 

[1][chlm][upal] Thus have I heard:[1]

At one time the Lord was staying near Kosambī
in Ghosita's monastery.

Now at that time the monks of Kosambī,
who were disputatious,
quarrelsome
and contentious,
lived wounding one another
with the weapons of the tongue.[2]

Then a certain monk approached the Lord;
[153] having approached and greeted the Lord,
he stood at a respectful distance.

As he was standing at a respectful [198] distance, this monk spoke thus to the Lord:

"Revered sir, the monks of Kosambī,
who are disputatious,
quarrelsome
and contentious,
live wounding one another
with the weapons of the tongue.

It would be good, revered sir, if the Lord
out of compassion
were to approach these monks."

The Lord consented by becoming silent.

Then the Lord approached those monks
and having approached,
he spoke thus to those monks:

"Enough, monks;
no disputes,
no quarrels,
no contention,
no argument."

When this had been said,
a certain monk[3] spoke thus to the Lord:

"Revered sir, let the Lord,
the Dhamma-master, wait;
revered sir, let the Lord,
untroubled,
abide intent
on abiding in ease here and now,[4]
for it is we who will be (held) accountable
for this dispute,
quarrel,
contention
and argument."

And a second time the Lord spoke thus to those monks:

"Enough, monks;
no disputes,
no quarrels,
no contention,
no argument."

And a second time did that monk speak thus to the Lord:

"Revered sir, let the Lord,
the Dhamma-master, wait;
revered sir, let the Lord,
untroubled,
abide intent
on abiding in ease here and now,
for it is we who will be (held) accountable
for this dispute,
quarrel,
contention
and argument."

And a third time the Lord spoke thus to those monks:

"Enough, monks;
no disputes,
no quarrels,
no contention,
no argument."

And a third time did that monk speak thus to the Lord:

"Revered sir, let the Lord,
the Dhamma-master, wait;
revered sir, let the Lord,
untroubled,
abide intent
on abiding in ease here and now,
for it is we who will be (held) accountable
for this dispute,
quarrel,
contention
and argument."

Then the Lord,[5]
having dressed early in the morning,
taking his bowl and robe,
entered Kosambī for almsfood.

Having walked in Kosambī for almsfood
and returning from the alms-gathering
after the meal,
he packed away his lodging
and, taking his bowl and robe,
spoke these verses as he was standing:

[154]"When all in chorus bawl, none feels a fool,
nor though the Order is divided, thinks otherwise.

With wandering wits the wiseacres range all the field of talk;
with mouths agape to full extent, what leads them on they know not.

They who (in thought) belabour this: That man
has me abused, has hurt, has worsted me,
has me despoiled: in these wrath's not allayed.

They who do not belabour this: That man
has me abused, has hurt, has worsted me,
has me despoiled: in them is wrath allayed.

[199] Nay, not by wrath are wrathful moods allayed here (and) at any time,
but by not-wrath are they allayed: this is an (ageless) endless rule.

Some others don't discern that here we straitened are (in life, in time),
but those who do discern, thereby their quarrels are allayed.

Ruffians who maim and kill, steal cattle, steeds,
and wealth, who plunder realms - for these is concord.
Why should there not be for you?

If one find friend with whom to fare
Rapt in the well-abiding, apt,
surmounting dangers one and all,
with joy fare with him mindfully.

Finding none apt with whom to fare,
none in the well-abiding rapt,
as rajah quits the conquered realm,
fare lonely as bull-elephant in elephant-jungle.

Better the faring of one alone
than companionship with the foolish;
fare lonely, unconcerned, working no evil,
as bull-elephant in elephant-jungle."

Then the Lord, having spoken these verses
as he was standing,
approached Bālakaloṇakāra village.

Now at that [155] time
the venerable Bhagu was staying in Bālakaloṇakāra village.

Then the venerable Bhagu
saw the Lord coming from afar;
seeing him,
he made ready a seat
and water for the feet.

The Lord sat down on the seat made ready,
and as he was sitting down
he bathed his feet.

Then the venerable Bhagu,
having greeted the Lord,
sat down at a respectful distance.

The Lord spoke thus
to the venerable Bhagu
as he was sitting down at a respectful distance:

"I hope, monk,
things are going well with you,
I hope you are keeping going,
I hope you are not short of almsfood?"

"Things are going well with me, Lord,
I am keeping going, Lord,
and I, revered sir,
am not short of almsfood."

Then the Lord, [200]
having delighted,
rejoiced,
roused,
gladdened
the venerable Bhagu with talk on dhamma,
rising from his seat,
approached the Eastern Bamboo Grove.

Now at that time[6] the venerable Anuruddha
and the venerable Nandiya
and the venerable Kimbila
were staying in the Eastern Bamboo Grove.

The keeper of the grove
saw the Lord coming in the distance,
and seeing him
he spoke thus to the Lord:

"Do not, recluse,
enter this grove;
there are three young men of family staying here
desiring Self;
do not cause them discomfort."

But the venerable Anuruddha
heard the keeper of the grove
conferring with the Lord;
on hearing him,
he spoke thus to the keeper of the grove:

"Do not, good grove-keeper,
impede the Lord.

It is our Teacher,
the Lord,
who is arriving."

Then the venerable Anuruddha
approached the venerable Nandiya
and the venerable Kimbila,
and having approached
he spoke thus to the venerable Nandiya
and the venerable Kimbila:

"Go forward, venerable ones,
go forward, venerable ones,
our Teacher,
the Lord,
is arriving."

Then the venerable Anuruddha
and the venerable Nandiya
and the venerable Kimbila,
went out to meet the Lord.

One received his bowl and robe,
one made ready a seat,
one set out water for the feet.

Then the Lord sat down
on the seat made ready;
as he was sitting down
the Lord bathed his feet.

Then these venerable ones,
having greeted the Lord,
sat down at a respectful distance.

As the venerable Anuruddha
was sitting down at a respectful distance,
the Lord spoke thus:

"I hope things are going well with you, Anuruddhas,[7]
I hope you are keeping going,
I hope you are not short of almsfood?

[156] "Things are going well with us, Lord,
we are keeping going, Lord,
and, revered sir,
we are not short of almsfood."

"I hope that you, Anuruddhas,
are living all together
on friendly terms
and harmoniously,
as milk and water blend,
regarding one another
with the eye of affection?"

"Yes, certainly, revered sir,
we are living all together
on friendly terms
and harmoniously,
as milk and water blend,
regarding one another
with the eye of affection."

"And how is it that you, Anuruddhas,
are living all together
on friendly terms
and harmoniously,
as milk and water blend,
regarding one another
with the eye of affection?"

"As to this, revered sir,
it occurred to me:

'Indeed it is a gain for [201] me,
indeed it is well gotten by me,
that I am living with such fellow Brahma-farers.'

On account of this, revered sir,
for these venerable ones
friendliness as to acts of body
friendliness as to acts of speech
friendliness as to acts of thought,
whether openly or in private,
has risen up in me.

Because of this, revered sir,
it occurred to me:

'Now, suppose that I,
having surrendered my own mind,
should live only according to the mind
of these venerable ones?

So I, revered sir,
having surrendered my own mind,
am living only according to the mind
of these venerable ones.

Revered sir, we have divers bodies,
but assuredly only one mind."

And the venerable Nandiya too
spoke thus to the Lord:

"As to this, revered sir,
it occurred to me:

'Indeed it is a gain for me,
indeed it is well gotten by me,
that I am living with such fellow Brahma-farers.'

On account of this, revered sir,
for these venerable ones
friendliness as to acts of body
friendliness as to acts of speech
friendliness as to acts of thought,
whether openly or in private,
has risen up in me.

Because of this, revered sir,
it occurred to me:

'Now, suppose that I,
having surrendered my own mind,
should live only according to the mind
of these venerable ones?

So I, revered sir,
having surrendered my own mind,
am living only according to the mind
of these venerable ones.

Revered sir, we have divers bodies,
but assuredly only one mind."

And the venerable Kimbila too
spoke thus to the Lord::

"As to this, revered sir,
it occurred to me:

'Indeed it is a gain for me,
indeed it is well gotten by me,
that I am living with such fellow Brahma-farers.'

On account of this, revered sir,
for these venerable ones
friendliness as to acts of body
friendliness as to acts of speech
friendliness as to acts of thought,
whether openly or in private,
has risen up in me.

Because of this, revered sir,
it occurred to me:

'Now, suppose that I,
having surrendered my own mind,
should live only according to the mind
of these venerable ones?

So I, revered sir,
having surrendered my own mind,
am living only according to the mind
of these venerable ones.

Revered sir, we have divers bodies,
but assuredly only one mind."

"Thus it is that we, revered sir,
are living all together
on friendly terms
and harmoniously,
as milk and water blend,
regarding one another
with the eye of affection."

"Good, it is good, Anuruddhas.

 


 

But I hope that you, Anuruddhas,
are living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute?"

[157] "Yes, certainly, revered sir,
we are living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute."

"And how is it that you, Anuruddhas,
are living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute?"

"As to this, revered sir,
whoever of us returns first
from (going to) a village for almsfood
makes ready a seat,
sets out water for drinking and water for washing (the feet), and sets out a refuse-bowl.

Whoever returns last
from (going to) a village for almsfood,
if there are the remains of a meal
and if he so desires,
he eats them;
if he does not desire to do so,
he throws them out
where there are no crops,
or he drops them into water
where there are no living creatures;
he puts up the seat,
he puts away the water for drinking
and the water for washing,
he puts away the refuse-bowl,
he sweeps the refectory.

Whoever sees a vessel for drinking-water
or a vessel for washing-water
or a vessel (for water) for rinsing after evacuation,
void and empty,
he sets out (water).

If it is impossible for him (to do this)
by a movement of his hand,
having invited a companion to help us
by signalling (to him) with the hand,
we set out (the water);
but we do not, revered sir,
for such a reason,
break into speech.

And then we, revered sir,
once in every five nights
sit down together for talk on dhamma.

It is thus, revered sir,
that we are living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute."[8]

[202] "Good, it is good, Anuruddhas.

But have you, Anuruddhas,
while living thus diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute,
attained states of further-men,
the excellent knowledge and insight
befitting the ariyans,
an abiding in comfort?"[9]

 


 

"As to this, we, revered sir,
while living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute,
perceive the light-manifestation[10]
as well as the appearance[11] of material shapes.[12]

But soon the light-manifestation vanishes for us
as well as the appearance of material shapes;
and we do not understand the reason."[13]

"But the reason
should be understood by you, Anuruddhas.

I, too, Anuruddhas,
before the Self-Awakening
while I was yet the Bodhisatta,
not fully awakened,
perceived the light-manifestation
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

But soon the light-manifestation [158] vanished for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Now what is the cause,
what the reason
that the light-manifestation vanishes for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes?'

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Doubt has arisen in me;
and because there was [203] doubt,
concentration fell away from[14] me;
when concentration falls away,
the light-manifestation vanishes
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

So I will act in such a way
that doubt will not arise in me again.'

So I, Anuruddhas, living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute,
perceived the light-manifestation
as well as the appear-ance of material shapes.

But soon the light-manifestation vanished for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Now what is the cause,
what the reason
that the light-manifestation vanishes for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes?'

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Lack of proper attention[15]
has arisen in me;
and because there was lack of proper attention,
concentration fell away from me;
when concentration falls away,
the light-manifestation vanishes
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

So I will act in such a way
that doubt will not arise in me again
nor lack of proper attention.'

So I, Anuruddhas, living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute,
perceived the light-manifestation
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

But soon the light-manifestation vanished for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Now what is the cause,
what the reason
that the light-manifestation vanishes for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes?'

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Sloth and torpor has arisen in me;
and because there was sloth and torpor,
concentration fell away from me;
when concentration falls away,
the light-manifestation vanishes
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

So I will act in such a way
that doubt will not arise in me again
nor lack of proper attention
nor sloth and torpor.'

So I, Anuruddhas, living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute,
perceived the light-manifestation
as well as the appear-ance of material shapes.

But soon the light-manifestation vanished for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Now what is the cause,
what the reason
that the light-manifestation vanishes for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes?'

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Consternation has arisen in me;
and because there was consternation,
concentration fell away from me;
when concentration falls away,
the light-manifestation vanishes
as well as the appearance of material shapes.'

Anuruddhas, it is as though a man were going along a high road
and murderers should jump out at him
from both sides;
consternation would arise in him
from such a source.[16]

Even so, Anuruddhas, did consternation arise in me,
concentration fell away from me;
when concentration falls away,
the light-manifestation vanishes
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

So I thought:

'I will act [159] in such a way
that doubt will not arise in me again
nor lack [204]of proper attention
nor sloth and torpor
nor consternation.'

So I, Anuruddhas, living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute,
perceived the light-manifestation
as well as the appear-ance of material shapes.

But soon the light-manifestation vanished for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Now what is the cause,
what the reason
that the light-manifestation vanishes for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes?'

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Elation[17] has arisen in me;
and because there was elation,
concentration fell away from me;
when concentration falls away,
the light-manifestation vanishes
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

Anuruddhas, it is as though a man
who was seeking for one opening
to (some hidden) treasure
were to come at one and the same time
on five openings to the treasure;[18]
from that source
elation would arise in him.

Even so, Anuruddhas,
elation arose in me;
and because there was elation,
concentration fell away from me;
when concentration falls away,
the light-manifestation vanishes
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

So I thought:

'I will act in such a way
that doubt will not arise in me again
nor lack of proper attention
nor sloth and torpor
nor consternation
nor elation.'

So I, Anuruddhas, living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute,
perceived the light-manifestation
as well as the appear-ance of material shapes.

But soon the light-manifestation vanished for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Now what is the cause,
what the reason
that the light-manifestation vanishes for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes?'

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Distress has arisen in me;
and because there was distress,
concentration fell away from me;
when concentration falls away,
the light-manifestation vanishes
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

So I will act in such a way
that doubt will not arise in me again
nor lack of proper attention
nor sloth and torpor
nor consternation
nor elation
nor distress.'

So I, Anuruddhas, living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute,
perceived the light-manifestation
as well as the appear-ance of material shapes.

But soon the light-manifestation vanished for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Now what is the cause,
what the reason
that the light-manifestation vanishes for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes?'

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Too much energy[19] has arisen in me;
and because there was too much energy,
concentration fell away from me;
when concentration falls away,
the light-manifestation vanishes
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

Anuruddhas, it is as though a man
were to take such a tight grip of a quail
that it died then and there.

Even so, Anuruddhas,
did too much energy arise in me;
and because there was too much energy,
concentration fell away from me;
when concentration falls away,
the light-manifestation vanishes
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

So I thought:

'I will act in such a way
that doubt will not arise in me again
nor lack of proper attention
nor sloth and torpor
nor consternation
nor elation
nor distress
nor too much energy.'

So I, Anuruddhas, living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute,
perceived the light-manifestation
as well as the appear-ance of material shapes.

But soon the light-manifestation vanished for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Now what is the cause,
what the reason
that the light-manifestation vanishes for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes?'

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Too feeble an energy [160] has arisen in me;
and because there was too feeble an energy;
and because there was too much energy,
concentration fell away from me;
when concentration falls away,
the light-manifestation vanishes
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

Anuruddhas, it is as though a man
were to take such a loose [205] grip of a quail
that it could fly up out of his hand.

Even so, Anuruddhas, did too feeble an energy arise in me;
and because there was too feeble an energy,
concentration fell away from me;
when concentration falls away,
the light-manifestation vanishes
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

So I thought:

'I will act in such a way
that doubt will not arise in me again
nor lack of proper attention
nor sloth and torpor
nor consternation
nor elation
nor distress
nor too much energy
nor too feeble an energy.'

So I, Anuruddhas, living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute,
perceived the light-manifestation
as well as the appear-ance of material shapes.

But soon the light-manifestation vanished for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Now what is the cause,
what the reason
that the light-manifestation vanishes for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes?'

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Longing[20] has arisen in me;
and because there was longing,
concentration fell away from me;
when concentration falls away,
the light-manifestation vanishes
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

So I thought:

'I will act in such a way
that doubt will not arise in me again
nor lack of proper attention
nor sloth and torpor
nor consternation
nor elation
nor distress
nor too much energy
nor too feeble an energy
nor longing.'

So I, Anuruddhas, living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute,
perceived the light-manifestation
as well as the appear-ance of material shapes.

But soon the light-manifestation vanished for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Now what is the cause,
what the reason
that the light-manifestation vanishes for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes?'

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Perception of diversity has arisen in me;
and because there was perception of diversity;
concentration fell away from me;
when concentration falls away,
the light-manifestation vanishes
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

So I thought:

'I will act in such a way
that doubt will not arise in me again
nor lack of proper attention
nor sloth and torpor
nor consternation
nor elation
nor distress
nor too much energy
nor too feeble an energy
nor longing
nor perception of diversity.'

So I, Anuruddhas, living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute,
perceived the light-manifestation
as well as the appear-ance of material shapes.

But soon the light-manifestation vanished for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'Now what is the cause,
what the reason
that the light-manifestation vanishes for me
as well as the appearance of material shapes?'

Anuruddhas, this occurred to me:

'A state of being too intent on material shapes has arisen in me;
and because there was a state of being too intent on material shapes;
concentration fell away from me;
when concentration falls away,
the light-manifestation vanishes
as well as the appearance of material shapes.

So I thought:

'I will act in such a way
that doubt will not arise in me again
nor lack of proper attention
nor sloth and torpor
nor consternation
nor elation
nor distress
nor too much energy
nor too feeble an energy
nor longing
nor perception of diversity
nor the state of being too intent on material shapes.'

So I, Anuruddhas,
knowing that doubt is a defilement of the mind,[21]
got rid of the defilement of the mind that is doubt.

Knowing that lack of proper attention
is a defilement of the mind,
I got rid of the defilement of the mind
that is lack of proper attention.

Knowing that sloth and torpor
is a defilement of the mind,
I got rid of the defilement of the mind
that is sloth and torpor.

Knowing that consternation
is a defilement of the mind,
I got rid of the defilement of the mind
that is consternation.

Knowing that elation
is a defilement of the mind,
I got rid of the defilement of the mind
that is elation.

Knowing that distress
is a defilement of the mind,
I got rid of the defilement of the mind
that is distress.

Knowing that too much [206] energy
is a defilement of the mind,
I got rid of the defilement of the mind
that is too much energy.

Knowing that too feeble an energy
is a defilement of the mind,
I got rid of the defilement of the mind
that is too feeble an energy.

Knowing that longing
is a defilement of the mind,
I got rid of the defilement of the mind
that is longing.

Knowing that perception of diversity
is a defilement of the mind,
I got rid of the defilement of the mind
that is perception of diversity.

Knowing that the state of being too intent on material shapes
[161] is a defilement of the mind,
I got rid of the defilement of the mind
that is the state of being too intent on material shapes.

So I, Anuruddhas, living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute,
perceived the light-manifestaiion
but did not see material shapes;
then for a whole night
and a whole day
and a whole night and day
I saw material shapes
but did not perceive the light-manifestation.

Concerning this, Anuruddhas,
it occurred to me:

'Now, what is the cause,
what the reason
that I perceived the light-manifestation
but did not see material shapes;
and then for a whole night
and a whole day
and a whole night and day
I saw material shapes
but did not perceive the light-manifestation?'

Concerning this, Anuruddhas,
it occurred to me:

'It was at the time when I,
not paying proper attention
to the reflex-image of material shapes,[22]
was paying attention
to the reflex-image of the light-manifestation
that I perceived the light-manifestation
but did not see material shapes.

But it was at the time when I,
not paying proper attention
to the reflex-image of the light-manifestation,
was paying attention
to the reflex-image of material shapes
that, for a whole night
and a whole day
and a whole night and day,
I saw material shapes
but did not perceive the light-manifestation.'

So I, Anuruddhas, living diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute,
both perceived a limited light-manifestation[23]
and saw a limited (number of) material shapes;
and for a whole night
and a whole day
and a whole night and day
I perceived a boundless light-manifestation
and saw a boundless (number of) material shapes.

Concerning this,
it occurred to me, Anuruddhas:

' Now, what is the cause,
what the reason
that I both perceive a limited light-manifestation
and see a limited (number of) material shapes
as well as for a whole night
and a whole day
and a whole night and day
perceive a boundless light-manifestation
and see a boundless (number of) material shapes?'

Concerning this,
it occurred to me, Anuruddhas:

'At the time when concentration is limited
my vision is limited,
so with limited vision [207]
I both perceive a limited light-manifestation
and see a limited (number of) material shapes.

But at the time
when my concentration is not limited
my vision is boundless,
so with boundless vision
for a whole night
and a whole day
and a whole night and day
I both perceive a boundless light-manifestation
and see a boundless (number of) material shapes.'

When [162] I knew, Anuruddhas,
that doubt was a defilement of the mind,
the defilement of the mind
that is doubt
was got rid of.

When I knew that lack of proper attention
was a defilement of the mind,
the defilement of the mind
that is lack of proper attention
was got rid of.

When I knew sloth and torpor was a defilement of the mind,
the defilement of the mind
that is sloth and torpor
was got rid of.

When I knew that consternation was a defilement of the mind,
the defilement of the mind
that is consternation
was got rid of.

When I knew that elation was a defilement of the mind,
the defilement of the mind
that is elation
was got rid of.

When I knew that distress was a defilement of the mind,
the defilement of the mind
that is distress
was got rid of.

When I knew that too much energy was a defilement of the mind,
the defilement of the mind
that is too much energy
was got rid of.

When I knew that too feeble an energy was a defilement of the mind,
the defilement of the mind
that is too feeble an energy
was got rid of.

When I knew that longing was a defilement of the mind,
the defilement of the mind
that is longing
was got rid of.

When I knew that perception of diversity
was a defilement of the mind,
the defilement of the mind
that is perception of diversity
was got rid of.

When I knew that the state of being too intent on material shapes
was a defilement of the mind,
the defilement of the mind
that is the state of being too intent on material shapes
was got rid of.

Concerning this, it occurred to me, Anuruddhas:

'Those that were defilements of my mind
are got rid of by me.

Truly now
I am developing concentration
by three modes.'[24]

So I, Anuruddhas,
developed the concentration
that has initial thought and discursive thought;
and I developed the concentration
that is without initial thought
and has only discursive thought;[25]
and I developed the concentration
that is without initial thought
and without discursive thought.

And I developed the concentration
that has rapture;[26]
and [208] I developed the concentration
that is without rapture;[27]
and I developed the concentration
that is accompanied by delight;[28]
and I developed the concentration
that is accompanied by equanimity.[29]

When, Anuruddhas, there was developed in me
the concentration
that has initial and discursive thought,
when there was developed the concentration
that is without initial thought
and has only discursive thought,
when there was developed the concentration
that is without initial thought
and without discursive thought,
and when there was developed the concentration
that has rapture,
and when there was developed the concentration
that is without rapture,
and when there was developed the concentration
that is accompanied by delight,
and when there was developed the concentration
that is accompanied by equanimity,
then the knowledge and vision arose in me:

Unshakable is freedom of mind for me,
this is the last birth,
there is not now again-becoming."

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted, the venerable Anuruddha
rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

Discourse on Defilements;
The Eighth

 


[1] Cf. Vin. i. 341, 349 ff., and see notes at B.D. iv. 488 f. and 498 ff.

[2] This is the same as the opening of the Kosambiyasutta (M. Sta. 48).

[3] Called at Vin. i. 341 "one who spoke what was not-dhamma."

[4] See M.L.S. ii. Intr., p. xxvii ff.

[5] As at Vin. i. 349 ff. See B.D. iv. 498 ff. for notes.

[6] From here also at M. i. 205 ff. See M.L.S. i. 267 ff. for notes.

[7] The plural, Anuruddhā, is used in place of the names of the three separate monks.

[8] Vin. i. 352 goes on differently from here.

[9] M. i. 207 goes on differently from here.

[10] obhāsa. See Intr., p. xxi; P.T.C. s.v. obhāsa for further references; and also A. iv. 302 where obhāsa occurs and is translated at G.S. iv. 201 by E.M. Hare as "auras," and he quotes the Comy.; "rays known to the clairvoyant." The "clairvoyant" must be understood as one who, in meditation, has won the knowledge of deva-vision; it is with this that he "sees," cf. MA. iv. 207: dibbacakkhunā rūpadasmnañ ca sañjānāma. Nyanatiloka, in Bud. Dicty., says, s.v. obhāsa, "Effulgence of light, Aura appearing at times during deep Insight (vipassanā) may become a 'defilement of insight,' vipassanūpakkilesa." Obhāsa is a difficult word for a translator and its meaning or meanings, for these seem to vary from context to context, need further investigation. "Effulgence of light" is perhaps rather too strong, and "aura" can hardly be accepted as the right rendering. Nor will "light" do for, though light is implied, there is the definite and important word āloka. This and obhāsa occur in the same passage at D. i, 220 and certainly appear to have different meanings. At M. iii. 120 I have translated obhāsa in a context that has nothing to do with meditation as "radiance," that is "effulgence of light," and for the above I tentatively suggest light-manifestation or light-radiation; see under avabhāsa in the Skrt. lexicons. According to MA. iv. 207 the obhāsa in this passage is preparatory, parikammobhāsa.

[11] dassana, appearance, showing.

[12] This appears to mean they are perceived extra-sensibly for MA. iv. 207 says "We perceive the appearance of material shapes through deva-vision ... seeing a variety of material shapes through deva-vision," and the whole passage points to processes in meditation.

[13] nimitta.

[14] According to MA. iv. 207 this is parikammasamādhi, preparatory concentration. Cavi, which I have here rendered as "fell away," is the aorist of cavati, a verb used regularly for the passing, deceasing or falling from one existence (to be reborn in another). Above however it is clearly not being used in this special sense.

[15] amanasikāra.

[16] I follow the v.l.'s tato nidānaɱ in preference to the text's ubhatonidānaɱ, from both sources, perhaps thinking of the two murderers.

Ubbilla. Jubilation, but 'Ubilation' Sp? which I cannot find in the dictionary.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[17] ubbilla pleasurable excitement. The word appears to occur only here in the Pali canon, although ubbillāvitatta occurs at M. i. 140 and a few other passages.

[18] Cf. M. i. 352.

[19] On too much and too little energy, see the Parable of the Lute, Vin. i. 182, A. iii. 375.

[20] abhijappā, explained at MA. iv. 208 by taṇhā, arising when one has made the light, āloka, increase as far as the confines of the deva-world and has seen a company of devas. The word also occurs at Dhs. 1059, Vbh. 361.

[21] None of these states appears as a defilement of the mind, cittassa upakkilesa, at M. i. 36.

[22] rūpanimitta. Probably nimitta is here the reflex-image which, by means of certain exercises in concentration, appears as if seen by the eye.

[23] paritta obhāsa, explained at MA. iv. 209 as parittakammaṭṭṭhāne obhāsaɱ light-manifestation in regard to a limited object of meditational exercise.

[24] These are usually taken to be the first three of the following modes of concentration, samādhi. At Kvu. 413 it is agreed that these three (forms of) samādhi were spoken of by the Lord: e.g. at D. iii. 219, above (M. iii. 102), S. iv. 360, A. iv. 300 which last is identical with M. iii. 162 and appears to speak of seven forms of samadhi. At S. iv. 360, 302-363 the three forms, among a number of other attainments, are called the Way leading to the Uncompounded. See also A. iv. 440 ff., Miln. 337, Vism. 96; and Pts. Contr. p, 239, n. 1, Bud. Psych. Ethics, p. 62, n. 1, Comp. p. 86; and also A. i. 299, n. 2.

[25] This has reference to the fivefold system of jhāna, obtained by successive instead of simultaneous elimination of vitakka and vicara. This happens in the second jhāna, but the "three (forms of) samādhi in jhāna occur both in the (more usual) fourfold system of jhāna as well as in the fivefold," MA. iv. 209.

[26] sappītika. This belongs to the second and third jhānas, MA. iv. 209, but according to AA. ii. 153 it is the happiness, sukha, of the first and second jhānas. This, and the three succeeding forms of concentration are also mentioned at A. iv. 300 f., while at A. i. 91 they form two of the various forms of happiness, dve sukhāni: the happiness without rapture being chief over that with rapture, and the happiness of even-mindedness or equanimity being chief over the happiness of delight, sāta.

[27] The samādhi of the third and fourth jhānas, MA. iv. 209; the sukha of these at AA. ii. 153.

[28] sāta; again belonging to the third and fourth jhānas, MA. iv. 209; but AA. ii. 153 discriminates, saying sātasukha is happiness among the three jhānas, while upekhāsukha is the happiness of the fourth jhāna. At Vism. 86 sukha takes the place of sāta.

[29] upekhā. MA. iv. 209 says "this belongs to the fourth jhāna in the fourfold system, and to the fifth in the fivefold system. But when did the Lord develop this threefold samādhi? During the last watch (of the night) when he was sitting at the root of the great Bo-tree, His first Way is connected with the first jhāna, his second, third and fourth Ways with the second, third and fourth jhānas. In the fivefold system there is no way of the fifth jhāna." Are the three modes of samādhi really (1) that connected with initial and discursive thought, (2) that connected with rapture, (3) that connected with delight and equanimity? (Or are they taken to be so in this Discourse?) On this point see the numbered classification of samādhi at Vism. 85. See also above, Intr., p. xxii.


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