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Saɱyutta Nikāya
3. Khandha Vagga
22. Khandha Saɱyutta
8. Khajjaniya Vagga

The Book of the Kindred Sayings
3. The Book Called the Khandhā-Vagga
Containing Kindred Sayings on the Elements of Sensory Existence and other Subjects
22. Kindred Sayings on Elements
8. On what Must be Devoured

Sutta 82

Puṇṇamā Suttaɱ

Full Moon

Translated by F. L. Woodward
Edited by Mrs. Rhys Davids

Copyright The Pali Text Society
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[100] [84]

[1][bodh] Thus have I heard:—

Once the Exalted One was staying near Sāvatthī
in East Park at the storeyed house of Migāra's mother[1]
with a great gathering of the Order of brethren.

On that occasion,
- it was the sabbath,
the fifteenth day of the moon,
on full-moon night, -
the Exalted One was seated in the open air
surrounded by the Order of brethren.

Then a certain brother,
rising from his seat,
and drawing his outer robe over one shoulder,
bowed before the Exalted One with folded hands
and thus addressed the Exalted One:

"Lord, I would fain question the Exalted One
on a certain point,
if the Exalted One grants permission
and would give an answer to my question?"

"Then sit down where you are, brother,
and ask what you will."[2]

[85] "Even so, lord,"
replied that brother to the Exalted One,
and sat down where he was,
and thus addressed the Exalted One:

"Are these the five grasping-groups, lord,
to wit:

The grasping body-group,
the grasping feeling-group,
the grasping perception-group,
the grasping activities-group
the grasping consciousness-group?"

"That is so, brother.

Those are the five grasping-groups,
to wit:

The grasping body-group,
the grasping feeling-group,
the grasping perception-group,
the grasping activities-group
the grasping consciousness-group."

"It is well, lord,"
said that brother,
welcoming and gladly hearing
the word of the Exalted One,
and put another question:

"But these five grasping-groups, lord,
in what are they rooted?"

"These five grasping-groups, brother,
have their root in desire."[3]

"It is well, lord,"
said that brother,
welcoming and gladly hearing
the word of the Exalted One,
and put another question:

"Now this same grasping, lord, -
is it those five grasping-groups,
or is grasping something apart from those five groups?"

"No indeed, brother,
this same grasping
is not those five grasping-groups,
nor yet is it something apart from those five groups.

But where there is desire and lust,
there also is grasping."

"It is well, lord,"
said that brother,
welcoming and gladly hearing
the word of the Exalted One,
and put another question:

"May it be, lord,
that in the five grasping-groups
there is a variety of desire and lust?"

"It may be so, brother,"
replied the Exalted One.

"Herein, brother, one thinks thus:

'May I be of such a body in future time:
may I have such feeling,
such perception,
such activities,
such consciousness in future time.'

In this way, brother,
in the five grasping-groups
there may be a variety of desire and lust."

"It is well, lord,"
said that brother,
welcoming and gladly hearing
the word of the Exalted One,
and put another question:

"Pray, lord, how far is there a group-definition[4]
of the groups?"

"Every body, brother,
be it past,
future
or present,
inward or outward,
subtle or gross,
low or high,
far or near,
is called [86] a 'body-group.'

Every feeling, brother,
be it past,
future
or present,
inward or outward,
subtle or gross,
low or high,
far or near,
is called a 'feeling-group.'

Every perception, brother,
be it past,
future
or present,
inward or outward,
subtle or gross,
low or high,
far or near,
is called a 'perception-group.'

Any activity, brother,
be it past,
future
or present,
inward or outward,
subtle or gross,
low or high,
far or near,
is called an 'activity-group.'

Every consciousness, brother,
be it past,
future
or present,
inward or outward,
subtle or gross,
low or high,
far or near,
is called a 'consciousness-group.'

Thus far, brother,||
is there a group-definition of the groups."

"It is well, lord,"
said that brother,
welcoming and gladly hearing
the word of the Exalted One,
and put another question:

"What, lord, is the condition,
what is the cause
in the designation of the body-group?[5]

What is the condition,
what is the cause
in the designation of the feeling-group?

What is the condition,
what is the cause
in the designation of the perception-group?

What is the condition,
what is the cause
in the designation of the activities-group?

What is the condition,
what is the cause
in the designation of the consciousness-group?"

"The four great essentials,[6] brother,
are the condition,
the four great essentials are the cause
in the designation of the body-group.

Contact is the condition,
contact is the cause
in the designation of the feeling-group.

Contact is the condition,
contact is the cause
in the designation of the perception group.

Contact is the condition,
contact is the cause
in the designation of the activitdes-group.

Mind and body are the condition,
mind and body are the cause
in the designation of the consciousness-group."

"It is well, lord,"
said that brother,
welcoming and gladly hearing
the word of the Exalted One,
and put another question:

"Pray, lord, what is the individual-group view?"[7]

"Herein, brother, the untaught many-folk,
who discern not those that are Ariyans,
who are unskilled in the Ariyan Norm,
untrained in the Ariyan Norm,
who discern not the worthy ones,
who are unskilled in the worthy doctrine,
regards body as the Self,
regards the Self as having body,
regards the body as being in the Self,
or the Self as being in the body;

regards feeling as the Self,
regards the Self as having feeling,
regards feeling as being in the Self,
or the Self as being in feeling;

regards perception as the Self,
regards the Self as having perception,
regards perception as being in the Self,
or the Self as being in perception;

regards the activities as the Self,
regards the Self as having activities,
regards activities as being in the Self,
or the Self as being in activities;

regards consciousness as the Self,
regards the Self as having consciousness,
regards consciousness as being in the Self,
or the Self as being in consciousness.

That, brother, is how the individual-group-view exists."

[87] "It is well, lord,"
said that brother,
welcoming and gladly hearing
the word of the Exalted One,
and put another question:

"And how, lord, is there no individual group-view?'

"Herein, brother, the well taught Ariyan disciple,
who discerns those that are Ariyans,
who is skilled in the Ariyan Norm,
trained in the Ariyan Norm,
who discerns the worthy ones,
who is skilled in the worthy doctrine,
regards not body as the Self,
regards not the Self as having body,
regards not the body as being in the Self,
or the Self as being in the body;

regards not feeling as the Self,
regards not the Self as having feeling,
regards not feeling as being in the Self,
or the Self as being in feeling;

regards not perception as the Self,
regards not the Self as having perception,
regards not perception as being in the Self,
or the Self as being in perception;

regards not the activities as the Self,
regards not the Self as having activities,
regards not activities as being in the Self,
or the Self as being in activities;

regards not consciousness as the Self,
regards not the Self as having consciousness,
regards not consciousness as being in the Self,
or the Self as being in consciousness.

That, brother, is how there is no individual group-view."

"It is well, lord,"
said that brother,
welcoming and gladly hearing
the word of the Exalted One,
and put another question:

"Pray, lord, what is the satisfaction,
what is the misery of body?

Wherein is there escape from body?

What is the satisfaction in,
the misery of,
the way of escape from feeling?

What is the satisfaction in,
the misery of,
the way of escape from perception?

What is the satisfaction in,
the misery of,
the way of escape from the activities?

What is the satisfaction in,
the misery of,
the way of escape from consciousness?"

"That ease,
that pleasure
which arises owing to body, -
that is the satisfaction in body.

That impermanence,
that suffering,
that instability,
that is in body, -
that is the misery of body.

That restraint of desire and lust,
that putting away of desire and lust
which are in body,
that is the way of escape from body.

That ease,
that pleasure
which arises owing to feeling, -
that is the satisfaction in feeling.

That impermanence,
that suffering,
that instability,
that is in feeling, -
that is the misery of feeling.

That restraint of desire and lust,
that putting away of desire and lust
which are in feeling,
that is the way of escape from feeling.

That ease,
that pleasure
which arises owing to perception, -
that is the satisfaction in perception.

That impermanence,
that suffering,
that instability,
that is in perception, -
that is the misery of perception.

That restraint of desire and lust,
that putting away of desire and lust
which are in perception,
that is the way of escape from perception.

That ease,
that pleasure
which arises owing to the activities, -
that is the satisfaction in the activities.

That impermanence,
that suffering,
that instability,
that is in the activities, -
that is the misery of the activities.

That restraint of desire and lust,
that putting away of desire and lust
which are in the activities,
that is the way of escape from the activities.

That ease,
that pleasure
which arises owing to consciousness, -
that is the satisfaction in consciousness.

That impermanence,
that suffering,
that instability,
that is in consciousness, -
that is the misery of consciousness.

That restraint of desire and lust,
that putting away of desire and lust
which are in consciousness,
that is the way of escape from consciousness."

"It is well, lord,"
said that brother,
welcoming and gladly hearing
the word of the Exalted One,
and put another question:

"How, lord, should one know,
how should one see,
so that in this body,
together with its consciousness,
and likewise in all outward objects,
there be no idea of
'I' or 'mine,'
no leanings to conceit therein?"[8]

"Whatsoever body,
be it past,
future
or present,
inward or outward,
subtle or gross,
low or high,
far or near,
of every body he knows: -

'This is not mine:
this am not I:
this is not the Self of me.'

Thus with right insight
he beholds things as they really are.

Whatsoever feeling,
be it past,
future
or present,
inward or outward,
subtle or gross,
low or high,
far or near,
of every body he knows: -

'This is not mine:
this am not I:
this is not the Self of me.'

Thus with right insight
he beholds things as they really are.

Whatsoever perception,
be it past,
future
or present,
inward or outward,
subtle or gross,
low or high,
far or near,
of every body he knows: -

'This is not mine:
this am not I:
this is not the Self of me.'

Thus with right insight
he beholds things as they really are.

Whatsoever activity,
be it past,
future
or present,
inward or outward,
subtle or gross,
low or high,
far or near,
of every body he knows: -

'This is not mine:
this am not I:
this is not the Self of me.'

Thus with right insight
he beholds things as they really are.

Whatsoever consciousness,
be it past,
future
or present,
inward or outward,
subtle or gross,
low or high,
far or near,
of every body he knows: -

'This is not mine:
this am not I:
this is not the Self of me.'

Thus with right insight
he beholds things as they really are.

Thus brother, should one know,
thus should one see,
so that in this body,
together with its inner consciousness,
and [88] likewise in all outward objects,
there be no idea of
'I' or 'mine,'
no leanings to conceit therein."

 

§

 

At that moment there arose in a certain brother this train of thought:[9]

"So then you say that body is not the Self;
feeling is not the Self,
perception is not the Self,
the activities are not the Self,
and consciousness is not the Self,

Then what self can those acts affect
which are not self-wrought?"

Thereupon the Exalted One,
with his thought reading the thoughts of that brother's mind,
said to the brethren:

"It is possible, brethren, that some senseless fellow,
sunk in ignorance
and led astray by craving,
may think to go beyond the Master's teaching thus:

'So then you say that body is not the Self;
feeling is not the Self,
perception is not the Self,
the activities are not the Self,
and consciousness is not the Self,

Then what self can those acts affect
which are not self-wrought?'

That question, brethren,
I have already answered thus and thus
in those teachings that I have given you.

Now what think ye, brethren?

Is body permanent or impermanent?"

"Impermanent, lord."

"That which is impermanent,
is it weal or woe?"

"Woe, lord."

"But that which is impermanent,
woeful,
unstable in nature,
is it right to regard it thus:

'This is mine,
this am I
this is the Self of me?'"

"Surely not, lord."

"Is feeling permanent or impermanent?"

"Impermanent, lord."

"That which is impermanent,
is it weal or woe?"

"Woe, lord."

"But that which is impermanent,
woeful,
unstable in nature,
is it right to regard it thus:

'This is mine,
this am I
this is the Self of me?'"

"Surely not, lord."

"Is perception permanent or impermanent?"

"Impermanent, lord."

"That which is impermanent,
is it weal or woe?"

"Woe, lord."

"But that which is impermanent,
woeful,
unstable in nature,
is it right to regard it thus:

'This is mine,
this am I
this is the Self of me?'"

"Surely not, lord."

"Are the activities permanent or impermanent?"

"Impermanent, lord."

"That which is impermanent,
is it weal or woe?"

"Woe, lord."

"But that which is impermanent,
woeful,
unstable in nature,
is it right to regard it thus:

'This is mine,
this am I
this is the Self of me?'"

"Surely not, lord."

"Is consciousness permanent or impermanent?"

"Impermanent, lord."

"That which is impermanent,
is it weal or woe?"

"Woe, lord."

"But that which is impermanent,
woeful,
unstable in nature,
is it right to regard it thus:

'This is mine,
this am I
this is the Self of me?'

"Surely not, lord."

"Therefore, brethren, every body whatever,
be it past,
future
or present,
be it inward or outward,
gross or subtle,
low or high,
far or near, -
every body should be thus regarded,
as it really is,
by right insight:

'This is not mine.

This I am not.

This is not the Self of me.'

Every feeling whatever,
be it past,
future
or present,
be it inward or outward,
gross or subtle,
low or high,
far or near, -
every feeling should be thus regarded,
as it really is,
by right insight:

'This is not mine.

This I am not.

This is not the Self of me.'

Every perception whatever,
be it past,
future
or present,
be it inward or outward,
gross or subtle,
low or high,
far or near, -
every perception should be thus regarded,
as it really is,
by right insight:

'This is not mine.

This I am not.

This is not the Self of me.'

Every activity whatever,
be it past,
future
or present,
be it inward or outward,
gross or subtle,
low or high,
far or near, -
every activity should be thus regarded,
as it really is,
by right insight:

'This is not mine.

This I am not.

This is not the Self of me.'

Every consciousness whatever,
be it past,
future
or present,
be it inward or outward,
gross or subtle,
low or high,
far or near, -
every consciousness should be thus regarded,
as it really is,
by right insight:

'This is not mine.

This I am not.

This is not the Self of me.'

"Wherefore, brethren, he who thus sees
conceives disgust at body,
at feeling,
at perception,
at the activities,
at consciousness.

Being disgusted
he is repelled by them;
by that repulsion he is released;
by that release he is set free;
knowledge arises:
in the freed man is the freed thing,
and he knows:

'Destroyed is rebirth;
lived is the righteous life;
done is the task;
for life in these conditions
there is no hereafter.'"

 


[1] Cf. S. i, 77; S. v, 216, 270. She was Visākhā. Cf. K.S. i, 104 n.

ex cathedra. 'from the chair'. From the highest authority.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[2] Comy. asks, 'Why was he told to sit down in his place? It was because this bhikkhu was the teacher of five hundred disciples who were present (?). If he stood up and asked a question, while they sat still, it would show respect for the Master, but their sitting would be disrespectful to their own teacher Whereas if they stood up too, it would be disrespectful to their own teacher, but not to the Master. Moreover, their attention would be distracted from what he said, if they kept standing.' Comy. adds that, of course, the bhikkhu knew the answer to these questions. He merely asked for the sake of his disciples, who might thus get an answer ex cathedra.

[3] Chanda.

[4] Khandhādivacana.

[5] Cf. Expos., ii, 399.

[6] Or elements. Cattāro mahābhūtā.

[7] Sakkāya-diṭṭhi (= the first 'fetter'). Rendered above, p. 38, 'bodyhood,' p. 72, 'person.' [A difficult term to translate. Lit., view [as to] group plus 'sa'; and so is either for 'sat,' 'being,' or 'given,' in the sense of datum or postulate, or for 'sayaɱ,' 'sakaɱ,' one's self. So the Comy. on the Dhammasangaṇi, § 1002 (p. 348). In other words. 'sakkāya' means either 'given the group reckoneoed as fivefold (of body and mind),' or 'one's self, so-ayaɱ, this one (being given), the view as to that group.' Kaya may mean 'body' as opposed to mind, 'citta' but in this formula rūpa is used for body. It is best to roserve 'self' for Attā.-(original)Ed.]

[8] Cf. S. ii, 253.

[9] = M. iii, 19 f.


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