Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
I. Mūlapaṇṇāsa
1. Mūlapariyāya Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
I. The First Fifty Discourses
1. The Division of the Synopsis of Fundamentals

Sutta 9

Sammā Diṭṭhi Suttaɱ[1]

Discourse on Perfect View

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


 

[1][chlm][ntbb][than][wp][upal] THUS have I heard:

At one time the Lord was staying near Sāvatthī
in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika's monastery.

There the venerable Sāriputta addressed the monks,
saying:

"Monks."

"Your reverence,"
these monks answered the venerable Sāriputta in assent.

Then the venerable Sāriputta spoke thus:

"Your reverences, it is said:

'Perfect view,[2]
perfect view.'

To what extent indeed, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
who is come into this true dhamma?"

"From afar, your reverence,
would we come into the venerable Sāriputta's presence
to learn the meaning of this utterance.

It were good if the meaning of this utterance
were to be made clear by[3] the venerable Sāriputta himself;
the monks, having heard it from the venerable Sāriputta,
will bear it in mind."

[58] "Very well, your reverences,
listen
and attend carefully
and I will speak."

"Yes, your reverence,"
these monks answered the venerable Sāriputta in assent.

The venerable Sāriputta spoke thus:

"When a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends unskill
and un-skill's root,
and comprehends skill
and skill's root,
to this extent, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma.

And what, your reverences, is unskill?

What is unskill's root?

What is skill?

What is skill's root?

Onslaught on creatures, your reverences, is unskill,
taking what is not given is unskill,
sexual misconduct is unskill,
lying speech is unskill,
slanderous speech is unskill,
harsh speech is unskill,
gossip is unskill,
covetise is unskill,
wrath is unskill,
wrong view is unskill.

This, your reverences, is called unskill.

And what, your reverences, is unskill's root?

Greed is unskill's root,
hatred is unskill's root,
confusion is unskill's root.

This, your reverences, is called unskill's root.

And what, your reverences, is skill?

Restraint from onslaught on creatures is skill,
restraint from taking what is not given is skill,
restraint from sexual misconduct is skill,
restraint from lying speech is skill,
restraint from slanderous speech is skill,
restraint from harsh speech is skill,
restraint from gossip is skill,
non-covetise is skill,
non-wrath is skill,
perfect view is skill.

This, your reverences, is called skill.

And what, your reverences, is skill's root?

Non-greed is skill's root,
non-hatred is skill's root,
non-confusion is skill's root.

This, your reverences, is called skill's root.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends unskill thus,
comprehends unskill's root thus,
comprehends skill thus,
comprehends skill's root thus,
he, having got rid of all addiction to attachment,[4]
having dispelled addiction to shunning,[4]
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

[59] Saying:

"Good, your reverence,"
these monks, having rejoiced in what the venerable Sāriputta had said,
having approved of it,
asked the venerable Sāriputta a further question:

"Might there be, your reverence,
also another method
by which a disciple of the ariyans
comes to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma?"

"There might be, your reverences.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends sustenance[5]
and comprehends the uprising of sustenance
and comprehends the stopping of sustenance
and comprehends the course leading to the stopping of sustenance,
to this extent also, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma.

And what, your reverences, is sustenance?

What is the uprising of sustenance?

What is the stopping of sustenance?

What is the course leading to the stopping of sustenance?

Your reverences, there are these four[6] (kinds of) sustenance
for the stabihty of creatures
who have come to be
or for the assistance of those
who are seeking to be.

What are the four?

Material food, coarse or fine;
(sense-) impingement is the second;
volition is the third;
consciousness[7] is the fourth.

From the uprising of craving
is the uprising of sustenance,
from the stopping of craving
is the stopping of sustenance;
the course leading to the stopping of sustenance
is this ariyan eightfold Way itself,
that is to say:
perfect view,
perfect thought,
perfect speech,
perfect action,
perfect way of living,
perfect endeavour,
perfect mindfulness,
perfect concentration.

When a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends sustenance thus,
comprehends the uprising of sustenance thus,
comprehends the stopping of sustenance thus,
comprehends the course leading to the stopping of sustenance thus,
he, having got rid of all addiction to attachment,
having dispelled addiction to shunning,
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, also, your reverences,,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come [60] to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

Saying:

"Good, your reverence,"
these monks, having rejoiced in what the venerable Sāriputta had said,
having approved of it,
asked the venerable Sāriputta a further question:

"Might there be, your reverence,
also another method
by which a disciple of the ariyans
comes to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma?"

"There might be, your reverences.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends anguish,
comprehends the uprising of anguish,
comprehends the stopping of anguish,
comprehends the course leading to the stopping of anguish,
to this extent also, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

And what, your reverences, is anguish?[8]

What is the uprising of anguish

What is the stopping of anguish

What is the course leading to the stopping of anguish?

Birth is anguish,
and old age is anguish,
and disease is anguish,
and dying is anguish,
and grief,
lamentation,
suffering,
tribulation
and despair
are anguish;

and if one does not get what one wants,
that too is anguish;

in short,
the five groups of grasping are anguish.

This, your reverences, is called anguish.

And what, your reverences, is the uprising of anguish?

That craving which is
connected with again-becoming,
accompanied by delight and attachment,
finding delight in this and that,
namely the craving for sense-pleasures,
the craving for becoming,[9]
the craving for annihilation[10] -
this, your reverences, is called the origin of anguish.

And what, your reverences, is the stopping of anguish?

Whatever is the stopping,
with no attachment remaining,
of that selfsame craving,
the giving up of it,
the renunciation of it,
the release from it,
the doing away with it -
this, your reverences, is called the stopping of anguish.

And what, your reverences, is the course leading to the stopping of anguish?

The course leading to the stopping of anguish
is this ariyan eightfold Way itself,
that is to say:
perfect view,
perfect thought,
perfect speech,
perfect action,
perfect way of living,
perfect endeavour,
perfect mindfulness,
perfect concentration.

When, your reverences, the disciple of the ariyans
comprehends anguish thus,
comprehends its origin thus,
compre- [61] hends its stopping thus, comprehends the course leading to its stopping thus,
he, having got rid of all addiction to attachment,
having dispelled addiction to shunning,
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, also, your reverences,,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

Saying:

"Good, your reverence,"
these monks, having rejoiced in what the venerable Sāriputta had said,
having approved of it,
asked the venerable Sāriputta a further question:

"Might there be, your reverence,
also another method
by which a disciple of the ariyans
comes to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma?"

"There might be, your reverences.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends old age and dying
comprehends the uprising of old age and dying,
comprehends the stopping of old age and dying,
comprehends the course leading to the stopping of old age and dying,
to this extent also, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

And what, your reverences, is old age and dying?[11]

What is the origin of old age and dying?

What is the stopping of old age and dying?

What is the course leading to the stopping of old age and dying?

Whatever of various beings
in various groups of beings
is old age,
decrepitude,
broken teeth,
greying hair,
wrinkly skin,
the dwindhng of the life-span,
the collapse of the (sense-)organs,
this, your reverences, is called old age.

Whatever is the falling away,
the passing away,
the breaking up,
the disappearance,
the death and dying,[12]
the action of time,[13]
the breaking up of the groups (of grasping),
the laying down of the body -
this, your reverences, is called dying.

Thus, your reverences, this ageing
and this dying
are called ageing-and-dying.

What is the origin of old age and dying?

From the uprising of birth
is the uprising of ageing-and-dying.

From the stopping of birth
is the stopping of ageing-and-dying.

The course leading to the stopping of ageing-and-dying
is this ariyan eightfold Way itself,
that is to say:
perfect view,
perfect thought,
perfect speech,
perfect action,
perfect way of living,
perfect endeavour,
perfect mindfulness,
perfect concentration.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends old age and dying thus
comprehends the uprising of old age and dying thus,
comprehends the stopping of old age and dying thus,
comprehends the [62] course leading to the stopping of old age and dying thus,
he, having got rid of all addiction to attachment,
having dispelled addiction to shunning,
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, also, your reverences,,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

Saying:

"Good, your reverence,"
these monks, having rejoiced in what the venerable Sāriputta had said,
having approved of it,
asked the venerable Sāriputta a further question:

"Might there be, your reverence,
also another method
by which a disciple of the ariyans
comes to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma?"

"There might be, your reverences.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends birth,
comprehends the uprising of birth,
comprehends the stopping of birth,
comprehends the the course leading to the stopping of birth,
to this extent also, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

And what, your reverences, is birth?

What is the uprising of birth?

What is the stopping of birth?

What is the course leading to the stopping of birth?

Whatever is the conception,[14]
the production,[15]
the descent,[16]
the coming forth[17]
of various beings
in various groups of beings,
the appearance of the groups (of grasping),
the acquiring of the sense-bases,[18]
this, your reverences, is called birth.[19]

From the uprising of becoming[20]
is the uprising of birth.

From the stopping of becoming
is the stopping of birth.

The course leading to the stopping of birth
is this ariyan eightfold Way itself,
that is to say:
perfect view,
perfect thought,
perfect speech,
perfect action,
perfect way of living,
perfect endeavour,
perfect mindfulness,
perfect concentration.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends birth thus
comprehends the uprising of birth thus,
comprehends the stopping of birth thus,
comprehends the course leading to the stopping of birth thus,
he, [63] having got rid of all addiction to attachment,
having dispelled addiction to shunning,
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, also, your reverences,,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

Saying:

"Good, your reverence,"
these monks, having rejoiced in what the venerable Sāriputta had said,
having approved of it,
asked the venerable Sāriputta a further question:

"Might there be, your reverence,
also another method
by which a disciple of the ariyans
comes to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma?"

"There might be, your reverences.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends becoming,
comprehends the uprising of becoming,
comprehends the stopping of becoming,
comprehends the the course leading to the stopping of becoming,
to this extent also, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

And what, your reverences, is becoming?

What is the uprising of becoming?

What is the stopping of becoming?

What is the course leading to the stopping of becoming?

Your reverences, there are these three (kinds of) becoming:

Kāma-, rūpa-, arūpa-bhavo. This should be understood as 'sense-pleasure existence', 'subtle-form-existence', 'purely mental existence,' or '~-becoming,' or '~-living', but not 'becoming as to'. These are the three fundamental modes wherein beings can enter existence.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

Becoming as to sense-pleasures,
becoming as to fine-materiality,
becoming as to non-materiality.

From the uprising of grasping
is the uprising of becoming,
from the stopping of grasping
is the stopping of becoming;
the course leading to the stopping of becoming
is this ariyan eightfold Way itself,
that is to say:
perfect view,
perfect thought,
perfect speech,
perfect action,
perfect way of living,
perfect endeavour,
perfect mindfulness,
perfect concentration.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends becoming thus
comprehends the uprising of becoming thus,
comprehends the stopping of becoming thus,
comprehends the course leading to the stopping of becoming thus,
he, having got rid of all addiction to attachment,
having dispelled addiction to shunning,
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, also, your reverences,,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

Saying:

"Good, your reverence,"
these monks, having rejoiced in what the venerable Sāriputta had said,
having approved of it,
asked the venerable Sāriputta a further question:

"Might there be, your reverence,
also another method
by which a disciple of the ariyans
comes to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma?"

"There might be, your reverences.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends grasping,
comprehends the uprising of grasping,
comprehends the stopping of grasping,
comprehends the the course leading to the stopping of grasping,
to this extent also, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

And what, your reverences, is grasping?

What is the uprising of grasping?

What is the stopping of grasping?

What is the course leading to the stopping of grasping?

There are, your reverences, these four (kinds of) grasping:

Grasping after sense-pleasures,[21]
grasping after view,[21]
grasping after rites and customs,[21]
grasping after the theory of 'self.'[22]

[64] From the uprising of craving is the uprising of grasping,
from the stopping of craving is the stopping of grasping,
the course leading to the stopping of grasping
is this ariyan eightfold Way itself,
that is to say:
perfect view,
perfect thought,
perfect speech,
perfect action,
perfect way of living,
perfect endeavour,
perfect mindfulness,
perfect concentration.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends grasping thus
comprehends the uprising of grasping thus,
comprehends the stopping of grasping thus,
comprehends the course leading to the stopping of grasping thus,
he, having got rid of all addiction to attachment,
having dispelled addiction to shunning,
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, also, your reverences,,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

Saying:

"Good, your reverence,"
these monks, having rejoiced in what the venerable Sāriputta had said,
having approved of it,
asked the venerable Sāriputta a further question:

"Might there be, your reverence,
also another method
by which a disciple of the ariyans
comes to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma?"

"There might be, your reverences.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends craving,
comprehends the uprising of craving,
comprehends the stopping of craving,
comprehends the the course leading to the stopping of craving,
to this extent also, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

And what, your reverences, is craving?

What is the uprising of craving?

What is the stopping of craving?

What is the course leading to the stopping of craving?

Your reverences, there are these six (kinds of) craving:

Craving for material shapes,
craving for sounds,
craving for smells,
craving for flavours,
craving for touches,
craving for mental objects.[23]

From the uprising of feeling is the uprising of craving,
from the stopping of feeling is the stopping of craving,
the course leading to the stopping of craving
is this ariyan eightfold Way itself,
that is to say:
perfect view,
perfect thought,
perfect speech,
perfect action,
perfect way of living,
perfect endeavour,
perfect mindfulness,
perfect concentration.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends craving thus
comprehends the uprising of craving thus,
comprehends the stopping of craving thus,
comprehends the course leading to the stopping of craving thus,
he, having got rid of all addiction to attachment,
having dispelled addiction to shunning,
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, also, your reverences,,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

Saying:

"Good, your reverence,"
these monks, having rejoiced in what the venerable Sāriputta had said,
having approved of it,
asked the venerable Sāriputta a further question:

"Might there be, your reverence,
also another method
by which a disciple of the ariyans
comes to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma?"

"There might be, your reverences.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends feeling,
comprehends the uprising of feeling,
comprehends the [65] stopping of feeling,
comprehends the the course leading to the stopping of feeling,
to this extent also, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

And what, your reverences, is feeling?

What is the uprising of feeling?

What is the stopping of feeling?

What is the course leading to the stopping of feeling?

There are, your reverences, these six classes of feeling:

Feeling arising from sensory impingement on the eye
feeling arising from sensory impingement on the ear
feeling arising from sensory impingement on the nose
feeling arising from sensory impingement on the tongue
feeling arising from sensory impingement on the body
feeling arising from sensory impingement on the mind.[24]

From the uprising of sensory impingement is the uprising of feeling,
from the stopping of sensory impingement is the stopping of feeling,
the course leading to the stopping of feeling
is this ariyan eightfold Way itself,
that is to say:
perfect view,
perfect thought,
perfect speech,
perfect action,
perfect way of living,
perfect endeavour,
perfect mindfulness,
perfect concentration.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends feeling thus
comprehends the uprising of feeling thus,
comprehends the stopping of feeling thus,
comprehends the course leading to the stopping of feeling thus,
he, having got rid of all addiction to attachment,
having dispelled addiction to shunning,
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, also, your reverences,,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

Saying:

"Good, your reverence,"
these monks, having rejoiced in what the venerable Sāriputta had said,
having approved of it,
asked the venerable Sāriputta a further question:

"Might there be, your reverence,
also another method
by which a disciple of the ariyans
comes to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma?"

"There might be, your reverences.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends sensory impingement,
comprehends the uprising of sensory impingement,
comprehends the stopping of sensory impingement,
comprehends the the course leading to the stopping of sensory impingement,
to this extent also, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

And what, your reverences, is sensory impingement?

What is the uprising of sensory impingement?

What is the stopping of sensory impingement?

What is the course leading to the stopping of sensory impingement?

Your reverences, there are these six classes of sensory impingement:

Sensory impingement on the eye,
sensory impingement on the ear,
sensory impingement on the nose,
sensory impingement on the tongue,
sensory impingement on the body,
sensory impingement on the mind.[25]

From the uprising of the six bases of sense-impressions is the uprising of sensory impingement,
from the stopping of the six bases of sense-impressions is the stopping of sensory impingement,
the course leading to the stopping of sensory impingement
is this ariyan eightfold Way itself,
that is to say:
perfect view,
perfect thought,
perfect speech,
perfect action,
perfect way of living,
perfect endeavour,
perfect mindfulness,
perfect concentration.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends sensory impingement thus
comprehends the uprising of sensory impingement thus,
comprehends the stopping of sensory impingement thus,
comprehends the course leading to the stopping of sensory impingement thus,
he, having [66] got rid of all addiction to attachment,
having dispelled addiction to shunning,
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, also, your reverences,,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

Saying:

"Good, your reverence,"
these monks, having rejoiced in what the venerable Sāriputta had said,
having approved of it,
asked the venerable Sāriputta a further question:

"Might there be, your reverence,
also another method
by which a disciple of the ariyans
comes to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma?"

"There might be, your reverences.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends the six bases of sense-impressions,
comprehends the uprising of the six bases of sense-impressions,
comprehends the stopping of the six bases of sense-impressions,
comprehends the the course leading to the stopping of the six bases of sense-impressions,
to this extent also, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

And what, your reverences, are the six bases of sense-impression?

What is the uprising of the six bases of sense-impression?

What is the stopping of the six bases of sense-impression?

What is the course leading to the stopping of the six bases of sense-impression?

Your reverences, there are these six bases of sense-impression:

The basis for eye,
the basis for ear,
the basis for nose,
the basis for tongue,
the basis for body,
the basis for mind.

From the uprising of mind-and-matter[26] is the uprising of the six bases of sense-impression,
from the stopping of mind-and-matterial is the stopping of the six bases of sense-impression,
the course leading to the stopping of the six bases of sense-impression
is this ariyan eightfold Way itself,
that is to say:
perfect view,
perfect thought,
perfect speech,
perfect action,
perfect way of living,
perfect endeavour,
perfect mindfulness,
perfect concentration.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends the six bases of sense-impression thus
comprehends the uprising of the six bases of sense-impression thus,
comprehends the stopping of the six bases of sense-impression thus,
comprehends the course leading to the stopping of the six bases of sense-impression thus,
he, having got rid of all addiction to attachment,
having dispelled addiction to shunning,
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, also, your reverences,,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

Saying:

"Good, your reverence,"
these monks, having rejoiced in what the venerable Sāriputta had said,
having approved of it,
asked the venerable Sāriputta a further question:

"Might there be, your reverence,
also another method
by which a disciple of the ariyans
comes to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma?"

"There might be, your reverences.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends mind-and-matter,
comprehends the uprising of mind-and-matter,
comprehends the stopping of mind-and-matter,
comprehends the the course leading to the stopping of mind-and-matter,
to this extent also, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

And what, your reverences, is mind-and-matter?

What is the uprising of mind-and-matter?

What is the stopping of mind-and-matter?

What is the course leading to the stopping of mind-and-matter?

Feeling,
perception,
vohtion,
sensory impingement,
reflectiveness,[27]
this, [67] your reverences, is called mind.

The four great elements[28]
and the material shape derived from the four great elements,
this, your reverences, is called matter.

So, your reverences, this that is mind
and this that is matter
is called mind-and-matter.[29]

From the uprising of consciousness is the uprising of mind-and-matter,
from the stopping of consciousness is the stopping of mind-and-matter,
the course leading to the stopping of mind-and-matter
is this ariyan eightfold Way itself,
that is to say:
perfect view,
perfect thought,
perfect speech,
perfect action,
perfect way of living,
perfect endeavour,
perfect mindfulness,
perfect concentration.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends mind-and-matter thus
comprehends the uprising of mind-and-matter thus,
comprehends the stopping of mind-and-matter thus,
comprehends the course leading to the stopping of mind-and-matter thus,
he, having got rid of all addiction to attachment,
having dispelled addiction to shunning,
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, also, your reverences,,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

Saying:

"Good, your reverence,"
these monks, having rejoiced in what the venerable Sāriputta had said,
having approved of it,
asked the venerable Sāriputta a further question:

"Might there be, your reverence,
also another method
by which a disciple of the ariyans
comes to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma?"

"There might be, your reverences.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends consciousness,
comprehends the uprising of consciousness,
comprehends the stopping of consciousness,
comprehends the the course leading to the stopping of consciousness,
to this extent also, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

And what, your reverences, is consciousness?

What is the uprising of consciousness?

What is the stopping of consciousness?

What is the course leading to the stopping of consciousness?

Your reverences, there are these six classes of consciousness:

Visual consciousness,
auditory consciousness,
olfactory consciousness,
gustatory consciousness,
bodily consciousness,
mental consciousness.[30]

From the uprising of formations[31] is the uprising of consciousness,
from the stopping of formations is the stopping of consciousness,
the course leading to the stopping of consciousness
is this ariyan eightfold Way itself,
that is to say:
perfect view,
perfect thought,
perfect speech,
perfect action,
perfect way of living,
perfect endeavour,
perfect mindfulness,
perfect concentration.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends consciousness thus
comprehends the uprising of consciousness thus,
comprehends the stopping of consciousness thus,
comprehends the course leading to the stopping of consciousness thus,
he, having got rid of [68] all addiction to attachment,
having dispelled addiction to shunning,
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, also, your reverences,,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

Saying:

"Good, your reverence,"
these monks, having rejoiced in what the venerable Sāriputta had said,
having approved of it,
asked the venerable Sāriputta a further question:

"Might there be, your reverence,
also another method
by which a disciple of the ariyans
comes to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma?"

"There might be, your reverences.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends formations,
comprehends the uprising of formations,
comprehends the stopping of formations,
comprehends the the course leading to the stopping of formations,
to this extent also, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

And what, your reverences, are the formations?

What is the uprising of the formations?

What is the stopping of the formations?

What is the course leading to the stopping of the formations?

Your reverences, there are these three (kinds of) formations:

Activity of the body,
activity of speech,
activity of mind.

From the uprising of ignorance is the uprising of the formations,
from the stopping of ignorance is the stopping of the formations,
the course leading to the stopping of the formations
is this ariyan eightfold Way itself,
that is to say:
perfect view,
perfect thought,
perfect speech,
perfect action,
perfect way of living,
perfect endeavour,
perfect mindfulness,
perfect concentration.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends the formations thus
comprehends the uprising of the formations thus,
comprehends the stopping of the formations thus,
comprehends the course leading to the stopping of the formations thus,
he, having got rid of all addiction to attachment,
having dispelled addiction to shunning,
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, also, your reverences,,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

Saying:

"Good, your reverence,"
these monks, having rejoiced in what the venerable Sāriputta had said,
having approved of it,
asked the venerable Sāriputta a further question:

"Might there be, your reverence,
also another method
by which a disciple of the ariyans
comes to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma?"

"There might be, your reverences.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends ignorance,
comprehends the uprising of ignorance,
comprehends the stopping of ignorance,
comprehends the the course leading to the stopping of ignorance,
to this extent also, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

And what, your reverences, is ignorance?

What is the uprising of ignorance?

What is the stopping of ignorance?

What is the course leading to the stopping ignorance?

Whatever, your reverences, is not-knowing[32] in regard to anguish,
not-knowing in regard to the uprising of anguish,
not-knowing in regard to the stopping of anguish,
not-knowing in regard to the course [69] leading to the stopping of anguish, this, your reverences, is called ignorance.[33]

From the uprising of the cankers[34] is the uprising of ignorance,
from the stopping of the cankers is the stopping of ignorance,
the course leading to the stopping of ignorance
is this ariyan eightfold Way itself,
that is to say:
perfect view,
perfect thought,
perfect speech,
perfect action,
perfect way of living,
perfect endeavour,
perfect mindfulness,
perfect concentration.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends ignorance thus
comprehends the uprising of ignorance thus,
comprehends the stopping of ignorance thus,
comprehends the course leading to the stopping of ignorance thus,
he, having got rid of all addiction to attachment,
having dispelled addiction to shunning,
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, also, your reverences,,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

Saying:

"Good, your reverence,"
these monks, having rejoiced in what the venerable Sāriputta had said,
having approved of it,
asked the venerable Sāriputta a further question:

"Might there be, your reverence,
also another method
by which a disciple of the ariyans
comes to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who has unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma?"

"There might be, your reverences.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends the cankers,
comprehends the uprising of the cankers,
comprehends the stopping of the cankers,
comprehends the the course leading to the stopping of the cankers,
to this extent also, your reverences,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."

And what, your reverences, is a canker?

What is the uprising of a canker?

What is the stopping of a canker?

What is the course leading to the stopping of a canker?

Your reverences, there are these [70] three cankers:

The canker of sense-pleasures,
the canker of becoming,
the canker of ignorance.

From the uprising of ignorance is the uprising of the cankers,
from the stopping of ignorance is the stopping of the cankers,
the course leading to the stopping of the cankers
is this ariyan eightfold Way itself,
that is to say:
perfect view,
perfect thought,
perfect speech,
perfect action,
perfect way of living,
perfect endeavour,
perfect mindfulness,
perfect concentration.

When, your reverences, a disciple of the ariyans
comprehends the cankers thus
comprehends the uprising of the cankers thus,
comprehends the stopping of the cankers thus,
comprehends the course leading to the stopping of the cankers thus,
he, having got rid of all addiction to attachment,
having dispelled addiction to shunning,
having abolished addiction to the latent view 'I am,'
having got rid of ignorance,
having made knowledge arise,
is here-now an end-maker of anguish.

To this extent, also, your reverences,,
does a disciple of the ariyans
come to be of perfect view,
one whose view is upright,
one who is possessed of unwavering confidence in dhamma,
one who has come into this true dhamma."[35]

Discourse on Perfect View: the Ninth

 


[1] Translated with the Comy. into English by the Bhikkhu Soma: Right Understanding: Discourse and Commentary, Buddha Sahitya Sabha, Colombo, 1946.

[2] Right, or perfect, understanding, or view, is twofold: worldly and ultraworldly. Three kinds of people may have it: the worldling, the learner and the adept. The worldling may be either outside the Buddha's dispensation or within it.

[3] paṭibhātu, let it occur to.

[4] Cf. S. iv. 205.

[5] āhāra, sustenance or nutriment, is a condition, paccaya, that brings, āharati, its own fruit.

[6] Cf. M. i. 261; S. ii. 11; D. iii. 228, 276; Dhs. 71-73 and see notes at K.S. ii. 8.

[7] viññāṇa; MA. i. 209 says "whatever is mind (citta)."

[8] Cf. Vin. i. 10; D. ii. 305; M. iii. 249.

[9] Connected with the view of Etemalism.

Vibhava. Which could also be heard as the wish when believing that the self comes to an end with the end of the khandhas, that there would be another becoming. That is: more-becoming, which comports better with the non-doctrinal meaning of vibhava. as increase in wealth of possessions etc.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[10] vibhava, de-becoming, DA. iii. 800 says it is a synonym for the attachment connected with the view of Annihilationism.

[11] Cf. S. ii. 2; D. ii. 305; M. iii. 249.

[12] maccumaraṇa. MA. i. 216, "the dying called death."

[13] kālakiriya. MA. i. 216 kālo nāma antiko, time is an ender, whose action, kiriya, is the action of time. As far as here "dying" is explained in conventional terms, MA. i. 216-7, DA. iii. 798-9. But now it is to be explained in the real sense, paramattha. According to this it is the khandhas which are broken, not any being named So-and-so who dies.

[14] jāti may be birth or conception. MA. i. 217 says it is called jāti on account of the sense-organs not being complete.

[15] sañjati, so called when the sense-organs are complete, MA. i. 217.

[16] okkanti refers to "birth" from eggs or from a womb. MA. i. 217 says "they take on reinstatement as if entering an egg-shell or a membranous sheath."

[17] abhinibbatti, so caUed referring to spontaneous generation and birth from moisture, MA. i. 217. Up to here the explanation has referred to what is vohāra, the common or conventional usage of the terms. But there is an explanation according to the higher sense (or philosophical truth, paramattha); and "of the groups" (khandha) means the taking up of one, four or five of the constituents of being, vokārabhava (see Kvu. 261; Vbh. 137; SnA. 19, 158; KhpA. 245). Cf. DA. iii. 797.

[18] āyatana.

[19] Cf. S. ii. 3; M. iii. 249; D. ii. 305; Vbh. 137.

[20] MA. i. 217 says "here the condition for birth should be known as kammabhava, karmical becoming." This is explained at Vbh. 137.

[21] Cf. Dhs. p. 212.

[22] Cf. M. i. 66; D. ii. 58, iii. 230; S. ii. 3; Dhs. p. 212. In explanation of attavādupādāna, grasping after the view of "self," MA. i. 219 says they talk about, they grasp (the) self. See also attavada at M. i. 40 (Sutta 8).

108 Modes of Craving. Compare with 108 modes of Vedana (sense experience) where 'subjective and objective' are cast as having to do with the world and having to do with giving up the world (Horner: material and non-material, but in her note according to MA 1.279: connected with sense pleasures vs connected with renunciation; Pali: misa and amisa: carnal and non-carnal). See MN 10 - Horner n.26

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[23] Cf. S. ii. 3. There are 108 modes of craving; craving is for sense-pleasures, becoming, annihilation (vibhava). These three, multiplied by the six kinds of sensory data, give eighteen. These eighteen may be of a subjective or an objective nature, so we get to thirty-six. These again may apply to past, future, present, thus we arrive at the 108; see MA. i. 219.

[24] Cf. S. ii. 3.

[25] Cf. S. ii. 3; Vism. 444-6.

Nāma-rūpa. This translation comes from an orientation based on Western Philosophy. It is properly: "Name-Shape". Names of things and their appearances. Named-shapes.

[26] nāma-rūpa, psycho-physicality. See Vism. 562-566.

"MA. i. 221 says..." [n27] It is not easy to understand what this note is supposed to mean. The Sankhāras are acts of thought, word, and deed or the results of such. The khandhas are rūpa, vedanā, sannā, sankhāra and viññāṇa. Vedanā, sannā, cetanā, phasso, and manasikāro (sense-experience, perception, intent, contact, and mental-study) are in this sutta said to be five things that define 'nāma,' 'name' (Horner's 'mind'). Then in this note: Intent, contact, and mental-study (the better order would be mental-study, intent and (making) contact) are what 'form' own-making (sankhāra). What does 'form' mean? If it means 'constitute' this is not correct as the sankaras also include that which is formed by intent, etc. which would include feeling and perception. If 'form' means 'to shape,' 'are the bases for the formation of,' this is also not absolutely correct as feeling and perception are the objects of mental study, intent and the effort to contact, round and round, but the meaning could be that these three are the volitional aspects of the cycle, the own-making part that produces the own-made part.
If the meaning is this latter, I would re-state it this way: 'Sense-experiences, perceptions, intents, contacts, and mental-studies' are the categories which encompass that which is 'named'; The four great elements and the shapes derived from them are the categories which encompass that which is 'formed'. Own-making results in both, bound up together, and called 'named-forms'. In contact with the consciousness that arises in connection with named-forms, individuality, in the form of the khandhas is the end result. Those aspects of the individuality that roll on the process are work-of-mind, intent and effort to contact. In the khandha classification scheme, those three could all be put under 'sankhāra'.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[27] MA. i. 221 says that among the khandhas these last three form the sankhāras.

[28] Extension, cohesion, heat and mobility. See M. Suita 1, and Vism. 443.

[29] Cf. S. ii. 3-4.

[30] Cf. S. ii. 4; Vism. 545-58.

[31] Sankhāra, potential energy, habitual, karmical, innate or reflex tendencies; and here seeming to mean unskilled and skilled (types of) deeds: eight skilled in regard to the body, twelve unskilled = twenty; and twenty in regard to speech, twenty-nine in regard to thought.

[32] aññāṇa, nescience; it is folly or confusion, moha. MA. i. 223.

[33] Cf. S. ii. 4.

[n34] A perfect argument for ignoring the commentaries. That the end of samsaric existence is inconceivable may be, but this argument does not prove it. The commentator likely felt the need to make this point as a result of knowledge of the Mahayana Bodhisattva vow to abstain from entering Nibbana until all sentient beings can do so at the same time.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[34] MA. i. 223 f. says: "Here the cankers of sense-pleasures and becoming are, through co-naseence, tbe causes (or conditions) of ignorance." And again, "Ignorance is the cause, through co-nascence, of the cankers of sense-pleasures and becoming ... This exposition of the cankers is spoken of as an explanation of the conditions of that chief ignorance which is among the clauses of 'dependent origination.' Through the exposition made known thus, the fact that the end of samsāric existence is inconceivable is proved. How? From the arising of ignorance is the arising of the cankers; from the arising of the cankers is the arising of ignorance. Having made the cankers the cause of ignorance and ignorance the cause of the cankers, the earliest point of ignorance is not perceptible, therefore the fact that the end of samsāric existence is inconceivable is proved."

[35] MA. i. 224 says that only in this Discourse, even in the whole great fivefold classified collection of the Buddha's words, are the four truths proclaimed thirty-two times and arahantship thirty-two times.


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