Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
I. Mūlapaṇṇāsa
2. Sīhanāda Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
I. The First Fifty Discourses
2. The Division of the Lion's Roar

Sutta 11

Cūḷa Sīhanāda Suttaɱ

Lesser Discourse on the Lion's Roar

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.MA.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
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[1][chlm][ntbb][upal] THUS have I heard:

At one time the Lord was staying near Sāvatthī
in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika's monastery.

While he was there, the Lord addressed the monks, saying:

"Monks."

"Revered one," these monks answered the Lord in assent.

The Lord spoke thus:

"Monks, thinking:

'Just here[1] is a recluse,
here a second recluse,
here a third recluse,
here a fourth recluse;[2]
void of recluses are other (systems teaching) alien views,'[3]
it is thus, monks,
that you may rightly[4] roar a lion's roar.[5]

But this situation occurs, monks,
when wanderers belonging to other sects
might herein speak thus:

'What confidence have the venerable ones,
what authority,
by reason of which the venerable ones speak thus:

"Just here is a recluse,
here a second recluse, here a third recluse,
here a fourth recluse;
void of recluses are other (systems teaching) alien views?"

Monks, if there are wanderers belonging to other sects who speak thus,
they should be spoken to thus:

'It is because we see for ourselves
four things made known to us
by the Lord who knows,
who sees,
perfected one,
fully self-awakened one,
that we speak thus:

"Just here is a recluse,
here a second recluse,
here a third recluse,
here a fourth recluse;
void of recluses are other (systems teaching) alien views."

What are the four?

Your reverences, we have confidence in the Teacher,[6]
we have confidence in dhamma,[6]
there is fulfilment of the moral habits,
and our fellow dhamma-men,[7]
[86] as well as householders
and those who have gone forth,
are dear to us and liked (by us).

It is, your reverences,
because of these four matters,
made known to us by the Lord who knows,
who sees,
perfected one,
fully self-awakened one,
that we speak thus:

"Just here is a recluse,
here a second recluse,
here a third recluse,
here a fourth recluse;
void of recluses are other (systems teaching) alien views."

But this situation occurs, monks,
when wanderers belonging to other sects might speak thus:

'Your reverences, we too have confidence in that teacher of ours[8] who is our teacher,
and we have confidence in that dhamma of ours
which is our dhamma,
and we fulfil those which are our moral habits,[9]
and our fellow dhamma-men,
as well as householders
and those who have gone forth,
are dear to us and liked (by us).

So, your reverences, what is the distinction,
what the divergence,
what the difference between you and us?'

Monks, if there are wanderers belonging to other sects who speak thus,
they should be spoken to thus:

'But, your reverences, is the goal[10] one
or is the goal manifold?'

Monks, if answering rightly
wanderers belonging to other sects
would answer thus:

'The goal is one, your reverences,
the goal is not manifold.'

'But, your reverences,
is this goal for one with attachment
or for one without attachment?

Monks, if answering rightly
wanderers belonging to other sects would answer:

'This goal is for one without attachment,
this goal is not for one with attachment.'

'But, your reverences,
is this goal for someone with aversion
or for someone without aversion?

Monks, if answering rightly
wanderers belonging to other sects would answer:

'This goal is for someone without aversion.

'But, your reverences,
is this goal for someone with confusion
or for someone without confusion?

Monks, if answering rightly
wanderers belonging to other sects would answer:

'This goal is for someone without confusion.

'But, your reverences,
is this goal for someone with craving
or for someone without craving?

Monks, if answering rightly
wanderers belonging to other sects would answer:

'This goal is for someone without craving.

'But, your reverences,
is this goal for someone with grasping
or for someone without grasping?

Monks, if answering rightly
wanderers belonging to other sects would answer:

'This goal is for someone without grasping.

'But, your reverences,
is this goal for someone who is intelligent
or for someone who is unintelligent?

Monks, if answering rightly
wanderers belonging to other sects would answer:

'This goal is for someone who is intelligent.

'But, your reverences,
is this goal for someone who is yielding[11] and hindered[12] or for someone who is unyielding and unhindered?

Monks, if answering rightly
wanderers belonging to other sects would answer:

'This goal is for someone who is unyielding and unhindered.

'But, your reverences,
is this goal for someone [87] with dehght in impediments[13] or for someone without delight in impediments?

Monks, if answering rightly wanderers belonging to other sects would answer thus:

'This goal is for someone who is without dehght in impediments,
not for someone with delight in impediments.'

Monks, there are these two views:
view of becoming,
and view of annihilation.[14]

Monks, whatever recluses and brahmans adhere to the view of becoming,
have come under the view of becoming,
cleave to the view of becoming,
these are obstructed from the view of annihilation.

Monks, whatever recluses and brahmans adhere to the view of annihilation,
have come under the view of annihilation,
cleave to the view of annihilation,
these are obstructed from the view of becoming.

Monks, whatever recluses or brahmans do not comprehend as they really are
the rise and fall of,
and satis-faction in,
and peril of these two views
and the escape[15] from them,
these have attachment,
these have aversion,
these have confusion,
these have craving,
these have grasping,
these are unintelligent,
these are yielding and hindered,
these delight in impediments,
these are not utterly freed from birth,
ageing,
dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation,
despair -
these are not utterly freed from anguish,[16]
I say.

But whatever recluses or brahmans comprehend as they really are
the rise and fall of,
and the satisfaction in,
and the peril of these two views
and the escape from them,
these are without attachment,
these are without aversion,
these are without confusion,
these are without craving,
these are without grasping,
these are intelligent,
these are unyielding and unhindered,
these do not dehght in impediments,
these are utterly freed from birth,
ageing
[88] dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation,
despair -
these are utterly freed from anguish,
I say.

Monks, there are these four (kinds of) grasping.

What are the four?

The grasping of sense-pleasures,
the grasping of view,
the grasping of rule and custom,
the grasping of the theory of self.

There are some recluses and brahmans who,
although pretending to a comprehension of all the graspings,
do not lay down rightly
a comprehension of all the graspings;
they lay down a comprehension of the grasping of sense-pleasures,
but do not lay down a comprehension of the grasping of view,
of the grasping of rule and custom,
of the grasping of the theory of self.

What is the cause of this?

It is that these worthy recluses and brahmans
do not understand three situations
as they really are.

Therefore these worthy recluses and brahmans,
although pretending to a comprehension of all the graspings,
do not lay down rightly
a comprehension of all the graspings;
they lay down a comprehension of the grasping of sense-pleasures,
but do not lay down a comprehension of the grasping of view,
do not lay down a comprehension of the grasping of rule and custom,
do not lay down a comprehension of the grasping of the theory of self.

Monks, there are some recluses and brahmans who,
although pretending to a comprehension of all the graspings,
do not lay down rightly a comprehension of all the graspings;
they lay down a comprehension of the grasping of sense-pleasures,
they lay down a comprehension of the grasping of view,
but they do not lay down a comprehension of the grasping of rule and custom,
they do not lay down a comprehension of the grasping of the theory of self.

What is the cause of this?

It is that these worthy recluses and brahmans
do not comprehend two situations as they really are.

Therefore these worthy recluses and brahmans,
although pretending to a comprehension of all the graspings,
do not rightly lay down a comprehension of all the graspings;
they lay down a comprehension of the grasping of sense-pleasure,
they lay down a comprehension of the grasping of view,
they do not lay down the comprehension of the grasping of rule and custom,
they do not lay down a comprehension of the grasping of the theory of self.

Monks, there are some recluses and brahmans who
although pretending to a comprehension of all the graspings,
do not lay down rightly a comprehension of all the graspings;
they lay down a comprehension of the grasping of sense-pleasures,
they lay down a comprehension of the grasping of view,
they lay down a comprehension [89] of the grasping of rule and custom,
but they do not lay down a comprehension of the grasping of the theory of self.

What is the cause of this?

It is that these worthy recluses and brahmans
do not understand one situation as it really is.

Therefore these worthy recluses and brahmans,
although pretending to a comprehension of all the graspings,
do not rightly lay down a comprehension of all the graspings;
they lay down a comprehension of the grasping of sense-pleasure,
they lay down a comprehension of the grasping of view,
they lay down a comprehension of the grasping of rule and custom,
but they do not lay down a comprehension of the grasping of the theory of self.

In such a dhamma and disciphne as this, monks,
that which is confidence in the Teacher
is shown to be not perfect,
that which is confidence in dhamma
is shown to be not perfect,
that which is fulfilment of the moral habits
is shown to be not perfect,
that which is regard and affection for one's fellow dhamma-men
is shown to be not perfect.

What is the cause of this?

It comes to be thus, monks,
in a dhamma and discipline that are wrongly shown,
wrongly taught,
not leading onwards,[17]
not conducive to allayment,[18]
taught by one who is not fully self-awakened.

But the Tathagata, monks,
perfected one,
fully self-awakened one,
claiming a comprehension of all the graspings,
rightly lays down a comprehension of all the graspings;
he lays down a comprehension of the grasping of sense-pleasures,
he lays down a comprehension of the grasping of view,
he lays down a comprehension of the grasping of rule and custom,
he lays down a comprehension of the grasping of the theory of self.

In such a dhamma and disciphne as this, monks,
that which is confidence in the Teacher
is shown to be perfect,
that which is confidence in dhamma
is shown to be perfect,
that which is fulfilment of the moral habits
is shown to be perfect,
that which is regard and affection for one's fellow dhamma-men
is shown to bu perfect.

What is the cause of this?

It comes to be thus, monks,
in a dhamma and discipline that are rightly shown,
rightly taught,
leading onwards,
conducive to allayment,
taught by one who is fully self-awakened.

Monks, what is the provenance,
what the origin,
what the birth,
what the source of these four (kinds of) grasping?

Craving, monks, is the provenance,
craving is the origin,
craving is the birth,
craving [90] is the source of these four (kinds of) grasping.

And what, monks, is the provenance,
what the origin,
what the birth,
what the source of craving?

Feeling, monks, is the provenance,
feeling is the origin,
feeling is the birth,
feeling is the source of craving.

And what, monks, is the provenance,
the origin,
the birth,
the source of feeling?

Sensory impingement is the provenance,
sensory impingement is the origin,
sensory impingement is the birth,
sensory impingement is the source of feeling.

And what, monks, is the provenance,
the origin,
the birth,
the source of sensory impingement?

The six bases of sensory impression, monks,
is the provenance,
the six bases of sensory impression is the origin,
the six bases of sensory impression is the birth,
the six bases of sensory impression is the source of sensory impingement.

And what, monks, is the provenance,
the origin,
the birth,
the source of the six bases of sensory impression?

Name-and-form, monks, is the provenance,
name-and-form is the origin,
name-and-form is the birth,
name-and-form is the source of the six bases of sensory impression.

And what, monks, is the provenance,
the origin,
the birth,
the source of name-and-form?

Consciousness, monks, is the provenance,
consciousness is the origin,
consciousness is the birth,
consciousness is the source of name-and-form.

And what, monks, is the provenance,
the origin,
the birth,
the source of consciousness?

The karma-formations, monks, are the provenance,
the karma-formations are the origin,
the karma-formations are the birth,
the karma-formations are the source of consciousness.

And what, monks, is the provenance,
the origin,
the birth,
the source of the karma-formations?

Ignorance, monks, is the provenance,
ignorance is the origin,
ignorance is the birth,
ignorance is the source of the karma-formations.

When, monks, ignorance is got rid of by a monk
and knowledge[19] has arisen,
he, by the going down of ignorance,
by the uprising of knowledge,[20]
neither grasps after the grasping of sense-pleasures,
nor grasps after the grasping of view,
nor grasp after the grasping of rule and custom,
nor grasps after the theory of self.

Not grasping, he is not troubled;
being untroubled
he himself is individually attained to nibbāna,[21] and he comprehends:

'Destroyed is birth,
brought to a close is the Brahma-faring,
done is what was to be done,
there is no more of being such or such.'"

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted, these monks rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

 


[1] idh'eva; MA. ii. 4, "in this very teaching."

[2] Cf. D. ii. 151. MA. ii. 4, citing A. ii. 238, states that the first samaṇa is a stream-winner, the second a once-retumer, the third a non-returner, the fourth an arahant. Cf. the four kinds of recluses at A. ii. 86-90, and see G.S. ii. 96, n. 1.

[3] As at D. ii. 151, 152; A. ii. 238. MA. ii. 5 mentions the ten groups into which the sixty-two "heretical views" fall, and says that they are all recorded in the Brahmajāla Sta. [DN 1]

[4] MA. ii. 7 says here sammā means with cause, with reason.

[5] Sīhanāda is the roar of the best, of a fearless one, an unequalled one, MA. ii. 7 = AA. ii. 303.

[6] As stated at e.g. M. i. 37.

[7] sahadhammikā. MA. ii. 8 calls them monks, nuns, probationers, male and female novices, men and women lay followers. All these are sahadhammikā, for which a synonym is ariyasāvakā. They are all under one and the same dhamma.

[8] MA. ii. 9 mentions Pūrana Kassapa and the other six (heretical) teachers.

[9] MA. ii. 9 instances the moral habits of those following the goat, cow, ram and dog practices. For the bovine and canine practices see M. Sta. 57.

[10] niṭṭhā, glossed at MA. ii. 9 as pariyosānabhūta, what has become the consummation or culmination. MA. here gives as examples of "many": the Brahma-world is the fulfilment or goal of brahmans, Ābhassarā of ascetics, Subhakiṇha of wanderers, unending mind of Ājīvakas. But in this teaching arahantship is the goal.

[11] anuruddha, MA. ii. 10 to attachment.

[12] paṭiviruddha, MA. ii. 10 by anger.

[13] papañcārāmassa papañcaratino. See G.S. ii. 168, n. 3. MA. ii. 10 says that here synonyms are craving, views, and pride.

[14] bhavadiṭṭhi ca vibhavadiṭṭhi ca. MA. ii. 10 calls the former the Eternalist view, and the latter the Annihilationist view.

[15] nissaraṇa. MA. ii. 11 here calls it nibbāna.

[16] Anguish is here the whole rolling or whirling on, vaṭṭa (in recurrent birth), MA. ii. 12.

[17] Only round and round in animal births, of which MA. ii. 13-14 gives examples.

[18] Of attachment and so on, MA. ii. 15.

[19] vijjā; here knowledge of the Way to arahantship, MA. ii. 18.

[20] As at M. i. 294; S. ii. 82, iii. 47; A. ii. 196.

[21] paccattam yeva parinibbāyati. Cf. M. i. 251-52; S. iii. 54. MA. ii. 18, 299 say sayam eva kilesaparinibbānena parinibbāyati, himself he is brought to nibbāna through the nibbāna (quenching or burning up) of the defilements.


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