Anguttara Nikaya


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Aŋguttara-Nikāya
III. Tikanipāta
VII. Mahā Vagga

The Book of the
Gradual Sayings
or
More-Numbered Suttas

Part III
The Book of the Threes

Chapter VII
The Great Chapter

Sutta 70

Uposatha Suttaṃ

Sorts of Sabbath

Translated from the Pali by
F.L. Woodward, M.A.

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


 

[1][than] Thus have I heard:

On a certain occasion the Exalted One was staying near Sāvatthī,
in East Park,
in the terraced house of Migāra's mother.

Now Visākhā, Migāra's[1] mother,
on the Sabbath day[2]
came to visit the Exalted One.

On coming to him she saluted him and sat down at one side.

As she thus sat the Exalted One said this to Visākhā, Migāra's mother:

'Well, Visākhā!

How is it that you come at noon?'

'Lord, today I am keeping the Sabbath.'

'Well, there are these three Sabbaths, Visākhā.

What are the three?

There is the herdsman's Sabbath,
that of the naked ascetics[3],
and that of the Ariyans.

2. Now what, Visākhā,
is the herdsman's Sabbath?

Suppose, Visākhā,
the herdsman at eventide
restores the kine to their owners.

Then he thus reflects:

Today the kine [186] grazed at such and such a spot,
and drank at such and such a spot.

Tomorrow they will graze and drink
at such and such a spot.

In the same way
some Sabbath-keeper here thus reflects:

Tomorrow I shall eat such and such food,
both hard and soft.

And he spends the day
engrossed in that covetous desire.

Such, Visākhā,
is the herdsman's Sabbath.

This Sabbath of the herdsman
thus spent
is not of great fruit or profit.

It is not very brilliant.

It is not of great radiance.

 


 

3. And what, Visākhā,
is the naked ascetic's Sabbath?

There is a sect of naked ascetics, so called,
a sort of recluses,[4]
who exhort a disciple thus:

"Now, my good fellow,
lay aside the stick[5]
as regards all creatures that exist
eastwards beyond a hundred yojanas:
likewise westward,
northwards
and to the south!"

Thus they exhort them
to kindness and compassion
towards some creatures only,
but not to others.

Then again on the Sabbath
they exhort a disciple thus:

"Now, good fellow!

Off with all your clothes and say:

'I have no part
in anything anywhere,
and herein for me
there is no attachment[6]
to anything.'"

Yet for all that
his parents know him for their son
and he knows them for his parents.

His children and wife
know him for father and husband,
and he knows them for children and wife.

Yet for all that
his slaves and workmen
know him for their master
and he in turn knows them
for his slaves and workmen.

Thus at a time
when one and all should be exhorted (to keep the Sabbath),
it is in falsehood that they exhort them.

This I declare
is as good as telling lies.

Then, as soon as that night has passed
he resumes the use of his belongings,
which had not been given back to him really.

This I declare
is as good as stealing.

Such, Visākhā,
is the Sabbath of the naked ascetics.

A Sabbath of the naked ascetics thus spent
is not of great fruit or profit.

It is not very brilliant.

It is not of great radiance.

 


 

[187] 4. And what, Visākhā,
is the Ariyan Sabbath?

It is the purification of a soiled mind
done by a proper process.[7]

And how is there
the purification of a soiled mind
done by a proper process, Visākhā?

In this matter
the Ariyan disciple
calls to mind the Tathagata, thus:

He it is,
the Exalted One,
the Arahant,
who is a Fully Enlightened One,
perfect in knowledge and practice,
a Wellfarer,
World-Knower,
unsurpassed charioteer of beings to be tamed,
Teacher of Devas and mankind,
a Buddha is the Exalted One.

As he thus bethinks him
of the Tathagata,
his mind is calmed,
delight arises,
the soilure of the mind is abandoned.

It is just like cleansing the head
when it is dirty, Visākhā.

And how, Visākhā, is the cleansing of the soiled head
done by a proper process?

By means of cosmetic paste[8] and clay,
by means of water
and the appropriate effort[9] of the person (using them).

That is how the cleansing of the soiled head
is done by a proper process.

And how is the cleansing of the soiled mind
done by a proper process?

Herein, Visākhā,
the Ariyan disciple
bethinks him of the Tathagata, thus:

He it is,
the Exalted One,
the Arahant,
who is a Fully Enlightened One,
perfect in knowledge and practice,
a Wellfarer,
World-Knower,
unsurpassed charioteer of beings to be tamed,
Teacher of Devas and mankind,
a Buddha is the Exalted One.

As he calls to mind the Tathagata,
his mind is calmed,
delight arises,
the soilure of the mind is abandoned.

This Ariyan disciple, Visākhā,
is said to keep the Brahmā-Sabbath.

He dwells with Brahmā.

It is owing to Brahmā[10]
that his mind is calmed,
that delight arises,
that the soilure of his mind is abandoned.

That is how the cleansing of the soiled mind
is done by a proper process.

 


 

[188] 5. Again, Visākhā,
the cleansing of the soiled mind
is done by a proper process.

How is the cleansing of the soiled mind
done by a proper process Visākhā?

Herein the Ariyan disciple
calls to mind Dhamma, thus:

Well proclaimed by the Exalted One is Dhamma.

It is a real thing, not a matter of time.

It invites one to come and see it.

It leads one onwards.

It is to be understood by the intelligent for themselves.

As he thus bethinks him of Dhamma
his mind is calmed,
delight arises,
the soilure of the mind is abandoned.

It is just like cleansing the body when it is dirty.

And how, Visākhā,
is the cleansing of the dirty body
done by a proper process?

It is by means of shell,[11]
toilet powder,
water
and the appropriate effort of a person.

That is how there is the cleansing of the dirty body
done by a proper process.

And how, Visākhā, is the cleansing of the soiled mind
done by a proper process?

Herein, Visākhā,
the Ariyan disciple calls to mind Dhamma, thus:

Well proclaimed by the Exalted One is Dhamma.

It is a real thing, not a matter of time.

It invites one to come and see it.

It leads one onwards.

It is to be understood by the intelligent for themselves.

As he thus bethinks him of Dhamma
his mind is calmed,
delight arises,
the soilure of the mind is abandoned.

This Ariyan disciple, Visākhā,
is said to keep the Sabbath of Dhamma.

He dwells with Dhamma.

It is owing to Dhamma
that his mind is calmed,
that delight arises,
that the soilure of the mind is abandoned.

That is how the cleansing of the the soiled mind
is done by a proper process

 


 

6. Again, Visākhā,
the cleansing of the soiled mind
is done by a proper process.

How is the cleansing of the soiled mind
done by a proper process?

Herein the Ariyan disciple
calls to mind the Order, thus:

Well conducted
is the Exalted One's Order of disciples,
walking uprightly
is the Exalted One's Order of disciples,
walking in the right way
is the Exalted One's Order of disciples,
walking dutifully
is the Exalted One's Order of disciples,
to wit, the four pairs of human beings,
the eight sorts of human beings:
that Order of disciples of the Exalted One
is worthy of respect,
offerings and gifts,
worthy of being saluted with clasped hands,
a field of merit unsurpassed for the world.

As he calls to mind the Order,
his mind is calmed,
delight [189] arises,
the soilure of the mind is abandoned.

It is just like the cleansing
of a filthy garment
done by a proper process.

And how is there the cleansing
of a filthy garment
done by a proper process?

By means of salt-earth,[12]
lye,
cow dung
and water,
and the appropriate effort of a person.

That is how the cleansing
of a filthy garment
is done by a proper process.

And how is the cleansing of the soiled mind
done by a proper process?

Herein, Visākhā,
the Ariyan disciple
calls to mind the Order, thus:

Well conducted
is the Exalted One's Order of disciples,
walking uprightly
is the Exalted One's Order of disciples,
walking in the right way
is the Exalted One's Order of disciples,
walking dutifully
is the Exalted One's Order of disciples,
to wit, the four pairs of human beings,
the eight sorts of human beings:
that Order of disciples of the Exalted One
is worthy of respect,
offerings and gifts,
worthy of being saluted with clasped hands,
a field of merit unsurpassed for the world.

As he thus reflects his mind is calmed,
delight arises,
the soilure of the mind is abandoned.

This Ariyan disciple
is said to keep the Sabbath of the Order.

He dwells with the Order.

It is owing to the Order
that his mind is calmed,
that delight arises,
that the soilure of his mind is abandoned.

That is how the cleansing of the soiled mind
is done by a proper process.

 


 

7. Again, Visākhā,
the cleansing of the soiled mind
is done by a proper process.

How is the cleansing of the soiled mind
done by a proper process?

Herein the Ariyan disciple
calls to mind his own virtues,
virtues that are unbroken and whole,
unspotted,
untarnished,
giving liberty,
praised by the intelligent,
virtues untainted by (craving or delusion),
which lead to concentration of mind.[13]

As he bethinks him of his own virtues
his mind is calmed,
delight arises,
the soilure of his mind is abandoned.

It is just like the cleansing of a mirror
done by a proper process.

And what is the cleansing of a mirror
done by a proper process, Visākhā?

By means of oil,
ashes
a brush of hair,[14]
and the appropriate effort of a person.

That is how there is the cleansing of a mirror
done by a proper process.

And how is the cleansing of the soiled mind
done by a proper process?

Herein, Visākhā, the Ariyan disciple calls to mind his own virtues,
virtues that are unbroken and whole,
unspotted,
untarnished,
giving liberty,
praised by the intelligent,
virtues untainted by (craving or delusion),
which lead to concentration of mind.

This Ariyan disciple is said to keep the Sabbath of the virtues.

He dwells with virtue, and it is owing to virtue that his mind is calmed,
delight arises,
the soilure of his mind is abandoned.

That is how the cleansing of the soiled mind
is done by a proper process.

 


 

8. Again, Visākhā,
the cleansing of the soiled mind
is done by a proper process.

How is the cleansing of the soiled mind
done by a proper process?

[190] Herein the Ariyan disciple calls to mind the Devas,[15] thus:

There are the Devas of the Four Great Kings, the Devas of the Thirty-Three,
the Devas of Yama's realm,
the Happy Devas,
those that delight in creation,
those that control the creations of others,
those of Brahmā's company,
and those who are still beyond that.[16]

Such faith exists in me
as the faith blessed with which
those devata deceased from this world
and were reborn in that world.

Such virtue as theirs exists in me
as the virtue blessed with which
those devata deceased from this world
and were reborn in that world.

Such religious knowledge as theirs exists in me
as the religious knowledge blessed with which
those devata deceased from this world
and were reborn in that world.

Such liberality as theirs exists in me
as the liberality blessed with which
those devata deceased from this world
and were reborn in that world.

Such insight as theirs exists in me
as the insight blessed with which
those devata deceased from this world
and were reborn in that world.

As he thus calls to mind the faith,
virtue,
religious knowledge,
liberality
and insight of himself
and of those devata,
his mind is calmed:
delight arises in him:
the soilure of his mind is abandoned.

It is just as, Visākhā,
the refining of sterling gold that is impure
done by a proper process.

What is the process of refining sterling gold that is impure
done by a proper process?

By means of a furnace,
salt-earth,
red chalk,
a blow-pipe,
tongs
and the appropriate effort of a person.

That is how the refining of sterling gold that is impure
is done by a proper process.

Just so, Visākhā,
the purification of a soiled mind
is done by a proper process.

And how is the cleansing of the soiled mind
done by a proper process?

Herein, Visākhā, the Ariyan disciple calls to mind the Devas, thus:

There are the Devas of the Four Great Kings, the Devas of the Thirty-Three,
the Devas of Yama's realm,
the Happy Devas,
those that delight in creation,
those that control the creations of others,
those of Brahmā's company,
and those who are still beyond that.

Such faith exists in me
as the faith blessed with which
those devata deceased from this world
and were reborn in that world.

Such virtue as theirs exists in me
as the virtue blessed with which
those devata deceased from this world
and were reborn in that world.

Such religious knowledge as theirs exists in me
as the religious knowledge blessed with which
those devata deceased from this world
and were reborn in that world.

Such liberality as theirs exists in me
as the liberality blessed with which
those devata deceased from this world
and were reborn in that world.

Such insight as theirs exists in me
as the insight blessed with which
those devata deceased from this world
and were reborn in that world.

As he thus calls to mind the faith,
virtue,
religious knowledge,
liberality
and insight of himself
and of those devata,
his mind is calmed:
delight arises in him:
the soilure of his mind is abandoned.

This Ariyan disciple is said to keep the Deva-Sabbath:
he dwells with the Devas:
it is owing to the Devas
that his mind is calmed,
that delight arises,
that the soilure of his mind is abandoned.

That is how the cleansing of the soiled mind
is done by a proper process.

 


 

9. Then that Ariyan disciple thus ponders:[17]

As long as [191] they live,
the Arahants,
by abandoning the slaying of creatures,
are abstainers from the slaying of creatures,
have laid aside the rod;
they are modest,
show kindness,
they abide friendly and compassionate
to all creatures,
to all beings.

So also do I abide this night and day
abandoning the slaying of creatures,
abstaining from the slaying of creatures,
laying aside the rod;
being modest,
showing kindness,
and abiding friendly and compassionate
to all creatures,
to all beings.

By this observance
I too imitate the Arahants
and I shall have kept the Sabbath.

10. As long as they live
the Arahants,
by abandoning the taking of things not given,
abstain from stealing:
they take only what is given,
they wait for a gift,
they abide in purity
free from theft.

So also do I myself abide this night and day
abandoning the taking of things not given,
abstaining from stealing:
taking only what is given,
waiting for a gift,
abiding in purity
free from theft.

By this observance
I too imitate the Arahants
and I shall have kept the Sabbath.

11. As long as they live
the Arahants,
by abandoning impurity of life,
dwell observing chastity,
abstaining from unchastity,[18]
from sexual intercourse,
dealings with women.[19]

So also do I abide this night and day
abandoning impurity of life,
dwelling observing chastity,
abstaining from unchastity,
from sexual intercourse,
dealings with women.

By this observance
I too imitate the Arahants
and I shall have kept the Sabbath.

12. As long as they live the Arahants,
by abandoning falsehood,
dwell abstaining from falsehood,
speaking the truth,
joiners of truth to truth,[20]
unswerving,
reliable,
no deceivers of the world.

So also do I myself abide this night and day
abandoning falsehood,
dwell abstaining from falsehood,
speaking the truth,
joining truth to truth,
unswerving,
reliable,
no deceiver of the world.

By this observance
I too imitate the Arahants
and I shall have kept the Sabbath.

13. As long as they live
the Arahants,
by abandoning indulgence in liquor
fermented and distilled
which gives occasion to sloth,
are abstainers therefrom.

So doing I also abide this night and day
abandoning indulgence in liquor
fermented and distilled
which gives occasion to sloth,
and abstaining therefrom.

By this observance
I too imitate the Arahants
and I shall have kept the Sabbath.

14. So long as they live
the Arahants live on one meal a day,
abstaining from food at night,
refraining from food at [192] unseasonable hours.

So also do I myself this night and day
live on one meal,
abstaining from food at night,
refraining from food at unseasonable hours.

By this observance
I too imitate the Arahants
and I shall have kept the Sabbath.

15. As long as they live
the Arahants refrain
from going to the exhibitions
of nautch-dancing and singing.[21]

So also do I myself this night and day
refrain
from going to exhibitions
of nautch-dancing and singing.

By this observance
I too imitate the Arahants
and I shall have kept the Sabbath.

16. As long as they live
the Arahants,
by abandoning the use of high, wide couches,
abstain therefrom:
they make their bed lowly,
on a pallet
or on a spread of rushes.

So also do I myself this night and day
abandoning the use of high, wide couches,
abstain therefrom:
and make my bed lowly,
on a pallet
or on a spread of rushes.

By this observance
I too imitate the Arahants
and I shall have kept the Sabbath.

Such, Visākhā, is the Ariyan Sabbath.

A Sabbath thus observed
is of great fruit,
of great profit.

It is brilliant.

It is of great radiance.

How is a Sabbath thus observed
of great fruit,
of great profit.

How is it brilliant.

How is it of great radiance?

17. Just as if, Visākhā,
one should exercise lordship,
rule
and sovereignty
over these sixteen great provinces,
replete with the seven gems,[22]
to wit:
The Angas,
Magadhas,
Kasis,
Kosalans,
Vajjians,
Mallas,
Cetis,
Vansas,
Kurus,
Pancalas,
Macchas,
Surasenas,
Assakas,
Avanti,
Gandhara
and Kamboja,[23]
yet would such sovereignty not be worth [193]
one-sixteenth part
of a Sabbath observed
in all its eightfold parts.

What is the cause of that?

A poor thing, Visākhā,
is human sovereignty
to set beside heavenly bliss.

18. Now, Visākhā,
fifty years of human life
are a single night and day
to the Devas of the Four Great Kings.

Thirty such days and nights
make a month.

Twelve of such months
make a year.

Five hundred of such years
make up the life period
of the Devas of the Four Great Kings.[24] [ed1]

But there is the possibility, Visākhā,
that some woman or man,
by observing the Sabbath
in all its eight parts,
when body breaks up after death
may be reborn in the company
of the Devas of the Four Great Kings.

It was in this connection that I said:

"A poor thing is human sovereignty
to set beside heavenly bliss.'

19. Again, Visākhā,
a hundred years of human life
are but a single night and day
to the Devas of the Thirty-Three.

Thirty such nights and days
make a month.

Twelve of such months
make a year.

A thousand such heavenly years
make the life-period
of the Devas of the Thirty-Three.[ed2]

But there is the possibility, Visākhā,
that some woman or man,
by observing the Sabbath
in all its eight parts,
when body breaks up after death
may be reborn in the company
of the Devas of the Thirty-Three.

"A poor thing is human sovereignty
to set beside heavenly bliss.'

20. Two hundred years of human life
are but a single night and day
to the Yama Devas.

Thirty such nights and days
make a month.

Twelve of such months
make a year.

Two thousand such heavenly years
make up the life-period
of the Yama Devas.[ed3]

But there is the possibility, Visākhā,
that some woman or man,
by observing the Sabbath
in all its eight parts,
when body breaks up after death
may be reborn in the company
of the Yama Devas.

"A poor thing is human sovereignty
to set beside heavenly bliss.'

21. Four hundred years of human life
make one night and day of the Happy Devas

Thirty such nights and days
make a month.

Twelve of such months
make a year.

Four thousand such years
make up the life-period
of the Happy Devas.[ed4]

[194] But there is the possibility, Visākhā,
that some woman or man,
by observing the Sabbath
in all its eight parts,
when body breaks up after death
may be reborn in the company
of the Happy Devas.

"A poor thing is human sovereignty
to set beside heavenly bliss.'

22. Eight hundred years of human life
make one night and day of the Devas that delight in creation

Thirty such nights and days
make a month.

Twelve of such months
make a year.

Eight thousand such heavenly years
make up the life-period
of the Devas that delight in creation.[ed5]

But there is the possibility, Visākhā,
that some woman or man,
by observing the Sabbath
in all its eight parts,
when body breaks up after death
may be reborn in the company
of the Devas that delight in creation.

"A poor thing is human sovereignty
to set beside heavenly bliss.'

23. Sixteen hundred years of human life
make one night and day
of the Devas that delight in other's creations.

Thirty such nights and days
make a month.

Twelve of such months
make a year.

Sixteen thousand such years
make up the life-period
of the Devas that delight in other's creations.[ed6]

But there is the possibility, Visākhā,
that some woman or man,
by observing the Sabbath
in all its eight parts,
when body breaks up after death
may be reborn in the company
of the Devas that delight in other's creations.

"A poor thing is human sovereignty
to set beside heavenly bliss.'

Let him not kill,[25] nor take what is not given,
Nor utter lies, nor of strong drink partake:
But from unchastity let him abstain,
Nor eat at night, nor at unfitting times,
Nor wear a garland, nor use scents, but stay[26]
On a mat spread on the ground.[27] This is the Sabbath
Great, eightfold, of a kind to make an end
Of Ill, by the Enlightened One proclaimed.
[195] The moon and sun, the sight of which is sweet,
Move to and fro, shed radiance where they move,[28]
Scatter the gloom and, gliding thro' the sky,
Make the clouds lustrous, lighting every quarter.
Within this space[29] all manner of wealth is found, —
Pearl, crystal, beryl, luck-stone,[30] nugget-gold,[31]
And lustrous gold[32] and that called hataka.[33]
Yet are they all not worth one-sixteenth part[34]
Of a Sabbath with its precepts eight complete;
Nor is the bright moon with its host of stars.

Therefore the woman and the man devout
Who keep this Sabbath with its precepts eight,
Performing merit fruitful of results,
In the heaven-world are born without reproach.'

 


[1] Cf. A. i, 26; iv, 256 ff.

[2] Tad ah'uposathe = tasmiṃ ah'upoaathe: taṃ divasaṃ uposathe. Cf. UdA. 296 (tasmiṃ ahani, tasmiṃ divase). It was full-moon day. Cf. SnA. 199.

[3] Nigaṇṭhas or Digambaras or Jains.

[4] Samaṇa-jātika, v.l. and Comy. jāti.

[5] Daṇḍaṃ nikkhipāhi, 'use no violence.'

[6] Kiñcanaṃ = palibodho (obstruction). Comy. Cf. A. ii, 177; Ud. vii, 10; UdA. 386.

[7] Upakkamena, 'by means or method proper to each individual.' Comy. In the process described here the Buddha is regarded as the head, Dhamma as the body, the Order as one's clothes, one's own virtues as a mirror, the devas as sterling gold.

[8] Kakka = āmalaka-k. Comy.

[9] Tajja = sarūpa; cf. S. ii, 96; iv, 215; Buddh. Psych. Eth. 6 n. Comy. tajjātika, ta anucchavika.

[10] Comy. takes Brahmā to be a title of the Buddha. It probably means 'The most High' in the Hindu sense, or 'sublime,' as in Brahmā-vihāra. Brahmā = Brahmān, when Gotama first taught.

[11] Cf. M. ii, 46. Acc. to Comy. the Kuruvindaka stone is ground to powder, made into balls with wax, which are perforated and strung on a cord. Holding an end in each hand one scours the back. This method is still used in the East.

[12] Text ūsaṃ karañ ca. Comy. usumaṃ (heat), but cf. S. iii, 131 (with ūsaṃ as alternative).

[13] cf. K.S. v, 297, etc.

[14] Vālaṇḍuka, of a horse or monkey (? vāla-laṇḍuka). Comy. Cf. VM. 142, cuṇṇa-teḷavāl'aṇḍupakena (a roll of cloth). Pali Dict., would read thus here also.

[15] Here devatā seems to include both devā and devatā. Comy. 'he puts the devatā in the place of witnesses and bethinks him of his own faith, etc.' The Devas named here (the lowest class, the Bhumma-, or earth-devas, are omitted) will be found at S. v, 420, and a number of others at D. ii (Mahāsamaya Sutta).

[16] Tatutturiṃ = tato paraṃ. Comy.

[17] These abstinences appear at D. i, 4 ff., S. v, 469; A. iv, 248 ff., and are commented on at DA. i, 69 ff., which passage resembles our Comy.

[18] Reading with Comy. ārācārī (= DA. i, 72, abrahmacariyato dūra-cārī) for text's anācārī (which has just the opposite meaning).

[19] Gāma-dhammā. Text has no verb in this and following sections.

[20] Sacca-sandhā (not in Pali Dict..). Comy. saccena saccaṃ sandahanti ghaṭṭenti (for ghaṭenti).

[21] cf. K.S. v, 394 n.

[22] Text pahūta-mahā-satta-ratanānaṃ Comy. p.-ratta-ratanānaṃ.

[23] These political or tribal divisions of India are described in Rhys Davids's Buddhist India, p. 23 ff., and E. J. Thomas, The Buddha, p. 13: The Angas, east of Magadha; the Magadhas, now called Behar; the Kāsis, round Benares; the Kosalans, in Nepal; their capital, Sāvatthī; the Vajjians, eight clans including the Licchavī and Videhas, not far from Vesālī; the Mallas, of Kusinārā and Pāvā (cf. S. ii, 187); the Cetis (Ceḍī), probably in Nepal; the Vaŋsas (or Vacchā: our text reads Vangā [? Bengal], but A. iv, 252, Vaŋsā); the Kurus, near modern Delhi; the Pañcālas (text Pañcalā), to the east of the Kurus; the Macchas (Matsyā), to the south of the Kurus; the Surasenas, south-west of the Macchas; the Assakas, on the river Godhāvari; Avanti, of which the capital was Ujjeni, Gandhārā (modern Kandahar), and Kambojā (not modern Kambodia), in the far north-west.

It is curious that Comy. seems to know nothing of these names, at any rate it does not notice them here. In fact its knowledge of geography is generally nil. If a name occurs Comy. remarks, if at all, 'a place of such a name.' This same list occurs in a similar comparison at A. iv, 252 ff., and a list of twelve is at D. ii, 200. As Prof. Rhys Davids remarks (loc. cit.): 'Not only is the whole of South India and Ceylon ignored in it, but there is also no mention of Orissa, of Bengal east of the Ganges, or even of the Dekkan.' These facts contradict the Sinhalese tradition of their colonization of Ceylon (Lanka) in the very year of the Buddha's death.

[24] Nothing about this in the gāthā!

[25] In gāthā at A. iv, 264 text reads haññe for our hāne.

[26] Not 'sleep,' for upāsakas observing the eightfold sabbath wake all night (at least some do now), listening to the Norm-preaching.

[27] Chamayaṃ is, I suppose, Greek Xamai& Compare the habits of the Selloi, a race of ascetics at Dodona, who called themselves Dio_v n(pofh~tai (Homer, Iliad, xvi, 235; Sophocles, Trachiniae, 1167), 'interpreters of Zeus,' with those of the Brahmācārins.

[28] Yāvatā = yattakaṃ thānaṃ. Comy.

[29] Etasmiṃ antare = in hoc intervallo, our solar system.

[30] Bhaddakaṃ = Laddhakaṃ. Comy.

[31] Singi, 'like cow-horn.' Comy.

[32] Kañcana, 'found in mountains.' Comy.

[33] Hāṭaka. Comy. haṭaka = 'gold carried off by ants.'

[34] Nānubhavanti, 'do not produce such merit as.' Comy.

 


[ed1] 50X30X12X500 = 9,000,000 human years.

[ed2] 100X30X12X1000 = 36,000,000 human years

[ed3] 200X30X12X2000 = 144,000,000 human years

[ed4] 400X30X12X4000 = 576,000,000 human years

[ed5]800X30X12X8000 = 2,304,000,000 human years

[ed6] 1600X30X12X16000 = 9,216,000,000 human years


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