Anguttara Nikaya


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Aŋguttara-Nikāya
II. Dukanipāta

The Book of the
Gradual Sayings
or
More-Numbered Suttas

Part II
The Book of the Twos

Suttas 11-20

Translated from the Pali by
F.L. Woodward, M.A.

Copyright The Pali Text Society
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Chapter II.

ĪĪ 11-20. Disputes.[30]

 

§

 

Sutta 11

[11] 'Monks, there are these two powers.
What two?

The power of computation[31] and the power of cultivation.[32]

And what, monks, is
the power of computation?

Herein a certain one thus reflects:
Evil is the fruit of immorality in body,
both in this life and in the life to come.
Evil is the fruit of immorality in speech,
both in this life and in the life to come.
Evil is the fruit off immorality in thought
both in this life and in the life to come.

Thus reflecting
he abandons immorality
of deed in body, speech and thought,
and cultivates morality therein,
and so conducts himself in utter purity.

This, monks, is called
"the power of computation."

And what, monks, is
the power of cultivation?

In this case
the power of cultivation
pertains to those under training.[33]

By virtue of the power of training, monks,
he [48] abandons lust,
abandons hatred,
abandons delusion.

So doing, he does no ill deed,
he pursues not wickedness.

This, monks, is called
"the power of cultivation."

These are the two powers.

 

§

 

Sutta 12

[12] 'Monks, there are these two powers.
What two?

The power of computation and the power of cultivation.

And what, monks, is
the power of computation?

Herein a certain one thus reflects:
Evil is the fruit of immorality in body,
both in this life and in the life to come.
Evil is the fruit of immorality in speech,
both in this life and in the life to come.
Evil is the fruit off immorality in thought
both in this life and in the life to come.

Thus reflecting
he abandons immorality
of deed in body, speech and thought,
and cultivates morality therein,
and so conducts himself in utter purity.

This, monks, is called
"the power of computation."

And what, monks, is
the power of cultivation?

In this case a monk cultivates
the limb of wisdom[34] that is mindfulness,
that is based on detachment,
based on passionlessness,
based on making to cease,
which ends in self-surrender.

Likewise he cultivates
the limb of wisdom that is Dhamma-investigation,
that is based on detachment,
based on passionlessness,
based on making to cease,
which ends in self-surrender.

He cultivates
the limb of wisdom that is energy,
that is based on detachment,
based on passionlessness,
based on making to cease,
which ends in self-surrender.

He cultivates
the limb of wisdom that is zest,
that is based on detachment,
based on passionlessness,
based on making to cease,
which ends in self-surrender.

He cultivates
the limb of wisdom that is tranquillity,
that is based on detachment,
based on passionlessness,
based on making to cease,
which ends in self-surrender.

He cultivates
the limb of wisdom that is concentration,
that is based on detachment,
based on passionlessness,
based on making to cease,
which ends in self-surrender.

He cultivates
the limb of wisdom that is equanimity,
that is based on detachment,
based on passionlessness,
based on making to cease,
which ends in self-surrender.

This, monks, is called
"the power of cultivation."

These are the two powers.

 

§

 

Sutta 13

[13] 'Monks, there are these two powers.
What two?

The power of computation and the power of cultivation.

And what, monks, is
the power of computation?

Herein a certain one thus reflects:
Evil is the fruit of immorality in body,
both in this life and in the life to come.
Evil is the fruit of immorality in speech,
both in this life and in the life to come.
Evil is the fruit off immorality in thought
both in this life and in the life to come.

Thus reflecting
he abandons immorality
of deed in body, speech and thought,
and cultivates morality therein,
and so conducts himself in utter purity.

This, monks, is called
"the power of computation."

And what, monks, is
the power of cultivation?

Herein a monk,
aloof from sensuality,
aloof from evil conditions,
having[35] entered on the first musing
which is accompanied by thought
directed and sustained,
that is born of seclusion,
zestful and easeful,
abides therein.

Then by the calming down of thought
directed and sustained,
entering on that inward calm,
that one-pointedness of mind
apart from thought
directed and sustained,
that is born of mental calmness,
zestful and easeful,
which is the second musing,
he abides therein.

Then, by the fading out of zest
he abides indifferent,
mindful and composed,
entering on the third musing,
which the Ariyans describe in these terms:
"He who is indifferent and mindful
dwells happily,"
he abides therein.

Then, by the abandoning of ease,
by the abandoning of discomfort,
by the destruction
of the happiness and unhappiness
he had before,
having entered on that state
which is neither pleasant nor painful,
that utter purity of mindfulness
reached by indifference,
which is the fourth musing,
he abides therein.

[49] This, monks,
is called "the power of cultivation."

These are the two powers.

 

§

 

Sutta 14

[14][olds] Monks, the Tathagata has two ways of teaching.
What two?

The concise and the detailed.

These are the two ways of teaching.

 

§

 

Sutta 15

[15] Monks, if in any dispute[36]
the offending monk
and the reproving monk
do not practise strict self-examination,[37]
it may be expected
that it will conduce
to protracted, bitter, contentious strife,
and the monks will be unable
to live at ease.

But when in any dispute
both the offending monk
and the reproving monk
do practise strict self-examination,
it may be expected
that it will not conduce
to protracted, bitter, contentious strife,
and that the monks will be able
to live at ease.[38]

And how do the two parties
practise strict self-examination?

Herein the offending monk thus reflects:
I have fallen into some bodily offence.
Now yonder monk
saw some particular[39] occasion
of bodily offence
into which I had fallen.
Had I not so offended
he could not have seen it.
Since I so offended
he saw it.
Seeing it he was annoyed.
Being annoyed thereat
he gave utterance to his annoyance.
Thus rebuked by him in his annoyance
I also was annoyed
and told others of my annoyance.
So herein my fault overcame me,[40]
as in the case of one
who has to pay duty on his goods.[41]

[50] That is how the offending monk
practises strict self-examination.

And how, monks,
does the reproving monk do likewise?

Herein the reproving monk thus reflects:
This monk has fallen into some bodily offence.
Indeed I saw this monk
so falling into offence.
Had he not done so
I should not have seen him so doing.
As he did so
I saw him so doing.
At the sight of this
I was displeased thereat.
Being displeased
I expressed my displeasure to this monk.
Thus annoyed by my expression of annoyance
this monk told others of his annoyance.
So herein my fault overcame me,
as in the case of one
who has to pay duty on his goods.

That is how the reproving monk
practises strict self-examination.

Now if both the offending and reproving monk
do not practise strict self-examination,
it may be expected
that it will conduce
to protracted, bitter, contentious strife,
and the monks
will be unable to live at ease.
But if on the contrary
they do so practise strict self-examination,
it may be expected that
it will not conduce
to protracted, bitter, contentious strife,
and the monks
will be able to live at ease.'

 

§

 

Sutta 16

[16] Now a certain brāhmin
came to visit the Exalted One,
and on coming to him
greeted him courteously,
and after the exchange of greetings and courtesies
sat down at one side.
So seated he said this to the Exalted One:

'Pray, master Gotama,
what is the reason,
what is the cause
why some beings,
when body breaks up, after death
are reborn in the Waste,
the Woeful Way,
the Downfall,
in Purgatory?'

'Because of unrighteousness
and walking crookedly, brāhmin.
That is why some beings are so reborn.'

'But, master Gotama,
what is the reason,
what is the cause
why some beings,
when body breaks up, after death
are reborn in the Heaven World?'

'Because of righteousness
and walking straight,[42] brāhmin.
That is the reason.'

'Excellent, master Gotama!
Excellent it is, master Gotama!
Even as one raises what is fallen
or shows forth what [51] is hidden,
or points out the way
to him that wanders astray,
or holds up a light in the darkness
so that they who have eyes may see objects,
— even so in divers ways
has Dhamma, been set forth
by master Gotama.
I myself go for refuge to Gotama,
the Exalted One,
to Dhamma
and the Order of monks.
May the worthy Gotama
accept me as a follower
from this day forth,
so long as life lasts,
as one who has so taken refuge.'

 

§

 

Sutta 17

[17] Then the brāhmin Jānussoṇi[43] came to visit the Exalted One,
and on coming to him
greeted him courteously,
and after the exchange of greetings and courtesies
sat down at one side.
So seated he said this to the Exalted One:

'Pray, master Gotama,
what is the reason,
what is the cause
why some beings here in this world,
when body breaks up, after death
are reborn in the Waste,
the Woeful Way,
the Downfall,
in Purgatory?'

'Owing to commission and omission,[44] brāhmin.'

'But pray, master Gotama,
what is the reason,
what is the cause
why some beings here in this world,
when body breaks up, after death
are reborn in the Heaven World?'

'Owing to commission and omission, brāhmin.'

'I do not understand the detailed meaning
of what has been concisely stated
by the worthy Gotama,
but not explained in detail.
Well for me
if the worthy Gotama
would teach me doctrine
in such a way
that I might understand
what has been concisely stated
by the worthy Gotama,
but not explained in detail.

'Then, brāhmin, do you listen.
Give careful attention
and I will speak.'

'Very good, sir,'
replied the brāhmin Jānussoṇi
to the Exaalted One.

The Exalted One said this:

'Now in this connexion, brāhmin,
a certain one has committed bodily immoral acts,
and omitted bodily moral acts;
has committed immoral acts of speech,
and omitted moral acts of speech;
has committed immoral acts of thought,
and omitted moral acts of thought.
Thus, brāhmin,
it is owing to commission and omission
that beings here in this world,
when body breaks up, after death
are reborn in the Waste,
the Woeful Way,
the Downfall,
in Purgatory.'

[52] Again, brāhmin,
a certain one has committed bodily moral acts,
but omitted bodily immoral acts;
has committed moral acts of speech,
but omitted immoral acts of speech;
has committed moral acts of thought,
but omitted immoral acts of thought.
Thus again it is owing to commission and omission
that beings here in this world,
when body breaks up, after death
are reborn in the Heaven World.'

'Excellent, master Gotama!
Excellent it is, master Gotama!
Even as one raises what is fallen
or shows forth what is hidden,
or points out the way
to him that wanders astray,
or holds up a light in the darkness
so that they who have eyes may see objects,
— even so in divers ways
has Dhamma, been set forth
by master Gotama.
I myself go for refuge to Gotama,
the Exalted One,
to Dhamma
and the Order of monks.
May the worthy Gotama
accept me as a follower
from this day forth,
so long as life lasts,
as one who has so taken refuge.'

 

§

 

Sutta 18

[18.1][than] Now the venerable Ānanda came to visit the Exalted One,
and on coming to him
greeted him courteously,
and after the exchange of greetings and courtesies
sat down at one side.
As he sat at one side
the Exalted One said this to the venerable Ānanda:

'Ānanda, I have expressly declared
that immorality in deed, word and thought
is a thing not to be committed.'

'Since the Exalted One has thus expressly declared,
what loss may one expect
from the commission of such forbidden things?'

'Since I have so declared, Ānanda,
this loss may be expected, to wit:[45]
The self upbraids the self therefor.[46]
On seeing it[47] the wise blame him.
An ill report of him goes abroad.
He dies with wits bewildered.
When body breaks up after death
he is reborn in the Waste,
the Way of Woe,
in the Downfall,
in Purgatory.

Such, Ānanda, is the loss to be expected
from the commission of immorality
in deed, word and thought
which I have expressly declared
should not be committed.

But, Ānanda, I have expressly declared
that morality in deed, word and thought
is to be observed.'

'As to that, lord,
what advantage may be looked for
in doing what ought to be done?'

'As to that, Ānanda,
this advantage may be looked for, to wit:
The self upbraids not the self therefor.
On seeing it the wise commend him.
A goodly report of him is spread abroad.
He dies with his wits about him,
and when body [53] breaks up after death
he is reborn in the Happy Lot,
in the Heaven World.

As to my express declaration
that morality in deed, word and thought
must be observed,
such is the advantage to be looked for
in doing what ought to be done.'

 

§

 

Sutta 19

[19][than][olds] 'Monks, do ye abandon evil.
It can be done.
If it were impossible to abandon evil
I would not bid you do so.
But since it can be done,
therefore I say unto you,
"Abandon evil, monks."

If this abandoning of evil
conduced to loss and sorrow,
I would not say
"Abandon evil."
But since it conduces to profit and happiness
therefore do I say unto you,
"Monks, do ye abandon evil."

Monks, do ye cultivate the good.
It can be done.
If it were impossible to cultivate the good
I would not bid you do so.
But since it can be done,
therefore I say unto you,
"Monks, do ye cultivate the good."

If this cultivation of the good
conduced to loss and sorrow,
I would not say,
"Do ye cultivate the good."
But since it conduces to profit and happiness,
therefore do I say unto you,
"Monks, do ye cultivate the good."

 

§

 

Sutta 20

[20][olds] Monks, these two things
conduce to the confusion and disappearance
of true Dhamma.

What two?

The wrong expression of the letter (of the text)[48]
and wrong interpretation of the meaning of it.
For if the letter be wrongly expressed,
the interpretation of the meaning is also wrong.

These two things
conduce to the confusion and disappearance
of true Dhamma.

Monks, these two things
conduce to the establishment,
the non-confusion,
to the non-disappearance
of true Dhamma.
What two?

The right expression of the letter
and right interpretation of the meaning.
For if the letter be rightly expressed,
the interpretation of the meaning is also right.

These two things conduce to the establishment,
the non-confusion,
to the non-disappearance
of true Dhamma.'

 


[30]Adhikaraṇa-vagga.

[31]Paṭisankhāna. Cf. Buddh. Psych. Eth. 354; Gotama the Man, 179. Comy. paraphrases as paccavekkhanā.

[32]Bkāvanā = brūhana, vaḍḍhanā. Comy. I have generally trans. bhāveti as 'cultivates.' It means 'making become.'

[33]Here text reads sekhānam etaŋ, balaŋ sekhamhi: but Comy. sekkam etaŋ, and paraphr. 'sattannaŋ (i.e., of all on the Way except Arahants, who have passed the seven stages) sekhānaŋ ñāṇa-balam etaŋ': then continues, 'sekkaŋ hi so bhikkkave balaŋ.' Thus I read sekham ... balaŋ (cf. A. ii, 150); Buddh. Psych. Eth. 264 n.

[34] Cf. S. v, 63 ff.; K.S. v, 51 ff.

[35] Cf. S. v, 318; K.S. v, 281 ff.

[36] Cf. Vin. ii, 88, where four subjects of dispute are referred to: quarrel, reproval, misconduct, duties (to be settled as at text, p. 99 infra).

[37]Attanā va attānaŋ paccavekkhanti sādhulcaŋ.

[38]Comy. instances the cases of students, celebrants of festivals and those who meditate. Cf. infra, text 80.

[39]Kiñcid eva desaŋ.

[40]Cf. S. ii, 127, etc.: maŋ accayo accagamā.

[41]Sunka-dāyikam eva bhaṇḍasmiŋ. Comy. paraphr. thus: Just as one liable to pay duties on goods he has bought and 'smuggled through the customs' is overwhelmed by is guilty act (does this ever happen?), and it is he who is the guilty one, not the Government, not the Government officials ... He who smuggles goods through the Customs-House is seized, cart and all, and own up to Government. It is not the fault of the Customs-House nor the authorities, nor of the officers, but of the smuggler himself. Cf. Vin. iii, 4 for Customs-House. Thus the reprover is to blame for his harsh words, the offender for getting angry and complaining to others.

[42]Sama-cariya as opp. to visama-cariya.

[43] Cf. M. i, 16 and MA. l, 109; S. ii, 76; K.S. ii, 52n.; S. v, 4; infra, text 158; A. iv, 54. This name was not given by his parents, but seems to have been that of the royal chaplain's office, given as a title by a rājah. Comy.

[44]Katattā ca akattatā ca.

[45] Cf. D. ii, 85.

[46] Cf. Buddh. Psych. 29; K.S. iii, 103; iv, 24.

[47]Anuvicca (anuvijja) = anupavisitvā (?). Comy.: but cf. Andersen, Pāli Gloss. s.v. on Dhp. v. 229 (yañ ca viññū pasaŋsanti anuvicca), where it must mean 'on observation' and not as in our Comy. 'on entry.' At JA. i. 459 it is explained as jānitvā, as at DhpA. Cf. infra on text 89.

[48] Cf. A. ii, 147 (where four reasons are stated); Netti, 21.


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