Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
I. Mūlapaṇṇāsa
4. Mahā Yamaka Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
I. The First Fifty Discourses
4. The Greater Division of the Pairs

Sutta 38

Mahā Taṇhā Saŋkhaya Suttaɱ

Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


 

[1][chlm][than][ntbb][upal] THUS have I heard:

At one time the Lord was staying near Sāvatthī
in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika's monastery.

Now at that time a pernicious view[1] like this
had accrued to the monk called Sāti, a fisherman's son
a fisherman's son:

"In so far as I understand dhamma taught by the Lord
it is that this consciousness itself runs on,
fares on,
not another."

Several monks heard:

"It is said that a pernicious [312] view like this
has accrued to the monk called Sāti
a fisherman's son:

'In so far as I understand dhamma taught by the Lord
it is that this consciousness itself runs on,
fares on,
not another.'"

Then these monks approached the monk Sāti
a fisherman's son;
having approached,
they spoke thus to the monk Sāti a fisherman's son:

"Is it true, as is said,
that a pernicious view like this
has accrued to you,
reverend Sāti?

'In so far as I understand dhamma taught by the Lord
it is that this consciousness itself runs on,
fares on,
not another'?"

"Even so do I, your reverences,
understand dhamma taught by the Lord,
that it is this consciousness itself
that runs on,
fares on,
not another."

Then these monks,
anxious to dissuade the monk Sāti a fisherman's son,
from that pernicious view,
questioned him,
cross-questioned him,
and pressed him for his reasons,
saying:

"Do not, reverend Sāti, a fisherman's son speak thus,
do not misrepresent the Lord;
neither is misrepresentation of the Lord seemly,
nor would the Lord speak thus.

For, reverend Sāti, a fisherman's son
in many a figure
is conditioned genesis spoken of
in connection with consciousness
by the Lord, saying:

'Apart from condition
there is no origination of consciousness.'"

But the monk Sāti a fisherman's son,
even although questioned,
cross-questioned
and pressed for his reasons by these monks,
obstinately holding to
and adhering to
that pernicious view,
decided:

"Thus it is that I, your reverences,
understand dhamma taught by the Lord,
that it is this consciousness itself
that runs on,
fares on,
not another."

And since these monks were not able to dissuade the monk Sāti a fisherman's son,
from that pernicious view,
they approached the Lord;
having approached,
having greeted the Lord,
they sat down at a respectful distance.

As they were sitting down at a respectful distance,
these monks spoke thus to the Lord:

"Lord, a pernicious view like this
has accrued to the monk Sāti a fisherman's son:

'In so far as I understand dhamma taught by the Lord
it is that this consciousness itself runs on,
fares on,
not another'?"

We heard, Lord:

"It is said that a pernicious view like this
has accrued to the monk called Sāti
a fisherman's son:

'In so far as I understand dhamma taught by the Lord
it is that this consciousness itself runs on,
fares on,
not another.'"

Then we approached the monk Sāti
a fisherman's son;
having approached,
they spoke thus to the monk Sāti a fisherman's son:

"Is it true, as is said,
that a pernicious view like this
has accrued to you,
reverend Sāti?

'In so far as I understand dhamma taught by the Lord
it is that this consciousness itself runs on,
fares on,
not another'?"

"Even so do I, your reverences,
understand dhamma taught by the Lord,
that it is this consciousness itself
that runs on,
fares on,
not another."

Then, anxious to dissuade the monk Sāti a fisherman's son,
from that [313] pernicious view,
we questioned him,
cross-questioned him,
and pressed him for his reasons,
saying:

"Do not, reverend Sāti, a fisherman's son speak thus,
do not misrepresent the Lord;
neither is misrepresentation of the Lord seemly,
nor would the Lord speak thus.

For, reverend Sāti, a fisherman's son
in many a figure
is conditioned genesis spoken of
in connection with consciousness
by the Lord, saying:

'Apart from condition
there is no origination of consciousness.'"

But the monk Sāti a fisherman's son,
even although questioned,
cross-questioned
and pressed for his reasons by us,
obstinately holding to
and adhering to
that pernicious view,
decided:

"Thus it is that I, your reverences,
understand dhamma taught by the Lord,
that it is this consciousness itself
that runs on,
fares on,
not another."

And since. Lord, we were not able to dissuade the monk Sāti, a fisherman's son,
from that pernicious view,
we are telling this matter to the Lord."

Then the Lord addressed a certain monk, saying:

"Come, do you, monk,
address the monk Sāti, a fisherman's son, in my name,
saying:

'Sāti, a fisherman's son the teacher is summoning you.'"

"Yes, Lord," and this monk,
having answered the Lord in assent,
approached the monk Sāti, a fisherman's son;
having approached,
he spoke thus to the monk Sāti, a fisherman's son:

"The teacher is summoning you, reverend Sāti."

"Yes, your reverence,"
and the monk Sāti, a fisherman's son, having answered this monk in assent,
approached the Lord;
having approached,
having greeted the Lord,
he sat down at a respectful distance.

The Lord spoke thus to the monk Sāti, a fisherman's son,
as he was sitting down at a respectful distance:

"Is it true, as is said,
that a pernicious view like this
has accrued to you, Sāti:

'In so far as I understand dhamma taught by the Lord
it is that this consciousness itself runs on,
fares on,
not another'?"

"Even so do I, Lord, understand dhamma taught by the Lord:

It is this consciousness itself that runs on,
fares on,
not another."

"What is this consciousness, Sāti?"

"It is this, Lord, that speaks,[2]
that feels,
that experiences now
here, now there,
the fruition of deeds
that are lovely
and that are depraved."[3]

"But to whom, foohsh man,
do you understand that dhamma was taught by me thus?

Foohsh man,
has not consciousness generated by conditions[4]
been spoken of in many a figure by me, [314] saying:

'Apart from condition
there is no origination of consciousness'?

But now you, foohsh man,
not only misrepresent me
because of your own wrong grasp,
but you also injure[5] yourself
and give rise to much demerit
which, foohsh man,
will be for your woe and sorrow
for a long time."

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying:

"What do you think about this, monks?

Can this monk Sāti, a fisherman's son,
have even a glimmering of this dhamma and disciphne?"

"How could this be, Lord?

It is not so, Lord."

When this had been said, the monk Sāti, a fisherman's son,
sat down silent,
ashamed,
his shoulders drooping,
his head bent,
brooding,
speechless.

Then the Lord, understanding why the monk Sāti, a fisherman's son,
was silent,
ashamed,
his shoulders drooping,
his head bent,
brooding,
speechless,
spoke thus to the monk Sāti, a fisherman's son:

"You, foohsh man, will be known
through this pernicious view of your own,
for I will question the monks on it."

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying:

"Do you, monks, understand that dhamma was taught by me thus
so that this monk Sāti, a fisherman's son,
because of his own wrong grasp
not only misrepresents me
but is also injuring himself
and giving rise to much demerit?"

"No, Lord.

For in many a figure
has consciousness generated by conditions
been spoken of to us by the Lord,
saying:

'Apart from condition
there is no origination of consciousness.'"

"It is good, monks,
it is good that you understand thus
dhamma taught by me to you, monks.

For in many a figure
has consciousness generated by conditions
been spoken of by me to you, monks, saying:

'Apart from condition
there is no origination of consciousness.'

But this monk Sāti, a fisherman's son,
because of his own wrong grasp,
not only misrepresents me,
but is also injuring himself
and giving rise to much demerit.

This will be for this foolish man's woe and sorrow
for a long time.

It is because, monks,
an appropriate condition arises
that consciousness is known by this or that name:
if consciousness arises because of eye and material shapes,
it is known as visual conscious-ness;
if consciousness arises because of ear and sounds,
it is known as auditory consciousness;
if, consciousness arises because of nose and smells,
it is known as olfactory consciousness;
if consciousness arises because of tongue and tastes,
it is known as gustatory consciousness;
[315] if consciousness arises because of body and touches,
it is known as tactile consciousness;
if consciousness arises because of mind and mental objects,
it is known as mental consciousness.

Monks, as a fire burns
because of this or that appropriate condition,
by that it is known:
if a fire burns because of sticks,
it is known as a stick-fire;
and if a fire burns because of chips,
it is known as a chip-fire;
and if a fire burns because of grass,
it is known as a grass-fire;
and if a fire burns because of cow-dung,
it is known as a cow-dung fire;
and if a fire burns because of chaff,
it is known as a chaff-fire;
and if a fire burns because of rubbish,
it is known as a rubbish-fire.

Even so, monks, when because of a condition appropriate to it
consciousness arises,
it is known by this or that name:
if consciousness arises because of eye and material shapes,
it is known as visual conscious-ness;
if consciousness arises because of ear and sounds,
it is known as auditory consciousness;
if, consciousness arises because of nose and smells,
it is known as olfactory consciousness;
if consciousness arises because of tongue and tastes,
it is known as gustatory consciousness;
if consciousness arises because of body and touches,
it is known as tactile consciousness;
if consciousness arises because of mind and mental objects,
it is known as mental consciousness.

Do you see, monks,
that this has come to be?"

"Yes, Lord."

"Do you see, monks,
the origination of this nutriment?"

"Yes, Lord."

"Do you see, monks,
that from the stopping of this nutriment,
that which has come to be
is liable to stopping?"

"Yes, Lord."

"From doubt, monks,
does the perplexity arise:

'This that has come to be,
might it not be?'"

"Yes, Lord."

"From doubt, monks, the perplexity arises:

'Might there not be an origination of that nutriment?'"

"Yes, Lord."

"From doubt the perplexity arises:

'By the stopping of that nutriment,
might that which has come to be
not be liable to stopping?'"

"Yes, Lord."

"By seeing as it really is
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom, monks,
that,
'This has come to be -
is that which is perplexity got rid of?"

"Yes, Lord."

"By seeing as it really is
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom, monks, that,
'This is the origination of nutriment' -
is that which is perplexity got rid of?"

"Yes, Lord."

"By seeing as it really is
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom, [316] monks, that,
'From the stopping of that nutriment
that which has come to be
is liable to stopping' -
is that which is perplexity got rid of?"

"Yes, Lord."

"Thinking,
'This has come to be' -
is there for you, monks
as to this,
absence of perplexity?"

"Yes, Lord."

"Thinking,
'This is the origination of nutriment' -
is there for you, monks,
as to this,
absence of perplexity?"

"Yes, Lord."

"Thinking,
'From the stopping of this nutriment,
this that has come to be
is liable to stopping' -
is there for you, monks,
as to this,
absence of perplexity?"

"Yes, Lord."

"Thinking,
'This has come to be' -
is it properly seen
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom
as it really is?"

"Yes, Lord."

"Thinking,
'This is the origination of nutriment' -
is it properly seen
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom
as it really is?"

"Yes, Lord."

"Thinking,
'From the stopping of this nutriment,
this that has come to be
is liable to stopping' -
is it properly seen
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom
as it really is?"

"Yes, Lord."

"If you, monks, cling to,
treasure,
cherish,
foster this view,
thus purified,
thus cleansed,
then, monks, would you understand
that the Parable of the Raft[6]
is dhamma taught for crossing over,
not for retaining?"

"No, Lord."

"But if you, monks, do not cling to,
do not treasure,
do not cherish,
do not foster[7] this view,
thus purified,
thus cleansed,
then, monks, would you understand
that the Parable of the Raft
is dhamma taught for crossing over,
not for retaining?"

"Yes, Lord."

"Monks, these four (forms of) nutriment[8]
are for the maintenance
of creatures that have come to be
or for the assistance
of those seeking birth.

What are the four?

Material nutriment,
whether coarse or fine,
sensory impingement is the second,
mental striving is the third,
consciousness is the fourth.

And [317] of these four (forms of) nutriment, monks,
what is the provenance,
what the source,
what the birth,
what the origin?[9]

These four (forms of) nutriment, monks,
have craving as the provenance,
craving as source,
craving as birth,
craving as origin.

And, monks, what is the provenance
of this craving,
what the source,
what the birth,
what the origin?

Feeling is the provenance of craving,
feeling is the source of craving,
feeling is the birth of craving,
feeling is the origin of craving.

And what, monks, is the provenance of feelings,
what the source of feelings,
what the birth of feelings,
what the origin of feelings?

Sensory impingement is the provenance of feelings,
sensory impingement is the source of feeling
sensory impingement is the birth of feeling
sensory impingement is the origin of feeling.

And what, monks, is the provenance of sensory impingement
what the source of sensory impingement
what the birth of sensory impingement
what is the origin of sensory impingement?

The six (sensory) spheres are the provenance
the six (sensory) spheres are the source of sensory impingement
the six (sensory) spheres are the birth of sensory impingement
the six (sensory) spheres are the origin of sensory impingement.

And what, monks, is the provenance of the six (sensory) spheres
what the source of the six (sensory) spheres
what the birth of the six (sensory) spheres
what is the origin of the six (sensory) spheres?

Psycho-physicality[10] is the provenance
psycho-physicality is the source of the six (sensory) spheres
psycho-physicality is the birth of the six (sensory) spheres
psycho-physicality is the origin of the six (sensory) spheres.

And what, monks, is the provenance of psycho-physicality
what the source of psycho-physicality
what the birth of psycho-physicality
what is the origin of psycho-physicahty?

Consciousness is the provenance of psycho-physicality
consciousness is the source of psycho-physicality
consciousness is the birth of psycho-physicality,
consciousness is the origin of psycho-physicality.

And what, monks, is the provenance of consciousness
what is the source of consciousness
what is the birth of consciousness
what is the origin of consciousness?

The karma-formations are the provenance
the karma-formations are the source of consciousness
the karma-formations are the birth of consciousness
the karma-formations are the origin of consciousness.

And what, monks, is the provenance of the karma-formations
what the source of the karma-formations
what the birth of the karma-formations
what is the origin of the karma-formations?

Ignorance is the provenance
ignorance is the source of the karma-formations
ignorance is the birth of the karma-formations
ignorance is the origin of the karma-formations.

So it is, monks, that
conditioned by ignorance are the karma-formations;
conditioned by the karma- formations is consciousness;
conditioned by consciousness is psycho-physicality;
conditioned by psycho-physicality are the six (sensory) spheres;
conditioned by the six (sensory) spheres is sensory impingement;
conditioned by sensory impingement is feeling;
conditioned by feeling is craving;
conditioned by craving is grasping;
conditioned by grasping is becoming;
conditioned by becoming is [318] birth;
conditioned by birth,
ageing and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
come into being.

Such is the arising of this entire mass of anguish.

"It has been said:

'Conditioned by birth is ageing and dying.'

Is there ageing and dying for you, monks,
conditioned by birth,
or how is it as to this?"

"Conditioned by birth, Lord,
is ageing and dying.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'Conditioned by birth is ageing and dying.'"

"It has been said:

'Conditioned by becoming is birth.'

Is there birth for you, monks,
conditioned by becoming,
or how is it as to this?"

"Conditioned by becoming, Lord, is birth.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'Conditioned by becoming is birth.'"

"It has been said:

'Conditioned by grasping is becoming.'

Is there becoming for you, monks,
conditioned by grasping,
or how is it as to this?"

"Conditioned by grasping, Lord,
is becoming.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'Conditioned by grasping is becoming.'"

"It has been said:

'Conditioned by craving is grasping.'

Is there grasping for you, monks,
conditioned by craving,
or how is it as to this?"

"Conditioned by craving, Lord,
is grasping.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'Conditioned by craving is grasping.'"

"It has been said:

'Conditioned by feeling is craving.'

Is there craving for you, monks,
conditioned by feeling,
or how is it as to this?"

"Conditioned by feeling, Lord,
is craving.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'Conditioned by feeling is craving.'"

"It has been said:

'Conditioned by sensory impingement is feeling.'

Is there feeling for you, monks,
conditioned by sensory impingement,
or how is it as to this?"

"Conditioned by sensory impingement, Lord,
is feeling.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'Conditioned by sensory impingement is feeling.'"

"It has been said:

'Conditioned by the six (sensory) spheres is sensory impingement.'

Is there sensory impingement for you, monks,
conditioned by the six (sensory) spheres,
or how is it as to this?"

"Conditioned by the six (sensory) spheres, Lord,
is sensory impingement.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'Conditioned by the six (sensory) spheres is sensory impingement.'"

[319] "It has been said:

'Conditioned by psycho-physicahty are the six (sensory) spheres.

Are there the six (sensory) spheres for you, monks,
conditioned by psycho-physicahty,
or how is it as to this?"

"Conditioned by psyeho-physicahty, Lord,
are the six (sensory) spheres.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'Conditioned by psycho-physicahty are the six (sensory) spheres.'"

"It has been said:

'Conditioned by consciousness is psycho-physieahty.'

Is there psycho-physicahty for you, monks,
conditioned by consciousness,
or how is it as to this?"

"Conditioned by consciousness, Lord,
is psycho-physicahty.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'Conditioned by consciousness is psyeho-physicahty.'"

"It has been said:

'Conditioned by the karma-formations
is consciousness.'

Is there consciousness for you, monks,
conditioned by the karma-formations,
or how is it as to this?"

"Conditioned by the karma-formations Lord,
is consciousness.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'Conditioned by the karma-formations is consciousness.'"

"It has been said:

'Conditioned by ignorance are the karma-formations.'

Are there karma-formations for you, monks,
conditioned by ignorance,
or how is it as to this?"

"Conditioned by ignorance, Lord,
are the karma-formations.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'Conditioned by ignorance are the karma-formations.'"

 


 

"It is good, monks.

Both you say this, monks,
and I too say this:

If this is,
that comes to be;
from the arising of this,
that arises,
that is to say:

Conditioned by ignorance are the karma-formations;
conditioned by the karma-formations is consciousness;
conditioned by consciousness is psycho-physicahty;
conditioned by psyeho-physieality are the six (sensory) spheres;
conditioned by the six (sensory) spheres is sensory impingement;
conditioned by sensory impingement is feeling;
conditioned by feeling is craving;
conditioned by craving is grasping;
conditioned by grasping is becoming;
conditioned by becoming is birth;
conditioned by birth,
ageing and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
come into being.

Such is the arising of this entire mass of anguish.

 


 

But from the utter fading away and stopping
of this very ignorance
is the stopping of the karma-formations;
from the stopping of the karma-formations
the stopping of consciousness;
from the stopping of consciousness
the stopping of psycho-physicahty;
from the stopping of psycho-physicality
the stopping of the six (sensory) [320] spheres;
from the stopping of the six (sensory) spheres
the stopping of sensory impingement;
from the stopping of sensory impingement
the stopping of feeling;
from the stopping of feeling
the stopping of craving;
from the stopping of craving
the stopping of grasping;
from the stopping of grasping
the stopping of becoming;
from the stopping of becoming
the stopping of birth;
from the stopping of birth,
old age and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
are stopped.

Such is the stopping of this entire mass of anguish.

It has been said:

'From the stopping of birth
is the stopping of ageing and dying.'

Is there for you, monks,
from the stopping of birth
the stopping of ageing and dying,
or how is it as to this?"

"From the stopping of birth, Lord,
is the stopping of ageing and dying.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'From the stopping of birth is the stopping of ageing and dying.'"

It has been said:

'From the stopping of becoming
is the stopping of birth.'

Is there for you, monks,
from the stopping of becoming
the stopping of birth,
or how is it as to this?"

"From the stopping of becoming, Lord,
is the stopping of birth.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'From the stopping of becoming is the stopping of birth.'"

It has been said:

'From the stopping of grasping
is the stopping of becoming.'

Is there for you, monks,
from the stopping of grasping
the stopping of becoming,
or how is it as to this?"

"From the stopping of grasping, Lord,
is the stopping of becoming.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'From the stopping of grasping is the stopping of becoming.'"

It has been said:

'From the stopping of craving
is the stopping of grasping.'

Is there for you, monks,
from the stopping of craving
the stopping of grasping,
or how is it as to this?"

"From the stopping of craving, Lord,
is the stopping of grasping.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'From the stopping of craving is the stopping of grasping.'"

It has been said:

'From the stopping of feeling
is the stopping of craving.'

Is there for you, monks,
from the stopping of feeling
the stopping of craving,
or how is it as to this?"

"From the stopping of feeling, Lord,
is the stopping of craving.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'From the stopping of feeling is the stopping of craving.'"

It has been said:

'From the stopping of sensory impingement
is the stopping of feeling.'

Is there for you, monks,
from the stopping of sensory impingement
the stopping of feeling,
or how is it as to this?"

"From the stopping of sensory impingement, Lord,
is the stopping of feeling.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'From the stopping of sensory impingement is the stopping of feeling.'"

It has been said:

'From the stopping of the six (sensory) spheres
is the stopping of sensory impingement.'

Is there for you, monks,
from the stopping of the six (sensory) spheres
the stopping of sensory impingement,
or how is it as to this?"

"From the stopping of the six (sensory) spheres, Lord,
is the stopping of sensory impingement.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'From the stopping of the six (sensory) spheres is the stopping of sensory impingement.'"

It has been said:

'From the stopping of psycho-physicahty
is the stopping of the six (sensory) spheres.'

Is there for you, monks,
from the stopping of psycho-physicahty
the stopping of the six (sensory) spheres,
or how is it as to this?"

"From the stopping of psycho-physicahty, Lord,
is the stopping of the six (sensory) spheres.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'From the stopping of psycho-physicahty is the stopping of the six (sensory) spheres.'"

It has been said:

'From the stopping of consciousness
is the stopping of psycho-physicahty.'

Is there for you, monks,
from the stopping of consciousness
the stopping of psycho-physicahty,
or how is it as to this?"

"From the stopping of consciousness, Lord,
is the stopping of psycho-physicahty.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'From the stopping of consciousness is the stopping of psycho-physicahty.'"

It has been said:

'From the stopping of the karma-formations
is the stopping of consciousness.'

Is there for you, monks,
from the stopping of the karma-formations
the stopping of consciousness,
or how is it as to this?"

"From the stopping of the karma-formations, Lord,
is the stopping of consciousness.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'From the stopping of the karma-formations is the stopping of consciousness.'"

It has been said:

'From the stopping of ignorance
is the stopping of the karma-formations.'

Is there for you, monks,
from the stopping of ignorance
the stopping of the karma-formations,
or how is it as to this?"

"From the stopping of ignorance, Lord,
is the stopping of the karma-formations.

Thus it is for us as to this:

'From the stopping of ignorance is the stopping of the karma-formations.'"

"It is good, monks.

Both you say this, monks,
and I too say this:

If this is not,
that does not come to be;
from the stopping of this,
that is stopped,
that is to say:

From the stopping of ignorance is the stopping of the karma-formations;
from the stopping of the karma-formations
the stopping of consciousness;
from the stopping of consciousness
the stopping of psycho-physicahty;
from the stopping of psycho-physicality
the stopping of the six (sensory) spheres;
from the stopping of the six (sensory) spheres
the stopping of sensory impingement;
from the stopping of sensory impingement
the stopping of feeling;
from the stopping of feeling
the stopping of craving;
from the stopping of craving
the stopping of grasping;
from the stopping of grasping
the stopping of becoming;
from the stopping of becoming
the stopping of birth;
from the stopping of birth,
old age and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
are stopped.

Such is the stopping of this entire mass of anguish.

Now, would you, monks,
knowing thus,
seeing thus,
either run back to times gone by,[11] thinking:

'Now, were we in a past period,[12]
were we not in a past period,
what were we in a past period,
how were we in a past period,
having been what,
what did we become in a past period?"

"No, Lord."

"Or would you, monks,
knowing thus,
seeing thus,
run forward into times to come,
thinking:

'Will we come to be[12] in a future period,
will we not come to be in a future period,
what will we come [321] to be in a future period,
how will we come to be in a future period,
having been what,
what will we come to be in a future period?"

"No, Lord."

"Or would you, monks,
knowing thus,
seeing thus,
come to be subjectively doubtful now
about the present period,
thinking:

'Am I,
am I not,
what am I,
how am I,
whence has this being come,
where going will it come to be?"

"No, Lord."

"Or would you, monks,
knowing thus,
seeing thus,
speak thus:

'The Lord is oppressive[13] to us,
but we speak out of respect to our Teacher'?"

"No, Lord."

"Or would you, monks,
knowing thus,
seeing thus,
speak thus:

'A recluse speaks thus to us,
and recluses,
but we do not speak thus'?"

"No, Lord."

"Or would you, monks,
knowing thus,
seeing thus,
look out for another teacher?"

"No, Lord."

"Or would you, monks,
knowing thus,
seeing thus,
fall back on those
which are the customs
and curious ceremonies[14]
of ordinary recluses and brahmans
(thinking) these to be the essence?"

"No, Lord."

"Do not you, monks,
speak only of that
which of yourselves you have known,
seen[15]
and discerned?"

"Yes, Lord."

"It is good, monks.

You, monks, have been presented by me
with this dhamma
which is self-realised,
timeless,
a come-and-see-thing,
leading onwards,
to be understood individually by the wise.

Monks, this dhamma is self-realised,
timeless,
a come-and-see-thing,
leading onwards,
to be understood individually by the wise.

What has been said
has been said on account of this.

Monks, it is on the conjunction of three things
that there is conception.[16]

If there is here[17]
a coitus of the parents,
but it is not the mother's season
and the gandhabba[18] is not present -
for so long [322] there is not conception.

If there is here a coitus of the parents
and it is the mother's season,
but the gandhabba is not present -
for so long there is not conception.

But if, monks, there is here a coitus of the parents
and it is the mother's season
and the gandhabba is present,
it is on the conjunction of these three things
that there is conception.

Then, monks, the mother
for nine or ten months
carries the foetus in her womb
with great anxiety for her heavy burden.

Then, monks, at the end of nine or ten months
the mother gives birth
with great anxiety for her heavy burden.

When it is born,
she feeds it with her own life-blood.

For this, monks, is 'life-blood'
in the discipline for an ariyan,
that is to say mother's milk.

And, monks, when that boy has grown
and has developed his sense-organs,[19]
he plays at those which are games[20] for little boys,
that is to say
with a toy plough,
tip-cart,
at turning somersaults,
with a toy windmill,
with a toy measure of leaves,
with a toy cart,
with a toy bow.

Monks, when that boy has grown
and has developed his sense-organs
he enjoys himself,
endowed with and possessed of
the five strands of sense-pleasures:
material shapes cognisable through the eye,
agreeable,
pleasant,
liked,
enticing,
connected with senseṁpleasures,
alluring;
sounds cognisable through the ear,
agreeable,
pleasant,
liked,
enticing,
connected with senseṁpleasures,
alluring;
scents cognisable through the nose,
agreeable,
pleasant,
liked,
enticing,
connected with senseṁpleasures,
alluring;
savours cognisable through the tongue,
agreeable,
pleasant,
liked,
enticing,
connected with senseṁpleasures,
alluring;
touches cognisable through the body,
agreeable,
pleasant,
liked,
enticing,
connected with senseṁpleasures,
alluring.

 


 

When he has seen a material shape[21] through the eye,
he feels attraction[22] for agreeable material shapes,
he feels repugnance for disagreeable material shapes;
and he dwells without mindfulness aroused as to the body,
with a mind that is limited;[23]
and he does not [323] comprehend that freedom of mind[24]
and that freedom through intuitive wisdom
as they really are,
whereby those evil unskilled states of his
are stopped without remainder.

Possessed thus of compliance and antipathy,[25]
whatever feeling he feels -
pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant -
he delights in that feeling,
welcomes it
and persists in cleaving to it.

From delighting in that feeling of his,
from welcoming it,
from persisting in cleaving to it,
delight arises;
whatever is delight amid those feelings,
that is grasping;
conditioned by grasping is becoming;
conditioned by becoming is birth;
conditioned by birth,
old age and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
come into being.

Such is the arising of this entire mass of anguish.

When he has heard a sound through the ear,
he feels attraction for agreeable sounds,
he feels repugnance for disagreeable sounds;
and he dwells without mindfulness aroused as to the body,
with a mind that is limited;
and he does not comprehend that freedom of mind
and that freedom through intuitive wisdom
as they really are,
whereby those evil unskilled states of his
are stopped without remainder.

Possessed thus of compliance and antipathy,
whatever feeling he feels -
pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant -
he delights in that feeling,
welcomes it
and persists in cleaving to it.

From delighting in that feeling of his,
from welcoming it,
from persisting in cleaving to it,
delight arises;
whatever is delight amid those feelings,
that is grasping;
conditioned by grasping is becoming;
conditioned by becoming is birth;
conditioned by birth,
old age and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
come into being.

Such is the arising of this entire mass of anguish.

When he has smelt a scent with the nose,
he feels attraction for agreeable scents,
he feels repugnance for disagreeable scents;
and he dwells without mindfulness aroused as to the body,
with a mind that is limited;
and he does not comprehend that freedom of mind
and that freedom through intuitive wisdom
as they really are,
whereby those evil unskilled states of his
are stopped without remainder.

Possessed thus of compliance and antipathy,
whatever feeling he feels -
pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant -
he delights in that feeling,
welcomes it
and persists in cleaving to it.

From delighting in that feeling of his,
from welcoming it,
from persisting in cleaving to it,
delight arises;
whatever is delight amid those feelings,
that is grasping;
conditioned by grasping is becoming;
conditioned by becoming is birth;
conditioned by birth,
old age and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
come into being.

Such is the arising of this entire mass of anguish.

When he has savoured a taste with the tongue,
he feels attraction for agreeable tastes,
he feels repugnance for disagreeable tastes;
and he dwells without mindfulness aroused as to the body,
with a mind that is limited;
and he does not comprehend that freedom of mind
and that freedom through intuitive wisdom
as they really are,
whereby those evil unskilled states of his
are stopped without remainder.

Possessed thus of compliance and antipathy,
whatever feeling he feels -
pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant -
he delights in that feeling,
welcomes it
and persists in cleaving to it.

From delighting in that feeling of his,
from welcoming it,
from persisting in cleaving to it,
delight arises;
whatever is delight amid those feelings,
that is grasping;
conditioned by grasping is becoming;
conditioned by becoming is birth;
conditioned by birth,
old age and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
come into being.

Such is the arising of this entire mass of anguish.

When he has felt a touch with the body,
he feels attraction for agreeable touches,
he feels repugnance for disagreeable touches;
and he dwells without mindfulness aroused as to the body,
with a mind that is limited;
and he does not comprehend that freedom of mind
and that freedom through intuitive wisdom
as they really are,
whereby those evil unskilled states of his
are stopped without remainder.

Possessed thus of compliance and antipathy,
whatever feeling he feels -
pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant -
he delights in that feeling,
welcomes it
and persists in cleaving to it.

From delighting in that feeling of his,
from welcoming it,
from persisting in cleaving to it,
delight arises;
whatever is delight amid those feelings,
that is grasping;
conditioned by grasping is becoming;
conditioned by becoming is birth;
conditioned by birth,
old age and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
come into being.

Such is the arising of this entire mass of anguish.

When he has known a mental object with the mind,
he feels attraction for agreeable mental objects,
he feels repugnance for disagreeable mental objects;
and he dwells without mindfulness aroused as to the body,
with a mind that is limited;
and he does not comprehend that freedom of mind
and that freedom through intuitive wisdom
as they really are,
whereby those evil unskilled states of his
are stopped without remainder.

Possessed thus of compliance and antipathy,
whatever feeling he feels -
pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant -
he delights in that feeling,
welcomes it
and persists in cleaving to it.

From delighting in that feeling of his,
from welcoming it,
from persisting in cleaving to it,
delight arises;
whatever is delight amid those feelings,
that is grasping;
conditioned by grasping is becoming;
conditioned by becoming is birth;
conditioned by birth,
old age and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
come into being.

Such is the arising of this entire mass of anguish.

 


 

Now, monks, a Tathāgata arises in the world,
a perfected one,
a fully Self-awakened one
endowed with right knowledge and conduct,
well-farer,
knower of the worlds,
the matchless charioteer of men to be tamed,
the Awakened One,
the Lord.

He makes known this world
with the devas,
with Māra,
with Brahmā,
creation
with its recluses and brahmans,
its devas and men,
having realised them by his own super-knowledge.

He teaches dhamma which is lovely at the beginning,
lovely in the middle,
lovely at the ending,
with the spirit and the letter;
he proclaims the Brahma-faring
wholly fulfilled,
quite purified.

A householder
or a householder's son
or one born in another family
hears that dhamma.

Having heard that dhamma,
he gains faith in the Tathāgata.

Endowed with this faith
that he has acquired,
he reflects in this way:

'The household life is confined and dusty;
going forth is of the open;
it is not easy for one who lives in a house
to fare the Brahma-faring
wholly fulfilled,
wholly pure,
polished like a conch-shell.

Suppose now that I,
having cut off hair and beard,
having put on saffron robes,
should go forth from home
into homelessness?'

After a time,
getting rid of his wealth,
be it small or great,
getting rid of his circle of relations,
be it small or great,
having cut off his hair and beard,
having put on saffron robes,
he goes forth from home
into homelessness.

He, being thus one who has gone forth
and who is endowed with the training
and the way of living of monks,
abandoning onslaught on creatures,
is one who abstains from onslaught on creatures;
the stick laid aside,
the knife laid aside,
he lives kindly,
scrupulous,
friendly
and compassionate
towards all breathing things and creatures.

Abandoning the taking of what is not given,
he is one who abstains from taking what is not given;
being one who takes (only) what is given,
who waits for what is given,
not by stealing he lives with a self become pure.

Abandoning unchastity,
he is one who is chaste,
keeping remote (from unchastity),
abstaining from dealings with women.

Abandoning lying speech,
he is one who abstains from lying speech,
a truth-speaker,
a bondsman to truth,
trustworthy,
dependable,
no deceiver of the world.

Abandoning slanderous speech,
he is one who abstains from slanderous speech;
having heard something here
he is not one for repeating it elsewhere
for (causing) variance among these (people),
or having heard something elsewhere
he is not one to repeat it there
for (causing) variance among these (people).

In this way
he is a reconciler of those who are at variance,
and one who combines those who are friends.

Concord is his pleasure,
concord his delight,
concord his joy,
concord is the motive of his speech.

Abandoning harsh speech,
he is one who abstains from harsh speech.

Whatever speech is gentle,
pleasing to the ear,
affectionate,
going to the heart,
urbane,
pleasant to the manyfolk,
agreeable to the manyfolk -
he comes to be one who utters speech like this.

Abandoning frivolous chatter,
he is one who abstains from frivolous chatter.

He is a speaker at a right time,
a speaker of fact,
a speaker on the goal,
a speaker on dhamma,
a speaker on discipline,
he speaks words that are worth treasuring,
with similes at a right time
that are discriminating,
connected with the goal.

He comes to be one who abstains
from what involves destruction to seed-growth,
to vegetable growth.

He comes to be one who eats one meal a day,
refraining at night,
abstaining from eating at a wrong time.

He comes to be one who abstains
from watching shows of dancing,
singing,
music.

He comes to be one who abstains
from using garlands,
scents,
unguents,
adornments,
finery.

He comes to be one who abstains
from using high beds,
large beds.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting gold and silver.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting raw grain.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting raw meat.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting women and girls.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting women slaves and men slaves.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting goats and sheep.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting fowl and swine.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting elephants, cows, horses, mares.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting fields and sites.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting messages or going on such.

He comes to be one who abstains from buying and selling.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting from cheating with weights.

He comes to be one who abstains
from accepting from cheating with bronzes.

He comes to be one who abstains
from cheating with measures.

He comes to be one who abstains
from the crooked ways of bribery, fraud and deceit.

He comes to be one who abstains
from maiming, murdering, manacling, highway robbery.

He comes to be contented
with the robes for protecting his body,
with the almsfood for sustaining his stomach.

Wherever he goes
he takes these things with him as he goes.

As a bird on the wing
wherever it flies
takes its' wings with it as it flies,
so a monk,
contented with the robes for protecting his body,
with the almsfood for sustaining his stomach,
wherever he goes
takes these things with him as he goes.

He, possessed of the ariyan body of moral habit,
subjectively experiences unsullied well-being.

Having seen a material shape with the eye,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwells with this organ of sight uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it;
he guards the organ of sight,
he comes to control over the organ of sight.

Having heard a sound with the ear,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwells with this organ of hearing uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it;
he guards the organ of hearing,
he comes to control over the organ of hearing.

Having smelt a smell with the nose,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwells with this organ of smell uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it;
he guards the organ of smell,
he comes to control over the organ of smell.

Having savoured a taste with the tongue,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwells with this organ of taste uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it;
he guards the organ of taste,
he comes to control over the organ of taste.

Having felt a touch with the body,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he dwells with this organ of touch uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind,
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it;
he guards the organ of touch,
he comes to control over the organ of touch.

Having cognised a mental object with the mind,
he is not entranced by the general appearance,
he is not entranced by the detail.

If he lives with this organ of mind uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states of mind
might predominate.

So he fares along controlling it;
he guards the organ of mind,
he comes to control over the organ of mind.

If he is possessed of this ariyan control of the (sense-) organs,
he subjectively experiences unsulhed well-being.

Whether he is setting out
or returning,
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is looking down
or looking round,
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is bending back
or stretching out (his arm),
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is carrying his outer cloak,
his bowl,
his robe,
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is munching,
drinking,
eating,
savouring,
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is obeying the calls of nature,
he is one who comports himself properly;
whether he is walking,
standing,
asleep,
awake,
talking,
silent,
he is one who comports himself properly.

Possessed of this ariyan body of moral habit
and possessed of this ariyan control of the (sense-) organs
and possessed of this ariyan mindfulness
and clear consciousness,
he chooses a remote lodging in a forest,
at the root of a tree,
on a mountain slope,
in a wilderness,
in a hill-cave,
in a cemetery,
in a forest haunt,
in the open
or on a heap of straw.

He, returning from alms-gathering
after his meal,
sits down cross-legged
holding the back erect,
having made mindfulness
rise up in front of him.

He, having got rid of covetousness for the world,
lives with a mind devoid of coveting,
he purifies the mind of coveting.

By getting rid of the taint of ill-will,
he lives benevolent in mind;
and compassionate for the welfare
of all creatures and beings,
he purifies the mind of the taint of ill-will.

By getting rid of sloth and torpor,
he hves devoid of sloth and torpor;
perceiving the light,
mindful and clearly conscious,
he purifies the mind of sloth and torpor.

By getting rid of restlessness and worry,
he lives calmly,
the mind subjectively tranquillised,
he purifies the mind of restlessness and worry.

By getting rid of doubt,
he hves doubt-crossed;
unperplexed as to the states that are skilled,
he purifies his mind of doubt.

He, by getting rid Of these five hindrances -
defilements of a mind and weakening to intuitive wisdom -
aloof from pleasurs of the senses,
aloof from unskilled states of mind,
enters and abides in the first meditation,
which is accompanied by initial thought and discursive thought,
is born of aloofness
and is rapturous and joyful.

And again, monks, a monk,
by allaying initial and discursive thought,
his mind subjectively tranquilhsed
and fixed on one point,
enters on and abides in the second meditation,
which is devoid of initial and discursive thought,
is born of concentration
and is rapturous and joyful.

And again, monks, a monk,
by the fading out of rapture,
dwells with equanimity,
attentive and clearly conscious,
and experiences in his person
that joy of which the ariyans say:
'Joyful lives he who has equanimity and is mindful,'
and he enters on
and abides in
the third meditation.

And again, monks, a monk
by getting rid of joy,
by getting rid of anguish,
by the going down of his former pleasures and sorrows,
enters on
and abides in
the fourth meditation
which has neither anguish nor joy,
and which is entirely purified
by equanimity and mindfulness.

When he has seen a material shape through the eye,
he does not feel attraction for agreeable material shapes,
he does not feel [324] repugnance for disagreeable material shapes;
and he dwells with mindfulness aroused as to the body,
with a mind that is immeasurable;[26]
and he comprehends that freedom of mind
and that freedom through intuitive wisdom
as they really are,
whereby those evil unskilled states of his
are stopped without remainder.

He who has thus got rid of compliance and antipathy,
whatever feeling he feels -
pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant -
he does not delight in that feeling,
does not welcome it
or persist in cleaving to it.

From not delighting in that feeling of his,
from not welcoming it,
from not persisting in cleaving to it,
whatever was delight in those feelings is stopped.

From the stopping of his delight
is the stopping of grasping;
from the stopping of grasping is the stopping of becoming;
from the stopping of becoming is the stopping of birth;
from the stopping of birth,
old age and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
are stopped.

Such is the stopping of this entire mass of anguish.

When he has sound through the ear,
he does not feel attraction for agreeable sounds,
he does not feel repugnance for disagreeable sounds;
and he dwells with mindfulness aroused as to the body,
with a mind that is immeasurable;
and he comprehends that freedom of mind
and that freedom through intuitive wisdom
as they really are,
whereby those evil unskilled states of his
are stopped without remainder.

He who has thus got rid of compliance and antipathy,
whatever feeling he feels -
pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant -
he does not delight in that feeling,
does not welcome it
or persist in cleaving to it.

From not delighting in that feeling of his,
from not welcoming it,
from not persisting in cleaving to it,
whatever was delight in those feelings is stopped.

From the stopping of his delight
is the stopping of grasping;
from the stopping of grasping is the stopping of becoming;
from the stopping of becoming is the stopping of birth;
from the stopping of birth,
old age and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
are stopped.

Such is the stopping of this entire mass of anguish.

When he has smelt a scent with the nose,
he does not feel attraction for agreeable scents,
he does not feel repugnance for disagreeable scents;
and he dwells with mindfulness aroused as to the body,
with a mind that is immeasurable;
and he comprehends that freedom of mind
and that freedom through intuitive wisdom
as they really are,
whereby those evil unskilled states of his
are stopped without remainder.

He who has thus got rid of compliance and antipathy,
whatever feeling he feels -
pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant -
he does not delight in that feeling,
does not welcome it
or persist in cleaving to it.

From not delighting in that feeling of his,
from not welcoming it,
from not persisting in cleaving to it,
whatever was delight in those feelings is stopped.

From the stopping of his delight
is the stopping of grasping;
from the stopping of grasping is the stopping of becoming;
from the stopping of becoming is the stopping of birth;
from the stopping of birth,
old age and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
are stopped.

Such is the stopping of this entire mass of anguish.

When he has savoured a taste with the tongue,
he does not feel attraction for agreeable tastes,
he does not feel repugnance for disagreeable tastes;
and he dwells with mindfulness aroused as to the body,
with a mind that is immeasurable;
and he comprehends that freedom of mind
and that freedom through intuitive wisdom
as they really are,
whereby those evil unskilled states of his
are stopped without remainder.

He who has thus got rid of compliance and antipathy,
whatever feeling he feels -
pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant -
he does not delight in that feeling,
does not welcome it
or persist in cleaving to it.

From not delighting in that feeling of his,
from not welcoming it,
from not persisting in cleaving to it,
whatever was delight in those feelings is stopped.

From the stopping of his delight
is the stopping of grasping;
from the stopping of grasping is the stopping of becoming;
from the stopping of becoming is the stopping of birth;
from the stopping of birth,
old age and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
are stopped.

Such is the stopping of this entire mass of anguish.

When he has felt a touch with the body,
he does not feel attraction for agreeable touchs,
he does not feel repugnance for disagreeable touchs;
and he dwells with mindfulness aroused as to the body,
with a mind that is immeasurable;
and he comprehends that freedom of mind
and that freedom through intuitive wisdom
as they really are,
whereby those evil unskilled states of his
are stopped without remainder.

He who has thus got rid of compliance and antipathy,
whatever feeling he feels -
pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant -
he does not delight in that feeling,
does not welcome it
or persist in cleaving to it.

From not delighting in that feeling of his,
from not welcoming it,
from not persisting in cleaving to it,
whatever was delight in those feelings is stopped.

From the stopping of his delight
is the stopping of grasping;
from the stopping of grasping is the stopping of becoming;
from the stopping of becoming is the stopping of birth;
from the stopping of birth,
old age and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
are stopped.

Such is the stopping of this entire mass of anguish.

When he has known a mental object with the mind,
he does not feel attraction for agreeable mental objects,
he does not feel repugnance for disagreeable mental objects;
and he dwells with mindfulness aroused as to the body,
with a mind that is immeasurable;
and he comprehends that freedom of mind
and that freedom through intuitive wisdom
as they really are,
whereby those evil unskilled states of his
are stopped without remainder.

He who has thus got rid of compliance and antipathy,
whatever feeling he feels -
pleasant
or painful
or neither painful nor pleasant -
he does not delight in that feeling,
does not welcome it
or persist in cleaving to it.

From not delighting in that feeling of his,
from not welcoming it,
from not persisting in cleaving to it,
whatever was delight in those feelings is stopped.

From the stopping of his delight
is the stopping of grasping;
from the stopping of grasping is the stopping of becoming;
from the stopping of becoming is the stopping of birth;
from the stopping of birth,
old age and dying,
grief,
sorrow,
suffering,
lamentation
and despair
are stopped.

Such is the stopping of this entire mass of anguish.

Do you, monks, bear in mind
this freedom by the destruction of craving
(taught) in brief by me,
but (remember) that Sāti the monk, a fisherman's son,
is caught in the great net of craving,
the tangle of craving."[27]

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted, these monks rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving:
the Eighth

 


[1] For other "pernicious views" see M. i. 130, 326; Vin. ii. 25-6; A. v. 194. Here the view is one of Eternalism. This thera, as MA. ii. 305 calls Sāti was not learned. He was a Jātaka-repeater, so he thought that, although the other khandhaa were stopped now here, now there, consciousness ran on from this world to that beyond and from there to this world. It is inferred that he therefore thought consciousness had no condition, paccaya, for arising. But the Buddha had said if there is a condition it arises, with no condition there is no origination of consciousness. He therefore spoke as the Buddha did not, gave a blow to the Conqueror's Wheel, and was a thief in his dispensation. MA. ii. 305.

[2] vado = vade? (PED), and see v.l. at M. i. 552. MA. ii. 305 gives vadati.

[3] Cf. M. i. 8.

[4] Cf. M. i 191. [MN 28 - Horn]

[5] khaṇāti, to dig; cf. Dh. 247, 337. Cf. "wrong grasp" at M. i. 134.

[6] M. i. 134.

[7] Quoted at MA. ii. 109.

[8] Cf. S. ii. 11 ff.

[9] Cf. M. i. 67.

[10] nāma-rūpa, name-and-shape.

[11] Cf. S. ii. 26-7.

[12] Cf. M. i. 8.

[13] MA. ii. 309 says that here garu means bhārika, grievous, burdensome, to be followed unwillingly.

[14] vata-kotūhalo-maṇgalāni; cf. A. iii. 206, 439, and see G.S. iii. 151, n. 4.

[15] With the eye of intuitive wisdom, MA. ii. 309.

[16] Cf. M. ii. 157; Miln. 123; Divy. 1, 440.

[17] In this world of beings, MA. ii. 310.

[18] MA. ii. 310 explains gandhabba as the being who is coming into the womb the being about to enter the womb (tatr'ūpaka-satta) ... about to come into that situation, being driven on by the mechanism of kamma. See O.H. de A. Wijesekera, Vedic Qandharva and Pali Gandhabba, Ceylon University Review, Vol. III. No. 1, April, 1945, who suggests that gandhabba means a "saŋsāric being in the intermediate stage (between death and birth)."

[19] Here of course not in the sense of over-development or decay, as in old age, see D. ii. 305; M. i. 49; S. ii. 2, 42 ff.; but in the sense of growing out of babyhood into boyhood, as at A. v. 203.

[20] See D. i. 6; Vin. iii. 180 for these (and other) games, and notes at B.D. i. 316-17.

[21] Cf. S. iv. 120, 184.

[22] sārajjati. MA. ii. 311 says rāgaɱ uppādeti. S. iv. 120, 184 read adhimuccati.

[23] parittacetaso. The opposite, as given at M. i. 270, S. iv. 120, 186, is appamāṇacetaso, a mind that is boundless or immeasurable. Cf. A. i. 249: paritto appātumo appadukkhavihāri ... aparitto mahatta appamāṇavihārī. MA. ii. 311 explains paritta by akusala, unskilled.

[24] Often connected with the immeasurable or boundless (appamāṇa) brahmavihāāras.

[25] Quoted at Kvu. 485; cf. A. iv. 158; S. i. 111. Explained as "attachment as well as hatred" at MA. ii. 311.

[26] Cf. A. i. 249, aparitto mahattā appamāṇavihārī.

[27] Cf. M. i. 383.

 


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