Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
I. Mūlapaṇṇāsa
2. Sīhanāda Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
I. The First Fifty Discourses
2. The Division of the Lion's Roar

Sutta 12

Mahā Sīhanāda Suttaɱ

Greater Discourse on the Lion's Roar

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.MA.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


 

[1][chlm][ntbb][upal] THUS have I heard:

At one time the Lord was staying near Vesālī
outside the town
in a woodland thicket to the west.[1]

Now at that time Sunakkhatta,
the son of a Licchavi,[2]
having recently left this dhamma and discipline,
spoke these words to a group (of people) at Vesālī:

"There are no states of further-men,[3]
(no) excellent knowledge and insight[4] befitting the ariyans
in the recluse Gotama;
the recluse Gotama teaches dhamma
on (a system) of his own devising
beaten out by reasoning
and based on investigation;[5]
and says that dhamma,
taught for the sake of something specific,[6]
leads onwards[7] the doer of it
to the complete destruction of anguish."

Then the venerable Sāriputta,
having dressed early in the morning,
taking his bowl and robe,
entered Vesālī for almsfood.

Then the venerable Sāriputta heard that speech of Sunakkhatta,
the son of a Licchavi,
as it was being spoken to the group (of people) in Vesālī:

"There are no states of further-men,
(no) excellent knowledge and insight befitting the ariyans
in the recluse Gotama;
the recluse Gotama teaches dhamma
on (a system) of his own devising
beaten out by reasoning
and based on investigation;
and says that dhamma,
taught for the sake of something specific,
leads onwards [92] the doer of it
to the complete destruction of anguish."

Then the venerable Sāriputta, having walked in Vesālī for almsfood,
after the meal
returning from (his quest for[8]) alms,
approached the Lord;
having approached,
having greeted the Lord,
he sat down at a respectful distance.

As he was sitting down at a respectful distance,
the venerable Sāriputta spoke thus to the Lord:

"Lord, Sunakkhatta, the son of a Licchavi,
spoke these words to a group (of people) at Vesālī:

'There are no states of further-men,
(no) excellent knowledge and insight befitting the ariyans
in the recluse Gotama;
the recluse Gotama teaches dhamma
on (a system) of his own devising
beaten out by reasoning
and based on investigation;
and says that dhamma,
taught for the sake of something specific,
leads onwards the doer of it
to the complete destruction of anguish.'

"Sāriputta, Sunakkhatta is a man of wrath and folly,
and these words were spoken by him in wrath.

Thinking,

'I will speak dispraise,'

he, Sāriputta,
the foolish man Sunakkhatta,
really spoke praise of the Tathāgata.

For this, Sāriputta, is praise of a Tathāgata:
when someone should speak thus:

'Dhamma, taught for the sake of something specific,
leads onwards the doer of it
to the complete destruction of anguish.'

But, Sāriputta, there will not be for Sunakkhatta,
the foohsh man,
this inference from dhamma about me:

'This is the Lord,
perfected one,
fully Self-awakened One,
endowed with knowledge and right conduct,
well-farer,
knower of the world(s),
incomparable trainer of men to be tamed,
teacher of devas and men,
the Awakened one, the Lord.'

 

§

 

Nor, Sāriputta, will there be for Sunakkhatta,
the foohsh man,
this inference from dhamma about me:

'This is the Lord who enjoys the manifold forms of psychic power:

From having been one he becomes manifold;
from having been manifold
he becomes one;
manifest or invisible,
he goes unhindered through a wall,
through a rampart,
through a mountain
as if through air;
he plunges into the ground
and shoots up again
as if in water;
he walks upon the water
without parting it
as if on the ground;
sitting cross-legged
he travels through the air
like a bird on the wing.

Even this moon and sun,
although of such mighty power and majesty,
he rubs and strokes them
with his hand.

Even as far as the Brahma-world
he has power in respect of his body.'

 

§

 

Nor, Sāriputta, will there be for Sunakkhatta,
the foohsh man,
[93] this inference from dhamma about me:

'This is the Lord who,
through the purified deva-condition of hearing,
surpassing that of men,
hears both (kinds of) sounds:
deva-like ones and human ones,
and those which are distant
and those which are near.'

 

§

 

Nor, Sāriputta, will there be for Sunakkhatta,
the foohsh man,
this inference from dhamma about me:

'This is the Lord who knows intuitively by mind
the minds of other beings,
of other individuals;

He knows intuitively
of a mind that is full of attachment
that it is full of attachment;

he knows intuitively
of a mind that is without attachment
that it is without attachment;

he knows intuitively
of a mind that is full of aversion
that it is full of aversion;

he knows intuitively
of a mind that is full of confusion
that it is full of confusion;

he knows intuitively
of a mind that is without aversion
that it is without aversion;

he knows intuitively
of a mind that is contracted
that it is contracted;

he knows intuitively
of a mind that is distracted
that it is distracted;

he knows intuitively
of a mind that has become great
that it has become great;

he knows intuitively
of a mind that has not become great
that it has not become great;

he knows intuitively
of a mind with (some other mental state) superior to it
that it is a mind with (some other mental state) superior to it;

he knows intuitively
of a mind with no (other mental state) superior to it
that it is a mind with no (other mental state) superior to it;

he knows intuitively
of a mind that is composed
that it is composed;

he knows intuitively
of a mind that is not composed
that it is not composed;

he knows intuitively
of a mind that is freed
that it is freed;

he knows intuitively
of a mind that is not freed
that it is not freed.'

 


 

Now, Sāriputta, a Tathāgata has these ten powers of a Tathāgata,[9]
endowed with which powers
a Tathāgata claims the leader's place,[10]
roars his lion's roar in assemblies,
and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel.[11]

What are the ten?

Herein, Sāriputta, a Tathāgata comprehends as it really is
causal occasion as such
and what is not causal occasion as such.[12]

Inasmuch, Sāriputta, as a Tathāgata comprehends as it really is
causal occasion as such
and what is not causal occasion as such,
this, Sāriputta, is a Tathāgata's power of a Tathāgata,
having which power
a Tathāgata claims the leader's place,
roars his lion's roar in assemblies,
and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel.

 

§

 

And again, Sāriputta, a Tathāgata comprehends as it really is
the [94] acquiring of deeds for oneself,
past, future and present,
both in their causal occasion
and their result.

Inasmuch, Sāriputta, as a Tathāgata comprehends as it really is
the acquiring of deeds for oneself,
past, future and present,
both in their causal occasion
and their result,
this, Sāriputta, is a Tathāgata's power of a Tathāgata,
having which power
a Tathāgata claims the leader's place,
roars his lion's roar in assemblies,
and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel.

 

§

 

And again, Sāriputta, a Tathāgata comprehends as it really is
the course[13] leading to all bourns.[14]

Inasmuch, Sāriputta, as a Tathāgata comprehends as it really is
the course leading to all bourns,
this, Sāriputta, is a Tathāgata's power of a Tathāgata,
having which power
a Tathāgata claims the leader's place,
roars his lion's roar in assemblies,
and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel.

 

§

 

And again, Sāriputta, a Tathāgata comprehends as it really is
the world[15]
with its various and diverse features.

Inasmuch, Sāriputta, as a Tathāgata comprehends as it really is
the world
with its various and diverse features
this, Sāriputta, is a Tathāgata's power of a Tathāgata,
having which power
a Tathāgata claims the leader's place,
roars his lion's roar in assemblies,
and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel.

 

§

 

And again, Sāriputta, a Tathāgata comprehends as they really are
the divers characters of beings.[16]

Inasmuch, Sāriputta, as a Tathāgata also comprehendsas they really are
the divers characters of beings,
this, Sāriputta, is a Tathāgata's power of a Tathāgata,
having which power
a Tathāgata claims the leader's place,
roars his lion's roar in assemblies,
and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel.

 

§

 

And again, Sāriputta, a Tathāgata comprehends as it really is
the higher or lower state
of the faculties[17]
of other beings,
of other persons.

Inasmuch, Sāriputta, as a Tathāgata comprehends as it really is
the higher or lower state
of the faculties
of other beings,
of other persons,
this, Sāriputta, is a Tathāgata's power of a Tathāgata,
having which power
a Tathāgata claims the leader's place,
roars his lion's roar in assemblies,
and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel.

 

§

 

"meditation, deliverance and concentration attainments" is jhāna-vimokkha-samādhi-samāpattinaɱ. Does this mean, in stead: "jhāna-deliverance-samādhi-attainments" — one compound term? ("jhāna-release-serenity-attainment"), a single idea, not three? The problems in attaining, clarification of, and emergence from a state of release in serenity attained through jhāna? If not, what is the implied distinction between 'jhāna' and 'samādhi'? See also in this regard: MN 12 Bhks. Ñanamoli/Bodhi have this there as here, 3 ideas. Bhk. Bodhi's note there apparently relying on commentary ignores 'samādhi' and explains the releases as liberations (the vimokkha include the four immaterial jhanas and the attainment of the ending of the perception of sensation) and samāpatti as 'the attainments': of jhāna, the four immaterial attainments and the cessation of perception and feeling (the cessation of the perception of feeling).

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

And again, Sāriputta, a Tathāgata comprehends as they really are
the defilement of,
the purification of,
the emergence from
attainments in meditation,
the deliverances
and concentration.

Inasmuch, Sāriputta, as a Tathāgata comprehends as they really are
the defilement of,
the purification of,
the emergence from
attainments in meditation,
the deliverances
and concentration,
this, Sāriputta, is a Tathāgata's power of a Tathāgata,
having which power
a Tathāgata claims the leader's place,
roars his lion's roar in assemblies,
and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel.

 

§

 

And again, Sāriputta, a Tathāgata remembers his manifold former habitations,
that is to say:

One birth,
and two births,
three, four, five,
ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty,
a hundred,
a thousand births,
and a hundred thousand births,
and many an eon of integration,
and many an eon of disintegration,
and many an eon of integration-disintegration, thinking:

'Such and such was I by name,
having such a clan,
such a colour,
so was I nourished,
I experienced this and that pleasure and pain,
so did the span of life end.

As that one I,
passing from this,
rose up again elsewhere.

There, too, such a one was I by name,
having such a clan,
such a colour,
so was I nourished,
experienced this or that pleasure and pain,
so did the span of life end.

I, deceasing thence,
rose up here.'

Thus with all their modes and detail,
does [95] he remember his manifold former habitations.

Inasmuch, Sāriputta, as a Tathāgata remembers his manifold former habitations,
that is to say:

One birth,
and two births,
three, four, five,
ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty,
a hundred,
a thousand births,
and a hundred thousand births,
and many an eon of integration,
and many an eon of disintegration,
and many an eon of integration-disintegration, thinking:

'Such and such was I by name,
having such a clan,
such a colour,
so was I nourished,
I experienced this and that pleasure and pain,
so did the span of life end.

As that one I,
passing from this,
rose up again elsewhere.

There, too, such a one was I by name,
having such a clan,
such a colour,
so was I nourished,
experienced this or that pleasure and pain,
so did the span of life end.

I, deceasing thence,
rose up here.'

and thus with all their modes and detail,
he remember his manifold former habitations,
this, Sāriputta, is a Tathāgata's power of a Tathāgata,
having which power
a Tathāgata claims the leader's place,
roars his lion's roar in assemblies,
and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel.

 

§

 

And again, Sāriputta, a Tathāgata,
with his purified deva vision,
surpassing that of men,
sees beings as they are deceasing and uprising -
he comprehends that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going
according to the consequences of their deeds,
and thinks:

'Indeed, these worthy beings
who were possessed of wrong conduct in body,
in speech,
in thought,
scoffers at the ariyans,
of wrong view,
incurring deeds consequent on a wrong view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
arise in the sorrowful state,
a bad bourn,
the abyss,
Niraya Hell.

But, on the other hand,
these worthy beings,
endowed with good conduct in body,
speech,
and thought,
not scoffers at the ariyans,
of right view,
incurring deeds consequent on right view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying
arise in a good bourn,
the heaven world.'

In this way,
with his purified deva vision,
surpassing that of men,
he sees beings as they are deceasing and uprising;
he comprehends that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going according to their deeds.

Inasmuch, Sāriputta, as a Tathāgata,
with his purified deva vision,
surpassing that of men,
sees beings as they are deceasing and uprising -
he comprehends that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going
according to the consequences of their deeds,
and thinks:

'Indeed, these worthy beings
who were possessed of wrong conduct in body,
in speech,
in thought,
scoffers at the ariyans,
of wrong view,
incurring deeds consequent on a wrong view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
arise in the sorrowful state,
a bad bourn,
the abyss,
Niraya Hell.

But, on the other hand,
these worthy beings,
endowed with good conduct in body,
speech,
and thought,
not scoffers at the ariyans,
of right view,
incurring deeds consequent on right view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying
arise in a good bourn,
the heaven world.'

In this way,
with his purified deva vision,
surpassing that of men,
he sees beings as they are deceasing and uprising;
he comprehends that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going according to their deeds,
this, Sāriputta, is a Tathāgata's power of a Tathāgata,
having which power
a Tathāgata claims the leader's place,
roars his lion's roar in assemblies,
and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel.

 

§

 

And again, Sāriputta, a Tathāgata,
by the destruction of the cankers,
enters on
and abides in freedom of mind,
freedom through wisdom
that are cankerless,
having realised them here and now
through his own super-knowledge.

Inasmuch, Sāriputta, as a Tathāgata,
by the destruction of the cankers,
enters on
and abides in freedom of mind,
freedom through wisdom
that are cankerless,
having realised them here and now
through his own super-knowledge,
this, Sāriputta, is a Tathāgata's power of a Tathāgata,
having which power
a Tathāgata claims the leader's place,
roars his lion's roar in assemblies,
and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel.

These, Sāriputta,
are the Tathāgata's
ten powers of a Tathāgata,
endowed with which powers
the Tathāgata claims the leader's place,
roars his lion's roar in assemblies,
and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel.

Whoever, Sāriputta, knowing me thus,
seeing me thus,
should speak thus:

'There are no states of further-men,
(no) excellent knowledge and insight
befitting the ariyans
in the recluse Gotama;
the recluse Gotama teaches dhamma
on (a system of) his own devising
beaten out by reasoning
and based on investigation'
if he does not retract that speech, Sāriputta,
if he does not retract [96] that thought,
if he does not give up that view,
he is consigned to Niraya Hell
just as a burden is set aside.[18]

Sāriputta, as a monk, endowed with moral habit,
endowed with concentration,
endowed with intuitive wisdom,
might attain profound knowledge here-now,
so I say that this, Sāriputta,
results thus:[19]

Not retracting that speech,
not retracting that thought,
not giving up that view,
he is consigned to Niraya Hell
just as a burden is set aside.

 


 

Sāriputta, there are these four convictions[20] of a Tathāgata
endowed with which convictions
a Tathāgata claims the leader's place,
roars his lion's roar in assemblies,
and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel.

What are the four?

If anyone says:

'These matters are not fully awakened to
although you claim to be fully self-awakened'

-as to this, I do not behold the ground, Sāriputta,
on which a recluse or a brahman
or a deva or Mara or Brahma
or anyone in the world
can legitimately reprove me.

Because I, Sāriputta,
do not behold this ground,
I fare along attained to security,
attained to fearlessness,
attained to conviction.

If anyone says:

'These cankers are not utterly destroyed,
although you claim to be one
whose cankers are destroyed,'

-as to this, I do not behold the ground, Sāriputta,
on which a recluse or a brahman
or a deva or Mara or Brahma
or anyone in the world
can legitimately reprove me.

If anyone says:

'In following those things called stumbling-blocks
there is no stumbhng-block at all,'[21]

-as to this, I do not behold the ground, Sāriputta,
on which a recluse or a brahman
or a deva or Mara or Brahma
or anyone in the world
can legitimately reprove me.

If anyone says:

'Dhamma, taught by you
for the sake of something specific,
does not lead onward the doer of it
to the complete destruction of anguish,'

-as to this, I do not behold the ground, Sāriputta,
on which a recluse or a brahman
or a deva or Mara or Brahma
or anyone in the world
can legitimately reprove me.

These, Sāriputta,
are the four convictions of a Tathāgata,
en- [97] dowed with which convictions
the Tathāgata claims the leader's place,
roars his lion's roar in assemblies,
and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel.

Whoever, Sāriputta, knowing me thus,
seeing me thus,
should speak thus:

'There are no states of further-men,
(no) excellent knowledge and insight
befitting the ariyans
in the recluse Gotama;
the recluse Gotama teaches dhamma
on (a system of) his own devising
beaten out by reasoning
and based on investigation'
if he does not retract that speech, Sāriputta,
if he does not retract that thought,
if he does not give up that view,
he is consigned to Niraya Hell
just as a burden is set aside.

Sāriputta, as a monk, endowed with moral habit,
endowed with concentration,
endowed with intuitive wisdom,
might attain profound knowledge here-now,
so I say that this, Sāriputta,
results thus:

Not retracting that speech,
not retracting that thought,
not giving up that view,
he is consigned to Niraya Hell
just as a burden is set aside.

 


 

These, Sāriputta, are the eight (kinds of) assemblies.[22]

What are the eight?

Assemblies of nobles,
assemblies of brahmans,
assemblies of householders,
assemblies of recluses,
assemblies of the retinue of the Four Great Regents,
assemblies of the Thirty-Three,
Māra's assemblies,[23]
assemblies of Brahmas.

These eight, Sāriputta, are the assemblies.

 

§

 

A Tathāgata who is endowed with those four convictions, Sāriputta,
approaches these eight assemblies,
enters them.

Now I, Sāriputta,
call to mind approaching many hundred assemblies of nobles[24].

Yet before I sat down there
and before I held converse there
and before I fell into conversation there,
I did not behold, Sāriputta,
any ground for thinking that fear or nervousness
would come upon me there.

So I, Sāriputta,
not beholding this ground,
fare along attained to security,
attained to fearlessness,
attained to conviction.

 

§

 

Now I, Sāriputta,
call to mind approaching many hundred assemblies of brahmans.

Yet before I sat down there
and before I held converse there
and before I fell into conversation there,
I did not behold, Sāriputta,
any ground for thinking that fear or nervousness
would come upon me there.

So I, Sāriputta,
not beholding this ground,
fare along attained to security,
attained to fearlessness,
attained to conviction.

 

§

 

Now I, Sāriputta,
call to mind approaching many hundred assemblies of householders.

Yet before I sat down there
and before I held converse there
and before I fell into conversation there,
I did not behold, Sāriputta,
any ground for thinking that fear or nervousness
would come upon me there.

So I, Sāriputta,
not beholding this ground,
fare along attained to security,
attained to fearlessness,
attained to conviction.

 

§

 

Now I, Sāriputta,
call to mind approaching many hundred assemblies of recluses.

Yet before I sat down there
and before I held converse there
and before I fell into conversation there,
I did not behold, Sāriputta,
any ground for thinking that fear or nervousness
would come upon me there.

So I, Sāriputta,
not beholding this ground,
fare along attained to security,
attained to fearlessness,
attained to conviction.

 

§

 

Now I, Sāriputta,
call to mind approaching many hundred assemblies
of the retinue of the Four Great Regents.

Yet before I sat down there
and before I held converse there
and before I fell into conversation there,
I did not behold, Sāriputta,
any ground for thinking that fear or nervousness
would come upon me there.

So I, Sāriputta,
not beholding this ground,
fare along attained to security,
attained to fearlessness,
attained to conviction.

 

§

 

Now I, Sāriputta,
call to mind approaching many hundred assemblies of the Thirty-Three.

Yet before I sat down there
and before I held converse there
and before I fell into conversation there,
I did not behold, Sāriputta,
any ground for thinking that fear or nervousness
would come upon me there.

So I, Sāriputta,
not beholding this ground,
fare along attained to security,
attained to fearlessness,
attained to conviction.

 

§

 

Now I, Sāriputta,
call to mind approaching many hundred of Mara's assemblies.

Yet before I sat down there
and before I held converse there
and before I fell into conversation there,
I did not behold, Sāriputta,
any ground for thinking that fear or nervousness
would come upon me there.

So I, Sāriputta,
not beholding this ground,
fare along attained to security,
attained to fearlessness,
attained to conviction.

 

§

 

Now I, Sāriputta,
call to mind approaching many hundred assemblies of Brahmas.

Yet before I sat down there
and before I held converse there
and before I fell into conversation there,
I did not behold, Sāriputta,
any ground for thinking that fear or nervousness
would come upon me there.

So I, Sāriputta,
not beholding this ground,
fare along attained to security,
attained to fearlessness,
attained to conviction.

Whoever, Sāriputta, knowing me thus,
seeing me thus,
should speak thus:

'There are no states of further-men,
(no) excellent knowledge and insight
befitting the ariyans
in the recluse Gotama;
the recluse Gotama teaches dhamma
on (a system of) his own devising
beaten out by reasoning
and based on investigation'
if he does not retract that speech, Sāriputta,
if he does not retract that thought,
if he does not give up that view,
he is consigned to Niraya Hell
just as a burden is set aside.

Sāriputta, as a monk, endowed with moral habit,
endowed with concentration,
endowed with intuitive wisdom,
might attain profound knowledge here-now,
so I say that this, Sāriputta,
results thus:

Not retracting that speech,
not retracting that thought,
not giving up that view,
he is consigned to Niraya Hell
just as a burden is set aside.

 


 

These, Sāriputta, are the four modes of life.[25]

What are the four?

The mode of life born from an egg,
the mode of life born from a womb,
the mode of life born from moisture,
the mode of life of spontaneous uprising.[26]

 

§

 

And what, Sāriputta,
is the mode of life born from an egg?

Whatever beings are produced, Sāriputta,
breaking through an egg-shell,
this, Sāriputta, is called
the mode of life bom from an egg.

 

§

 

And what, Sāriputta,
is the mode of life born from a womb?

Whatever beings are produced, Sāriputta,
breaking through a membranous sheath,
this, Sāriputta,
is called the mode of life born from a womb.

 

§

 

And what, Sāriputta,
is the [98] mode of life born of moisture?

Whatever beings are produced, Sāriputta,
in rotting fish
or in rotting corpses
or rotting rice
or in a dirty pool near a village,
this, Sāriputta, is called
the mode of life bom of moisture.

 

§

 

And what, Sāriputta, is the mode of life
of spontaneous uprising?

Devas,[27]
those in Niraya Hell,
and some men
and some in the sorrowful state -
this is called, Sāriputta,
the mode of life of spontaneous uprising.

These, Sāriputta, are the four modes of life.

 

§[ed1]

 

[34.] These, Sāriputta, are the five bourns.[28]

What are the five?

Niraya Hell,
animal birth,
the realm of the departed,[29]
men,
devas.

 

§

 

I, Sāriputta, comprehend Niraya Hell
and the way[30] leading to Niraya Hell
and the course[30] leading to Niraya Hell,
and that according to how one is faring along
one uprises,
at the breaking up of the body after dying,
in a sorrowful state,
a bad bourn,
the abyss,
Niraya Hell -
that too I comprehend.

 

§

 

And I, Sāriputta, comprehend animal birth
and the way leading to animal birth
and the course leading to animal birth,
and that according to how one is faring along
one uprises,
at the breaking up of the body after dying,
in animal birth -
that too I comprehend.

 

§

 

And I, Sāriputta, comprehend the realm of the departed
and the way leading to the realm of the departed
and the course leading to the realm of the departed,
and that according to how one is faring along
one uprises,
at the breaking up of the body after dying,
in the realm of the departed -
that too I comprehend.

 

§

 

And I, Sāriputta, comprehend men,
and the way leading to the world of men
and the course leading to the world of men,
and that according to how one is faring along
one uprises,
at the breaking up of the body after dying,
among men -
that too I comprehend.

 

§

 

And I, Sāriputta, comprehend devas
and the way leading to deva-worlds
and the course leading to deva-worlds,
and that according to how one is faring along
one uprises,
at the breaking up of the body after dying,
in a good [99] bourn, a heaven-world-that too I comprehend.

 

§

 

And I, Sāriputta, comprehend nibbāna[31]
and the way leading to nibbāna
and the course leading to nibbāna,
and that according to how one is faring along,
by the destruction of the cankers
one enters on
and abides in
the freedom of mind,
the freedom through intuitive wisdom
which are cankerless,
having realised them here-now
by one's own super-knowledge -
that too I comprehend.

 

§

 

Now I, Sāriputta, with my mind
comprehend the mind of some person thus:

As that person fares along
and as he is going along
and has entered that way,
so will he arise
at the breaking up of the body after dying
in a sorrowful state,
a bad bourn,
the abyss,
Niraya Hell.

After a time I see
by purified deva vision,
surpassing that of men
that, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
he has arisen in a sorrowful state,va bad bourn, the abyss, Niraya Hell,
and is experiencing feelings that are exclusively[32] painful,
sharp,
severe.

"by the one sole way" is "ekāyanena maggena," a phrase giving rise to much controversy. See: MN 10 opening. One sure way.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

Sāriputta, it is as if there were a pit of charcoal,
deeper than man's height,
full of embers
that are neither flaming nor smoking;[33]
then a man might come along
overcome and overpowered by the hot-weather heat,
exhausted,
parched and thirsty,[34]
heading direct for that pit of charcoal itself
by the one sole way.

A man with vision,
having seen him,
might say:

'As that good man is faring along
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he come to that pit of charcoal itself.'

After a time he may see him,
fallen into that charcoal pit,
experiencing feelings that are exclusively painful,
sharp,
severe.

Even so do I, Sāriputta, with my mind
comprehend the mind of some person thus:

As that person fares along
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he arise
at the breaking up of the body after dying
in a sorrowful state,
a bad bourn,
the abyss,
Niraya Hell.

After a time I see
by purified deva vision,
surpassing that of men,
that, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
he has arisen in a sorrowful state,
a bad boum,
the abyss,
Niraya Hell,
and is experiencing feelings
that are exclusively painful,
sharp,
severe.

 

§

 

Then I, Sāriputta, with my mind
comprehend the mind of some person thus:

As that person fares along
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he arise,
at the breaking up of the body after dying,
in an animal birth.

After a time
I see with [100] purified deva vision,
surpassing that of men,
that, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
he has arisen in an animal birth
and is experiencing feelings which are painful,[35]
sharp,
severe.

Sāriputta, it is as if there were a cesspool,
deeper than a man's height,
full of filth;
then a man might come along
overcome and overpowered by the hot-weather heat,
exhausted,
parched and thirsty,
heading direct for that cesspool itself
by the one sole way.

A man with vision,
having seen him,
might say:

'As that good man is faring along,
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he come to that cesspool itself.'

After a time he may see him,
fallen into that cesspool
and experiencing feelings that are painful,
sharp,
severe.

Even so do I, Sāriputta, with my mind
comprehend the mind of some person thus:

As that person fares along
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he arise,
at the breaking up of the body after dying,
in an animal birth.

After a time
I see with purified deva vision,
surpassing that of men,
that, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
he has arisen in an animal birth
and is experiencing feelings which are painful,
sharp,
severe.

 

§

 

Then I, Sāriputta, with my mind
comprehend the mind of some person thus:

As that person fares along
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he arise,
at the breaking up of the body after dying,
in the realm of the departed.

After a time I see
I see with purified deva vision,
surpassing that of men,
that, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
he has arisen in the realm of the departed
and is experiencing feelings
that are abundantly painful.[36]

Sāriputta, it is like a tree
growing on uneven ground,
with sparse leaves and foliage
(giving) patchy shade.[37]

Then a man might come along
overcome and overpowered by the hot-weather heat,
exhausted,
parched
and thirsty,
heading direct for that tree itself
by the one sole way.

A man with vision,
having seen him,
might say:

'As that good man is faring along
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he come to that tree itself.'

After a time
he may see him sitting down
or lying down
in the shade of that tree,
experiencing feelings that are abundantly painful.

Even so do I, Sāriputta, with my mind comprehend the mind of some person thus:

As that person fares along
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he arise,
at the breaking up of the body after dying,
in the realm of the departed.

After a time I see
I see with purified deva vision,
surpassing that of men,
that, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
he has arisen in the realm of the departed
and is experiencing feelings
that are abundantly painful.

 

§

 

Then I, Sāriputta, with my mind
comprehend the mind of some person thus:

As that person fares along
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he arise,
at the breaking up of the body after dying,
among men.

After a time I see
I see with purified deva vision,
surpassing that of men,
that, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
he has arisen among men
and is experiencing feelings
that are abundantly pleasant.[38]

Sāriputta, it is like a tree
growing [101] on even ground,
with dense leaves and foliage
(giving) thick shade.

Then a man might come along
overcome and overpowered by the hot-weather heat,
exhausted,
parched,
thirsty,
heading direct for that tree itself
by the one sole way.

A man with vision,
having seen him,
might speak thus:

'As that good man is faring along,
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so he will come to that tree itself.'

After a time
he may see him sitting down
or lying down
in the shade of that tree,
experiencing feelings that are abundantly pleasant.

Even so do I, Sāriputta, with my mind
comprehend the mind of some person thus:

As that person fares along
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he arise,
at the breaking up of the body after dying,
among men.

After a time I see
I see with purified deva vision,
surpassing that of men,
that, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
he has arisen among men
and is experiencing feelings
that are abundantly pleasant.

 

§

 

Then I, Sāriputta, with my mind
comprehend the mind
of some person thus:

As that person fares along
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he arise,
at the breaking up of the body after dying,
in a good bourn,
a heaven world.

After a time I see
I see with purified deva vision,
surpassing that of men,
that, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
he has arisen in a good bourn,
a heaven world
and is experiencing feelings
that are exclusively pleasant.

Sāriputta, it is as if there were a long house[39]
where there might be a building with a gabled roof,
smeared inside and out,[40]
protected from the wind,
with bolts that are fastened,[41]
windows[42] that are closed.[43]

Therein might be a divan[44]
spread with a long-haired coverlet,[45]
spread with a white coverlet,
spread with a wool coverlet
besprent with flowers,
a splendid sheeting
of the hide of the kadali-deer,
with an awning overhead
and a scarlet cushion at either end.[46]

Then a man might come along
overcome
and overpowered by the hot-weather heat,
exhausted,
parched,
thirsty,
heading direct for that long house itself
by the one sole way.

A man with vision,
having seen him,
might say:

'As that good [102] man is faring along
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he come to that long house itself.'

After a time
he may see him sitting down
or lying down
in that long house,
in that building with the gabled roof,
on that divan,
experiencing feelings
that are exclusively pleasant.

Even so do I, Sāriputta, with my mind
comprehend of some person thus:

As that person fares along
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he arise,
at the breaking up of the body after dying,
in a good bourn,
a heaven world.

After a time I see
I see with purified deva vision,
surpassing that of men,
that, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
he has arisen in a good bourn,
a heaven world
and is experiencing feelings
that are exclusively pleasant.

 

§

 

[40.] Then I, Sāriputta, with my mind
comprehend the mind of some person thus:

As that person fares along
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he,
by the destruction of the cankers,
enter and abide
in the freedom of mind,
the freedom through intuitive wisdom
that are cankerless,
having realised them here-now
by his own super-knowledge.

After a time I see that he,
by the destruction of the cankers,
having entered on freedom of mind,
freedom through intuitive wisdom
that are cankerless,
and having realised them here-now
by his own super-knowledge,
is abiding in them,
experiencing feelings
that are exclusively pleasant.[47]

Sāriputta, it is as if there were a lovely lotus-pool[48]
with clear water,
sweet water,
cool water,
limpid,
with beautiful banks,[49]
and close to it
a dim forest thicket.

Then a man might come along
overcome
and overpowered by the hot-weather heat,
exhausted,
parched
and thirsty,
heading direct for that pond itself
by the one sole way.

A man with vision,
having seen him,
might say:

'As that good man is faring along
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he come to that lotus-pool itself.'

After a time he may see that he
has plunged into that lotus-pool,
has bathed in it
and drunk of it,
and having allayed all distress,
exhaustion
and fever,
has got out again[50]
and is sitting down
or lying down
in that forest thicket[51]
experiencing feelings
that are exclusively pleasant.

Even so do I, Sāriputta, with my mind
comprehend the mind
of some person thus:

As that person is faring along
and as he is going along
and has entered on that way,
so will he,
by the destruction of the cankers,
having entered on freedom of mind,
freedom through [103] intuitive wisdom
that are cankerless,
having realised them here-now
by his own super-knowledge,
abide therein.

After a time I see that he,
by the destruction of the cankers,
having entered on freedom of mind,
freedom through intuitive wisdom
that are cankerless,
having realised them here-now
by his own super-knowledge,
is abiding therein,
experiencing feelings
that are exclusively pleasant.

These, Sāriputta, are the five bourns.

Whoever, Sāriputta, knowing me thus,
seeing me thus,
should speak thus:

'There are no states of further-men,
(no) excellent knowledge and insight
befitting the ariyans
in the recluse Gotama;
the recluse Gotama teaches dhamma
on (a system of) his own devising
beaten out by reasoning
and based on investigation'
if he does not retract that speech, Sāriputta,
if he does not retract that thought,
if he does not give up that view,
he is consigned to Niraya Hell
just as a burden is set aside.

Sāriputta, as a monk, endowed with moral habit,
endowed with concentration,
endowed with intuitive wisdom,
might attain profound knowledge here-now,
so I say that this, Sāriputta,
results thus:

Not retracting that speech,
not retracting that thought,
not giving up that view,
he is consigned to Niraya Hell
just as a burden is set aside.

 


 

Now I, Sāriputta, as one who fares,
fully know a Brahma-faring[52]
that is endowed with four constituent parts:[53]

I became an ascetic,
the foremost ascetic;
I became loathly,
the foremost loathly one;
I became a detester,[54] the foremost detester;
I became aloof,
the foremost aloof one.

In that,[55] Sāriputta,
there was this for me
through asceticism:

I was unclothed,[56]
flouting life's decencies,[57]
licking my hands (after [104] meals),
not one to come when asked to do so,
not one to stand still when asked to do so.[58]

I did not consent (to accept food) offered to (me)
or specially prepared for (me)
nor to (accept) an invitation (to a meal).

I did not accept
(food) straight from a cooking pot or pan,
nor within the threshold,
nor among the faggots,
nor among the rice-pounders,[59]
nor when two people were eating,[60]
nor from a pregnant woman,
nor from one giving suck,[61]
nor from one co-habiting with a man,[62]
nor from gleanings,[63]
nor near where a dog is standing,
nor where flies are swarming,
nor fish,
nor meat.

I drank neither fermented liquor
nor spirits
nor rice-gruel.

I have a note here that the next three are to be understood: 1 house, 1 morsel, 1 day; 2 houses, 2 morsels, every other day; 3 houses, 3 morsels, every third day, and so forth.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

I was a one-house-man,
a one-piece-man,[64]
or a two-house-man,
a two-piece-man
or a three-house-man,
a three-piece-man
or a four-house-man,
a four-piece-man
or a five-house-man,
a five-piece-man
or a six-house-man,
a six-piece-man
or a seven-house-man,
a seven-piece-man.

I subsisted on one little offering,[65]
and I subsisted on two little offerings
and I subsisted on three little offerings
and I subsisted on four little offerings
and I subsisted on five little offerings
and I subsisted on six little offerings
and I subsisted on seven little offerings.

I took food only once a day,
and once in two days
and once in three days
and once in four days
and once in five days
and once in six days
and once in seven days.

Then I lived intent on the practice
of eating rice at regular fort-nightly intervals.

I came to be one feeding on[66] potherbs
or feeding on millet
or on wild rice
or on snippets of skin
or on water-plants
or on the red powder of rice husks
or on the discarded scum of rice on the boil
or on the flour of oil-seeds
or grass
or cowdung.

I was one who subsisted
on forest roots and fruits,
eating the fruits that had fallen.

I wore coarse hempen cloths,[67]
and I wore mixed cloths,[68]
and I wore cerements,
and I wore rags taken from the dust heap,
and I wore tree-bark fibre,
and I wore antelope skins,
and I wore strips of antelope skin,
and I wore cloths of kusa-grass,
and I wore cloths of bark,
and I wore cloths of wood shavings,
and I wore [105] a blanket of human hair,
and I wore a blanket of animal hair,
and I wore owls' feathers.

I was one who plucked out
the hair of his head and beard,
intent on the practice of plucking out
the hair of head and beard.

I became one who stood upright,
refusing a seat;
I became one who squats on his haunches,
intent on the practice of squatting.

I became one for covered thorns,[69]
I made my bed on covered thorns;
and I was intent on the practice
of going down to the water to bathe
up to three times in an evening.[70]

Thus in many a way
did I live intent on the practice
of mortifying
and tormenting my body.

This then was for me, Sāriputta,
through asceticism.

 

§

 

In that, Sāriputta,
there was this for me through loathliness:

On my body there accumulated
the dust and dirt of years,
so that it fell off in shreds.

Just as the stump of the tindukā-tree
comes to accumulate the dust and dirt of years,
so that it falls off in shreds,
even so, Sāriputta, on my body
there accumulated the dust and dirt of years,
so that it fell off in shreds.

But it did not occur to me, Sāriputta, to think:

'Indeed now, I could rub off this dust and dirt
with my hand,
or others could rub off this dust and dirt for me
with their hands.'

It did not occur to me thus, Sāriputta.

This then was for me, Sāriputta,
through loathliness.

 

§

 

In that, Sāriputta,
there was this for me through detesting:

Sāriputta, whether I was going out,
whether I was returning,
there was set up in me
kindliness even towards a drop of water,
and I thought:

'Do not let me bring small creatures
in their various places[71]
to destruction.'

This then was for me, Sāriputta,
through detesting.

 

§

 

In that, Sāriputta,
there was this for me through aloofness:

If I had plunged into a certain stretch of forest,[72]
and if I saw a cow-herd
or a cattle-herd
or a gatherer of grass or sticks
or anyone roaming about for bulbs and roots and so on,[73]
I fled from grove to grove,
from thicket to thicket,
from low ground to low ground,
from high ground to high ground.

What was the reason for this?

[106] I thought:

'Do not let them see me,
do not let me see them.'[74]

Even as a deer in the forest, Sāriputta,
having seen a man,
flees from grove to grove,
from thicket to thicket,
from low ground to low ground,
from high ground to high ground,
even so did I, Sāriputta,
when I saw a cow-herd
or a cattle-herd
or a gatherer of grass or sticks
or anyone roaming about for bulbs and roots and so on,
flee from grove to grove,
from thicket to thicket,
from low ground to low ground,
from high ground to high ground.

What was the reason for this?

I thought:

'Do not let them see me,
do not let me see them.'

This then was for me, Sāriputta,
through aloofness.

 

§

 

Then I, Sāriputta,
having approached on all fours
those cow-pens that the cows had quitted,
the cow-herds having departed,[75]
I subsisted there on the droppings
of the young suckling calves.

So long as my own dung and urine held out,
I subsisted on that.

This then was for me, Sāriputta,
through partaking of the great filthy things.[76]

 

§

 

Then I, Sāriputta,
having plunged into a terrifying forest thicket,
stayed there.

It comes to be said
of a terrifying forest thicket,
because it is so terrifying;

'Whoever, not rid of attachment,
enters that forest thicket,
his hair stands on end.'

Then I, Sāriputta,
during the cold winter nights,
between the 'eights'
in a time of snowfall,[77]
spent such nights as these
in the open air,
the days in the forest thicket.

I spent the days
of the last month of the hot weather
in the open air,
the nights
in the forest thicket.[78]

Then, Sāriputta,
this verse,
never heard before,
occurred spontaneously to me:

Now scorched, now cold, alone in terrifying forest,
Naked and sitting fireless, the sage is intent on his quest.[79]

Then I, Sāriputta,
lay down to sleep in a cemetery,
leaning on a skeleton.[80]

Cowherds' boys,[81]
having come up to me,
spat and staled on me,
and showered me with dust
and stuck twigs into my [107] ears.

But I, Sāriputta, well know
that I was not the creator
of a malign heart against them.[82]

This then came to be for me, Sāriputta,
through abiding in even-mindedness.[83]

 

§

 

There are, Sāriputta,
some recluses and brahmans who speak thus
and are of this view:

'Purity is through food.'

These speak thus:

'We subsist on jujube fruits,'

and they eat jujube fruits
and they eat crushed jujube fruits
and they drink jujube fruit water,
and they make use of jujube fruits
in a variety of ways.[84]

Now I, Sāriputta, claim to have subsisted
on one single jujube fruit.

It may be, Sāriputta, that this occurs to you:

'But at that time
the jujube fruit was large.'

But this must not be regarded in this way, Sāriputta,
for the jujube fruit was then as it is now.

While I, Sāriputta, was subsisting on one single jujube fruit,
my body became exceedingly emaciated.[85]

Because I ate so little,
all my limbs became like the knotted joints of withered creepers;
because I ate so little,
my buttocks became like a bullock's hoof;
because I ate so little,
my protruding backbone
became like a string of balls;
because I ate so little,
my gaunt ribs
became like the crazy rafters
of a tumble-down shed;
because I ate so little,
the pupils of my eyes
appeared lying low and deep in their sockets
as sparkles of water
in a deep well
appear lying low and deep;
because I ate so little,
my scalp became shrivelled
and shrunk
as a bitter white gourd
cut before it is ripe
becomes shrivelled and shrunk
by a hot wind.

If I, Sāriputta, thought:

'I will touch the skin of my belly,'

it was my backbone
that I took hold of.

If I thought:

'I will touch my backbone,'

it was the skin of my belly
that I took hold of.

For because I ate so little,
the skin on my belly, Sāriputta,
came to be cleaving to my backbone.

If I, Sāriputta, thought:

'I will obey the calls of nature,'

I fell down on my face then and there,
because I ate so little.

If I, Sāriputta,
soothing my body,
stroked my limbs with my hand,
the hairs,
rotted at the roots,
fell away from my body
as I stroked my limbs with my hand,
because I ate so little.

 

§

 

There are, Sāriputta,
some recluses and brahmans
who speak thus
and are of this view:

'Purity is through food.'

These speak thus:

'We subsist on beans,'

and they eat beans
and they eat crushed beans
and they drink bean water,
and they make use of beans
in a variety of ways.

Now I, Sāriputta, claim to have subsisted
on one single bean.

It may be, Sāriputta, that this occurs to you:

'But at that time
the bean was large.'

But this must not be regarded in this way, Sāriputta,
for the bean was then as it is now.

While I, Sāriputta, was subsisting on one single bean,
my body became exceedingly emaciated.

Because I ate so little,
all my limbs became like the knotted joints of withered creepers;
because I ate so little,
my buttocks became like a bullock's hoof;
because I ate so little,
my protruding backbone
became like a string of balls;
because I ate so little,
my gaunt ribs
became like the crazy rafters
of a tumble-down shed;
because I ate so little,
the pupils of my eyes
appeared lying low and deep in their sockets
as sparkles of water
in a deep well
appear lying low and deep;
because I ate so little,
my scalp became shrivelled
and shrunk
as a bitter white gourd
cut before it is ripe
becomes shrivelled and shrunk
by a hot wind.

If I, Sāriputta, thought:

'I will touch the skin of my belly,'

it was my backbone
that I took hold of.

If I thought:

'I will touch my backbone,'

it was the skin of my belly
that I took hold of.

For because I ate so little,
the skin on my belly, Sāriputta,
came to be cleaving to my backbone.

If I, Sāriputta, thought:

'I will obey the calls of nature,'

I fell down on my face then and there,
because I ate so little.

If I, Sāriputta,
soothing my body,
stroked my limbs with my hand,
the hairs,
rotted at the roots,
fell away from my body
as I stroked my limbs with my hand,
because I ate so little.

 

§

 

There are, Sāriputta,
some recluses and brahmans
who speak thus
and are of this view:

'Purity is through food.'

These speak thus:

We subsist on sesamum,'

and they eat sesamum
and they eat crushed sesamum
and they drink sesamum water,
and they make use of sesamum
in a variety of ways.

Now I, Sāriputta, claim to have subsisted
on one single sesamum.

It may be, Sāriputta, that this occurs to you:

'But at that time
the sesamum was large.'

But this must not be regarded in this way, Sāriputta,
for the sesamum was then as it is now.

While I, Sāriputta, was subsisting on one single sesamum,
my body became exceedingly emaciated.

Because I ate so little,
all my limbs became like the knotted joints of withered creepers;
because I ate so little,
my buttocks became like a bullock's hoof;
because I ate so little,
my protruding backbone
became like a string of balls;
because I ate so little,
my gaunt ribs
became like the crazy rafters
of a tumble-down shed;
because I ate so little,
the pupils of my eyes
appeared lying low and deep in their sockets
as sparkles of water
in a deep well
appear lying low and deep;
because I ate so little,
my scalp became shrivelled
and shrunk
as a bitter white gourd
cut before it is ripe
becomes shrivelled and shrunk
by a hot wind.

If I, Sāriputta, thought:

'I will touch the skin of my belly,'

it was my backbone
that I took hold of.

If I thought:

'I will touch my backbone,'

it was the skin of my belly
that I took hold of.

For because I ate so little,
the skin on my belly, Sāriputta,
came to be cleaving to my backbone.

If I, Sāriputta, thought:

'I will obey the calls of nature,'

I fell down on my face then and there,
because I ate so little.

If I, Sāriputta,
soothing my body,
stroked my limbs with my hand,
the hairs,
rotted at the roots,
fell away from my body
as I stroked my limbs with my hand,
because I ate so little.

 

§

 

There are, Sāriputta,
some recluses and brahmans
who speak thus
and are of this view:

'Purity is through food.'

These speak thus:

We subsist on rice-grains,'

and they eat rice-grains
and they eat crushed [108] rice-grains
and they drink rice-grain water,
and they make use of rice-grains
in a variety of ways.

Now I, Sāriputta, claim to have subsisted
on one single rice-grain.

It may be, Sāriputta, that this occurs to you:

'But at that time
the rice-grain was large.'

But this must not be regarded in this way, Sāriputta,
for the rice-grain was then as it is now.

While I, Sāriputta, was subsisting on one single rice-grain,
my body became exceedingly emaciated.

Because I ate so little,
all my limbs became like the knotted joints of withered creepers;
because I ate so little,
my buttocks became like a bullock's hoof;
because I ate so little,
my protruding backbone
became like a string of balls;
because I ate so little,
my gaunt ribs
became like the crazy rafters
of a tumble-down shed;
because I ate so little,
the pupils of my eyes
appeared lying low and deep in their sockets
as sparkles of water
in a deep well
appear lying low and deep;
because I ate so little,
my scalp became shrivelled
and shrunk
as a bitter white gourd
cut before it is ripe
becomes shrivelled and shrunk
by a hot wind.

If I, Sāriputta, thought:

'I will touch the skin of my belly,'

it was my backbone
that I took hold of.

If I thought:

'I will touch my backbone,'

it was the skin of my belly
that I took hold of.

For because I ate so little,
the skin on my belly, Sāriputta,
came to be cleaving to my backbone.

If I, Sāriputta, thought:

'I will obey the calls of nature,'

I fell down on my face then and there,
because I ate so little.

If I, Sāriputta,
soothing my body,
stroked my limbs with my hand,
the hairs,
rotted at the roots,
fell away from my body
as I stroked my limbs with my hand,
because I ate so little.

But I, Sāriputta,
even by this procedure,
by this course,
by this mortification,
did not reach states of further-men
or the excellent knowledge and insight
befitting the ariyans.

What was the cause of this?

It was that by these
there is no reaching the ariyan intuitive wisdom
which, when reached,
is ariyan,
leading onwards,
and which leads onwards the doer of it
to the complete destruction of anguish.

 

§

 

Now, Sāriputta,
there are some recluses and brahmans who speak thus
and are of this view:

'Purity is through faring on.'[86]

But, Sāriputta, it is not easy to find that faring-on
that I have not formerly fared-on in
during this long past
except among the devas of the Pure Abodes.

For if I, Sāriputta,
were to have fared on
among the devas of the Pure Abodes,
I could not have come back again to this world.

 

§

 

Now, Sāriputta,
there are some recluses and brahmans
who speak thus
and are of this view:

'Purity is through uprising.

But, Sāriputta,
it is not easy to find that uprising
that has not formerly been uprisen in by me
during this long past,
except among the devas of the Pure Abodes.

For if I, Sāriputta,
were to have uprisen
among the devas of the Pure Abodes,
I could not have come back again to this world.

 

§

 

Now, Sāriputta,
there are some recluses and brahmans
who speak thus
and are of this view:

'Purity is through abode.'

But, Sāriputta,
it is not easy to find that abode
that I have not abided in
during this long past,
except among the devas of the Pure Abodes.[87]

For if I, Sāriputta,
were to have abided among the devas of the Pure Abodes,
I could not have come back again to this world.

 

§

 

Now, Sāriputta,
there are some recluses and brahmans
who speak thus
and are of this view:

'Purity is through oblation.'

But, [109] Sāriputta,
it is not easy to find that oblation
that has not formerly been offered by me
during this long past
when I was a noble, anointed king,
or a wealthy brahman.

 

§

 

Now, Sāriputta,
there are some recluses and brahmans
who speak thus
and are of this view:

'Purity is through tending the (sacrificial) fire.'

But, Sāriputta,
it is not easy to find that fire
that has not formerly been tended by me
during this long past
when I was a noble, anointed king,
or a wealthy brahman.

 

§

 

Now, Sāriputta,
there are some recluses and brahmans
who speak thus
and are of this view:

'So long as this good man is young,
endowed with the coal-black hair of youth,
in his early prime,
so long is he possessed of the utmost lucidity of wisdom.

But when this good man is worn,
old,
stricken in years,
has lived his span,
and is at the close of his life[88] -
eighty
or ninety
or a hundred years of age -
then he falls from that lucidity of wisdom.'

But this is not to be regarded in this way, Sāriputta.

I, Sāriputta,
am now worn,
old,
stricken in years,
I have lived my span,
and am at the close of my life,
being round about eighty.[89]

Sāriputta, I might have four disciples here,
each of a hundred years' life-span,
living a hundred years,
and possessed of the utmost mindfulness,
and attentiveness,
and resolute energy,[90]
and with the utmost lucidity of wisdom.

As, Sāriputta,
a skilled archer,
trained,
deft,
a marksman,
may with ease
wing a slender shaft across a palm-tree's shadow,[91]
so are these of extreme mindfulness,
of extreme attentiveness,
of extreme resolute energy,
so are they possessed of the utmost lucidity of wisdom.

If these were to ask me
again and again
a question about the four applications of mindfulness,[92]
and if I,
questioned again and again,
were to explain to them,
and if they,
on being explained to by me,
should understand as explained,
and if they were not to question me
about any secondary and further matter
(nor pause), except for feeding,
drinking,
eating,
tasting,
except for answering the calls of nature,
except for dispelling fatigue by sleep,
still unfinished, Sāriputta,
would be the Tathāgata's teaching of dhamma,
still unfinished would be the Tathāgata's expositions
on the phrases of dhamma,
still unfinished would be the Tathāgata's ways of [110] putting questions[93]
when these four disciples of mine,
of life-spans of a hundred years,
living for a hundred years,
would pass away at the end of a hundred years.

Yet, if you should have to carry me about on a litter, Sāriputta,
verily there is no change in the Tathāgata's lucidity of wisdom.

Whoever, Sāriputta, speaking rightly, should say:

'A being not liable to delusion
has arisen in the world
for the welfare of the manyfolk,
for the happiness of the manyfolk,
out of compassion for the world,
for the good,
the welfare,
the happiness of devas and men,'
so, when he is speaking rightly of me,
he would say:

'A being not liable to delusion
has arisen in the world
for the welfare of the manyfolk,
for the happiness of the manyfolk,
out of compassion for the world,
for the good,
the welfare,
the happiness of devas and men.'"

Now at that time the venerable Nāgasamāla[94] spoke thus to the Lord:

"It is wonderful, Lord,
it is marvellous, Lord,
that when, Lord,
this disquisition on dhamma had been heard by me,
my hair stood on end.

What is the name, Lord,
of this disquisition on dhamma?"

"Wherefore do you, Nāgasamāla, remember this disquisition on dhamma as
the Hair-raising Disquisition."[95]

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted the venerable Nāgasamāla rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

The Greater Discourse on the Lion's Roar:
The Second

 


[1] Not like Ambapālī's Grove, which was inside the town, but like Jīvaka's Mango Grove, which was outside it, MA. ii. 21. This Sutta should be compared with Jā. No. 94 (Lomahaɱsa Jātaka) in which the Lord was said to be staying in the Pāṭikārāma, depending for alms on Vesālī.

[2] Licchaviputta, MA. ii. 21 saying that he was so called because he was the son of a Licchavi rajah. On the use of °putta, see B.D. ii. p. xliv ff.

[3] See Pārājika IV, Vin. iii. 87-109, and especially p. 92, where uttarima-nussadhamma is defined; also B.D. i. xxivf.; and M. i. 246, etc.

ñāṇa-dassana. This is the 'knowing and seeing' that 'that which has come to be comes to an end', the knowledge of the streamwinner, not the knowledge of omnicience.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[4] ñāṇadassana, or, insight into knowledge. MA. ii. 21 defines it as the deva-like sight and vision (vipassanā) and the Way and the fruit and knowledge due to reflecting on, and omniscience.

[5] Cf. M. i. 520; D. i. 16. Sunakkhatta is saying that dhamma is based by Gotama on empirical knowledge instead of being known and realised intuitively.

[6] yassa ca khvāssa atthāya. MA. ii. 22 says "meditation on the foul for repugnance to attachment, mental development of friendliness for repugnance to hatred, the five things for repugnance to confusion, breathing for cutting off discursive thought."

[7] niyyāti, to lead out or onwards, has the sense (as recognised at MA. ii. 23) of helping the escape from the anguish of vaṭṭa, the whirl of saɱsāra. Its object is therefore nibbāna.

[8] Supplied by MA. ii. 23.

[9] As at e.g. A. v. 32 ff., Cf. A. iii. 417 (six powers).

[10] āsabhaṭṭhāna, bull's place. MA. ii. 26 says "the best, the highest place. Or, bulls are the previous Buddhas - their place."

[11] Brahmacakka, also at S. ii. 27.

[12] See VbhA. 400; Dhs. 1337.

[13] paṭipadā, called magga at MA. ii. 29.

[14] Both good and bad ones.

[15] The world of the khandhas, āyatanas, and dhātus, MA. ii. 29.

[16] adhimutti, will, intention. Cf. Vbh. 339.

[17] The faculties, indriya, are here the five of faith, saddhā, and so on. It means also their growth or decline. Cf. Vbh. 340.

[18] yathābhataɱ nilckhitto evaɱ niraye, as at e.g. A. i. 8, 96, 105, 292, It. p. 12. See note on this obscure phrase at G.S. i. 6, n. 2, and Min. Anth. II. 124, n. 2.

[19] evaɱsampadam-idaɱ vadāmi.

[20] vesārajjāni; as at A. ii. 8; cf. A. iv 83 f. Perhaps self-confidences, self-satisfactions.

[21] Cf. Pācittiya 68, Vin. iv. 133 ff., and see B.D. iii. 21, n. 5. MA. ii. 33 says that there methunadhamma (unchastity) is meant. It is a stumbling-block to the fruits of the ways.

[22] As at A. iv. 307; D. ii. 109.

[23] MA. ii. 34 expressly says "not (assemblies) of Māras, but an occasion when those in Māra's retinue gather together."

[24] MA. ii. 34 says this means a concourse round Bimbisāra, a concourse of relations, a concourse of Licchavis and so forth. See note at Dial. ii. 117.

[25] D. iii. 230.

Opapātika. Without experience of death in one place, they re-appear without the experience of birth, in another place.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[26] MA. ii. 36 says that opapātika means that, having arisen, not through these (other) circumstances, they are as though existing (nibbattā, being reborn).

[27] MA. ii. 36 says "beginning with the Four Great Regents, devas who are higher are of spontaneous uprising. But the earth-devas belong to the four modes of life. Some men are of spontaneous uprising, but for the most part they are womb-born."

[28] gati, going, destiny, where one must go according to one's deeds, whether well or ill done. MA. ii. 36 gives five other kinds of gati and says here gatigati is meant; as exemplified at Dh. 420.

[29] MA. ii. 37, peccabhāvaɱpattāanaɱ visayo ti.

[30] Way and course here identified, MA. ii. 37.

[31] MA. ii. 37, "I know that nibbāna is the escape from the bourns." Cf. SnA. 368: gativippamokkhaɱ parinibbānam.

[32] ekanta. MA. ii. 37 gives nicca, nirantara, constantly, incessantly.

[33] Cf. M. i. 365; S. ii. 99.

[34] As at M. i. 284.

[35] Not "exclusively painful" here, because there is no burning, as in the ember-pit.

[36] In this realm, pain is abundant, pleasure slight, MA. ii. 39.

[37] kabaracchāya. MA. ii. 38 says "not like a thin layer of clouds."

[38] Such feelings can be experienced among khattiya (royal or noble) families, and so on, MA. ii. 39.

[39] pāsādo ti dīghapāsādo, MA. ii. 39 = VA. 654. See B.D. ii. 16, n. 5. This simile occurs at A. i. 137. Cf. also the burning gabled house at A. i. 101 = M. iii. 61.

[40] This word, vllittāvalitta, is used in defining vihāra at Vin. iii. 156, iv, 47, and "hut," kuṭī, at Vin. iii. 149.

[41] phassitaggaḷaɱ, M. iii. 61; A. i. 101, 137; MA. ii, 39 read phussita, which is to be preferred. MA. ii. 30 explains that the door, kavāṭa, [i.e. that by which the aperture is closed) is closed tight against the door-posts.

[42] vātapāna are really shutters, I think. Various ways of ornamenting them are given at Vin. iv. 47; see also Vin. ii. 148.

[43] Cf. M. iii. 61, A. i. 101 for this description.

[44] pallaŋka, see B.D. iii. 271, n. 3.

[45] These words are found in longer lists at Vin. i. 192, ii. 163; D. i. 7; A. i. 181.

[46] MA. ii. 39 says one for the head and one for the feet.

[47] MA. ii. 40 says "exclusively pleasant here and in the deva-worlds are the same in denotation but not in connotation. That of the deva-worlds is not really exclusively pleasant because there is still the fever of passion. But the bliss of nibbāna is exclusively pleasant because in every way all fevers have been allayed."

[48] As at M. i. 283; A. iii. 190; S. i. 91.

[49] M. reads sūpatitthā.

[50] paccuttaritvā, possibly meaning: having crossed the pool.

[51] MA. ii 40 says this is like nibbāna.

[52] MA. i. 41 says that the Brahma-faring is generosity, doing services, the rules of training, the brahmavihāras, the teaching of dhamma, abstention from unchastity, satisfaction in one's own wife, the Observance, the ariyan Way, the whole teaching, being intent on, energy ... (MA. ii. 43). But here energy is a synonym for the Brahmacariya, and this Sutta is itself about the Brahma-faring that is energy.

[53] Cf. i. 390-91, where it is said that the Bodhisatta, when dying, realised that this practice was no good, so he took a right view and passed to a deva-world.

[54] MA. ii. 43, of evil.

[55] MA. ii. 43, in that fourfold Brahma-faring.

[56] The following occurs at M. i. 342; A. i. 295, ii. 206; D. i. 166; Pug. 55; cf. M. i. 238.

[57] I borrow this expression from Chalmers. MA. ii. 44 from here = AA. ii. 383 ff. = PugA. 231.

[58] I.e. when receiving food on the begging round.

[59] See G.S. i. 273, n. 6.

[60] MA. ii. 44, AA. ii. 384 not helpful. They say "When it is given by one only of them. Why? There is a stumbling-block (danger) in (only) a mouthful."

[61] Vin. iv. 318, a mother or a foster-mother. MA. ii. 44, and the other Comys., say that this comes to endanger the milk for the child.

[62] purisantaragatā. At Vin. iv. 322 this word is used to define gihigatā; at MA. ii. 209, DA. 78 to define itthi. The Comys. say that this is a danger to (their) pleasure.

[63] According to the Comys., done in times of scarcity by unclothed ascetics.

[64] Visiting only one house or asking for only one piece of food.

A datti was a very small bowl for containing dainties.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[65] MA. ii. 45 says that datti is one small bowlful from which they leave out the main food.

[66] As at M. i. 156; D. i. 166.

[67] On sāṇāni, see B.D. ii. 143, n. 3, 4. Following garments as at A. i. 240.

[68] masāṇāni, perhaps meaning a mixture of coarse hemp and other fibres.

[69] Iron spikes or thorns were placed in the ground, covered with a hide, and then an ascetic stood there, paced up and down and so forth.

[70] To get rid of the day's evil. Cf. M. i. 39.

[71] visamagate. The idea at MA. ii. 46 seems to be lest a drop of water splash the place where any small creature was at that time.

[72] Cf. M. i. 162.

[73] This is how MA. ii. 46 explains vanakammika. It therefore appears not to be "one who works in the forests."

[74] Miln. 396.

[75] paṭṭhitagāvo apagatagopālakā.

[76] As at D. i. 167. Usually four in number, as at Vin. i. 206, applied against snake-bite; and at Vin. iv. 90 where they do not count as "nutriment," so a monk may himself take them even if there is no one to make them "allowable."

[77] As at Vin. i. 31, 288; A. i. 136; Ud. I. 9; Miln. 396. See B.D. iv. 41, n. 3.

[78] Miln. 396 quotes this passage. Cf. also Jā. i. 390.

[79] Verse at Jā. i. 390, whose Comy. is more detailed, than that at MA. ii. 48.

[80] i. 47; Cp. III. 15. 1 (p. 102).

[81] gomaṇḍala. At Cp. III. 15. 1 gāmaṇḍala. MA. ii. 48-9 explains by gopāladārakā.

[82] MA. ii. 49 explains as "not by me was an evil heart created against them."

[83] upekhā is a pāramī; also a bojjhanga, and a brahmavihāra.

[84] MA. ii. 49, salads, cakes, balls.

[85] Cf. what follows with M. i. 247.

[86] saɱsara.

[87] Quoted at DA. ii. 511.

[88] Stock, as at Vin. ii. 88, iii. 2.

[89] MA. ii 61, "they say the Lord spoke this discourse in the year of the parinibbāna."

[90] dhiti.

[91] As at A. ii. 48, iv. 429; S. i. 62, ii. 266. See G.S. iv. 288, n. 3.

[92] MA. ii. 52-3, about these and then about the rest of the thirty-seven links in awakening.

[93] pañhapaṭibhāna. Word occurs at M. i. 378.

[94] Verses at Thag. 267-70. And see Ud. 90, Jā. iv, 95.

[95] Called by this name, Lomahaɱsanapariyaya, at Miln. 398, and in DA. i; and in Jataka No. 94 it is called Lomahaɱsa Jātaka.

 


[ed1] The refrain 'Whoever, Sāriputta, knowing me thus...' has been omitted here as this certainly belongs as the prelude to the next section and there is no statement in this group by the Buddha of his having special knowledge in this regard. In this way this and the next sections become his statement about his knowledge of the comings and goings of beings. It does appear in the Pali and (abridged) in Ms. Horner's translation but makes no sense.


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