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Second Year

 

Unit 1

PTS: The Book of the Kindred Sayings: I. Kindred Sayings with Verses: 1. The Devas. C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation, with all abbreviations restored:
1. The 'Reed' Suttas [1-10]
2. The 'Paradise' Suttas [11-20]
3. The 'Sword' Suttas [21-30]
Linked to the Pali at the Nidana of each sutta.

 

Unit 2

[DN 34] Digha Nikaya, Sutta 34, DasUttara Suttaṃ
Dialogues of the Buddha, Sutta 34, The Tenfold Series, translated by T.W. and C.A.F. Rhys Davids
Completely rolled out with all abbreviated passages restored and linked to the Pali throughout at sections.
This sutta is very similar to DN 33 in that it is a catalog of various units of the Dhamma organized by way of the number of items in the unit. It becomes a form of mental gymnastics by imposing on the structure that it be limited to ten sets fit within 10 specific concepts: — so that section 1 is 10 units of one item each, each dealing with concepts 1-10; the second is 10 units of 2 items each, each dealing with concepts 1-10; on up to 10 units of 10 items each, each dealing with concepts 1-10.


The eight thoughts of a good man.

For one of few wants is this Dhamma;
this Dhamma is not for one of great wants.

For one contented is this Dhamma;
this Dhamma is not for the discontented.

For the loner is this Dhamma;
this Dhamma is not for one desirous of company.

For one of active energy is this Dhamma;
this Dhamma is not for the slacker.

For one of established memory is this Dhamma;
this Dhamma is not for the forgetful.

For one who is even-going is this Dhamma;
this Dhamma is not for the unstable.

For one with wisdom is this Dhamma;
this Dhamma is not for the stupid.

For one who has put down illusions is this Dhamma,
this Dhamma is not for deluded;
for one who has put down deluded behavior is this Dhamma,
this Dhamma is not for one of deluded behavior.


Well Tamed: Go Unrestrained

Not from all things turn away the mind,
if mind be well restrained —
But where whatever evil be,
at that repelled is mind well-trained.

— SN 1.1.24, olds, trans.

 

Unit 3

[SN 1.11.1-25] Sakkasamyutta:
PTS: The Book of the Kindred Sayings: I. Kindred Sayings with Verses: 11. The Sakka Suttas. C.A.F. Rhys Davids translation, with all abbreviations restored:
1. The Sakka Suttas [1-25]

 

Unit 4

[MN 19] Majjhima Nikāya 19: Dvedhāvitakka Sutta
Splitting Up Thought, Olds translation.
An interesting and simple method for making one's self conscious of the presence and absence of desructive thoughts while at the same time with the same process eliminating destructive thoughts.

 

Unit 5

PTS: The Book of the Kindred Sayings: II. Kindred Sayings on Cause: 12. The Nidāna Suttas:
Sutta 2: Analysis.
This sutta gives Gotama Buddha's definitions of the terms used in the Paṭicca Samuppada.
Sutta 3: The Way (or Course).
This sutta presents thePaṭicca Samuppadaas a Path or Course rather than the usual understanding of this doctrine as a description of how kamma works or how beings arise and fall.
Suttas 4-10: Vipassī, Sikhī, Vessabhu, Kakusandho, Koṇāgamano, Kassapo, and Mahā Sakyamuni Gotamo Suttas.
Near identical suttas describing how 7 different Buddhas first understood the Paṭicca Samuppada.
What might appear to be a meaningless waste of space, these suttas reveal many secrets to the seer if lined up in a row in the mind's eye.
C.A.F. Rhys Davids translations, with all abbreviations restored and linked at sections to the Pali.

 

Unit 6

[SN 2.21.1:] Maha Moggallano describes his initial practice at entering the second jhana, it's obstruction by thinking, and the assistance given him by the Master
Kolita, Olds translation,
Kolita, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.2:] Sāriputta states that there is nothing in the world which if it changed and became otherwise would cause him grief — including even the passing away of the Master.
Upatissa, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.3:] Moggallāna describes to Sāriputta a clarvoyant and claraudient conversation he had with the Master. The two chief disciples give each other high praise.
The Jar, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.4:] A novice bhikkhu is brought before the Buddha because he is thought to be a slacker by other bhikkhus. The Master reveals that this brother is already an Arahant.
The Novice, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.5:] The Master proclaims Sujato's beauty, both physical and mental.
Sujāta, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.6:] The Master proclaims the wisdom of this ugly, hunchbacked dwarf.
Bhaddiya, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.7:] The Buddha praises this bhikkhu's manner of teaching Dhamma.
Visākha, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.8:] Wherein Nanda, nephew of the Exalted One's mother, is admonished by the Buddha for wearing fine robes, makeup, and using a new bowl — resulting in Nanda becomeing a forest-dwelling beggar wearing rag-robes.
Nanda, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.9:] Wherein Tissa, nephew to Gotama's father, is admonished by the Buddha not to dominate the conversation.
Tissa, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.10:] Wherein a bhikkhu named 'Thera' (Elder) who was fond of solitude is summoned before the Buddha who then gives him insruction as to perfecting his practice.
Senior by Name, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

[SN 2.21.12:] Wherein two comrades are praised by Gotama and declared Arahants.
The Comrade, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

 

Unit 7

[SN 2.20.1:] The parable of the pinnacle. All unskillful states depend on blindness as do all the rafters in a peaked-roof house depend on the pinnacle.
The Pinnacle, Olds translation,
The Roof-Peak, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

 

Unit 8

[MN 63:] The Questions Of Malunkyaputta, E.J. Thomas 1913 translation.
Nothing remarkable, just a curiosity. This is the sutta that contains the famous simile of the man who refuses medical treatment for an arrow wound until he knows all there is to know about the wound, the arrow, the shooter, etc. This is also the sutta that is the likely source of the idea that Gotama never answered certain questions. Here he explains why these questions are not explained. This is an important issue to get clear. Gotama does not explain the answers to the questions as to whether or not the world exists etc, but he does answer the questions. He answers both by saying that these are not issues relevant to the ending of suffering, but he also answers that these questions arise from a misunderstanding of conditionality which he does explain. So he does answer the questions, it is just that listeners do not hear the answer.

 

Unit 9

The Dreaming Body An interesting parallel between the teachings of Don Juan concerning the Dreming body and the development of the Buddhist mind-made body. Also touches on being conscious while sleeping.

Introducing: The Renga on BuddhaDust

Let skin and sinew and bone wither away;
The flesh and blood of the body dry up;
that by the strength of a man,
the energy of a man,
the might of a man,
'til fulfilled,
energy fail thee not
in striving,
and realized is thy ambition.
sn 2.21.3

 

Unit 10

[SN 2.20.2:] The parable of the pointy-end of the nail. Illustrating the rarety of birth as a human. This sutta is like a well-cut diamond: it can reflect light in different ways according to the angle at which it is held. This is a short sutta which pays off well to compare to the Pali.
Nakhasikhā Suttaṃ the Pali
The Pointy-end of the Nail, Olds translation,
Tip of the Nail, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
Interlinked with the Pali, Olds, Bhk. Thanissaro translations.

[SN 2.20.3:] A parable illustrating the benefits of liberating the heart through friendliness. The method for warding off demonic harassment.
The Clans, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

 

Unit 11

[SN 2.20.5:] A parable illustrating the protection from mental harassment achieved through a heart of friendly vibrations.
The Sharp Tempered Sword, Olds translation,
The Blade, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

 

Unit 12

[SN 2.20.7:] The Drum-Peg, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
A parable illustrating how in the future the original Dhamma will become lost through lack of retention of the old suttas and attention to new suttas, mere poetry invented by disciples who are not fully awakened.
[SN 2.20.8:]Straw, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
A parable illustrating the danger of living the soft life.
[SN 2.20.9:] The Elephant, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
A parable illustrating the danger of enjoying the benefits of living as a bhikkhu without being careful to avoid letting them go to one's head.
[SN 2.20.10:] The Cat, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
A parable illustrating the danger of enjoying the benefits of living as a bhikkhu without being careful to guard one's senses.
[SN 2.20.11:] The Jackal 1, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
A hair-raising utterance forecasting the doom of 'a certain bhikkhu' of hypocritical, ungrateful behavior.
[SN 2.20.12:] The Jackal 2, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.
A second thought about the contrasing of a 'certain' ungrateful bhikkhu with an old jackal with mange — perhaps the jackal has more gratitude than this fellow!

Sleeping on couches of straw, brethren,
such now is the way of the Licchavis;
strenuous are they and zealous in their service.

Against them Ajatasattu,
son of the Vedehi [princess],
king of Magadha, gets no access,
gets no occasion.

In the coming days, brethren,
the Licchavis will become delicate,
soft and tender
in hands and feet.

On soft couches,
on pillows of down
they will lie till rise of sun.

Against them Ajatasattu
son of the Vedehi [princess],
king of Magadha,
will get access,
will get occasion.

Sleeping on couches of straw, brethren,
- such now is the way of the brethren,
strenuous are they
and ardent in their energy.

To them Mara
the evil one
gets no access.

Against them he gets no occasion.

In the coming days, brethren,
the brethren will become delicate,
soft and tender in hands and feet.

On soft couches,
on pillows of down
they will lie till rise of sun.

To them Mara
the evil one
will gain access.

Against them he will find occasion.

Wherefore, brethren,
thus must ye train yourselves:

'We will use couches of straw,
strenuous and zealous in energy
- even thus.
SN 2.20.008: Rhys Davids, translation

 

Unit 13

[AN 4.206:] The Good Man, Olds, translation.
An exposition of the qualities of the four types of persons: the not-good, the not-good of the not-good, the good and the good of the good. A very important aspect of this sutta is it's description of a Tenfold Way. This tenfold path, usually called the Seeker's Path, in this sutta it is given no name at all.

dragon

There's many a slip
Twixt the cup and the lip!

Old Saying. Proper behavior used to be to give to a beggar from one's own hand to his hand (or into his bowl) because a well-trained beggar would not consider something merely placed before him to have been 'given'. Allowance is made for a person to change their mind about giving even in so short a time as it takes to reach out and take hold. Swifter even than that is the ability of the mind to change.

 

Unit 14

[AN 7.18:] Vestments of the Tenless, Olds, translation.
Describes the abiding interests necessary to be cultivated by a person aspiring after a type of rebirth wherin there is no experience of death or rebirth but one re-appears at some earlier point in this same life spontaneously. Here the idea is that by cultivation of these abiding interests one is reborn at an increasingly older age with no regression to a younger age. This sutta speaks only to the qualities, not to this very intersting form of rebirth which is only indicated by name. The explanation for the term is given by Bhk. Bodhi in a footnote quoting the commentary.

 

Unit 15

[DN 30:]
The Marks of the Superman, Rhys Davids, translation.
The sutta has three elements: a list of signs to be found on the body of one who is a 'maha-purissa' or 'great-man,' an exposition of the behaviors that resulted in it's acquisition and the consequences of possessing such qualities, and a poetic recapitulation of the prose exposition. There are those who take the descriptions of the signs literally and there are those who take the descriptions of the signs as strictly metaphorical. I suggest that the signs are actual physical attributes which are being given metaphorical descriptions and that the signs themselves are to stand for but are not direct metaphores for supernatural powers — they are more like 'clues'. I have not 'broken the code' for all of them, but here and there in the rest of the suttas we come across clues to their meaning. To provide one example: the Great Man has a long tongue. In this sutta what we hear is that this is a result of blameless pleasant speech and results in a commanding voice that is pleasant to hear. Elsewhere however [KD.snp.3.7] we find out that this tongue is able touch both ears and cover the forehead, and in another place that there is a power of a Great Man known as the Dibbasota, the Devine Ear, which gives the possessor the power to hear both sounds, heavenly and man made, far and near understanding their meaning. I suggest this is the meaning of this attribute of a Great Man and consequently it cannot be taken in the strictly linear way of a metaphore for quality of speech.
As to the physical manifestation of these signs there is a state of mind where this physical world becomes very plastic and where this body is capable of willful distortion and that in this state the physical attribute could be projected (made visible or 'superimposed as a vision') such as to be seen just as described.
I have a further speculation: this is one of a few very strange suttas in the collection which look to me to have been of interest to Gotama himself primarily because of their ancient heritage.
A sutta not for ye of little faith!

 

Unit 16

[SN 1.1.31-40:] The 'Satullapa-Group' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
10 suttas in which The Buddha interacts with Devas of various sorts in various ways.

 

MN 60, note 25: MA. iii. 120=DA. i. 161 says creatures, sattā, are camels, oxen, donkeys, etc.; "breathers," pāṇā, are those who have one or two faculties; beings, bhūtā, are those enclosed in eggs or membraneous sheaths; living things, jīvā, are rice, wheat, etc. See Dial. i. 71, n. 2.
This cannot be correct in all respects. In MN 1, for example we have 'bhūtā' as standing for all these groups, 'living beings' which is what I believe all these terms mean in one place or another.

 

Unit 17

[SN 1.1.41-50:] The 'Burning' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.1.51-60:] The 'Decay' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.1.61-70:] The 'Over-Under' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.1.71-81:] The 'Slaughter' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
41 short suttas in verse in which The Buddha interacts with Devas in the form of 'riddle and response'.

'Straight' is the name this Road is called,
and
'Free From Fear'
the Quarter whither thou art bound.
SN 1.1.46, Rhys Davids' translation.

 

Unit 18

[SN 1.2.1-10:] Kassapa Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.2.11-20:] Anāthapiṇḍika Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
Exchanges with 'Sons of the Gods', Gods whose names are known, hence the suttas take on depth. Of special interest is Sn.1.2.10: Anāthapiṇḍika which shows that a Non-returner is not incapable of returning to this world for a visit.

Life to its doom is led. Our years are few.
For us led to decay no shelters stand.
Whoso doth contemplate this fear of death,
Let him reject the bait of all the worlds,
Let him aspire after the final Peace.
Sn.1.2.19, Rhys Davids, translation

 

Unit 19

[AN 3.61:] Three Philosophical Positions, Olds, translation.
This is an extremely interesting sutta for anyone attempting to break into the just-above-the-beginner level of understanding this Dhamma. In several places throughout the suttas it is hinted that 'seeing the Four Truths, one sees the Paṭicca Samuppada. Seeing the Samuppada one sees the Four Truths'. Here in this sutta the two are combined in one. I think this only happens in one other sutta. It is very important for understanding the fact that each of the major segments of the Dhamma are in fact just ways of re-stating the Four Truths in other terms. Understanding this will go a long way to eliminate conflicts between various practices that emphasize one or another of the multiplicity of methods put forward in the Suttas and will greatly simplify comprehension of the system as a whole.

As one downsmitten by impending sword,
As one whose hair and turban are aflame,
So let the Brother, mindful and alert,
Go forth, all worldly passions left behind.
Sn.1.2.16, Rhys Davids, translation

 

Unit 20

[SN 1.2.21-30:] 'Divers Sectaries' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
Further exchanges with 'Sons of the Gods.'

fathom

It is not by walking to the end of the world, friend,
That the end of pain is discovered,
And neither is the end of pain discovered,
Friend, without walking to the end of the world.

It is not by walking the world, friend,
That the origin of the world is discovered,
That the end of the world is discovered,
That the walk to walk to the end of the world is discovered.

It is here in this fathom-measure body, friend,
With it's perception,
With it's mind,
That I say the world is discovered,
The origin of the world is discovered,
The end of the world is discovred,
The walk to walk to the end of the world is discovered.
SN 1.2.26 Olds, paraphrased translation

 

Unit 21

[SN 1.3.1-10:] [Untitled] or 'Bonds' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
Exchanges with the king, the Kosalan Pasenadi. The story of Pasanadi emerges in frequent suttas througout the Sutta Pitaka where we see him progress from an unbeliever to a believer who loses his kingship because of his faith. Here he is seen in this group of suttas at an early stage of his relationship with Gotama where we also get glympses of the manner of kings at the time.

 

Unit 22

[SN 1.3.11-20:] [Untitled] or 'Childless' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
Further exchanges with the king, the Kosalan Pasenadi.

A man may spoil another, just so far
As it may serve his ends, but when he's spoiled
By others he, despoiled, spoils yet again.
So long as evil's fruit is not matured,
The fool doth fancy 'now's the hour, the chance!'
But when the deed bears fruit, he fareth ill.
The slayer gets a slayer in his turn;
The conqueror gets one who conquers him;
Th' abuser wins abuse, th' annoyer, fret.
Thus by the evolution of the deed,
A man who spoils is spoiled in his turn.
SN 1.3.15, Mrs. Rhys Davids, translation

 

Unit 23

[SN 1.3.21-25:] [Untitled] or 'The Parable of the Mountain' Suttas, Rhys Davids, translation.
Further exchanges with the king, the Kosalan Pasenadi. I get the strong feeling that at this stage in his relationship with Gotama the king is testing him. In this case the manner of Gotama's responses are highly instructive in terms of handling difficult situations.

All beings are dying things,
conclude in death,
have death as their end,
just as all pots of the potter,
whether unbaked or baked,
are breaking things,
conclude in breakage,
have breakage as their end.
— SN 1.3.022, Olds trans.

 

Unit 24

[AN 3 76-77:] Untitled #76-77 The Pali
Existence 1 and 2, New Olds translation.
These two suttas add to the idea one needs to grasp that existence itself is a thing made by the individual through his own intentional acts. This is also another good sutta to read with the Pali along side. This translation differs significantly from those of Woodward, Bhk. Thanissaro and Bhk. Bodhi. You can do it! These are not long suttas and are mostly repetitions. Look up the words one at a time. We have a good Dictionary up which you can use on line at: The Pali Text Society's Pāli-English Dictionary It won't take too long and you will see the dangers in accepting translations unreservedly.

 

Unit 25

[SN 1.5.1-10:] Suttas of the Sisters, Rhys Davids, translation.

 

Unit 26

The End On the experience of the approach of Death.

 

Unit 27

Sn.1.6.1: The Entreaty, Rhys Davids, translation.
One version of the story of Gotama's hesitation to teach after his Awakening and the request that he teach 'those with little dust on their eyes' made by Brahmā Sahampati.
Sn.1.6.2: Holding in Reverence, Rhys Davids, translation.
Sn.1.6.3: Brahmadeva, Rhys Davids, translation.

 

Unit 28

[AN 3 128]: Anuruddha, Olds, translation.
An important sutta in terms of comparing translation with translation. What is presented in this translation is a picture of Sāriputta's keen perception into the various nature of illusion and his ability to translate his perceptions into the precise prescription necessary for attaining the goal. Previous translations have cast this as a case of Sāriputta chastizing Anuruddha for his conceit.

Nidāna

I Hear Tell:

Once upon a time, The Lucky Man, Uruvela revisiting, River Nerañjaraya's edge, root of the Goatherd's Banyon, first thing after his Awakening.

There then arose in the heart of The Lucky Man
in the privacy of solitude,
this line of thought:

"This Dhamma,
deep,
difficult to see,
difficult to awaken to,
sane,
lofty,
no contorted conjecture,
subtle,
for the experiencing of by the wise,
has come into my possession,
but dwelling on enjoyment are these children,
dwelling on pleasure,
dwelling on pleasantries,
and for children
dwelling on pleasure,
dwelling on pleasantries,
difficult to see is this position,
that is, this
this-conditions-that rebounding co-founding.

And then just this position too
is difficult to see:
that is, the calming of all own-making,
the resolution of all involvements,
the withering away of thirst,
dispassion,
extinction,
Nibbāna.'
— excerpt from [SN 1.6.1], Olds translation

 

Unit 29

[DN 26]: War, Wickedness, and Wealth, Rhys Davids, translation.
An incredably long repetitous sutta not at all in the usual style of Gotama which nevertheless conveys a strong message as to the future. The sutta paints a stark picture of the grinding devolution and evolution of man consequent on his behavior with regard to pretty much universally accepted (and today disregarded) fundamental ethical standards: not taking by theft, not lying, not harming living beings, not being promiscuous, not drinking alcohols, respecting family, elders, leaders. Things we see around us everywhere today where the fact of their leading the people astray is incontestable and yet contested at every turn and defended nowhere. "In times past it was to those of good behavior that respect was paid and to whom people listened; in times to come it will be the course setters in disrespect and poor behavior to whom the people will listen." The consolation in this sutta is the additional lesson of the cyclicity of this phenomena. The world devolves and evolves, round and round.

"And what, father, is the Duty of an Aristocratic King?"

"It is this my son:

Guided by Dhamma, paying respect to Dhamma, honoring Dhamma, holding Dhamma sacred, revering Dhamma,
being yourself one whose banner is the Dhamma,
being yourself a beacon of the Dhamma,
with the Dhamma as your Teacher,
you should provide proper protection for your people, for the army, for the managers, for the workers, for the scholar and the layman, for town and country dwellers, for the religious world, for animals and birds.
Throughout your kingdom let no wrongdoing prevail.
And let whoever in your kingdom is poor be provided with economic security.
And when, my son, in your kingdom men leading the religious life, having themselves given up the carelessness that arises from the influence of the senses, devoted to calm, patience, compassion and self-mastery, aiming for self-perfection,
come to you to discuss what is good and what is bad,
what should not be unlawful and what should be unlawful,
what should be done and what should not be done,
and what line of action will in the long run work for benefit or disadvantage,
you should listen to what they have to say,
and for your part you should encourage them to desist from wrong conduct and encourage them in good conduct.

This my son is the Duty of an Aristocratic King.

Excerpt from DN 26, paraphrased by Olds.

 

Unit 30

[SN 1.6.4:] The Brahmā Suttas: Baka the Brahmā God, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.6.5:] The Brahmā Suttas: Another False Opinion, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.6.6:] The Brahmā Suttas: Infatuation, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.6.7:] The Brahmā Suttas: The Kokālikan, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.6.8:] The Brahmā Suttas: Tissaka, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.6.9:] The Brahmā Suttas: Tudu Brahmā, Rhys Davids, translation.
Linked to the Pali

 

Unit 31

[AN 4.10:]: Yokes, Olds translation.
This is a crime in the translations of many of Gotama's suttas: the utter lack of a sense of humor.

 

Unit 32

[SN 1.6.10:] The Brahmā Suttas: The Kokālikan, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.6.11:] The Brahmā Suttas: The Eternal Youth, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.6.12:] The Brahmā Suttas: Devadatta, Rhys Davids, translation.

 

Unit 33

[SN 1.6.13:] The Brahmā Suttas: Andhakavinda, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.6.14:] The Brahmā Suttas: Aruṇavatī, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.6.15:] The Brahmā Suttas: The Utter Passing Away, Rhys Davids, translation.
The last exhortation and the last actions of Gotama the Awake.

 

Unit 34

[SN 1.7.1:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Dhanañjāni Brahminee, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.2:] Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Reviling, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.3:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Asurinda, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.4:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Conjey-man, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.5:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Innocens, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.6:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Tangles, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.7:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Puritan, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.8:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Fire-man, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.9:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Sundarikāyan, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.10:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Of Many Daughters, Rhys Davids, translation.

 

Unit 35

[AN 4.159:] The Nun, Woodward, translation.
The Beggar Lady: Analysis of § 3, Olds.
A comparison of the translations of Olds, Woodward, Bhk. Thanissaro and Bhk. Bodhi with regard to an obscure term. The issue comes up often with the question: How can one eliminate desire without desire and if one uses desire how does one eliminate desire? Here not only using desire is rationalized but also using food and the insanity of self-identification. A fourth, using sexuality, is singled out as not a good idea.

 

Unit 36

[SN 1.7.11:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Plowing, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali and to the translations of Bhk. Thanissaro and Piyadassi Thera both of which have a different ending than this version and the PTS/BJT Pali. It looks very much like the ending they have used was picked up from a previous sutta [The SN 1.7.9: Sundarikdyan] dealing with Arahants and is out of place in this section which deals with Lay Followers.
[SN 1.7.12:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Udaya, Rhys Davids, translation.

 

Unit 37

[AN 4.157:] Disease, Woodward, translation.
The Falling Away, Woodward, translation.
[AN 4.160:] The Wellfarer's Discipline, Woodward, translation.
Factors leading to the decline of the Dhamma.

 

Unit 38

[SN 1.7.13:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Devahita, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.14:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Millionaire, or The Shabby Cloak, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.15:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Pridstiff, Rhys Davids, translation.

 

Unit 39

[SN 1.7.16:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Gainsayer, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.17:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: New Works, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.18:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Wood-Gathering, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.19:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Mother-Maintainer, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.20:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: The Mendicant, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.21:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Sangārava, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.7.22:] The Brāhmaṇa Suttas: Khomadussa, Rhys Davids, translation.
Connected to the Pali.

 

Unit 40

[AN 4.192] Conditions, Woodward, translation.
[AN 4.195]Vappa, The Pali.
Vappa, Woodward, translation.

 

Unit 41

[SN 1.8.2:] The Vaṅgīsa-Thera Suttas: Disaffection, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.8.4:] The Vaṅgīsa-Thera Suttas: Ānanda, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.8.6:] The Vaṅgīsa-Thera Suttas: Sāriputa, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.8.7:] The Vaṅgīsa-Thera Suttas: Invitation, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.8.8:] The Vaṅgīsa-Thera Suttas: A Thousand and More, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.8.9:] The Vaṅgīsa-Thera Suttas: Koṇḍañña, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.8.10:] The Vaṅgīsa-Thera Suttas: Moggallāna, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.8.11:] The Vaṅgīsa-Thera Suttas: At Gaggarā, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.8.12:] The Vaṅgīsa-Thera Suttas: Vangīsa, Rhys Davids, translation.

"I am already given to the power that rules my fate.
And I cling to nothing, so I will have nothing to defend.
I have no thoughts, so I will see.
I fear nothing, so I will remember myself.
Detached and at ease,
I will dart past the Eagle to be free."
Carlos Castaneda. The Eagle's Gift

This is how this is to be understood:
The Power = Dhamma
The Eagle = Pajapati, Mara, the force of creation and destruction.

 

Unit 42

[SN 1.9.1:] The Forest Suttas: Detachment, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.9.2:] The Forest Suttas: Ministry, Rhys Davids, translation.

 

Unit 43

[MN 20]: Discourse on the Forms of Thought, Horner, trans.

 

Unit 44

[SN 1.9.3:] The Forest Suttas: Kassapa of the Kassapas (or The Trapper), Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.9.4:] The Forest Suttas: Many of Them, or On Tour, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.9.5:] The Forest Suttas: Ānanda, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.9.6:] The Forest Suttas: Anuruddha, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.9.7:] The Forest Suttas: Nāgadatta, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.9.8:] The Forest Suttas: The Housewife, or Engrossed, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.9.9:] The Forest Suttas: The Vajjian (or Vesāliyan), Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.9.10:] The Forest Suttas: Diligence (or Doctrines), Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.9.11:] The Forest Suttas: Want of Method (or Fancies), Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.9.11:] The Forest Suttas: Want of Method (or Fancies), Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.9.12:] The Forest Suttas: Noontide, or Resounding, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.9.13:] The Forest Suttas: Uncontolled (or, Very Many Brethren, Rhys Davids, translation.
[SN 1.9.14:] The Forest Suttas: The Red Lotus_blossom, or White Lotus, Rhys Davids, translation.

 

Unit 45

[AN 5.32:] Cundī, the Rajah's Daughter, Hare, translation.

 

Unit 46

On the Importance of the Pali Text Society Translations An explanation of why it was so important that the complete set of Pali Text Society translations of the Sutta Pitaka be made freely and easily available.

 

Unit 47

[SN 1.10.1-12] The Yakkha Suttas, Rhys Davids translations:
1. The Yakkha of Indra's Peak
2. Sakka
3. Suciloma
4. Maṇibhadda
5. Sānu
6. Piyankara
7. Punabbasu
8. Sudatta
9. Sukkā (1)
10. Sukkā (2)
11. Vīrā or Cīrā
12. At Āḷavī.

 

Unit 48

[AN 5.209] The Plain-song, Hare Translation

Ven. Gnanananda chants the Satipatthana Sutta
From the Audio-Tipitaka Project

"Monks, there are these five disadvantages to one preaching Dhamma in a long-drawn, plain-song voice.

What five?

He is either carried away himself by the sound;
or others are carried away thereby;
or householders are offended and say:
"Just as we sing, for sure, these recluse Sakya sons sing!";
or as he strives after purity of sound, there is a break in concentration;
and folk coming after fall into the way of (wrong) views.
AN 5.209, Hare, translation

'Intoning' (dramatizing) though having disadadvantages is not against the rules.

 

Unit 49

[AN 5.73] Living by Dhamma, Hare Translation

AṅgUttara-Nikāya
Pañcaka-Nipāta

The Numbers Bag
The Book of Fives

Sutta 73

Walk'n the Talk

Retold by Michael M. Olds

I Hear Tell:

A certain Bhikkhu came to pay a call,
and, after paying respect with closed palms,
he sat on a low seat to one side
at a respectful distance
and asked:

"'Walk'n the Talk' is the expression.

To what extent, Bhaggava does one
'walk the talk'
in this Dhamma?"

"In the case of the first case
we have the case of the beggar
who has an all-round understanding of Dhamma.

He spends his day in the mastering of Dhamma.

But he neglects putting down interaction
and does not devote himself to mental tranquillity within.

This beggar, beggar, is said to be big on all-round understanding,
but does not live the Dhamma.

In the case of the second case
we have the case of the beggar
who teaches Dhamma to others as he has heard and understood it.

He spends his time instructing and inciting others.

But he neglects putting down interaction
and does not devote himself to mental tranquillity within.

This beggar, beggar, is said to be big on wisdom,
but does not live the Dhamma.

In the case of the third case
we have the case of the beggar
who is a repeater.

He memorizes Dhamma and repeats it to others as he has heard it
and so spends his day.

But he neglects putting down interaction
and does not devote himself to mental tranquillity within.

This beggar, beggar, is said to be big on memory,
but does not live the Dhamma.

In the case of the fourth case
we have the case of the beggar
who is a thinker.

He thinks about Dhamma
as he has heard it and understood it.

He spends his day thinking about Dhamma.

But he neglects putting down interaction
and does not devote himself to mental tranquillity within.

This beggar, beggar, is said to be big on thinking, but does not live the dhamma.

In the case of the fifth case
we have the case of the beggar
who has an all-round understanding of Dhamma,
but he does not spend his day in the mastery of Dhamma,
he does not neglect putting down interaction
and does devote himself to mental tranquillity within.

This beggar, beggar, is said to 'Walk the Talk'.

So, Beggar,
I have given you one who is Big on Understanding,
one who is Big on Wisdom,
one who is Big on Memory,
one who is Big on Thinking,
and one Who 'Walks the Talk'.

Beggar! What a teacher should do for his student,
looking after his well-being,
seeking his good,
out of sympathy,
such is such as I have done for you.

There are the roots of trees,
places of solitude.

Do not be negligent,
do not give yourself cause for self-recrimination later.

This is our instruction to you.

 

Unit 50

[MN 57] Discourse on the Canine Ascetic, Horner Translation.

 

Unit 51

[MN 73]Greater Discourse to Vacchagotta, Horner Translation.

Not long after the venerable Vacchagotta was ordained,
half a month after he was ordained,
he approached the Lord;
having approached,
having greeted the Lord,
he sat down at a respectful distance.

As he was sitting down at a respectful distance,
the venerable Vacchagotta spoke thus to the Lord:

"Revered sir, I have attained as much as can be attained by a learner's knowledge,
a learner's lore.

Let the Lord teach me some further dhamma" [uttariṃ dhammaṃ]

"Well then, do you, Vaccha, develop two things further:
calm and vision.[samathañ ca vipassanañ ca]

— Not one or the other, both. The result being arahantship.
From the Horner translation

 

Unit 52

[MN 75]Discourse to Māgandiya, Horner Translation.

 

Unit 53

[MN 2]Discourse on All the Cankers, Horner Translation.

 

Unit 54

[MN 3]Discourse on Heirs of Dhamma, Horner Translation.

"If you, monks, should become heirs of material things,
not heirs of dhamma,
not only may you become in consequence
those of whom it is said:

'The Teacher's disciples
are heirs of material things,
not heirs of dhamma'

but I too may become in consequence
one of whom it is said:

'The Teacher's disciples
are heirs of material things,
not heirs of dhamma.'

But if you, monks, should become my heirs of dhamma,
not heirs of material things,
then you may become in consequence
those of whom it is said:

'The Teacher's disciples
are heirs of dhamma,
not heirs of material things,'

and I too may become in consequence
one of whom it is said:

'The Teacher's disciples
are heirs of dhamma,
not heirs of material things,'
— Horner, translation

 

Unit 55

[MN 4]Discourse on Fear and Dread, Horner Translation.

 

Unit 56

[MN 5]Discourse on No Blemishes, Horner Translation.

 

Unit 57

[AN 7.42] The adorning, Hare, translation
Seven Prerequisites for Serenity Olds, trans.
An unusual definition of Sammā Samādhi.

 

Unit 58

[AN 7.19]At Sārandada, Hare Translation,
[AN 7.21]The Monk, Hare Translation,
[AN 7.27]Decline, Hare Translation.

 

Unit 59

[MN 28]Greater Discourse on the Simile of the Elephant's Footprint, Horner Translation.

One for the Leaders of Nations
One for the Saṅgha, and
One for the Lay Disciple

Pay heed Leaders of Nations,
lead not the world further into decline and not growth,
pay heed bhikkhus
lead not the Saṅgha further into decline and not growth,
pay heed lay disciples
fall not further into decline and not growth!
This is the Way.

 

Unit 60

[AN 7.62]The Sun, Hare Translation,
[AN 7.63]The Citadel, Hare Translation,
[AN 7.70]Wheel-Wright, Hare Translation,
[AN 7.81-90]Samaṇa Vaggo The Pali
The Recital I: The Monk Chapter, Hare Translation.
[AN 7.91-98] AN 7.91-98The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of the Eye Hare Translation,

[AN 7.99-106] AN 7.99-106The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of the Ear Hare Translation.

 

Unit 61

[AN 7.107-114] AN 7.107-114The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of the Nose Hare Translation.
There are those who say that Gotama would never have wasted his time in the utterance of such a thing as is found in this set of suttas. I beg to differ. There comes a time when thinking over the Dhamma actually becomes interesting fun and doing an exercise in it's manipulation such as is found here becomes a light-hearted challenge. Think of it in terms of mental gymnastics. Don't dismiss it before you have tried it for yourself. It's just not something, as simple as it appears, that can be done by one who has not developed a high degree of concentration.

snap fingersSnap Fingers

[SNAP FINGERS. JUST LIKE THAT — IT'S OVER.]

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

In the same way as the one taste of the great ocean is the taste of salt;
even so the one taste of this Dhamma/Discipline is the taste of freedom.
— Olds, trans. — AN 8.19

Short is the life of man, my friends,
a mere finger-snap,
a bit of dust in the wind,
filled with pain and sorrow.

By work-of-mind awaken yourselves!

Do good works!

Live under the guidance of Dhamma!

For the born there is no not dying.

Just as a cow,
being lead to the slaughter,
each step she takes
brings her nearer to her death,
even so, friend,
like a doomed cow
short is the life of man,
a mere finger-snap,
a bit of dust in the wind,
filled with pain and sorrow.

By work-of mind awaken yourselves!

Do good works!

Live under the guidance of Dhamma!

For the born there is no not dying.

— after AN 7.70

 

Unit 62

[SN 5.55.2] Steeped in, Woodward translation.

 

Unit 63

[AN 7.115-122]The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of the Tongue Hare Translation.
[AN 7.123-130] The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of the Touch Hare Translation.
[AN 7.131-138] The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of the Mind Hare Translation.
[AN 7.139-146] The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of Shapes Hare Translation.
[AN 7.147-154] The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of Sounds Hare Translation.
[AN 7.155-162] The Recital II: Persons Worthy of Offerings, In Respect of Odours Hare Translation.

 

Unit 64

[AN 8.63] Dhamma Briefly, Hare, translation.

 

Unit 65

[AN 8.83] The Root of Things, Hare, translation.
What is the Root? Olds, translation.

 

Unit 66

[AN 9.1] The Awakening, Hare translation.
[AN 9.2] Reliant, Hare translation.
[AN 9.3] The Venerable Meghiya, Hare translation.
[AN 9.4] The Venerable Nandaka, Hare translation.
[AN 9.5] The Powers, Hare translation.
[AN 9.6] To Be Sought After, Hare translation.
[AN 9.8] Sajjha the Wanderer, Hare translation.
Sajjha the Wanderer, Olds translation.
[AN 9.9] Persons, Hare translation.
[AN 9.10] The Venerable, Hare translation.

 

Unit 67

[AN 9.11] After the Rainy Season, Hare translation,
[AN 9.15] A Boil, Hare translation,
[AN 9.16] Thoughts, Hare translation,
The Family, Hare [AN 9.18] Amity, Hare translation,
[AN 9.19] The Deva Host, Hare translation, unabbreviated
[AN 9.20] Velāma, Hare translation
About Velāma, Bhk. Thanissaro translation
[AN 9.21] In Three Ways, Hare translation
[AN 9.22] The Excitable Steed, Hare translation
[AN 9.23] Craving, Hare translation
[AN 9.24] Beings, Hare translation
[AN 9.25] Wisdom, Hare translation
[AN 9.26] The Stone Column, Hare translation
This is a very interesting sutta. On the surface it is simply a lesson as to precision of speech: the huge difference it can make when saying 'heaped around with thought' versus 'well heaped around with thought'. Then there is the contrast of this sutta with the previous which conveys the basic message but using the term for 'wisdom'. But the most interesting thing going on in the sutta is that it is concerning a statment supposedly made by Devadata. It speaks of Devadata in the past tense, and here Sariputta corrects the bhikkhu quoting Devadatta in a way which makes Devadatta sound wiser than would be the case taking the quote as originally given. Now Devadatta is often painted in solid black where we know from stories here and there that he was, in fact, a highly developed individual who was simply overcome with ambition, so in the name of truth and fairness it is well done that he be defended where he was not being represented well, but I suspect the sutta has been remembered confusidly: that is that the bhikkhu is correctly quoting Devadatta's incorrect recollection of Gotama's utterance in AN 9.25, and Sāriputta was correcting that and that his correction has been misremembered. Maybe not, but if it is as I suggest the deeper message would be in the illustration of Devadatta's fate in the difference in the way he remembered Gotama's instruction. There is some slight evidence that the sutta has been misremembered in the differences between different versions of the Pali where in one case at least there is no difference in the way Candikaputto quotes Devadatta and the way Sāriputta corrrects Candikaputto.
[AN 9.27] Dread and Hatred (a), Hare translation
[AN 9.28] Dread and Hatred (b), Hare translation
[AN 9.29] Strife (a), Hare translation
[AN 9.30] (Dispelling) Strife (b), Hare translation
[AN 9.31] Gradual Endings, Hare translation
Following-earlier-Endings, Olds translation
A short but difficult sutta to understand/translate clearly. This translation offered as food-for-thought.
[AN 9.32] The Abidings (a), Hare translation
[AN 9.33] The Abidings (b), Hare translation
[AN 9.34] The Cool, Hare translation
[AN 9.35] The Cow, Hare translation
This is an elegant and very instructive sutta which has been mangled in both the Pali and in translations by abbreviations. The full versions of both the Pali and Hare's translation have been reconstructed here.
[AN 9.36] Musing, Hare translation
The full versions of Hare's translation has been reconstructed here; the Pali has been left in the BJT expanded version. There is some food for thought here for those concerned with the tampering that may have gone on in the editing of the Pali. A good sutta for those interested in the jhānas. I would caution readers to examine the meaning of 'nissāya'. Here (and with Bhk. Bodhi and Bhk. Thanissaro) it is translated as 'depend.' Literally the word means 'seated on' and I believe the distinction is important. It is especially so in light of the fact that 'paṭicca' and 'nidāna' are all also being translated 'depend' (as well as 'conditioned' ... along with 'saṅkhāra' ... confused yet?). It is also interesting that in this sutta the scheme changes at the 'Sphere of Nothing's Had' (Nothingness) in a way which illuminates the understanding of 'attainment of perception' [Hare: as far as 'perception prevails'; Bhk. Thanissaro: 'perception-attainments'; Bhk. Bodhi: (combining this and the next term) 'penetration to final knowledge as far as meditative attainments accompanied by perception reach'] [saññāsamāpatti] and 'penetration of gnosis' [aññā-paṭivedho].
[AN 9.38] The Brāhmans, Hare translation
On the theme of reaching the end of the world as in AN 4.45. This sutta ends abruptly and looks to be a fragment only.
[AN 9.39] The Devas, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.40] The Tusker, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.42] Pañcālacaṇḍa, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.43] The Seer-in-Body, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.44] The Wisdom-Freed, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.45] The Freed-Both-Ways, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.46] To be Seen for Oneself, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.47] [A Cool] To be Seen for Oneself, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.48] The Cool, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.49] The Complete Cool, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.50] The Cool by These Means, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.51] The Cool Here and Now, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.52] The Security, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.53] One Who Attains The Security, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.54] The Deathless, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.55] One Who Attains the Deathless, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.56] The Fearless, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.57] One Who Attains the Fearless, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.58] Tranquillity, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.59] Gradual Tranquillity, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.60] Ending, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.61] Gradual Ending, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.62] Possible by Putting Away Things, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.63] The Training, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.64] Hindrances, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.65] Sense Desire, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.66] The Aggregates, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.67] The Lower Fetters, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.68] The Courses, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.69] Meanness, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.70] The Upper Fetters, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.71] Mental Barrenness, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.72] Mental Bondage, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
[AN 9.73-82] Chapter VIII: Right Effort, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Ten suttas grouped together, they each open with the beginning of the corrresponding sutta from suttas 63-72 above, and then each concludes with an admonition to develop the four right efforts.
[AN 9.83-92] Chapter IX: Psychic Power, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
Ten suttas grouped together, they each open with the beginning of the corrresponding sutta from suttas 63-72 above, and then each concludes with an admonition to develop the four bases of psychic Power.
[AN 9.93-432] Chapter X: Passion, Hare translation. Unabbreviated.
340 suttas grouped together. Seventeen concepts (passion, hatred, illusion, anger, enmity, hypocrisy, malice, envy, avarice, deceit, craftiness, obstinacy, impetuosity, pride, arrogance, intoxication and indolence) played off against 10 concepts (understanding, comprehension, exhaustion, abandonment, destruction, decay, freedom from desire, ending, quittance, and renunciation), played off against each of two sets of 9 concepts (1. the thought of foulness, of death, of the repulsiveness of food, of universal wretchedness, of impermanence, of ill inimpermanence, of no self in ill, of renunciation, of freedom from passions; and 2. the first musing (jhāna), second musing, third musing, fourth musing, sphere of infinite space, sphere of infinite consciousness, sphere of nothingness, sphere of neither perception nor non-perception, and the ending of perception and feeling).
Do I need to say that this is the first time these have been seen in English fully rolled out? A truly mind-stretching exercise! Thank goodness for copy and paste. ...

 

Unit 68

[AN 8.11] Near Verañja, Hare translation

 

Unit 69

[AN 10.206] Ruin and prosperity a, Woodward translation.
[AN 10.207] Ruin and prosperity b, Woodward translation.
[AN 10.208] The Deed-Born Body Olds translation
A mind-bending sutta to make good sense out of. A great exercise in Dhamma Research virtually compelling examination of the Pali and intent contimplation. A sutta exposition on the need to work out one's kamma in this life.

 

Unit 70

[AN 7 611-1120] The Recital, III: The Understanding of Passions: 612-1121,
This is the final highly abbreviated section of the PTS Hare translation of the Book of the Sevens. Containing 1030 suttas, it has been left abbreviated with only a few modifications to make it more readable.

 

Unit 71

[MN 11] Lesser Discourse on the Lion's Roar, Horner, translation.

 

Unit 72

[AN 7.1] Grounds for Praise, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.2] Grounds for Praise (2), Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.3] Powers in Brief, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.4] Powers in Detail, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.5] Treasures in Brief, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.6] Treasures in Detail, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.7] Ugga, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.8] Fetters, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.9] Their Riddance, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.10] Meanness, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.11] The Leanings, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.12] The Leanings in Detail, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.13] The Family, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.14] Persons, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.15] The Water Simile, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.16] Not Always, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
[AN 7.17] Ill, No Self, the Cool, Hare translation, unabbreviated,
Read with the previous sutta this is another example of the clear distinction being made between the objects of the famous 'Three Characteristics' Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta: that is that all own-made (sankhara, or confounded, or constructed) things are characterized by impermanance and Pain, but that Non-self (Hare erroneously translates as 'no self') applies to all things, own-made or not. This is a vital point for the comprehension of the Buddhist concept of consciousness and Nibbāna. For a detailed discussion of this topic see: 'Is Nibbāna Conditioned?' in the Forum.

 

Unit 73

Pasenadi. The full article from the Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names. Added to the Personalities section. A good detailed article on this king, one of Gotama's great supporters. Almost his entire life is seen as a background story in a large number of suttas.

 

Unit 74

[SN 4.36.22] One hundred and eight, Woodward translation.

 

Unit 75

[MN 70] Discourse at Kīṭāgiri, Horner translation.
A very informative sutta. It opens with the Buddha introducing the practice of abstaining from food after noon to the Bhikkhus. When this is met with resistance by two of the 'Group of Six' Bhikkhus (whose story runs through the suttas and Vinaya as being a group of Bhikkhus who manage to find the loophole in every new rule) Gotama then delivers a scathing rebuke.
Adapted from Horner: "...even a teacher who sets store on material things, is an heir to material things, and lives in association with material things — why, even to him, this kind of higgling and haggling does not apply, that his followers will or will not do this or that according as they like it or not. ... For a disciple who has faith in the Teacher's instruction and lives in unison with it, monks, it is a principle that: 'The Teacher is the Bhagava, a disciple am I; the Bhagava knows, I do not know.' For a disciple who has faith in the Teacher's instruction and lives in unison with it, monks, the Teacher's instruction is a furthering in growth, giving strength. For a disciple who has faith in the Teacher's instruction and lives in unison with it, monks, it ia principel that: 'Gladly would I be reduced to skin and sinews and bone and let my body's flesh and blood dry up if there came to be a vortext of energy so that which is not yet won might be won by human strength, by human energy, by human sttriving.'
Before this Gotama has brought out the reasoning that should be followed in the case of a case where the training initially produces unpleasant sensation, that is, that there are two modes of experiencing sensation, whether pleasant, unpleasant, or not-unpleasant-but-not-pleasant: that which is experienced by the one who is attached to worldly gains, and that which is experienced by the one who is striving after letting the world go. The criteria for judgment is not whether one likes or dislikes the sensation, but whether or not good conditions are increasing and bad conditions are decreasing. (So much for 'if it feels good it's ok' the creed of the common man of the 60's. ... the creed of the common man of the 2020s is ... um ... the common man of the 2020s has no creed.)
Then he mentions the seven states of liberation attainable by one who follows his methods:

Pali Horner Woodward Thanissaro Ñāṇamoli/Bodhi
ubhato-bhāga-vimutto freed-both-ways freed-both-ways released-both-ways liberated-in-both-ways
paññā-vimutto freed-by-wisdom wisdom-freed released-through-discernment liberated-by-wisdom
kāyasakkhī mental-realizer seer-in-body bodily-witness body-witness
diṭṭhappatto won-to-view view-winner attained-to-view attained-to-view
saddhā-vimutto freed-by-faith faith-freed released-through-conviction liberated-by-faith
dhammānusārī striver-after-Dhamma Dhamma-follower Dhamma-follower Dhamma-follwer
saddhānusārī striver-after-faith faith-follower conviction-follower faith-follower

He gives a definition of each.

Following this he gives the proper method for careful striving, also known as The Gradual Course:
As to this, monks,
one who has faith draws close;
drawing close, he sits down near by;
sitting down near by, he lends ear;
lending ear, he hears Dhamma;
having heard Dhamma, he remembers it;
he tests the meaning
of the things he has borne in mind;
while testing the meaning
the things are approved of;
there being approval of the things
desire is born;
with desire born
he makes an effort;
having made the effort
he weighs it up;
having weighed it up
he strives;
being self-resolute
he realizes with his person
the highest truth itself and,
penetrating it by means of wisdom,
he sees.

 

Unit 76

[AN 7.20] Vassakāra, Hare translation, unabbreviated, intrerlinked.
[AN 7.22] Action, Hare translation, unabbreviated.
[AN 7.23] Believing, Hare translation, unabbreviated.
[AN 7.24] The Awakening, Hare translation, unabbreviated.
[AN 7.25] Thought, Hare translation, unabbreviated.
[AN 7.26] Training, Hare translation, unabbreviated.
[AN 7.28-30] Unprofitable and Backslidings, Hare translation, unabbreviated.
The thumb is on the scale here; you get two for three. A possible suggestion for the missing sutta is made by me at text ed n 1
[AN 7.31] Earnestness, Hare translation, unabbreviated.
[AN 7.32] Conscientiousness, Hare translation, unabbreviated.
[AN 7.33] Fair Speech, Hare translation, unabbreviated.
[AN 7.34] 'The Same' (or Fair Speech,) Hare translation, unabbreviated.
[AN 7.35] Friends Hare translation. Good advice on the sort of friend to have and the sort of friend to be ... if one has need of a friend.
[AN 7.36] The Same Hare translation. More Good advice on the sort of friend to have and the sort of friend to be ... if one has need of a friend.
[AN 7.37] The Analysis Hare translation.
[AN 7.38] The Wish Hare translation.
[AN 7.39] Grounds for Praise Hare translation.
[AN 7.40] Grounds for Praise (2) Hare translation.
[AN 7.41] The Stations Hare translation,
States of Consciousness, Olds translation.
[AN 7.43] Fire Hare translation.
[AN 7.44] The same, or Fire (2) Hare translation.
[AN 7.48] The Bondage Hare translation,
Association, Sister Upalavana translation.
A sutta for anyone trying to deal with celebacy but also a sutta which reveals the real dyanamic of bondage to sexuality. It should also be of special interest to all those concerned with women's liberation as it clearly points out the error of blaming the other sex for one's bondage to it. In essence it is saying that sexual bondage is a reflection of self-love and that to free one's self from the bondage, one must free one's self from the self-love. This is one sutta where I would definitely recommend the translation of Sister Upalavana. Not because it is better, but because her choice of words reflects the feminine viewpoint in a more pronounced way than the translations by the males. This is also an unusual sutta in that it begins with the female case rather than the male. I think it may be the only sutta in which this is the case. I can also see this sutta applying to the case of homosexuality, where the obsession with persons of the same sex is coming from an obsession with the marks of the opposite sex within one's self.
[AN 7.49] On Giving Hare translation.
A detailed exposition of the various 'intents' with which a gift may be given and the distinction between the gift given with expectation of enjoyment of the results or with no expectation versus the one given with the intent of attaining mental development.
[AN 7.50] Nanda's Mother Hare translation.
[AN 7.52] Man's Faring Hare translation,
Seven Gateways for Man, Olds translation.
[AN 7.53] Tissa Hare translation.
[AN 7.54] Sīha Hare translation.
[AN 7.55] Not Cloaked Hare translation,
The Unguardeds and Unassailables, Olds translation.
Four things the Buddha does not need to guard against being revealed and three accusations that cannot be laid against him. The unequivocal statement that as it was taught by Gotama, if followed, the Dhamma leads to incorruptable freedom of heart and mind and higher knowledge.
[AN 7.56] Kimbila Hare translation.
Gotama gives Venerable Kimbala seven reasons the True Dhamma will not last long and seven reasons it will last long.
[AN 7.57] The Seven Hare translation.
Gotama gives seven factors based on which one can expect to see and know for one's self here and now freedom of heart and mind.
[AN 7.59] Wives Hare translation.
The taming of a shrew. Anāthapiṇḍika's new daughter-in-law is haughty, thinking how great a family she had come from, and she was obstinate, violent, passionate, and cruel; refused to do her part towards her new father and mother, or her husband; and went about the house with harsh words and hard blows for everyone. Gotama describes seven types of wives and their destinies in the next world and she awakens to the Dhamma and is reformed.
Dhamma Vicaya: Check the verses in this sutta, canto 3, the word translated by Hare as 'zeal'. This is pīti. This has significance for jhāna practice where it is said to be present in the first and second jhānas, suppressed for the third. The use in this case points to the feeling or emotion or motive of an individual for his work. I think this throws an enlightening light, lightning like on the understanding of this term often translated 'rapture' or 'zest'. According to PED Pīti is a term encompassing a spectrum of emotions from 'mild interest' to 'rapture'. Bhk. Thanissaro always translates as 'rapture' and characterizes it [no cite] as a state of mysterious mystical power. I think this is a somewhat more mundane state in, at least, the first jhāna. I think my usual translation: 'enthusiasm,' sneeks through.
[AN 7.60] Anger Hare translation,
Seven conditions caused by anger that double back on the angry man.
[AN 7.61] Conscientiousness Hare translation,
Shame 'n Blame Olds translation,
A description of the conditions for attaining the goal using the method of the Paṭicca Samuppada. I have done this translation because Hare was having a bad day when he did this one, made one silly mistake in the first half and got the second half of it completely backwards.
[AN 7.64] Dhamma-wise Hare translation,
The Buddha gives a list of properties that qualify a person as worthy.
[AN 7.65] The Celestial Coral Tree Hare translation,
The Buddha likens the stages in the flowering of the Koviḷāra Pāricchattaka, Tree of the devas of the Thirty to the stages in the progress towards freedom of the bhikkhu and then describes the glorious shout that rises up through the various deva worlds to the highest Brahma heaven as a consequence of his achievement.
[AN 7.66] Whom Should a Monk Respect? Hare translation,
On the surface just a boring repetitious sutta describing seven factors which a bhikkhu, desiring to abandon unrighteous ways, make righteousness become, should respect, revere and rely on. Totally obscured by the abbreviations here re-inserted is a thrilling picture of two great minds at play. A mind-wrestling competition which makes the lesson come alive. Pay attention my friends! Challenge yourself. Ask yourself if you could do this. Try it. You will see another way of thinking about the Dhamma and the mind. We have people here that challenge themselves to run a hundred miles barefoot to strengthen their bodies; how much more should we not be challenging ourselves with exercises like this to strengthen our minds! And one more thing! Those of you who are interested in learning the language could find no better way than to be reading/reciting/translating these 'repetitious' suttas. That is one of the Old-time criteria for a good 'yarn' (sutta), that is that it be educational in a multiplicity of ways. Bhk. Bodhi's translation is more complete, but he abbreviates the beginning and thus obscures our opportunity to see Sariputta's stratagem. The sutta is multi-leveled! ... don't forget the story-teller's role.
PS: If you want to try this practice, and will take my advice, begin with MN 1, the Mulapariyaya Sutta. The 24 'roots' given there are the basic roots for the Pali language and will accelerate your vocabulary building exponentially.
[AN 7.67] Making-Become Hare translation,
[AN 7.69] Bright-Eyes Hare translation,
A strong warning not to get careless with one's criticism of one's fellow seekers in the Dhamma.
[AN 7.71] Skilled in the Discipline (a) Hare translation,
[AN 7.72] Skilled in the Discipline (b) Hare translation,
[AN 7.73] Skilled in the Discipline (c) Hare translation,
[AN 7.74] Skilled in the Discipline (d) Hare translation,
[AN 7.75] The Illustrious (a) Hare translation,
[AN 7.76] The Illustrious (b) Hare translation,
[AN 7.77] The Illustrious (c) Hare translation,
[AN 7.78] The Illustrious (d) Hare translation,
[AN 7.80] The Settlement of Disputes Hare translation,
[AN 7.163-610] The Recital, continued, mostly left abbreviated.
[AN 7.611-1120]

 

Unit 77

[AN 5.86] Analysis, Hare translation.
[AN 5.95] The Immovable, Hare translation.
[AN 5.201] Kimbila, Hare translation. Gotama gives five reasons the True Dhamma will not last long and five reasons it will last long.

 

Unit 78

[AN 8.12] An important sutta. The conversion of Sīha, the Lacchavi general. An elucidation of the distinctions to be made when applying terms descriptive of Gotama's system "A doctrine of inaction, a doctrine of action, a doctrine of annihilation, a doctrine of abhorrence, a doctrine of abolition, a doctrine of mortification, a docrine against rebirth, a doctrine of consolation." At the meal provided by General Siha after his conversion the issue of eating meat came up and we see a clear illustration of the intent of the rule allowing meat to be eaten if it was not known or suspected to have been killed specifically for one.
Sīha, The General, Hare translation.
[AN 8.41] The Observances (in brief), Hare translation.
[AN 8.42] The Observances (in detail), Hare translation.
[AN 8.43] Visākhā, Hare translation.
[AN 8.51] Mahāpajāpatī the Gotamid, Hare translation.
The story of MahāPajāpatī's request that women be allowed to join the Saṅgha, the 8 special rules that were to be accepted before this was to be allowed, and Gotama's statements concerning the effect on the lifespan of the True Dhamma that would be the result.
[AN 8.80] The Bases of Indolence and Energy, Hare.
The Buddha illustrates eight generic situations giving rise to indolence and the eight counter measures to be taken to arouse energy.
[AN 8.86] Homage, Hare.
The Buddha rejects an opportunity to receive bountiful homage from lay disciples. When his attendent Nigita pleads the case for accepting Gotama replies compairing gifts in homage to a heap of dung next to the happiness of renunciation, seclusion, calm, and awakening.
[AN 8.90a] Some Female Lay-disciples, Hare.

 

Unit 79

[AN 7.16] Not Always, Hare translation.

"There are times when the unknown reveals itself in a mysterious way to the spirit of man. A sudden rent in the veil of darkness will make manifest things hitherto unseen, and then close again upon the mysteries within. ... Solitude generates a certain amount of sublime exaltation. It is like the smoke arising from the burning bush. A mysterious lucidity of mind results, which converts the student into a seer ..."
Victor Hugo, The Toilers of the Sea

 

Unit 80

[SN 46.3] Virtue, Woodward translation.

 

Unit 81

Sīha, The General.

The Eye of Dhamma

Whatsoever things arise
all those things end.

 

Unit 82

[AN 5.201] Kimbila Hare translation.
Venerable Kimbila asks about the factors involved in the longevity of the Dhamma. Gotama gives him five reasons the True Dhamma will not last long and five reasons it will last long.

 

Unit 83

[AN 6.40] The Venerable Kimbila Hare translation.
Venerable Kimbila asks about the factors involved in the longevity of the Dhamma. Gotama gives him six reasons the True Dhamma will not last long and five reasons it will last long.

 

Unit 84

[SN 2.16.13] A Counterfeit Norm, Mrs. Rhys Davids translation.

 

Unit 85

[AN 8.1] Amity, Hare translation.
[AN 8.2] Insight, Hare translation.
Eight conditions to be developed which conduce to great wisdom and the respect of fellow seekers.
[AN 8.3] Qualities not Endearing (a), Hare translation.
Eight conditions which prevent one from being liked and respected by one's fellow seekers and the converse which conduce to being liked and respected by them.
[AN 8.4] Qualities not Endearing (b), Hare translation.
Eight conditions which prevent one from being liked and respected by one's fellow seekers and the converse which conduce to being liked and respected by them.
[AN 8.5] Worldly Failings (a), Hare translation.
[AN 8.6] Worldly Failings (b), Hare translation.
This sutta and the previous deal with the eight broad categories into which all worldly activity can be classified and which, if thoroughly understood lead one to dispassion for the world. One answer to the Eighth Question. In the second sutta the distinction is made between the attitudes of the common man towards these eight conditions and the attitude towards them of the student of the Aristocrats.
[AN 8.7] Devadatta, Hare translation.
The Buddha gives eight things which should be periodically reviewed to insure one is on track. The fate of Devadatta is given as an example of how badly things can go wrong if one is neglegant in regard to these things.

'Monks, well it is for a monk to review,
from time to time,
his own faults;
well it is for a monk to review,
from time to time,
another's faults;
well it is for a monk to review,
from time to time,
his own attainments;
well it is for a monk to review,
from time to time,
another's attainments.
AN 8.007

[AN 8.8] The Venerable Uttara, Hare translation.
Venerable Uttara is teaching the bhikkhus that it is well from time to time to review one's own faults and from time to time to review the faults of others. This is overheard by Vesavana who reports the fact to Sakka, King of the Gods. Sakka visits Uttara and asks him if the saying was original with him and Uttara replies that whatsoever is well said is heard from the Buddha. Sakka then repeats to him the entire episode of it's original utterance by Gotama in AN 8.7. and commends him to remember it as an integral factor in the holy life.
[AN 8.10] Sweepings, Hare translation.
The Buddha gives three similes for the good reasons to eject a corrupt bhikkhu.
[AN 8.13] The Thoroughbred, Hare translation.
The Buddha gives eight ways in which a thoroughbred horse and a worthy bhikkhu share similar traits.
[AN 8.14] The Excitable, Hare translation.
The Buddha gives eight ways in which excitable bhikkhus react like excitable horses when reproved.
[AN 8.15] The Stains, Hare translation.
The Buddha gives eight imperfections found in eight different things.
[AN 8.16] Messages, Hare translation.
Four pairs of qualities which make a person worthy to carry messages.
[AN 8.17-18] A Woman's Toils and A Man's Hold, Hare translation.
Two suttas describing the tricks women and men use to ensnare each other.
[AN 8.19] Pahārāda. the Assura Hare translation.
Gotama holds a conversation with an eminant Assura [Monster] and contrasts the eight things held to be delightful to them to eight things delightful to the bhikkhus.
[AN 8.20] The Observance Day Hare translation.
The episode depicting the circumstances causing the Buddha to refrain thereafter from leading the bhikkhus in the recitation of the Patimokkha: the ejection of a deceitful bhikkhu by Mahā Moggallāna. The episode is followed by a repetition to the bhikkhus of the preceding sutta [AN 8.019].
[AN 8.22] Ugga of Hatthigāma Hare translation.
The lay follower, Ugga, of Hatthigāma, is spoken of as having eight wonders associated with him, one of which was that he was a Non-returner. This is the same Ugga about whom it was said: "At the top, Beggars, of those of my Upasakas who serves the Order is Uggato gahapati." — [AN 1 254]
[AN 8.23] Hatthaka of Āḷavī Hare translation.
The lay follower Hatthaka of Āḷavī (a) is spoken of as having seven wonders associated with him. Upon being told such he expresses concern as to whether laymen were present when it was said. Thereafter he is praised as haveing eight wonders associated with him, the eighth being modesty.
[AN 8.24] Hatthaka of Āḷavī (b) Hare translation.
The lay follower Hatthaka of Alavi describes how he has managed to gather together a great following using the Buddha's four methods for creating alliances; the Buddha then praises Hatthaka as having eight wonders associated with him.

The Four Methods for Making Alliances

Gifts
Kind words (speaking well of people)
Making one's self useful
Treating all alike according to the same standard
— Olds, translation, see also: AN 4 32; AN 8 24

[AN 8.25] Mahānamā, the Sakyan Hare translation.
Mahānamā, the Sakyan inquires about the factors that go into the making of a good lay disciple.
[AN 8.29] Untimely, Hare translation.
Eight times when one's rebirth is not best suited (timely) for leading the godly life. Although the optimal time for rebirth is during the lifetime of a Buddha and where one would be able to come into face-to-face contact with him and be of sufficient wits to listen and recognize what was well said as well said, and to seize the opportunity, our time [Tuesday, October 01, 2013 11:27 AM] and our place [the outlying countries, among unintelligent barbarians] is still a good time since the Buddha's teaching is still available even here.
[AN 8.30] The Venerable Anuruddha, Hare translation.
This is a fully rolled-out version. An elegant sutta describing the instructions given Anuruddha which lead to his becoming an arahant. There is also a deep lesson here on the use of psychic power. Gotama first visits Anuruddha by way of 'astral travel' (giving him by this a shock to his system to bring his higher mental powers into play) having overheard him with his supernatural hearing, congratulates him on his thoughts (the seven thoughts of a Great Man), rehearses them with him and instructs him in the attainment of the jhānas, and upon returning rehearses the whole lesson in detail with the bhikkhus. The thing to 'see' is Anuruddha 'hearing' as Gotama rehearses the seven thoughts in detail with the bhikkhus. In this sutta (page 158) there is a definition of set up 'sati' (upaṭṭhitasati) the state achieved by 'satipaṭṭhana' (the setting up of sati) which should be noted by everyone practicing that method, that is (Hare's translation): 'he is endowed in the highest degree with intentness of mind and discrimination; he recollects and calls to mind both the doings and the sayings of long ago' or as in AN 7.4 pg 3: 'he minds and reminds'. — Whereas mindfulness and paying attention are aspects of the practice of setting up sati, the state achieved does not put the emphasis on 'attention' but on the memory. For 'paying attention' we have 'guarding the senses.' So the practice of one who has mastered these two basics is: paying attention to the events occuring at the doors of the senses and using the memory to evaluate those events to the point where they are seen as transient, essentially painful, and not-self at which point there is serenity (samādhi, the peace of detachment) and recognizing this detachment as freedom, freedom. The information is here. The method is well taught. What should be done for you by a teacher, friends, has been done. Getting something from that is up to you. Find your place to be alone, meditate! Do not regret hereafter!
[AN 8.31] On giving (a), Hare translation.
Giving, Olds translation.
Eight generic ways giving is done.
[AN 8.32] On giving (b), Hare translation.
Giving 2, Olds translation.
A little ditty. No nidana. No wonder.
[AN 8.33] Grounds for Giving, Hare translation.
Habits of Giving, Olds translation.
Eight habitual ways people give, or eight grounds for giving. You decide. Could be eight habitual grounds for giving.
[AN 8.34] The Field, Hare translation.
The characteristics of an unproductive field contrasted with the characteriscs of a person where gifts when given are not very productive followed by the converse field and person.
[AN 8.35] Rebirths Due to Gifts, Hare translation.
Eight rebirths resulting from the aspirations made by virtuous givers of gifts to those who live the godly life. Seven are to 'lower heavenly realms' (for some the idea of a life lasting millions of years with exclusively pleasant sensations may seem attractive). If you believe in kamma (or even if you don't and want to cover your bets) and can manage to govern your life without lies, theft, intentional injury to living beings, and can keep away from messing with other people's mates or wards, make gifts to virtuous bhikkhus when you get the opportunity. The aspirations of the virtuous prosper because of their clarity! Aspiration for rebirth with Brahma takes a little more work: some degree of serenity (above worldly lusts, i.e., the first jhāna) and the development of the four godly thoughts. Form an 'aspiration' this way: "Let me (or 'May I'), as a consequence of this gift, be reborn among..." These are all rebirths for those whose minds 'are set on lower things.' The higher things are Streamwinning, Once Returning, Non-returning and Arahantship.
[AN 8.36] Action, Hare translation.
Puññakiriyavatthu. Meritorious-action-(habit or ground). Eight outcomes from the performance of meritorous action graded as to extent of the giving and virtuous behavior involved.
[AN 8.37] The Worthy Man (a), Hare translation.
Eight considerations or manners of giving of the good man praised by seers (Vipassino).
[AN 8.38] The Worthy Man (b), Hare translation.
Eight benefits the birth of a good man brings into the world.
This sutta speaks of the birth of the good man being of benefit to his slaves. There will be those who say such a person could not be a good man, that this condones slavery, and that therefore Buddhism condones slavery, and that the Buddha condoned slavery. I have heard these ideas said.
To understand this from the point of view of the Dhamma, one must bring to the forefront two ideas: The first is that beings are responsible for their own conditions as a consequence of their previous actions: kamma. This is fundamental to the understanding of Buddhism and if this idea cannot be seen or understood in theory, then it must be taken on trust for any of the rest of the doctrine to be comprehensible. It is not that many of the doctrines of the system will not be of benefit whether or not one believes in kamma, it is that without the idea of kamma they are stripped of the logical basis which makes Buddhism otherwise so acceptable to the rational mind. Giving, for example, is beneficial whatever one believes, but without the idea that it produces good results for the self in consequence, it lacks rationality. The idea that beings are responsible for their situations makes the idea of trying to alter the situations of others other than by the attempt to educate them to the benefits of skillful behavior, absurd. If the external form of slavery were abolished (which it has not been, in spite of great effort and much blodshed) beings whose kamma would otherwise result in slavery would find themselves enslaved in other ways. The second thing to be understood in this matter is that the goal of the Dhamma is the complete abandoning of the world. It is not, as many would try to say, to save the world for worldly living or to make good kamma. The goal is to escape kamma. The Buddha does not waste his time on the impossible. The Arahant has no more attachment to the beliefs held in the world than does the theater goer who sees a play in which some of the characters are slaves and some advocate slavery, or the nature-lover who admires the wild-life without judging the carnage that actually occurs in the wild.
When asked, Gotama states that no man should sell himself into slavery, or sell human beings (AN 5.177). Further there can be no question that he does not advocate forcefully taking people as prisoners into slavery. And it is explicitly stated that a man should not deal in the sale of human beings. Those statements cover the issues relevant to the goal.
The nature of the detachment of the Arahant is that when not asked directly about something, to judge, or speak out about it, (let alone take action) would be involvement and such a thing down to the smallest movement conceivable, would not be possible: he is completely detached and thinks only of what leads to the goal in abstract terms.
The arahant can respond about issues if asked directly and where the issue concerns the goal, because, as with the character in a play or movie, that is his role as long as the body remains. To speak out spontaneously about the evils of slavery would be interference indicating attachment and it would be of such a nature as would cause unpleasantness (think of the Civil War in the U.S.A., for an example — the Buddhist is as concerned about not creating unpleasantness for the bad guy as for the good guy) and would be about something that does not lead to the goal.
Such behavior as is advocated is advocated by example. And here the example is the 'attendant' that elders often had. Such a bhikkhu attends on his teacher without pay, and voluntarily and considers it an honor. Where is the difference then between that and the man who has sold himself into slavery? Just words and attitudes. This is not a topic that can be spoken of, for or against, beyond a certain point, as one that leads to the goal or prevents one from attaining the goal. There are shades of understanding.
Conversely, when speaking of a topic it is dealt with objectively whether or not the secondary issues are problematic: a good man will benefit his slaves, whether or not slavery is right or wrong.
Then there is reading this sutta carefully. It in no way precludes that the benefit to the slave of the good man being born might be that the good man frees the slave. Or, if a man had sold himself into slavery because he was unable to make a living otherwise, to treat him as a man who worked for room and board. So it would be going too far to say that this sutta advocated slavery, or that by it the Buddha, or Buddhism advocated slavery, or that the sutta misguides in it's description of the good man.
[AN 8.39] Yields, Hare translation.
A sutta describing the bountiful harvest of good consquences following from trust in the Buddha, Dhamma, Saṅgha and the ethical standards of the Aristocrats
[AN 8.44] Vāseṭṭha, Hare translation.
Vāseṭṭha is told of the eight attributes of the Upasatha and remarks as to how much it would benefit others to so pracice.
[AN 8.45] Bojjhā, Hare translation.
Bojjhā is told of the eight attributes of the Upasatha.
[AN 8.46] The Venerable Anuruddha, Hare translation.
The Venerable Anuruddha is visited by a group of goddeses who perform various entertaining magic feats. Afterwards he asks Gotama about the characteristics of women who are born as goddesses of lovely form.
[AN 8.47] Visākhā, Hare translation.
The Buddha tells Visākhā of the eight characteristics of women who are born as goddesses of lovely form.
[AN 8.48] Nakulamātā, Hare translation.
The Buddha tells Nakulamātā of the eight characteristics of women who are born as goddesses of lovely form.
[AN 8.49] Of This World Here (a), Hare translation.
The Buddha tells Visākhā of four things that, for women, lead to power in this world, and four that lead to power in the next.
[AN 8.50] Of This World Here (a), Hare translation.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus of four things that, for women, lead to power in this world, and four that lead to power in the next.
There are going to be a number of women and feminists out there that will react strongly and negatively to the above five suttas. This is for those who may have the same reactions but are open to another point of view. This is very difficult to understand. What we are dealing with here in this world is like a stage play (... in which we strut and fret our hour ... and then are heard again and again). We play parts. De-parting from the script, we mess up the play trying to focus the attention of the audience on ourselves — that is all one is doing — one is having an infantile tantrum. We blur the story line and bring ruin on many. It's like the washer-woman in the background throwing a tantrum in a play concerning princes in conflict over rule of the world. In a real play, one would be fired. Acting our parts according to the demands of the role, but also following the higher demands of the Dhamma (the over-arching plot), we either create good deeds or no deeds and experience consequences or not according to those deeds. Acting against our roles (evidence of our desire to escape), we act in resistance to the outcomes of our previous deeds. Our previous deeds have cast us into our current roles and resistance to the outcome is like complaint (which is the adult form of an infantile tantrum). It doesn't do any good, it shows our ignorance of how things really work and because it is based on misundrstanding, it is the foundation of misconceived acts leading to further unpleasant outcomes not the freedom we seek. Resistance is colaboration. It confirms and re-inforces the incorrect belief that the situation one is in has substantial reality. It doesn't. It is a pretend thing. Like a dream from which one wishes to awaken, struggle is not the way out. A calm, relaxed, detached calculated wise response to the situation one is in and the events that arise is the way out. That calm, relaxed, detached, calculated response is what is being taught in this Dhamma and these suttas. One plays out one's role ... with a twist. In stead of complaining when told to scrub the floor, one scrubs the floor thinking: 'In this way I will wear out my old bad kamma, and I do not set going by complaint and resistance or collaboration any new kamma.' If acting in this way results in death, the consequence of this sort of behavior will not be a bad outcome. How could it have a bad outcome? The deed is scrubbing a floor for someone. That is a good deed. There is no foundation there for a bad outcome. Fighting with one's role is clustered around with foundations for bad outcomes: anger, hatred, vicious talk, taking things that are not given, lazyness, and harmful acts. Let it go and see how pleasantly one sails through one's role and on to better things. The basic generic rules for real escape are what these suttas are about.

Just as the ocean has but one taste,
the taste of salt;
even so this discipline of Dhamma
has but one flavour,
the flavour of release
AN 8.19, Hare Translation

 

Unit 86

[SN 5.47.11] The Superman, Woodward translation.
The Great Man, Olds translation, Anuruddha asks about the Great Man and the Buddha explains that one should be called a Great Man only if he has attained freedom of heart. He explains that this is attained by way of the four satipatthanas. Woodward uses the term 'superman' when he did not need to and then it looks like he tried to dissassociate it from its then current use by the Nazis. Possibly an attempt to short circuit misunderstandings. In fact Hitler was aware of Buddhism and obviously borrowed that term from that source and made use of it in his racial propaganda. It is clear in the suttas however, that in the same way as the word Ariyan does stand for the race, it is its meaning as 'Aristocratic' in mind and behavior that is the use to which it is put in Gotama's system, so the word MahāPurisas, stands for qualities attained through understanding and behavior and not the natural attributes of a race. The Ayya called themselves Ariyans in a similar way that many peoples around the world call their tribes 'The People'.

Gain and loss, honor and dishonor,
Praise and blame, pleasure and pain;
Impermanent, human conditions ... ending things;
things vulnerable to reversal!
Recognizing and reflecting, the wise consider these:
things vulnerable to reversal!
 
By the pleasant not stirred up in heart,
nor by unpleasantries repulsed,
Tranquilized, gone past all that,
neither collaborating nor resisting,
Walking the path free of lust, sorrowless,
knowing the highest knowing
passed beyond.
AN 8.005

 

Unit 87

[SN 5.55.31] Flood (a), Woodward translation.
A sutta describing the flood of good consquences following from trust in the Buddha, Dhamma, Saṅgha and the ethical standards of the Aristocrats.

 

Unit 88

[AN 4.51] Flood of Merit (to Laymen) (a), Woodward translation.
Four gifts that when given to a bhikkhu who is able to attain unbounded serenity yield incalculably rich results. This sutta serves the double purpose of encouraging the layman to give and to admonish the bhikkhus to be worthy to receive. It illustrates the fact that the consequences of kamma do not rely solely on the actor.

 

Unit 89

[AN 5.45] Yields in Merit, Hare translation.
Five gifts that when given to a bhikkhu who is able to attain unbounded serenity yield incalculably rich results. This sutta serves the double purpose of encouraging the layman to give and to admonish the bhikkhus to be worthy to receive. It illustrates the fact that the consequences of kamma do not rely solely on the actor.
[AN 5.56] The Preceptor, Hare translation.
A bhikkhu is discouraged and has become befuddled. Taken to the Buddha by his preceptor he is given instructions as to how to practice and becomes an Arahant.
[AN 5.220] Madhurā, Hare translation.
Five disadvantages of Madhurā

 

Unit 90

[AN 6.37] Alms, Hare translation
The three elements on the part of the giver and the three elements on the part of the receiver that go into the making of a gift of incalculably rich results.

 

Unit 91

The Eighteen Schools of Buddhism by Vasumitra The author reproduces a strange work of the 'forecasting the past' sort.

 

Unit 92

[AN 3.65] Those of Kesaputta, Woodward translation
A famous sutta, better known as 'The Kalama Sutta' or 'The Discourse to the Kalamas'. The Kalamas, bewildred by contradictory claims as to whose Dhamma is the best, ask Gotama for his advice. His famous reply (in Woodward's words):

Be not misled by proficiency in the collections,
nor by mere logic or inference,
nor after considering reasons,
nor after reflection on and approval of some theory,
nor because it fits becoming,
nor out of respect for a recluse (who holds it).

But, Kālāmas, when you know for yourselves:

These things are unprofitable,
these things are blameworthy,
these things are censured by the intelligent;
these things, when performed and undertaken,
conduce to loss and sorrow

But if at any time ye know of yourselves:

These things are profitable,
they are blameless,
they are praised by the intelligent:
these things, when performed and undertaken,
conduce to profit and happiness, -

then, Kālāmas, do ye, having undertaken them
abide therein.

 

Unit 93

[AN 4.193] Bhaddiya, Woodward translation
A parallel to AN 3.65. Bhaddiya reports a rumor that Gotama knows a spell that converts followers of other sects. In stead of denying the rumor, Gotama teaches Dhamma to Bhaddiya who is converted by the logic. Then Gotama asks him if he cast a spell on him. A wonderful sutta for showing Gotama's teaching skills.

 

Unit 94

The Sutra of the Forty-two Sections A very early (c. A.D. 64), possibly the first work on the Dhamma translated into Chinese. As the English translator of the document mentions, this is not a known old (Pali) 'sutta' and it is not a Mahayana document. It reflects the Dhamma as we have it in the Pali. It looks like a 'quick summary'.

 

Unit 95

The Last Seven Buddhas A table giving some information about the past seven buddhas and a longer list of the 24 Buddhas preceding Gotama.

 

Unit 96

[MN 50] Discourse On A Rebuke To Māra, Horner translation
Mara tries to upset Maha Moggallāna and is told of Maha Moggallāna's own experience as Mara attempting to upset bhikkhus where he ends up in Niraya with the body of a man and the head of a fish boiling for many hundreds of thousands of years. The gatha at the end is about as close to an old-time curse as is found in Buddhism.
[MN 84] Discourse at Madhura, Horner translation
The Madhurā Sutta Concerning Caste, Lord Chalmers translation
King Avantiputta of Madhura has heard a boast by the brahmins that they were superior to all other peoples. He asks Venerable Kaccana the Great about this and receives a discourse showing that this is a lot of hot air. A very good example of the use of questions to bring about understanding in a questioner. The Chalmers translation is very early but is hardly distinguishable from the later translaions. He provides an interesting introduction.
[MN 37] Lesser Discourse on the Destruction of Craving, Horner translation
A well-known and much loved sutta. Sakka, Ruler of the Devas, visits the Buddha and asks about the scope of understanding required of one to be able to know he is arahant. The Buddha instructs him, but Maha Moggallāna, who was listening, doubts it has sunk in and visits Sakka in the Tavatimsa Realm. There he is put off with frivolities and in order to rouse Sakka to seriousness Maha Moggallāna shakes Sakka's palace with his big toe. With his hair standing on end, Sakka gets down to business.

 

Unit 97

[SN 3.22.53] Upaya Suttaṃ The Pali
Attachment, Woodward translation
Taking Up, Olds translation
The Pali has been completely re-worked to reconcile it with the PTS version. This is one of the few cases where I have seen a difference in versions of the Pali that could make a significant difference in understanding the message of a sutta. My new translation is my statement as to how I think it should be. There is a little bit of comedy here at the end where the various translators struggle with the fact that in the Pali there is a sequence using 'attā' or 'self': vimuttattā ṭhitaṃ ṭhitattā santusitaṃ, santusitattā na paritassati where they have used 'it' for 'self', so they have consciousness walking around liberated, steady, content, not troubled, and become cool. This is not technically wrong, but there needs to be some relaxation in the use of conventional speech in such cases. The beggar is being told about how to attain liberation, so there is no real problem about speaking of him, or his self, as having attained it. I have my own suggested solution as to how to handle this. This is really a sutta that deals with The First Lesson; food. Here consciousness is shown as being dependent on a person's attachment to and taking up of form, sensation, perception, own-making and consciousness, and when that attachment is let go, how that takes the rug out from under consciousness and results in liberation.

 

Unit 98

[AN 8.52] He Who May Advise, Hare translation
Ānanda asks the Buddha about the qualifications of a bhikkhu who would give instruction.
[AN 8.53] Dhamma in Brief, Hare translation
Mahapajapati Gotami asks the Buddha for an instruction in brief to guide her through a period of intense study that leads to her becomming an arahant. If you find yourself confused about what is and what is not Dhamma or the Practice or the Teaching of the Teacher, this sort of instruction in brief is very helpful for setting things straight.
[AN 8.54] Longknee, the Koḷiyan, Hare translation
The Buddha teaches Longknee four things that are advantageous and make for happiness here, and four things that are advantageous and lead to happiness hereafter.
[AN 8.55] Ujjaya, the Brāhman, Hare translation
The Buddha teaches Ujjaya four things that are advantageous and make for happiness here, and four things that are advantageous and lead to happiness hereafter.
[AN 8.56] Fear, Hare translation
Eight terms that should be considered synonyms for sense pleasures: 'fear', 'pain', 'disease', 'inflammation', 'hook', 'bondage', 'swamp', and 'in-wombed (as in entombed, that is doomed ... to resume).'
[AN 8.57] Those Worthy of Offerings (a), Hare translation
Eight attainments which make a bhikkhu worthy to receive offerings, gifts, signs of respect and make him a peerless opportunity for making good kamma.
[AN 8.58] Those Worthy of Offerings (b), Hare translation
Eight attainments which make a bhikkhu worthy to receive offerings, gifts, signs of respect and make him a peerless opportunity for making good kamma. Partly different from the previous.
[AN 8.59] The Eight Persons (a), Hare translation
Four pairs of individuals worthy to receive offerings, gifts, signs of respect and who are each a peerless opportunity for making good kamma. This group here is in the gāthā called 'the saṅgha of upright living' (Esa saṅgho ujubhūto), and it is interesting to note that very frequently, if not always, Gotama, when referring to 'the Saṅgha' qualifies his statement with the definition of such as these four, thus defining the Saṅgha more in terms of accomplishment than in terms of membership in the worldly order.
[AN 8.60] The Eight Persons (b), Hare translation
Four pairs of individuals worthy to receive offerings, gifts, signs of respect and who are each a peerless opportunity for making good kamma. Identical with the previous sutta except here in the gāthā the saṅgha is called 'the saṅgha of "exalted" beings, eight men' (Esa saṅgho samukkaṭṭho sattānaṃ aṭṭha puggalā). In my version of the BJT Pali this sutta is in an especially mangled section which has this line as: "Esa saṅgho andubhuto..." the sangha of the blind!" Some bhikkhu proofreader having a little dangerous fun?
[AN 8.61] Hankering, Hare translation
The Buddha deliniates the difference in attitude of eight sorts of persons who still wish for possessions, pointing out that it is the reaction with sorrow or joy to failure or success in their wishes that indicates that one has fallen from the path and the non-reaction with sorrow or joy that indicates that the other is still on the path.
[AN 8.62] Enough, Hare translation
Six factors which, depending on their presence or absense in a person in eight combinations make for sufficiency in being of benefit to either the self or others or both. This sutta has two characteristics which are interesting. First is that it is another of the sort which come across as mental exercises: it really stretches the attention to keep track. I really hope that seeing some of these suttas completely rolled out brings home this idea that what we have here in this sort of sutta is an enjoyable challenging way to learn Dhamma ... not to mention the benefits in strengthening the memory. The second characteristic found in this sutta is the fact that it is one which is very encouraging to even those whose grasp of the Dhamma is somewhat slender while at the same time points to the path to improvement.
[AN 8.63] This is a very interesting sutta because it gives a step-by-step instruction in meditation practice. It is notable here that while the factors of jhāna are stated, they are all just classed under 'samādhi' ('serenity'; Hare, Bhk. Thanisaro, Bhk. Bodhi: 'concentration'; which is not a good translation) and are not put in the usual 1-4 grouping and the term 'jhāna' is not mentioned. The method for transitioning out of vitakka and vicāra is inidicated here in a way that is only found in a few suttas: that is, by abandoning one, then the other. Also interesting in this sutta is the way serenity practice is combined with the satipaṭṭānās.
[AN 8.64] At Gayā, Hare translation
A valuable sutta for those interested in the development of the 'Devine Eye' or clairvoyance. Gotama provides a step-by step progression from the seeing of vague lights, to seeing the forms of beings, to associating with them and conversing with them, to learning of various sorts of information about them to knowing whether or not one had one's self at some time been one of them.
This is also a detailed presentation of the cultivation of serenity based on 'light' which is said to be the samādhi most conducive to yielding knowledge and vision. Begin by 'looking at' the vague lights one sees when the eyes are partially closed. Without thinking about the lights, track the lights. The best practice is to not 'focus down,' but to repeatedly glance at, as one does not generally 'focus down' on things in normal seeing, but glances at things. Overcome the obstacle of delight or surprise, or fear, or attachment to the phenomena or pride in the accomplishment when the vague lights become clearly distinguishable shapes, when the shapes become beings, when the beings become pictures, when the pictures become stories, etc.
The Hare translation made the best of a confused PTS Pali which was, as we have it, abridged without so indicating and was a mess, the BJT Pali was similarly messed up. I have put the Pali into the form I believe was originally intended and have reconstructed Hare's translation accordingly. You've been told.
[AN 8.65] Mastery, Hare translation
The Spheres of Mastery Over Fear, Olds translation
The Buddha describes how to recognize that one has mastered fear in eight fundamental situations [Olds] or how to recognize eight situations in which one is to overcome bias [also Olds, in DN 33.8.10] or he teaches of eight spheres over which one is to attain mastery (the nature of which is not explained) [Hare, or Olds without reading the footnote] or he teaches eight perceptions overcoming the defects of the kasinas [Bodhi (not given)], or he teaches eight paths to jhāna access [Rhys Davids; DN 33.8; as with Bhk. Bodhi, based on commentary]. Take your pick, though I think my latest here is the closest to the Pali and makes more sense than anything done so far in revealing this most mysterious set of experiences which appear here and there throughout the suttas.
[AN 8.66] The Deliverances, Hare translation
The Releases, Olds translation
Eight progressively more encompassing releases from this world.
[AN 8.67] Un-Ariyan Practices, Hare translation
[AN 8.68] Un-Ariyan Practices, Hare translation
Two suttas deliniating the scope of dishonest and honest speech.
[AN 8.69] Assemblies, Hare translation
The Buddha delineates eight assemblies of beings and tells how he has visited each and there became like unto them in color, like unto them in manner and there taught them Dhamma and they knew him not.
[AN 8.70] Earthquakes, Hare translation
The Buddha states that he is able to extend his lifespan to the end of the evolution of the world. He states this three times but Ānanda does not take the hint to ask him to do so. Mara rejoyces but overplays his hand, pushing for the Buddha to enter PariNibbāna immediately. The Buddha tells Mara not to be impatient for he will do so within three months thereby renouncing the remainder of his lifespan possible. At this statement there is a world-shaking earthquake. Then Ānanda asks about the causes of such earthquakes and Gotama explains the eight causes. A hard sutta for those grounded in modern science to accept. An interesting thing in this regard is the description of the first cause of such a quake which is more or less what we might call a 'normal' quake. In this it is stated that the earth is situated (stands) on water, the water on air and that when the air becomes disturbed, it disturbes the water which disturbes the earth. Our history books record the idea of the earth being on water as ancient ignorant myth. But if the translation of 'water' is its other meaning as 'liquid' and if the translation of 'air' is as it's other meaning as 'motion'. We could then see that the statement is that the earth's mantal rests on liquid and that when such things as solar flairs and cosmic winds disturb the magnetic field ... . Well ... the scientists will immediately say that it isn't the liquid strata that causes quakes, but the plates rubbing against each other. But what causes their movement? The other causes are much more mystical. ... but what causes the solar winds? Etc.
[AN 8.71] Faith (a), Hare translation
A stepwise method of progression from faith to arahantship.
[AN 8.72] Faith (b), Hare translation
A stepwise method of progression from faith to arahantship. Identical with AN 8.71 above but with the deliverances substituted for the four jhānas. What is the significance of this? First one must understand that the deliverances are not 'the final deliverance' as in Nibbāna. In both the case of the jhānas and the deliverances, Nibbāna is attained upon conscious realization of liberation. Upekkah (detachment), or the fourth jhāna (or any state of detachment above involvement with sense pleasures), or the perception of the ending of sense experience, are in and of themselves not enough. The factors that would bring such detached or liberated states to an end and result in re-entry or rebirth, that is, the āsavas, or corrupting influences, must be brought to and end and seen to have been completely eliminated. So what is being said in these suttas is that one uses the detached state of the jhāna, or the released state of the deliverances, first working on the ending of the āsavas and then attaining freedom from them, and realizing one has got free, one is free.
[AN 8.73] Mindfulness of Death (a), Hare translation
A sutta which illustrates the extreme degree of concentration required to be considered careful mindfulness — in this case, of death.
[AN 8.74] Mindfulness of Death (b), Hare translation
A detailed exposition of the 'mindfulness of death' practice.
[AN 8.75] The Achievements (a), Hare translation
A list of eight achievements helpful for evaluating one's progress in the system.
[AN 8.76] The Achievements (b), Hare translation
A list of eight achievements helpful for evaluating one's progress in the system, with detailed explanation of each.
[AN 8.77] Hankering, Hare translation
The Buddha deliniates the difference in attitude of eight sorts of persons who still wish for possessions, pointing out that it is the reaction with sorrow or joy to failure or success in their wishes that indicates that one has fallen from the path and the non-reaction with sorrow or joy that indicates that the other is still on the path. Identical with AN 8.61, but spoken by Venerable Sāriputta
[AN 8.78] Enough, Hare translation
Six factors which, depending on their presence or absense in a person in eight combinations make for sufficiency in being of benefit to either the self or others or both. Identical with AN 8.62, but spoken by Venerable Sāriputta
[AN 8.79] Failure, Hare translation
Eight conditions which conduce to failure for a bhikkhu in training; eight which conduce to success. Applies just as well to anyone interested in awakening.
[AN 8.81] Mindfulness, Hare translation
How a progression of interdependent steps from paying attention to memory to knowing and seeing freedom fails when paying attention to memory is missing and succeeds when it is present.
[AN 8.82] The Venerable Puṇṇiya, Hare translation
Punniya, asks why it is that sometimes the Buddha will teach and sometimes not. Gotama explains that there are eight factors involved, but that more than the simple eight factors what is needed is to see progress up the eight factors in a bhikkhu. So sometimes a teaching may be given with only some of the factors and other times not when even one is missing. Identical with AN 10.83 Woodward, with fewer factors.
[AN 8.84] The Highwayman, Hare translation
Eight things that if a bandit does them shortens his career or if he refrains from them lengthens his career. This sutta does more than just show compassion even for the bandit, the principles enumerated can be generalized out to other careers, for example, to politicians.
[AN 8.85] Recluse, Hare translation
Eight terms that can be considered synonyms for 'the Buddha' or 'Tathāgata', or 'Arahant'.
[AN 8.87]The Bowl, Hare translation
Eight reasons the Saṅgha may 'overturn the bowl' (refuse to accept food or other gifts) of a lay disciple. A terrible punishment in the light of a belief in kamma and the rarity of the opportunity to give to the 'peerless field for making merit' which is the Saṅgha.
[AN 8.88] Disapproval, Hare translation
Turn about is fair play. Eight reasons laymen may express disapproval of a bhikkhu.
[AN 8.89] Paṭisāraṇiyakamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Expiation, Hare translation
A layman having brought a complaint against a bhikkhu, the Saṅgha may meet and impose a punishment of expiation against the bhikkhu or it may elect to cancel the proceedings if he is found innocent of the offense.
[AN 8.90] The Proper Practice, Hare translation
Eight sanctions which may be imposed on a bhikkhu by the sangha if he is found guilty of an offense. This sutta seems to me, because of it's nature as vinaya, could be very old, possibly composed prior to the formal putting together of the vinaya rules.
[AN 8.91] The Understanding of Passion (a), Hare translation
Eight things which must be developed for the complete understanding of passion. This is the "Noble Eightfold Path" [Ariya Aṭṭhaṅgika Magga,] but apparently before it became known as that. Here it is simply called the 'Eight-Way' sutta. Additionally it is interesting that the familiar Noble Eightfold Path is not otherwise included among the eights.
[AN 8.92] The Understanding of Passion (b), Hare translation
The Spheres of Mastery Over Passion, Olds translation
[AN 8.93] The Understanding of Passion (c), Hare translation
The Spheres of Deliverance from Passion, Olds translation
Almost identical to AN 8.66.
[AN 8.94-120] Left abridged except for the first set as pattern.
The Passion group continued, Hare translation. Comprehension, exhaustion, abandonment, destruction decay, freedom from desire for, ending of quittance, and renunciation, played off against the 'Eight-way', The Spheres of Mastery, and the Eight Deliverances.
[AN 8.121-600] The Repetition group continued, Hare translation.
Mostly abridged, giving titles and numbers. The first three are unabridged showing the pattern for the rest.

 

Unit 99

[AN 5.127] On Withdrawing, Hare translation
The Buddha gives five things that should be mastered before a bhikkhu goes into seclusion.
[AN 5.169] Coming to Know, Hare translation
Quick Witted, Olds, translation,
Five things one should become expert at in order to be quick-witted, handy, of wide knowledge and grasp of things and of retentive memory.
[AN 5.177] Trades, Hare translation
Five trades that should not be taken up by a lay disciple.
[AN 5.205] Mental Barrenness, Hare translation
Five states of the heart termed 'fallow' (untilled, unplowed, unused, gone to waste, barren) which result in sluggish or no progress.
[AN 5.206] Mental Bondage, Hare translation
Five things that twist up the heart. Vinibandha Re-down-bond.

 

Before Retiring into Seclusion

Five things which should be mastered before considering retirement into seclusion:

Being content with any clothing.
Being content with any food.
Being content with any lodging.
Being content with any medical treatment.
Having as a principle purpose the elimination of lust.

— Adapted from AN 5.127

 

Unit 100

[AN 4.1] Understanding, Woodward translation
Four reasons beings have been tied to the round of rebirths this long time.
[AN 4.2] Fallen Away, Woodward translation
Four factors that when missing indicate that one has fallen away from the path, when present that one is on the path: ethical conduct, serenity, wisdom, freedom.
[AN 4.21] At Uruvelā (a), Woodward translation.
Shortly after his enlightenment Gotama sees no person to whom he should pay reverance and serve. Seeing danger in this situation he decides to place the Dhamma in this position. This sutta is a mixed bag. On the one hand there will be those here today [U.S.A., Saturday, October 26, 2013 6:54 AM] raised on the values of Mark Twain, who will be repelled at the statement:
"For the perfection of the sum total of virtues (serenety, wisdom, freedom) still imperfect I would dwell so doing honour, obeying, reverencing and serving a recluse or brahmin: but not in this world with devas, Maras, Brahmas, not in the host of recluses and brahmins, not in the world of devas and mankind do I behold any other recluse or brahmin more perfect in virtue (serenety, wisdom, freedom) than myself, whom honouring I could dwell reverencing, obeying and serving him."
They will hold that this is an immodest boast which was either not made by Gotama or if made by him shows that he is not what he claims to be. I suggest an alternative understanding: Where this statement reflects the truth, it is not a boast but simply a statement of fact. As such, it forces the hearer into a delimma from which extraction is only possible by a change in values. This change can only come about convincingly through a comprehension of the value of the Four Truths in solving the problem of Pain and Rebirth. So the sutta serves the function of providing a check as to one's real state of understanding: If this statement cannot be accepted, one has not understood the system. Then comes a confirmation of Gotama's decision from Brahmā Sahampati. This, in and of itself, is not the problem. There will be those who cannot accept such a thing. That doesn't matter. There is a way to know, and that is to attain vision. Without vision there is no proving the story so it should be just put to the side if there is doubt.
Brahmā's visit (his second, and we have another in AN 10.89 above) poses another problem (but not one which is impossible to solve!): The Evolution, stasis, and devolution of the universe takes place between the opening and closing of Brahmā's eye. A blink. Putting aside the period of stasis and the period of devolution which our science has not yet come to grips with, that's a third of a blink for the Evolution of the Universe. Let's say that it's a slow blink and comes to 3 seconds, or one second for the Evolution. Let us give our science the benefit of the doubt and accept their estimate of 26 billion years for the Evolution and figure we're right at the end couple of Brahmā-microtrilliseconds. So we have the equation: 1 Brahmā second = 26 billion human years. Let's allow that Brahmā is paying attention to what is going on at the time of the Buddha's awakening. After all it is likely the most interesting thing that is happening, and he does have speaking parts. This part (entry, kneeling, uttering his pronouncement (restricted to the basic statement and tossing out the gāthā) and departing) will take him something like one minute and five seconds human time (that is, if he does not make use of Gotama's ability to 'fast talk' which would speed up things by about 18 times), plus minus, let's say 1 minute.
Now there are sixty minutes in an hour, 24 hours in a day, or 1,440 minutes in a day. 1440 minutes times 365 days times 26,000,000,000 years is 37,440,000,000,000 minutes. (Forget that the Deva year is usually given as only 300 days, we can call that an approximation in a culture where even the educated man was usually unable to count above three.) So what is confronted with in this situation is the need to focus down on what is subjectively, relative to a human, 1/37,440,000,000,000th of a second. On two separate occasions (asking Gotama to teach, and this occasion, if I have not missed others (I have, see above)) in one second. I don't say this is impossible. I say this is possible — I don't know, but suppose Brahmā were able to be a sort of limited omnipresent (able, as with omniscience, to be wherever he wished to be, whenever he wished to be there; there is, in this system, a living outside of time that would permit this. This is a synonym for arahantship, but it may be accessible to non-arahants in a temporary way.) that allowed him to do his bit's here unhindered by time. I just say that this is not going to be something that is done off hand by Brahmā. Not something where he is going to waste words, hang around and chit-chat, show his skill at poetizing or preach to the masses.
[AN 4.22] At Uruvelā (b), Woodward translation
Four things more important than age that make a person an elder.
[AN 4.38] Withdrawn, Woodward translation
Three conditions which must be fulfilled for one to be called 'One who has Withdrawn': having put away personal beliefs, having abandoned ambitions, and having pasified the own-made body. The Buddha defines each of these conditions.
[AN 4.96] Profit of self (a), Woodward translation
[AN 4.97] Profit of self (b), Woodward translation
[AN 4.98] Profit of self (c), Woodward translation
Types of individuals classed according to whether they are of benefit to themselves only or others only or to both or neither.
[AN 4.118] Stirring Emotion, Woodward translation
Four places which are looked on with stirring emotion by a believing Buddhist.
[AN 4.119] Fears (a), Woodward translation
Four basic fears.
[AN 4.120] Fears (b), Woodward translation
Four basic fears.
[AN 4.141] Splendours, Woodward translation
[AN 4.142] Radiances, Woodward translation
[AN 4.143] Lights, Woodward translation
[AN 4.144] Brilliance, Woodward translation
[AN 4.145] Lamps, Woodward translation
[AN 4.156] The Æon, Woodward translation
The evolution, stasis, devolution and stasis of the universe each described as taking a very long time.
[AN 4.161] (Modes of Practice) in Brief, Bhk. Thanissaro translation
[Modes of Progress] In Brief, Woodward translation
The Bhk. Thanissaro translation is from my incarnation as him (if he objects to this and lets me know, I will remove it). It was constructed from his translation of the following sutta on the same subject in detail and which begins with text identical to this sutta. Four ways individuals progress through the system in terms of ease and pleasantness.

Restoration (by w. Simpson) of the Ahin Posh tope. [From the Proceedings of the R.I.B.A.]
Restoration (by w. Simpson) of the Ahin Posh tope. [From the Proceedings of the R.I.B.A.]Rhys Davids, Buddhist India.

[AN 4.245] Thupāraha Suttaṃ, The Pali
Worthy of a Cairn, Woodward translation
Four individuals worthy of an elaborate burial mound. Maybe. There seems to be a problem here between translation, Pali, and commentary.

 

Unit 101

[AN 6.23] Fear, Hare translation
Six terms that should be considered synonyms for 'sense pleasures': 'fear', 'pain', 'disease', 'inflammation', 'bondage', and 'swamp.'

And how is a monk one who has shaken off individual beliefs?

Herein, monks, whatsoever individual beliefs generally prevail
among the generality of recluses and brahmins,
to wit:

The world is eternal or
The world is not eternal:
The world is finite or
The world is infinite:
What is life,
that is body; or
One thing is life,
another thing is body;
A Tathāgata is beyond death or
A Tathāgata is not beyond death; or,
He both is and is not; or,
He neither is nor is not beyond death, -
all these beliefs of his are given up,
vomited up,
dropped,
abandoned,
and renounced.

That, monks, is how a monk has shaken off individual beliefs.
AN 4.38 Woodward

 

Unit 102

[AN 10 23] With Body, Woodward translation
A categorization by bodily control, control of speech, or by application of wisdom upon seeing them of things which need to be abandoned.
[AN 10 24] Cunda the Great, Woodward translation
The Pali, which existed here previously in abridged form was completely rolled out. The abridgment, which was followed by Woodward, Bhk. Thanissaro and Bhk. Bodhi is in a confused state. It is given as
I, a.b.c...z, II,a,III,b,z;
and should at least have been:
I, a,b,c....z; II, a,b.c....z III, a.b.c....z;
but, I believe it shoud properly be: A,i,ii,iii; B,i,ii,iii. ...Z
I have followed the latter in the unabridgement of both the Pali and Woodward's translation. Just thought you'd like to know.
Cunda puts a twist on the list of things in the previous sutta which upon seeing them need to be abandoned such that he is able to rightfully say he knows Dhamma and has developed bodily control, virtue, heart and wisdom.
[AN 10 25] The Devices, Woodward translation
Kasiṇa Olds translation
Enumeration of ten devices used to assist in the development of concentration. My translation puts this series in an entirely new light ... or rather brings them into the light so that those with eyes in their heads that can see can see the object.
[AN 10 28] The Great Questions (b), Woodward translation
In an alternate version of the Great 10 Questions, the Kajaṅgala bhikkhunī expands the questions given in brief to a group of lay followers. Her version contains a few answers that differ from those given in the previous sutta [AN 10 27]. This is the set of ten questions on which much of The Pali Line (the introductory course in the Buddhism of the Pali Suttas recommended here) is based. These ten questions can be used in much the same way as the kasina, or concentration device, as a 'theme' of practice. In each individual case it is explicitly stated that thorough comprehension leads to 'the end of dukkha' or Arahantship. The actual experience is that one sees how each of these is of such a nature as to encompass all the rest ... and all the other doctrines of the system.

No c'assaṃ,||
no ca me siyā.|| ||

Na bhavissāmi,||
na me bhavissantī|| ||

If Not "Mine"

No 'were that my',
and no 'would that my',
no 'mine' becoming,
no becoming 'my'.

— Mike Olds translation

[AN 10 29] The Kosalan (a), Woodward translation
The Buddha describes how even the most enduring of phenomena and the most lofty of doctrines are burdened with change and should be regarded with revulsion; he then declares of certain doctrines that if their goals are attained they will provide refuge. Please see If Not "Mine" for some discussion as to the difficulties translators have had with the little ditty quoted above found in this and other suttas. ... and my proposed solution.
[AN 10 30] The Kosalan (a), Woodward translation
Raja Pasenadi pays a visit to the Buddha and shows great respect and enumerates the reasons for his great respect. Woodward notes that this sutta contains statements that would not likely have been known to Raja Pasenadi. This seems an obvious case of tampering by early compilers. Compare this sutta with MN 89 Horner (the much more likely true story). The issue for us is: does it matter? As far as the doctrines contained in the sutta they have no inconsistency with their counterparts in the rest of the suttas (they are in fact mostly verbatim pick-ups). It is distasteful to our sensabilities that the editors should make an explicit claim that this was a true sutta when the fact is insupportable, but the reality is that story telling tradition has always been very liberal in such matters ... right on up to today. In any case, what we should not do is 'throw the baby out with the bath water' and disregard the Dhamma within the sutta as not-dhamma because of a liberty taken by the repeater of the sutta.
[AN 10 31] Upāli and the Obligation, Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the reasons for establishing the Patimokkha (the rules of the Order) and about the various reasons for it's suspension. Bhk. Bodhi has the second part of this sutta incorporated into the next sutta.
[AN 10 32] Passing Sentence, Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the qualifications needed for a bhikkhu to be a member of a council concerned with expulsion of a bhikkhu.
[AN 10 33] Full Ordination, Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the qualifications needed for a bhikkhu to give full ordination.
[AN 10 34] Tutelage, Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the qualifications needed for a bhikkhu to assign tutelage and to be provided with a novice attendant. The BJT Pali and the Pali used by Bhk. Bodhi have this as two suttas which would make more sense as these are two separate topics. As it is Woodward has possibly been confused by putting them together and has a mixed message in his translation as to whether or not the second part has to do with taking care of a novice or being assigned a novice. In the first case the two suttas would fit together, in the latter, not. A good case for not abridging.
[AN 10 35] Schism in the Order (a), Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expression "breaking up (Creating a Schism in) the Order."
[AN 10 36] Harmony in the Order (a), Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expression "Harmony in the Order."
[AN 10 71] Wishing, Woodward translation
Linked to Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The Buddha enumerates 10 frequent wishes of bhikkhus and stresses that to bring them to fruition it is necessary to develop ethical culture following the rules and training principles of the Patimokkha.
[AN 10 83] Puṇṇiya, Woodward translation
Puṇṇiya, asks why it is that sometimes the Buddha will teach and sometimes not. Gotama explains that there are ten factors involved, but that more than the simple ten factors what is needed is to see progress up the ten factors in a bhikkhu. So sometimes a teaching may be given with only some of the factors and other times not when even one is missing. This is the experience of the modern practitioner of the system as well: it gets more demanding the further into it one gets. This sutta looses all it's power and elegance when abridged.

 

Unit 103

[AN 10 8] The Believer, Woodward translation
[AN 10 9] The Blissful, Woodward translation
[AN 10 10] Vijjā Suttaṃ, The Pali
By Knowing, Woodward translation
The Pali is abridged in a way which allows for multiple versions of the missing sections. The BJT has a briefer version than the one used here. The Woodward expansion is based on the more verbose version (based on his suggestion in a footnote).
Three suttas which describe a stepwise method of progression from faith to arahantship. Each slightly different. Since each purports to be a path to Arahantship an equivalence is implied. Your homework is to see if you can see the equivalence. Another challenge is to rationalize the fact that here one sacred cow is left out, there another. For example the Eightfold Path is omitted in all but one of these methods, the jhānas are included in only one. The trick is to let go of any tendency to hang on unyieldingly to terminology while simultaneously being so precise in ones thinking that nothing essential to the process is missing.
[AN 10 11] Lodging, Woodward translation
The Buddha describes five factors in the individual and five factors in his lodging that conduce to rapidly attaining Arahantship.
[AN 10 12] Factors, Woodward translation
Five things to give up and five to develop to be called one who is completely proficient.
[AN 10 13] Fetters, Woodward translation
The Buddha names the ten things which 'yoke' individuals to rebirth [saṃyojana]; five yoking the individual to every possible sort of rebirth including those as an animal, monster, ghost or resident in Hell, but also to this and higher re-births and five yoking one to rebirths in this and higher realms even though one may have seen through the first five. Relates intimately to the conditions necessary to be called a Streamwinner (having seen through the first three of the first five) and to being a Non-returner (having warn down or eliminated most of the last five)
[AN 10 14] Obstruction, Woodward translation
Five obstructions of the heart that if not abandoned, and five things that twist up the heart that if not uprooted, signal decline in a seeker, but which if abandoned and uprooted signal progress.
[AN 10 16] Worshipful, Woodward translation
Ten individuals considered worthy to receive offerings, gifts, signs of respect and who are a peerless opportunity for making good kamma.
[AN 10 17] Warder (a), Woodward translation
Ten things that are protections for the seeker.
[AN 10 18] Warder (b), Woodward translation
Ten things that are protections for the seeker. Identical to the above but adding the additional protection that having these protections the bhikkhus are inclined to instruct and guide such a seeker.
[AN 10 19] Ariyan Living (a), Woodward translation
A list (in brief) of ten ways in which the Aristocrat (here equal to the Arahant) abides. For the details see the next sutta.
[AN 10 20] Ariyan Living (b), Woodward translation
A list (in some detail) of ten ways in which the Aristocrat (here equal to the Arahant) abides. There is a strange order of terms here and in the previous sutta, maybe a mistake. Not very important. In the beginning and end both suttas have 'abided, abides, and will abide', (āvasiṃsu, āvasanti, āvasissanti) but just before the end in this sutta is the standard order: 'in the past abided, in the future will abide, and in the present abides'. It is a little strange to see this sort of disagreement.
[AN 10 21] The Lion, Woodward translation
The 10 powers of the Tathāgata (One who has 'got it'). Compare with SN 5.52.11-24 where these are powers claimed by Anuruddha, the bhikkhu famed for clairvoyance.
[AN 10 22] Statements of Doctrine, Woodward translation.

'Whatsoever things, Ānanda,
conduce to realizing the truth
of this or that statement of doctrine,
confidently do I claim,
after thorough comprehension of it,
to teach dhamma about them
in such a way that,
when proficient,
a man shall know of the real that it is,
of the unreal that it is not;
of the mean that it is mean,
of the exalted that it is exalted;
of that which has something beyond it,
that it has something beyond it;
of that which is unsurpassed,
that it is unsurpassed.

For there is the possibility of his knowing
or seeing
or realizing that which can be known,
seen or realized.

This, Ānanda, is knowledge unsurpassable,
the knowledge of this or that thing
as it really is.

Than this knowledge, Ānanda,
there is no other knowledge surpassing it
or more excellent,
I declare.
AN 10.22 Woodward

 

Unit 104

[AN 3.58] Tikaṇṇa, Woodward translation
Tikaṇṇa, the brāhman, visits the Buddha and sings the praises of the brāhman 'three-fold lore'. Gotama responds describing the 'three-fold-lore' of the Aristocrats: seeing past lives, seeing the outcomes of kamma, and seeing that one has destroyed the corrupting influences.
[AN 3.80] Abhibhu, Woodward translation.

 

Unit 105

[MN 151] Discourse on Complete Purity for Alms-Gathering, Horner translation
A sutta which provides a run-down of most of the major 'dhammas' or groups of concepts central to the Buddha's teaching. These Dhammas are linked to the Glossology section and the result is a useful course of study in the system.

 

Unit 106

[MN 21] Discourse on the Parable of the Saw, Horner translation
A famous sutta dealing with the idea that the student of this system should not concern himself with worldly matters, even those so close to home as the abuse of nuns ... to say nothing of abuse of chickens ... (or one might say: concern as to the contents of one's own bowl, let alone the contents of your neighbours bowl) ... also dealing with the need for patience and endurance when faced with disagreeable speech (true or false) ... to be counteracted by training in a heart of friendliness towards one and all.

The Venerable Moliyaphagguna is too attached to the nuns and whenever anyone speaks in dispraise of them he raises a legal issue. He is brought before the Buddha who says this is unworthy behavior of one having gone forth out of faith, and says (my boldface italics):

Wherefore, Phagguna,
even if anyone face to face with you
should speak dispraise of those nuns,
even so should you, Phagguna,
get rid of those which are worldly desires,
those which are worldly thoughts;
and you, Phagguna,
should train yourself thus:

'Neither will my mind become perverted,
nor will I utter an evil speech,
but kindly and compassionate will I dwell
with a mind of friendhness and void of hatred.'

It is thus that you must train youself, Phagguna.

Wherefore, Phagguna,
even if anyone face to face with you
should give a blow with the hand
to these nuns,
should give a blow with a clod of earth,
should give a blow with a stick,
should give a blow with a weapon,
even then, Phagguna,
should you train yourself thus:

'Neither will my mind become perverted,
nor will I utter an evil speech,
but kindly and compassionate will I dwell
with a mind of friendhness and void of hatred.'

It is thus that you must train youself, Phagguna.

This attitude of detachment from what goes on in the world (and by 'world' is meant any form of individualized existence, including in heaven or identification with Brahmā) is extremely important and so totally different than what is taught in virtually every religion in the world that it needs to be brought up again and again. Trying to become a world reforming activist Buddhist is the single biggest mistake being made by people entering the Buddhist Order in these times [Sunday, November 17, 2013 4:29 AM], and it is also at the root of the difference between what is taught in the Pali and what is being taught by the Mahayanist schools.

Monks, as low-down thieves
might carve one limb from limb
with a double-handled saw,
yet even then whoever sets his mind at enmity,
he, for this reason,
is not a doer of my teaching.
MN 21 Horner translation

 

Unit 107

[SN 5.48.50] Faithful or Market, Woodward Translation
An exposition of five controlling forces (indriya): faith, energy, memory, serenity and wisdom and how one established in faith builds up stepwise useing these to attain insight overcoming all doubt as to the teacher or the doctrine. An important sutta for the understanding of the goal of satipatthana practice, and for the over-all goal. The goal of setting up sati is clearly stated to be: 'calling to mind and remembering things said long ago'. (other versions of this have it as 'said and done'; see: AN 10.50 Woodward § 11). This when joined with tranquillity allows for such detachment as makes clear the perception "A world without end is the round of rebirth.' This is a recollection conjoined with a conclusion about what is remembered as it relates to its projection out into the future and to desire for things of the future. Otherwise stated as 'insight into the rise and fall of things.' At a certain point, recollecting and recollecting (as it is said in this sutta) one has made conscious enough various experiences to see that the idea that things come to an end is, without exception, a feature of everything that has come into existence and that this is not a desirable thing. In other words, a worldly goal is futile and painful. This is important to burn into one's consciousness! Try and imagine having lived forever and ever, having lived every variety of form of life times beyond counting. Try and form the idea of a boundless boredom and the dangers in attempting to escape this boredom in strange and unusual forms (usually ending in rebirth in Hell, e.g., being a Hitler) or the utter shame of discovering one has been hiding from the truth in mediocrity. Escape from the world, letting absoltuely everything in the world go, being entirely without worldly ambition is not what is generally taught about the practice of Buddhism but the objection is not that the practice of paying attention, or paying attention to the breathing will not produce clarity and strength of mind which can be put to good use in furthering worldly goals; the objection is to the making of the statement or the implying that this is the goal of Buddhism. It isn't.
[SN 5.52.11-24] Kindred Sayings about Anuruddha, Chapter II: Thousandfold, Suttas 11-24, Woodward Translation (one file)
This was originally either one sutta, or the first sutta has had additions tacked onto it, so it has been made into one file, retains the divisions into suttas, but does not expand them out in a way that would make them 'stand alone'. Taken as it is it is a really powerful statement. A first person declaration of having achieved a thorough mastery of magic powers and how they were attained (through mastery of the four satipatthanas). This is also another way Arahantship is declared. This is in complete accord with the reputation Anuruddha has throughout the suttas. Compare this with AN 10.21 and 22

 

Unit 108

[MN 89] Discourse on Testimonies to Dhamma, Horner translation
Raja Pasenadi pays a visit to the Buddha and shows great respect and enumerates the reasons for his great respect. As well as the content of this sutta being food for thought, the sutta is also interesting as a window on history. It is as this discussion is taking place that the king's son usurps the throne. We get a glimpse into the very moment of decision when Digha Karayana, the commander and chief of the Mallas, who is attending on the king asks himself why he must just stand around while the King fawns on the Buddha. At the time, the authority of kingship was vested in certain symbols: the umbrella, sword, turban ... and Pasenadi had removed his sword and turban out of respect for the Buddha, and had given them to Digha Karayana who went off with them and made Pasenadi's son king.

"A world without end
is the round of rebirth.

No beginning can be seen of beings
hindered by ignorance,
bound by craving,
who run on,
who fare on
through the round of rebirth.

The utter passionless ceasing of ignorance,
of this body of darkness,
is this blissful state,
this excellent state,
to wit: -
the calming down of all the activities,[*]
the giving up of all bases (for rebirth),
the destruction of craving,
dispassion,
cessation,
Nibbāna."
SN 5.48.50 Woodward translation
[*]sabba-saṅkhāra-samatho 'all-own-making-calmed'; for more on this read: Is Nibbāna Conditioned? and What is 2?

 

Unit 109

If Not Mine Discussion of the difficulty in translating the ditthi:

No c'assa||
no ca me siyā,||
na bhavissati||
na me bhavissati.
|| ||

 

Unit 110

Book Review: The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich What can an understanding of Hitler's rise to power do to help free us from the fear of accomplishing great things in the Dhamma?

"But we that have but span-long lives" must ever bear in mind our limited time for acquisition. And remembering how narrowly this time is limited, not only by the shortness of life but also still more by the business of life, we ought to be especially solicitous to employ what time we have to the greatest advantage. Before devoting years to some subject which fancy or fashion suggests, it is surely wise to weigh with great care the worth of the results, as compared with the worth of various alternative results which the same years might bring if otherwise applied.
— Herbert Spencer, Education, Thinker's Library, 1929.

 

Unit 111

[AN 10 37] Schism in the Order (b), Woodward translation
Ānanda asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expression: "breaking up (Creating a Schism in) the Order."
[AN 10 38] Fruits of Causing Schism, Woodward translation
Ānanda asks the Buddha about the consequences of causing a breaking up (Creating a Schism in) of the Order.
[AN 10 39] Harmony in the Order (b), Woodward translation
Ānanda asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expression: Harmony in the Order.
[AN 10 40] Fruits of Causing Harmony in the Order, Woodward translation
Ānanda asks the Buddha about the consequesces of fostering harmony in the Order.
[AN 10 41] Quarrels Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the reasons quarrels arise in the Order.
[AN 10 42] Roots of Quarrels (a) Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the roots of quarrels.
[AN 10 43] Roots of Quarrels (b) Woodward translation
Upāli asks the Buddha about the roots of quarrels.
[AN 10 44] At Kusinara Woodward translation
The Buddha cautions those who are eager to criticize others that they should first examine themselves as to their competency to do so and then to set up within themselves the discipline to speak only in a timely manner, according to fact, gently, well said such as to inspire and profit, and with a friendly heart.
[AN 10 45] Entering the Royal Court Woodward translation
Ten dangers attending upon a bhikkhu who would habituate the court's of kings. Just a couple of the things one should think about when contemplating fame, favours and flattery.

The First Danger
of habituating the Kings Court

... suppose the king is seated with Wife #1 and here comes some beggar who habituates the king's court.

Wife #1, on seeing him, smiles,
or else he, on seeing her, smiles.

Then the king thinks ...

— adapted from AN 10.45

[AN 10 46] Sakyans, Woodward translation
The Buddha admonishes the Sakkyans to keep the Uposatha day in all it's eight parts. This is a hypnotic magic charm. To ignore or abbreviate the series of numbers running up and down is to miss virtually the entire point. Without this feature the whole thing could have been done in one sentence, so one must ask why it was done in this 'tedious' way. Anyone familiar with inducing hypnosis will recognize what is being done here immediately ... unless it is obscured by abridgment. As a secondary mater, both for the Sakkyans then and for the modern reader interested in learning Pali, this was/is a good sutta to study in the Pali to learn to count. Also, and not insidentally, the sutta is great encouragement for those concerned about avoiding hell and securing a foothold in progress in the system.
[AN 10 47] Mahāli, Woodward translation
Mahāli asks the Buddha about the reasons for bad and good deeds. In a very interesting post-script to the direct answer that it is as a consequence of lust, hatred, delusion, not noticing the beginnings of things, and following wrong views and the reverse of these five, he further states that without these ten things there would be no wrong or deviant living or right or straight living. In other words these things amount to the sum total of what is needed to be done in the system to attain it's goals. No mention of the Magga. In other other words, the Magga is a method for eliminating the first five of these things, so instruction can be given in these two general ways: either by stating the things to be eliminated or by stating the method to eliminate them. The choice, presumably being made based on the listener's inclination and capabilities. Once a request was made for an instruction in brief where the response simply stated: "Whatsoever has to do with hunger (taṇhā), know that is not Dhamma."
[AN 10 48] Conditions, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhks. Piyadassi and Thanissaro translations. Ten things (dhammas) that should be kept in mind by a bhikkhu. Good things for one and all to keep in mind, but of special importance to a bhikkhu, for the fall for one who has joined the order and is therefore representative of the Buddha and the Dhamma is much more serious. For bhikkhus this should be a hair-raising sutta. A good sutta for comparing translations.

 


What am I becoming
as the days and nights fly past?

AN 10.48 Thanissaro


 

[AN 10 49] Sarīraṭṭhadhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Inherent in Body, Woodward translation
Things of this Bone-Supported Corpse, Olds translation,
The Buddha points out 10 things that are bound up in existing in a body.
[AN 10 50] Bhaṇḍana Suttaṃ, The Pali
Strife, Woodward translation
The Buddha instructs a number of bhikkhus who were engaged in bandying words about in unfriendly banter, as to ten things which make for friendly relations and living in unity, saying that living in discord was unworthy of those who had left home for the homeless life.
[AN 10 51] One's Own Heart, (a) By the Master, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
[AN 10 52] Sāriputta Suttaṃ, The Pali
One's Own Heart, (b) By Sāriputta Woodward translation
Two identical suttas. The Buddha, then Sāriputta admonish the bhikkhus to examine themselves for faults and then to make a strong effort to get rid of any faults found; this as a key to the comprehension of their hearts. Although this sutta begins with the idea that though one may not be able to read the hearts of others, one should be able to read one's own heart, what is not said here is that this is the very method for learning to read the hearts of others.
[AN 10 53] Ṭhiti Suttaṃ, The Pali
Standing Still Woodward translation
The Buddha spurs on the bhikkhus warning them not only to guard against backsliding but also against accepting the status quo, admonishing the bhikkhus to examine themselves for faults and then to make a strong effort to get rid of any faults found; this as a key to the comprehension of their hearts. (ending as with the two prevous suttas). It is interesting that here he is speaking of a person who has faith, virtue, much knowledge, the habit of casting off things, wisdom and quick wits. One might think this was pretty good, but the warning is not to be complacent even with relatively high accomplishments. This is a monster of a mountain that must be climbed!
[AN 10 54] Samatha Suttaṃ, The Pali
Peace of Heart Woodward translation
Linked to the Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The Buddha gives two criteria for evaluating the knowledge of one's own heart: attainment of higher wisdom and insight into things (or the insight of the Dhamma), and calm of heart; and then he gives a method for judging the right course to take with regard to clothing, food, location and persons. This is an invaluable sutta with regard to day-to-day practice!
[AN 10 55] Parihāna Suttaṃ, The Pali
Waning Woodward translation
Sariputta explains the meaning in Gotama's system of the expressions "Of a nature to wane," and "Of a nature not to wane." If a person doesn't listen, forgets what he has heard, teachings formerly memorized are not rehearsed, and he has no intuitive understanding he tends to wane; if he listens, remembers what he has heard, rehearses formerly memorized teachings, and cultivates intuitive knowledge he tends not to wane.
[AN 10 56] Paṭhama Saññā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ideas (a) Woodward translation
Perceptions 1, Olds, translation
The Buddha reveals ten perceptions which are very helpful to seekers. I did a translation of this sutta so that we would have here a contrast with Woodward's translation. There is an enormous difference when 'sannā' is translated 'perception' rather than 'idea'. Sannā = 'one-knowing' or 'first-knowing' or 'once-knowing' = perception, not idea. The difference is that an idea is an abstract thing, tending to suggest an intellectual understanding apart from the perception of it being something connected to the self (speaking conventionally, or, rather, since these things are 'helps along the way', speaking with regard to the identification with 'this being'); here the idea is to have actually seen these things as they manifest themselves to one's self... actually seeing, or smelling, or tasting the identical repulsion one has of excrementia, in some otherwise delightful food for example, or the actual feeling of world-wearyness when some ambition arises, or the conscious recognition of release (a deep sigh of relief that feels like it is the first full breath one has had in a long time ... which it is) when one has finally passed the withdrawl stage connected with some habitual practice one has let go.
[AN 10 57] Dutiya Saññā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ideas (b) Woodward translation
Perceptions 2, Olds, translation
This sutta while including some of the perceptions from the previous sutta, adds a few that are in need of a little explanation. Perception of bones, larva, mal-coloration, swelling. These ideas are generally associated in the commentaries with the use of concentration devices (specifically those of observing a corpse). That has the tendency to create the same distance from them as does the use of 'idea' in the translation. These are 'live' perceptions. One sees in one's mind's eye, as clearly as in a vivid dream, maggots heaving around, as often as not within 'one's own' or some live person's body, or one sees all mankind as a mess of maggots roiling around in some open wound, not just in the body of a corpse one is using as a concentration device. One sees a repulsive swelling or bruising in ordinary objects and people, or one sees ordinary objects and people as just a repulsive swelling. Again, in the mind's eye, one perceives this whole universe as a disgusting skeleton, or one sees right into the bones of some person or sees some person as simply a walking skeleton. Woodward does not comment, Bhk. Bodhi has these as perceptions of corpses. The Pali has these as stand-alone concepts; not connected to corpses. The distinction points out the utility: the kasina (observing a corpse) is used to stimulate the perception. The end result is not the perception of these things in a corpse, but the application of the perception of these things to everyday experience, they serve to make one aware on a gut level of the reality of things. One uses the recollection of these perceptions to counter lust or other disadvantageous feelings that have arisen. They instill sobriety.
[AN 10 58] Rooted in the Exalted One Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and to Bhk. Thanissaro, and Olds translations.
The Buddha teaches ten important ideas by posing them as questions that might be asked of bhikkhus (or any Buddhist) by outsiders. There is an interesting manipulation of the term 'dhamma' here which illustates it's dual meaning as 'thing' and 'Form' (in the sense of 'Good Form') or 'The Teaching.' (This translation of 'Dhamma' as 'Good Form' comes from the discussion of the term in Rhys David's Buddhist India pg 292 where he points to the etymological root as "identical with the Latin forma" our 'form'. This serves very well for this word where it must stand for 'thing' and is a synonym for 'rūpa' (often translated 'form') in this sense, and also for 'the best way to do a thing', or 'Good Form'. This use for 'form' is found in asian cultures where the idea is exactly that there is a perfectly correct and efficient way to do even the smallest things. The expression 'Doing Forms' is also used as the English translation for the term in asian martial arts that stands for various groups of moves in practice routines. At this time the word 'Dhamma' for Gotama's teaching is relatively well known here and it will probably stick, but there is confusion that results when the word must be used for 'things' and ... 'Good form' in general.)
[AN 10 59] Pabbajjā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Forthgoing Woodward translation
The Buddha gives the bhikkhus 10 things to aim at in their training.
[AN 10 60] Forthgoing Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and to Bhks. Thanissaro and Piyadassi translations. An important sutta in which the Buddha gives definitions for 'The Ten Perceptions': The idea of discontinuity, of not-self, of the foul, of disadvantages, letting go, dispassion, ending, world-wearyness, of discontinuity in the own-made, of recollection of respriration. In this sutta is a case of 'curing' by way of hearing the Dhamma. Also in this sutta is found a version of what would later become the Satipatthana method.
[AN 10 61] Avijjā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ignorance Woodward translation
A beautiful sutta once unabridged. In the technique of the Paṭicca Samuppada, the Buddha traces out how blindness rolls on and the way freedom from it is managed. The distinction in the terms used here from those used in thePaṭicca Samuppadashould be enlightening. The term for the relationship between a thing and it's result is 'food'. This is the food of that. The significant difference between the idea of 'food' and the idea of 'cause' should be kept in mind when thinking about the meaning of this sutta and the translation of terms such as 'paccaya'.
[AN 10 62] Taṇhā Suttaṃ, The Pali
Craving Woodward translation
Almost identical with the previous sutta, but beginning with thirst for existence (Woodward's 'craving-to-become').
Together these bracket the first condition of the Paṭicca Samuppada: Avijjā paccayo saṅkhārā. [see for example SN2.12.001] Blindness (Woodward's 'Ignorance') results in own-making. On one side it answers the question: 'then what is it that results in blindness?' And on the other side it answers the question as to why blindness results in own-making.
Another thing is that since 'taṇhā,' thirst, (Woodward's 'craving'), results in the usual first condition of the Paṭicca samuppada, 'blindness', and is also a 'condition' following sense experience within the formula, we can see by this that the Paṭicca samuppada is to be taken as a series of what Bhk. Thanissaro has called 'feedback loops' and should not be taken exclusively as a direct-line analysis. An interesting comparison could be made to the Mandelbrot Set, where, at any point along a series a new series could be begun, and so on without end.
[AN 10 63] Niṭṭhaṅgata Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Goal Woodward translation
Gotama states that all those who attain the goal are possessed of or are certain about 'view'; some of those reaching the goal here in the human state and some of them reaching the goal after 'departure'. 'View' here would be the 'dhamma eye': "all things that have come into existence are destined to come to an end," or one form or another of the Four Truths.
[AN 10 64] Aveccappasanna Suttaṃ, The Pali
Unwavering Woodward translation
Almost identical to the previous sutta except that here Gotama asserts that all those who have unwavering faith in him are Streamwinners. Something to consider for those insisting that there can be no stream-entry without breaking the first three saṅyojanas. The catch is of course the 'unwavering' part. It is an easy thing to say one has unwavering faith in something when one has studied it for years or decades or practiced it a little with good results, but this is a wide world and the mind is organized in hierarchies and unless the person has crossed the line marked by the 'dhamma eye': "all things that have come into existence are destined to come to an end" aka, breaking of the one-truth view aka Pajapati's Problem, the mind which had latched onto faith through fear (not a high level in the hierarchy) could find a greater satisfaction in someone dying on the cross for their sins, for example, or in the idea that there was no self, or in the idea that this was a one-shot thing and there was no possibility of having to pay up, than in concepts such as compassion, giving or ethical behavior ... themselves not high up in the pecking order. In fact, faith based on such things is one of the three things that the usual definition of the streamwinner suggests must be broken. Still the possibility exists that a person with no more than a faith that the Buddha taught a way to freedom, or a way to the end of pain, might tenaceously hold on to that faith at death and that tenacious hanging on could drag them into a rebirth where their faith could find growth and develop into knowledge and vision, so it is a true statement to say it can be done by faith alone.
One more thing: there was a point not too far back where many of those of us who had faith in Gotama's teaching were trying to make the idea of faith sound palatable to a population heartily disenchanted with a faith that depended on faith that had proved incapable of inspiring it's leaders to remain on the path of righteousness, so to speak. There was a big effort to convince everyone that faith in Buddhism was not faith, but 'confidence' [e.g. Bhk. Bodhi in his translation of this sutta] or 'conviction' [Bhk. Thanissaro] or 'trust' or 'well-reasoned or grounded trust' [me], but here the plain fact of the case is that this sutta is speaking about blind faith and I think we need to accept the fact that there is this level of trust, conviction and confidence in Gotama and his system as well and that it is not without good results. There are those of us who would like to think of Gotama's system as mathematically pure science, which it is, but we need also to recognze that there are those who have blind faith even in pure mathematics, and that it is not therefore a danger to the system that there are such believers. ... it's when a person has confidence and conviction that their blind faith is well grounded and starts proselytizing that the trouble starts, but that is another story.
[AN 10 65] Weal and Woe (a) Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and K. Nizamis translation. Sariputta gives the Wanderer Samandakani a brief definition of the Buddhist view of Pain and Pleasure.
[AN 10 66] Weal and Woe (b) Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and K. Nizamis translation. Saiputta describes the experience from within this Dhamma and Discipline that it is discontented that one feels pain and contented that one feels pleasure.
[AN 10 67] Paṭhama Naḷakapāna Suttaṃ the Pali
At Naḷakapāna (a) Woodward translation
The Buddha asks Sariputta to deliver a discourse. Sariputta likens the presence or absense of ten qualities leading to decline or growth to the waning and waxing of the moon. Is Gotama giving Sariputta a chance to shine in his home town?
[AN 10 68] Dutiya Naḷakapāna Suttaṃ the Pali
At Naḷakapāna (b) Woodward translation
The Buddha asks Sariputta to deliver a discourse. Sariputta likens the presence or absense of ten qualities leading to decline or growth to the waning and waxing of the moon. Almost identical to the previous with some changes.
[AN 10 72] Kaṇṭaka Suttaṃ the Pali
The Thorn (in the Flesh) Woodward translation
The Buddha teaches of ten things which are thorns to one who is actively practicing.
[AN 10 73] Iṭṭhadhamma Suttaṃ the Pali
Desirable Woodward translation
Ten things that are much wished for, but hard to get in the world; ten things that are obstacles to getting them and ten things that are helpful for getting them.
[AN 10 74] Vaḍḍha Suttaṃ the Pali
Growth Woodward translation
Directed at laymen, the Buddha describes ten things which one should make an effort to grow and which should be considered as consistent with progress on the Way.
[AN 10 75] Migasālā Suttaṃ the Pali
Migasālā Woodward translation
Migasālā confronts Ānanda in a huff because of her confusion over the fates of her father and uncle. Both were declared to have been reborn in the Tusita realm as Once-returners by the Buddha. Her father was proficient in ethical conduct but deficient in wisdom, her uncle proficient in wisdom but deficient in ethical behavior, but Migasālā only sees one side: that her father was proficient in ethical behavior and her uncle was not; and she proceds to judge the Buddha and the Dhamma as flawed. Gotama explains the issue to Ānanda and gives five similar cases.
Another version of the sutta is at AN 6.44.

 


Judge Not

Tasmā ti h'Ānanda mā puggalesu pamāṇikā ahuvattha,||
mā puggalesu pamāṇaṃ gaṇhattha.|| ||
Khaññati h'Ānanda puggalo puggalesu pamāṇaṃ gaṇhanto||

Take not the measure of men, Ānanda,
be no measurer of men.

A person is eaten away, Ānanda,
by taking the measure of men.
— AN 10.75


 

[AN 10 76] Tayodhamma Suttaṃ the Pali
Unable to Grow Woodward translation
A Paṭicca-Samuppada-like (this being that becomes, from the ending of this, the ending of that) progression of 10 steps of three factors each showing how lack of sense of shame, a fear of blame and being careful prevents growth in the ability to eliminate lust, hate and delusion, factors necessay for attaining freedom from birth, aging and death. Followed by the reverse course showing how sense of shame, a fear of blame, and being careful end up leading to the elimination of lust, hate, and delusion and the end of birth, aging and death. Here again the dependence is not cast in terms of 'cause' but of ability to grow.
[AN 10 77] Kāka Suttaṃ the Pali
The Crow Woodward translation
The Buddha enumerates 10 qualities of a crow which are found also in a wicked bhikkhu. This is a sutta which must be read in the Pali to see the humor. You can do it! It's very short, and the humor can be easily seen. And you will never forget the Pali word for 'and'. In this sutta and the next there is the use of the word "Dhamma" that falls between the meaning as 'phenomena' or 'thing' and The Dhamma, as in the Teachings of the Buddha. Here it has the meaning of 'Good Form' as given by Rhys Davids, [see Buddhist India pg 292] or of the Chinese 'Tao'.
[AN 10 78] Nigaṇṭha Suttaṃ the Pali
The Unclothed Woodward translation
The Buddha enumerates 10 things about the Nigaṇṭhas, (the naked ascetics), which do not comport with Dhamma, 'Good Form.'
[AN 10 79] Āghātavatthu Suttaṃ the Pali
Occasions of Ill-will Woodward translation
The Buddha lists 10 thoughts that tend to provoke unwarranted anger. These lists are very valuable as they pop into the mind at those times when one is about to cross a line and can give one just enough detachment (self-reflection) to correct course. The secret is in their broad-based generality. Note that these are called 'groundless' (aṭṭhane without standing) reasons for aggrivation. Why is that? Because anger is never a well-grounded response to an unpleasant situation because it only engenders more anger followed by unpleasant deeds carrying further unpleasant consequences. For five methods for overcoming anger see the next, and AN 5.161
[AN 10 80] Āghātapaṭivinaya Suttaṃ the Pali
Ways of Checking Ill-will Woodward translation
Our version of the BJT Pali was incomplete for this and the previous sutta. This may have been corrected, but readers of that version should check. The Buddha suggests ten thoughts as counter-weights to the arising of anger possible from ten situations where anger might arise (those of the previous sutta). Woodward and Bhks. Thanissaro and Bodhi have trouble with the phrase: taṃ kut'ettha labbhā' ti? 'What is to be gained from that?' The meaning is understood if kamma is kept in mind. The idea is to calm one's tendency to an angry reaction by remembering that this deed this fellow does will return to him and that therefore there is no need to seek vengence from a feeling of outrage at injustice.
[AN 10 81] Bāhuna Woodward translation
Old Man Bāhuna Olds translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. Ten barriers that are to be broken down by one who would be free, detached and released; that is, 'One-Who-Get's-It', a 'Tathāgata'.
[AN 10 82] Ānanda Suttaṃ The Pali
Ānanda Woodward translation
Ten things which prevent increase, growth and maturity in this dhamma-discipline and ten things which promise increase, growth and maturity in this dhamma-discipline.
[AN 10 84] Vyākaraṇa Suttaṃ The Pali
Declaration of Gnosis Woodward translation
Mahā Moggallāna describes the examination that will be given to one who declares arahantship by those who are arahants, skilled in the jhānas and able to read the state of and habits of the hearts of others. Possessing any of ten characteristics he will come to an impass and ruin when questioned. But if one abandons all these ten characteristics he may come to increase, growth and maturity in this dhamma-discipline.
[AN 10 85] Katthi Suttaṃ The Pali
The Boaster Woodward translation
Cunda the Great puts his spin on the previous sutta. In this case a boaster brags of attainments and is questioned by one skilled in the jhānas and able to read the state of and habits of the hearts of others. Possessing any of ten characteristics he will come to an impass and ruin when questioned. But if one abandons all these ten characteristics he may come to increase, growth and maturity in this dhamma-discipline.
[AN 10 86] Adhimāna Suttaṃ The Pali
The Question of Gnosis Woodward translation
Kassapa the Great puts his spin on the theme of the prevous two suttas. Maha Kassapa deals with the case of a bhikkhu who, due to confusion of mind created by great learning, thinks he has attained arahantship. He is questioned by one skilled in the jhānas and able to read the state of and habits of the hearts of others. Possessing any of ten characteristics he will come to an impass and ruin when questioned. But if one abandons all these ten characteristics he may come to increase, growth and maturity in this dhamma-discipline. The ten characteristics in each of these cases is slightly different. Each of these versions reflects the character and special interests of the speaker.
[AN 10 87] Adhikaraṇika Suttaṃ The Pali
Kālaka the Monk Woodward translation
The Buddha enumerates ten things which if absent do not conduce to affection, respect, progress, harmony and unity, but which if present do conduce to these things.
[AN 10 88] Akkosaka Suttaṃ The Pali
Disaster (a) Woodward translation
The Buddha declares ten misfortunes one or another of which are unavoidable by a bhikkhu that abuses his fellows in the Brahma Life. This sutta is directed at bhikkhus, but should be taken seriously by laymen as well.
[AN 10 89] Kokālika Suttaṃ The Pali
The Kokālikan Woodward translation
A well-known sutta describing the horrific result of hardening his heart against Sāriputta and Moggalāna by the Kokālikan Monk. This sutta has in it the mention of a 'paccekabrahmā.' Bhk. Bodhi, in a footnote, cites Spk-pṭ I 213 (VRI ed) commenting on SN I 146, as explaining this as "a brahmā who travels about alone, not as a member of an assembly". This possibly throws some light on the term 'pacceka-buddha' which is usually translated 'silent-buddha' or as Woodward has translated it here for the brahmā, 'Individual-'. I have always felt this term, when applied to a Buddha, meant an individual who attained Arahantship without the aid of another awakened individual but who had not the training or charisma or inclination or opportunity to lead a following. There is also here another visit to Gotama by Brahmā Sahampati.
One other interesting thing in this sutta is the case of a non-returner returning to this world for a visit. We need, in thinking of the non-returner in order not to make the mistake made by Kokalika, to think in terms of rebirth, not freedom of movement. [For another case of a Non-returner returning to this world for a visit see AN 3.125.]
[AN 10 90] Khīṇāsavabala Suttaṃ The Pali
The The Powers Woodward translation
The abilities (balani) of one who has destroyed the corrupting influences (asavas) which give him the knowledge to know that he has destroyed the corrupting influences. As well as a good way to know when you really know, this is a good curriculum for plotting one's course to the goal.
[AN 10 91] Kāmabhogī Suttaṃ The Pali
Pleasures of Sense Woodward translation
Gotama speaks to the wealthy banker Anāthapiṇḍika, breaking down the distinctions between sorts of persons who are still enjoyers of sense pleasures according to the extent they earn their wealth legitimately and dispense with it wisely.
Mark Twain used to do a routine where he would stand in front of his audience and tell a feeble, possibly even tedious joke or story. When he got no reaction from the audience except embarrassment, he told the story again without altering a word or changing an inflection. He would repeat this routine as many times as necessary to bring the house down with laughter. It never failed.
My father used to tell the story of a comedian who would enter a bare stage with only a wooden chair on it, sit on the chair, and do nothing more until bit by bit there would be a snicker from someone in the audience, or a smile, and before long this non-act would bring the house down with laughter. It never failed.
There is something about repetition (or it's alter-ego, nothing at all happening, as with the experience of those who seek solitude) that, if endured to a certain point (passed a murkey sloth), forces the mind into an elevated state, wakes it up to a grander scope.
It is just this sort of psychology that is being used by Gotama in the case of this and so many other suttas considered 'tedious' by translators and readers today [Wednesday, December 18, 2013 10:07 AM]. The reader may be given some slack. The written word carries little or none of the magic of a live performance. But the reader must accept his disadvantage and make up for it with imagination. Dwell on such a sutta as this. Place yourself in the situation as you imagine it happening at the time. It will come to life. It never fails.
Something important for translators to remember in this regard is to not yield to the impulse to change the wording for variety. Follow the Pali. The Pali is mathematically consistent, and this is a necessity for the mind to keep track of the variations in the pattern. Inserting difference to break tedium destroys the pattern in exactly the same way as if when weaving a rug one were to alter the pattern simply because it was the same all round. Translators may think they are helping the reader, but they are breaking the spell and this is all the greater crime because it is not suspected that there is a spell there that is being broken and the changes make it much more difficult to discover. This is just as much the case in the case of the whole body of suttas, but is very difficult and has not been managed to this point by any translator. A uniform translation vocabulary across all the suttas should be made the goal of the next generation of Dhamma translators.
[AN 10 92] Guilty Dread Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. Gotama explains to Anāthapiṇḍika how one may know with certainty that one is a Streamwinner and that one has passed beyond the reach of certain unpleasant forms of rebirth and is assured of eventual awakening. The careful reader can see in this sutta how development of ethical behavior leads to unwavering faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and the Saṅgha which leads to insight into the method.
The term translated 'Guilty Dread' by woodward and 'fear and animosity' by Bhk. Thanissaro and 'perils and emnities' by Bhk. Bodhi is bhayāni verāni. bhayāni = fear, fright, dread; verāni = hatred, revenge, hostile action. A possible better translation is 'fear of retribution', which is what makes up guilty dread and is the peril of emnity and the fear of animosity. These actions are perils and do produce emnities and fear and animosity both in the doer and in others, but the issue in this sutta is a condition for knowing that one is a streamwinner and that condition is the absense of or allaying of bhayāni verāni. within. It has nothing to do with what may result externally from these actions.
This is a good sutta to contrast with AN 10.64 where faith alone is being spoken of as a condition for stream-entry. It should be noted here that in both cases there is no mention of breaking the saṅyojana. That is not to say they are not broken, but only to point out that the formal terminology is not used and because of that there is the possibility of flexible understanding of the conditions. Possessing the four limbs of Stream-winning would be the breaking of doubt and wavering (vicikiccha); true insight into 'the method' would be the breaking of the 'one truth view' (sakkāyadiṭṭhi (usually translated in terms meaning 'own-self-view': 'Person-pack-view' 'views on individuality' etc., my translation, points to the idea that it is getting rid of holding any view concerning the existence of anything that is the necessary meaning in that holding on to a view concerning the existence of anything is a projection of the idea of self, but perhaps that is going farther than is necessary, or even confusing the issue) and attachment to the view that the goal was reachable through giving, ethical conduct, or rituals (sīlabbataparāmāso). One can imagine (or experience) a situation where one or some or all of these conditions are only partially met here, but where with faith in the Dhamma, or in the idea that Gotama achieved Awakening, or in the idea that there were those who had advanced towards the goal, upon death or upon the subsequent rebirth they come to fulfillment. That person would by that faith and partial accomplishment reasonably be called a stream-winner. On the other hand, that person would not be able to state with absolute conviction, that he was a stream-winner. Hopefully reflecting on this sutta would, in that case, inspire greater effort.
[AN 10 93] View Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. Anāthapiṇḍika visits wanderers of other views, listens to their views and shows the wanderers how, in each case, the view is just a grasping after security based on something theoretical, made up, and which will lead to pain. When asked about his own views he responds that it is a not-clinging to things that are graspings after security based on things theoretical, made up, and which will lead to pain. This sutta amounts to a statement by Anāthapiṇḍika that he was at this time a stream-winner who 'knew and saw', one who had the Dhamma-eye: That all things that have come to be come to an end. After his death he was pronounced a Non-returner by Gotama.
[AN 10 94] Vajjiyamāhita, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
Vajjiyamāhita visits wanderers of other views and corrects their understanding of Gotama's position on austerities pointing out that he teaches discriminating between the profitable and the unprofitable. Vajjiyamāhita reports back to Gotama and the Buddha elaborates this position in terms of austerities, trainings, making effort, letting go, and freedom. Vajjiyamāhita is one of 20 other laymen said to have achieved 'realization of the deathless' in AN 6.147.
[AN 10 95] Uttiya, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation.
Uttiya the wanderer asks Gotama what he says about ten well-known questions concerning existence and non-existence each of which is answered by the statement by the Buddha that he has not made a declaration concerning the truth of that issue. Two additional question are: What then do you teach? and Will everyone be saved by this teaching?
The ten questions are the ones made famous by those who say that Gotama did not answer certain questions. That statement is a careless reading and mistaken. Here we see Gotama has not not answered the questions, he has answered by saying that he has not made an assertion of the truth or falsity of the proposition. This is not the same thing as not answering. If pressed for his reason for not making a declaration, (which Uttiya does not do in this sutta) Gotama explains that such questions are all based on points of view and consequently are true under only some ways of looking at things, false under others. Consequently if asked the simple question 'is this true?' there is no possible answer but that no one-sided declaration can be made about such an issue. Since with regard to the ten questions Gotama is being asked directly (that is, he is not being asked at this point what he has to say in general about this point of view) and only about his opinion as to the truth or falsity of the view, his only possible truthful answer is that he has not made a declaration (one way or the other) on that issue. When Uttiya askes about what Gotama does teach, he gets the other answer supplied to those who ask such questions: what he teaches, avoiding issues of existence and non-existence, is Pain, the origin of Pain, the ending of Pain and the way to the ending of pain. (Stated in different terms in this sutta ... which is a notable fact in itself: no mention of the four truths or the eightfold way.)
This may look like nit picking, but it is of vital concern as it is a pivotal point for the mind. (It also demonstrates how the awakened mind listens to and responds to questions!) Comprehension of why these are not fruitful inquiries leads to comprehension of the middle way and how it solves the problem of the Pain associated with existence.
For translators also it is vital. Not comprehending this balance between issues of existence and non-existence, translations will tend to use terms bound up in those very issues and by that not point to freedom.
[AN 10 96] Kokanuda, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. Kokanuda the wanderer asks Ānanda about whether or not he holds any of ten well-known views concerning existence and non-existence each of which is answered by the statement by Ānanda that he does not hold such a view. When questioned further ananda explains that these are just points of view, fixing on points of view, reliance on points of view, obsession by points of view and as such are things that should be let go (risen up from) and rooted out. Nearly identical to the previous sutta.
[AN 10 97] Āhuneyya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Worshipful, Woodward translation
Ten qualities which make for a bhikkhu that is worshipful, worthy of honour, worthy of offerings, worthy of being saluted with clasped hands, a field of merit unsurpassed for the world.
[AN 10 98] Thera Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Elder Monk, Woodward translation
Ten attributes of a Thera (a bhikkhu of long standing) wherewith he is able to live happily wherever he lives.
[AN 10 99] Upāli Suttaṃ, The Pali
Upāli, Woodward translation
Upāli has got it into his head that he wants to become a forest-dwelling bhikkhu. The Buddha, apparently perceiving disaster for him in this course, in that those without mastery of serenity (as was the case with Upāli,) are highly vulnerable, living in the forest, to either failure due to unskillful states of mind or to just not making any headway at all, discourages him with a long discourse on what actually needs to be accomplished in this system to achieve the goal. Upāli, by the way, follows the Buddha's advice and remains dwelling with the sangha and becomes one of the foremost bhikkhus in the understanding of the Vinaya, or rules of the order.
[AN 10 100] Bhabbābhabba Suttaṃ The Pali
Unfit to Grow Woodward translation
The Buddha enumerates ten things which if not abandoned prevent achieving arahantship, if abandoned conduce to arahantship.
[AN 10 101] Samaṇasaññā Suttaṃ The Pali
Ideas Woodward translation
When three things about the reality of his situation as a bhikkhu are perceived, this gives him the motivation to behave in seven highly advantageous ways.
[AN 10 103] Wrongness Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The Buddha explains how the low road leads to failure and the high road leads to success. The exposition of the two paths is in a Paṭicca-samuppada-like formula: 'this being that becomes'; and consists of the positive and negative dimensions of the Seeker's Path, the Eightfold path with the two additional dimensions of knowledge and release. No mention is made of the Eightfold Path or the Seeker's Path. Woodward translates 'sammā' and 'micchā' as right and wrong, which I think would be better as 'high' and 'low', or 'consummate' and 'contrary'. For discussion of these terms see: On "Sammā" "Miccha," "Ariya," and "Angika"
[AN 10 104] The Seed Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The Buddha explains how the low road leads to bad luck and the high road leads to good luck using a simile likening point of view to a seed. If the seed is one of a bitter plant, the results are bitter, if the seed is one of a sweet plant, the results are sweet.
[AN 10 105] Vijjā Suttaṃ The Pali
By Knowledge Woodward translation
The Buddha explains in a Paṭicca-samuppada-like style how blindness (a-vijjā) leads to shameful behavior and that gives rise to mistaken points of view which leads to false release. Where there is vision (vijjā; 'seeing' the bad consequences of shameful acts) gives rise to consummate point of view which leads to consummate release.
[AN 10 106] Nijjara Suttaṃ, The Pali
Causes of Wearing Out Woodward translation
A piticca-smuppada-like progression of things each of which wears out the next ending in release.
[AN 10 107] Dhovana Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Ablution Woodward translation
A beautiful sutta. Taking his inspiration from a bone-washing ancestor-worship ritual the Buddha speaks of his teaching as a washing of a different sort, one leading to Nibbāna.
[AN 10 108] Physic Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. As doctors administer a purge, so the Buddha administers a different sort of purge, one leading to Nibbāna.
[AN 10 109] Vamana Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ejection Woodward translation
As doctors administer an emetic, so the Buddha administers a different sort of emetic, one leading to Nibbāna.
[AN 10 110] Niddhamaniya Suttaṃ, The Pali
To be Ejected Woodward translation
Ten negative things which are ejected by their opposites in a process leading to nibbana.
[AN 10 111] Paṭhama Asekha Suttaṃ, The Pali
Adept (a) Woodward translation
The ten attributes that define the A-sekha (the non-seeker, one who is no longer a seeker because he is an adept.)
[AN 10 112] Dutiya Asekha (Asekhiyadhamma) Suttaṃ, The Pali
Adept (b) Woodward translation
The ten attributes that define the A-sekha (the non-seeker, one who is no longer a seeker because he is an adept.) Probably 'adept' is the best translation we are going to get for this term in so far as the truer negative form 'a-sekha' always seems to come out in English as one who isn't even trying, has given up, or is hopeless. In a certain sense though the idea that one has given up seeking is the original meaning in that there is nothing the 'adept' here is adept at except no longer seeking.
[AN 10 113] Paṭhama Adhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Not-dhamma (a) Woodward translation
The Buddha states that both what is and what is not good form and the goal should be understood and then enumerates ten general areas to be considered good form and which are the goal and ten which are not good form and which are not the goal.
[AN 10 114] Dutiya Adhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Not-dhamma (b) Woodward translation
The Buddha states that both what is and what is not good form and the goal should be understood and then enumerates ten general areas to be considered good form and which are the goal and ten which are not good form and which are not the goal. A variation and expansion of the previous sutta.
[AN 10 115] Tatiya Adhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Not-dhamma (c) Woodward translation
The Buddha states that both what is and what is not good form and the goal should be understood and then retires to his cell. The bhikkhus ask Ānanda to elaborate. Ānanda enumerates ten general areas to be considered good form and which are the goal and ten which are not good form and which are not the goal. A variation and expansion of the previous sutta. This sutta has been expanded according to the indications in the Pali. The indications, however are not the usual ones, but appear to be attempts to create a style of abridgment close to what we find today where it is merely stated that there is a repetition of a previous passage. That is particularly unfortunate here as what we have from the beginning of this chapter (AN 10.113 on) is otherwise a good example of what was a regular pattern in the dissemination of an approach to the Dhamma. First comes the doctine stated in brief by Gotama. Then comes one or more orthodox expansions by Gotama. Then comes a statement in brief to bhikkhus who then seek out the expansion from one of the elders. There is further evolution as in the next suttas, in some cases with the expansion being given by more than one elder, and sometimes with acceptable variations. Those interested in the history and methods of propagation of the Dhamma should take note.
[AN 10 116] Ajita Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ajita Woodward translation
Ajita approaches the Buddha and describes what he understands to be a sage. Gotama responds by describing that a sage in this sytem is to be understood as one who argues according to dhamma. Gotama then enumerates ten general areas to be considered good form and which are the goal and ten which are not good form and which are not the goal. An expansion on the previous suttas. There is a big problem with this sutta. No single version of the Pali or translation agrees with anything else. Apparently none of them have correctly understood the original sutta. Woodward's translation has been altered according to the most reasonable understanding and it is noted that this is an adaptation and a lengthy analysis of the situation and the proposed solution is made in an editorial footnote. There is no point in putting up Woodward's original version of this sutta which is nothing less than confusing and although Bhk. Bodhi's translation is in accordance with his text, and he notes the issues, it is also not correct.
[AN 10 117] Ajita Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ajita Woodward translation
Brāhmin Saṅgārava asks the Buddha about the meaning of the expressions 'the hither shore' and 'the further shore'.
[AN 10 118] Ajita Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ajita Woodward translation
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus about the meaning of the expressions 'the hither shore' and 'the further shore'. In this and the previous sutta is another frequent method of sutta dissemination. A chance conversation yields a useful exposition. Nothing is wasted. It is repeated to the bhikkhus. Pass the word friends!
[AN 10 119] Paṭhama Paccorohaṇī Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Ariyan Descent (a) Woodward translation
The Buddha explains the difference between the Brahmin ceremony of Descent into the Fire, with the Descent of the Aristocrats.
[AN 10 120] Dutiya Paccorohaṇī Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Ariyan Descent (b) Woodward translation
The Buddha explains the 'Descent of the Aristocrats'. Identical to the exposition given in the previous sutta except this time given to the bhikkhus. Another example of this pattern of dissemination.
[AN 10 121] Pubbaṅgama Suttaṃ, The Pali
The Harbinger Woodward translation
As the dawn is the first sign of sunrise, so high view is the first sign of the arising of all good states.
[AN 10 122] Āsavakkhaya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Cankers Woodward translation
The Buddha enumerates ten steps which lead to the destruction of the corrupting influences.
[AN 10 123] Paṭhama Suttaṃ, The Pali
States of Perfect Purity Woodward translation
Ten states of perfect purity and clarity found only in the Buddha's Discipline.
[AN 10 124] Dutiya Suttaṃ, The Pali
States Not Yet Arisen Woodward translation
Ten states which, if not yet arisen, do not arise except in the Buddha's Discipline
[AN 10 125] Tatiya Suttaṃ, The Pali
States of Great Fruit Woodward translation
Ten states of great fruit and advantage found only in the Buddha's Discipline
[AN 10 126] Catuttha Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ending in Restraint Woodward translation
Ten states that bring lust, hate and stupidity to an end found only in the Buddha's Discipline
[AN 10 127] Pañcama Suttaṃ, The Pali
Conducive Woodward translation
Ten states that lead to disgust, fading out, ending, calm, understanding, awakening, and Nibbāna found only in the Buddha's Discipline.
[AN 10 128] Chaṭṭhama Suttaṃ, The Pali
Made to Grow (a) Woodward translation
Ten states which if worked at arise only in the Buddha's Discipline.
[AN 10 129] Satta Suttaṃ, The Pali
Made to Grow (b) Woodward translation
Ten states which if developed are of great fruit only in the Buddha's Discipline.
[AN 10 130] Aṭṭhama Suttaṃ, The Pali
Made to Grow (c) Woodward translation
Ten states which if worked at end in restraint of lust, hate and stupidity, but only in the Buddha's Discipline.
[AN 10 131] Navama Suttaṃ, The Pali
Made to Grow (d) Woodward translation
Ten states which if worked at lead to disgust, fading out, ending, calm, understanding, awakening, and Nibbāna are found only in the Buddha's Discipline.
[AN 10 132] Dasama Suttaṃ, The Pali
Wrong Woodward translation
Ten low states.
[AN 10 133] Ekādasama Suttaṃ, The Pali
Right Woodward translation
Ten high states.

 

Many of the previous (and following) suttas give the 10-fold Path in brief. The definitions of these terms can be found, in among other places:

The Method
in DN 22 Mahā Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta (under the section on Dhamma; but the first eight only)
The Pali Line, Lesson 10

I have provided links for many of these suttas to the Rhys Davids translation of the Mahā Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta definitions for the first eight terms and to The Method for the last two terms.

 

[AN 10 134] Sādhu Suttaṃ, The Pali
Right and Wrong Woodward translation
Ten things which are well done and ten things which are not well done.
[AN 10 135] Ariyadhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ariyan and Unariyan, Woodward translation
Ten things which are aristocratic and ten things which are not aristocratic.
[AN 10 136] Kusala Suttaṃ, The Pali
Good and Bad, Woodward translation
Ten things which are skillful and ten things which are not skillful.
[AN 10 137] Attha Suttaṃ, The Pali
Aim and Not-aim, Woodward translation
Ten things which are not the goal and ten things which are the goal.
[AN 10 138] Dhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Dhamma and Not-Dhamma, Woodward translation
Ten things which are Dhamma and ten things which are Not-Dhamma.
[AN 10 139] Sāsava Suttaṃ, The Pali
With Cankers and Without, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines a path that allows in corrupting influences and one which does not allow in corrupting influences.
[AN 10 140] Sāvajja Suttaṃ, The Pali
Blameworthy and Blameless, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines a path which has aspects which should be avoided and one which has no fearful aspects.
[AN 10 141] Tapanīya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Remorse and Not-remorse, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines a path which brings remorse and a path that brings no remorse.
[AN 10 142] Ācayagāmī Suttaṃ, The Pali
Given to Heaping Up and Diminishing, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines a path which heaps up rebirth and a path that is beyond heaping up rebirth. PED has 'apacaya' as 'unmaking' or 'diminishing' which is also the way Woodward (diminishing) and Bhk. Bodhi (dismantling) translate. PED forms the word from 'apa + ci" 'up passed-whatever.' A simpler reading would be that the root is 'caya' 'heap' and the prefixes are 'ā' 'to' and 'apa' 'up-passed.' The importance is in whether or not what is being said is that the path dismantles the existing pile of future rebirths, or does not create any new future rebirths. I think the idea of 'up passed' is the more consistent with a path that is made up of not-doings and lettings-go. One creates no new rebirths, gets beyond the reach of rebirths, gives up future rebirths, one does not sit here and destroy future rebirths. That would be an intentional doing certainly bound up in 'vibhava-tanha' wanting to un-live. The side note is that even in this long series of suttas with only single terms changed the effect of pairing opposites is to sharpen perception of what is being defined. Here opposites that do not work mean either the translation (understanding) of one or another term is not correct or the understanding of the path is not correct (or both are misunderstood).
[AN 10 143] Dukkhudraya Suttaṃ, The Pali
Yielding Pain and Pleasure, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines a path which yields up pain and a path that yields up pleasure.
[AN 10 144] Dukkhavipāka Suttaṃ, The Pali
Pain and Pleasure, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines a path which ripens in pain and a path that ripens in pleasure. Woodward following PED translates 'vipāka' 'ripening', as 'fruit' meaning 'fruition'. Since 'phala' which is 'fruit' is often used in the suttas the better translation would be the literal 'ripening' or 'fruition' or along the lines of 'consequence' 'result', etc.
[AN 10 145] Ariyamagga Suttaṃ, The Pali
Ariyan and Unariyan, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines the way of the Aristocrats and the way that is not the Way of the Aristocrats. Beginning a new set. It's like sandpaper. Round and round the basic two sets of ten 'dimensions' or 'steps' or 'folds' or 'facets' or 'things' or 'forms' or 'Teachings'. At some point or another, if paying close attention as requested, preconceptions about the path (about life!) will be sanded off. ... oops! There goes Mark Twain.
[AN 10 146] Sukkamagga Suttaṃ, The Pali
Bright Way and Dark Way, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines the black way and the white way.
[AN 10 147] Saddhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
True Dhamma and False Dhamma, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines true Dhamma and untrue dhamma.
[AN 10 148] Sappurisadhamma Suttaṃ, The Pali
Very-man Dhamma and Its Opposite, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines the Dhamma of the good man and what is not the dhamma of the good man.
[AN 10 149] Uppādetabba Suttaṃ, The Pali
To Be Brought About, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines Dhamma that should be made to arise and dhamma that should not be made to arise.
[AN 10 150] Āsevitabba Suttaṃ, The Pali
To Be Followed, Woodward translation
Āsevi 'to revisit'. The Buddha defines Dhamma that should be pursued and that which should not be pursued.
[AN 10 151] Bhāvetabba Suttaṃ The Pali
To Be Made to Grow, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines Dhamma that should be developed and dhamma which should not be developed.
[AN 10 152] Bahulīkāttabba Suttaṃ The Pali
To Be Made Much Of, Woodward translation
The Buddha defines Dhamma that should be made a big thing of and dhamma which should not be made a big thing of.

 

Unit 112

T.W. Rhys Davids, Buddhist India
Navagate from links at the foot of each page. If you want to find a certain page, go to the Contents page, locate the Chapter containing that page, go to that chapter, and add: '#pg1' (without the "'"s) to the end of the URL.
Begin from the front cover.
Begin from the contents page.
Portrays ancient India, during the period of Buddhist ascendancy, from the non-Brahmin point of view. Based on the literary, numismatic and inscriptional records, it throws light on points hitherto dark and even unsuspected [then c. 1903]. Divided into sixteen chapters, the work presents a detailed account of the socio-economic, geo-political and ethico-religious conditions of the country. There are numerous illustrations.
There is a linked index.
This book is frequently cited in footnotes in the PTS translations.
Much of the material in the appendix here called "Buddha's India" was taken from this book.

 

Unit 113

[SN 4.35.117] Worldly Sensual Elements (ii), Woodward translation
The Cords of Worldly Sense Pleasures, Olds adaptation
The Pali and the Woodward translation have been unabridged in accordance with the indications in the texts and in accordance with their own logic. However it is highly likely that there is an error in the Pali and that it has resulted in confusion and mistranslation all round (including that of Bhk. Bodhi who has made the best sense of it as it is.) What has been done in the version above is not a translation. It should be thought of as a convenient way to explain what is suggested as the correct way the sutta should have been edited. It has just been patched together using Woodward's translation, that of Bhk. Bodhi and some original translation.
[SN 5.45.1] Ignorance, Woodward translation
Linked to the Pali and Bhk. Thanissaro translation. The Buddha explains in a Paṭicca-samuppada-like style how blindness leads to shameful behavior and that gives rise to mistaken points of view which leads to false release. Where there is vision, 'seeing' the bad consequences of shameful acts, that gives rise to consummate point of view which leads to consummate release. Identical to AN 10.105.
[SN 5.45.2] The Half, Woodward translation
A lovely sutta. Ānanda, probably speaking of friendship with other beggars, declares that it is 'half of the Brahma life' to be associated with the lovely. Gotama corrects him saying it is the whole of the Brahma life, but he is speaking of a close association and companionship with the Dhamma.
[SN 5.45.3] Sāriputta, Woodward translation
Sariputta declares that it is 'the whole of the Brahma life' to be associated with the lovely. Gotama confirms him in this view repeating what he said in the previous sutta.
[SN 5.46.51] Food, Woodward translation
The Buddha teaches what is and what is not a food for the obstructions (nīvaraṇā) and for the seven dimensions of self-awakening (satta sambojjhaṅga).

 

Unit 114

[AN 4 246] Growth in Wisdom, Woodward translation
Four things which conduce to the growth of wisdom and which are beneficial for one who has become human. This sutta is divided into two suttas in some versions of the Pali and understood to be two suttas by Bhk. Bodhi. On the surface making them into two suttas seems logical as, although the content of both halfs is identical, the point is directed at two different sorts of persons. There is another way to read this which is that the four helpful things can be understood at two different levels. One applied to the bhikkhus, and one applied to all 'beings who have become human' (where the possibility exists that there is no fully awakened one to follow and no Dhamma, capital 'D'.) In this latter case combining the two would serve to emphasize the double meanings.

 

Unit 115

[AN 6 36] The Roots of Contention, Hare translation
The Buddha lists and condemns six things that foster contention and urges the bhikkhus to get rid of them wherever they appear.
[AN 6 39] The Means, Hare translation
The Buddha describes the idea that lust, hate and stupidity tend to proliferate and end in unhappy births whereas their opposites tend to breed further good kamma which ends in a happy rebirth. This is a little, apparently simple sutta which could easily be overlooked, but which has within it the kernal of one of the most important phenomena dealt with by Gotama's system: that is, that we tend to do what we remember having done. When hungar arises we recall that last time hunger arose we satisfied it with a big meal from the Greasy Spoon (we omit to remember -moha, stupidity- the indigestion that followed later that night), the pleasant sensations of the memory urge the decision -lobha- to get such food once again, and once again we experience indigestion (and quickly supress the memory after; -dosa, hate-). Had we exercised memory -sati- of the unpleasant result (or taken note of this sutta!), we could have dealt with the hunger with moderation and on later reflection enjoyed the fact that we had satisfied the needs of the body while at the same time we had freed ourself from the repitition of an unpleasantness. Pushed out, this is the same mechanism used in the process of finding rebirth.
[AN 6 44] Migasālā, Hare translation
Another version of AN 10 75 Migasālā confronts Ānanda in a huff because of her confusion over the fates of her father and uncle. Both were declared to have been reborn in the Tusita realm as Once-returners by the Buddha. Her father was proficient in ethical conduct but deficient in wisdom, her uncle proficient in wisdom but deficient in ethical behavior, but Migasālā only sees one side: that her father was proficient in ethical behavior and her uncle was not; and she proceds to judge the Buddha and the Dhamma as flawed. Gotama explains the issue to Ānanda and gives three similar cases (which are different than those given in the version in the Tens).

[AN 6 46] Mahā Cunda, Hare translation
For the good of one and all, Mahā Cunda exhorts the bhikkhus devoted to Dhamma study not to disparage the bhikkhus who are devoted to jhāna practice and then exhorts the bhikkhus devoted to jhāna practice not to disparage the bhikkhus who are devoted to Dhamma study. For:

Of those devoted to jhāna practice, he says (Olds adaptation):

A snapping-fine thing, friends,
and not easy to gain in this world
is the sight of such men
as those who live in bodily contact with the deathless.

Of those devoted to Dhamma study (Hare translates 'dhamma-yoge bhikkhū' as Dhamma-zealots which today has a bad connotation), he says:

A snapping-fine thing, friends,
and not easy to gain in this world
is the sight of such men
as they who pierce with vision
and see in detail
the deep wisdom of the path to the goal.'

There was this early rivalry between the 'repeaters' and the 'jhāyanti pajjhāyanti' 'the inflamed by the flames', that is, jhāna practitioners. It is to our loss that the the jhāna practitioners did not set down more of their techniques and experiences for the repeaters to remember.
[AN 6 131-151] He Sees the Deathless, Hare translation
A declaration by the Buddha that 21 different laymen had achieved the deathless (attained Arahantship). Since some of these were also in other places declared non-returners, the assumption is that they attained Arahantship at or shortly after death but before taking birth as a new individuality.

Whosoever has unwavering faith in me,
all those are stream-winners.

AN 10.64 Woodward

 

Unit 116

[AN 5 161] The Putting Away of Malice (a), Hare translation
Five things which should be employed to overcome anger that has arisen.

 

Unit 117

Biographical entries for: Cunda the Great Mahā Cunda (possibly Cūḷa-Cunda, possibly Cunda-Samaṇuddesa, possibly Ekapattadāyaka, possibly Cunda Thera). An eminent bhikkhu, younger brother of Sāriputta and student of Ānanda, ranked among the highest and who apparently had great psychic powers. (possibly that of 'from being one, becoming many').
Cūḷa Kokālika. His is a story (told in AN 10.89 and in the Kokālika Jātaka (#331) and Takkāriya-Jātaka #481) that illustrates the danger of disparaging bhikkhus (as in AN 10.88) Another version of this sutta dealing with Kokalika is SN 1.6.10.
Vajjiyamāhita A lay disciple said to have acchieved arahantship (see AN 6.147). It is unclear as to whether or not this was achieved before death or at the time of death or before another rebirth. We have suttas featuring him at AN 10 81 and AN 10 94.
Jāṇussoṇī brāhmaṇo. One of a few eminent brāhmin followers of Gotama. He appears in a number of suttas including AN 10.119 and an entire chapter [AN 10 XVII] of Aṅguttara Nikāya, Tens, is named after him.

 

Unit 118

Glossology entry: Cattāro Sammappadhānā, The Four Commendable (Consummate, Right, Supreme, Great, Best) Efforts, Strivings.

Here beggars, a beggar generates desire, exerts his heart, seeks out the energy and self-control to prevent the arising of bad, unskillful things not yet arisen;
generates desire, exerts his heart, seeks out the energy and self-control to let go of bad, unskillful things that have arisen;
generates desire, exerts his heart, seeks out the energy and self-control to give rise to skillful things not yet arisen;
generates desire, exerts his heart, seeks out the energy and self-control for the non-confusion, increased standing, and completely fulfilled development of skillful things that have arisen.
These then beggars, are the four commendable efforts.
— [AN 4.13 - Olds]

 

Unit 119

Mrs. Rhys Davids' Editorial Note to Kindred Sayings Part III.
Introductory Notes to Kindred Sayings Part IV

Much of what this woman has to say is simply a projection of her pre-conceived notions of what 'ought' in her mind, to be the way of a great teacher. She does not speak from a mind informed by practice, she does not argue from established fact but from assumption, and she does not hesitate to heap scorn with the astounding arrogance of the academic on those who would believe differently than herself. She ends up aserting a doctrine which is some sort of mish-mash of her own devising. It is a marvel of the suttas themselves, and the basic honest effort she brings to her work, that her views do not intrude much or very harmfully on her translations but are confined to her introductions to books and suttas. For the historical interest and for the sake of allowing voice to the other side (and because there was a reference to her discussion of the translatin of the term 'bhikkhu' in the Introductory Notes to K.S. 4 in Woodward's SN 5.45.1) it is reasonable that they are posted on this site. The reader should be cautioned that this posting does not represent an endorsement of her views and he should read them carefully with a critical mind) ... here is an example:

In numerous places throughout this site will be found explained the view that the repetitions were an original and vital feature of the suttas.
What people who have never tried it can overlook is that it is extremely difficult to repeat a formula again and again without making an error. And that is not to speak of the fact that there is variation within the regularity, something that is orders of magnitude harder to manage than straight repetition. The focus needed for such an effort is, or should be, just as, no! even more inspiring than variation for variation's sake to "a man of originality, of power, of winning charm." That is a demonstration of enormous mental power. Mrs. Rhys Davids asks for originality in the form of variation and then overlooks the fact that this dhamma, stripped down to it's essentials, is a matter of a few paragraphs. These 'repetitive' suttas are the variations! The unique ways the same basic information is conveyed over and over in an age without the printing press or ... internet or cellphone. This has been said before here: these suttas are like mental gymnastic routines. They should be received in the same spirit as one would watch the gymnastics at the Olympics. We, of course do not get much of the 'style' that we would no doubt appreciate in a live performance, the smooth delivery, the lack of hesitation, the pauses, the ques as to humor, etc. but at least we can set the scripts into print with the grace of form they come with.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

"But nothing will convince me that we have, in that stereotyped argument about Attā, the very way in which Gotama fed his questioners over and over again. That is indeed unthinkable. He may conceivably in his long ministry have sanctioned his disciples' drawing up a fixed wording here and there. But as a man of originality, of power, of winning charm, he would be simply unable to repeat himself. It is the way of such elect souls to react with fine sensitiveness to every fresh conjuncture calling for speech. It is the way of such elect souls to be welling up and overflowing in creative will now thus and now thus. Not his the formula of the Suttas any more than was his the terse cryptic gnome of the Sūtras."
Mrs. C.A.F. Rhys Davids

The contrary view is that it is testimony to the clarity of Gotama's original awakening that his doctrine could be stated in terms not needing alteration even down to the syllable (give or take) through the course of 40 years of teaching. We see throughout the collection that disciples used the same phraseology and here and there this phenomenon is actually remarked upon with pride.

It is an interesting phenomena that in so many cases down through history and right up to this day that a slight acquaintance with the Dhamma has inspired so many to think that they understand it all. This appears to come from two aspects of the situation. On the one hand Gotama so constructed his teachings as to be universal and timeless. That means that they used very low-level terms related to broad-based experiences (such as farming and hunting and sex and food). Conversely he avoided abstractions. The result is that much of what he said is immediately comprehensible across cultures, mental states, and time, and because it is by its nature good and and universally accepted by the wise (giving is good, ethical behavior is good, self-control is good, development of the mind is good), accepted as truth. On the other hand, having understood and accepted this much one naturally believes one is on firm ground in stating one has understood the system and that one's fundamental point of view concerning existence and non-existence is not challenged. The thinking of the reader will not initially be focused at the same ground-level, non-abstract word use as is used by Gotama and there will be a tendency to 'translate' what one is reading into the abstract terms one is used to using. These abstract terms will tend to confirm one's fundamental beliefs. The result is that when doctrine within the suttas that does run counter to one's fundamental beliefs is met with and cannot be translated away, it appears to run against the grain of the 'truth' in the Dhamma that one has initially accepted. The error must be in the document, not in one's self! After all, it is beyond question that one has understood such a clearly put teaching. "The teacher of such a clearly put teaching would never have said that. How do I know? Because I am one who understands the system." Round and round.

 

Unit 120

I will teach you
the Ariyan ablution,
a washing which conduces to downright revulsion,
fading,
ending,
calming,
comprehension,
illumination,
which conduces to nibbāna -
an ablution whereby beings
whose nature it is to be reborn
are released from rebirth;
whereby beings whose nature it is to decay
are released from decay;
whereby beings whose nature it is to die
are released from death;
whereby beings to whom belong sorrow and lamentation,
woe,
dejection
and despair,
are released from
sorrow and lamentation,
woe,
dejection
and despair.

Do ye listen to it attentively
and I will speak.'
AN 10.107 - Woodward

Next: Year 3


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