The Integrated Paali-English Dictionary

Based on The Paali Text Society's Paali-English Dictionary by T. W. Rhys Davids and William Stede

Edited by Michael Olds

Foreword to the Paali Text Society Edition

It is somewhat hard to realize, seeing how important and valuable the work has been, that when ROBERT CAESAR CHILDERS published, in 1872, the first volume of his Paali Dictionary, he only had at his command a few pages of the canonical Paali books. Since then, owing mainly to the persistent labours of the Paali Text Society, practically the whole of these books, amounting to between ten and twelve thousand pages, have been made available to scholars. These books had no authors. They are anthologies which gradually grew up in the community. Their composition, as to the Vinaya and the four Nikaayas (with the possible exception of the supplements) was complete within about a century of the Buddha's death; and the rest belong to the following century. When scholars have leisure to collect and study the data to be found in this pre-Sanskrit literature, it will necessarily throw as much light on the history of ideas and language as the study of such names and places as are mentioned in it (quite incidentally) has already thrown upon the political divisions, social customs, and economic conditions of ancient India.

Some of these latter facts I have endeavoured to collect in my "Buddhist India" ; and perhaps the most salient discovery is the quite unexpected conclusion that, for about two centuries (both before the Buddha's birth and after his death), the paramount power in India was Kosala - a kingdom stretching from Nepal on the North to the Ganges on the South, and from the Ganges on the West to the territories of the Vajjian confederacy on the East. In this, the most powerful kingdom in India; there had naturally arisen a standard vernacular differing from the local forms of speech just as standard English differs from the local (usually county) dialects. The Paali of the canonical books is based on that standard Kosala vernacular as spoken in the 6th and 7th centuries B. C. It cannot be called the "literary" form of that vernacular, for it was not written at all till long afterwards. That vernacular was the mother tongue of the Buddha. He was born in what is now Nepal, but was then a district under the suzerainty of Kosala and in one of the earliest Paali documents he is represented as calling himself a Kosalan.

When, about a thousand years afterwards, some pandits in Ceylon began to write in Paali, they wrote in a style strikingly different from that of the old texts. Part of that difference is no doubt due simply to a greater power of fluent expression unhampered by the necessity of constantly considering that the words composed had to be learnt by heart. When the Sinhalese used Paali, they were so familiar with the method of writing on palmleaves that the question of memorizing simply did not arise. It came up again later. But none of the works belonging to this period were intended to be learnt. They were intended to be read. On the other hand they were for the most part reproductions of older material that had, till then, been preserved in Sinhalese. Though the Sinhalese pandits were writing in Paali, to them, of course, a dead language, they probably did their thinking in their own mother tongue. Now they had had then, for many generations, so close and intimate an intercourse with their Dravidian neighbours that Dravidian habits of speech had crept into Sinhalese. It was inevitable that some of the peculiarities of their own tongue, and especially these Dravidanisms, should have influenced their style when they wrote in Paali. It will be for future scholars to ascertain exactly how far this influence can be traced in the idioms and in the order of the arrangement of the matter of these Ceylon Paali books of the fifth and sixth centuries A. D.

There is no evidence that the Sinhalese at that time knew Sanskrit. Some centuries afterwards a few of them learnt the elements of classical Sanskrit and very proud they were of it. They introduced the Sanskrit forms of Sinhalese words when writing "high" Sinhalese. And the authors of such works as the Daa.thaava.msa, the Saddhammopaayana, and the Mahaabodhiva.msa, make use of Paali words derived from Sanskrit that is, they turned into Paali form certain Sanskrit words they found either in the Amara-ko.sa, or in the course of their very limited reading, and used them as Paali. It would be very desirable to have a list of such Paali words thus derived from Sanskrit. It would not be a long one.

Here we come once more to the question of memory. From the 11th cent. onwards it became a sort of fashion to write manuals in verse, or in prose and verse, on such subjects as it was deemed expedient for novices to know. Just as the first book written in Paali in Ceylon was a chain of memoriter verses strung together by very indifferent Paali verses, so at the end we have these scarcely intelligible memoriter verses meant to be learned by heart by the pupils.

According to the traditions handed down among the Sinhalese, Paali, that is, the language used in the texts, could also be called Maagadhii. What exactly did they mean by that* They could not be referring to the Maagadhii of the Prakrit grammarians, for the latter wrote some centuries afterwards. Could they have meant the dialect spoken in Magadha at the date when they used the phrase, say, the sixth century A. D.* That could only be if they had any exact knowledge of the different vernaculars of North India at the time. For that there is no evidence, and it is in itself very improbable. What they did mean is probably simply the language used by Asoka, the king of Magadha. For their traditions also stated that the texts had been brought to them officially by Asoka's son Mahinda; and not in writing, but in the memory of Mahinda and his companions. Now we know something of the language of Asoka. We have his edicts engraved in different parts of India, differing slightly in compliance with local varieties of speech. Disregarding these local differences, what is left may be considered the language of head-quarters where these edicts were certainly drafted. This "Maagadhii" contains none of the peculiar characteristics we associate with the Maagadhii dialect. It is in fact a younger form of that standard Kosalan lingua franca mentioned above.

Now it is very suggestive that we hear nothing of how the king of Magadha became also king of Kosala. Had this happened quietly, by succession, the event would have scarcely altered the relation of the languages of the two kingdoms. That of the older and larger would still have retained its supremacy. So when the Scottish dynasty succeeded to the English throne, the two languages remained distinct, but English became more and more the standard. However this may be, it has become of essential importance to have a Dictionary of a language the history of whose literature is bound up with so many delicate and interesting problems. The Paali Text Society, after long continued exertion and many cruel rebuffs and disappointments is now at last in a position to offer to scholars the first instalment of such a dictionary.

The merits and demerits of the work will be sufficiently plain even from the first fasciculus. But one or two remarks are necessary to make the position of my colleague and myself clear.

We have given throughout the Sanskrit roots corresponding to the Paali roots, and have omitted the latter. It may be objected that this is a strange method to use in a Paali dictionary, especially as the vernacular on which Paali is based had never passed through the stage of Sanskrit. That may be so; and it may not be possible, historically, that any Paali word in the canon could have been actually derived from the corresponding Sanskrit word. Nevertheless the Sanskrit form, though arisen quite independently, may throw light upon the Paali form; and as Paali roots have not yet been adequately studied in Europe, the plan adopted will probably, at least for the present, be more useful.

This work is essentially preliminary. There is a large number of words of which we do not know the derivation. There is a still larger number of which the derivation does not give the meaning, but rather the reverse. It is so in every living language. Who could guess, from the derivation, the complicated meaning of such words as "conscience" , "emotion" , "disposition" * The derivation would be as likely to mislead as to guide. We have made much progress. No one needs now to use the one English word "desire" as a translation of sixteen distinct Paali words, no one of which means precisely desire. Yet this was done in Vol. X of the Sacred Books of the East by MAX MuLLER and FAUSBoLL See Mrs. RHYS DAVIDS in J R A S., 1898, p. 58.. The same argument applies to as many concrete words as abstract ones. Here again we claim to have made much advance. But in either case, to wait for perfection would postpone the much needed dictionary to the Greek kalends. It has therefore been decided to proceed as rapidly as possible with the completion of this first edition, and to reserve the proceeds of the sale for the eventual issue of a second edition which shall come nearer to our ideals of what a Paali Dictionary should be.

We have to thank Mrs. STEDE for valuable help in copying out material noted in my interleaved copy of Childers, and in collating indexes published by the Society; Mrs. RHYS DAVIDS for revising certain articles on the technical terms of psychology and philosophy; and the following scholars for kindly placing at our disposal the material they had collected for the now abandoned scheme of an international Paali Dictionary:

Prof. STEN KONOW. Words beginning with S or H. (Published in J P T S. 1909 and 1907, revised by Prof. Dr. D. ANDERSEN). Dr. MABEL H. BODE. B, Bh and M. Prof. DUROISELLE. K. Dr. W. H. D. ROUSE. C-~N.

In this connection I should wish to refer to the work of Dr. EDMOND HARDY. When he died he left a great deal of material; some of which has reached us in time to be made available. He was giving his whole time, and all his enthusiasm to the work, and had he lived the dictionary would probably have been finished before the war. His loss was really the beginning of the end of the international undertaking.

Anybody familiar with this sort of work will know what care and patience, what scholarly knowledge and judgment are involved in the collection of such material, in the sorting, the sifting and final arrangement of it, in the adding of cross references, in the consideration of etymological puzzles, in the comparison and correction of various or faulty readings, and in the verification of references given by others, or found in the indexes. For all this work the users of the Dictionary will have to thank my colleague, Dr. WILLIAM STEDE. It may be interesting to notice here that the total number of references to appear in this first edition of the new dictionary is estimated to be between one hundred and fifty and one hundred and sixty thousand. The Bavarian Academy has awarded to Dr. STEDE a personal grant of 3100 marks for his work on this Dictionary.

Chipstead, Surrey. July, 1921. T. W. RHYS DAVIDS.

---[ Page IX ]---

A List of the Chief Books consulted for Vocabulary (with Abbreviations).

-----[ 1. PALI BOOKS ]-----

-----[ 1a Canonical ]-----

Anguttara-Nikaaya 5 vols. P T S. 1885 1900 (A). Buddha-Va.msa P T S. 1882 (Bu). Cariyaa-Pi.taka P T S. 1882 (Cp.). Dhammapada P T S. 1914 (Dh). Dhamma-Sanga.ni P T S. 1885 (Dhs). Diigha-Nikaaya 3 vols. P T S. (D). Iti-vuttaka P T S. 1890 (It.). Kathaa-Vatthu 2 vols. P T S. 1894, 95 (Kvu). Khuddaka-Paa.tha P T S. 1915 (Kh). Majjhima-Nikaaya 3 vols. P T S. 1887 1902 (M). Niddesa I Mahaa* 2 vols. P T S. 1916, 17 (Nd1). Niddesa II Culla* P T S. 1918 (Nd2). Pa.tisambhidaamagga 2 vols. P T S. 1905, 1907 (Ps). Peta-Vatthu P T S. 1889 (Pv). Puggala-Pa~n~natti P T S. 1883 (Pug). Sa'nyutta-Nikaaya 5 vols. P T S. 1884 1898 (S). Sutta-Nipaata P T S. 1913 (Sn). Thera-theriigaathaa P T S. 1883 (Th 1) and (Th 2). Udaana P T S. 1885 (Ud). Vibhanga P T S. 1904 (Vbh). Vimaana-Vatthu P T S. 1886 (Vv). Vinaya-Pi.taka 5 vols. London 1879 83 (Vin). Apadaana Paali Text Society 1925 (Ap). Dukapa.t.thaana, Paali Text Society 1906 (Dukp). Tikapa.t.thaana, 3 vols. Paali Text Society 1921-23 (Tikp).

-----[ 1b Post-Canonical ]-----

Atthasaalinii, P T S. 1897 (DhsA). Buddhadatta's Manuals, P T S. 1915 (Bdhd). Daa.thaava.msa, J P T S. 1884 (Daavs). Dhammapada Commentary, 4 vols. P T S. 1906-14 (DhA). Diipava.msa, London 1879 (Dpvs). Jaataka, 6 vols. London 1877-96 (J). Khuddaka-Paa.tha Commentary, P T S. 1915 (KhA). Khuddhasikkhaa, J.T.PaaliS. 1883 (Khus). Mahaava.msa, P T S. 1908 (Mhvs). Mahaa-Bodhi-Va.msa, P T S. 1891 (Mhbv). Milindapa~nha, London 1880 (Miln). Muulasikkhaa, J.Paali Text Society 1883 (Muuls). Netti-Pakara.na, P T S. 1902 (Nett). Pa~nca-gati-diipana, J P T S. 1884 (Pgdp). Peta-Vatthu Commentary, P T S. 1894 (PvA). Puggala-Pa~n~natti Commentary, J P T S. 1914 (Pug A). Saddhammopaayana, J P T S. 1887 (Sdhp). Sumangala-Vilaasinii, vol. I, P T S. 1886 (DA I). Manoratha-puura.nii Paali Text Society 1924 (AA); Samanta-paasaadikaa Paali Text Society 1924 (Sam. Paas. or Vin A). Papa~nca Suudanii, pt. I, Paali Text Society 1922 (MA). Sammoha-Vinodanii, Paali Text Society 1923 (VbhA).

---[ Page X ]---

Sutta-Nipaata Commentary, 2 vols. P T S. 1916-17 (SnA). Theriigaathaa Commentary, P T S. 1891 (ThA). Vimaana-Vatthu Commentary, P T S. 1901 (VvA). Visuddhi-Magga, 2 vols. P T S. 1920 21 (Vism). Yogaavacara's Manual, Paali Text Society 1896 (Yog). Note. The system adopted in quotations of passages from Paali text is that proposed in J P T S. 1909, pp. 385-87, with this modification that Peta-vatthu (Pv) is quoted by canto and verse, and Culla-Niddesa (Nd2) by number of word in "Explanatory Matter".

-----[ 2. BUDDHIST SANSKRIT ]-----

Avadaana-shataka, ed. J. S. Speyer (Bibl. Buddhica III), 2 vols., St. Petersbourg 1906. (Av. SH.). Divya-vadaana, ed. Cowell and Neil, Cambridge 1886. (Divy). Jaataka-maalaa, ed. H. Kern (Harvard Or. Ser. I), Boston 1891. (Jtm). Lalita-vistara, ed. S. Lefmann, I. Halle 1902. (Lal. V.). Mahaa-vastu, ed. É. Senart, 3 vols., Paris 1882-1897. (Mvst). Shiks.aa-samuccaya. Ed. C. Bendall, St. Petersburg, 1902 (SHiks.). The ed. of Lalitavistara which I have used, and from which I quote, is the Calcutta ed. (1877), by Raajendralaala Mitra (Bibl. Indica), and not Lefmann's.

-----[ 3. TRANSLATIONS ]-----

Buddh. Manual of Psychological Ethics (trsl. of the Dhamma-sanga.ni) by Mrs. Rhys Davids (R. As. Soc. Trsl. Fund XII), London 1900. (Dhs trsl.). Compendium of Philosophy (trsl. of the Abhidhamm' attha-sangaha) by S. Z. Aung and Mrs. Rhys Davids, P T S. Trsl. 1910. (Cpd.). Dialogues of the Buddha, trsl. by T. W. and C. A. F. Rhys Davids, London I. 1899; II. 1910; III. 1921. (Dial.). Expositor (trsl. of the Attha-saalinii), by Maung Tin, P T S. Trsl. 1920, 21. Kathaavatthu trsl. ("Points of Controversy), by Aung and Mrs. Rhys Davids, P T S. Trsl. 1915. (Kvu trsl.). Kindred Sayings (Sa'nyutta Nikaaya I), by Mrs. Rhys Davids, P T S. Trsl. 1917. (K S.). Mahaava.msa trsl. by W. Geiger, P T S. Trsl. 1912. Manual of a Mystic (Yoga-vacara), trs. by F. L. Woodward, P T S. Trsl. 1916. (Mystic). Neumann, K. E., Lieder der Monche und Nonnen, Berlin 1899. Psalms of the Brethren (trsl. Mrs. Rhys Davids), P T S. Trsl. 1913. Psalms of the Sistereotype (trsl. Mrs. Rhys Davids), P T S. Trsl. 1909. Questions of Milinda (trsl. T. W. Rhys Davids), S B E. vols. 35, 36. (Miln). Vinaya Texts (trsl. Rhys Davids and Oldenberg), S B E. vols. 13, 17, 20. (Vin T.). Neumann, Die Reden Gotamo Buddha's (Mittlere Sammlung), Vols. I to III2 1921. Human Types, Paali Text Society trsl. 1924 (Pug trsl.) and insert accordingly on p. xi under B 1. Path of Purity, Paali Text Society trsl. 1923, 1st pt. (Vism. Trsl.). 4. GRAMMATICAL and OTHER LITERATURE; PERIODICALS, ETC. Abhidhaanappadiipikaa, ed. W. Subhuuti, Colombo1 1883. (Abhp.). Andersen, D., A Paali Reader, 2 pts; Copenhagen 1901, 1907. Aufrecht, Th., Halaayudha's Abhidhaana-ratna-maa'aa, London 1861. Brugmann, K., Kurze vergleichende Grammatik der indogerm. Sprachen, Strassburg 1902. Childers, R. C., A Dictionary of the Paali Language, London 1874. Braahma.na (Br.). Dhaatupaa.tha and Dhaatuma~njuusaa, ed. Andersen and Smith, Copenhagen 1921 (Dhtp, Dhtm). SHatapatha-Braahma.na (trsl. J. Eggeling) (SHat. Br.) SBE vols.

---[ XI]---

Geiger, W., Paali Literatur und Sprache, Strassburg 1916. (Geiger, Paali Gr.). Grassmann, W., Worterbuch zum Rig Veda, Leipzig 1873. Journal of the American Oriental Society (J A O S.). Journal Asiatique, Paris (J. As.) Journal of the Paali Text Society (J P T S.). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, London (J R A S.). Kaccaayana-ppakara.na, ed. and trsl. Senart (J. As. 1871) (Kacc). Kern, H., Toevoegselen op 't Woordenboek van Childers; 2 pts (Verhandelingen Kon. Ak. van Wetenschappen te Amstereotypeam N. R. XVI, 5), Amstereotypeam 1916. (Toev.). Kuhn's Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung (K Z.). Mahaavyutpatti, ed. Mironow (Bibl. Buddhica XIII) St. Petersbourg 1910, 11. (Mvyut). Muller, Ed., Simplified Grammar of the Paali Language, London 1884. Trenckner, V., Notes on the Milindapa~nho, in J P T S. 1908, 102 sq. Uhlenbeck, H., Kurzgefasstes Etym. Worterbuch d. Altindischen Sprache, Amstereotypeam 1898. Walde, A., Lateinisches Etymologisches Worterbuch, Heidelberg2 1910. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, Leipzig 1847 sq. (Z D M S.). Kirfel, W. Kosmographie der Inder, Bonn and Leipzig 1920.

-----[ B. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ]-----

-----[ 1. Titles of Books (the no. refers to section of A) ]-----

A Anguttara . . . . . . 1a Abhp Abhidhaanappadiipikaa. . . 4 Ap Apadaana. . . . . . . 1a Av. SH. Avadaana-shataka . . . . 2 Bdhd Buddhadatta . . . . . 1 Brethren: see Psalms. . . . . . 3 Bu Buddha-va.msa . . . . . 1a Cp Cariyaa-pi.taka . . . . . 1a Cpd Compendium . . . . . 3 D Diigha. . . . . . . . 1a Daavs Daa.thaa-va.msa . . . . . 1b Dh Dhammapada . . . . . 1a Dhs Dhammasanga.ni . . . . 1a Dhs trsl. Atthasaalinii . . . . . . 3 Dial. Dialogues . . . . . . 3 Divy Divya-vadaana . . . . . 2 Dpvs Diipava.msa . . . . . . 1b Halaayudha: see Aufrecht . . . . 4 It Itivuttaka . . . . . . 1a J Jaataka . . . . . . . 1b J A O S. Journal Amer. Or. Soc. . 4 J As. Journal Asiatique. . . . 4 J P T S. Journal Paali Text Soc. . 4 J R A S. Journal Royal Asiatic Soc. 4 Jtm Jaatakamaalaa . . . . . . 2 Kacc Kaccaayana . . . . . . 4 Kh Khuddakapaa.tha . . . . 1a K S Kindred Sayings. . . . 3 Kvu Kathaavatthu . . . . . 1a K Z Kuhn's Zeitschrift . . . 4 Lal. V. Lalita Vistara. . . . . 2 M Majjhima . . . . . . 1a Mhbv Mahaabodhi-va.msa. . . . 1b Mhvs Mahaava.msa . . . . . . 1b Miln Milinda-pa~nha . . . . . 1b M Vastu Mahaa-vastu . . . . . . 2 Mvyut Mahaavyutpatti. . . . . 4 Mystic: see Manual . . . . . . 3 Nd1 Mahaaniddesa . . . . . 1a Nd2 Cullaniddesa . . . . . 1a Nett Netti-pakara.na. . . . . 1b Pgdp Pa~ncagati-diipana . . . . 1b Ps Pa.tisambhidaa-magga. . . 1a Pug Puggala-pa~n~natti . . . . 1a Pv Petavatthu . . . . . . 1a S Sa'nyutta. . . . . . . 1a S B E Sacred Books of the East. 3 Sdhp Saddhammopaayana . . . 1b SHiks. SHiks.aasamuccaya . . . . 2 Sistereotype: see Psalms . . . . . . 3 Sn Sutta-nipaata . . . . . 1a Th 1 Theragaathaa. . . . . . 1a Th 2 Theriigaathaa . . . . . . 1a Toev. Toevoegselen . . . . . 4 BR. Boehtlingk and Roth. Dhtm Dhaatuma~njuusa . . . 4. Dhtp Dhaatupaa.tha . . . 4. Dukp = Dukapa.t.thaana . . . 1a. Pa.t.th = Pa.t.thaana: see Duka* and Tika* . . . 1a. Tikp = Tikapa.t.thaana . . . 1a. VbhA = Sammoha-Vinodanii . . . 1b. Vism. Trsl. = Path of Purity . . . 3.

---[ Page XII ]---

Ud Udaana . . . . . . . 1a Vbh Vibhanga . . . . . . 1a Vin Vinaya . . . . . . . 1a Vism Visuddhi-magga . . . . 1b Vv Vimaanavatthu . . . . . 1a Z D M G. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. . . . . . . . 4

-----[ 2. General and grammatical terms ]-----

A in combination with a Title letter (e.g. DhA) = Commentary (on Dh) abl. ablative abs. absolute(ly) abstr. abstract acc. accusative act. active add. addition adj. adjective adv. adverb Ags. Anglo-Saxon aor. aorist applied applied art. article attr. attribute Av. Avesta BB Burmese MSS bef. before BSanskrit Buddhist Sanskrit C (and Cy) Commentary (when cited in explination of a Text passage). caus. causative cert. certain coll. collective combined, combination combined, combination comp. comparative, comparison, composition cond. conditional cons. consonant corr. correct(ed) correl. correlation, correlative cp. compare cpd. compound dat. dative den. denominative der. derived, derivation des. desiderative dial. dialect(ical) different different dist. distinct, distinguished E. English e. g. for instance encl. enclitic ep. epithet esp. especially etymology etymology exc. except excl. exclamation, exclusive expl. explanation, explained f. feminine fig. figurative(ly) following following form. formation from from frequent frequently, frequentative fut. future Gall. Gallic gen. genitive ger. gerund Ger. German Goth. Gothic Gr. Greek gram. grammar, *atical grd. gerundive ibid. at the same passage id. the same id. p. identical passage i. e. that is i. g. in general imper. imperative impers. impersonal impf. imperfect Ind. Index ind. indicative indecl. indeclinable indefinite indefinite inf. infinitive instr. instrumental interr. interrogative intrs. intransitive iter. iterative Latin Latin l. c. loco citato lit. literal(ly), literary Lit. Lithuanian loc. locative m. masculine med. medium (middle) N. Name n. noun, note nom. nominative Np. Name of person Npl. Name of place nt. neuter num. numeral Obulg. Old-bulgarian Ohg. Old-high-german Oicel. Old-icelandic Oir. Old-irish onom. onomatopoetic opp. opposed, opposite ord. ordinal, ordinary orig. original(ly) Paali Paali part. particle

---[ Page XIII ]---

pass. passive perf. perfect pers. personal pl. plural pop. popular poss. possessive pot. potential pp. past participle ppr. present participle prec. preceding pred. predicative prefix prefix prep. preposition pres. present pret. preterite Prk. Praakrit prob. probably pronoun. pronoun pt. part P T S. Paali Text Society q. v. quod vide (which see) ref. reference, referred refl. reflexive rel. relation, relative sep. separate(ly) sg. singular Skt Sanskrit sq. and following SS. Singhalese MSS. ster. stereotypeotype suff. suffix sup. superlative s. v. sub voce (under the word mentioned) syn. synonym(ous) T. Text trans. transitive trsl. translated, translation t. t. technical term t. t. g. technical term in grammar v. verse var. variant, various var. lect. various reading voc. vocative Wtb. Worterbuch

-----[ 3. Typographical ]-----

*(s)quel indicates a (reconstructed or conjectured) Indogermanic root. *Sk means, that the Sanskrit word is constructed after the Paali word; or as Sanskrit form is only found in lexicographical lists. ¢-: the cap over a vowel indicates that the ¢ is the result of a syncope a + a (e. g. khudda-nukhudda), whereas aa represents the proper aa, either pure or contracted with a preceding a (khii.naasava = khii.na + aasava). * represents the head-word either as first (*-) or second (-*) part of a compound; sometimes also an easily supplemented part of a word. > indicates an etymological relation or line of development between the words mentioned. ~ and ~ means "at similar" or "at identical, parallel passages". The meaning of all other abbreviations may easily be inferred from the context.

-----[ Key to Integrated Materials ]-----

Use: { [SOURCE]: [ENTRY] }

Entry keyword is a link to a sound-file with pronunciation of that word.

{ ed: Editorial comment }

---[ Page 1 ]---

-----[ A ]-----

A1 the prep. aa shortened before double cons., as akkosati (aa + krush), akkhaati (aa + khyaa), abbahati (aa + brh). - Best to be classed here is the a- we call expletive. It represents a reduction of aa- (mostly before liquids and nasals and with single consonant instead of double). Thus anantaka (for aa-nantaka = nantaka) Vv.807; amajjapa (for aa-majjapa = majjapa) J VI.328; amaapaya (for aamaapaya = maapaya) J VI.518; apassato ( = passantassa) J VI.552.

A2 (an- before vowels) [Vedic a-, an-; Idg. *n*, gradation form to *ne (see na2); Gr. x), a)n, a)n-; Latin *en-, in-; Goth., Ohg. and Ags. un-; Oir. an-, in-] negative part. prefixed to (1) nouns and adjectives; (2) verbal forms, used like (1), whether part., ger., grd. or inf.; (3) finite verbal forms. In compounds. with words having originally two initial cons. the latter reappear in their assimilated form (e. g. appa.ticchavin). In meaning it equals na-, nir- and vi-. Often we find it opp. to sa-. Verbal negatives which occur in specific verb. function will be enumerated separately, while examples of negative form. of (1) and (2) are given under their positive form unless the negative involves a distinctly new concept, or if its form is likely to lead to confusion or misunderstanding. - Concerning the combining and contrasting (orig. negative) -a- (a-) in redupl. formations like bhava-¢-bhava see aa4.

A3 [Vedic a-; Idg. *e (loc. of pronoun. stem, cp. aya'n; orig. a deictic adv. with specific reference to the past, cp. Sk sma); Gr. e)-; also in Gr. e)kei_, Latin equidem, enim] the augment (sign of action in the past), prefixed to the root in pret., aor. and cond. tenses; often omitted in ordinary prose. See forms under each verb; cp. also ajja. Identical with this a- is the a- which functions as base of some pronoun. forms like ato, attha, asu etc. (q. v.).

A4 the sound a (a-kaara) J VI.328, 552; VvA 279, 307, 311.

A'nsa1 [Vedic a'nsa; cp. Gr. w)_mos, Latin umerus, Goth ams, Arm. us] (a) the shoulder A v. 110; Sn 609. a'nse karoti to put on the shoulder, to shoulder J I.9. (b.) a part (lit. side) (cp. *aasa in ko.t.thaasa and explination of ansa as ko.t.thaasa at DA I.312, also v. l. mettaasa for metta'nsa at It 22). - atiit'a'nse in former times, formerly D II.224; Th 2, 314. metta'nsa sharing friendship (with) A IV.151 = It 22 = J IV.71 (in which connection Miln 402 reads ahi'nsaa). - Disjunctive ekena a'nsena . . . ekena a'nsena on the one hand (side) . . . on the other, partly . . . partly A I.61. From this: eka'nsa (adj.) on the one hand (only), i. e. incomplete (opp. ubhaya'nsa) or (as not admitting of a counterpart) definite, certain, without doubt (opp. dvidhaa): see eka'nsa. -- paccansena according to each one's share A III.38. pu.ta'nsena with a knapsack for provisions D I.117; A II 183; cp. DA I.288, with v. l. pu.tosena at both passages. -kuu.ta "shoulder prominence", the shoulder Vin III.127; DhA III.214; IV.136; VvA 121. -- va.t.taka a shoulder strap (mostly combined with kaayabandhana; vv. ll. *vaddhaka, *bandhaka) Vin I.204 (T. *bandhaka); II.114 (ddh); IV.170 (ddh); Vv 3340 (T. *bandhana, C. v. l. *va.t.taka); DhA III.452.

A'nsa2 [see next] point, corner, edge; freg. in combination with numerals, e. g. catur* four-cornered, cha'*, a.t.th*, so'as* etc. (q. v.) all at Dhs 617 (cp. DhsA 317). In connection with a Vimaana: ayat* with wide or protruding capitals (of its pillars) Vv 8415; as part of a carriage-pole Vv 642 ( = kubbara-phale pati.t.thita he.t.thima-a'nsaa VvA 265).

A'nsi (f.) [cp. Vedic a.sri, a.sra, a.sani; Gr. a)/kros pointed, a)/kris, also o)cu/s sharp: Latin aacer sharp. Further connections in Walde Latin Wtb. under aacer] a corner, edge ( = a'nsa2) Vv 782 ( = a'nsa-bhaaga VvA 303).

A'nsu [cp. Sanskrit an.su (Halaayudha) a ray of light] a thread Vin III.224. -maalin, sun Sa.sv 1.

Aka.ta (adj.) [a + ka.ta] not made, not artificial, natural; *yuusa natural juice Vin I.206

Akampiyatta (nt.) [abstr. from akampiya, grd. of a + kampati] the condition of not being shaken, stableness Miln 354.

Akalu (cp. agalu) an ointment J IV.440 (akalu~n candana~n ca, v. l. BB aggalu*; C. expls as kaal¢kalu~n ca rattacandana~n ca, thus implying a blacking or dark ointment); VI.144 (*candana-vilitta; v. l. BB aggalu*); Miln 338 (*tagara-taalisaka-lohita-candana).

Akaaca (adj.) [a + kaaca] pure, flawless, clear D II.244; Sn 476; J V.203.

Akaacin (adj.) = akaaca Vv 601. Kern (Toevoegselen s. v.) proposes reading akkaacin ( = Sanskrit arka-arcin shining as the sun), but VvA 253 expls by niddosa, and there is no v. l. to warrant a misreading.

Akaasiya (adj. -n.) [a + kaasika*] "not from the Kaasi-country" (*); official name of certain tax-gatherers in the king's service J VI.212 (akaasiya-sankhaataa raaja-purisaa C.).

Akiccakaara (adj.) [a + kicca + kaara] 1. not doing one's duty, doing what ought not to be done A II.67; Dh 292; Miln 66; DA I.296. -- 2. ineffective (of medicine) Miln 151.

Akiriya (adj.) [a + kiriya] not practical, unwise, foolish J III.530 (*ruupa = akattabba-ruupa C.); Miln 250.

Akilaasu (adj.) [a + kilaasu] not lazy, diligent, active, untiring S I.47; V.162; J I.109; Miln 382.

Akissava at S I.149 is probably faulty reading for aki~ncana.

Akutobhaya (adj.) see ku*.

Akuppa (adj.) [a + kuppa, grd. of kup, cp. BSanskrit akopya M Vastu III.200] not to be shaken, immovable; sure, steadfast, safe Vin I.11 (akuppaa me ceto-vimutti) = S II.239; Vin II.69; IV.214; D III.273; M I.205, 298; S II.171; A III.119, 198; Miln 361.

Akuppataa (f.) [abstr. from last] "state of not being shaken", surety, safety; Ep. of Nibbana Th 1, 364.

Akka [cp. Sanskrit arka] N. of a plant: Calotropis Gigantea, swallow-wort M I.429 (*assa jiyaa bowstrings made from that plant). -naala a kind of dress material Vin I.306 (vv. ll. agga* and akkha*). -vaa.ta a kind of gate to a plantation, a movable fence made of the akka plant Vin II.154 (cp. akkha-vaa.ta).

Akkanta [pp. of akkamati] stepped upon, mounted on A I.8; J I.71; Miln 152; DhA I.200.

Akkandati [aa + kandati, krand] to lament, wail, cry S IV.206.

Akkamana (nt.) [cp. BSanskrit aakrama.na Jtm 3158] going near, approaching, stepping upon, walking to J I.62.

Akkamati [aa + kamati, kram] to tread upon, to approach, attack J I.7, 279; ThA 9; -- to rise Vin III. 38. -- ger. akkamma Cp. III.72. --pp. akkanta (q. v.).

Akku.t.tha (adj. n.) [pp. of akkosati] 1. (adj.) being reviled, scolded, railed at Sn 366 ( = dasahi akkosavatthuuhi abhisatto SnA 364); J VI.187. -- 2. (nt.) reviling, scolding, swearing at; in combination akku.t.tha-vandita Sn 702 ( = akkosa-vandana SnA 492) Th 2, 388 (explination ThA 256 as above).

Akkula (adj.) [ = akula] confused, perplexed, agitated, frightened Ud 5 (akkulopakkula and akkulapakkulika). See aakula.

---[ Page 2 ]---

Akkosa [aa + krush = kru~nc, see ku~nca and ko~nca2; to sound, root kr*, see note on gala] shouting at, abuse, insult, reproach, reviling Sn 623; Miln 8 (+ paribhaasa); SnA 492; ThA 256; PvA 243; DhA II.61. -vatthu always as dasa a*-vatthuuni 10 bases of abuse, 10 expressions of cursing J I.191; SnA 364, 467; DhA I.212; IV.2.

Akkosaka (adj.) [from last] one who abuses, scolds or reviles, + paribhaasaka A II.58; III.252; IV.156; V.317; PvA 251.

Akkosati [to krus see akkosa] to scold, swear at, abuse, revile J I.191; II.416; III.27; DhA I.211; II.44. Often combined with paribhaasati, e. g. Vin II.296; DhA IV.2; PvA 10. - aor. akkocchi Dh 3; J III.212 ( = akkosi DhA I.43. Der. wrongly from krudh by Kacc. VI.417; cp. Franke, Einh. Paali-gramm. 37, and Geiger, Paali Gr. * 164). -pp. akku.t.tha (q. v.).

Akkha1 [Vedic ak.sa; Av. a.sa; Gr. a)/cwn a(/maca chariot with one axle); Latin axis; Ohg. etc. ahsa, E. axle, to root of Latin ago, Sanskrit aj] the axle of a wheel D II.96; S V.6; A I.112; J I.109, 192; V.155 (akkhassa phalaka.m yathaa; C.: suva.n.naphalaka.m viya, i. e. shiny, like the polished surface of an axle); Miln 27 (+ iisaa + cakka), 277 (atibhaarena saka.tassa akkho bhijjati: the axle of the cart breaks when the load is too heavy); PvA 277. --akkha.m abbha~njati to lubricate the axle S IV.177; Miln 367. -chinna one whose axle is broken; with broken axle S I.57; Miln 67. -bhagga with a broken axle J V.433. -bha~njana the breaking of the axle DhA I.375; PvA 277.

Akkha2 [Vedic ak.sa, prob. to ak.si and Latin oculus, "that which has eyes" i. e. a die; cp. also Latin aalea game at dice (from* asclea*)] a die D I.6 (but explained at DA I.86 as ball-game: gu'akii'a); S I.149 = A V.171 = Sn 659 (appamatto aya'n kali yo akkhesu dhanaparaajayo); J I.379 (kuu.t* a false player, sharper, cheat) anakkha one who is not a gambler J V.116 (C.: ajuutakara). Cp. also accha3. -dassa (cp. Sanskrit ak.sadarshaka) one who looks at (i. e. examines) the dice, an umpire, a judge Vin III.47; Miln 114, 327, 343 (dhamma-nagare). -dhutta one who has the vice of gambling D II.348; III.183; M III.170; Sn 106 (+ itthidhutta and suraadhutta). -vaa.ta fence round an arena for wrestling J IV.81. (* read akka-).

Akkha3 (adj.) (-*) [to akkhi] having eyes, with eyes PvA 39 (BB. rattakkha with eyes red from weeping, gloss on assumukha). Prob. akkha.na is connected with akkha.

Akkhaka [akkha1 + ka] the collar-bone Vin IV.213 (adhakkhaka.m); Y.216.

Akkha.na [a + kha.na, BSanskrit ak.sa.na AvSH I.291 = 332] wrong time, bad luck, misadventure, misfortune. There are 9 enumd at D III.263; the usual set consists of 8; thus D III.287; VvA 193; Sdhp 4 sq. See also kha.na. -vedhin (adj. n.) a skilled archer, one who shoots on the moment, i. e. without losing time, explained as one who shoots without missing (the target) or as quickly as lightning (akkha.na = vijju). In var. combinations.; mostly as durepaatin a. A I.284 (+ mahato kaayassa padaaletaa); II.170 sq. (id.), 202; IV.423, 425; J II.91 (explained as either "aviraadhita-vedhii" or "akkha.na.m vuccati vijju": one who takes and shoots his arrows as fast as lightning), III.322; IV.494 (C. explinations aviraddha-vedhin vijju-aalokena vijjhana-samattha p. 497). In other combination at J I.58 (akkha.navedhin + vaalavedhin); V.129 (the 4 kinds of archers: a., vaalavedhin, saddavedhin and saravedhin). In BSanskrit we find ak.su.n.navedha (a Sanskritised Paali form, cp. Mathuraa k.su.na = Sanskrit k.sa.na) at Divy 58, 100, 442 (always with duurevedha), where MSS. however read ak .su.na*; also at Lal. Vist. 178. See Divy Index, where translation is given as "an act of throwing the spear so as to graze the mark" (Schiefner gives "Streifschuss"). - Note. The explanations are not satisfactory. We should expect either an etymology bearing on the meaning "hitting the centre of the target" (i. e. its "eye") (cp. E. bull's eye), in which case a direct relation to akkha = akkhi eye would not seem improbable (cp. formation ikkhana) or an etymology like "hitting without mishap", in which case the expression would be derived directly from ak kha.na (see prec.) with the omission of the negative an-; akkha.na in the meaning of "lightning" (J II.91 C.) is not supported by literary evidence.

Akkhata (adj.) [pp. of a + k.san, cp. parikkhata1] unhurt, without fault Mhvs 19, 56 (C. niddosa). - acc. akkhata.m (adv.) in safety, unhurt. Only in one phrase Vv 8452 (paccaagamu.m Paa.taliputta.m akkhata.m) and Pv IV.111 (nessaami ta.m Paa.taliputta.m akkhata.m); see VvA 351 and PvA 272.

Akkhaya (adj.) [a + khaya, k.si] not decaying, in akkhayapa.tibhaana, of unfailing skill in exposition Miln 3, 21.

Akkhara (adj.) [Vedic ak.sara] constant, durable, lasting D III.86. As tt. for one of 4 branches of Vedic learning (D I.88) it is Phonetics which probably included Grammar, and is explained by sikkhaa (DA I.247 = SnA 477) pl. nt. akkharaani sounds, tones, words. citt'akkhara of a discourse (suttanta) having variety and beauty of words or sounds (opposed to beauty of thought) A I.72 = III.107 = S II.267. Akkharaani are the sauce, flavour (vya~njana) of poetry S I.38. To know the context of the a* the words of the texts, is characteristic of an Arahant Dh 352 (C. is ambiguous DhA IV.70). Later: akkhara.m a syllable or sound PvA 280 (called sadda in next line); akkharaani an inscription J II.90; IV.7 (likhitaani written), 489; VI.390, 407. In Grammar: a letter Kacc. 1. -cintaka a grammarian or versifier KhA 17; SnA 16, 23, 321. cp. 466; PvA 120. -pabheda in phrase sakkharappabheda phonology and etymology D I.88 (akkharappabhedo ti sikkhaa ca nirutti ca SnA 447 = DA i.247) = A III.223 = Sn p. 105. -pi.n.da "word-ball", i. e. sequence of words or sounds DhA IV.70 ( = akkharaana.m sannipaato Dh 352).

Akkharikaa (f.) a game (recognising syllables written in the air or on one's back). D I.7; Vin II.10; III.180. So explained at DA I.86. It may be translated "letter game"; but all Indian letters of that date were syllables.

Akkhaata (adj.) [pp. of akkhaati] announced, proclaimed, told, shown A I.34 (dur*); II.195; IV.285, 322; V.265, 283; Sn 172, 276, 595, 718.

Akkhaatar one who relates, a speaker, preacher, story-teller S I.11, 191; III.66; Sn 167.

Akkhaati [aa + khyaa, Idg. *sequ; cp. Sanskrit aakhyaati, Latin inquam, Gr. e)nne/pw, Goth. saihvan, Ger. sehen etc. See also akkhi and cakkhu] to declare, announce, tell Sn 87, 172; imper. akkhaahi Sn 988, 1085; aor. akkhaasi Sn 251, 504, 1131 ( = aacikkhi etc. Nd2 465); fut. akkhissati Pv IV.163; cond. akkhissa'n Sn 997; J VI.523. - Pass. akkhaayati to be proclaimed, in phrase agga.m a. to be deemed chief or superior, to be first, to excel Miln 118, 182 (also in BSanskrit agram aakhyaayate M Vastu III.390); ger. akkheyya to be pronounced S I.11; It 53. -pp. akkhaata (q. v.). - Intensive or Frequentative is aacikkhati.

Akkhaana (nt.) [Sanskrit aakhyaana] telling stories, recitation; tale, legend D I.6 ( = DA I.84: Bhaarata-Raamaayanaadi); III.183; M I.503; III.167; Sdhp. 237. - preaching, teaching Nd1 91 (dhamm*). The 5th Veda J V.450. (vedam akkhaanapa~ncama.m; C: itihaasapa~ncama.m vedacatukka.m). - The spelling aakhyaana also occurs (q. v.).

---[ Page 3 ]---

Akkhaayika (adj.) relating, narrating J III.535; lokakkhaayikaa kathaa talk about nature-lore D I.8; Miln 316.

Akkhaayin (adj.) telling, relating, announcing S II.35; III.7; J III.105.

Akkhi (nt.) [to *oks, an enlarged form of *oqu, cp. Sanskrit iik.sate, k.sa.na, pratiika, aniika; Gr. o)/sse, w)/y (*ku/klwy), o)fqalmo/s, pro/swpon; Latin oculus, Ags. eowan ( = E eye and wind-ow); Goth. augo. See also cakkhu and cp. akkha2 and ikkha.nika] the eye M I.383 (ubbhatehi akkhiihi); Sn 197, 608; J I.223, 279; V.77; VI.336; Pv II.926 (akkhiini paggharanti: shed tears, cp. PvA 123); VvA 65 (*iini bhamanti, my eyes swim) cp. akkhiini me dhuumaayanti DhA I.475; DhA II.26; III.196 (*iini ummiiletvaa opening the eyes); Sdhp 103, 380. - In combination with sa- as sacchi and sakkhi (q. v.). As adj. (-*) akkha3 (q.v.). -a~njana eye ointment, collyrium DhA III.354. -kuupa the socket of the eye J IV.407. -ga.n.da eye-protuberance, i. e. eye-brow (*) J VI.504 (for pamukha T.). -guutha secretion from the eye PvA 198. -guuthaka id. Sn 197 ( = dviihi akkhicchiddehi apaniita-ttaca-ma.msasadiso a*-guuthako SnA 248). -chidda the eye-hole SnA 248. -dala the eye-lid DA I.194; ThA 259; DhsA 378. -paata "fall of the eye", i. e. a look, in mand* of soft looks (adj.) PvA 57. -puura an eye-full, in akkhipuura.m assu.m (assu*) an eye full of tears J VI.191. -mala dirt from the eye Pv III.53 ( = *guutha C.). -roga eye disease DhA I.9.

Akkhika1 (-*) (adj.) having eyes, with eyes Th 1,960 (a~njan* with eyes anointed); DhA IV.98 (a.d.dh* with half an eye, i. e. stealthily); Sdhp 286 (tamb* red-eyed). -an* having no eyes DhA I.11.

Akkhika2 (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit ak.sa] the mesh of a net J I.208. -haaraka one who takes up a mesh (*) M I.383 (corresponds with a.n.dahaaraka).

Akkhitta1 see khitta.

Akkhitta2 (adj.) [BSk aak.sipta Divy 363, pp. of aa + k.sip] hit, struck, thrown J III.255 ( = aaka.d.dhita C.).

Akkhin (adj.) = akkhika J III.190 (mand* softeyed); Vv 323 (tamb* red-eyed); DhA I.11.

Akkhobbha (adj.) [a + k.subh, see khobha] not to be shaken, imperturbable Miln 21.

Akkhobhana (adj) = akkhobbha J V.322 ( = khobhetun na sakkhaa C.).

Akkhohi.nii (f.) [ = akkhobhi.nii] one of the highest numerals (1 followed by 42 ciphers, Childers) J V.319; VI.395.

Akha.n.daphulla see kha.n.da.

Akhaata (adj.) not dug: see khaata.

Akhetta barren-soil: see khetta. - In cpd. *~n~nu the negative belongs to the whole: not knowing a good field (for alms) J IV.371.

Agati see I.58, 89. - kuu.t* a house with a peaked roof, or with gables S II.103. 263; III.156; IV.186; V.43; A I.230; III.10, 364; IV.231; V.21. -ko.t.th* storehouse, granary D I.134 (cp. DA I.295); S I.89. -ti.n* a house covered with grass S IV.185; A I.101. -bhus* threshing shed, barn A I.241. -santh* a council hall D I.91; II.147; S IV.182; V.453; A II.207; IV.179 sq. -su~n~n* an uninhabited shed; solitude S V.89, 157, 310 sq., 329 sq.; A I.241 (v. l. for bhusa-gaara); III.353; IV.139, 392, 437; V.88, 109, 323 sq.

Agaaraka (nt.) [from agaara] a small house, a cottage M I.450; J VI.81.

Agaarika (adj.) 1. having a house, in eka*, dva* etc. D I.166 = A I.295 = II.206. - 2. a householder, layman Vin I.17. f. agaarikaa a housewife Vin I.272. See also aagaarika.

Agaarin (adj.) [from agaara] one who has or inhabits a house, a householder Sn 376, Th I,1009; J III.234. - f. agaarinii a housewife Vv 527 ( = gehassaammii VvA 225); Pv III.43 (id. PvA 194).

Agaariya = agaarika, a layman M I.504 (*bhuuta). - Usually in negative anagaariyaa (f.) the homeless state ( = anagaara.m) as opp. to agaara (q. v.) in formula agaarasmaa anagaariya.m pabbajita (gone out from the house into the homeless state) Vin I.15; M I.16; II.55, 75; A I.49; D III.30 sq., 145 sq.; Sn 274, 1003; Pv II.1316; DA I.112.

---[ Page 4 ]---

Agga1 (adj. n.) [Vedic agra; cp. Av. agro first; Lith. agrs early] 1. (adj;) (a.) of time: the first, foremost Dpvs IV.13 (sangaha.m first collection). See compounds - (b.) of space: the highest, topmost, J I.52 (*saakhaa). - (c.) of quality: illustricus, excellent, the best, highest, chief Vin IV.232 (agga-m-agga) most excellent, D II.4: S I.29 (a. sattassa SamBuddha); A II.17 = Pv IV.347 (lokassa Buddho aggo [A: agga.m] pavuccati); It 88, 89; Sn 875 (suddhi); PvA 5. Often combined. with se.t.tha (best), e. g. D II.15; S III.83, 264. - 2. (nt.) top, point. (a.) lit.: the top or tip (nearly always -*); as aar* point of an awl Sn 625, 631; Dh 401; kus* tip of a blade of grass Dh 70; Sdhp 349; ti.n* id PvA 241; dum* top of a tree J II.155; dhaj* of a banner S I.219; pabbat* of a mountain Sdhp 352; saakh* of a branch PvA 157; etc. - (b.) fig. the best part, the ideal, excellence, prominence, first place, often to be trsl. as adj. the highest, best of all etc. S II.29 (aggena aggassa patti hoti: only the best attain to the highest); Mhvs 7, 26. Usually as -*; e. g. dum* the best of trees, an excellent tree Vv 3541 (cp. VvA 161); dhan* plenty D III.164; madhur* S I.41, 161, 237; bhav* the best existence S III.83; ruup* extraordinary beauty J I.291; laabh* highest gain J III.127; sambodhi-y-agga highest wisdom Sn 693 ( = sabba~n~nuta-~naa.nan SnA 489; the best part or quality of anything, in enumn of the five "excellencies" of first-fruits (panca aggaani, after which the N. Pa~ncaggadaayaka), viz. khettaggan raas* ko.t.th* kumbhi* bhojan* SnA 270. sukh* perfect bliss Sdhp 243. Thus frequent in phrase agga.m akkhaayati to deserve or receive the highest praise, to be the most excellent D I.124; S III.156, 264; A II.17 (Tathaagato); It 87 (id.); Nd2 517 D (appamaado); Miln 183. - 3. Cases as adv.: aggena (instr.) in the beginning, beginning from, from (as prep.), by (id.) Vin II.167. (aggena ga.nhaati to take from, to subtract, to find the difference; Kern Toev. s. v. unnecessarily changes aggena into agghena), 257 (yadaggena at the moment when or from, following by tad eva "then"; cp. agge), 294 (bhikkh* from alms); Vbh 423 (vass* by the number of years). aggato (abl.) in the beginning Sn 217 (+ majjhato, sesato). aggato kata taken by its worth, valued, esteemed Th 2, 386, 394. agge (loc) 1. at the top A II.201 (opp. muule at the root); J IV.156 (id.); Sn 233 (phusit* with flowers at the top: supupphitaggasaakhaa KhA 192); J II.153 (ukkh*); III.126 (kuup*). - 2 (as prep.) from. After, since, usually in phrases yad* (following by tad*) from what time, since what date D I.152; II.206; and ajja-t-agge from this day, after today D I.85; M I.528; A V.300; Sn p. 25 (cp. BSanskrit adyaagrena Av. SH II.13); at the end: bhattagge after a meal Vin II.212. -angulii the main finger, i. e. index finger J VI.404. -aasana main seat DA I.267. -upa.t.thaaka chief personal attendant D II.6. -kaarikaa first taste, sample Vin III.80. -kulika of an esteemed clan Pv III.55 ( = se.t.th* PvA 199). -~n~na recognized as primitive primeval, D III.225 (poraa.na +), A II.27 sq.; IV.246, Kvu 341. -danta one who is most excellently self-restrained (of the Buddha) Th I.354. -daana a splendid gift Vin III.39. -dvaara main door J I.114. -nakha tip of the nail Vin IV.221. -nagara the first or most splendid of cities Vin I.229. -nikkhitta highly praised or famed Miln 343. -nikkhittaka an original depository of the Faith Dpvs IV.5. -pakatimant of the highest character J V.351 ( = aggasabhaava). -patta having attained perfection D III.48 sq. -pasaada the highest grace A II.34; It 87. -pi.n.da the best oblation or alms I.141; M I. 28; II.204. -pi.n.dika receiving the best oblations J VI.140. -puggala the best of men (of the Buddha) Sn 684; DhA II.39; Sdhp. 92, 558. -purohita chief or prime ministereotypeJ VI.391. -phala the highest or supreme fruit (i. e. Arahantship) J I.148; Pv IV.188; PvA 230. -biija having eggs from above (opp. muula*), i. e. propagated by slips or cuttings D I.5; DA I.81. -magga (adj.) having reached the top of the path, i. e. Arahantship ThA 20. -mahesi the king's chief wife, queen-consort J I.262; III.187, 393; V.88; DhA I.199; PvA 76. -raajaa the chief king J VI.391; Miln 27. -vara most meritorious, best Dpvs VI.68. -vaada the original doctrine ( = theravaada) Dpvs IV.13. -vaadin one who proclaims the highest good (of the Buddha) Th 1, 1142.

Agga2 (nt.) (only -*) [a contracted form of agaara] a (small) house, housing, accomodation; shelter, hut; hall. daan* a house of donation, i. e. a public or private house where alms are given J III.470; IV.379, 403; VI.487; PvA 121; Miln 2. salaak.r a hut where food is distributed to the bhikkhus by tickets, a food office J I.123, VvA 75.

Aggataa (f.) [abstr. of agga] pre-eminence, prominence, superiority Kvu 556 (*.m gata); Dpvs IV.1 (gu.naggata.m gataa). - (adj.) mahaggata of great value or superiority D I.80; III.224.

Aggatta (nt.) [abstr. of agga = Sanskrit agratvan] the state or condition of being the first, pre-eminence PvA 9, 89.

Aggavant (adj.) occupying the first place, of great eminence A I.70, 243.

Aggalu see agalu.

Agga'a and Agga'aa (f.) (also occasionally with l.) [cp. Sanskrit argala and argalaa to *areg to protect, ward off, secure etc., as in Ags. reced house; *aleg in Sanskrit rak.sati to protect, Gr. a)le/cw id., Ags. ealh temple. Cp. also *areq in Gr. a)rke/w = Latin arceo, Orcus, Ohg rigil bolt.] a contrivance to fasten anything for security or obstruction: 1. a bolt or cross-bar Vin I.290; D I.89 (*.m aakote.ti to knock upon the cross-bar; a. = kavaa.ta DA I.252); A IV.359 (id.); S. IV.290; A I.101 = 137 = IV.231. (phusit* with fastened bolts, securely shut Th 1,385 (id.); Vin IV.47; J. V.293 (*.m uppii'eti to lift up the cross-bar. - 2. a strip of cloth for strengthening a dress etc., a gusset Vin I.290 (+ tunna), 392 (Bdhgh on MV VIII.21, 1); J I.8 (+ tunna) VI.71 (*.m datvaa); Vin IV.121. -daana putting in a gusset J I.8. -phalaka the post or board, in which the cross-bar is fixed (cp. *va.t.ti) M III.95. -va.t.ti = *phalaka Vin II.120, 148. -suuci bolting pin M I.126.

Aggi [Vedic agni = Latin ignis. Besides the contracted form aggi we find the diaeretic forms gini (q. v.) and aggini (see below)] fire. - 1. fire, flames, sparks; conflagration, Vin II.120 (fire in bathroom); M I.487 (anaahaaro nibbuto f. gone out for lack of fuel); S IV.185, 399 (sa-upaadaano jalati provided with fuel blazes); Sn 62; Dh 70 ( = asaniaggi DhA III.71); J I.216 (sparks), 294 (pyre); II.102; III.55; IV.139; VvA 20 (aggimhi taapana.m + udake temana.m). - The var. phases of lighting and extinguishing the fire are given at A IV.45: aggi.m ujjaaleti (kindle, make burn), ajjhupekkhati (look after, keep up), nibbaapeti (extinguish, put out), nikkhipati (put down, lay). Other phrases are e. g. aggi.m jaaleti (kindle) J II.44; ga.nhaati (make or take) J I.494 (cp. below b); deti (set light to) J I.294; nibbaapeti (put out) It 93; Sdhp 552. aggi nibkhaayati the f. goes out S II.85; M I.487; J I.212 (udake through water); Miln 304. aggi nibbuto the f. is extinguished (cp. *nibbaana) J I.61; Miln 304. agginaa dahati to burn by means of fire, to set fire to A I.136, 199; PvA 20. udar* the fire supposed to regulate digestion PvA 33; cp. Dial. II.208, note 2; kapp*u.t.thaan* the universal conflagration J III.185; daav* a wood or jungle fire J I.212; na'* the burning of a reed J VI.100; padiip* fire of a lamp Miln 47. 2. the sacrificial fire: In one or two of the passages in the older texts this use of Aggi is ambiguous. It may possibly be intended to denote the personal Agni, the fire-god. But the commentators do not think so, and the Jaataka commentary, when it means Agni, has the phrase Aggi Bhagavaa the Lord Agni, e. g. at J I.285, 494; II.44. The ancient ceremony of kindling a holy fire on the day the child is born and keeping it up throughout his life, is also referred to by that commentary e. g. J I.285; II.43. Aggi.m paricarati (cp. *paricaariyaa) to serve the sacred fire Vin I.31 (ja.tilaa

---[ Page 5 ]---

aggii paricaritukaamaa); A V.263, 266; Th 2, 143 ( = aggihutta.m paric* ThA 136); Dh 107; J I.494; DhA II.232. aggi.m juhati (cp. *homa, *hutta) to sacrifice (in)to the fire A II.207; often combined. with aggihutta.m paricarati, e. g. S I.166; Sn p. 79. aggi.m namati and santappeti to worship the fire A V.235. aggissa (gen.) paricaariko J YI.207 (cp. below *paricaarika); aggissa aadhaana.m A IV.41. - 3. (ethical, always -*) the fire of burning, consuming, feverish sensations. Freq. in standard set of 3 fires, viz. raag*, dos*, moh*, or the fires of lust, anger and bewilderment. The number three may possibly have been chosen with reference to the three sacrificial fires of Vedic ritual. At S IV.19; A IV.41 sq. there are 7 fires, the 4 last of which are aahuneyy*, gahapat*, dakkhi.neyy*, ka.t.th*. But this trinity of cardinal sins lies at the basis of Buddhist ethics, and the fire simile was more probably suggested by the number. D III.217; It 92, Vbh 368. In late books are found others: ind* the fire of the senses PvA 56; dukkh* the glow of suffering ib. 60; bhavadukkh* of the misery of becomings Sdhp. 552; vippa.tisaar* burning remorse PvA 60; sok.r burning grief ib. 41. Note. The form aggini occurs only at Sn 668 and 670 in the meaning of "pyre", and in combination. with sama "like", viz. aggini-sama.m jalita.m 668 ( = samantato jali ta.m aggi.m Sn A 480); aggini-samaasu 670 ( = aggisamaasu Sn A 481). The form agginii in phrase niccagginii can either be referred to gini (q. v.) or has to be taken as nom. of aggini (in adj. function with ii metri causa; otherwise as adj. aggini.m), meaning looking constantly after the fire, i. e. careful, observant, alert. -agaara (agya-gaara) a heated room or hut with a fire Vin I.24; IV.109; D I.101, 102 (as v. l. BB for agaara); M I.501; A V.234, 250. -khandha a great mass of fire, a huge fire, fire-brand S II.85; A IV. 128; Th 2, 351 (*samaakaamaa); J IV.139; VI.330; Ps I.125; Dpvs VI.37; Miln 304. -gata having become (like) fire Miln 302. -ja fire-born J V.404 (C; text aggijaata). -.t.tha fire-place J V.155. -.t.thaana fire-place Vin II.120 (jantaaghare, in bathroom). -da.d.dha consumed by fire Dh 136; Pv I.74. -daaha (mahaa*) a holocaust A I.178. -nikaasin like fire J III.320 (suriya). -nibbaana the extinction of fire J I.212. -pajjota fire-light A II.140 (one of the 4 lights, viz. canda*, suriya*, a*, pa~n~naa*). -paricara.na (-.t.thaana) the place where the (sacrificial) fire is attended to DhA I.199. -paricariyaa fire-worship DhA II.232; Sn A 291 (paari*) 456. -paricaarika one who worship the fire a v.263 (braahma.na). -saalaa a heated hall or refectory Vin I.25, 49 = II.210; I.139; II.154. -sikhaa the crest of the fire, the flame, in simile *uupama, like a flaming fire Sn 703; Dh 308 = It 43, 90 (ayogu'a). -hutta (nt.) the sacrificial fire (see above 2), Vin I.33, 36 = J I.83; Vin I.246 = Sn 568 (*mukha-ya~n~na); S I.166; Dh 392; Sn 249, p. 79; J IV.211; VI.525; ThA 136 ( = aggi); DhA IV.151 (*.m braahma.no namati). -huttaka (nt.) fire-offering J VI.522 ( = aggi-juuhana C.). -hotta = *hutta SnA 456 (v. l. BB *hutta). -homa fire-oblation (or perhaps sacrificing to Agni) D I.9 ( = aggi-juuhana DA I.93).

Aggika (adj.) [aggi + ka] one who worships the fire Vin I.71 (ja.tilaka); D II.339 sq. (ja.tila); S I.166 (braahma.na).

Aggha [see agghati] 1. price, value, worth, Miln 244; Mhvs 26, 22; 30, 76; VvA 77. - mahaggha (adj.) of great value J IV.138; V.414; VI.209; Pv II.118. See also maha-raha. appaggha (adj.) of little value J. IV.139; V.414. - anaggha (nt.) pricelessness, J V.484; cattari anagghaani the four priceless things, viz. setacchatta, nisiidanapallanka, aadhaaraka, paadapii.thikaa DhA III.120, 186. (adj.) priceless, invaluable J V.414; Mhvs 26, 25; DhA IV.216. - agghena (instr.) for the price of Vin II.52, cp. Bdhgh on p. 311, 312. - 2. an oblation made to a guest D II.240; J IV.396 = 476. -kaaraka a valuator J I.124. -pada valuableness J V.473 (*lakkha.na.m naama manta.m).

Agghaka (adj.) = aggha; worth, having the value of (-*) Mhvs 30, 77. an* priceless Mhvs 30, 72.

Agghati (intr.) [Sanskrit arghati, argh = arh (see arhati), cp. Gr. a)lfh/ reward, a)lfa/nw to deserve] to be worth, to have the value of (acc.), to deserve J I.112 (satasahassa'n; a.d.dhamaasaka.m); VI.174, 367 (padaraja.m); DhA III.35 (ma.nin na-gghaama); Mhvs 32, 28. Freq. in stock phrase kala.m na-gghati (na-gghanti) so'asi.m not to be worth the 16th part of (cp. kalaa) Vin II.156; S I.233; Dh 70; Vv 207 ( = na-nubhoti VvA 104), 437; J V.284. - Causative agghaapeti to value, to appraise, to have a price put on (acc.) J I.124; IV.137, 278; Miln 192; Mhvs 27, 23. Cp. agghaapanaka and agghaapaniya.

Agghanaka (adj.) (-*) [from *agghana, abstr. to agghati] having the value of, equal to, worth Vin IV.226; J I.61 (satasahass*), 112; DA I.80 (kahaapa.n*); DhA III.120 (cuddasako.ti*); Mhvs 26, 22; 34, 87. - f. *ikaa J I.178 (satasahass*).

Agghaniya (adj.) [in function and form grd. of agghati] priceless, invaluable, beyond the reach of money Miln 192.

Agghaapanaka [from agghaapana to agghaapeti, Causative of agghati] a valuator, appraiser J I.124, 125; V.276 (*ika).

Agghaapaniya (adj.) [grd. of agghaapeti, see agghati] that which is to be valued, in *kamma the business of a valuator J IV.137.

Agghika (nt.) (-*) [ = agghiya] an oblation, decoration or salutation in the form of garlands, flowers etc., therefore meaning "string, garland" (cp. Sinhalese aga "festoon work") Mhvs 19, 38 (pupph*) 34, 73 (ratan*) 34, 76 (dhaj*); Daavs I.39 (pupphamay*); V.51 (kusum*).

Agghiya (adj. -n.) [grd. form from agghati] 1. (adj.) valuable, precious, worth J VI.265 (ma.ni); DhA II.41 (ratan* of jewel's worth); Mhvs 30, 92. - 2. (nt.) a respectful oblation J V.324 = VI.516; Dpvs VI.65; VII.4.

Agha1 (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit agha, of uncertain etymology] evil, grief, pain, suffering, misfortune S I 22; M I.500 (roga ga.n.da salla agha); A II.128 (id.); J V.100; Th 2, 491; Sdhp 51. - adj. painful, bringing pain J VI.507 (agha-m-miga = aghakara m. C.). -bhuuta a source of pain S III.189 (+ agha and salla).

Agha2 (m. nt.) [the etymology suggested by Morris J.Paali Text Society 1889, 200 (with reference to M I.500, which belongs under agha1) is untenable (to Sanskrit kha, as a-kha = agha, cp. Jain Prk. khaha). Neither does the pop. etymology of Bdhgh. offer any clue ( = a + gha from ghan that which does not strike or agha.t.taniya is not strikeable DhsA 326, cp. Dhs. trsl. 194 and J IV.154 aghe .thitaa = appa.tighe aakaase .thitaa the air which does not offer any resistance). On the other hand the primary meaning is darkness, as seen from the phrase lokantarikaa aghaa asa'nvutaa andhakaaraa D II.12; S V.454, and BSanskrit aghasa'nvrta M Vastu I.240, adj. dark M Vastu I.41; II.162; Lal Vist 552] the sky, orig. the dark sky, dark space, the abyss of space D II.12; S V.45; Vv 161 (aghasi gama, loc. = vehaasa'n gama VvA 78); J IV.154; Dhs 638 (+ aghagata); Vbh 84 (id.). -gata going through or being in the sky or atmosphere Dhs 638, 722; Vbh 84. -gaamin moving through the atmosphere or space i. e. a planet S I.67 = Miln 242 (aadicco se.t.tho aghagaamina.m).

Aghata at Th 1, 321 may be read as agha-gata or (preferably) with v. l. as aggha-gata.m, or (with Neumann) as aggha.m agghataana.m. See also Mrs. Rh. D, Psalms of the Brethren, p. 191.

Aghammiga [to agha1*] a sort of wild animal J VI.247 ( = aghaavaha miga) 507 ( = aghakara). Cp. BSanskrit agharika Divy 475.

Aghavin (adj.) [to agha1] suffering pain, being in misery Sn 694 ( = dukkhita SnA 489).

---[ Page 6 ]---

Anka1 = anga, sign, mark, brand Miln 79; *karana branding J IV.366, 375. See also anketi.

Anka2 [Vedic anka hook, bent etc., anc, cp. ankura and ankusa. Gr. a)gkw/n elbow, a)/gkura = anchor; Latin uncus nail; Ohg. angul = E. angle] (a.) a hook J V.322 = VI.218 (v. l. BB anga). - (b.) the lap (i. e. the bent position) or the hollow above the hips where infants are carried by Hindoo mothers or nurses (ankena vahati) Vin II.114; D II.19 (anke pariharati to hold on one's lap or carry on one's hips), 20 (nisiidaapeti seat on one's lap); M II.97 (ankena vahitvaa); Th 1, 299; J I.262 (anke nisinna); II.127, 236; VI.513; DhA I.170 (ankena vahitvaa) PvA 17 (nisiidaapeti).

Ankita [pp. of anketi] marked, branded J I.231 (cakkankitaa Satthu padaa); II.185 (*ka.n.naka with perforated ears).

Ankura [cp. Sanskrit ankura, to anka a bend = a tendril etc.] a shoot, a sprout (lit. or fig.) J II.105; VI.331 (Buddh *a nascent Buddha), 486; Dhs 617 (*va.n.na); Miln 50, 251 269; Sdhp 273; Mhvs 15, 43.

Ankusa [Vedic ankusha; to anc, see anka2] a hook, a pole with a hook, used (1) for plucking fruit off trees, a crook J I.9 (*pacchi hook and basket); V.89 = VI.520 (pacchikhanitti*), 529 ( = phalaana.m ga.nhanattha.m ankusa'n). (2) to drive an elephant, a goad (cp patoda and tutta) Vin II.196 (+ kasaa); J VI.489; ThA 173 (ovaada.m ankusa'n katvaa, fig. guide); Sdhp 147 (da.n.d*). - (3) N. of a certain method of inference in Logic (naya), consisting in inferring certain mental states of a general character from respective traits where they are to be found Nett 2, 4, 127; Nett A 208; - acc* beyond the reach of the goad D II.266 (naaga). See also ankusaka. -gayha (the art) how to grasp and handle an eleph. driver's hook M II.94 (sippa). -gaha an eleph.-driver Dh 326.

Ankusaka [see anka2, cp. ankusa] 1. a crook for plucking fruit J III.22. - 2. an eleph.-driver's hook J III.431. -yattha a crooked stick, alpenstock, staff (of an ascetic) J II.68 (+ pacchi).

Anketi [Denominitive from anka1] to mark out, brand J I.451 lakkha.nena); II.399. -pp. ankita, q. v.

Ankola [dial. for ankura] a species of tree Alangium Hexapetalum J VI.535. Cp. next.

Ankolaka = ankola J IV.440; V.420.

Anga (nt.) [Vedic anga, anc cp. Latin angulus = angle, corner etc., ungulus finger-ring = Sanskrit anguliiya. See also anka, angu.t.tha and angula] (1) (lit.) a constituent part of the body, a limb, member; also of objects: part, member (see cpd. ---sambhaara); uttam-anga the reproductive organ J V.197; also as "head" at ThA 209. Usually in compounds (see below, esp. -paccanga), as sabbanga-kalyaa.nii perfect in all limbs Pv III.35 ( = sobha.na-sabbanga-paccangii PvA 189) and in redupln. anga-m-angaani limb by limb, with all limbs (see also below anga + paccanga) Vin III.119; Vv 382 (*ehi naccamaana); Pv II.1210, 13, 18 (sunakho te khaadati). - (2) (fig.) a constituent part of a whole or system or collection, e. g. uposath* the vows of the fast J I.50; bhavanga the constituents or the condition of becoming (see bhava and cp. Cpd.265 sq.); bojjhanga (q. v.). Esp. with numerals: cattaari angaani 4 constituents A II.79 (viz. siila, samaadhi, pa~n~naa. vimutti and ruupa, vedanaa, sa~n~naa, bhava), a.t.thangika (q. v.) magga the Path with its eight constituents or the eightfold Path (KhA 85: a.t.th- angaani assaa ti) navanga Buddha-saasana see nava. - (3) a constituent part as characteristic, prominent or distinguishing, a mark, attribute, sign, quality D I.113 sq., 117 (iminaa p* angena by this quality, or: in this respect, cp. below 4; DA I.281 expls tena kaara .nena). In a special sense striking (abnormal) sign or mark on the body D I.9, from which a prophesy is made (: hattha-paadaadisu yena kenaci evaruupena angena samannaagato diighaayu . . hotii ti . . angasatthan = chiromantics DA I.92). Thus in combination. with samannaagata and sampanna always meaning endowed with "good", superior, remarkable "qualities", e. g. J I.3 (sabbanga-sampanna nagara.m a city possessing all marks of perfection); II.207. In enumn. with var. numerals: tiihi angehi s. A I.115; cattaari sotapannassa a- D III.227 = A IV.405 sq.; pa~ncanga-vippahiino (i. e. giving up the 5 hindrances, see niivara.na) and pa~ncanga-samannaagato (i. e. endowed with the 5 good qualities, viz. the siila-kkhandha, see kkhandha II.A d) S I.99 = A I.161; V.15, 29. Similarly the 5 attributes of a brahmin (viz. sujaata of pure birth, ajjhaayaka a student of the Vedas, abhiruupa handsome, siilava of good conduct, pa.n.dita clever) D I.119, 120. Eight qualities of a king D I.137. Ten qualities of an Arahant (cp. dasa1 B 2) S III.83; Kh IV.10 = KhA 88; cp. M I.446 (dasah- angehi samannaagato ra~n~no assaajaaniyo). - (4) (modally) part, share, interest, concern; ajjhattika.m anga.m my own part or interest (opp. baahira.m the interest in the outside world). A I.16 sq. = S V.101 sq.; It 9. ra~n~no anga.m an asset or profit for the king M I.446. Thus adv. tadanga (see also ta* I.a) as a matter of fact, in this respect, for sure, certainly and tadangena by these means, through this, therefore M I.492; A IV.411; Sdhp 455, 456; iminaa p* angena for that reason M II.168. - In compounds. with verbs angi* (angii*): angigata having limbs or ports, divided DA I.313; cp. samangi (-bhuuta). -jaata "the distinguishing member", i. e. sign of male or female (see above 3); membrum virile and muliebre Vin I.191 (of cows); III.20, 37, 205; J II.359; Miln 124. -paccanga one limb or the other, limbs great and small M I.81; J VI-20, used (a) collectively: the condition of perfect limbs, or adj. with perfect limbs, having all limbs Pv II.1212 ( = paripu.n.na-sabbanga-paccangavatii PvA 158); SnA 383; DhA I.390; ThA 288; Sdhp 83 fig. rathassa angapaccangan M I.395; sabbanga-paccangaani all limbs Miln 148. - (b) distributively (cp. similar redupl. formations like chidda-vachidda, se.t.tha-nu-se.t.thi, kha.n.daakha.n.da, cu.n.navicu.n.na) limb after limb, one limb after the other (like angamangaani above 1), piecemeal M I.133 (*e daseyya), 366; J I.20; IV.324 (chinditvaa). -paccangataa the condition or state of perfect limbs, i. e. a perfect body VvA 134 (suvisuddh*). -paccangin having all limbs (perfect) D I.34 (sabbanga-peccangii); PvA 189. -raaga painting or rouging the body Vin II.107 (+ mukha*). -la.t.thi sprout, offshoot ThA 226. -vaata gout Vin I.205. -vijjaa the art of prognosticating from marks on the body, chiromantics, palmistry etc. (cp. above 3) D I.9 (see expl. at DA I.93); J I.290 (*aaya cheka clever in fortune-telling); *a-nubhaava the power of knowing the art of signs on the body J II.200; V.284; *paa.thaka one who in versed in palmistry etc. J II.21, 250; V.458. -vekalla bodily deformity DhA II.26. -sattha the science of prognosticating from certain bodily marks DA I.92. -sambhaara the combination of parts Miln 28 = S I.135; Miln 41. -hetuka a species of wild birds, living in forests J VI.538.

Anga.na1 (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit anga.na and *na; to anga*] an open space, a clearing, Vin II.218; J I.109 ( = manussaanan sa~ncara.na-.t.thaane anaava.te bhuumibhaage C.); II.243, 290, 357; Daavs I.27. - cetiy* an open space before a Chaitya Miln 366, DA I.191, 197; VvA 254. raaj* the empty space before the king's palace, the royal square J I.124, 152; II.2; DhA II.45. -.t.thaana a clearing (in a wood or park) J I.249, 421. -pariyanta the end or border of a clearing J II.200.

Anga.na2 [prob. to anj, thus a variant of a~njana, q. v.]; a speck or freckle (on the face) A V.92, 94 sq. (+ raja). Usually in negative anangana (adj.) free from fleck or blemish, clear, (of the mind) (opp. sa-ngana Sn 279); D I.76; M I.24 sq.; 100 (+ raja); A II.211; Sn 517 (+ vigata

---[ Page 7 ]---

raja = anga.naanan abhaavaa malaana~n ca vigamaa . . . SnA 427), 622 = Dh 125 ( = nikkilesa DhA III.34); Dh 236, 351; Pug 60; Nett 87.

Angada [cp. Sanskrit angada; prob. anga + da that which is given to the limbs] a bracelet J V.9, 410 (citt*, adj. with manifold bracelets).

Angadin (adj.) [to angada] wearing a bracelet J V.9.

Angaara (m. nt.) [Vedic angaara] charcoal, burning coal, embers A III.97, 380, 407; J I.73; III.54, 55; V.488; Sn 668; Sdhp 32. kul* the charcoal of the family, a squanderer S IV.324 (see under kula). -ka.taaha a pot for holding burning coal, a charcoal pan DA I.261. -kapalla an earthenware pan for ashes DhA I.260; Dhs A 333; VvA 142. -kammakara a charcoal burner J VI.209. -kaasu a charcoal pit M I.74, 365; Th 2, 491; J I.233; Sn 396; ThA 288; DhA I.442; Sdhp 208. -pacchi a basket for ashes DhA IV.191. -pabbata the mountain of live embers, the glowing mount (in Niraya) A I.141; Miln 303; PvA 221 (*aaropa.na); Sdhp 208. -ma.msa roast meat Mhvs 10, 16. -masi ashes DhA III.309. -raasi a heap of burning coal J III.55.

Angaaraka [A'ngaaraka] (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit angaaraka] like charcoal, of red colour, N. of the planet Mars DA I.95; cp. J I.73.

Angaarika a charcoal-burner J VI.206 ( = angaara-kammakara p. 209).

Angaarin (adj.) [to angaara] (burning) like coal, of brightred colour, crimson Th 1, 527 = J I.87 (dumaa trees in full bloom).

Angika (-*) (adj.) [from anga] consisting of parts, - fold; only in compounds. with num. like a.t.th*, duv* (see dve), catur*, pa~nc* etc., q. v.

Angin (adj.) limbed, having limbs or parts, - fold, see catur* and pacc* (under anga-paccangin). - f. anginii having sprouts or shoots (of a tree) Th 2, 297 ( = ThA 226).

Angu.t.tha [cp. Sanskrit angus..tha, see etymology under anga] 1. the thumb Vin III.34; Miln 123; PvA 198. - 2. the great toe J II.92; Mhvs 35, 43. -pada thumb-mark A IV.127 = S III.154. -sineha love drawn from the thumb, i. e. extraordinary love Pv III.52, cp. PvA 198.

Angu.t.thaka = angu.t.tha J IV.378; V.281; paad* the great toe S V.270.

Angula [Vedic angula, lit. "limblet" see anga for etymology] 1. a finger or toe M I.395 (vank- angula.n karoti to bend the fingers, v. l. anguli.n); A III.6 (id.); J V 70 (go.n* adj. with ox toes, explained. by C. as with toes like an ox's tail; vv. ll. *angu.t.tha and *angulii). - 2. a finger as measure, i. e. a finger-breadth, an inch Vin II.294, 306 (dvangula 2 inches wide); Mhvs 19, 11 (a.t.th*); DhA III.127 (ek.r). -a.t.thi (* cp. anga-la.t.thi) fingers (or toes) and bones DA I.93. -anguli fingers and toes DhA III.214. -antarikaa the interstices between the fingers Vin III.39; Miln 180; DhA III.214.

Angulika (nt.) [ = angulii] a finger J III.13 (pa~nc*); V.204 (va.t.t* = pavaa'* ankurasadisaa va.t.tangulii p. 207). See also pa~ncangulika.

Angulii and Anguli (thus always in compounds) (f.) [Vedic angulii and *i; see anga] a finger A IV.127; Sn 610; J III.416; IV.474; V.215 (va.t.t* with rounded fingers); Miln 395; DhA II.59; IV.210; SnA 229. -patodaka nudging with the fingers Vin III.84 = IV.110; D I.91 = A IV.343. -pada finger-mark A IV.127 = S III.154. -po.tha snapping or cracking the fingers J V.67. -muddikaa a signet ring Vin II.106; J IV.498; V.439, 467. -sangha.t.tana* = po.tha DA I.256.

Anguleyyaka (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit anguliiyaka that which belongs to the finger, Mhg. vingerl^in = ring; E. bracelet, Fr. bras; thimble thumb etc.] an ornament for the finger, a finger-ring J II.444 ( = nikkha).

Acankama (avj.) [a + cankama] not fit for walking, not level or even Th 1, 1174 (magga).

Acittaka (adj.) [a + citta2 + ka] 1. without thought or intention, unconscious, unintentional DhA II.42. - 2. without heart or feeling, instr. acittakena (adv.) heartlessly J IV.58 (C. for acetasaa).

Acittikata (adj.) [a + citta2 + kata; cp. cittikaara] not well thought of Miln 229.

Acira see cira and cp. nacira.

Acela (adj. -n.) [a + cela] one who is not clothed, esp. t. t. for an anti-Buddhist naked ascetic D I.161, 165; III.6, 12, 17 sq.; S I.78; J V.75.

Acelaka = acela D I.166; III.40; A I.295; II.206; III.384 (*saavaka); J III.246; VI.229; Pug 55; DhA III.489.

Acc- 1. a + c*, e. g. accuta = a + cuta. - 2. Assimilation group of (a) ati + vowel; (b) c + cons. e. g. acci = arci.

Accagaa [ati + agaa] 3rd sg. pret. of ati-gacchati (q. v. for similar forms) he overcame, should or could overcome Sn 1040 (explained. wrongly as pp. = atikkanta at Nd2 10 and as atiita at DhA IV.494); Dh 414.

Accankusa (adj.) [ati + ankusa] beyond the reach of the goad D II.266 (naaga).

Accatari see atitarati.

Accati [Vedic arcati, rc, orig. meaning to be clear and to sing i. e. to sound clear, cp. arci] to praise, honour, celebrate Daavs V.66 (accayittha, pret.) - pp accita, q. v.

Accanta (adj. - and adv. *-) [ati + anta, lit. "up to the end"] 1. uninterrupted, continuous, perpetual J I.223; Miln 413; VvA 71; PvA 73, 125, 266; Sdhp 288. 2. final, absolute, complete; adv. thoroughly S I.130 (*.m hataputtaa- mhi); III.13 = A I.291 sq.; V.326 sq. (*ni.t.tha, *yogakkhemin); Kvu 586 (*niyaamataa final assurance; cp. Kvu trsl. 340). - 3. (*-) exceedingly, extremely, very much A I.145 (*sukhumaala, extremely delicate), Miln 26 (id.); Sn 794 (*suddhi = param ttha-accantasuddhi SnA 528); Th 1, 692 (*ruci); Dh 162 (*dussiilya = ekanta* DhA III.153).

Accaya [from acceti, ati + i, going on or beyond; cp. Sanskrit atyaya] (1) (temporal) lapse, passing; passing away, end, death. Usually as instr. accayena after the lapse of, at the end or death of, after Vin I.25; D II.127 (rattiyaa a.), 154 (mam* when I shall be dead); M I.438 (temaas* after 3 months); S I.69; Snp. 102 (catunna.m maasaana.m), p. 110 (rattiyaa); J I.253 (ekaaha-dviih*), 291 (katipaah* after a few days); PvA 47 (katipaah*), 82 (dasamaas*), 145 (vassasataana.m). - (2) (modal) passing or getting over, overcoming, conquering, only in phrase dur-accaya difficult to overcome, of kaamapanka Sn 945 ( = dur-atikkamaniiya SnA 568), of sanga Sn 948: ta.nhaa Dh 336; sota It 95. - (3) (fig.) going beyond (the norm), transgression, offence Vin I.133 (thull* a grave offence), 167 (id.); II.110, 170; esp. in following phrases: accayo ma.m accagamaa a fault has overcome me, i. e. has been committed by me (in confession formula) D I.85 ( = abhibhavitvaa pavatto has overwhelmed me DA I.236); A I.54; M I.438 (id.); accaya'n accayato passati to recognise a breach of the regulation as such Vin I.315; A I.103; II.146 sq.; *.m deseti to confess the transgression S I.239; *.m accayato pa.tiga.nhaati to accept (the confession of) the fault, i. e. to pardon the transgression, in confession formula at D I.85 = (Vin II.192; M I.438 etc.). In the

---[ Page 8 ]---

same sense accaya-pa.tiggaha.na pardon, absolution J V.380; accayena desana.m pa.tiga.nhaati J I.379; accaya'n khamati to forgive Miln 420.

Accasara (adj.) [a form. from aor. accasari (ati + sr), influenced in meaning by analogy of ati + a + sara (smr). Not with Morris (J.Paali Text Society 1889, 200) a corruption of accaya + sara (smr), thus meaning "mindful of a fault"] 1. going beyond the limits (of proper behaviour), too self-sure, overbearing, arrogant, proud S I.239 (v. l. accayasara caused by prolepsis of following accaya); J IV.6 (+ atisara); DhA IV.230 ( = expecting too much). - 2. going beyond the limits (of understanding), beyond grasp, transcendental (of pa~nha a question) M I.304; S V.218 (v. l. SS for BB reading ajjhapara). Cp. accasaarin.

Accasaraa (f.) [abstr. to accasara] overbearing, pride, selfsurity Vbh 358 (+ maayaa). Note. In id. p. at Pug 23 we read acchaadanaa instead of accasaraa.

Accasari [from ati + sr] aor 3. sg. of atisarati to go beyond the limit, to go astray J V.70.

Accasaarin (adj.) = accasara 1., aspiring too high Sn 8 sq. (yo na-ccasaarii, opp. to na paccasaarii; explained. at SnA 21 by yo na-tidhaavi, opp. na ohiyyi).

Accahasi [from ati + hr] aor 3 sg. of atiharati to bring over, to bring, to take J III.484 ( = ativiya aahari C.).

Acca-bhikkha.na (*-) [ati + abhikkha.na] too often J V.233 (*sa'nsagga; C. expls. ativiya abhi.nha).

Accaaraddha (adj. adv.) [ati + aaraddha] exerting oneself very or too much, with great exertion Vin I.182; Th 1, 638; SnA 21.

Accaayata (adj.) [ati + aayata] too long A III.375.

Accaayika (adj.) [from accaya] out of time, viz. 1. irregular, extraordinary J VI.549, 553. - 2. urgent, pressing M I.149 (kara.niyan business) II.112; J I.338; V.17 *.m (nt.) hurry DhA I.18. See also acceka.

Accaavadati [ati + aavadati; or is it = ajjhaavadati = adhi + aavadati*] to speak more or better, to surpass in talk or speech; to talk somebody down, to persuade, entice Vin IV.224, 263; S II.204 sq.; J V.433 (v. l. BB ajjhaarati), 434 (v. l. BB aghaacarati for ajjhaacarati = ajjhaavadati*).

Accaasanna (adj.) [ati + asanna] very near, too near PvA 42 (na a. n'a-tiduura neither too near nor too far, at an easy distance).

Acca-hita (adj.) [ati + ahita] very cruel, very unfriendly, terrible J IV.46 = V.146 ( = ati ahita C.) = VI.306 (id.).

Acci and (in verse) accii (f.) [Vedic arci m. and arcis nt. and f. to rc, cp. accati] a ray of light, a beam, flame S IV.290 (spelt acchi), 399; A IV.103; V.9; Sn 1074 (vuccati jaalasikhaa Nd2 11); J V.213; Miln 40; ThA 154 (diip-); Sdhp 250.

Accikaa (f.) [from acci] a flame M I.74; S II.99.

Accita [pp. of accati] honoured, praised, esteemed J VI.180.

Accimant (adj.) [from acci, cp. Vedic arcimant and arcis.mant] flaming, glowing, fiery; brilliant Th 1, 527; J V.266; VI.248; Vv 388.

Acci-bandha (adj.) [ = accibaddha*] at Vin I.287 is explained. by Bdhgh as caturassa-kedaara-baddha ("divided into short pieces" Vin Texts II.207), i. e. with squares of irrigated fields. The vv. ll. are acca* and acchi*, and we should prefer the conjecture acchi-baddha "in the shape of cubes or dice", i. e. with square fields.

Accuggacchati [ati + uggacchati] to rise out (of), ger. accuggamma D II.38; A V.152 (in simile of lotus).

Accuggata (adj.) [ati + uggata] 1. very high or lofty Miln 346 (giri); VvA 197; DhA II.65. - 2. too high, i. e. too shrill or loud J VI.133 (sadda), 516 (fig. = atikuddha very angry C.).

Accu.nha (adj.) [ati + u.nha] very hot, too hot Sn 966; Nd1 487; DhA II.85, 87 (v. l. for abbhu.nha). See also ati-u.nha.

Accuta (adj.) [a + cuta] immoveable; everlasting, eternal; nt. *.m Ep. of Nibbaana (see also cuta) A IV.295, 327; Sn 204, 1086 ( = nicca etc. Nd2 12); Dh 225 ( = sassata DhA III.321); Sdhp 47.

Accupa.t.thapeti at J V.124 is to be read with v.l. as apaccupa.t.thapeti (does not indulge in or care for).

Accupati at J IV.250 read accuppati, aor. 3rd sg. of accuppatati to fall in between (lit. on to), to interfere (with two people quarelling). C. expls. atigantvaa uppati. There is no need for Kern's corr. acchupati (Toev. s. v.).

Accussanna (adj.) [ati + ussanna] too full, too thick Vin II.151.

Acceka = accaayika, special; *ciivara a spccial robe Vin III.261; cp. Vin Texts I.293.

Acceti [ati + eti from i] 1. to pass (of time), to go by, to elapse Th 1, 145 (accayanti ahorattaa). - 2. to overcome, to get over Miln 36 (dukkha.m). - Causative acceti to make go on (loc.), to put on J VI.17 (suulasmi.m; C. aavu.neti), but at this passage prob. to be read appeti (q. v.).

Accogaa'ha (adj.) [ati + ogaa'ha] too abundant, too plentiful (of riches), lit. plunged into A IV.282, 287, 323 sq.

Accodaka (nt.) [ati + udaka] too much water (opp. anodaka no water) DhA I.52.

Accodara (nt.) [ati + udara] too much eating, greediness, lit. too much of a belly J IV.279 (C. ati-udara).

Accha1 (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit accha, dial., to rc (see accati), thus "shining"; cp. Sanskrit rk.sa bald, bare and Vedic rkvan bright. Monier-Williams however takes it as a + cha from chad, thus "not covered, not shaded"] clear, transparent Vin I.206 (*ka~njika); D I.76 (ma.ni = tanucchavi DA I.221), 80 (udakapatta), 84 (udaka-rahada); M I.100; S II.281 (*patta); III.105 (id.); A I.9; J II.100 (udaka); Vv 7910 (vaari); DA I.113 (yaagu). -odaka having clear water, with clear water (of lotus ponds) Vv 4411; 815; f. *odikaa Vv 412 = 602.

Accha2 [Vedic rk.sa = Gr. a)/rktos, Latin ursus, Cymr. arth] a bear Vin I.200; A III.101; J V.197, 406, 416; Miln 23, 149. At J VI.507 accha figures as N. of an animal, but is in explination. taken in the sense of accha4 (acchaa naama aghammigaa C.). Note. Another peculiar form of accha is Paali ikka (q. v.).

Accha3 = akkha2 (a die) see acci-bandha.

Accha4 (adj.) [Ved. rk.sa] hurtful, painful, bad DhA IV.163 (*ruja).

Acchaka = accha2, a bear J V.71.

Acchati [Vedic aasyati and aaste, aas; cp. Gr. h_(stai] 1. to sit, to sit still Vin I.289; A II.15; It 120 (in set carati ti.t.thati a. sayati, where otherwise nisinna stands for acchati); Vv 741 ( = nisiidati VvA 298); PvA 4. - 2. to stay, remain, to leave alone Th 1, 936; J IV.306. - 3. to be, behave, live Vin II.195; D I.102; S I.212; Vv 112; Pv III.31 ( = nisiidati vasati PvA 188); Miln 88; DhA I.424. In this sense often pleonastic for finite verb, thus aggi.m karitvaa a. ( = aggi.m karoti) D I.102; aggi.m paricaranto a. ( = aggi.m paricarati) DA I.270; tanta.m pasaarento a. ( = tanta.m pasaareti) DhA I.424. - Pot. acche It 110; aor. acchi Vin IV.308; DhA I.424.

---[ Page 9 ]---

Acchanna (adj.) [pp. of acchaadeti] covered with, clothed in, fig. steeped in (c. loe.) J JII.323 (lohite a. = nimugga C.). At D I.91 nacchanna is for na channa (see channa2) = not fair, not suitable or proper (pa.tiruupa).

Acchambhin (adj.) [a + chambhin] not frightened, undismayed, fearless Sn 42 (reading achambhin; Nd2 13 expls. abhiiru anutraasi etc.); J VI.322 ( = nikkampa C.). See chambhin.

Accharaa1 (f.) [etymology uncertain, but certainly dialectical; Trenckner connects it with aacchurita (Notes 76); Childers compares Sanskrit ak.sara (see akkhara); there may be a connection with akkha.na in akkha.na-vedhin (cp. BSanskrit accha.taa Divy 555), or possibly a relation to aa + tsar, thus meaning "stealthily", although the primary meaning is "snapping, a quick sound"] the snapping of the fingers, the bringing together of the finger-tips: 1. (lit.) acchara.m paharati to snap the fingers J II.447; III.191; IV.124, 126; V.314; VI.366; DhA I.38, 424. - As measure: as much as one may hold with the finger-tips, a pinch J V.385; DhA II.273 (*gaha.namatta.m); cp. ekacchara-matta DhA II.274. - 2. (fig.) a finger's snap, i. e. a short moment, in ek.racchara-kkha.ne in one moment Miln 102, and in def. of acchariya (q. v.) at DA I.43; VvA 329. -sanghaata the snapping of the fingers as signifying a short duration of time, a moment, *matta momentary, only for one moment (cp. BSanskrit accha.taasanghaata Divy 142) A I.10, 34, 38; IV.396; Th 1, 405; 2, 67 (explained. at ThA 76 as gha.tikaamattam pi kha.na.m angulipo.thanamattam pi kaala.m). -sadda the sound of the snapping of a finger J III.127.

Accharaa2 (f.) [Vedic apsaras = aapa, water + sarati, orig; water nymph] a celestial nymph M I.253 (pl. accharaayo) II.64; Th 2, 374 ( = devaccharaa ThA 252); J V.152 sq. (Alambusaa a.) Vv 55 ( = devaka~n~naa VvA 37); Vv 172; 1811 etc.; DhA III.8, 19; PvA 46 (dev*); Miln 169; Sdhp 298.

Accharika (nt. or f.*) [from accharaa2] in *.m vaadeti to make heavenly music (lit. the sounds of an accharaa or heavenly nymph) A IV.265.

Acchariya (adj.-nt.) [cp. Sanskrit aashcarya since Upanishads of uncertain etymology - The conventional etymology of Paali grammarians connects it with accharaa1 (which is prob. correct and thus reduces Sanskrit aashcarya to a Sanskritisation of acchariya) viz. Dhammapaala: anabhi.nha-ppavattitaaya accharaapahara.na-yogga.m that which happens without a moment's notice, at the snap of a finger; i. e. causally unconnected (cp. Goth. silda-leiks in similar meaning) VvA 329; and Buddhaghosa: accharaa-yoggan ti acchariya.m acchara.m paharitu.m yuttan ti attho DA I.43] wonderful, surprising, strange, marvellous D II.155; M I.79; III.118, 125, 144 (an*); S IV.371; A I.181; Miln 28, 253; DhA III.171; PvA 121; VvA 71 (an*). As nt. often in exclamations: how wonderful! what a marvel! J I.223, 279; IV.138; VI.94 (a. vata bho); DhA IV.51 (aho a.); VvA 103 (aho ti acchariyatthena nipaato). Thus frequent combined. with abbhuta.m = how wonderful and strange, marvellous, beyond comprehension, e. g. D I.2, 60, 206, 210; II.8; and in phrase acchariyaa abbhutaa dhammaa strange and wonderful things, i. e. wonderful signs, portents marvels, M III.118, 125; A IV.198; Miln 8; also as adj. in phrase acchariyaabbhuta-(citta-)jaataa with their hearts full of wonder and surprise DhA IV.52; PvA 6, 50. - See also acchera and accheraka.

Acchaadana (nt.) [from acchaadeti] covering, clothing Th 1, 698; Miln 279. - fig. protection, sheltering J I.307.

Acchaadanaa (f.) [ = prec.] covering, hiding, concealment Pug 19, 23. - Note. In id. p. at Vbh 358 we read accasaraa for acchaadanaa. Is the latter merely a gloss*

Acchaadeti [aa + chaadeti1, Causative of chad, cp. BSanskrit aacchaadayati jiivitena to keep alive Av. SH, I.300; Divy 136, 137] to cover, to clothe, to put on D I.63 = It 75; J I.254; III.189; IV.318; Pug 57; Pv I.105 (ger. acchaadayitvaana); DA I.181 ( = paridahitvaa); PvA 49, 50. - fig. to envelop, to fill J VI.581 (abbha.m rajo acchaadesi dust filled the air). -pp. acchanna (q. v.).

Acchi at S IV.290 is faulty spelling for acci (q. v.).

Acchijja (v. l. accheja) destroying (*) S I.127. Is the reading warranted* Cp. acchecchi.

Acchidda see chidda.

Acchindati [aa + chindati, lit. to break for oneself] to remove forcibly, to take away, rob, plunder Vin IV.247 (saya'n a. to appropriate); J II.422; III.179; IV.343; Miln 20; Sdhp 122. - ger. acchinditvaa J II.422; DhA I.349; PvA 241 (saya'n); and acchetvaa M I.434. Causative II. acchindaapeti to induce a person to theft Vin IV.224, 247.

Acchinna (adj.) [aa + chinna, pp. of acchindati] removed, taken away, stolen, robbed Vin IV.278, 303; J II.78; IV.45; V.212.

Acchiva [*Sanskrit aks.iba and aks.iiba] a certain species of tree (Hypanthera Moringa) J VI.535.

Acchupeti [aa + chupeti, Causative of chupati] to procure or provide a hold, to insert, to put on or in Vin I.290 (agga'a.m) II.112.

Acchecchi [Sanskrit acchaitsiit] 3rd sg. aor. of chindati "he has cut out or broken, has destroyed" (see also chindati 3), in combination. with ta.nha.m M I.122; S I.12, 23, 127 (so read for acchejja); IV.105, 207. It 47; A III.246, 445; DhA IV.70 (gloss acchindi, for acchidda pret. of Dh 351). The v. l. at all passages is acchejji, which is to be accounted for on graphological grounds, chandj being substituted in MSS. Kern (Toevoegselen s. v.) mistakes the form and tries to explain acchejji as adj. = ati-ejin (ejaa), acchecchi = ati-icchin (icchaa). The syntactical construction however clearly points to an aor.

Acchejja = a + chejja not to be destroyed, indestructible, see chindati.

Acchedana (nt.) [abstr. to acchindati] robbing, plundering J VI.544.

Acchera (adj.) = acchariya wonderful, marvellous S I.181; Vv 8413 (comp. accheratara); Pv III.51 (*ruupa = acchariyasabhaava PvA 197); Sdhp 244, 398.

Accheraka (adj.) = acchera (acchariya) J I.279; Bu I.9 (paa.tihiira.m).

Aja [Vedic aja from aj (Latin ago to drive), cp. ajina] a hegoat, a ram D I.6, 127; A II.207; J I.241; III.278 sq.; V.241; Pug 56; PvA 80. -e'aka [Sanskrit ajai.daka] goats and sheep D I.5, 141; A II.42 sq., 209; J I.166; VI.110; Pug 58. As pl. *aa S I.76; It 36; J IV.363. -pada goat-footed M I.134. aja-pada refers to a stick cloven like a goat's hoof; so also at Vism 161. -paala goatherd, in *nigrodharukkha (Npl.) "goatherds' Nigrodha-tree" Vin I.2 sq. Dpvs I.29 (cp. M Vastu III.302). -paalikaa a woman goatherd Vin III.38. -lakkha.na "goat-sign", i. e. prophesying from signs on a goat etc. D I.9 (explained. DA I.94 as "evaruupaana.m ajaana.m mansa'n khaaditabba.m evaruupaana.m na khaaditabban ti"). -la.n.dikaa (pl.) goats' dung, in phrase naa'imattaa a. a cup full of goats' dung (which is put down a bad ministereotypes throat as punishment) J I.419; DhA II.70; PvA 282. -vata "goats' habit", a practice of certain ascetics (to live after the fashion of goats) J IV.318.

---[ Page 10 ]---

Ajaka a goat, pl. goats Vin II.154. - f. ajikaa J III.278 and ajiyaa J V.241.

Ajagara [aja + gara = gala from *gel to devour, thus "goateater"] a large snake (rock-snake*), Boa Constrictor J VI.507; Miln 23, 303, 364, 406; DhA III.60. Also as ajakara at J III.484 (cp. Trenckner, Notes p. 64).

Ajacca (adj.) [a + jacca] of low birth J III.19; VI.100.

Ajajjara see jajjara.

Ajaddhuka and Ajaddhumaara see jaddhu.

Ajamoja [Sanskrit ajamoda, cp. Sanskrit ajaajii] cummin-seed VvA 186.

Ajaa (f.) a she-goat J III.125; IV.251.

Ajaanana (*-) (nt.) [a + jaanana] not knowing, ignorance (of) J V.199 (*bhaava); VI.177 (*kaala).

Ajina (nt.) [Vedic ajina, to aja, orig. goats' skin] the hide of the black antelope, worn as a garment by ascetics D I.167; Sn 1027; J I.12, 53; IV.387; V.407. kharaajina a rough skin (as garment) M I.343; S IV.118; A II.207; Sn 249 ( = kharaani a*-cammaani SnA 291). dantaajina* ivory (q. v.). -khipa a cloak made of a network of strips of a black antelope's hide D I.167; S I.117; A I.240, 295; II.206; Vin I.306; III.34; J VI.569. -pave.ni a cloth of the size of a couch made from pieces of ant. skin sewn together Vin I.192; D I.7 ( = ajina-cammehi ma~ncappamaa.nena sibbitvaa kataa pave.ni DA I.87); A I.181. -saa.tii a garment of skins ( = ajina-camma-saa.tii DhA IV.156) Dh 394 = J I.481 = III.85.

Ajini aor 3rd sg. jayati, q. v.

Ajiya = ajikaa (see ajaka).

Ajira (nt.). [Vedic ajira to aj, cp. Gr. a)gro/s, Latin ager, Goth. akrs = Ger. Acker, = E. acre] a court, a yard Mhvs 35, 3.

Ajiiraka (nt.) [a + jiiraka] indigestion J I.404; II.181, 291; III.213, 225.

Ajeyya1 and Ajjeyya (adj.) [a + jeyya, grd. of jayati, q. v.] (a) not to be taken by force Kh VIII.8 (cp. KhA 223). (b) not to be overpowered, invincible Sn 288; J V.509.

Ajeyya2 (adj.) [a + jeyya, grd. of jiiyati, q. v.] not decaying, not growing old, permanent J VI.323.

Ajja and Ajjaa (adv.) [Vedic adya and adyaa, a + dyaa, a* being base of demonstr. pronoun. (see a3) and dyaa an old loc. of dyaus (see diva), thus "on this day"] to-day, now Sn 75, 153, 158, 970, 998; Dh 326; J I.279; III.425 (read bahuta.m ajjaa; not with Kern, Toev. s. v. as "food"); Pv I.117 ( = idaani PvA 59); PvA 6, 23; Mhvs 15, 64. Freq. in phrase ajjatagge ( = ajjato + agge(*) or ajja-tagge, see agga3) from this day onward, henceforth Vin I.18; D I.85; DA I.235. -kaala.m (adv.) this morning J VI.180; -divasa the present day Mhvs 32, 23.

Ajjatana (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit adyatana] referring to the day, today's, present, modern (opp. poraa.na) Th 1, 552; Dh 227; J II.409. - dat. ajjatanaaya for today Vin I.17; PvA 171 and passim.

Ajjataa (f.) [abstr. from ajja] the present time, in ajjata~n ca this very day S I.83 (v. l. ajjeva).

Ajjati [Vedic arjati, rj, a variant of arh, see arahati] to get, procure, obtain J III.263 (*). pp. ajjita (q. v.).

Ajjava (adj.-n.) [cp. Sanskrit aarjava, to rju, see uju] straight, upright (usually combined. with maddava gentle, soft) D III.213; A I.94; II.113; III.248; Sn 250 (+ maddava), 292 (id.); J III.274; Dhs 1339; Vbh 359 (an*); SnA 292 ( = ujubhaava), 317 (id.).

Ajjavataa (f.) [from prec.] straight forwardness, rectitude, uprightness Dhs 1339. (+ ajimhataa and avankataa).

Ajjita [pp. of ajjati] obtained Sdhp 98.

Ajjuka [*Sanskrit arjaka] N. of a plant, Ocimum Gratissimum Vin IV.35; DA I.81 (all MSS. have ajjaka).

Ajjuka.n.na [*Sanskrit arjakar.na] N. of a tree Pentaptera Tomentosa J VI.535 (nn).

Ajju.nho (adv.) [haplology from ajja-ju.nho; see ju.nhaa] this moonlight night Vin I.25; IV.80.

Ajjuna [Vedic arjuna, to raj; cp. Gr. a)rgo/s white, a)/rguros silver, Latin argentum] the tree Pentaptera Arjuna J VI.535; DhA I.105 (*rukkha).

Ajjh- Assimilation group of adhi + vowel.

Ajjhagaa [adhi + agaa 3rd sg. pret. of adhigacchati (q. v. for similar forms) he came to, got to, found, obtained, experienced S I.12 (vimaana.m); Sn 225 (explained. at KhA 180 by vindi pa.tilabhi), 956 (rati.m; explained. at Nd1 457 by adhigacchi); It 69 (jaatimara.na.m); Dh 154 (ta.nhaana.m khaya'n); Vv 327 (visesa'n attained distinction; explained. at VvA 135 by adhigata); 5021 (amata.m santi.m; explained. VvA 215 by v. l. SS adhiga~nchi, T. adhigacchati).

Ajjhatta (adj. -n.) [cp. Sanskrit adhyaatma, cp. attaa], that which is personal, subjective, arises from within (in contrast to anything outside, objective or impersonal); as adv. and *interior, personal, inwardly (opp. bahiddhaa baahira etc. outward, outwardly); Cp. ajjhattika and see Dhs. trsl. 272. D I.37 (subjective, inward, of the peace of the 2nd jhaana), 70 = A II.210; V.206 (inward happiness. a. sukkha.m = niyakajjhatta.m attano santaane ti attho DA I.183 cp. DhsA 169, 338, 361); S I.70, 169; II..27 (katha.m kathii hoti is in inward doubt), 40 (sukha.m dukkha.m); III.180 (id.); IV.1 sg. (aayatanaani), 139, 196; V.74 (.thita.m citta.m ajjhatta.m susa.n.thita.m suvimutta.m a mind firm, inwardly well planted, quite set free), 110, 143, 263, 297, 390; A I.40 (ruupasa~n~nii), 272 (kaamacchanda etc.); II.158. (sukhadukkha.m), 211; III.86 (cetosamatha), 92 (vuupasantacitta); IV.32 (sankhitta.m), 57 (itthindriya.m), 299 (citta.m), 305 (ruupasa~n~nii), 360 (cetosamatha), 437 (vuupasantacitta); V 79 sq., 335 sq. (sati); It 39 (cetosamatha inward peace), 80, 82, 94; J I.045 (chaatajjhatta with hungry insides); V.338 (id.); Ps I.76 (cakkhu etc.); Dhs 161 ( = attano jaata.m DhsA 169), 204, 1044; Pug 59; Vbh 1 sq. (khandhaa), 228 (sati), 327 (pa~n~naa), 342 (aruu*pasa~n~nii). - adv. *.m inwardly, personally (in contrast-pair ajjhatta.m vaa bahiddhaa vaa; see also cpd. *bahiddhaa) A I.284; II.171; IV.305; V.61; Sn 917 ( = upajjhayassa vaa aa aacariyassa vaa te gu.naa assuu ti Nd1 350). -aaramma.na a subjective object of thought Dhs 1047. -cintin thought occupied with internal things Sn 174, 388. -bahiddhaa inside and outside, personal-external, mutual, interacting S II.252 sq.; III.47; IV.382; Nd2 15; Dhs 1049 etc. (see also bahiddhaa). -rata with inward joy D II.107 = S V.263 = Dh 362 = Ud 64 (+ samaahita); Th 1, 981; A IV.312; DhA IV.90 ( = gocar- ajjhatta-sankhaataaya kamma.t.thaana-bhaavanaaya rata). -ruupa one's own or inner form Vin III.113 (opp. bahiddhaa-ruupa and ajjh*-bah* r.). -sa~n~nojana an inner fetter, inward bond A I.63 sq.; Pug 22; Vbh 361. -santi inner peace Sn 837 ( = ajjhattaana.m raagaadiina.m santibhaava SnA 545; cp. Nd1 185). -samu.t.thaana originating from within J I.207 (of hiri; opp. bahiddhaa*).

---[ Page 11 ]---

Ajjhattika (adj.) [ajjhatta + ika], personal, inward (cp. Dhs trsl. 207 and Nd1 346: ajjhattika.m vuccati citta.m); opp. baahira outward (q. v.). See also aayatana. - M I.62; S I.73 (*aa rakkhaa na baahiraa); IV.7 sq. (aayatanaani); V.101 (anga); A I.16 (anga); II.164 (dhaatuyo); III.400 (aayatanaani); V.52 (id.); It 114 (id.), 9 (anga); Kh IV. ( = KhA 82); J IV.402 (baahira-vatthu.m ayaacitvaa ajjhattikassa naama.m ga.nhati); Dhs 673, 751; Vbh 13, 67, 82 sq., 119, 131, 392 sq.

Ajjhapara S V.218: substitute v. l. accasara (q. v.).

Ajjhappatta (and Ajjhapatta) [adhi + aa + *praapta] 1. having reached, approached, coming near to J II.450; VI.566 (p; C. attano santika.m patta). - 2. having fallen upon, attacked J II.59; V.198 (p; C. sampatta) - 3. attained, found, got Sn 1134 ( = adhigacchi Nd2); J III.296 (p. C. sampatta); V.158 (ajjhaapatta; C. sampatta).

Ajjhabhavi 3rd sg. aor. of adhibhavati to conquer, overpower, overcome S I.240 (prohib. maa vo kodho ajjhabhavi); J II.336. Cp. ajjhabhu and ajjhobhavati.

Ajjhabhaasi 3rd sg. aor. of adhibhaaseti to address S IV.117 (gaathaahi); Kh V. = Sn p. 46 (gaathaaya); PvA 56, 90.

Ajjhabhu (3rd sg. aor. of adhibhavati (q. v.) to overcome, conquer It 76 (dujjaya'n a. he conquered him who is hard to conquer; v. l. ajjhabhi for ajjhabhavi). Cp. ajjhabhavi.

Ajjhayana (nt.) [adhi + i] study (learning by heart) of the Vedas Miln 225. See also ajjhena.

Ajjhavodahi 3rd sg. aor. of ajjhodahati [Sanskrit adhyavadhaati] to put down J V.365 ( = odahi, .thapesi C.). Kern, Toev. s. v. proposes reading ajjhavaadahi ( = Sanskrit avaadhaat).

Ajjhaagaare (adv.) [adhi + agaare, loc. of agaara] at home, in one's own house A I.132 = It 109; A II.70.

Ajjhaacarati [adhi (or ati*) + aa + car] 1. to conduct oneself according to Vin II.301; M I.523; Miln 266. - 2. to flirt with (perhaps to embrace) J IV.231 (a~n~nam-a~n~na.m). pp. ajjhaaci.n.na. See also accaavadati and aticarati.

Ajjhaacaara [to adhi (ati*) + aa + car] 1. minor conduct (conduct of a bhikkhu as to those minor rules not included in the Paaraajika's or Sa'nghaadisesa's) Vin I.63 (see note in Vin. Texts, I.184. - 2. flirtation Vin III.128 (in the Old Cy as explination of avabhaasati). - 3. sexual intercourse J I.396; V.327 (*cara v. l. for ajjhaavara); Miln 127 (an*).

Ajjhaaci.n.na [pp. of ajjhaacarati] habitually done Vin II.80 sq., 301.

Ajjhaajiiva [adhi (ati*) + aa + jiiv] too rigorous or strenuous a livelihood M II.245 (+ adhipaa.timokkha).

Ajjhaapajjati [adhi + aa + pad] to commit an offence, to incur, to become guilty of (acc.) Vin IV.237. pp. ajjhaapanna (q. v.).

Ajjhaapatti (f.) [abstr. to ajjhaapajjati] incurring guilt Dhs 299 (an*).

Ajjhaapana1 (nt.) [from Causative II. of ajjheti] teaching of the sacred writ, instruction Miln 225.

Ajjhaapana2 (nt.) [aa + jhaapana from ks.aa] burning, conflagration J VI.311.

Ajjhaapanna [pp. of adhi + aapajjati] become guilty of offence D I.245; III.43; S II.270; A IV.277, 280; V.178, 181. an* guiltless, innocent Vin I.103; D III.46; S II.194, 269; A V.181; Miln 401. For all passages except A IV.277, 280, cp. ajjhopanna.

Ajjhaapii'ita [adhi + aa + pii'ita] harassed, overpowered, tormented PvA 180 (khuppipaasaaya by hunger and thirst).

Ajjhaabhava [cp. Sanskrit adhyaabhava] excessive power, predominance J II.357.

Ajjhaabhavati [adhi + aa + bhuu, in meaning of abhi + bhu] to predominate J II.357.

Ajjhaayaka [cp. Sanskrit adhyaayaka, cp. ajjhayana] (a brahmin) engaged in learning the Veda (mantajjhaayaka J VI.209; SnA 192), a scholar of the brahmanic texts, a studious, learned person D I.88, 120; III.94; A I.163; III.223; Sn 140 (*kula: thus for ajjhaayakula Fsb.); Th 1, 1171; J I.3; VI.201, 498; DA I.247.

Ajjhaaruha (and *ruuha) (adj.) [to adhi + aa + ruh] growing up over, overwhelming A III.63 sq. = S V.96; J III.399.

Ajjhaaruu'ha (adj.) [pp. of adhi + aa + ruh] grown up or high over J III.399.

Ajjhaaruuhati [adhi + aarohati cp. atyaarohati] to rise into the air, to climb over, spread over S I.221 = Nett 173 ( = ajjhottharati SA; cp. Mrs. Rh. D. Kindred Sayings I.285).

Ajjhaavadati see accaavadati.

Ajjhaavara [from adhi + aa + var] surrounding; waiting on, service, retinue J V.322, 324, 326, 327 (explained at all passages by parisaa). Should we read ajjhaacara* Cp. ajjhaacaara.

Ajjhaavasatar [n. ag. to ajjhaavasati] one who inhabits D I.63 (agaara.m).

Ajjhaavasati [adhi + aa + vas] to inhabit (agaara.m a house; i. e. to be settled or live the settled life of a householder) D II.16; M I.353; Vin IV.224; J I.50; Pug 57; Miln 348. -pp. ajjhaavuttha (q. v.).

Ajjhaavuttha [cp. Sanskrit adhyus.ita; pp. of ajjhaavasati] inhabited, occupied (of a house) Vin II.210; J I.145; II.333; PvA 24 (*ghara); fig. (not) occupied by SnA 566 ( = anosita).

Ajjhaasaya [from adhi + aa + shri, orig. hanging on, leaning on, BSanskrit however adhyaashaya Divy 586] intention, desire, wish, disposition, bent D II.224 (adj.: intent on, practising); J I.88, 90; II.352; V.382; DhsA 314, 334; PvA 88, 116, 133 (adj. daan* intent on giving alms), 168; Sdhp 219, 518. Freq. in phrase ajjhaasaya-nuruupa according to his wish, as he wanted PvA 61, 106, 128.

Ajjhaasayataa (f.) [abstr. to ajjhaasaya] desire, longing PvA 127 (u'aar* great desire for c. loc.).

Ajjhaasita [pp. of adhi + aa + shri] intent on, bent on Miln 361 (jhaan*). Cp. ajjhosita and nissita.

Ajjhi.t.tha [pp. of ajjhesati] requested, asked, invited Vin I.113 (an* unbidden); D II.289 (Buddhaghosa and text read ajjhitta); Sn p. 218 ( = ajjhesita Nd2 16); J VI.292 ( = aa.natta C.); DhA IV.100 (v. l. abhijjhi.t.tha). See also an*.

Ajjhupagacchati [adhi + upa + gam] to come to, to reach, obtain; to consent to, agree, submit Th 2, 474 ( = sampa.ticchati ThA 285); J II.403; Miln 300; pp. ajjhupagata (q. v.).

Ajjhupagata [pp. of ajjhupagacchati] come to, obtained, reached A V.87, cp. 210; V.187 sq.

Ajjhupagamana (nt.) [adhi + upa + gam] consent, agreement, justification Vin II.97, 104.

Ajjhupaharati [adhi + upa + hr; cp. upaharati] to take (food) to oneself J II.293 (aor. ajjhupaahari = ajjhohari C.).

Ajjhupekkhati [adhi + upa + iks.; cp. BSanskrit adhyupek.sati] 1. to look on A I.257; Miln 275. - 2. to look

---[ Page 12 ]---

on intently or with care, to oversee, to take care of A IV.45 (ka.t.th-aggi, has to be looked after); PvA 149 (sisa'n cola.m vaa). - 3. to look on indifferently to be indifferent, to neglect Vin II.78 = III.162, cp. J I.147; M I.155; II.223; A III.194, 435; J V.229; DhA IV.125.

Ajjhupekkhana (nt.) and *aa (f.) [abstr. from ajjhupekkhati] care, diligence, attention Ps I.16; II.119; Vbh 230 sq.; DhA IV.3.

Ajjhupekkhitar [n. ag. to ajjhupekkhati] one who looks on (carefully), one who takes care or controls, an overseer, caretaker S V.69 (saadhuka.m), 324 (id.), 331 sq.; Vbh 227.

Ajjhupeti [cp. Sanskrit abhyupeti; adhi + upa + i] to go to meet, to receive J IV.440.

Ajjheti [Sanskrit aadhyaayati, Denominitive from adhyaaya] to be anxious about, to fret, worry Sn 948 (socati +); explained at Nd1 433 by nijjhaayati, at SnA 568 by abhijjhati (gloss BB gijjhati).

Ajjhena (nt.) [Sanskrit adhyayana, see also ajjhayana] study (esp. of the Vedas) M III.1; J II.327 (as v. l. to be preferred to ajjhesanaa); III.114 ( = japa); V.10 (pl. = vede); VI.201 = 207; Vbh 353; SnA 314 (mant-). -kujja (*kuuta v. l.*) a hypocrite, a pharisee Sn 242; cp. SnA 286.

Ajjhesati (adhi + is.; cp. BSanskrit adhye.sate Divy 160] to request, ask, bid DhA IV.18; aor. ajjhesi Vin II.200; pp. ajjhi.t.tha and ajjhesita (q. v.), with which cp. pariyi.t.tha and *esita.

Ajjhesanaa (f.) [see ajjhesati] request, entreaty Vin I.6 = D II.38 = S I.138; J II.327 (better v. l. ajjhena).

Ajjhesita [pp. of ajjhesati; cp. ajjhi.t.tha] requested, asked, bidden Nd2 16 ( = ajjhi.t.tha).

Ajjhokaasa [adhi + okaasa] the open air, only in loc. ajjhokaase in the open Vin I.15; S I.212; DhA IV.100.

Ajjhogaa'ha [pp. of ajjhogaahati] plunged into, immersed; having entered M I.457; S I.201; Miln 348.

Ajjhogaahati (and *gaaheti) [Sanskrit *abhyavagaahate; adhi ( = abhi) + ava + gaah] to plunge into, to enter, to go into D I.101 (vana.m), 222 (samudda.m); M I.359, 536; A III.75, 368; IV.356; V.133; Vin III.18; J I.7; Nd1 152 (ogaahati +); Miln 87 (samudda.m); 300 (vana.m). -pp. ajjhogaa'ha (q. v.). Cp. pariyogaahati.

Ajjho.thapeti [adhi + ava + .thapeti, Causative of sthaa] to bring to PvA 148 (gaama.m), where we should read *.t.thapeti.

Ajjhotthata [pp. of ajjhottharati] spread over; covered, filled; overcome, crushed, overpowered J I.363 (ajjhotta.ta), 410; V.91 ( = adhipanna); DhA I.278; PvA 55; Daavs V.5.

Ajjhottharati [adhi + ava + str] to cover over, spread out, spread over, cover; to submerge, flood Vin I.111; J I.61, 72, 73; Miln 296, 336; Dh I.264; Pass. *tthariyati to be overrun with (instr.), to be smothered, to be flooded A III.92 = Pug 67; aor. ajjhotthari VvA 48 (gaamapadeso: was flooded). pp. ajjhotthata (q. v.).

Ajjhopanna (*) only found in one stock phrase, viz. gathita (q. v.) mucchita ajjhopanna with reference to selfishness, greed, bonds of craving. The reading ajjhopanna is the lectio difficilior, but the accredited reading ajjhosaana seems to be clearer and to harmonize better with the cognate ajjhosita and ajjhosaana (n.) in the same context. The confusion between the two is old-standing and hard to be accounted for. Trenckner under v. l. to M I.162 on p. 543 gives ajjhopanna as BB ( = adhi-opanna). The MSS. of Nd2 clearly show ajjhopanna as inferior reading, which may well be attributable to the very frequent SS sub stitution of p for s (see Nd2 Introd. XIX.). Besides this mixture of vv. ll. with s and p there is another confusion between the vv. ll. ajjhaapanna and ajjhopanna which adds to the complication of the case. However since the evidence of a better reading between these two preponderates for ajjhopanna we may consider the o as established, and, with a little more clearness to be desired, may in the end decide for ajjhosaana (q. v.), which in this case would have been liable to change through analogy with ajjhaapanna, from which it took the aa and p. Cp. also ajjhosita. The following is a synopsis of readings as preferred or confused by the Ed. of the var. texts. - 1. ajjhopanna as T. reading: M I.162, 173, 369; A I.74; II.28; III.68, 242; Md 75, 76; DA I.59; as v. l.: D I.245. 2. ajjhosaana as v. l.: A I.74 (C. expls. ajjhosaaya gilitvaa .thita); Nd2 under nissita and passim; Ud 75, 76 (ajjhosanna); DA I.59 (id.). - 3. ajjhaapanna as T. reading: D I.245; III.43, 46; S. II.194, 270: IV.332 (ajjhapa.n.na); A V.178, 181; Nd2 under nissita; Miln 401; as v. l.: M I.162; A III.242; Ud 75, 76.

Ajjhobhavati [adhi + ava + bhu, Sanskrit abhi*] to overcome, overpower, destroy J II.80 (aor. ajjhobhavi = adhibhavi C.).

Ajjhomaddati [adhi + ava + mrd] to crush down A IV.191, 193.

Ajjhomucchita [pp. adhi + ava + muurch, cp. adhimuccita] stiffened out (in a swoon), lying in a faint (*) A III.57 sq. (v. l. ajjhomu~ncïta or *muccita better: sariire attached to her body, clinging to her b.).

Ajjholambati [adhi + ava + lamb] to hang or hold on to (acc.), to cling to S III 137; M III.164 = Nett 179, cp. Sdhp 284 and 296.

Ajjhosa = ajjhosaaya, in verse only as ajjhosa ti.t.thati to cleave or cling to S IV.73; Th 1, 98, 794.

Ajjhosati [adhi + ava + sayati, saa, to bind, pp. sita: see ajjhosita] to be bound to, to be attached, bent on; to desire, cleave to, indulge in. Fut. ajjhosissati (does it belong here*) M I.328 (c. acc. pa.thavi.m, better as ajjhesati). grd. ajjhositabha M I.109 (+ abhin and itabba, v. l. *etabba); DhsA 5 (id.); ger. ajjhosaaya (q. v.) pp. ajjhosita (q. v.).

Ajjhosaana (nt.) cleaving to (earthly joys), attachment, D II.58 sq.; III.289; M I.498 (+ abhin and ana); S III.187; A I.66; II.11 (di.t.thi*, kaama* + ta.nhaa). In combination. with (icchaa) and mucchaa at Nd2 under chanda and nissita and ta.nhaa (see also ajjhopanna), and at Dhs 1059 of laabha, (the explination. at DhsA 363, 370, from as to eat, is popular etymology) Nett 23 sq. (of ta.nhaa).

Ajjhosaaya [ger. of ajjhosati, cp. BSanskrit adhyavasaaya tis..thati Divy 37, 534] being tied to, hanging on, attached to, only in phrase a. ti.t.thati (+ abhinandati, same in Divy) M I.266; S. IV.36 sq.; 60, 71 sq.; Miln 69. See also ajjhosa.

Ajjhosita [cp. Sanskrit adhyavasita, from adhi + ava + saa; but sita is liable to confusion with sita = Sanskrit shrita, also through likeness of meaning with esita; see ajjhaasita and ajjhesita] hanging on, cleaving to, being bent on, (c. loc.) S II.94 (+ mamaayita); A II.25 (di.t.tha suta muta +); Nd1 75, 106, 163 = Nd2 under nissita; Th 2, 470 (asaare = ta.nhaavasena abhinivi.t.tha ThA 284); Pv IV.84 (mayha.m ghare = ta.nhaabhinivisena abhinivi.t.tha PvA 267; v. l. BB ajjhesita, SS ajjhaasita). -an* S IV.213; V.319; Nd1 411; Miln 74 (pabbajita).

Ajjhohata [pp. of ajjhoharati] having swallowed Sdhp 610 (balisa'n maccho viya: like a fish the fishhook).

Ajjhohara.na (nt.) = ajjhohaara 1. A V.324; J VI.213.

---[ Page 13 ]---

Ajjhohara.niya (adj.) [grd. of ajjhoharati] something fit to eat, eatable, for eating J VI.258; DhA I.284.

Ajjhoharati [Sanskrit abhyavaharati; adhi ( = abhi) + ava + hr] to swallow, eat, take as food M I.245; J I.460; II.293; VI.205, 213; Miln 366; PvA 283 (aor.) -pp. ajjhoha.ta (q.v.).

Ajjhohaara [Sanskrit abhyavahaara] 1. taking food, swallowing, eating and drinking Vin IV.233; Miln 176, 366. - 2. N. of a fabulous fish (swallower"; cp. timingala) J V.462.

A~ncati J I.417, read a~nchati (see next).

A~nchati [in meaning = aaka.d.dhati, which latter is also the Sanskrit gloss (aakaar.sayati) to the Jain Prk. a.mchaavei = a~nQhati: see Morris, J. Paali T. S. 1893, 60] to pull, drag, pull along, to turn on a lathe D II.291 (bhamakaaro diigha.m a., where K has note: a~njanto ti pi acchanto ti pi paatho) = M I.56 (vv. ll. p. 532 acch* and a~nj*); Th 1, 750 (a~ncaami T., v.l. a~n~naami). A~nchati should also be read at J I 417 for udaka.m a~ncanti (in explination. of uda~ncanii pulling the water up from a well, q. v.), where it corresponds to udaka.m aakka.d.dhati in the same sentence.

A~nja (adv.) [orig. imper. of a~njati1; cp. Sanskrit anjasaa (instr.) quickly, Goth. anaks suddenly, lit. with a pull or jerk] pull on! go on! gee up! J I.192.

A~njati1 [ = Sanskrit r~njati, rjyati to stretch, pull along, draw out, erect; cp. Sanskrit rju straight, caus. irajyati; Gr. o)re/gw; Latin rego, rectus = erect. See also Paali uju, a~nchati, ajjita, aana~nja-aanejja]. See a~nja, a~njaya, a~njali, a~njasa.

A~njati2 and A~njeti [ = Sanskrit a~njayati, Causative of anakti to smear etc.; cp. Sanskrit a~nji ointment, aajya butter; Latin unguo to anoint, unguentum ointment; Ohg. ancho = Ger. Anke butter] to smear, anoint, paint S II.281; J IV.219 (akkhiini a~njetvaa, v. l. BB a~ncitvaa). Causative II. a~njaapeti DhA I.21. pp. a~njita (q. v.).

A~njana (nt.) [from a~njati2] ointment, esp. a collyrium for the eyes, made of antimony, adj. anointed, smeary; glossy, black (cp. ka.nha II. and kaala1 note). - 1. Vin I.203 (five kinds viz. kaa'*, ras*, sot*, geruka, kapalla); D I.7, 12; DA I.98 (khaar*); 284; DhA III.354 (akkhi* eye-salve). - 2. glossy, jet-black J I.194; II.369; V.416. The reading a~njana at A IV.468 is wrong, it should be corrected into thanamajjanamatta.m. See also pacc*. In meaning collyrium box at Th 2, 413 ( = a~njana-naa'i ThA 267); DhA II.25. -akkhiha with anointed eyes Th 1, 960. -upapisana perfume to mix with ointment Vin I.203; II.112. -cu.n.na aromatic powder DhsA 13. -naa'i an ointment tube, collyrium box ThA 267. -rukkha N. of a tree ("black" tree) J I.331. -va.n.na of the colour of collyrium, i. e. shiny, glossy, dark, black D II.18 (lomaani); J I.138 (kesaa), 194; II.369; PvA 258 (vana).

A~njanii (f.) [from a~njana] a box for ointment, a collyrium pot Vin I.203, 204; II.135; IV.168; M II.65 = Th 1, 773.

A~njanisalaakaa (f.) a stick to put the ointment on with Vin I.203; II.135; J III.419.

A~njaya (adj.) [from a~njati1] straight J III.12 (vv. ll. ajjava and and aajjava better*) explained by C. as ujuka, aku.tila. See also ajjava. Should we assume misreading for a~njasa*

A~njali [cp. Sanskrit a~njali, from a~njati1] extending, stretching forth, gesture of lifting up the hands as a token of reverence (cp. E. to "tender" one's respect), putting the ten fingers together and raising them to the head (VvA 7: dasanakha-samodhaana-samujjala.m a~njali.m paggayha). Only in stock phrases (a.) a~njali.m pa.naameti to bend forth the outstretched hands Vin II.188; D I.118; Sn 352; Sn p. 79. (b.) *.m pagga.nhaati to perform the a. salutation J I.54; DhA IV.212; VvA 7, 312 (sirasmi.m on one's head); PvA 93. (c.) *.m karoti id. PvA 178; cp. kata~njali (adj.) with raised hands Sn 1023; J I.17; PvA 50, and a~njalikata id. Pv II.1220. Cp. pa~njali -kamma respectful salutation, as above A I.123; II.180; IV.130; Vv 788, 8316; DhA I.32. -kara.niiya (adj.) that is worthy of being thus honoured D III.5; A II.34; III.36; IV.13 sq.; It 88.

A~njalikaa (f.) [ = a~njali] the raising of the hands as a sign of respectful salutation Vv 15 (explained at VvA 24 as dasanakha-samodhaana samujjala.m a~njali.m sirasi pagga.nhantii gu.na-visi.t.thaana.m apacayaana.m akaasi.m).

A~njasa [Sanskrit aa~njasa (*). Cp. aarjava = Paali ajjava, see a~njati1 and a~njaya] straight, straightforward (of a road) D I.235; J I.5; Th 2, 99; Vv 5020 (cp. VvA 215); VvA 84 ( = aku.tila); Mhvs 25, 5; Miln 217; Sdhp 328, 595. Cp. pa~njasa.

A~njita [Sanskrit ankta and a~njayita, pp. of a~njeti] smeared, anointed J I.77 (su-a~njitaani akkhiini); IV.421 (a~njit-akkha).

A~n~na (pronoun.) [Vedic anya, with compar. suff. ya; Goth. anpar; Ohg. andar; formation with n analagous to those with l in Gr. a)/llos (a)/ljos), Latin alius (cp. alter), Goth. aljis Ags. elles = E. else. From demonstr. base *eno, see na1 and cp. a3] another etc. - A. By itself: 1. other, not the same, different, another, somebody else (opp. oneself) Vin III.144 (a~n~nena, scil. maggena, gacchati to take a different route); Sn 459, 789, 904; Dh 158 (opp. attaana.m), 165; J I.151 (opp. attano); II.333 (a~n~na.m vyaakaroti give a different answer). - 2. another one, a second; nt. else, further Sn 1052 ( = uttari.m nt. Nd2 17); else J I.294. a~n~na.m ki~nci (indefinite) anything else J I.151. yo a~n~no every other, whoever else J I.256. - 3. a~n~ne (pl.) (the) others, the rest Sn 189, 663, 911; Dh 43, 252, 355; J I.254. - B. del. in correlation: 1. copulative. a~n~na . . a~n~na the one . . the other (. . the third etc.); this, that and the other; some . . some Vin I.15; Miln 40; etc. 2. reciprocative a~n~no a~n~na.m, a~n~nama~n~na.m, a~n~no~n~na.m one another, each other, mutually, reciprocally (in ordinary construction and declension of a noun or adj. in sg.; cp. Gr. a)llh/lwn, allh/lous in pl.). (a.) a~n~no a~n~na.m Dh 165. (b.) a~n~nama~n~na (cp. BSanskrit a~nyama~nya M Vastu II.436), as pronoun.: n'aala.m a~n~nama~n~nassa sukhaaya vaa dukkhaaya vaa D I.56 = S III 211. n'a~n~nama~n~nassa dukkha.m iccheyya do not wish evil to each other Sn 148. da.n.dehi a~n~nama~n~na.m upakkamanti (approach each other) M I.86 = Nd2 199. *.m agaaravo viharati A III.247. dve janaa *.m ghaatayi.msu (slew each other) J I.254. a~n~nama~n~na.m hasanti J V.111; *.m musale hantvaa J V.267. *.m da.n.da-bhigaa.tena PvA 58; or adj.: a~n~nama~n~na.m vera.m bandhi.msu (established mutual enmity) J II.353; *.m piyasa'nvaasa'n vasi.msu J II.153; a~n~nama~n~na.m accaya'n desetvaa (their mutual mistake) DhA I.57; or adv. dve pi a~n~nama~n~na.m pa.tibaddha citta ahesu.m (in love with each other) J III.188; or *-: a~n~nama~n~na-paccaya mutually dependent, interrelated Ps II.49, 58. (c.) a~n~no~n~na (*-) J V.251 (*nissita); Daavs V.45 (*bhinna). - 3. disjunctive a~n~na . . a~n~na one . . the other, this one . . . that one, different, different from a~n~na.m jiiva.m . . a~n~na.m sariira.m one is the soul . . the other is the body, i. e. the soul is different from the body D I.157; M I.430; A V.193; a~n~naa va sa~n~naa bhavissati a~n~no attaa D I.187. Thus also in phrase a~n~nena a~n~na.m opposite, the contrary, differently, contradictory (lit. other from that which is other) Vin II.85 (pa.ticarati make counter-charges); D I.57 (vyaakaasi gave the opposite or contradictory reply); Miln 171 (a~n~na.m kayiramaana.m a~n~nena sambharati). ana~n~na (1) not another, i. e. the same, self-same, identical M I.256 ( = aya'n). - (2) not anotber, i. e. alone, by oneself, oneself only Sn 65 (*posin; opp. para.m) = Nd 4, cp. Nd2 36. - (3) not another, i. e. no more, only, alone Sn p. 106 (dve va gatiyo bhavanti ana~n~naa: and no other or no more, only two). See also under compounds -aadisa different J VI.212, *taa difference PvA 243. -khantika acquiescing in different views, following another

---[ Page 14 ]---

faith (see khantika) D I.187; M I.487. -titthiya an adherent of another sect, a non-Buddhist.; D III.115; M I.494, 512; P II.21, 32 sq., 119; III.116 sq.; IV.51, 228; V.6, 27 sq.; A I.65, 240; II.176; IV.35 sq.; Vin I.60; J I.93; II.415. -di.t.thika having different views (combined. with a~n~na-khantika) D I.187; M I.487. -neyya (an*) not to be guided by somebody else, i. e. independent in one's views, having attained the right knowledge by oneself (opp. para*) Sn 55, 213, 364. -mano (an*) (adj.) not setting one's heart upon others Vv 115 (see VvA 58). -vaada holding other views, an* (adj.) Dpvs IV.24. -vaadaka one who gives a different account of things, one who distorts a matter, a prevaricator Vin IV.36. -vihita being occupied with something else, distracted, absent-minded Vin IV.269; DhA III.352, 381; *taa distraction, absentmindedness DhA I.181. -sara.na (an*) not betaking oneself to others for refuge, i. e. of independent, sure knowledge S III.42 = V.154. -sita dependent or relying on others Sn 825.

A~n~natama (pronoun. adj.) [a~n~na + superl. suff. tama; see also a~n~natara] one out of many, the one or the other of, a certain, any Mhvs 38, 14.

A~n~natara (pronoun. adj.) [Sanskrit anyatara, a~n~na + compar. suff. tara, cp. Latin alter, Goth. anpar etc.] one of a certain number, a certain, somebody, some; often used (like eka) as indefinite article "a". Very frequent, e. g. Sn 35, 210; It 103; Dh 137, 157; J I.221, 253; II.132 etc. deva~n~natara a certain god, i. e. any kind of god S IV.180 = A IV.461.

A~n~nattha (adv.) [from a~n~na = a~n~natra, adv. of place, cp. kattha, ettha] somewhere or anywhere else, elsewhere (either place where or whereto) J I.291; II.154; DhsA 163; DhA I.212; III.351; PvA 45; Mhvs 4, 37; 22, 14.

A~n~natra (adv.) [anya + tra, see also a~n~nattha] elsewhere, somewhere else J V.252; Pv IV.162. In compounds. also = a~n~na*, e. g. a~n~natra-yoga (adj.) following another discipline D I.187; M I.487. - As prep. c. abl. (and instr.) but, besides, except, e. g. a. iminaa tapo- pakkamena D I.168; ki.m kara.niiya.m a. dhammacariyaaya S I.101; ko nu a~n~natram-ariyehi who else but the Nobles Sn 886 ( = .thapetvaa sa~n~naa-mattena SnA 555). -ki.m a~n~natra what but, i. e. what else is the cause but, or: this is due to; but for D I.90 (vusitavaa-maanii k. a. avusitattaa); S I.29 (k. k. a. adassanaa except from blindness); Sn 206 (id.).

A~n~nathatta (nt.) [a~n~nathaa + tta] 1. change, alteration S III.37; IV.40; A I.153; III.66; Kvu 227 ( = jaraa C, cp. Kvu trsl. 55 n. 2); Miln 209. - 2. difference J I.147; It 11. - 3. erroneous supposition, mistake Vin II.2; S III.91; IV.329. - 4. fickleness, change of mind, doubt, wavering, M I.448, 457 (+ domanassa); J I.33 (citta.m); PvA 195 (cittassa).

A~n~nathaa (adv.) [a~n~na + thaa] in a different manner, otherwise, differently S I.24; Sn 588, 757; DhsA 163; PvA 125, 133. ana~n~nathaa without mistake Vv 4418; ana~n~natha (nt.) certainty, truth Ps II.104 ( = tatha). -bhaava (1) a different existence A II.10; It 9 = 94; Sn 729, 740, 752; (2) a state of difference; i. e. change, alteration, unstableness D I.36; S II.274; III.8, 16, 42; Vbh 379. -bhaavin based on difference S III.225 sq.; IV.23 sq., 66 sq.; an* free from difference Vin I.36.

A~n~nadatthu (adv.) [lit. a~n~nad atthu let there be anything else, i. e. be it what it will, there is nothing else, all, everything, surely] part. of affirmation = surely, all-round, absolutely (eka.msa-vacane nipaato DA I.111) only, at any rate D I.91; II.284; Sn 828 (na h- a~n~nadatth- atthi pasa'nsa-laabhaa, explained. SnA 541 as na hi ettha pasa'nsa-laabhato a~n~no attho atthi, cp. also Nd1 168); Miln 133; VvA 58; PvA 97, 114. -dasa sure-seeing, seeing everything, all pervading D I.18; III.135, 185; A II.24; III.202; IV.89, 105; It 15.

A~n~nadaa (adv.) [a~n~na + daa, cp. kadaa, tadaa, yadaa] at another time, else, once S IV.285; J V.12; DhA IV.125.

A~n~naa (f.) [Sanskrit aaj~naa, = aa + j~naa, cp. aajaanaati] knowledge, recognition, perfect knowledge, philosophic insight, knowledge par excellence, viz. Arahantship, saving knowledge, gnosis (cp. on term Compend. 176 n. 3 and Psalms of Brethren introd. XXXIII.) M I.445; S I.4 (sammad*), 24 (a~n~naaya nibbuta); II.221; V.69, 129 (di.t.th-eva dhamme), 133, 237; A III.82, 143, 192; V.108; It 39 sq., 53, 104; Dh 75, 96; Kh VII.11; Miln 334. - a~n~na.m vyaakaroti to manifest ones Arahantship (by a discourse or by mere exclamation) Vin I.183; S II.51 sq., 120; IV.139; V.222; J I.140; II.333. See also arahatta. -atthika desirous of higher knowledge Pv IV.114. -aaraadhana the attainment of full insight M I.479. -indriya the faculty of perfect knowledge or of knowledge made perfect D III.219; S V.204; It 53; Pug 2; Dhs 362, 505, 552; Nett 15, 54, 60. -citta the thought of gnosis, the intention of gaining Arahantship S II.267; A III.437. -pa.tivedha comprehension of insight Vin II.238. -vimokkha deliverance by the highest insight Sn 1105, 1107 (Nd2 19: vuccati arahatta-vimokkho).

A~n~naa.na (nt.) [a + ~naa.na] ignorance; see ~naa.na 3 e.

A~n~naa.naka (nt.) [Demin. of a~n~naa.na] ignorance Vin IV.144.

A~n~naa.nin (adj.) [a + ~naa.nin] ignorant, not knowing DhA III.106.

A~n~naata1 [pp. of aajaanaati, q. v.] known, recognised Sn 699. an* what is not known, in phrase ana~n~naata-~n~nassaamii- t- indriya the faculty of him (who believes): "I shall know what is not known (yet)" D III.219; S V.204; It 53; Pug 2; Dhs 296 (cp. Dhs trsl. 86); Nett 15, 54, 60, 191. -maanin one who prides himself in having perfect knowledge, one who imagines to be in possession of right insight A III.175 sq.; Th 1, 953.

A~n~naata2 [a + ~naata] unknown, see ~naata.

A~n~naataka1 [a + ~naataka, cp. Sanskrit aj~naati] he who is not a kinsman DhA I.222.

A~n~naataka2 (adj.) [Demin. of a~n~naata2] unknown, unrecognisable, only in phrase *vesena in unknown form, in disguise J I.14; III.116; V.102.

A~n~naatar [n. ag. to aajaanaati] one who knows, a knower of D II.286; M I.169; S I.106 (Dhammassa); Kvu 561.

A~n~naataavin (adj. -n.) [from aajaanaati] one who has complete insight DhsA 291. -indriya (*taav- indr.) the faculty of one whose knowledge is made perfect Dhs 555 (cp. Dhs trsl. 150) and same loci as under a~n~nindriya (see a~n~naa).

A~n~naatukaama (adj.) [aa + j~naatu.m + kaama] desirous of gaining right knowledge A III.192. See aajaanaati.

A~n~naaya [ger. of aajaanaati, q. v. for detail] reeognising, knowing, in the conviction of S I.24; A III.41; Dh 275, 411.

A~n~no~n~na see a~n~na B 2 c.

A~nhamaana [Sanskrit ashnaana, ppr. med. of ashnaati, ash to eat] eating, taking food; enjoying: only SS at Sn 240; all MSS at 239 have asamaana. SnA 284 expls. by aahaarayamaana.

A.ta.ta [BSanskrit a.ta.ta (e. g. Divy 67), prob. to a.t roam about. On this notion cp. description of roaming about in Niraya at Nd1 405 bottom] N. of a certain purgatory or Niraya A V.173 = Sn p. 126.

A.ta.naka (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit a.tana, to a.t] roaming about, wild J V.105 (*gaavii).

A.tanii (f.) a support a stand inserted under the leg of a bedstead Vin IV.168; Saam. Paas. on Paac. 14 (quoted Min.

---[ Page 15 ]---

Paat. 86 and Vin IV.357); DhA I.234; J II.387, 425, 484 supports of a seat. Morris J. Paali T. S. 1884, 69 compares Maraathi a.da.nii a three-legged stand. See also Vin Texts II.53.

A.tala (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit a.t.ta and a.t.taalaka stronghold] solid, firm, strong, only in phrase a.taliyo upaahanaa strong sandals M II.155 (vv. ll. pa.taliye and agaliyo) = S I.226 (vv. ll. aa.taliyo and aa.taliko). At the latter passage Bdhgh. expls. ga.nanga.n-uupaahanaa, Mrs. Rh. D. (Kindred Sayings I.291) translations. "buskined shoes".

A.tavii (f.) [Sanskrit a.tavii: Non-Aryan, prob. Dravidian] 1. forest, woods J I.306; II.117; III.220; DhA I.13; PvA 277. 2. inhabitant of the forest, man of the woods, wild tribe J VI.55 ( = a.tavicoraa C.). -rakkhika guardian of the forest J II.335. -sankhepa at A I.178 = III.66 is prob. faulty reading for v. l. *sankopa "inroad of savage tribes".

A.t.ta1 [cp. see a.t.taka] a platform to be used as a watchtower Vin I.140; DA I.209.

A.t.ta2 [cp. Sanskrit artha, see also attha 5 b] lawsuit, case, cause Vin IV.224; J II.2, 75; IV.129 (*.m vinicchinaati to judge a cause), 150 (*.m tiireti to see a suit through); VI.336.

A.t.ta3 [Sanskrit aarta, pp. of ardati, rd to dissolve, afflict etc.; cp. Sanskrit aardra ( = Paali adda and alla); Gr. a)/rdw to moisten, a)/rda dirt. See also a.t.tiiyati and a.t.tita] distressed, tormented, afflicted; molested, plagued, hurt Sn 694 (+ vyasanagata; SnA 489 aatura); Th 2, 439 ( = a.t.tita ThA 270), 441 ( = pii'ita ThA 271); J IV.293 ( = aatura C.); Vv 809 ( = attita upadduta VvA 311). Often -*: i.na.t.ta oppressed by debt M I.463; Miln 32; chaat* tormented by hunger VvA 76; vedan* afflicted by pain Vin II.61; III.100; J I.293; suucik.r (read for suucika.t.tha) pained by stitch Pv III.23. -ssara cry of distress Vin III.105; S II.255; J I.265; II.117; Miln 357; PvA 285.

A.t.taka [Demin. of a.t.ta1] a platform to be used as a watchhouse on piles, or in a tree Vin I.173; II.416; III.322, 372; DA I.209.

A.t.taana at Vin II.106 is obscure, should it not rather be read with Bdhgh as a.t.thaana* (cp. Bdhgh on p. 315).

A.t.taala [from a.t.ta] a watch-tower, a room at the top of a house, or above a gate (ko.t.thaka) Th 1, 863; J III.160; V.373; Miln 1, 330; DhA III.488.

A.t.taalaka [Sanskrit a.t.taalaka] = a.t.taala; J II.94, 220, 224; VI.390, 433; Miln 66, 81.

A.t.tita (and occasionally addita, e. g. Pv II.62; Th 2, 77, 89; Th 1, 406) [Sanskrit ardita, pp. of ardayati, Causative of ardati, see a.t.ta3] pained, distressed, grieved, terrified Th 1, 157; J II.436; IV.85 (v. l. addhita); V.84; VvA 311; ThA 270; Mhvs 1, 25; 6, 21; Dpvs I.66; II.23; XIII.9; Sdhp 205. See remarks of Morris J. Paali T. S. 1886, 104, and 1887. 47.

A.t.tiyati and A.t.tiyati [Denominitive from a.t.ta3, q. v.] to be in trouble or anxiety, to be worried, to be incommodated, usually combined. with haraayati, e. g. D I.213 (+ jigucchati); S I.131; M I.423; Pv I.102 ( = a.t.taa dukkhitaa PvA 48), frequent in ppr. a.t.tiyamaana harayaamaana (+ jigucchamaana) Vin II.292; J I.66, 292; It 43; Nd2 566; Ps I.159. Spelling sometimes addiyaami, e. g. Th 2, 140. -pp. a.t.tita and addita.

A.t.tiyana (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit ardana, to a.t.tiyati] fright, terror, amazement DhA II.179.

A.t.tha1 [Vedic as..tau, old dual, Idg. *octou, pointing to a system of counting by tetrads (see also nava); Av. a.sta, Gr. o)ktw/, Latin octo, Goth. ahtau = Ohg. ahto, Ger. acht, E. eight] num. card, eight, decl. like pl. of adj. in-a. A. The number in objective significance, based on natural phenomena: see compounds *angula, *nakha, *pada, *paada. B. The number in subjective significance. - (1) As mark of respectability and honour, based on the idea of the double square: (a) in meaning "a couple" a.t.tha matakukku.te a.t.tha jiiva-k. gahetvaa (with 8 dead and 8 live cocks; eight instead of 2 because gift intended for a king) DhA I.213. sanghassa a salaakabhatta.m daapesi VvA 75 = DhA III.104. a. pi.n.dapaataani adada.m Vv 348. a. vattha-yugaani (a double pair as offering) PvA 232, a theraa PvA 32. - The highest respectability is expressed by 8 X 8 = 64, and in this sense is frequent applied to gifts, where the giver gives a higher potency of a pair (23). Thus a "royal" gift goes under the name of sabb-a.t.thaka.m daana.m (8 elephants, 8 horses, 8 slaves etc.) where each of 8 constituents is presented in 8 exemplars DhA II.45, 46, 71. In the same sense a.t.th- a.t.tha kahaapa.naa (as gift) DhA II.41; a.t.th-a.t.thakaa dibbaaka~n~naa Vv 673 ( = catusa.t.thi VvA 290); a.t.tha.t.thaka Dpvs VI.56. Quite conspicuous is the meaning of a "couple" in the phrase satt-a.t.tha 7 or 8 = a couple, e. g. satta.t.tha divasaa, a weck or so J I.86; J II.101; VvA 264 (sa'nvaccharaa years). - (b.) used as definite measure of quantity and distance, where it also implies the respectability of the gift, 8 being the lowest unit of items that may be given decently. Thus frequent as a.t.tha kahaapa.naa J I.483; IV.138; VvA 76; Miln 291. - In distances: a. kariisaa DhA II.80; IV.217; PvA 258; a. usabhaa J IV.142. (c.) in combination. with 100 and 1000 it assumes the meaning of "a great many", hundreds, thousands. Thus a.t.tha sata.m 800, Sn 227. As denotation of wealt (cp. below under 18 and 80): a-*sata-sahassa-vibhava DhA IV.7. But a.t.thasata at S IV.232 means 108 (3 X 36), probably also at J V.377. - a.t.tha sahassa'n 8000 J V.39 (naagaa). The same meaning applies to 80 as well as to its use as unit in combination. with any other decimal (18, 28, 38 etc.): (a) 80 (asiiti) a great many. Here belong the 80 smaller signs of a Mahaapurisa (see anuvya~njana), besides the 32 main signs (see dvatti.msa) VvA 213 etc. Freq. as measure of riches, e. g. 80 waggon loads Pv II.75; asiiti-ko.tivibhava DhA III.129; PvA 196; asiiti hatth- ubbedho raasi (of gold) VvA 66, etc. See further references under asiiti. - (b) The following are examples of 8 with other decimals: 18 a.t.thaadasa (only M III.239: manopavicaaraa) and a.t.thaarasa (this the later form) VvA 213 (avenika-Buddhadhammaa: Bhagavant's qualities); as measure J VI.432 (18 hands high, of a fence); of a great mass or multitue: a.t.thaarasa ko.tiyo or *ko.ti, 18 ko.tis J I.92 (of gold), 227; IV.378 (*dhana, riches); DhA II.43 (of people); Miln 20 (id.); a. akkhohini-sankhaasenaa J VI.395. a. vatthuu Vin II.204. - 28 a.t.thaviisati nakkhattaani Nd1 382; pa.tisallaa.nagu.naa Miln 140. - 38 a.t.thati.msaa Miln 359 (raajaparisaa). - 48 a.t.thacattaariisa'n vassaani Sn 289. - 68 a.t.thasa.t.thi Th 1, 1217 *sitaa savitakkaa, where id. p. at S I.187 however reads atha sa.t.thi-tasitaa vitakkaa); J I.64 (turiya-satasahassaani) 98 a.t.thanavuti (cp. 98 the age of Eli, 1 Sam. IV.15) Sn 311 (rogaa, a higher set than the original 3 diseases, cp. navuti). (2) As number of symmetry or of an intrinsic, harmonious, symmetrical set, a.t.tha denotes, like dasa (q. v.) a comprehensive unity. See esp. the compounds for this application. *a.msa and *angika. Closely related to nos. 2 and 4 a.t.tha is in the geometrical progression of 2. 4. 8. 16. 32. where each subsequent number shows a higher symmetry or involves a greater importance (cp. 8 X 8 under 1 a) - J V.409 (a. mangalena samannaagata, of Indra's chariot: with the 8 lucky signs); VvA 193 (a.t.thahi akkha.nehi Vajjita.m manussabhaava.m: the 8 unlucky signs). In progression: J IV.3 (a.t.tha petiyo, following after 4, then following by 8, 16, 32); PvA 75 (a. kapparukkhaa at each point of the compass, 32 in all). Further: 8 expressions of bad language DhA IV.3. -a'nsa with eight edges, octagonal, octahedral, implying perfect or divine symmetry (see above B. 2), of a diamond D I.76 = M III.121 (ma.ni ve.luriyo a.); Miln 282 (ma.niratana.m subha.m jaatimanta.m a.) of the pillars of a heavenly palace (Vimaana) J VI.127 = 173 = Vv 782 (a. sukataa thambhaa); Vv 8415 (aayata.msa = aayataa hutvaa a.t.tha-so'asadvatti.msaadi-a.msavanto VvA 339). Of a ball of string Pv

---[ Page 16 ]---

IV.328 (gulaparima.n.dala, cp. PvA 254). Of geometrical figures in general Dhs 617. -anga (of) eight parts, eightfold, consisting of eight ingredients or constituents (see also next and above B 2 on significance of a.t.tha in this connection), in compounds. with *upeta characterised by the eight parts (i. e. the observance of the first eight of the commandments or vows, see siila and cp. anga 2), of uposatha, the fast-day A I.215; Sn 402 (Sn A 378 expls. ekam pi divasa'n apariccajanto a.t.thangupeta.m uposatha.m upavassa); cp. a.t.thanguposathin (adj.) Mhvs 36, 84. In BSanskrit always in phrase as..taanga-samanvaagata upavaasa, e. g. Divy 398; Sp. Av. SH I.338, 399; also vrata Av. SH I.170. In the same sense a.t.thangupeta paa.tihaariyapakkha (q. v.) Sn 402, where Vv 156 has *susamaagata (explained. at VvA 72 by paanaa.tipaataa verama.nii-aadiihi a.t.thah- angehi samannaagata). *samannaagata endowed with the eight qualities (see anga 3), of raajaa, a king D I.137 sq., of brahmassara, the supreme or most excellent voice (of the Buddha) D II.211; J I.95; VvA 217. Also in Buddh. Sanskrit as..taangopeta svara of the voice of the Buddha, e. g. Sp. Av. SH I.149. -angika having eight constituents, being made up of eight (intrinsic) parts, embracing eight items (see above B 2); of the uposatha (as in prec. a.t.thang- uposatha) Sn 401; of the "Eightfold Noble Path" (ariyo a. maggo). (Also in BSanskrit as as..taangika maarga, e. g. Lal. Vist. 540, cp. as..taangamaargadeshika of the Buddha, Divy 124, 265); D I.156, 157, 165; M I.118; It 18; Sn 1130 (magga uttama); Dh 191, 273; Th 2, 158, 171; Kh IV.; Vin I.10; Nd2 485; DA I.313; DhA III.402. -angula eight finger-breadths thick, eight inches thick, i. e. very thick, of double thickness J II.91 (in contrast to caturangula); Mhvs 29, 11 (with sattangula). -a.d.dha (v. l. a.d.dha.t.tha) half of eight, i. e. four (*paada) J VI.354, see also a.d.dha1. -nakha having eight nails or claws J VI.354 (: ekekasmi.m paade dvinna.m dvinna.m khuraana.m vasena C.). -nava eight or nine DhA III.179. -pada 1. a chequered board for gambling or playing drafts etc., lit. having eight squares, i. e. on each side (DA I.85: ekekaaya pantiyaa a.t.tha a.t.tha padaani assaa ti), cp. dasapada D I.6. - 2. eightfold, folded or plaited in eight, cross-plaited (of hair) Th 1, 772 (a.t.thaapada-kataa kesaa); J II.5 (*.t.thapana = cross-plaiting). -padaka a small square (1/8), i. e. a patch Vin I.297; II.150. -paada an octopod, a kind of (fabulous) spider (or deer*) J V.377; VI.538; cp. Sanskrit as..tapaada = sharabha a fabulous eight-legged animal. -mangala having eight anspicious signs J V.409 (explained. here to mean a horse with white hair on the face, tail, mane, and breast, and above each of the four hoofs). -vanka with eight facets, lit. eight-crooked, i. e. polished on eight sides, of a jewel J VI.388. -vidha eightfold Dhs 219.

A.t.tha2 see attha.

A.t.thaka (adj.) [Sanskrit as..taka] - 1. eightfold Vin I.196 = Ud 59 (*vaggikaani); VvA 75 = DhA III.104 (*bhatta). - 2. *aa (f.) the eight day of the lunar month (cp. a.t.thamii), in phrase rattiisu antar-a.t.thakaasu in the nights between the eighths, i. e. the 8th day before and after the full moon Vin I.31, 288 (see Vin Texst I.130n); M I.79; A I.136; Miln 396; J I.390. - 3. *.m (nt.) an octad Vv 672 (a.t.th* eight octads = 64); VvA 289, 290. On sabba.t.thaka see a.t.tha B 1 a. See also antara.

A.t.thama (num. ord.) [Sanskrit as..tama, see a.t.tha1] the eighth Sn 107, 230 (cp. KhA 187), 437. - f. *ii the eighth day of the lunar half month (cp. a.t.thakaa) A I.144; Sn 402; Vv 166 (in all three pass. as pakkhassa caatuddasii pa~ncadasii ca a.t.thamii); A I.142; Sn 570 (ito atthami, scil. divase, loc.).

A.t.thamaka = a.t.thama the eighth. - 1. lit. Miln 291 (att* self-eighth). - 2. as tt. the eighth of eight persons who strive after the highest perfection, reckoned from the first or Arahant. Hence the eighth is he who stands on the lowest step of the Path and is called a sotaapanna (q. v.) Kvu 243-251 (cp. Kvu trsl. 146 sq.); Nett 19, 49, 50; Ps II.193 (+ sotaapanna).

A.t.thaana (nt.) [aa + .t.thaana] stand, post; name of the rubbing-post which, well cut and with incised rows of squares, was let into the ground of a bathing-place, serving as a rubber to people bathing Vin II.105, 106 (read a.t.thaane with BB; cp. Vin II.315).

A.t.thi*1 [ = attha (a.t.tha) in compounds. with karandbhuu, as frequent in Sanskrit and Paali with i for a, like citti-kata (for citta*), angi-bhuuta (for anga*); cp. the frequent combination. (with similar meaning) manasi-kata (besides manasaa-k.), also upadhikaroti and others. This combination. is restricted to the pp and der. (*kata and *katvaa). Other explinations. by Morris J. Paali T. S. 1886, 107; Windisch, M. and B. 100], in combination. with katvaa: to make something one's attha, i. e. object, to find out the essence or profitableness or value of anything, to recognise the nature of, to realise, understand, know. Nearly always in stock phrase a.t.thikatvaa manasikatvaa D II.204; M I.325, 445; S I.112 sq. = 189, 220; V.76; A II.116; III.163; J I.189; V.151 (: attano atthikabhaava.m katvaa atthiko hutvaa sakkacca.m su.neyya C.); Ud 80 (: adhikicca, aya'n no attho adhigantabbo eva.m sallakkhetvaa taaya desanaaya atthikaa hutvaa C.); Sdhp 220 (*katvaana).

A.t.thi2 (nt.) [Sanskrit asthi = Av. asti, Gr. o)/steon, o)/strakon, a)stra/galos; Latin os (*oss); also Gr. o)/zos branch Goth. asts] 1. a bone A I.50; IV.129; Sn 194 (*nahaaru bones and tendons); Dh 149, 150; J I.70; III.26, 184; VI.448 (*vedhin); DhA III.109 (300 bones of the human body, as also at Sushruta III.5); KhA 49; PvA 68 (*camma-nahaaru), 215 (gosiis*); Sdhp 46, 103. - 2. the stone of a fruit J II.104. -kankala [Sanskrit *kankaala] a skeleton M I.364; cp. *sankhalika. -kadali a special kind of the plantain tree (Musa Sapientum) J V.406. -kalyaa.na beauty of bones DhA I.387. -camma bones and skin J II.339; DhA III.43; PvA 68 -taca id. J II.295. -maya made of bone Vin II.115. -mi~njaa marrow A IV.129; DhA I.181; III.361; KhA 52. -yaka (T. a.t.thiiyaka) bones and liver S I.206. -sankhalikaa [B. Sanskrit *shakalaa Sp. Av. SH I.274 sq., see also a.t.thika*] a chain of bones, i. e. a skeleton DhA III.479; PvA 152. -sanghaa.ta conjunction of bones, i. e. skeleton Vism 21; DhA II.28; PvA 206. -sa~ncaya a heap of bones It 17 = Bdhd 87. -sa~n~naa the idea of bones (cp. a.t.thika*) Th 1, 18. -sa.n.thaana a skeleton Sdhp 101.

A.t.thika1 (nt.) [from a.t.thi] 1. = a.t.thi 1 a bone M III.92; J I.265, 428; VI.404; PvA 41. - 2 = a.t.thi 2 kernel, stone DhA II.53 (taal*); Mhvs 15, 42. -sankhalikaa a chain of bones, a skeleton A III.324 see also under ka.ta.t.thika. -sa~n~naa the idea of a skeleton S V.129 sq.; A II.17; Dhs 264.

A.t.thika2 at PvA 180 (suucik.r) to be read a.t.tita (q. v.) for a.t.tika.

A.t.thita1 see .thita.

A.t.thita2 [aa + .thita] undertaken, arrived at, looked after, considered J II.247 ( = adhi.t.thita C.).

A.t.thita3 see atthika.

A.t.thilla at Vin II.266 is explained. by Bdhgh on p. 327 by gojangha.t.tika, perhaps more likely = Sanskrit as..thiilaa a round pebble or stone.

A.d.dha1 (and addha) [etymology uncertain, Sanskrit ardha] one half, half; usually in compounds. (see below), like diya.d.dha 1 1/2 (*sata 150) PvA 155 (see as to meaning Stede, Peta Vatthu p. 107). Note. a.d.dha is never used by itself, for "half" in absolute position upa.d.dha (q. v.) is always used. -akkhika with furtive glance ("half an eye") DhA IV.98. -a.t.tha half of eight, i. e. four (cp. a.t.tha.d.dha) S II.222 (*ratana); J VI.354 (*paada quadruped; v. l. for a.t.tha.d.dha). -a'haka 1/2 an a'haka (measure) DhA III.367. -u.d.dha [cp.

---[ Page 17 ]---

Mahaaraas..trii form cau.t.tha = Sanskrit caturtha] three and a half J I.82; IV.180; V.417, 420; DhA I.87; Mhvs 12, 53. -ocitaka half plucked off J I.120. -kariisa (-matta) half a k. in extent VvA 64 (cp. a.t.tha-kariisa). -kahaapa.na 1/2 kahaapa.na A V.83. -kaasika (or *ya) worth half a thousand kaasiyas (i. e. of Benares monetary standard) Vin I.281 (kambala, a woollen garment of that value; cp. Vin Texts II.195); II.150 (bimbohanaani, pillows; so read for a.d.dhakaayikaani in T.); J V.447 (a*-kaasiga.nikaa for a-*kaasiya* a courtezan who charges that price, in phrase a*-k.r-ga.nikaa viya na bahunna.m piyaa manaapaa). -kumbha a half (-filled) pitcher Sn 721. -kusi (tt. of tailoring) a short intermediate cross-seam Vin I.287. -kosa half a room, a small room J VI.81 ( = a* kosantara C.). -gaavuta half a league J VI 55. -cuu'a (*vaahaa viihi) 1/2 a measure (of rice) Miln 102, perhaps misread for a.d.dhaa'ha (aa'ha = aa'haka, cp. A III.52), a half aa'ha of rice. -tiya the third (unit) less half, i. e. two and a half VvA 66 (maasaa); J I.49, 206, 255 (*sata 250). Cp. next. -teyya = *tiya 2 1/2 Vin IV.117; J II.129 (*sata); DA I.173 (v. l. BB for *tiya); DhA I.95 (*sata), 279; PvA 20 (*sahassa). -telasa [cp. BSanskrit ardhatrayodasha] twelve and a half Vin I 243, 247; D II.6 (*bhikkhusataani, cp. tayo B 1 b); DhA III.369. -da.n.daka a short stick M I.87 = A I.47; II.122 = Nd2 604 = Miln 197. -duka see *ruka. -naa'ika (-matta) half a naa'i-measure full J VI.366. -pallanka half a divan Vin II.280. -bhaaga half a share, one half Vv 136 ( = upa.d.dhabhaaga VvA 61); Pv I.115. -ma.n.dala semi-circle, semi circular sewing Vin I.287. -maana half a maana measure J I.468 (m. = a.t.thanna.m naa'ina.m naama.m C.). -maasa half a month, a half month, a fortnight Vin III.254 (uunak.r); A V.85; J III.218; VvA 66. Freq. in acc. as adv. for a fortnight, e. g. Vin IV.117; VvA 67; PvA 55. -maasaka half a bean (as weight or measure of value, see maasaka) J I.111. -maasika halfmonthly Pug 55. -mu.n.daka shaven over half the head (sign of loss of freedom) Mhvs 6, 42. -yoga a certain kind of house (usually with paasaada) Vin I.58 = 96, 107, 139, 239, 284; II.146. Acc. to Vin T. I.174 "a gold coloured Bengal house" (Bdhgh), an interpretation which is not correct: we have to read supa.n.na vankageha "like a Garu'a bird's crooked wing", i. e. where the roof is bent on one side. -yojana half a yojana (in distance) J V.410; DA I.35 (in explination. of addhaana-magga); DhA I.147; II.74. -rattaa midnight A III.40Q (*a.m adv. at m.); Vv 8116 (*rattaaya.m adv. = a.d.dharattiya.m VvA 315); J I.264 (samaye); IV.159 (id.). -ratti = *rattaa VvA 255, 315 ( = majjhimayaama-samaya); PvA 155. -ruka (v. l. *duka) a certain fashion of wearing the hair Vin II.134; Bdhgh explination. on p. 319: a.dhadukan ti udare lomaraaji-.thapana.m "leaving a stripe of hair on the stomach". -vivata (dvaara) half open J V.293.

A.d.dha2 (adj.) [Sanskrit aa.dhya from rddha pp. of rdh, rdhnote and rdhyate (see ijjhati) to thrive cp. Gr. a)/lqomai thrive, Latin alo to nourish. Cp. also Vedic i.daa refreshment and Paali iddhi power. See also aa'hiya] rich, opulent, wealthy, well-to-do; usually in combination. with mahaddhana and mahaabhoga of great wealth and resources (following by pahuuta-jaataruuparajata pahuuta vittuupakara.na etc.). Thus at D I.115, 134, 137; III.163; Pug 52; DhA I.3; VvA 322; PvA 3, 78 etc. In other combination. Vv 314 (*kula); Nd2 615 (Sakka = a.d.dho mahaddhano dhanavaa); DA I.281 ( = issara); DhA II.37 (*kula); Sdhp 270 (satasaakh*), 312 (gu.n*), 540 sq. (id.), 561.

A.d.dhaka (adj.) wealthy, rich, influential J IV.495; Pv II.82 ( = mahaavibhava PvA 107).

A.d.dhataa (f.) [abstr. to a.d.dha] riches, wealth, opulence Sdhp 316.

A.na [Sanskrit r.na; see etymology under i.na, of which a.na is a doublet. See also aa.na.nya] debt, only in negative ana.na (adj.) free from debt Vin I.6 = S I.137, 234 = D II.39; Th 2, 364 (i. e. without a new birth); A II.69; J V.481; ThA 245.

A.nu (adj.) [Sanskrit a.nu; as to etymology see Walde Latin Wtb. under ulna. See also aa.ni] small, minute, atomic, subtle (opp. thuula, q. v.) D I.223; S I.136; V.96 (*biija); Sn 299 (anuto a.nu.m gradually); J III.12 ( = appamattaka); IV.203; Dhs 230, 617 ( = kisa); ThA 173; Miln 361. Note a.nu is frequent spelt anu, thus usually in cpd. *matta. -thuula (a.nu.mthuula) fine and coarse, small and large Dh 31 ( = mahanta~n ca khuddaka~n ca DhA I.282), 409 = Sn 633; J IV.192; DhA IV.184. -matta of small size, atomic, least Sn 431; Vbh 244, 247 (cp. M III.134; A II.22); Dpvs IV.20. The spelling is anumatta at D I.63 = It 118; Dh 284; DA I.181; Sdhp 347. -sahagata accompanied by a minimum of, i. e. residuum Kvu 81, cp. Kvu trsl. 66 n. 3.

A.nuka (adj.) = a.nu Sn 146, KhA 246.

A.n.da (nt.) [Etym. unknown. Cp. Sanskrit a.n.da] 1. an egg Vin III.3; S II.258; M I.104; A IV.125 sq. - 2. (pl.) the testicles Vin III.106. - 3. (in camm*) a water-bag J I.249 (see Morris J. Paali T. S. 1884, 69). -kosa shell of eggs Vin III.3 = M I.104; A IV.126, 176. -cheda(ka) one who castrates, a gelder J IV.364, 366. -ja 1. born from eggs S III.241 (of snakes); M I.73; J II.53 = V.85; Miln 267. - 2. a bird J. V.189. -bhaarin bearing his testicles S II.258 = Vin III.100. -sambhava the product of an egg, i. e. a bird Th 1, 599. -haaraka one who takes or exstirpates the testicles M I.383.

A.n.daka1 (nt.) = a.n.da, egg DhA I.60; III.137 (saku.n*).

A.n.daka2 (adj.) [Sanskrit* prob. an inorganic form; the diaeresis of ca.n.daka into c* a.n.daka seems very plausible. As to meaning cp. DhsA 396 and see Dhs trsl. 349, also Morris J. Paali T. S. 1893, 6, who, not satisfactorily, tries to establish a relation to ard, as in a.t.taQ] only used of vaacaa, speech: harsh, rough, insolent M I.286; A V.265, 283, 293 (gloss ka.n.takaa); J III.260; Dhs 1343, cp. DhsA 396.

A.n.na (food, cereal). See passages under apara.n.na and pubba.n.na.

A.n.nava (nt.) [Sanskrit ar.na and ar.nava to r, r.noti to move, Idg. *er to be in quick motion, cp. Gr. o)/rnumi; Latin orior; Goth. rinnan = E. run; Ohg. runs, river, flow.] 1. a great flood ( = ogha), the sea or ocean (often as mah*, cp. BSanskrit mahaar.nava, e. g. Jtm 3175) M I.134; S I.214; IV.157 (mahaa udak.r); Sn 173 (fig. for sa'nsaara see SnA 214), 183, 184; J I.119 (*kucchi), 227 (id.); V.159 (mah*); Mhvs 5, 60; 19, 16 (mah*). - 2. a stream, river J III. 521; V.255.

A.nha [Sanskrit ahna, day, see ahan] day, only as -* in apar*, pubb*, majjh*, saay*, q. v.

Atakkaka (adj.) [a + takka2] not mixed with buttermilk J YI.21.

Ataccha (nt.) [a + taccha2] falsehood, untruth D I.3; J VI.207.

Ati (indecl.) [sk. ati = Gr. e)/ti moreover, yet, and; Latin et and, Goth. ip; also connected with Gr. ata/r but, Latin at but ( = over, outside) Goth. appan] adv. and prep. of direction (forward motion), in primary meaning "on, and further", then "up to and beyond". I. in abstr. position adverbially (only as ttg.): in excess, extremely, very (cp. II.3) J VI.133 (ati uggata C. = accuggata T.), 307 (ati ahita.m C. = accaahita.m T.). II. as prefix, meaning. - 1. on to, up to, towards, until); as far as: accanta up to the end; aticchati to go further, pass on; atipaata "falling on to"; attack slaying; atimaapeti to put damage on to, i. e. to destroy. - 2. over, beyond, past, by, trans-; with verbs: (a.) trs. atikkamati to pass beyond, surpass; atima~n~nati to put one's "manas" over, to despise; atirocati to surpass in splendour. (b.) intr. atikkanta passed by; atikkama traversing; aticca transgressing; atiita past, gone beyond. - Also with

---[ Page 18 ]---

verbal derivations: accaya lapse, also sin, transgression ("going over"); atireka remainder, left over; atisaya overflow, abundance; atisaara stepping over, sin. - 3. exceedingly, in a high or excessive degree either very (much) or too (much); in nominal compounds. (a), rarely also in verbal compounds. see (b). - (a) with nouns and adj.: *aasanna too near; *uttama the very highest; *udaka too much water; *khippa too soon; *daana excessive alms giving; *daaru.na very cruel; *diigha extremely long; *duura too near; deva a super-god *pago too early; *baalha too much; *bhaara a too heavy load; *manaapa very lovely; *manohara very charming; *mahant too great; *vikaala very inconvenient; *vela a very long time; *sambaadha too tight, etc. etc. (b.) with verb: atibhu~njati to eat excessively. III. A peculiar use of ati is its' function in reduplication-compounds, expressing "and, adding further, and so on, even more, etc." like that of the other comparing or contrasting prefixes a (aa), anu, ava, pa.ti, vi (e. g. kha.n.da-kha.n.da, se.t.tha-nuse.t.thi, chidda-vacchidda, angapaccanga, cu.n.navicu.n.na). In this function it is however restricted to comparatively few expressions and has not by far the wide range of aa (q. v.), the only phrases being the following viz. cakka-ticakka.m ma~nca-tima~n ca.m bandhati to heap carts upon carts, couches upon couches (in order to see a procession) Vin IV.360 (Bdhgh); J II.331; IV.81; DhA IV.61. -deva-tideva god upon god, god and more than a god (see atideva); maana-timaana all kinds of conceit; vanka-tivanka crooked all over J I.160. - IV. Semantically ati is closely related to abhi, so that in consequence of dialectical variation we frequently find ati in Paali, where the corresponds expression in later Sanskrit shows abhi. See e. g. the following cases for comparison: accu.nha ati-jaata, *pii'ita *bruuheti, *vassati, *vaayati, *ve.theti. Note The contracted (assimilation-) form of ati before vowels is acc- (q. v.). See also for adv. use atiriva, ativiya, atiiva.

Ati-ambila (adj.) [ati + ambila] too sour DhA II.85.

Ati-arahant [ati + arahant] a super-Arahant, one who surpasses even other Arahants Miln 277.

Ati-issara (adj.) very powerful(*) J V.441 (*bhesajja, medicin).

Ati-u.nha (adj.) too hot PvA 37 (*aatapa glow). See also accu.nha (which is the usual form).

Ati-uttama (adj.) by far the best or highest VvA 80.

Ati-udaka too much water, excess of water DhA I.52.

Ati-ussura (adj.) only in loc. *Q (adv.) too soon after sunrise, too early VvA 65 (laddhabhattataa eating too early).

Ati-eti [ati + i] to go past or beyond, see ger. aticca and pp. atiita.

Atikata (pp.) more than done to, i. e. retaliated; paid back in an excessive degree A I.62.

Atikaddhati [ati + ka.d.dhati] to pull too hard, to labour, trouble, drudge Vin III.17.

Atika.nha (adj.) [ati + ka.nha] too black Vin IV.7.

Atikaru.na (adj.) [ati + karu.na] very pitiful, extremely miserable J I.202; IV.142; VI.53.

Atikassa (ger.) [from atikassati ati + krs.; Sanskrit atikrs.ya] pulling (right) through J V.173 (rajju.m, a rope, through the nostrils; v. l. BB. anti*).

Atikaala [ati + kaala] in instr. atikaalena adv. in very good time very early Vin I.70 (+ atidivaa).

Atikkanta [pp. of atikamati] passed beyond, passed by, gone by, elapsed; passed over, passing beyond, surpassing J II.128 (tii.ni sa'nvaccharaani); DhA III.133 (tayo vaye pas sed beyond the 3 ages of life); PvA 55 (maase *e after the lapse of a month), 74 (kati divasaa *aa how many days have passed). -maanusaka superhuman It 100; Pug 60; cp. BSanskrit atikraanta-maanus.yaka M Vastu III.321.

Atikkantikaa (f.) [Der. abstr. from prec.] transgressing, overstepping the bounds (of good behaviour), lawlessness Miln 122.

Atikkama [Sanskrit atikrama] going over or further, passing beyond, traversing; fig. overcoming of, overstepping, failing against, transgression Dh 191; Dhs 299; PvA 154 (katipayayojan*), 159 (*cara.na sinful mode of life); Miln 158 (dur* hard to overcome); Sdhp 64.

Atikkama.naka (adj.) [atikkama.na + ka] exceeding J I.153.

Atikkamati [ati + kamati] (1) to go beyond, to pass over, to cross, to pass by. (2) to overcome, to conquer, to surpass, to be superior to. - J IV.141; Dh 221 (Pot. *eyya, overcome); PvA 67 (maggena: passes by). grd. atikkamaniiya to be overcome D II.13 (an*); SnA 568 (dur*). ger. atikkamma D II.12 (surpassing); It 51 (maaradheyya.m, passing over), cp. vv. ll. under adhigayha; and atikkamitva going beyond, overcoming, transcending (J IV.139 (samudda.m); Pug 17; J I.162 (ra.t.tha.m having left). Often to be trsl. as adv. "beyond", e. g. pare beyond others PvA 15; Vasabhagaama.m beyond the village of V. PvA 168. -pp. atikkanta (q. v.).

Atikkameti [Causative of atikkamati] to make pass, to cause to pass over J I.151.

Atikkhippa.m (adv.) [ati + khippa] too soon Vin II.284.

Atikha.na (nt.) [ati + kha.na(na)] too much digging J II.296.

Atikhaata (nt.) = prec. J II.296.

Atikhi.na (adj.) [ati + khii.na] in caapa-tikhii.na broken bow (*) Dh 156 (explained. at DhA III.132 as caapaato atikhii.naa caapaa vinimmuttaa).

Atiga (-*) (adj.) [ati + ga] going over, overcoming, surmounting, getting over Sn 250 (sanga*); Dh 370 (id.); Sn 795 (siima*, cp. Nd1 99), 1096 (ogha*); Nd1 100 ( = atikkanta); Nd2 180 (id.).

Atigacchati [ati + gacchati] to go over, i. e. to overcome, surmount, conquer, get the better of, only in pret. (aor.) 3rd sg. accagaa (q. v. and see gacchati 3) Sn 1040; Dh 414 and accagamaa (see gacchati 2) Vin II.192; D I.85; S II.205; DA I.236 ( = abhibhavitvaa pavatta). Also 3rd pl. accagu.m It 93, 95.

Atigaa'eti [ati + gaa'eti, Causative of galati, cp. Sanskrit vi-gaalayati] to destroy, make perish, waste away J VI.211 ( = atigaalayati vinaaseti C. p. 215). Perhaps reading should be atigaa'heti (see atigaa'hita.

Atigaa'ha (adj.) [ati + gaa'ha 1] very tight or close, intensive J I.62. Cp. atigaa'hita.

Atigaa'hita [pp. of atigaa'heti, Denominitive from atigaa'ha; cp. Sanskrit atigaahate to overcome] oppressed, harmed, overcome, defeated, destroyed J V.401 ( = atipii'ita C.).

Atighora (adj.) [ati + ghora] very terrible or fierce Sdhp 285.

Aticara.na (nt.) [from aticarati] transgression PvA 159.

Aticarati [ati + carati] 1. to go about, to roam about Pv II.1215; PvA 57. - 2. to transgress, to commit adultery J I.496. Cp. next.

Aticaritar [n. ag. of. aticarati] one who transgresses, esp. a woman who commits adultery A II.61 (all MSS. read aticaritvaa); IV.66 (T. aticarittaa).

---[ Page 19 ]---

Aticariyaa (f.) [ati + cariyaa] transgression, sin, adultery D III.190.

Aticaara [from aticarati] transgression Vv 158 ( = aticca caara VvA 72).

Aticaarin (adj. n.) [from aticarati] transgressing, sinning, esp. as f. aticaarinii an adulteress S II.259; IV.242; D III.190; A III.261; Pv II.1214; PvA 151 (v. l. BB), 152; VvA 110.

Aticitra (adj.) [ati + citra] very splendid, brilliant, quite exceptional Miln 28.

Aticca (grd.) [ger. of ati + eti, ati + i] 1. passing beyond, traversing, overcoming, surmounting Sn 519, 529, 531. Used adverbially = beyond, in access, more than usual, exceedingly Sn 373, 804 ( = vassasata.m atikkamitvaa Nd1 120). - 2. failing, transgressing, sinning, esp. committing adultery J V,424; VvA 72,

Aticchati [*Sanskrit ati-rcchati, ati + r, cp. a.n.nava] to go on, only occurring in imper. aticchatha (bhante) "please go on, Sir", asking a bhikkhu to seek alms elsewhere, thus refusing a gift in a civil way. [The interpretation given by Trenckner, as quoted by Childers, is from ati + 'is. "go and beg further on". (Tr. Notes 65) but this would entail a meaning like "desire in excess", since is. does not convey the notion of movement] J III.462; DhA IV.98 (T. aticcha, vv. ll. *atha); VvA 101; Miln 8. - Causative aticchaapeti to make go on, to ask to go further J III.462. Cp. icchataa.

Aticchatta [ati + chatta] a "super"-sunshade, a sunshade of extraordinary size and colours DhsA 2.

Atitaata (adj.) [ati + jaata, perhaps ati in sense of abhi, cp. abhijaata] well-born, well behaved, gentlemanly It 14 (opp. avajaata).

Atitarati [ati + tarati] to pass over, cross, go beyond aor. accatari S IV.157 = It 57 (*aari).

Atituccha (adj.) [ati + tuccha] very, or quite empty Sdhp 430.

Atitu.t.thi (f.) [ati + tu.t.thi] extreme joy J I.207.

Atitula (adj.) [ati + tula] beyond compare, incomparable Th 1, 831 = Sn 561 ( = tula.m atiito nirupamo ti attho SnA 455).

Atitta (adj.) [a + titta] dissatisfied, unsatisfied J I.440; Dh 48.

Atittha (nt.) [a + tittha] "that which is not a fordingplace". i. e. not the right way, manner or time; as *wrongly in the wrong way J I.343; IV.379; VI.241; DhA III.347; DA I.38.

Atithi [Sanskrit atithi of at = at, see a.tati; orig. the wanderer, cp. Vedic atithin wandering] a guest, stranger, newcomer D I.117 ( = aagantuka-navaka paahu.naka DA I.288); A II.68; III.45, 260; J IV.31, 274; V.388; Kh VIII.7 ( = n- atthi assa .thiti yamhi vaa tamhi vaa divase aagacchatii ti atithi KhA 222); VvA 24 ( = aagantuka).

Atidaana (nt.) [ati + daana] too generous giving, an excessive gift of alms Miln 277; PvA 129, 130.

Atidaaru.na (adj.) [Sanskrit atidaaru.na, ati + daaru.na] very cruel, extremely fierce Pv III.73.

Atiditthi (f.) [ati + di.t.thi] higher doctrine, super knowledge (*) Vin I.63 = II.4 (+ adhisiila; should we read adhi-di.t.thi*)

Atidivaa (adv.) [ati + divaa] late in the day, in the afternoon Vin I.70 (+ atikaalena); S I.200; A III.117.

Atidisati [ati + disati] to give further explanation, to explain in detail Miln 304.

Atidiigha (adj.) [ati + diigha] too long, extremely long J IV. 165; Pv II.102; VvA 103 (opp. atirassa).

Atidukkha [ati + dukkha] great evil, exceedingly painful excessive suffering PvA 65; Sdhp 95. In atidukkhavaaca PvA 15 ati belongs to the whole cpd., i. e. of very hurtful speech.

Atiduura (adj.) [ati + duura] very or too far Vin I.46; J II.154; Pv II.965 = DhA III.220 (vv. ll. suviduure); PvA 42 (opp. accaasanna).

Atideva [ati + deva] a super god, god above gods, usually Ep. of the Buddha S I.141; Th 1, 489; Nd2 307 (cp. adhi*); Miln 277. atidevadeva id. Miln 203, 209. deva-tideva god over the gods (of the Buddha) Nd2 307 a.

Atidhamati [ati + dhamati] to beat a drum too hard J I.283; pp. atidhanta ibid.

Atidhaatataa [ati + dhaata + ta] oversatiation J II.193.

Atidhaavati [ati + dhaavati 1] to run past, to outstrip or get ahead of S III.103; IV.230; M III.19; It 43; Miln 136; SnA 21.

Atidhonacaarin [ati + dhonacaarin] indulging too much in the use of the "dhonas", i. e. the four requisites of the bhikkhu, or transgressing the proper use or normal application of the requisites (explination. at DhA III.344, cp. dhona) Dh 240 = Nett 129.

Atinaameti [BSanskrit atinaamayati, e. g. Divy 82, 443; ati + naameti] to pass time A I.206; Miln 345.

Atinigga.nhaati [ati + nigga.nhaati] to rebuke too much J VI.417.

Atinicaka (adj.) [ati + niicaka] too low, only in phrase cakkavaa'a.m atisambaadha.m Brahmaloko atiniicako the World is too narrow and Heaven too low (to comprehend the merit of a person, as sign of exceeding merit) DhA I.310; III.310 = VvA 68.

Atineti [ati + neti] to bring up to, to fetch, to provide with Vin II.180 (udaka.m).

Atipa.n.dita (adj. [ati + pa.n.dita] too clever DhA IV.38.

Atipa.n.ditataa (f.) [abstr. of atipa.n.dita] too much cleverness DhA II.29.

Atipadaana (nt.) [ati + pa + daana] too much alms-giving Pv II.943 ( = atidaana PvA 130).

Atipapa~nca [ati + p.] too great a delay, excessive tarrying J I.64; II.93.

Atipariccaaga [ati + pariccaaga] excess in liberality DhA III.11.

Atipassati [ati + passati; cp. Sanskrit anupashyati] to look for, catch sight of, discover M III.132 (naaga.m).

Atipaata [ati + pat] attack, only in phrase paa.na-tipaata destruction of life, slaying, killing, murder D I.4 (paa.naatipaataa verama.nii, refraining from killing, the first of the dasasiila or decalogue); DA I.69 ( = paa.navadha, paa.naghaata); Sn 242; Kh II. cp. KhA 26; PvA 28, 33 etc.

Atipaatin (adj. -n.) one who attacks or destroys Sn 248; J VI.449 (in war naagakkhandh* = hatthikkhande khaggena chinditvaa C.); PvA 27 (paa.n*).

Atipaateti [Denominitive from atipaata] to destroy S V.453; Dh 246 (v. l. for atimaapeti, q. v.). Cp. paripaateti.

Atipii.nita (adj.) [ati + pii.nita] too much beloved, too dear, too lovely DhA V.70.

---[ Page 20 ]---

Atipii'ita [ati + pii'ita, cp. Sanskrit abhipii.dita] pressed against, oppressed, harassed, vexed J V.401 ( = atigaa'hita).

Atippago (adv.) [cp. Sanskrit atiprage] too early, usually elliptical = it is too early (with inf. caritu.m etc.) D I.178; M I.84; A IV.35.

Atibaddha [pp. of atibandhati; cp. Sanskrit anubaddha] tied to, coupled J I.192 = Vin IV.5.

Atibandhati [ati + bandhati; cp. Sanskrit anubandhati] to tie close to, to harness on, to couple J I.191 sq. -pp. atibaddha q. v.

Atibahala (adj.) [ati + bahala] very thick J VI.365.

Atibaa'ha (adj.) [ati + baa'ha] very great or strong PvA 178; nt. adv. *.m too much D I.93, 95; M I.253.

Atibaaheti [ati + baaheti, Causative to brh1; cp. Sanskrit aabrhati] to drive away, to pull out J IV.366 ( = abbaaheti).

AtiBrahmaa [ati + Brahmaa] a greater Brahma, a super-god Miln 277; DhA II.60 (Brahmu.naa a. greater than B.).

Atibruuheti [ati + bruuheti, brh2, but by C. taken incorrectly to bruu; cp. Sanskrit abhi-br.nhayati] to shout out, roar, cry J V.361 ( = mahaasadda.m nicchaareti).

Atibhagini-putta [ati + bh.-p.] a very dear nephew J I.223.

Atibhaara [ati + bhaara] too heavy a load Miln 277 (*ena saka.tassa akkho bhijjati).

Atibhaarita (adj.) [ati + bhaarita] too heavily weighed, overloaded Vtn IV.47.

Atibhaariya (adj.) too serious DhA I.70.

Atibhu~njati [ati + bhu~njati] to eat too much, to overeat Miln 153.

Atibhutta (nt.) [ati + bhutta] overeating Miln 135.

Atibhoti [ati + bhavati, cp. Sanskrit atibhavati and abhibhavati] to excel, overcome, to get the better of, to deceive J I.163 ( = ajjhottharati va~nceti C.).

Atima~n~nati [Sanskrit atimanyate; ati + man] to despise, slighten, neglect Sn 148 ( = KhA 247 atikkamitvaa ma~n~nati); Dh 365, 366; J II.347; Pv I.76 (*issa'n, v. l. *asi.m = atikkamitvaa avama~n~ni.m PvA 37); PvA 36; Sdhp 609.

Atima~n~nanaa (f.) [abstr. to prec., cp. atimaana] arrogance, contempt, neglect Miln 122.

Atimanaapa (adj.) [ati + manaapa] very lovely PvA 77 (+ abhiruupa).

Atimanorama (adj.) [ati + manorama] very charming J I.60.

Atimanohara (adj.) [ati + manohara] very charming PvA 46.

Atimanda(ka) (adj.) [ati + manda] too slow, too weak Sdhp 204, 273, 488.

Atimamaayati [ati + mamaayati, cp. Sanskrit atiimamaayate in different meaning = envy] to favour too much, to spoil or fondle J II.316.

Atimahant (adj.) [ati + mahant] very or too great J I.221; PvA 75.

Atimaana [Sanskrit atimaana, ati + maana] high opinion (of oneself), pride, arrogance, conceit, M I.363; Sn 853 (see explination. at Nd1 233), 942, 968; J VI.235; Nd1 490; Miln 289. Cp. atima~n~nanaa.

Atimaanin (adj.) [from atimaana] D II.45 (thaddha +); Sn 143 (an*) 244; KhA 236.

Atimaapeti [ati + maapeti, Causative of mii, minaate, orig. meaning "to do damage to"] to injure, destroy, kill; only in the stock phrase paa.na.m atimaapeti (with v. l. atipaateti) to destroy life, to kill D I.52 (v. l. *paateti) = DA I.159 (: paa.na.m hanati pi parehi hanaapeti either to kill or incite others to murder); M I.404, 516; S IV.343; A III.205 (correct T. reading atimaateti; v. l. paateti); Dh 246 (v. l. *paateti) = DhA III.356 (: parassa jiivitindriya.m upacchindati).

Atimukhara (adj.) [ati + mukhara] very talkative, a chatterbox J I.418; DhA II.70. atimukharataa (f. abstr.) ibid.

Atimuttaka [Sanskrit atimuktaka] N. of a plant, Gaertnera Racemosa Vin II.256 = M I.32; Miln 338.

Atimuduka (adj.) [ati + muduka] very soft, mild or feeble J I.262.

Atiyakkha (ati + yakkha] a sorcerer, wizard, fortuneteller J VI.502 (C.: bhuuta-vijjaa ikkha.niika).

Atiyaacaka (adj.) [ati + yaacaka] one who asks too much Vin III.147.

Atiyaacanaa (f.) [ati + yaacanaa] asking or begging too much Vin III.147.

Atiratti.m (adv.) [ati + ratti; cp. atidivaa] late in the night, at midnight J I.436 (opp. atipabhaate).

Atirassa (adj.) [ati + rassa] too short (opp. atidiigha) Vin IV.7; J VI.457; VvA 103.

Atiraajaa [ati + raajaa] a higher king, the greatest king, more than a king DhA II.60; Miln 277.

Atiriccati [ati + riccati, see ritta] to be left over, to remain Sdhp 23, 126.

Atiritta (adj.) [pp. of ati + rlc, see ritta] left over, only as negative an* applied to food, i. e. food which is not the leavings of a meal, fresh food Vin I.213 sq, 238; II.301; IV.82 sq., 85.

Atiriva (ati-r-iva) see ativiya.

Atireka (adj.) [Sanskrit atireka, ati + ric, rinakti; see ritta] surplus, too much; exceeding, excessive, in a high degree; extra Vin I.255; J I.72 (*padasata), 109; 441 (in higher positions); Miln 216; DhsA 2; DhA II.98. -ciivara an extra robe Vin I.289. -paada exceeding the worth of a paada, more than a paada, Vin III.47.

Atirekataa (f.) [abstr. to prec.] excessiveness, surplus, excess Kvu 607.

Atirocati [ati + ruc] to shine magnificently (trs.) to outshine, to surpass in splendour D II.208; Dh 59; Pv II.958; Miln 336 (+ virocati); DhA I.446 ( = atikkamitvaa virocati); III.219; PvA 139 ( = ativiya virocati).

Ativankin (adj.) [ati + vankin] very crooked J I.160 (vanka-tivankin crooked all over; cp. ati III.).

Ativa.n.nati [ati + va.n.nati] to surpass, excel D II.267.

Ativatta [pp. of ativattati: Sanskrit ativrtta] passed beyond, surpassed, overcome (act. and pass.), conquered Sn 1133 (bhava*); Nd2 21 ( = atikkanta, viitivatta); J V.84 (bhaya*); Miln 146, 154.

Ativattati [ati + vrt, Sanskrit ativartate] to pass, pass over, go beyond; to overcome, get over; conquer Vin II.237 (samuddo vela.m n-); S II.92 (sa'nsaara.m); IV.158 (id.) It 9 (sa'nsaara.m) = A II.10 = Nd2 172a; Th 1, 412; J I.58, 280; IV.134; VI.113, 114; PvA 276. -pp. ativatta (q. v.).

Ativattar1 [Sanskrit *ativaktr, n. ag. to ati-vacati; cp. ativaakya] one who insults or offends J V.266 (isiina.m ativattaaro = dharusavaacaahi atikkamitvaa vattaaro C.).

---[ Page 21 ]---

Ativattar2 [Sanskrit *ativartr, n. ag. to ati-vattati] one who overcomes or is to be overcome Sn 785 (svaativattaa = durativattaa duttaraa duppataraa Nd1 76).

Ativasa (adj.) [ati + vasa from vas] being under somebody's rule, dependent upon (c. gen.) Dh 74 ( = vase vattati DhA II.79).

Ativassati [ati + vassati, cp. Sanskrit abhivar.sati] to rain down on, upon or into Th 1, 447 = Vin II.240.

Ativaakya (nt.) [ati + vac, cp. Sanskrit ativaada, from ati + vad] abuse, blame, reproach Dh 320, 321 ( = a.t.tha-anariyavohaara-vasena pavatta.m viitikkama-vacana.m DhA IV.3); J VI.508.

Ativaata [ati + vaata] too much wind, a wind which is too strong, a gale, storm Miln 277.

Ativaayati [ati + vaayati] to fill (excessively) with an odour or perfume, to satiate, permeate, pervade Miln 333 (+ vaayati; cp. abhivaayati ibid 385).

Ativaaha [from ati + vah, cp. Sanskrit ativahati and abhivaaha] carrying, carrying over; a conveyance; one who conveys, i. e. a conductor, guide Th 1, 616 (said of siila, good character); J V.433. - Cp. ativaahika.

Ativaahika [from ativaaha] one who belongs to a conveyance, one who conveys or guides, a conductor (of a caravan) J V.471, 472 (*purisa).

Ativikaala (adj.) [ati + vikaala] at a very inconvenient time, much too late D I 108 ( = su.t.thu vikaala DA I.277).

Ativijjhati [Sanskrit atividhyati, ati + vyadh] to pierce, to enter into (fig.), to see through, only in phrase pa~n~naaya ativijjha (ger.) passati to recognise in all details M I.480; S V.226; A II.178.

Ativiya (adv.) [Sanskrit atiiva] = ati + iva, orig. "much-like" like an excess = excessive-ly. There are three forms of this expression, viz. (1) ati + iva in contraction atiiva (q. v.); - (2) ati + iva with epenthetic r: atiriva D II.264 (v. l. SS. atiiva); Sn 679, 680, 683; SnA 486; (3) ati + viya (the doublet of iva) = ativiya J I.61, 263; DhA II.71 (a. upakaara of great service); PvA 22, 56, 139.

Ativisaa (f.) [Sanskrit ativis.aa] N. of a plant Vin I.201; IV.35.

Ativissa.t.tha (adj.) [ati + vissa.t.tha] too abundant, in *vaakya one who talks too much, a chatterbox J V.204.

Ativissaasika (adj.) [ati + vissaasika] very, or too confidential J I.86.

Ativissuta (adj.) [ati + vissuta] very famous, renowned Sdhp 473.

Ative.theti [ati + ves..t, cp. Sanskrit abhives..tate] to wrap over, to cover, to enclose; to press, oppress, stifle Vin II.101; J V.452 (-ativiya ve.theti pi'eti C.).

Ativela (adj.) [ati + vela] excessive (of time); nt. adv. *.m a very long time; excessively D I.19 ( = atikaala.m aticiran ti attho DA I.113); M I.122; Sn 973 (see explination. at Nd1 504); J III.103 = Nd1 504.

Atiliina (adj.) [ati + liina] too much attached to worldly matters S V.263.

Atiluukha (adj.) [ati + luukha] too wretched, very miserable Sdhp 409.

Atiloma (adj.) [ati + loma] too hairy, having too much hair J VI.457 (opp. aloma).

Atisa~ncara (*caara*) [ati + sa~ncaara] wandering about too much Miln 277.

Atisa.nha (adj.) [ati + sa.nha] too subtle DhA III.326.

Atisanta (adj.) [ati + santa1] extremely peaceful Sdhp 496.

Atisambaadha (adj.) [ati + sambaadha] too tight, crowded or narrow DhA I.310; III.310 = VvA 68; cp. atiniicaka. f. abstr. atisambaadhataa the state of being too narrow J I.7.

Atisaya [cp. Sanskrit atishaya, from ati + shii] superiority, distinction, excellence, abundance VvA 135 ( = visesa); PvA 86; Daavs II.62.

Atisayati [ati + shii] to surpass, excel; ger. atisayitvaa Miln 336 (+ atikkamitvaa).

Atisara (adj.) [from atisarati; cp. accasara] transgressing, sinning J IV.6; cp. atisaara.

Atisarati [ati + sr] to go too far, to go beyond the limit, to overstep, transgress, aor. accasari (q. v.) Sn 8 sq. (opp. paccasari; C. atidhaavi); J V.70 and atisari J IV.6. ger. atisitvaa (for *atisaritvaa) D I.222; S IV.94; A I.145; V.226, 256; Sn 908 ( = Nd1 324 atikkamitvaa etc.).

Atisaaya.m (adv.) [ati + saaya.m] very late, late in the evening J V.94.

Atisaara [from ati + sr, see atisarati. Cp. Sanskrit atisaara in different meaning but BSanskrit atisaara (sa-tisaara) in the same meaning) going too far, overstepping the limit, trespassing, false step, slip, danger Vin I.55 (sa-tisaara), 326 (id.); S I.74; M III.237; Sn 889 (atisaara.m di.t.thiyo = di.t.thi-gataani Nd1 297; going beyond the proper limits of the right faith), J V.221 (dhamm*), 379; DhA I.182; DhsA 28. See also atisara.

Atisithila (adj.) [ati + sithila] very loose, shaky or weak A III.375.

Atisiita (adj.) [ati + siita] too cold DhA II.85.

Atisiitala (adj.) [ati + siitala] very cold J III.55.

Atiha.t.tha (adj.) [ati + ha.t.tha] very pleased Sdhp 323.

Atiharati [ati + hr] to carry over, to bring over, bring, draw over Vin II.209; IV.264; S I.89; J I.292; V.347. Causative atiharaapeti to cause to bring over, bring in, reap, collect, harvest Vin II.181; III.18; Miln 66; DhA IV.77. See also atihita.

Atihita [ati + hr, pp. of atiharati, hita unusual for hata, perhaps through analogy with Sanskrit abhi + dhaa] brought over (from the field into the house), harvested, borne home Th 1, 381 (viihi).

Atihiina (adj.) [ati + hiina] very poor or destitute A IV.282, 287; 323 (opp. accogaa'ha).

Atihii'eti [ati + hii.d] to despise J IV.331 ( = atima~n~nati C.).

Atiita (adj.-n.) [Sanskrit atiita, ati + ita, pp. of i. Cp. accaya and ati eti] 1. (temporal) past, gone by (cp. accaya 1) (a) adj. atiita.m addhaana.m in the time which is past S III.86; A IV.219; V.32. - Pv II.1212 (atiitaana.m, scil. attabhaavaaua.m, pariyanto na dissati); kha.na-tiita with the right moment past Dh 315 = Sn 333; atiitayobbana he who is past youth or whose youth is past Sn 110. - (b) nt. the past: atiite (loc.) once upon a time J I.98 etc. atiita.m aahari he told (a tale of) the past, i. e. a Jaataka J I.213, 218, 221 etc. - S I.5 (atiita.m na-nusocati); A III.400 (a. eko anto); Sn 851, 1112. In this sense very frequently combined. with or opposed to anaagata the future and paccuppanna the present, e. g. atiita-naagate in past and future S II.58; Sn 373; J VI.364. Or all three in stereotype combination. atiit--anaagata-paccuppanna (this the usual order) D III.100, 135; S II.26, 110, 252; III.19, 47, 187; IV.4 sq.; 151 sq.; A I.264 sq., 284; II.171, 202; III.151; V.33; It 53; Nd2 22; but also occasionally atiita paccuppanna anaagata,

---[ Page 22 ]---

e. g. PvA 100. - 2. (modal) passed out of, having overcome or surmounted, gone over, free from (cp. accaya 2) S I.97 (mara.na.m an* not free from death), 121 (sabbavera-bhaya*); A II.21; III.346 (sabbasa'nyojana*); Sn 373 (kappa*), 598 (khaya*, of the moon = uunabhaava.m atiita Sn A 463); Th 1, 413 (c. abl.) - 3. (id.) overstepping, having transgressed or neglected (cp. accaya 3) Dh 176 (dhamma.m). -a.msa the past ( = atiita ko.t.thaase, atikkantabhavesuu ti attho ThA 233) D II.222; III.275; Th 2, 314. -aaramma.na state of mind arising out of the past Dhs 1041.

Atiiradassin (adj.-n.) [a + tiira + dassin] not seeing the shore J I.46; VI.440; also as atiiradassanii (f.) J V.75 (naavaa). Cp. D I 222.

Atiiva (indecl.) [ati + iva, see also ativiya] very much, exceedingly J II.413; Mhvs 33, 2 etc.

Ato (adv.) [Sanskrit ata*] hence, now, therefore S I.15; M I.498; Miln 87; J V.398 ( = tato C.).

Ato.na [etymology*) a class of jugglers or acrobats(*) Miln 191.

Atta1 [aa + d + ta; that is, pp. of aadadaati with the base form reduced to d. Idg *d-to; cp. Sanskrit aatta] that which has been taken up, assumed. atta-da.n.da, he who has taken a stick in hand, a violent person, S I.236; IV.117; Sn 630, 935; Dh 406. Atta~njaha, rejecting what had been assumed, Sn 790. Atta.m pahaaya Sn 800. The opp. is niratta, that which has not been assumed, has been thrown off, rejected. The Arahant has neither atta nor niratta (Sn 787, 858, 919), neither assumption nor rejection, he keeps an open mind on all speculative theories. See Nd I.82, 90, 107, 352; II.271; SnA 523; DhA IV.180 for the traditional exegesis. As legal t. t. attaadaana.m aadiiyati is to take upon oneself the conduct, before the Chapter, of a legal point already raised. Vin II.247 (quoted V.91).

Atta2 see attan.

Atta3 [Sanskrit akta, pp. of a~njati] see upatta.

Attan (m.) and atta (the latter is the form used in compounds.) [Vedic aatman, not to Gr. a)\nemos = Latin animus, but to Gr. a)tmo/s steam, Ohg. aatum breath, Ags. aepm]. - I. Inflection. (1) of attan- (n. stem); the following cases are the most frequent: acc. attaana.m D I.13, 185; S I.24; Sn 132, 451. - gen. dat. attano Sn 334, 592 etc., also as abl. A III.337 (attano ca parato ca as regards himself and others). - instr. abl. attanaa S I.24; Sn 132, 451; DhA II.75; PvA 15, 214 etc. On use of attanaa see below III.1 C. - loc. attani S V.177; A I.149 (attanii metri causa); II.52 (anattani); III.181; M I.138; Sn 666, 756, 784; Vbh 376 (an*). - (2) of atta- (a-stem) we find the following cases: acc. atta.m Dh 379. - instr. attena S IV.54. - abl. attato S I.188; Ps I.143; II.48; Vbh 336. Meanings. 1. The soul as postulated in the animistic theories held in N India in the 6th and 7th cent. B. C. It is described in the Upanishads as a small creature, in shape like a man, dwelling in ordinary times in the heart. It escapes from the body in sleep or trance; when it returns to the body life and motion reappear. It escapes from the body at death, then continues to carry on an everlasting life of its own. For numerous other details see Rh. D. Theory of Soul in the Upanishads J R A S 1899. Bt. India 251-255. Buddhism repudiated all such theories, thus differing from other religions. Sixteen such theories about the soul D I.31. Seven other theories D I.34. Three others D I.186/7. A "soul" according to general belief was some thing permanent, unchangeable, not affected by sorrow S IV.54 = Kvu 67; Vin I.14; M I.138. See also M I.233; III.265, 271; S II.17, 109; III.135; A I.284; II.164, 171; V.188; S IV.400. Cp. aatuman, tuma, puggala, jiiva, satta, paa.na and naama-ruupa. 2. Oneself, himself, yourself. Nom. attaa, very rare. S I.71, 169; III.120; A I.57, 149 (you yourself know whether that is true or false. Cp. Manu VIII.84. Here attaa comes very near to the European idea of conscience. But conscience as a unity or entity is not accepted by Buddhism) Sn 284; Dh 166, 380; Miln 54 (the image, outward appearance, of oneself). Acc. attaana.m S I.44 (would not give for himself, as a slave) A I.89; Sn 709. Acc. atta.m Dh 379. Abl. attato as oneself S I.188; Ps I.143; II.48; Vbh 336. Loc. attani A I.149; III.181; Sn 666, 784. Instr. attanaa S I.57 = Dh 66; S I.75; II.68; A I.53; III.211; IV.405; Dh 165. On one's own account, spontaneously S IV.307; V.354; A I.297; II.99, 218; III.81; J I.156; PvA 15, 20. In composition with numerals attadutiya himself and one other D II.147; *catuttha with himself as fourth M I.393; A III.36; *pa~ncama Dpvs VIII.2; *sattama J I.233; *a.t.thama VvA 149 (as atta-na.t.thama Vv 3413), and *a.t.thamaka Miln 291. anattaa (n. and predicative adj.) not a soul, without a soul. Most frequent in combination. with dukkha and anicca - (1) as noun: S III.141 (*anupassin); IV.49; V.345 (*sa~n~nin); A II.52 = Ps II.80 (anattani anattaa; opp. to anattani attaa, the opinion of the micchaadi.t.thigataa sattaa); Dh 279; Ps II.37, 45 sq. (*anupassanaa), 106 (ya.m anicca~n ca dukkha~n ca ta.m anattaa); DhA III. 406 (*lakkha.na). - (2) as adj. (pred.): S IV.152 sq.; S IV.166; S IV.130 sq., 148 sq.; Vin I.13 = S III.66 = Nd2 680 Q 1; S III.20 sq.; 178 sq., 196 sq.; sabbe dhammaa anattaa Vin V.86; S III.133; IV.28, 401. -attha one's own profit or interest Sn 75; Nd2 23; J IV.56, 96; otherwise as atta-d-attha, e. g. Sn 284. -atthiya looking after one's own needs Th 1, 1097. -a-dhipaka mastereotypeof oneself, self-mastereotyped A I.150. -adhipateyya selfdependence, self-reliance, independence A I.147. -a-dhiina independent D I.72. -a-nudi.t.thi speculation about souls S III.185; IV.148; A III.447; Sn 1119; Ps I.143; Vbh 368; MilnQ 146. -a-nuyogin one who concentrates his attention on himself Dh 209; DhA III.275. -a-nuvaada blaming oneself A II.121; Vbh 376. -u~n~naa self-humiliation Vbh 353 (+ att-ava~n~naa). -uddesa relation to oneself Vin III.149 ( = attano atthaaya), also *ika ibid. 144. -kata self-made S I.134 (opp. para*). -kaama love of self A II.21; adj. a lover of "soul", one who cares for his own soul S I.75. -kaara individual self, fixed individuality, oneself (cp. aha.mkaara) D I.53 (opp. para*); A III 337 (id.) DA I.160; as nt. at J V.401 in the sense of service (self-doing", slavery) (attakaaraani karonti bhattusu). -kilamatha self-mortification D III.113; S IV.330; V.421; M III.230. -garahin self-censuring Sn 778. -gutta selfguarded Dh 379. -gutti watchfulness as regards one's self, self-care A II.72. -gha~n~na self-destruction Dh 164. -ja proceeding from oneself Dh 161 (paapa). -~nuu knowing oneself A IV.113, cp. D III.252. -(n)tapa self-mortifying, self-vexing D III.232 = A II.205 (opp. paran*); M I.341, 411; II.159; Pug 55, 56. -da.n.da see atta1. -danta selfrestrained, self-controlled Dh 104, 322. -di.t.thi speculation concerning the nature of the soul Nd1 107; SnA 523, 527. -diipa relying on oneself, independent, founded on oneself (+ attasara.na, opp. a~n~na*) D II.100 = III.42; S V.154; Sn 501 ( = attano gu.ne eva attano diipa.m katvaa SnA 416). -paccakkha only in instr. *ena by or with his own presence, i. e. himself J V.119. -paccakkhika eye-witness J V.119. -paccatthika hostile to oneself Vin II.94, 96. -pa.tilaabha acquisition of a personality D I.195 (tayo: o'aarika, manomaya, aruupa). -paritaapana self-chastisement, mortification D III.232 = A II.205; M I.341; PvA 18, 30. -parittaa charm (protection) for oneself Vin II.110. -paribhava disrespect for one's own person Vbh 353. -bhaava one's own nature (1) person, personality, individuality, living creature; form, appearance [cp. Dhs trsl. LXXI and BSanskrit aatmabhaava body Divy 70, 73 (*pratilambha), 230; Sp. Av. SH I.162 (pratilambha), 167, 171] Vin II.238 (living beings, forms); S V.442 (bodily appearance); A I.279 (o'aarika a substantial creature); II.17 (creature); DhA II.64, 69 (appearance); SnA 132 (personality). - (2) life, rebirth A I.134 sq.; III.412;

---[ Page 23 ]---

DhA II.68; PvA 8, 15, 166 (atiitaa *aa former lives). *.m pavatteti to lead a life, to live PvA 29, 181. Thus in cpd. pa.tilaabha assumption of an existence, becoming reborn as an individual Vin II.185; III.105; D III.231; M III.46; S II.255, 272, 283; III.144; A II.159, 188; III.122 sq. - (3) character, quality of heart Sn 388 ( = citta SnA 374); J I.61. -ruupa "of the form of self", self-like only in instr. *ena as adv. by oneself, on one's own account, for the sake of oneself S IV.97; A II.120. -vadha self-destruction S II.241; A II.73. -vaada theory of (a persistent) soul D III.230; M I.66; D II.58; S II.3, 245 sq.; III.103, 165, 203; IV.1 sq., 43 sq., 153 sq.; Ps I.156 sq.; Vbh 136, 375. For var. points of an "attavaadic" doctrine see Index to Sa'nyutta Nikaaya. -vyaabaadha personal harm or distress self-suffering, one's own disastereotype(opp. para*) M I 369; S IV.339 = A I.157; A II.179. -vetana supporting oneself, earning one's own living Sn 24. -sa~ncetanaa self-perception, self-consciousness (opp. para*) D III.231; A II.159. -sambhava originating from one's self S I.70; A IV.312; Dh 161 (paapa); Th 1, 260. -sambhuuta arisen from oneself Sn 272. -sammaapa.nidhi thorough pursuit or development of one's personality A II.32; Sn 260, cp. KhA 132. -sara.na see *dipa. -sukha happiness of oneself, self-success Dpvs I.66, cp. II.11. -hita personal welfare one's own good (opp. para*) D III.233; A II.95 sq. -hetu for one's own sake, out of self-consideration Sn 122; Dh 328.

Attaniya (adj.) [from attaa] belonging to the soul, having a soul, of the nature of soul, soul-like; usually nt. anything of the nature of soul M I.138 = Kvu 67; M I.297; II.263; S III.78 (ya.m kho anattaniya.m whatever has no soul), 127; IV.54 = Nd2 680 F; S IV.82 = III.33 = Nd2 680 Q 3; S IV.168; V.6; Nd2 680 D. Cp. Dhs trsl. XXXV ff.

Attamana [atta1 + mano, having an up raised mind. Bdhgh's explination. is saka-mano DA I.255 = attaa + mano. He applies the same explination. to attamanataa (at Dhs 9, see Dhs trsl. 12) = attano manataa mentality of one's self] delighted, pleased, enraptured D I.3, 90 (an*); II.14; A III.337, 343; IV.344; Sn 45 = Dh 328 ( = upa.t.thita-satt DhA IV.29); Sn 995; Nd2 24 ( = tu.t.tha-mano ha.t.tha-mano etc.); Vv 14; Pug 33 (an*); Miln 18; DA I.52; DhA I.89 (an*-dhaatuka displeased); PvA 23, 132; VvA 21 (where Dhpaala gives two explinations, either tu.t.thamano or sakamano).

Attamanataa (f.) [abstr. to prec.] satisfaction, joy, pleasure, transport of mind M I.114; A I.276; IV.62; Pug 18 (an*); Dhs 9, 86, 418 (an*); PvA 132; VvA 67 (an*).

Attaa.na (adj.) [a + taa.na] without shelter or protection J I.229; Miln 148, 325; ThA 285.

Attha1 (also a.t.tha, esp. in combinations mentioned under 3) (m. and nt.) [Vedic artha from r, arti and r.noti to reach, attain or to proceed (to or from), thus originally result (or cause), profit, attainment. Cp. semantically Fr. chose, Latin causa] 1. interest, advantage, gain; (moral) good, blessing, welfare; profit, prosperity, well-being M I.111 (atthassa ninnetar, of the Buddha, bringer of good); S IV.94 (id.); S I.34 (attano a. one's own welfare), 55 (id.) 86, 102, 126 = A II.46 (atthassa patti); S I.162 (attano ca parassa ca); II.222 (id.); IV.347 (*.m bha~njati destroy the good or welfare, always with musaavaadena by lying, cp. attha-bha~njanaka); A I.61 (*.m anubhoti to fare well, to have a (good) result); III.364 (samparaayika a. profit in the future life); A V.223 sq. (anattho ca attho ca detriment and profit); It 44 (v. l. attaa better); Sn 37, 58 ( = Nd2 26, where the six kinds of advantages are enumerated as att* par* ubhay*, i. e. advantage, resulting for oneself, for others, for both; di.t.thadhammik* samparaayik* param* gain for this life, for a future life, and highest gain of all, i. e. Arahantship); Sn 331 (ko attho supitena what good is it to sleep = na hiQ sakkaa supantena koci attho papu.nitu.m SnA 338; cp. ko attho supinena te Pv II.61); PvA 30 (attha.m saadheti does good, results in good, 69 (samparaayikena atthena). - dat. atthaaya for the good, for the benefit of (gen.); to advantage, often combined. with hitaaya sukhaaya, e. g. D III.211 sq.; It 79. - Kh VIII.1 (to my benefit); Pv I.43 ( = upakaaraaya PvA 18), II.129 (to great advantage). See also below 6. Sometimes in a more concrete meaning = riches, wealth, e. g. J I.256 ( = va.d.dhi.m C.); III.394 (id.); Pv IV.14 ( = dhana.m PvA 219). - Often as -*: att*, one's own wellfare, usually combined. with par* and ubhay* (see above) S II.29; V.121; A I.158, 216; III.63 sq.; IV.134; Sn 75 (att-a.t.tha, v. l. attha Nd2), 284 (atta-d-attha); uttam* the highest gain, the very best thing Dh 386 ( = arahatta DhA IV.142); Sn 324 ( = arahatta SnA 332); param* id. Nd2 26; sad* one's own weal D II.141; M I.4; S II.29; V.145; A I.144; saattha (adj.) connected with advantage, beneficial, profitable (of the Dhamma; or should we take it as "with the meaning, in spirit"* see saattha) D I.62; S V.352; A II.147; III.152; Nd2 316. - 2. need, want (c. instr.), use (for = instr.) S I.37 (*jaata when need has arisen, in need); J I.254; III.126, 281; IV.1; DhA I.398 (n- atthi eteh- attho I have no use for them); VvA 250; PvA 24 (yaavadattha, adj. as much as is needed, sufficient = anappaka). - 3. sense, meaning, import (of a word), denotation, signification. In this application attha is always spelt a.t.tha in compounds a.t.th-uppatti and a.t.tha-kathaa (see below). On term see also Cpd.4. - S III.93 (attha.m vibhajati explain the sense); A I.23 (id.), 60 (niit* primary meaning, literal meaning; neyy* secondary or inferred meaning); II.189 (*.m aacikkhati to interpret); Sn 126 (*.m pucchita asked the (correct) sense, the lit. meaning), 251 (*.m akkhaati); Th 1, 374; attho paramo the highest sense, the ultimate sense or intrinsic meaning It 98, cp. Cpd.6, 81, 223; Miln 28 (paramatthato in the absolute sense); Miln 18 (atthato according to its meaning, opp. vya~njanato by letter, orthographically); DhA II.82; III.175; KhA 81 (pad* meaning of a word); SnA 91 (id.); PvA 15 (*.m vadati to explain, interpret), 16, 19 (hitatthadhammataa "fitness of the best sense", i. e. practical application), 71. Very frequent in Commentary style at the conclusion of an explained passage as ti attho "this is the meaning", thus it is meant, this is the sense, e. g. DA I.65; DhA IV.140, 141; PvA 33, etc. -4. Contrasted with dhamma in the combination. attho ca dhammo ca it (attha) refers to the (primary, natural) meaning of the word, while dhamma relates to the (interpreted) meaning of the text, to its bearing on the norm and conduct; or one might say they represent the theoretical and practical side of the text (Paali) to be discussed, the "letter" and the "spirit". Thus at A I.69; V.222, 254; Sn 326 ( = bhaasitattha~n ca Paalidhamma~n ca SnA 333); It 84 (du.t.tho attha.m na jaanaati dhamma.m na passati: he realises neither the meaning nor the importance); Dh 363 ( = bhaasitattha~n c- eva desanaadhamma~n ca); J II.353; VI.368; Nd2 386 (meaning and proper nature); Pv III.96 (but explained. by PvA 211 as hita = benefit, good, thus referring it to above 1). For the same use see compounds *dhamma, *pa.tisambhidaa, esp. in adv. use (see under 6) Sn 430 (yen- atthena for which purpose), 508 (kena atthena v. l. BB for T attanaa), J I.411 (attha.m vaa kaara.na.m vaa reason and cause); DhA II.95 (+ kaara.na(; PvA 11 (aya'n h- ettha attho this is the reason why). - 5. (in very wide application, covering the same ground as Latin res and Fr. chose): (a) matter, affair, thing, often untranslatable and simply to be given as "this" or "that" S II.36 (ekena-padena sabbo attho vutto the whole matter is said with one word); J I.151 (ta.m attha.m the matter); II.160 (ima.m a. this); VI.289 (ta.m attha.m pakaasento); PvA 6 (ta.m attha.m pucchi asked it), 11 (visajjeti explains it), 29 (vutta.m attha.m what had been said), 82 (id.). - (b) affair, cause, case (cp. a.t.ta2 and Latin causa) Dh 256, 331; Miln 47 (kassa attha.m dhaaresi whose cause do you support, with whom do you agree*). See also alamattha. - 6. Adv. use of oblique cases in the sense of a prep.: (a) dat. atthaaya for the

---[ Page 24 ]---

sake of, in order to, for J I.254 dhan- atthaaya for wealth, kim* what for, why*), 279; II.133; III.54; DhA II.82; PvA 55, 75, 78. - (b) acc. attha.m on account of, in order to, often instead of an infinitive or with another inf. substitute J I.279 (kim*); III.53 (id.); I.253; II.128; Dpvs VI.79; DhA I.397; PvA 32 (dassan* in order to see), 78, 167, etc. - (c) abl. atthaa J III.518 (pitu atthaa = atthaaya C.). - (d) loc. atthe instead of, for VvA 10; PvA 33; etc. anattha (m. and nt.) 1. unprofitable situation or condition, mischief, harm, misery, misfortune S I.103; II.196 (anatthaaya sa'nvattati); A IV.96 (*.m adhipajjati) It 84 (*janano doso ill-will brings discomfort); J I.63, 196; Pug 37; Dhs 1060, 1231; Sdhp 87; DA I.52 (anatthajanano kodho, cp. It 83 and Nd2 420 Q2); DhA II.73; PvA 13, 61, 114, 199. - 2. ( = attha 3) incorrect sense, false meaning, as adj. senseless (and therefore unprofitable, no good, irrelevant) A V.222, 254 (adhammo ca); Dh 100 ( = aniyyaanad*iipaka DhA II.208); Sn 126 (explained. at SnA 180 as ahita.m). -akkhaayin showing what is profitable D III.187. -attha riches J VI.290 ( = atthabhuuta.m attha.m C.). -antara difference between the (two) meanings Miln 158. At Th 1, 374, Oldenberg's reading, but the v. l. (also C. reading) atthandhara is much better = he who knows the (correct) meaning, esp. as it corresponds with dhamma-dhara (q. v.). -abhisamaya grasp of the proficient S I.87 (see abhisamaya). -uddhaara synopsis or abstract of contents ("matter") of the Vinaya Dpvs V.37. -upaparikkhaa investigation of meaning, (+ dhamma-savanna) M III.175; A III.381 sq.; IV.221; V.126. -uppatti (a.t.th*) sense, meaning, explanation, interpretation J I.89; DA I.242; KhA 216; VvA 197, 203 (cp. Paalito) PvA 2, 6, 78; etc. -kaama (adj.) (a) well-wishing, a well-wisher, friend, one who is interested in the welfare of others (cp. Sanskrit arthakaama, e. g. Bhagavadgiita II.5: guruun arthakaaman) S I.140, 197, 201 sq.; A III.143; D III.164 (bahuno janassa a., + hitakaamo); J I.241; Pv IV.351; Pv A 25; SnA 287 (an*). (b) one who is interested in his own gain or good, either in good or bad sense ( = greedy) S I.44; PvA 112. -kathaa (a.t.tha*) exposition of the sense, explanation, commentary J V.38, 170; PvA 1, 71, etc. frequent in N. of Com. -kara beneficial, useful Vin III.149; Miln 321. -kara.na the business of trying a case, holding court, giving judgment (v. l. a.t.ta*) D II.20; S I.74 (judgment hall*). -kavi a didactic poet (see kavi) A II.230. -kaamin = *kaama, well-wishing Sn 986 (devataa atthakaaminii). -kaara.naa (abl.) for the sake of gain D III.186. -kusala clever in finding out what is good or profitable Sn 143 ( = atthacheka KhA 236). -cara doing good, busy in the interest of others, obliging S I.23 (naraana.m = "working out man's salvation"). -caraka (adj.) one who devotes himself to being useful to others, doing good, one who renders service to others, e. g. an attendant, messenger, agent etc. D I.107 ( = hitakaaraka DA I.276); J II.87; III.326; IV.230; VI.369. -cariyaa useful conduct or behaviour D III.152, 190, 232; A II.32, 248; IV.219, 364. -~nu one who knows what is useful or who knows the (plain or correct) meaning of something (+ dhamma~n~nuu) D III.252; A III.148; IV.113 sq. -dassin intent upon the (moral) good Sn 385 ( = hita-nupassin SnA 373). -dassimant one who examines a cause (cp. Sanskrit arthadarshika) J VI.286 (but explained. by C. as "sa.nha-sukhuma-pa~n~na" of deep insight, one who has a fine and minute knowledge). -desanaa interpretation, exegesis Miln 21 (dhamm*). -dhamma "reason and morality", see above n0. 3. *anusaasaka one who advises regarding the meaning and application of the Law, a professor of moral philosophy J II.105; DhA II.71. -pada a profitable saying, a word of good sense, text, motto A II.189; III.356; Dh 100. -pa.tisambhidaa knowledge of the meaning (of words) combined. with dhamma* of the text or spirit (see above n0. 3) Ps I.132; II.150; Vbh 293 sq. -pa.tisa'nvedin experiencing good D III.241 (+ dhamma*); A I.151; III.21. -baddha expecting some good from (c. loc.) Sn 382. -bha~njanaka breaking the welfare of, hurting DhA III.356 (paresa'n of others, by means of telling lies, musaavaadena). -majjha of beautiful waist J V.170 ( = sumajjhaa C.; reading must be faulty, there is hardly any connection with attha; v. l. atta). -rasa sweetness (or substance, essence) of meaning (+ dhamma*, vimutti*) Nd2 466; Ps II.88, 89. -vasa "dependence on the sense", reasonableness, reason, consequence, cause D II.285; M I.464; II.120; III.150; S II.202; III.93; IV.303; V.224; A I.61, 77, 98; II.240; III.72, 169, 237; Dh 289 ( = kaara.na DhA III.435); It 89; Sn 297; Ud 14. -vasika sensible It 89; Miln 406. -vasin bent on (one's) aim or purpose Th 1, 539. -vaadin one who speaks good, i. e. whose words are doing good or who speaks only useful speech, always in combination. with kaala* bhuuta* dhamma* D I.4; III.175; A I.204; II.22, 209; Pug 58; DA I.76 (explained. as "one who speaks for the sake of reaping blessings here and hereafter"). -sa'nva.n.nanaa explanation, exegesis PvA 1. -sa'nhita connected with good, bringing good, profitable, useful, salutary D I.189; S II.223; IV.330; V.417; A III.196 sq., 244; Sn 722 ( = hitena sa'nhita.m SnA 500); Pug 58. -sandassana determination of meaning, definition Ps I.105. -siddhi profit, advantage, benefit J I.402; PvA 63.

Attha2 (nt.) [Vedic asta, of uncertain etymology] home, primarily as place of rest and shelter, but in Paali phraseology abstracted from the "going home", i. e. setting of the sun, as disappearance, going out of existence, annihilation, extinction. Only in acc. and as *- in foll phrases: atthangacchati to disappear, to go out of existence, to vanish Dh 226 ( = vinaasa'n n'atthibhaava.m gacchati DhA III.324), 384 ( = parikkhaya'n gacchati); pp. atthangata gone home, gone to rest, gone, disappeared; of the sun ( = set): J I.175 (atthangate suriye at sunset); PvA 55 (id.) 216 (anatthangate s. before sunset) fig. Sn 472 (atthagata). 475 (id.); 1075 ( = niruddha ucchin.na vina.t.tha anupaadi-sesaaya nibbaana-dhaatuyaa nibbuta); It 58; Dhs 1038; Vbh 195. -atthagatatta (nt. abstr.) disappearance SnA 409. -atthangama (atthagama passim) annihilation, disappearance; opposed to samudaya (coming into existence) and synonymous with nirodha (destruction) D I.34, 37, 183; S IV.327; A III.326; Ps II.4, 6, 39; Pug 52; Dhs 165, 265, 501, 579; Vbh 105. -atthagamana (nt.) setting (of the sun) J I.101 (suriyass' atthagamanaa at sunset) DA I.95 ( = ogamana). - attha-gaamin, in phrase uday- atthagaamin leading to birth and death (of pa~n~naa): see udaya. -attha.m paleti = atthangacchati (fig.) Sn 1074 ( = atthangameti nirujjhati Nd2 28). - Also atthamita (pp. of i) set (of the sun) in phrase anatthamite suriye before sunset (with anatthangamite as v. l. at both pass.) DhA I.86; III.127. - Cp. also abbhattha.

Attha3 pres. 2nd pl. of atthi (q. v.).

Atthata [pp. of attharati] spread, covered, spread over with (-*) Vin I.265; IV.287; V.172 (also *an); A III.50; PvA 141.

Atthatta (nt.) [abstr. from attha1] reason, cause; only in abl. atthattaa according to the sense, by reason of, on account of PvA 189 (-*).

Atthara [from attharati] a rug (for horses, elephants etc.) D I.7.

Attharaka [ = atthara] a covering J I.9; DA I.87. - f. *ikaa a layer J I.9; V.280.

Atthara.na (nt.) [from attharati] a covering, carpet, cover, rug Vin II.291; A II.56; III.53; Mhvs 3, 20; 15, 40; 25, 102; ThA 22.

Attharati [aa + str] to spread, to cover, to spread out; stretch, lay out Vin I.254; V.172; J I.199; V.113; VI.428; Dh I.272. -pp. atthata (q. v.). - Causative attharaapeti to caused to be spread J V.110; Mhvs 3, 20; 29, 7; 34, 69.

---[ Page 25 ]---

Atthavant (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit arthavant] full of benefit S I.30; Th 1, 740; Miln 172.

Atthaara [cp. Sanskrit aastaara, from attharati] spreading out Vin V.172 (see ka.thina). atthaaraka same ibid.; Vin II.87 (covering).

Atthi [Sanskrit asti, 1st sg. asmi; Gr. ei)mi/-e)sti/; Latin sum-est; Goth. im-ist; Ags. eom-is E. am-is] to be, to exist. Pres. Ind. 1st sg. asmi Sn 1120, 1143; J I.151; III.55, and amhi M I.429; Sn 694; J II.153; Pv I.102; II.82. 2nd sg. asi Sn 420; J II.160 (-si); III.278; Vv 324; PvA 4. - 3rd sg. atthi Sn 377, 672, 884; J I.278. Often used for 3rd pl. ( = santi), e. g. J I.280; II.2; III.55. - 1st pl. asma [Sanskrit sma*] Sn 594, 595; asmase Sn 595, and amha Sn 570; J II.128. 2nd pl. attha J II.128; PvA 39, 74 (aagat- attha you have come). 3rd pl. santi Sn 1077; Nd2 637 ( = sa'nvijjanti atthi upalabbhanti); J II.353; PvA 7, 22 - Imper. atthu Sn 340; J I.59; III.26. - Pot. 1st sg. siyaa [Sanskrit syaam] Pv II.88, and assa'n [Cond. used as Pot.] Sn 1120; Pv I.125 ( = bhaveyya.m PvA 64). - 2nd sg. siyaa [Sanskrit syaa*] Pv II.87. - 3rd sg. siyaa [Sanskrit syaat] D II.154; Sn 325, 1092; Nd2 105 ( = jaaneyya, nibbatteyya); J I.262; PvA 13, and assa D I.135, 196; II.154; A V.194; Sn 49, 143; Dh 124, 260; Pv II.324; 924. - 1st pl. assu PvA 27. 3rd pl. assu [cp. Sanskrit syu*] Sn 532; Dh 74; Pv IV.136 ( = bhaveyyu.m PvA 231). - Aor. 1st sg. aasi.m [Sanskrit aasa'n] Sn 284; Pv I.21 ( = ahosi.m PvA 10); II.34 ( = ahosi.m PvA 83). - 3rd sg. aasi [Sanskrit aasiit] Sn 994. - 3rd aasu.m [cp. Sanskrit Perf. aasu*] Pv II.321, 133 (ti pi paa.tho for su). Ppr. *sat only in loc. sati (as loc. abs.) Dh 146; J I.150, 263, santa Sn 105; Nd2 635; J I.150 (loc. eva.m sante in this case); III.26, and samaana (q. v.) J I.266; IV.138. -bhaava state of being, existence, being J I.222, 290; II.415; DhA II.5; IV.217 (atthibhaava vaa n'atthibhaava vaa whether there is or not).

Atthika (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit arthika] 1. (to attha1) profitable, good, proper. In this meaning the MSS show a variance of spelling either atthika or a.t.thika or a.t.thita; in all cases atthika should be preferred D I.55 (*vaada); M II.212 (a.t.thita); A III.219 sq. (ida'n atthika.m this is suitable, of good avail; T a.t.thita.m, vv. ll. as above); Sn 1058 (a.t.thita; Nd2 20 also a.t.thita, which at this pass. shows a confusion between a.t.tha and a-.thita); J V.151 (in def. of a.t.thikatvaa q. v.); Pug 69, 70 (T a.t.thika, a.t.thita SS; explained. by Pug A V.4 by kalyaa.naaya). - 2. (to attha1 2) desirous of (-*), wanting, seeking for, in need of (c. instr.) A II.199 (uday* desirous of increase); Sn 333, 460, 487 (pu~n~n*), 987 (dhan* greedy for wealth); J I.263 (rajj* coveting a kingdom); V.19; Pv II.228 (bhojan* in need of food); IV.11 (kaara.n*), 121 (khi.d.d* for play), 163 (pu~n~n*); PvA 95 (sasena a. wanting a rabbit), 120; DA I.70 (atthikaa those who like to). -an'atthika one who does not care for, or is not satisfied with (c. instr.) J V.460; PvA 20; of no good Th 1, 956 ("of little zeal" Mrs. Rh. D.). -bhaava (a) usefulness, profitableness Pug A V.4. (b) state of need, distress PvA 120.

Atthikavant (adj.) [atthika + vant] one who wants something, one who is on a certain errand D I.90 (atthika.m assa atthii ti DA I.255).

Atthitaa (f.) [f. abstr. from atthi cp. atthibhaava] state of being, existence, being, reality M I.486; S II.17 (*a~n c* eva n'atthita~n ca to be and not to be); III.135; J V.110 (kassaci atthita.m vaa n'atthita.m vaa jaanaahi see if there is anybody or not); DhsA 394. - Often in abl. atthitaaya by reason of, on account of, this being so DhA III.344 (idamatthitaaya under this condition) PvA 94, 97, 143.

Atthin (adj.) (-*) [Vedic arthin] desirous, wanting anything; see mant*, vaad*.

Atthiya (adj.) (-*) [ = atthika] having a purpose or end S III.189 (kim* for what purpose*); A V.1 sq. (id.), 311 sq.; Th 1, 1097 (att* having one's purpose in oneself), 1274; Sn 354 (yad atthiya.m on account of what).

Atra (adv.) [Sanskrit atra] here; atra atra here and there J I.414 = IV.5 (in explination. of atriccha).

Atraja (adj.) [Sanskrit *aatma-ja, corrupted form for attaja (see attaa) through analogy with Sanskrit atra "here". This form occurs only in J and similar sources, i. e. popular lore] born from oneself, one's own, applied to sons, of which there are 4 kinds enumerated, viz. atraja khettaja, dinnaka, antevaasika p. Nd2 448. - J I.135; III.103 = Nd1 504; J III.181; V.465; VI.20; Mhvs 4, 12; 13, 4; 36, 57.

Atriccha (adj.) [the popular etymology suggested at JA IV.4 is atra atra icchamaana desiring here and there; but see atricchaa] very covetous, greedy, wanting too much J I.414 = IV.4; III.206.

Atricchaa (f.) [Sanskrit *atrptyaa, a + trpt + yaa, influenced by Desid. titrpsati, so that atricchaa phonetically rather corresponds to a form *a.-trpsyaa (cch = psy, cp. Paali chaata Sanskrit psaata). For the simple Sanskrit trpti see titti (from tappati2). According to Kern, but phonetically hardly justifiable it is Sanskrit atiiccha = ati + icchaa "too much desire", with r in dissolution of geminated tt, like atraja for attaja. See also atriccha adj. and cp. J.Paali Text Society 1884, 69] great desire, greed, excessive longing, insatiability J IV.5, 327.

Atricchataa (f.) [see atricchaa] excessive lust J. III.222.

Atha (indecl.) [Sanskrit atha, cp. atho] copulative and adversative part. 1. after positive clauses, in enumerations, in the beginning and continuation of a story: and, and also, or; and then, now D II.2; III.152, 199 (atha-para.m etad avoca); M I.435; Sn 1006, 1007, 1017; Sn p. 126 (atha-para.m etad avoca: and further, something else); Dh 69, 119, 377; J II.158; Pv II.64; PvA 3, 8 (atha na and not), 70. - 2. after negative clauses: but M I.430; Sn 990, 1047; Dh 85, 136, 387; PvA 68. Often combined. with other part., e. g. atha kho (pos. and negative) now, and then; but, rather, moreover Vin I.1; D I.141, 167, 174; A V.195; PvA 79, 221, 251. na-atha kho na neither-nor PvA 28. atha kho pana and yet D I.139. atha ca pana on the other hand J I.279. atha vaa or (after prec. ca), nor (after prec. na) Sn 134; Dh 140, 271; Pv I.41; II.14. athaa vaa pi Sn 917, 921.

Athabba.na [Vedic atharvan; as regards etymology see Walde, Latin Wtb. under ater] (1) the Atharva Veda DA I.247 = SnA 447 (*veda). - (2) one who is familiar with the (magic formulas of the) Atharvaveda J VI.490 (sa-thabba.na = sahatthivejja, with the elephant-healer or doctor). See also aathabba.na.

Atho (indecl.) [Sanskrit atho, atha + u] copulative and adversative part.: and, also, and further, likewise, nay S I.106; Sn 43, 155, 647; Dh 151, 234, 423; J I.83; II.185; IV.495; It 106; Kh VIII.7; Pv IV.315; PvA 251 (atho ti nipaatamatta.m avadhaara.n-atthe vaa). Also combined. with other part., like atho pi Sn 222, 537, 985; Pv II.320; KhA 166.

Ada (adj.) (-*) [to ad, see adeti, cp. *ga, *.tha, *da etc.] eating S IV.195 (ki.t.tha-da eating corn); J II.439 (vanta-da = vantakhaadaka C.).

Adaka (adj.) = ada J V.91 (purisa-daka man-eater).

Adana (nt.) [from adeti] eating, food J V.374 (v.l. modana).

Adasaka (adj.) see dasaa.

Adaasa [prob. = ada.msa, from .dasati to bite, cp. daa.thaa tooth; lit meaning "toothless" or "not biting"] a kind of bird J IV.466.

---[ Page 26 ]---

Adi.t.thaa [a + di.t.thaa, ger. of *dassati] not seeing, without seeing J IV.192 (T. ada.t.thaa, v. l. BB na di.t.thaa, C. adisvaa); V.219.

Adinna (pp.) [a + dinna] that which is not given, frequent in phrase adinn' aadaana (BSanskrit adattaadaana Divy 302) seizing or grasping that which is not given to one, i. e. stealing, is the 2nd of the ten qualifications of bad character or siila (dasa-siila see siila II.). Vin I.83 (*aa verama.nii); D I.4 ( = parassa hara.na.m theyya.m corikaa ti vutta.m hoti DA I.71); III.68 sq., 82, 92, 181 sq.; M I.361; It 63; Kh II., cp. KhA 26. - adinnaadaayin he who takes what is not given, a thief; stealing, thieving (cp. BSK. adattaadaayika Divy 301, 418) Vin I.85; D I.138; Sdhp 78.

Adu (or aadu) (indecl.) [perhaps identical with adu.m, nt. of pronoun. asu] part. of affirmation: even, yea, nay; always in emphatic exclamations Vv 622 ( = udaahu VvA 258; v. l. SS. aadu) = Pv IV.317 (aadu) = DhA I.31 (T. aadu, v. l. adu); Vv 631 (v. l. aadu); J V.330 (T. aadu, C. adu; explained. on p. 331 fantastically as adu~n ca adu~n ca kamma.m karohii ti). See also aadu.

Adu.m nt. of pronoun. asu.

Aduusaka (adj.) [a + duusaka] innocent J V.143 ( = nirapa raadha C.); VI.84, 552. f. aduusikaa Sn 312.

Aduusiya = aduusaka J V.220 ( = anaparaadha C.).

Adeti [Sanskrit aadayati, Causative of atti, ad to eat, 1st sg. admi = Gr. e)/dw, Latin edo; Goth. itan = Ohg. ezzan = E. eat] to eat. Pres. ind. ademi etc. J V.31, 92, 197, 496; VI.106. pot. adeyya J V.107, 392, 493.

Adda1 [cp. Sanskrit aardraka] ginger J I.244 (*singivera).

Adda2 and Addaa 3rd sg. aor. of *dassati; see *dassati 2. a.

Adda3 (adj.) [Sanskrit aardra, from rdati or ardati to melt, cp. Gr. a)/rdw to moisten, a)\rda dirt; see also alla] wet, moist, slippery J IV.353; VI.309; Miln 346. -a-valepana "smeared with moisture", i. e. shiny, glittering S IV.187 (kuu.taagaara); M I.86 = Nd2 1996 (upakaariyo). See also addha2. The reading alla-valepana occurs at Nd2 40 ( = S iv. 187), and is perhaps to be preferred. The meaning is better to be given as "newly plastereotyped."

Addakkhi 3rd sg. aor. of *dassati; see *dassati 1 b.

Addasaa 3rd sg. aor. of *dassati; see *dassati 2 a.

Addaa and Addaayanaa at Vbh 371 in def. of anaadariya is either faulty writing, or dial. form or pop. etymology for aadaa and aadaayana; see aadariya.

Addaayate [v. denom. from adda] to be or get wet, fig. to be attached to J IV.351. See also alliiyati.

Addi [Sanskrit ardri] a mountain Daavs II.13.

Addita (pp.) [see a.t.tita which is the more correct spelling] afflicted, smarted, oppressed J I.21; II.407; III.261; IV.295; V.53, 268; Th 1, 406; Mhvs 1, 25; PvA 260; Sdhp 37, 281.

Addha1 (num.) [ = a.d.dha, q. v.] one half, half (*-) D I.166 (*maasika); A II.160 (*maasa); J I.59 (*yojana); III. 189 (*maasa).

Addha2 (adj.) [ = adda3, Sanskrit aardra] soiled, wet; fig. attached to, intoxicated with (cp. sineha) M II.223 (na anaddhabhuuta.m attaana.m dukkhena addhabhaaveti he dirties the impure self with ill); S III.1 (addhabhuuto kaayo impure body); J VI.548 (*nakha with dirty nails, C. puutinakha).

Addhan (in compounds addha*) [Vedic adhvan, orig. meaning "stretch, length", both of space and time. - Cases: nom. addhaa, gen. dat. addhuno, instr. addhunaa, acc. addhaana.m, loc. addhani; pl. addhaa. See also addhaana] 1. (of space) a path, road, also journey (see compounds and derivations); only in one stereotype phrase J IV.384 = V.137 (pathaddhuno pa.n.narase va cando, gen. for loc. *addhani, on his course, in his orbit; explained. at IV.384 by aakaasa-patha-sankhaatassa addhuno majjhe .thito and at V.137 by pathaddhagato addha-pathe gaganamajjhe .thito); Pv III.31 (pathaddhani pa.n.narase va cando; loc. same meaning as prec., explained. at PvA 188 by attano pathabhuute addhani gaganatala-magge). This phrase (pathaddhan) however is explained. by Kern (Toev. s. v. pathaddu) as "gone half-way", i. e. on full-moon-day. He rejects the explination. of C. - 2. (of time) a stretch of time, an interval of time, a period, also a lifetime (see compounds); only in two standard applications viz. (a) as mode of time (past, present and future) in tayo addhaa three divisions of time (atita, anaagata, paccuppanna) D III.216; It 53, 70. (b) in phrase diigha.m addhaana.m (acc.) a very long time A II.1, 10 (digha.m addhaana.m sa'nsaara.m); Sn 740 (diigha.m addhaana sa'nsaara); Dh 207 (diigha.m addhaana socati); J I.137. gen. diighassa addhuno PvA 148 (gatattaa because a long time has elapsed), instr. diighena addhunaa S I.78; A II.118; PvA 28. -aayu duration of life A II.66 (diigha.m *.m a long lifetime. -gata one who has gone the road or traversed the space or span of life, an old man [cp. BSanskrit adhvagata M Vastu II.150], always combined. with vayo anuppatto, sometimes in stereotype formula with ji.n.na and mahallaka Vin II.188; D I.48 (cp. DA I.143); M I.82; Sn pp. 50, 92; PvA 149. -guu [Vedic adhvaga] a wayfarer, traveller, journeyman Th 255 = S I.212 (but the latter has panthagu, v. l. addhaguu); J III.95 (v. l. patthagu = panthagu); Dh 302.

Addhaa (adv.) [Vedic addhaa, cp. Av. azdaa certainty] part. of affirmation and emphasis: certainly, for sure, really, truly D I.143; J I.19 (a. aha.m Buddho bhavissaami) 66 (a. tva.m Buddho bhavissasi), 203, 279; III.340; V.307, 410 (C. explination. differs) Sn 47, 1057; Nd2 30 = Ps II.21 (eka.msa-vacana.m nissa'nsaya-vacana.m etc.) addhaa hi J IV. 399; Pv IV.15 2.

Addhaneyya (adj.) = adhaniya 2, lasting J V.507 (an*).

Addhaniya (adj.) [from addhan] 1. belonging to the road, fit for travelling (of the travelling season) Th 1, 529. 2. belonging to a (long) time, lasting a long period, lasting, enduring D III.211; J I.393 (an*) VI.71. See also addhaneyya.

Addhariya [Vedic adhvaryu from adhvara sacrifice] a sacrificing priest, N. of a class of Brahmins D I.237 (braahma.na).

Addhaana (nt.) [orig. the acc. of addhan, taken as nt. from phrase diigha.m addhaana.m. It occurs only in acc. which may always be taken as acc. of addhan; thus the assumption of a special form addhaana would be superfluous, were it not for later forms like addhaane (loc.) Miln 126; PvA 75 v. l. BB, and for compounds] same meaning as addhan, but as simplex only used with reference to time (i. e. a long time, cp. VvA 117 addhaana.m = cira.m). Usually in phrase atiita.m (anaagata.m etc.) addhaana.m in the past (future etc.), e. g. D I.200; S I.140; A V.32; Miln 126 (anaagatamaddhaane for *a.m); PvA 75 (v. l. addhaane). diigha.m addhaana.m Pv I.105. Also in phrase addhaana.m aapaadeti to make out the length of time or period, i. e. to live out one's lifetime S IV.110; J II.293 ( = jiivitaddhaana.m aapaadi aayu.m vindi C). -daratha exhaustion from travelling DA I.287. -magga a (proper) road for journeying, a long road between two towns, high road D I.1, 73, 79; M I.276 (kantaar*); DA I.35 (interpreted as "addhayojana.m gacchissaamii ti bhu~njitabban ti aadi vacanato addha-yojanam pi addhaana maggo hoti", thus taken to addha "half", from counting by 1/2 miles); VvA 40, 292. Cp. also antaraamagga. -parissama "fatigue of the road", i. e. fatigue from travelling VvA 305. -vemattataa difference of time or period Miln 285 (+ aayuvemattataa).

---[ Page 27 ]---

Addhika [from addhan] a wanderer, wayfarer, traveller DA I.298 ( = pathaavin), 270; PvA 78, 127 (*jana people travelling). Often combined. with kapa.na beggar, tramp, as kapa.naddhikaa (pl.) tramps and travellers (in which connection also as *iddhika, q. v.), e. g. J I.6 (v. l. *iddhika 262; DhA II.26.

Addhita at Pv II.62 is to be corrected to a.t.tita (sic v. l. BB).

Addhin (adj.) (-*) [from addhan] belonging to the road or travelling, one who is on the road, a traveller, in gataddhin one who has performed his journey ( = addhagata) Dh 90.

Addhuva see dhuva.

Adruubhaka see dubbha.

Advejjhataa see dvejjhataa.

Adha* in compounds like adhagga see under adho.

Adhamma see dhamma.

Adhama (adj.) [Vedic adhama = Latin infimus, superl. of adho, q. v.] the lowest (lit. and fig.), the vilest, worst Sn 246 (nara-dhama), 135 (vasala-dhama); Dh 78 (purisa*); J III.151 (miga*); V.394 (uttama-dhama), 437 (id.), 397; Sdhp 387.

Adhara (adj.) [Vedic adhara, compar. of adho] the lower J III.26 (adharo.t.tha the l. lip).

Adhi [Vedic adhi; base of demonstr. pronoun. a* + suffix-dhi, corresponding in form to Gr. e)/n-qa "on this" = here, cp. o(/qi where, in meaning equal to adv. of direction Gr. de/ (toward) = Ohg. zuo, E. to]. A. Prep. and prefix of direction and place: (a) as direction denoting a movement towards a definite end or goal = up to, over, toward, to, on (see C 1 a). - (b) as place where (prep. c. loc. or abs.) = on top of, above, over, in; in addition to. Often simply deictic "here" (e. g.) ajjhatta = adhi + aatman "this self here" (see C 1 b). B. adhi is frequent as modification prefix, i. e. in loose compounds. with n. or v. and as first part of a double prefix cpd. , like ajjhaa* (adhi + aa), adhippa* (adhi + pra), but never occurs as a fixed base, i. e. as 2nd part of a prefix cpd., like aa in paccaa* (prati + aa), paryaa*(pari + aa) or ava in paryava* (pari + ava) or ud in abhyud* (abhi + ud), samud* (sam + ud). As such (i. e. modification) it is usually intensifying, meaning "over above, in addition, quite, par excellence, super"-(adhideva a super-god, cp. ati-deva), but very often has lost this power and become meaningless (like E. up in "shut up, fill up, join up etc), esp. in double prefix-compounds (ajjhaavasati "to dwell here-in" = aavasati "to dwell in, to inhabit") (see C 2). - In the explinations of Paali Commentators adhi is often (sometimes far-fetchedly) interpreted by abhibhuu "overpowering" see e. g. C. on adhi.t.thaati and adhi.t.thita; and by virtue of this intens. meaning we find a close relationship between the prefixes ati, adhi and abhi, all interchanging dialectically so that Paali adhi often represents Sanskrit ati or abhi; thus adhi > ati in adhikusala, *kodhita, *jeguccha, *Brahmaa; adhi > abhi in adhippatthita, *paatcti, *ppaaya, *ppeta, *baadheti, *bhuu, *vaaha. Cp. also ati IV. C. The main applications of adhi are the following: 1. primary meaning (in verbs and verb derivations): either direction in which or place where, depending on the meaning of the verb determinate, either lit. or fig. - (a) where to: adhiyita (adhi + ita) "gone on to or into" = studied; ajjhesita (adhi + esita) "wished for"; *kata "put to" i. e. commissioned; *kaara commission; *gacchati "to go on to and reach it" = obtain; *gama attainment; *ga.nhaati to overtake = surpass, *peta (adhi + pra + ita) "gone in to" = meant, understood; *paaya sense meaning, intention; *bhaasati to speak to = address; *mutta intent upon; *vacana "saying in addition" = attribute, metaphor, cp. Fr. sur-nom; *vaasaana assent, *vaaseti to dwell in, give in = consent. - (b) where: *ti.t.thati (*.t.thaati) to stand by = look after, perform; *.t.thaana place where; *vasati to inhabit; *sayana "lying in", inhabiting. - 2. secondary meaning (as emphatic modification): (a) with nouns or adjectives: adhi-jeguccha very detestable; *matta "in an extreme measure", *pa supreme lord; *pacca lordship; *pa~n~naa higher, additional wisdom; *vara the very best; *siila thorough character or morality. - (b) with verbs (in double prefix-compounds); adhi + ava: ajjhogaaheti plunge into; ajjho.thapeti to bring down to (its destination); *otthata covered completely; *oharati to swallow right down. adhi + aa: ajjhappatta having reached (the end); ajjhapii'ita quite overwhelmed; *aavuttha inhabited; *aaruuhati grown up over; *aasaya desire, wish (cp. Ger. n. Anliegen and v. daranliegen). adhi + upa: ajjhupagacchati to reach, obtain; *upeti to receive; *upekkhati "to look all along over" = to superintend adhi + pra: adhippattheti to long for, to desire. Note. The contracted (assimilation-)form of adhi before vowels is ajjh- (q. v.).

Adhika (adj.) [from adhi; cp. Sanskrit adhika] exceeding, extraordinary, superior, Pug 35; VvA 80 ( = anadhivara, visi.t.tha); DA I.141, 222; Dpvs V.32 (an*); DhA III.238; KhA 193 ( = anuttara); Sdhp 337, 447. - compar. adhikatara DhA II.7; III.176; nt. *.m as adv. extraordinarily PvA 86 ( = adhimatta.m). In combination. with numerals adhika has the meaning of "in addition, with an additional, plus" (cp. aadi + aadika, with which it is evidently confounded, adhika being constructed in the same way as aadika, i. e. preceding the noun-determination), e. g. catunahuta-dhikaani dve yojana-sahassaani 2000 + 94 ( = 294 000) J I.25; sattamaasa-dhikaani sattavassaani 7 years and 7 months J V.319; pa~n~naasa-dhikaani pa~nca vassa-satani 500 + 50 ( = 550) PvA 152. See also sa-dhika.

Adhikata (adj.) [adhi + kata; cp. Sanskrit adhikrta] 1. commissioned with, an overseer, Pv II.927 (daane adhikata = .thapita PvA 124). - 2. caused by Miln 67 (kamma*). 3. affected by something, i. e. confused, puzzled, in doubt Miln 144 (+ vimaatijaata).

Adhikara.na (nt.) [adhi + kara.na] 1. attendance, supervision, management of affairs, administration PvA 209. 2. relation, reference, reason, cause, consequence D II.59 (-*: in consequence of); S II.41; V.19. Esp. acc. *.m as adv. (-*) in consequence of, for the sake of, because of, from M I.410 (ruupa-dhikara.na.m); S IV.339 (raaga*); Miln 281 (mudda* for the sake of the royal seal, orig. in attendance on the r. s.). Kima-dhikara.na.m why, on account of what J IV.4 ( = ki.mkaara.na.m) yatva-dhikara.na.m (yato + adhi*) by reason of what, since, because (used as conj.) D I.70 = A I.113 = II.16 = D III.225. - 3. case, question, cause, subject of discussion, dispute. There are 4 sorts of a. enumerated at var. passages, viz. vivaada* anuvaada* aapatta* kicca* "questions of dispute, of censure, of misconduct, of duties" Vin II.88; III.164; IV.126, 238; M II.247. Often reference: Vin II.74; S IV.63 = V.346 (dhamma* a question of the Dh.); A I.53 (case), 79; II.239 (vuupasanta); V.71, 72; Pug 20, 55; DhA IV.2 (*ssa uppamassa vuupasama), adhikara.na.m karoti to raise a dispute M I.122 *.m vuupasameti to settle a question or difficulty Vin II.261. -kaaraka one who causes dispute discussions or dissent Vin IV.230 (f. *ikaa); A III.252. -samatha the settlings of questions that have arisen. There are seven rules for settling cases enumerated at D III.254; M II.247; A I.99; IV.144.

Adhikara.nika [from adhikara.na] one who has to do with the settling of disputes or questions, a judge A V.164, 167.

Adhikara.nii (f.) [to adhikara.na 1, orig. meaning "serving, that which serves, i. e. instrument"] a smith's anvil J III.285; Daavs III.16 sq.; DhsA 263.

Adhikaara [cp. Sanskrit adhikaara] attendance, service, administration, supervision, management, help Vin I.55; J I.56;

---[ Page 28 ]---

VI.251; Miln 60, 115, 165; PvA 124 (daana*; cp. Pv II.927); DhA II.41.

Adhikaarika (adj.) (-*) [to adhikaara] serving as, referring to Vin III.274 (Bdhgh).

Adhiku.t.tanaa (f.) [adhi + ko.t.tanaa or ko.t.tana] an executioner's block Th 2, 58; cp. ThA 65 (v. l. ku.d.danaa, should prob. be read ko.t.tana); ThA 287.

Adhikusala (adj.) [adhi + kusala] in *aa dhammaa "items of higher righteousness" D III.145.

Adhikodhita (adj.) [adhi + kodhita] very angry J V.117.

Adhigacchati [adhi + gacchati] to get to, to come into possession of, to acquire, attain, find; fig. to understand D I.229 (vivesa'n) M I.140 (anvesa'n n- a-dhigacchanti do not find); S I.22 (Nibbaana.m); II.278 (id.); A I.162 (id.); Dh 187, 365; It 82 (santi.m); Th 2, 51; Pug 30, 31; Pv I.74 (nibbuti.m = labhati PvA 37); III.710 (amata.m pada.m). opt. adhigaccheyya D I.224 (kusala.m dhamma.m); M I.114 (madhu-pi.n.dika.m); Dh 61 and adhigacche Dh 368. ger. *gantvaa D I.224; J I.45 (aanisa'nse); and *gamma Pv I.119 ( = vinditvaa pa.tilabhitvaa PvA 60). grd. *gantabba It 104 (nibbaana). cond. *gacchissa'n Sn 446. 1st aor. 3 sg. ajjhagaa Sn 225 ( = vindi pa.tilabhi KhA 180); Dh 154; Vv 327; 3 pl. ajjhaguu J I.256 (vyasana.m) and ajjhaagamu.m S I.12. 2nd aor. 3 sg. adhigacchi Nd1 457. pp. adhigata (q. v.).

Adhiga.nhaati [adhi + ga.nhaati] to surpass, excel S I.87 = DA I.32; D III.146; S IV.275; A III.33; It 19. Ger. adhigayha Pv II.962 = DhA III.219 (v. l. BB at both pass. atikkamma); and adhiggahetvaa It 20. -pp. adhiggahiita (q. v.).

Adhigata [pp. of adhigacchati] got into possession of, conquered, attained, found J I.374; VvA 135.

Adhigatavant (adj.-n.) [from adhigata] one who has found or obtained VvA 296 (Nibbaana.m).

Adhigama [from adhigacchati] attainment, acquisition; also fig. knowledge, information, study (the latter mainly in Miln) D III.255; S II.139; A II.148; IV.22, 332; V.194; J I.406; Nett 91; Miln 133, 215, 358, 362, 388; PvA 207.

Adhigameti [adhi + gameti, Causative of gacchati] to make obtain, to procure PvA 30.

Adhiggahiita [pp. of adhiga.nhaati] excelled, surpassed; overpowered, taken by (instr.), possessed J III.427 ( = anuggahiita C.); V.102; VI.525 = 574; It 103; Miln 188, 189; Sdhp 98.

Adhici.n.na only at S III.12, where v. l. is avici.n.na, which is to be preferred. See vici.n.na.

Adhicitta (nt.) [adhi + citta] "higher thought", meditation, contemplation, nsually in combination. with adhisiila and adhipa~n~naa Vin I.70; D III.219; M I.451; A I.254, 256; Nd1 39 = Nd2 689 (*sikkhaa); Dh 185 ( = a.t.tha-samaapattisankhaata adhika-citta DhA III.238).

Adhiceto (adj.) [adhi + ceto] lofty-minded, entranced Th 1, 68 = Ud 43 = Vin IV.54 = DhA III.384.

Adhicca1 [ger. of adhi + eti, see adhiiyati] learning, studying, learning by heart J III.218, 327 = IV.301; IV.184 (vede = adhiiyitvaa C.), 477 (sajjhaayitvaa C.); VI.213; Miln 164.

Adhicca2 (*-) [Sanskrit *adhrtya, a + *dhicca, ger. of dhr, cp. dhaara, dhaara.na 3, dhaareti 4] unsupported, uncaused, fortuitous, without cause or reason; in following phrases: *aapattika guilty without intention M I.443; *uppatti spontaneous origin DhsA 238; *laddha obtained without being asked for, unexpectedly Vv 8422 = J V.171 = VI.315 (explained. at J V.171 by ahetunaa, at VI.316 by akaa ra.nena) *samuppanna arisen without a cause, spontaneous, unconditioned D I.28 = Ud 69; D III.33, 138; S II.22-23 (sukhadukkha.m); A III.440 (id.); Ps I.155; DA I.118 ( = akaara.na*).

Adhicca3 (adj.) [ = adhicca 2 in adj. function, influenced by, homonym abhabba] without a cause (for assumption), unreasonable, unlikely S V.457.

Adhijeguccha (nt.) [adhi + jeguccha] intense scrupulous regard (for others) D I.174, 176.

Adhi.t.thaka (adj.) (-*) [from adhi.t.thaati] bent on, given to, addicted to J V.427 (suraa*).

Adhi.t.thaati (adhi.t.thahati) [Sanskrit adhitis..thati, adhi + sthaa] 1. to stand on J III.278 (ger. *aaya); DhA IV.183 (ger. *hitvaa); fig. to insist on Th 1, 1131 (aor. *aahi). - 2. to concentrate or fix one's attention on (c. acc.), to direct one's thoughts to, to make up one's mind, to wish Vin I.115 (inf. *.thaatu.m), 297 (id.), 125 (grd. *.thaatabba) J I.80 (aor. *ahi); III.278; IV.134 (v. l. ati* C. expls. abhibhavitvaa ti.t.thati); DhA I.34; IV.201 (ger. *hitvaa); PvA 23 (aor. *.thaasi) 171 (id.), 75 (ger. *hitvaa). On adhi.t.theyya see Cpd.209, n. 2; 219, n. 1. - 3. to undertake, practice, perform, look after, to celebrate S II.17; A I.115 sq.; J I.50; PvA 209 (ger. *.thaaya). -pp. adhi.t.thita (q. v.).

Adhi.t.thaana (nt.) [from adhi + sthaa] 1. decision, resolution, self-determination, will (cp. on this meaning Cpd.62) D III.229 (where 4 are enumerated, viz. pa~n~naa*, sacca* caaga* upasama*); J I.23; V.174; Ps I.108; II.171 sq., 207; DhsA 166 (cp. Dhs. trsl. 44). - 2. mentioned in bad sense with abhinivesa and anusaya, obstinacy, prejudice and bias M I.136; III.31, 240; S II.17; III.10, 135, 194. - As adj. (-*) applying oneself to, bent on A III.363. - 3. looking after, management, direction, power Miln 309 (devaana.m); PvA 141 (so read for adhita.t.thaana). [adi.t.thaana as PvA 89, used as explanatory for aavaasa, should perhaps be read adhi.t.thaana in the sense of fixed, permanent, abode].

Adhi.t.thaayaka (adj.) (-*) superintending, watching, looking after, in kamma* Mhvs 5, 175; 30, 98; kammanta* DhA I.393.

Adhi.t.thita (adj.) [pp. of adhi.t.thaati] 1. standing on (c. loc.), esp. with the idea of standing above, towering over Vv 6330 (hemarathe a. = sakala.m .thaana.m abhibhavitvaa .thita VvA 269). - (a) looked after, managed, undertaken, governed Vin I.57; S V.278 (sv-a-dhi.t.thita); PvA 141 (kammanta). - (b) undertaking, bent on (c. acc.) Sn 820 (ekacariya.m).

Adhideva [adhi + deva] a superior or supreme god, above the gods M II.132; A IV.304; Sn 1148; Nd2 307b, 422 a. Cp. atideva.

Adhipa [Sanskrit adhipa, abbrev. of adhipati] ruler, lord, mastereotypeJ II.369; III.324; V.393; Pv II.86 (jan* king); Daavs III.52; VvA 314.

Adhipaka (adj.) (-*) [from prec.] mastereotypeng, ruling or governed, influenced by (cp. adhipati) A I.150 (atta* loka* dhamma*).

Adhipajjati [adhi + pajjati] to come to, reach, attain A IV.96 (anattha.m); pp. adhipanna.

Adhipa~n~naa (f.) [adhi + pa~n~naa] higher wisdom or knowledge, insight (cp. jhaana and pa~n~naa); usually in combination. with adhicitta and adhisiila Vin I.70; D I.174; III.219 (*sikkhaa); A I.240; II.92 sq., 239; III.106 sq., 327; IV.360; Nd1 39 (id.); Ps I.20, 25 sq., 45 sq., 169; II.11, 244; Pug 61.

---[ Page 29 ]---

Adhipatati [adhi + patati] to fly past, vanish J IV.111 ( = ativiya patati siigha.m atikkamati C.). - Causative adhipaateti (q. v.) in different meaning. Cp. also adhipaata.

Adhipatana (nt.) [from adhipatati] attack, pressing ThA 271.

Adhipati (n.-adj.) [adhi + pati, cp. adhipa] 1. ruler, mastereotypeJ IV.223; Vv 811; Miln 388; DhA I.36 ( = se.t.tha). 2. ruling over, governing, predominant; ruled or governed by Vbh 216 sq. (chanda.m adhipati.m katvaa making energy predominant); DhsA 125, 126 (atta* autonomous, loka* heteronomous, influenced by society). See also Dhs. trsl. 20 and Cpd.60.

Adhipateyya (nt.) A I.147; III 33 = S IV.275 is probably misreading for aadhipateyya.

Adhipatthita [pp. adhi + pattheti, cp. Sanskrit abhi + arthayati] desired, wished, begged for D I.120.

Adhipanna [cp. Sanskrit abhipanna, adhi + pad] gone into, affected with, seized by (-*), a victim of (c. loc.) S I.72, Th 2, 345 (kaamesu); Sn 1123 (ta.nhaa* = ta.nha-nugata Nd2 32); Dh 288; J III.38, 369; IV.396; V.91, 379 ( = dosena ajjhottha.ta); VI.27.

Adhipaa.timokkha (nt.) [adhi + paa.timokkha] the higher, moral, code Vin V.1 (paa.tim* +); M II.245 (+ ajjhaajiiva).

Adhipaata1 [adhipaateti] splitting, breaking, only in phrase muddhaa* head-splitting Sn 988 sq., 1004, 1025 (v. l. Nd2 *vipaata).

Adhipaata2 [from adhipatati = Sanskrit atipatati, to fly past, flit] a moth Sn 964. Expld. at Nd1 484 as "adhipaatikaa ti taa uppatitvaa khaadanti ta.mkaara.naa a. vuccanti"; Ud 72 (explained. by C. as salabhaa).

Adhipatikaa (f.) [from adhipaata2] a moth, a mosquito Nd1 484 (see adhipaata2).

Adhipaateti [Causative from adhipatati, cp. Sanskrit abhipaatayati and Paali atipaateti] to break, split J IV.337 ( = chindati). At Ud 8 prob. to be read adhibaadheti (v. l. avibaadeti. T. adhipaateti).

Adhippagharati [adhi + ppa + gharati] to flow, to trickle ThA 284.

Adhippaagaa 3 sg. aor. of adhippagacchati to go to J V.59.

Adhippaaya [adhi + ppa + i; Sanskrit abhipraaya] 1. intention, wish desire S I.124; V.108; A II.81; III.363 (bhoga*); V.65; J I.79, 83; Sdhp 62. As adj. (-*) desiring PvA 226 (hass* in play = khi.d.datthika). - 2. sense, meaning, conclusion, inference (cp. adhigama) Miln 148; PvA 8, 16, 48, 131 (the moral of a story). -adhippaayena (instr.) in the way of, like PvA 215 (kii' for fun).

Adhippaayosa [adhi + paayosa] distinction, difference, peculiarity, special meaning M I 46; S III.66; IV.208; A I.267; IV.158; V.48 sq.

Adhippeta [Sanskrit abhipreta, adhi + ppa + i, lit. gone into, gone for; cp. adhippaaya] 1. desired, approved of, agreeable D I.120; II.236; VvA 312, 315. - 2. meant, understood, intended as J III.263; PvA 9, 80, 120, 164.

Adhippetatta (nt.) [abstr. from adhippeta] the fact of being meant or understood as, in abl. *aa with reference to, as is to be understood of VvA 13; PvA 52.

Adhibaadheti [adhi + baadheti, cp. Sanskrit abhibaadhayati] to vex, oppress, gore (to death) Ud 8 (T. adhipaateti, v. l. avibaadeti).

AdhiBrahmaa [adhi + Brahmaa, cp. atiBrahmaa] a superior Brahmaa, higher than Brahmaa M II.132.

Adhibhavati [adhi + bhavati, cp. Sanskrit and Paali abhibhavati] to overcome, overpower, surpass S IV.185 sq. (cp. adhibhuu); A V.248, 282 (*bhoti); J II.336; V.30. - aor. adhibhavi J II.80. 3. pl. adhibha.msu S IV.185. See also ajjhabhavi and ajjhabhuu pp. adhibhuuta (q. v.).

Adhibhaasati [adhi + bhaasati] to address, to speak to; aor. ajjhabhaasi Vin II.195; S I.103; IV.117; Sn p. 87; PvA 56, 90.

Adhibhuu (adj.) (-*) [from adhi + bhuu, cp. adhibhavati and Sanskrit adhibhuu] overpowering, having power over; mastereotype conqueror, lord S IV.186 (anadhibhuu not mastereotypeng. For adhibhuuta the v. l. abhi* is to be preferred as more usual in this connection, see abhibhuu); Sn 684 (miga*; v. l. abhi*).

Adhibhuuta [cp. adhibhuu and adhibhuuta] overpowered S IV.186.

Adhimatta (adj.) [adhi + matta of maa] extreme, exceeding, extraordinary; nt. adv. *.m extremely M I.152, 243; S IV. 160; A II.150; IV.241; J I.92; Pug 15; Miln 146, 189, 274, 290; Pv II.36 ( = adhikatara.m PvA 86); DhA II.85; cp. PvA 281.

Adhimattata (nt.) [abstr. from prec.] preponderance A II.150; DhsA 334 (cp. Dhs. trsl. 200).

Adhimana (n.-adj.) [adhi + mano] (n.) attention, direction of mind, concentration Sn 692 (adhimanasaa bhavaatha). (adj.) directing one's mind upon, intent (on) J IV.433 ( = pasannacitta); V.29 (an*; v. l. *maana).

Adhimaana [adhi + maana] undue estimate of oneself M II.252; A V.162 sq.

Adhimaanika (adj.) [from adhimaana] having undue confidence in oneself, conceited A V.162, 169, 317; DhA III.111.

Adhimuccati [Pass. of adhi + muc] 1. to be drawn to, feel attached to or inclined towards, to indulge in (c. loc.) S III.225; IV.185; A IV.24, 145 sq., 460; V.17; Pug 63. 2. to become settled, to make up one's mind as to (with loc.), to become clear about Vin I.209 (aor. *mucci); D I.106; S I.116 (pot. *mucceyya); It 43; DA I.275. 3. to take courage, to have faith Sn 559; Miln 234; DA I.214, 316; J IV.272; V.103; DhA I.196; III.258; IV.170. 4. of a spirit, to possess, to enter into a body, with loc. of the body. A late idiom for the older anvaavisati. J IV.172; V.103, 429; DhA I.196; III.258; IV.170. pp. adhimuccita and adhimutta. - Causative adhimoceti to incline to (trs.); to direct upon (with loc.) S V.409 (citta.m devesu a.).

Adhimuccana (nt.) [from adhi + muc] making up one's mind, confidence DhsA 133, 190.

Adhimuccita and Adhimucchita (pp.) [either adhi + muc or muurch; it would seem more probable to connect it with the former (cp. adhimuccati) and consider all vv. ll. *mucchita as spurious; but in view of the credit of several passages we have to assume a regular analogy-form *mucchita, cp. mucchati and see also J.Paali Text Society 1886, 109] drawn towards, attached to, infatuated, indulging in (with loc.) M II.223 (an*); S I.113; Th 1, 732 (v. l. *muccita), 923 (cch), 1175; J II.437 (cch); III.242; V.255 (kaamesu *mucchita, v. l. *muccita). Cp. ajjhomucchita.

Adhimuccitar [n. ag. of adhimuccati] one who determines for something, easily trusting, giving credence A III.165 (v. l. *mucchitaa).

Adhimutta (adj.) [pp. of adhimuccati, cp. BSanskrit adhimukta. Av. SH I.8, 112; Divy 49, 302 etc.] intent upon (-* or with loc. or acc.), applying oneself to, keen on, inclined to, given to Vin I.183; A V.34, 38; Dh 226; Sn 1071, 1149 (*citta); Nd2 33; J I.370 (daan*) Pug 26; PvA 134 (daan*).

Adhimutti (f.) [adhi + mutti] resolve, intention, disposition D I.174; A V.36; Ps I.124; Miln 161, 169; Vbh 340, 341; DA I.44, 103; Sdhp 378.

---[ Page 30 ]---

Adhimuttika (adj.) [ = adhimutta] inclined to, attached to, bent on S II.154, 158; It 70; Vbh 339 sq. + taa (f.) inclination D I.2.

Adhimokkha [from adhi + muc] firm resolve, determination, decision M III.25 sq.; Vbh 165 sq., 425; DhsA 145, 264. See Dhs. trsl. 5; Cpd.17, 40, 95.

Adhiyita see adhiiyati.

Adhiroha [from adhi + ruh] ascent, ascending; in dur* hard to ascend Miln 322.

Adhivacana (nt.) [adhi + vacana] designation, term, attribute, metaphor, metaphorical expression D II.62; M I.113, 144, 460; A II.70, 124; III.310; IV.89, 285, 340; It 15, 114; Sn p. 218; J I.117; Nd2 34 = Dhs 1306 ( = naama sankhaa pa~n~natti etc.); Vbh 6; PvA 63. See on term Dhs. trsl. 340. -patha "process of synonymous nomenclature" (Mrs. Rh. D.) D II.68; S III.71; Dhs 1306; DhsA 51.

Adhivattati [adhi + vattati] to come on, proceed, issue, result S I.101; A II.32.

Adhivattha (adj.) [pp. of adhivasati] inhabiting, living in (c. loc.) Vin I.28; S I.197; J I.223; II.385; III.327; PvA 17. The form adhivuttha occurs at J VI.370.

Adhivara (adj.) [adhi + vara] superb, excellent, surpassing Vv 163 (an* unsurpassed, unrivalled; VvA 80 = adhika, visi.t.tha).

Adhivaasa [from adhi + vas] endurance, forbearance, holding out; only as adj. in dur* difficult to hold out Th 1, 111.

Adhivaasaka (and *ika) (adj.) [from adhivaasa] willing, agreeable, enduring, patient Vin IV.130; M I.10, 526; A II.118; III.163; V.132; J III.369 (an*); IV.11, 77.

Adhivaasana (n.t.) [from adhi + vas] 1 assent A III.31; DhA I.33. - 2. forbearance, endurance M I.10; J II.237; III.263; IV.307; V.174.

Adhivaasanataa (f.) [abstr. from adhivaasana] patience, endurance, Dhs 1342; Vbh 360 (an*).

Adhivaaseti [Causative of adhivasati, cp. BSanskrit adhivaasayati in meaning of 3] 1. to wait for (c. acc.) J I.254; II.352; III.277. - 2. to have patience, bear, endure (c. acc.) D II.128, 157; J I.46; III.281 (pahaare); IV.279, 407; V.51, 200; VvA 336, 337. - 3. to consent, agree, give in Vin I.17; D I.109 (cp. DA I.277); S IV.76; DhA I.33; PvA 17, 20, 75 and frequent passim. - Causative adhivaasaapeti to cause to wait J I.254.

Adhivaaha [from adhi + vah; cp. Sanskrit abhivahati] a carrier, bearer, adj. bringing S IV.70 (dukkha*); A I.6; Th 1, 494.

Adhivaahana (nt.-adj.) [from adhi + vah] carrying, bringing, bearing Sn 79; f. *ii Th 1, 519.

Adhivimuttatta (nt.) = adhivimokkhatta and adhimutti, i. e. propensity, the fact of being inclined or given to J V.254 (T. kaamaadhivimuttitaa, v. l. *muttata).

Adhivimokkhatta (nt.) = adhimokkha; being inclined to DhsA 261.

Adhivutti (f.) [adhi + vutti, from adhi + vac, cp. Sanskrit abhivadati] expression, saying, opinion; only in tt. adhivuttipada (v. l. adhimutti-p. at all passages) D I.13 (explained. by adhivacana-pada DA I.103); M II.228; A V.36.

Adhivuttha see adhivattha.

Adhisayana (nt.-adj.) [from adhiseti] lying on or in, inhabiting PvA 80 (ma~nca.m).

Adhisayita [pp. of adhiseti] sat on, addled (of eggs) Vin III.3; S III.153.

Adhisiila (nt.) [adhi + siila] higher morality, usually in threefold set of adhicitta-sikkha, adhipa~n~naa* adhisïla* Vin I.70; D I.174; III.219; A III.133; IV.25; DhA I.334; PvA 207. See also adhicitta, sikkhaa and siila.

Adhiseti [adhi + seti] to lie on, sit on, live in, to follow, pursue Dh 41; Sn 671 ( = gacchati C.) -pp. adhisayita.

Adhiina (adj.) (-*) [cp. Sanskrit adhiina] subject, dependent D I.72 (atta* and para*); J IV.112; DA I.217; also written aadhiina J V.350. See also under para.

Adhiiyati and adhiyati [Med. of adhi + i, 1st sg. adhiiye taken as base in Paali] to study, lit. to approach (cp. adhigacchati); to learn by heart (the Vedas and other Sacred Books) Vin I.270; S I.202 (dhammapadaani); J IV.184 (adhiiyitvaa), 496 (adhiiyamaana); VI.458; DhA III.446 (adhiiyassu). - ger. adhiiyitvaa J IV.75; adhiyaana.m J V.450 ( = sajjhaayitvaa C.) and adhicca: see adhicca 2; pp. adhiyita D I.96.

Adhunaa (adv.) [Vedic adhunaa] just now, quite recently D II.208; Vin II.185 (kaalakata); Miln 155; Daavs II.94. -aagata a new comer M I.457; J II.105. -a-bhisitta newly or just anointed D II.227. -uppanna just arisen D II.208, 221.

Adhura (nt.) [a + dhura, see dhura 2] irresponsibility, indifference to oblihations J IV.241.

Adho (adv.) [Vedic adha*; compar. adhara* = Latin inferus, Goth. undar, E. under, Ind. *n*dher-; superl. adhama* = Latin infimus] below, usually combined. or contrasted with uddha.m "above" and tiriya.m "across", describing the 3 dimensions. - uddha.m and adho above and below, marking zenith and nadir. Thus with uddha.m and the 4 bearings (disaa) and intermediate points (anudisaa) at S I.122; III.124; A IV.167; with uddha.m and tiriya.m at Sn 150, 537, 1055, 1068. Expld. at KhA 248 by he.t.thaa and in detail (dogmatically and speculatively) at Nd2 155. For further reference see uddha.m. The compounds. form of adho before vowels is adh*. -akkhaka beneath the collar-bone Vin IV.213. -agga with the points downward (of the upper row of teeth) J v.156 (+ uddh* explained. by uparima-danta C.). -kata turned down, or upside down J I.20; VI.298. -gata gone by, past. Adv. *.m since (cp. uddha.m adv. later or after) J VI.187 (ito maasa'n adhogata.m since one month ago). -gala (so read for T. udho) down the throat PvA 104. -mukha head forward, face downward, bent over, upturned Vin II.78; M I.132, 234: Vv 161 ( = he.t.thaa mukha VvA 78). -bhaaga the lower part (of the body) M I.473; DhA I.148. -virecana action of a purgative (opp. uddha* of an emetic) D I.12; DA I.98 ( = adho dosaana.m niihara.na.m); DhsA 404. -saakha.m (+ uddhamuula.m) branches down (and roots up, i. e. uprooted) DhA I.75. -sira (adj.) head downward J IV.194. -sira.m (adv.) with bowed head (cp. ava.msira.m) J VI.298 ( = sira.m adhokatvaa he.t.thaamukho C.). -siisa (adj.) head first, headlong J I.233; v.472 (*ka).

An- form of the negative prefix a-before vowels. For negatives beginning with an* see the positive.

Ana- negative prefix, contained in anappameyya, (Th 1, 1089), anamatagga and anabhava. See Vinaya Texts II.113.

Anajjhi.t.tha (adj.) [an + ajjhi.t.tha] uncalled, unbidden, unasked Vin I.113; Pv I.123 (T. anabbhita, v. l. anijjhi.t.tha; J III.165 has anavhaata; Th 2, 129 ayaacita; PvA 64 expls. by anavhaata).

Ana.ti [An, Vedic aniti and anati] to breathe KhA I.124 (in def. of baala); DA I.244 (read ananti for a.nanti). Cp. paa.na.

Anabhaava [ana + bhaava] the utter cessation of becoming. In the oldest Paali only in adj. form anabhaava.m kata or gata. This again found only in a string of four adjectives together expressing the most utter destruction. They are used at Vin III.3 of bad qualities, at S II.63 of certain wrong opinions, at M I.487; S IV.62 = v.527 of the khandas, at M I.331 of the Mental Intoxications (aasavas), at A IV.73 of certain tastes, of a bad kamma A I.135, of evil passions A I.137, 184, 218; II.214 of pride A II.41,

---[ Page 31 ]---

of craving A II.249, of the bonds A IV.8. In the supplement to the Diigha (D III.326) and in the Iti-vuttaka (p. 115) a later idiom, anabhaava.m gameti, cause to perish, is used of evil thoughts. Bdhgh (quoted Vin III.267) reports as v. l. anubhaava. Cp. Nd I.90; and Nd2 under pahiina.

Anabbhita (adj.) [an + abbhita] not restored, not to be restored Vin IV.242; Pv I.123 (where reading prob. faulty and due to a gloss; the id. p. at Th 2, 129 has ayaacita and at J III.165 anavhaata; PvA 64 expls. by anavhaata, v. l. anabbhita).

Anabhu.n.natataa (f.) [an + abbhu.n.nata + taa] the state of not being erect, i. e. hanging down J v.156.

Anabhijjhaa (f.) [an + abhijjhaa] absence of covetousness or desire D III.229, 269; Dhs 32, 35, 277.

Anabhijjhaaluu (adj.) [an + abhijjhaaluu] not greedy or covetous D III.82; Pug 40.

Anabhijjhita (adj.) [an + abhijjhita] not desired Sn 40 (cp. Nd2 38); Vv 474 ( = na abhikankhita VvA 201).

Anabhin and ati etc. see abhi* etc.

Anabhirata (adj.) [an + abhirata] not taking delight in J I.61 (nacca-disu).

Anabhirati (f.) [an + abhirati] not delighting in, dissatisfaction, discontent D I.17 (+ paritassanaa); III.289; J III. 395; DA I.111.

Anabhiraddha (adj.) [an + abhiraddha] in anger Vin IV.236.

Anabhiraddhi (f.) [an + abhiraddhi] anger, wrath D I.3 ( = kopass-eta.m adhivacana.m DA I.52).

Anabhisambhu.namaana (adj.) [ppr. med. of an + abhisambhu.naati] not obtaining, unable to get or keep up D I.101 ( = asampaapu.nanto avisahamaano vaa DA I.268).

Anamatagga (adj.) [ana ( = a negative) + mata (from man) + aggaa (pl.). So Dhammapaala (avidit-agga ThA 289); Naa.nakitti in tiikaa on DhsA 11; Trenckner, Notes 64; Oldenberg, Vin. Texts II.114. Childers takes it as an + amata + agga, and Jacobi (Erzahl. 33 and 89) and Pischel (Gram. * 251) as a + namat (from nam) + agga. It is Sanskritized at Divy 197 by anavaraagra, doubtless by some mistake. Weber, Ind. Str. III.150 suggests an + aamrta, which does not suit the context at all]. Ep. of Sa*saara "whose beginning and end are alike unthinkable", i. e., without beginning or end. Found in two passages of the Canon: S II.178, 187 sq. = III.149, 151 = v.226, 441 (quoted Kvu 29, called Anamatagga-pariyaaya at DhA II.268) and Th 2, 495, 6. Later references are Nd2 664; PvA 166; DhA I.11; II.13, 32; Sdhp 505. [Cp. anaamata and amatagga, and cp. the English idiom "world without end". The meaning can best be seen, not from the derivation (which is uncertain), but from the examples quoted above from the Sa*yutta. According to the Yoga, on the contrary (see e. g., Woods, Yoga-system of Pata~njali, 119), it is a possible, and indeed a necessary quality of the Yogii, to understand the beginning and end of Sa*saara].

Anamha (adj.) [according to Morris J.Paali Text Society 1884, 70 = ana-mha "unlaughing" with ana = an (cp. anabhaava and anamatagga) and mha from smi, cp. vimhayati = Sanskrit vismayati] being in constereotypeation or distress, crying J III. 223 (*kaale = aarodana-kaale C.).

Anaya [a + naya] misfortune, distress Miln 277, usually combined. with vyasana (as also in BSk, e. g. Jtm 215) Vin II.199; S IV.159; A v.156; Miln 292; VvA 327; Sdhp 362.

Anariya (adj.) [an + ariya, see also anaariya] not Aiyan, ignoble, low Vin I.10; D III.232 (*vohaara, 3 sets of 4; the same at Vin v.125); Sn 664, 782 (*dhamma); Pug 13. - See ariya.

Anala (adj.) [an + ala] 1. not sufficient, not enough; unable, impossible, unmanageable M I.455; J II.326 = IV. 471. - 2. dissatisfied, insatiate J v.63 ( = atitta C.). 3. *.m kata dissatisfied, satiated, S I.15 (kaamesu).

Anavaya (adj.) [derivation doubtful. See Trenckner Paali Misc. 65] not lacking, complete in (loc.), fulfilling D I.88 ( = anuuna paripuura-kaarin DA I.248); A III.152 ( = samatta paripu.n.na AA quoted by Tr. on Miln 10).

Anavosita (adj.) [an + avosita; or ana + avosita = avusita*] unfulfilled, undone Th 1, 101.

Anasana (nt.) [an + asana, cp. Sanskrit an-ashana] not eating, fasting, hunger D III.75 and in same context at Sn 311 ( = khudaa SnA 324).

Anasitvaana [ger. of an + ashati] without eating, fasting J IV.371.

Anasuyya.m [Sanskrit anasuuyan, ppr. of an + asuuyati] not grumbling J III.27 (v. l. for anusuyya.m T.).

Anasuropa [an + asuropa] absence of abruptness Dhs 1341.

Anasuuyaka (adj.) [Sanskrit anasuuyaka, cp. usuuya] not grumbling, not envious J II.192.

Anassaka (adj.) either an-assaka or a-nassaka (q. v.).

Anassana (nt.) [a + nassana, nash; cp. Sanskrit nashana] imperishableness, freedom from waste J IV.168.

Anassaavin (adj.) [an + assaavin; cp. assaava + aasava] not intoxicated, not enjoying or finding pleasure in Sn 853 (saatiyesu a. = saatavatthusa kaamagu.nesu ta.nhasanthavavirahita SnA 549).

Anassaasika (adj.) [an + assaasa + ika; cp. Sanskrit aashvaasana and BSanskrit anaashvaasika Divy 207] not consoling, discouraging, not comforting M I.514; S II.191.

Anassu.m 1st sq, pret. of anusuuyati ( = Sanskrit anvashruva.m) I have heard M I.393.

Anaagata (adj.) [an + aagata] not come yet, i. e. future. On usual combination. with atiita: see this. D III.100 sq., 134 sq., 220, 275; M III.188 sq.; S I.5; II.283; A III.100 sq., 400; Sn 318, 373, 851; It 53; J IV.159; VI.364; Dhs 1039, 1416.

Anaagamana (nt.) [an + aagamana] not coming, not returning J I 203, 264.

Anaagaamitaa (f.) [anaagaamin + taa] the state or condition of an Anaagaamin S v.129, 181, 285; A III.82; v.108, 300 sq.; Sn p. 140 = A III.143; It 1 sq., 39, 40.

Anaagaamin (adj.-n.) [an + aagaamin] one who does not return, a Never-Returner, as tt. designating one who has attained the 3rd stage out of four in the breaking of the bonds (Sa'nyojanas) which keep a man back from Arahantship. So near is the Anaagaamin to the goal, that after death he will be reborn in one of the highest heaven and there obtain Arahantship, never returning to rebirth as a man. But in the oldest passages referring to these 4 stages, the description of the third does not use the word anaagaamin (D I.156; II.92; III.107; M II.146) and anaagaamin does not mean the breaking of bonds, but the cultivation of certain specified good mental habits (S III.168, the anatta doctrine; S v.200-2, the five Indriyas; A I.64, 120, cultivation of good qualities, II 160; v.86, 171 = S 149). We have only two cases in the canon of any living persons being called anaagaamin. Those are at S v.177 and 178. The word there means one who has broken the lower five of the ten bonds, and the individuals named are laymen. At D II.92 nine others, of

---[ Page 32 ]---

whom eight are laymen, are declared after their death to have reached the third stage (as above) during life, but they are not called anaagaamins. At It 96 there are only 3 stages, the worldling, the Anaagaamin, and the Arahant; and the Sa'nyojanas are not referred to. It is probable that already in the Nikaaya period the older, wider meaning was falling into disuse. The Abhidhamma books seem to refer only to the Sa'nyojana explanation; the commentaries, so far as we know them, ignore any other. See Ps II.194; Kv. Tr. 74; Dhs. Tr. 302 n; Cp. 69. -phala fruition of the state of an Anaagaamin; always in combination. sotaapatti* sakadaagaami* anaagaami* arahatta* Vin I.293; II.240; IV.29; D I.229; II.227, 255; S III.168; v.411; A I.23, 44; III.272 sq.; IV.204, 276, 372 sq. -magga the path of one who does not return (in rebirths) Nd2 569b.

Anaagaara and Anaagaariyaa see [an + aaghaata] freedom from anger or ill-will Vin II.249.

Anaacaara [an + aacaara] misconduct, immorality J II.133; III. 276; adj. anaacaarin Pug 57.

Anaajaaniya (adj.) [an + aajaaniya] of inferior race, not of good blood M I.367.

Anaadara [an + aadara] (a) (m) disrespect PvA 257. - (b.) (adj.) disrespectful Sn 247 ( = aadaravirahita SnA 290).

Anaadarataa (f.) [abstr. from anaadara] want of consideration, in explination. of dovacassataa at Dhs 1325 = Vbh 359 = Pug 30 (where reading is anaadariyataa).

Anaadariya (nt.) [from anaadara] disregard, disrespect Vin I.176; IV.113 (where explained. in extenso); Dhs 1325 = dug 20 = Vbh 359.

Anaadaa [ger. of an + aadiyati] without taking up or on to oneself Vin IV.120 ( = anaadiyitvaa C.).

Anaadaana (adj.) [an + aadaana] free from attachment (opp. saadaana) A II.10 = It 9 = 109 = Nd2 172a; Sn 620, 741, 1094; Nd2 41 (where as nt. = ta.nha); Dh 352 ( = khandhaadisu niggaha.na DhA IV.70), 396, 406, 421.

Anaaditvaa [ger. of an + aadiyati] not taking up, not heeding J IV.352 (v. l. for T. anaadiyitvaa).

Anaadiyitvaa [ger. of an + aadiyati, Sanskrit anaadaaya] without assuming or taking up, not heeding Vin IV.120; J IV.352; DhA I.41. See also aadiyati.

Anaanu- represents the metrically lengthened from of ananu (an + anu), as found e. g. in the following compounds: *tappa.m (ppr.) not regretting J v.492; *pu.t.tha questioned Sn 782 ( = apucchita SnA 521); *yaayin not following or not defiled by evil Sn 1071 (explained. at Nd2 42 by both avedhamaana (*) avigacchamaana and by arajjamaana adussamaana); *loma not fit or suitable D II.273 (v. l. anu*).

Anaapaathagata (adj.) [an + aapaatha + gata] not fallen into the way of (the hunter), escaped him M I.174.

Anaapaada (adj.) [an + aapaada] unmarried (of a woman) J IV.178 (aapaada = apaadaana C.; a~n~nehi akata-pariggahaa).

Anaapucchaa see aapucchati.

Anaabaadha (adj.) [an + aabaadha] safe and sound VvA 351.

Anaamata (adj.) [an + amata the aa being due to metrical lengthening] not affected by death, immortal J II.56 ( = asusaana-.t.thaana C.); DhA II.99.

Anaamanta (*-) [an + aamanta] without asking or being asked; in *kata unasked, unpermitted, uninvited J VI.226; *caara living uninvited Vin v.132; A III.259.

Anaamaya (adj.) [an + aamaya] free from illness, not decaying, healthy Vv 1510 ( = aroga VvA 74), 177.

Anaamasita (adj.) [an + aamasita, pp. of aamassati] not touched, virgin- VvA 113 (*khetta).

Anaamassa (adj.) [grd. of an + aamassati, Sanskrit aamashya] not to be touched J II 360 (C. anaamaasitabba).

Anaayatana (nt.) [an + aayatana] nonexertion, not exerting oneself, sluggishness, indolence J v.121 (*siila = dussiila C.).

Anaayasa (adj.) [an + aaya + sa, or should we read anaayaasa*] void of means, unlucky, unfortunate Vv 845 ( = n'atthi ettha aayo sukhan ti anaayasa'n VvA 335).

Anaayaasa (adj.) [an + aayaasa] free from trouble or sorrow, peaceful Th 1, 1008.

Anaarambha [an + aarambha] that which is without moil and toil Sn 745 ( = nibbaana SnA 507).

Anaaraadhaka (adj.) [an + aaraadhaka] one who fails, unsuccessful Vin I.70.

Anaariya (adj.) [doublet of anariya] not Aryan, ignoble, Sn 815 (v. l. SS. anariya).

Anaalamba (adj.) [an + aalamba] without support (from above), unsuspended, not held Sn 173 (+ appati.t.tha; explained. at SnA 214 by he.t.thaa pati.t.tha-bhaavena upari aalambhaavena ca gambhiira).

Anaalaya [an + aalaya] aversion, doing away with Vin I.10 (ta.nhaaya).

Anaa'hiya and Anaa'hika (adj.) [an + aalhiya, Sanskrit aa.dhya, see also addhaQ] not rich, poor, miserable, destitute, usually combined. with da'idda M I.450; II.178 (v. l. BB. anaa'iya); A III.352 sq. (vv. ll. BB. anaa'hika), 384; J v.96.

Anaava.ta (*-) [an + aava.ta] not shut; in *dvaarataa (f.) not closing the door again*t another, accessibility, open-handedness D III.191.

Anaavattin (adj.-n.) [an + aavattin] one who does not return, almost syn. with anaagaamin in phrase anaavatti-dhamma, one who is not destined to shift or return from one birth to another, D I.156 (cp. DA I.313); III.132; Pug 16 sq., 62.

Anaavasuura.m (adv.) [an + ava + suura = suriya, with ava lengthened to aava in verse] as long as the sun does not set, before sun-down J v.56 ( = anatthangata-suriya.m C.) cp. Sanskrit utsuura.

Anaavaasa (adj.-n.) [an + aavaasa] uninhabited, an uninhabited place Vin II.22, 33; J II.77.

Anaavikata etc. see aavikata.

Anaavila (adj.) [an + aavila] undisturbed, unstained, clean, pure D I.84 ( = nikkaddama DA I.226); III.269, 270; Sn 637 ( = nikkilesa SnA 469 = DhA IV.192); Th 2, 369 (aavilacitta +); Dh 82, 413; ThA 251; Sdhp 479.

Anaavuttha (adj.) [an + aavuttha, pp. of aavasati] not dwelt in D .II50.

Anaasaka (adj.) [an + aasaka] fasting, not taking food S IV.118. f. *aa [cp. Sanskrit anaashaka nt.] fasting, abstaining from food Dh 141 ( = bhatta-pa.tikkhepa DhA III.77).

Anaasakatta (nt.) [abstr. of anaasaka] fasting Sn 249 ( = abhojana SnA 292).

Anaasava (adj.) [an + aasava] free from the 4 intoxications (see aasava) Vin II.148 = 164; D III.112; Sn 1105, 1133; Dh 94, 126, 386; Nd2 44; It 75; Pug 27, Dhs 1101, 1451; Vbh 426; Th 1, 100; Pv II.615; VvA 9. See aasava and cp. niraasava.

---[ Page 33 ]---

Anaasasaana (adj.) [an + aasasaana] not longing after anything Sn 369 (SnA 365 however reads anaasayaana and has anaasasaana as v. l. Cp. also vv. ll. to aasasaana. Expld by ka~nci ruupa-di-dhamma.m na-si.msati SnA 365.

Anaahaara (adj.) [an + aahaara] being without food M I.487; Sn 985.

Anikka.d.dhanaa (f.) [a + nikka.d.dhanaa] not throwing out or expelling J III.22.

Anikkasaava (adj.) [a + nikkasaava, cp. nikasaava] not free from impurity, impure, stained Dh 9 = Th 1, 969 = J II.198 = v.50; DhA I.82 ( = raaga-diihi kasaavehi sakasaava).

Anikhaata (adj.) [a + nikhaata, pp. of nikhanati] not dug into, not dug down, not deep J VI.109 (*kuula; C. agambhiiraa).

Anigha see nigha1 and iigha.

Anicchaa (f.) [an + icchaa] dispassion S v.6; adj. *a without desires, not desiring Sn 707.

Ani~njana (nt.) [an + i~njana] immobility, steadfastness Ps I.15.

Ani~njita (adj.) [an + i~njita] immoveable, undisturbed, unshaken Th 1, 386.

Ani.t.thangata see ni.t.thaa2.

Ani.t.thita see ni.t.thita.

Anitthi (f.) [an + itthi] a woman lacking the characteristics of womanhood, a woman ceasing to be a woman, "nonwoman" J II.126 (compd with anadii a river without water; interpreted by ucchi.t.th-itthi).

Anindi- [the compounds. form of nindaa] in *'ocana (with) faultless eyes J VI.265.

Anindita (adj.) [a + nindita] blameless, faultless J IV.106 (*angin of blameless body or limbs).

Anibbisa'n [ppr. of nibbisati, q. v.] not finding Th 1, 78 = Dh 153 ( = ta.m ~naa.na.m avindanto DhA III.128).

Animisa (adj.) [Ved. anime.sa, cp. nimisati] not winking, waking, watchful Daavs v.26 (nayana).

Aniyata (adj.) [a + niyata] not settled, uncertain, doubtful Vin I.112; II.287; D III.217.

Aniyamita (adj.) [pp. of a + niyameti] indefinite (as tt. g.) VvA 231.

Anila [from an, cp. Sanskrit aniti to breathe, cp. Gr. a)/nemos wind; Latin animus breath, soul, mind] wind J IV.119 (*patha air, sky); Miln 181; VvA 237; Sdhp 594.

Aniraakata (adj.) [a + niraakata] see nirankaroti.

Anissara (adj.) [an + issara] without a personal ereator Th 1, 713.

Anissukin (adj.) [an + issukin, see also an-ussukin] not hard, not greedy, generous D III.47 (+ amaccharin; v. l. anussukin); SnA 569 (see under ni.t.thurin).

Aniika (nt.) [Ved. aniika face, front, army to Idg. *og* (see), cp. Gr. o)/mma eye, Latin oculus, see also Sanskrit pratiika and Paali akkhi] army, array, troops (orig. "front", i. e. of the battle-array) Vin IV.107 (where explained. in detail); Sn 623 (bala* strong in arms, with strong array i. e. of khanti, which precedes; cp. SnA 467). -agga a splendid army Sn 421 ( = balakaaya senaamukha SnA 384). -.t.tha a sentinel, royal guard D III.64, 148; J v.100; VI.15 ("men on horseback", horseguard); Miln 234, 264. -dassana troop-inspection D I.6 (a.niika* at DA I.85, q. v. interpretation); Vin IV.107 (senaabyuuha +).

Aniigha see nigha1 and cp. iigha.

Aniiti (f.) [an + iiti] safety, soundness, sound condition, health A IV.238; Miln 323 (abl. *ito).

Aniitika (adj.) [from aniiti] free from injury or harm, healthy, secure Vin II.79 = 124 (+ anupaddava); III.162; S IV.371; Sn 1137 (iitii vuccanti kilesaa etc. Nd2 48); Miln 304.

Aniitiha (adj.) [an + iitiiha, the latter a cpd. der. from iti + ha = saying so and so, cp. itihaasa and itihiitiha.m] not such and such, not based on hearsay (itiha), not guesswork or (mere) talk A II.26; Th 1, 331 (cp. M I.520); Sn 1053 ( = Nd2 49, 151); J I.456; Nett 166 (cp. It 28).

Anu1 (indecl.) [Vedic anu, Av. anu; Gr. a)/nw to a)/na along, up; Av. ana, Goth. ana, Ohg. ana, Ags. on, Ger. an, Latin an (in anhelare etc.)] prep. and prefix - A. As prep. anu is only found occasionally, and here its old (vedic) function with acc. is superseded by the loc. Traces of use w. acc. may be seen in expressions of time like anu pa~ncaaha.m by 5 days, i. e. after (every) 5 days (cp. ved. anu dyuun day by day); a. vassa'n for one year or yearly; a. sa'nvacchara.m id. - (b) More frequent w. loc. ( = alongside, with, by) a. tiire by the bank S IV.177; pathe by the way J v.302; parive.niya.m in every cell Vin I.80; magge along the road J v.201; vaate with the wind J II.382. B. As prefix: (a) General character. anu is frequent as modifying (directional) element with well-defined meaning ("along"), as such also as 1st component of prefix-compounds, e. g. anu + aa (anvaa*), anu + pra (anuppa*), + pari, + vi, + sa'n. - As base, i. e. 2nd part of a prefix-cpd. it is rare and only found in combination sam-anu*. The prefix sa'n is its nearest relation as modifying prefix The opp. of anu is pa.ti and both are often found in one cpd. (cp. *loma, *vaata). (b) Meanings. I. With verbs of motion: "along towards". - (a) the motion viewed from the front backward = after, behind; esp. with verbs denoting to go, follow etc. E. g. *aya going after, connexion; *aagacch* follow, *kkamati follow, *dhaavati run after, *patta received, *parivattati move about after, *bandhati run after, *bala rear-guard, *bhaasati speak after, repeat, *vaada speaking after, blame, *vicarati roam about *viloketi look round after (survey), *sa'ncarati proceed around etc. - (b) the motion viewed from the back forward = for, towards an aim, on to, over to, forward. Esp. in double prefix-compounds (esp. with *ppa*), e. g. anu-aadisati design for, dedicate *kankhin longing for, *cintana care for, *ti.t.thati look after, *padinna given over to, *pavecchati hand over, *pavi.t.tha entered into, *pasa'nkamati go up to, *rodati cry for, *socati mourn for. - II. Witb verbs denoting a state or condition: (a) literal: along, at, to, combined with. Often resembling E. be- or Ger. be-, also Latin ad- and con-. Thus often transitiving or simply emphatic. E. g. *kampaa com-passion, *ki.n.na be-set, *ga.nhaati take pity on, *gaayati be-singen, *jagghati laugh at, belaugh, *ddaya pity with, *masati touch at, *yu~njati order along, *yoga devotion to, *rakkhati be-guard, *litta be-smeared or an-ointed, *vitakheti reflect over, *sara con-sequential; etc. - (b) applied: according to, in conformity with. E. g. *kuula being to will, *chavika befitting, *~naata permitted, al-lowed, *mati con- sent, a-greement, *madati ap-preciate, *ruupa = con-form, *vattin acting according to, *ssavana by hearsay, *saasati ad-vise, com-mand etc. - III. (a) (fig.) following after = second to, secondary, supplementary, inferior, minor, after, smaller; e. g. *dhamma lesser morality, *pabbajaa discipleship, *pavattaka ruling after, *bhaaga after-share, *majjha mediocre, *yaagin assisting in sacrifice, *vya~njana smaller marks, etc.; cp. pa.ti in same sense. - (b) distributive (cp. A. a.) each, every, one by one, (one after one): *disaa in each direction, *pa~ncaaha.m every 5 days, *pubba one after the other. - IV. As one of the contrasting (-comparative) prefixes (see remarks on ati and cp. aa3) anu often occurs in reduplicative compounds after the style of khudda-nukhuddaka "small and still smaller", i. e. all sorts of

---[ Page 34 ]---

small items or whatever is small or insignificant. More frequent combinations. are the following: (q. v. under each heading) pada-nupada.m, pubba-nupubbaka, ponkha-nuponkha.m, Buddha-nuBuddha, vaada-nuvaada, se.t.tha-nuse.t.thi. - V. As regards dialectical differences in meanings of prefixes, anu is frequent found in Paali where the Sanskrit variant presents apa (for ava), abhi or ava. For Paali anu = Sanskrit (Ved.) apa see anuddhasta; = Sanskrit abhi see anu-gijjhati, *bruuheti, *sandahati; = Sanskrit ava see anu-kantati, *kassati2, *ki.n.na, *gaahati, *bujjhati *bodha, *lokin, *vajja. Note (a) anu in compounds. is always contracted to *a-nu*, never elided like adhi = *dhi or abhi = *bhi. The rigid character of this rule accounts for forms isolated out of this sort of epds. (like maha-nubhaava), like aanupubbikathaa (from *pubbaanupubba*), aanubhaava etc. We find aanu also in combination. with an- under the influence of metre. - (b) the assimilation (contracted) form of anu before vowels is anv*.

Anu2 (adj.) subtile; frequent spelling for a.nu, e. g. D I.223 Sdhp 271, 346 (anu.m thuula.m). See a.nu.

Anukankhin (adj.) [from anu + kaanks.] striving after, longing for J v.499 (piya*).

Anukantati [anu + kantati2] to cut Dh 311 (hattha.m = phaaleti DhA III.484).

Anukampaka and *ika (adj.) [from anukampati] kind of heart, merciful, compassionate, full of pity (-* or c. loc.) D III.187; S I.105 (loka*), 197; v.157; A IV.265 sq.; It 66 (sabba-bhuuta*); Pv I.33 ( = kaarunika PvA 16), 53 ( = atthakaama, hitesin PvA 25), 88; II.14 ( = anugga.nhataka PvA 69), 27; ThA 174; PvA 196 (satthaa sattesu a.).

Anukampati [anu + kampati] to have pity on, to commiserate, to pity, to sympathise with (c. acc.) S I.82, 206; v.189. Imper. anukampa Pv II.16 ( = anuddaya'n karohi PvA 70) and anukampassu Pv III.28 ( = anugga.nha PvA 181). Med. ppr. anukampamaana Sn 37 ( = anupekkhamaana anugayhamaana Nd2 50); PvA 35 (ta.m), 62 (pitara.m), 104. -pp. anukampita (q. v.).

Anukampana (nt.) [from last] compassion, pity PvA 16, 88.

Anukampaa (f.) [abstr. from anukampati] compassion, pity, mercy D I.204; M I.161; II.113; S I.206; II.274 (loka*); IV.323; v.259 sq.; A I.64, 92; II.159; III.49; IV.139; Pug 35. - Often in abl. anukampaaya out of pity, for the sake of D III.211 (loka* out of compassion for all mankind, + atthaya hitaaya); J III.280; PvA 47, 147.

Anukampita (adj.) [pp. of anukampati] compassioned, gratified, remembered, having done a good deed (of mercy) Pv III.230.

Anukampin (adj.) [cp. anukampaka] compassionate, anxious for, commiserating. Only in following phrases: hita* full of solicitude for the welfare of S v.86; Sn 693; Pv III.76. sabbapaa.na-bhuuta-hita* id. S IV.314; A II.210; III.92; IV.249; Pug 57, 68. sabba-bhuuta* S I.25, 110; A II.9; It 102.

Anukaroti [anu + kr] to imitate, "to do after" A I.212; J I.491; II.162; DhA IV.197. - ppr. anukabba.m Vin II.201 (mama-*). - Med. anukubbati S I.19 = J IV.65. See also anukubba. On anvakaasi see anukassati 2.

Anukassati [anu + kassati, krs.] 1. [Sanskrit anukar.sati] to draw after, to repeat, recite, quote D II.255 (siloka.m). - 2. [Sanskrit ava-kar.sati] to draw or take of, to remove, throw down, Th 1, 869 (aor. anvakaasi = khipi, cha.d.desi C.).

Anukaama (adj.) [anu + kaama] responding to love, loving in return J II.157.

Anukaara [cp. anukaroti] imitation Dpvs v.39.

Anukaarin (adj.) imitating Daavs v.32.

Anuki.n.na [pp. of anu + kirati] strewn with, beset with, dotted all over Pv IV.121 (bhamara-ga.na*).

Anukubba (adj.) (-*) [ = Sanskrit anukurvat, ppr. of anukaroti] "doing correspondingly" giving back, retaliating J II.205 (kicca*).

Anukubbati see anukaroti.

Anukula frequent spelling for anukuula.

Anukulaka (adj.) = anukula Sdhp 242 (iccha* according to wish).

Anukuula (adj.) [anu + kuula, opp. pa.tikuula] favourable, agreeable, suitable, pleasant VvA 280; spelt anukula at Sdhp 297, 312. -bhava complaisance, willingness VvA 71. -ya~n~na a propitiative sacrifice D I.144 (explained. at DA I.302 as anukula* = sacrifice for the propagation of the clan).

Anukka.n.thati [an + ukka.n.thati] not to be sorry or not to lack anything, in ppr. *anto J v.10; and pp. *ita without regret or in plenty PvA 13.

Anukka.n.thana (nt.) [an + ukka.n.thana] having no lack anything, being contented or happy J VI.4.

Anukkama [to anukkamati] 1. order, turn, succession, going along; only in instr. anukkamena gradually, in due course or succession J I.157, 262, 290; VvA 157; PvA 5, 14, 35 etc. - 2. that which keeps an animal in (regular) step, i. e. a bridle M I.446; Sn 622 (sandaana.m saha*).

Anukkamati [anu + kram] 1. to follow, go along (a path = acc.) A v.195; It 80 (magga.m). - 2. to advance (not with Morris J P T S. 1886, 111 as "abandon") S I.24, Th 1, 194.

Anukkhipati [anu + khipati] to throw out Cp. XI.6 (va.t.ta.m).

Anukkhepa [anu + khepa, see anukkhipati] compensation Vin I.285.

Anukha.nati [anu + kha.nati] to dig after or further J v.233.

Anukhuddaka (adj.) [anu + khuddaka] in cpd. khudda* whatever there is of minor things, all less important items Vin II.287 = D II.154 = Miln 142; Miln 144.

Anuga (-*) (adj.-suff.) [from anu + gam] following or followed by, going after, undergoing, being in or under, standing under the influence of Sn 332 (vasa* in the power of), 791 (ejaa* = abhibhuuta Sn 527), 1095 (Maara vasa* = abhibhuyya viharanti Nd2 507); It 91 (ejaa*); J III.224 (vasa* = vasavattin C.); Mhvs 7, 3.

Anugacchati [anu + gacchati] to go after, to follow, to go or fall into (w. acc.) KhA 223; PvA 141 (*gacchanto); aor. *gamaasi Vin I.16, and anvagaa Mhvs 7, 10; 3rd pl. anvaguu Sn 586 (vasa'n = vasa'n gata SnA 461). Pass. anugammati, ppr. anugammamaana accompanied or followed by, surrounded, adorned with J I.53; v.370. pp. anugata (q. v.).

Anugata (adj.) [pp. of anugacchati] gone after, accompanied by, come to; following; fig. fallen or gone into, affected with (-*), being a victim of, suffering M I.16; D III.85, 173 (parisaa); A II.185 (sota*, v. l. anudhata); J II.292 (samudda*); v.369; Nd2 32 (ta.nhaa*); PvA 102 (naama.m mayha.m a. has been given to me), 133 (kammaphala*).

Anugati (f.) (-*) [from anu + gam] following, being in the train of, falling under, adherence to, dependence on S I.104 (vas* being in the power). Usually in cpd. di.t.tha-nugati a sign (lit. belonging to) of speculation Vin II.108; S II.203; Pug 33; DhA IV.39.

---[ Page 35 ]---

Anugama [from anu + gam] following after, only as adj. in dur* difficult to be followed J IV.65.

Anugaamika (adj.) going along with, following, accompanying; resulting from, consequential on Kh VIII.8 (nidhi, a treasure acc. a man to the next world); J IV.280 (*nidhi); Miln 159 (parisaa); PvA 132, 253 (daana.m naama *a.m nidaanan ti).

Anugaamin (adj.) [from anugacchati] following, attending on; an attendant, follower SnA 453 ( = anuyutta).

Anugaayati [anu + gaayati] to sing after or to, recite (a magic formula or hymn) praise, celebrate D I.104, 238; Sn 1131 (anugaayissa'n); Miln 120.

Anugaahati [anu + gaahati] to plunge into, to enter (acc.) Sdhp 611.

Anugijjhati [anu + gijjhati] to be greedy after, to covet Sn 769 (cp. Nd1 12); J III.207; IV.4 ( = giddhaa gathitaa hutvaa alliiyanti C.). pp. *giddhaa (q. v.). Cp. abhigijjhati.

Anugiddha [pp. of anugijjhati] greedy after, hankering after, desiring, coveting Sn 86 (ana-nu*), 144, 952; Th 1, 580.

Anugga.nha (adj.) [cp. anuggaha] compassionate, ready to help PvA 42 *siila.

Anugga.nhataka (adj.) [ = anugganha] compassionate, commiserating, helping PvA 69 ( = anukampaka).

Anugga.nhana (nt.) anuggaha1 DhsA 403.

Anu(g)ga.nhaati [anu + ga.nhaati] to have pity on, to feel sorry for, to help, give protection D I.53 (vaaca.m; cp. DA I.160: saarato aga.nha.nto); J II.74; Nd2 50 (ppr. med. *gayhamaana = anukampamaana); Pug 36; PvA 181 (imper. anugga.nha = anukampassu). pp. anuggahiita (q. v.).

Anuggaha1 [anu + grah] "taking up", compassion, love for, kindness, assistance, help, favour, benefit S II.11; III.109; IV.104; v.162; A I.92, 114; II.145; IV.167; v.70; It 12, 98; J I.151; v.150; Pug 25; PvA 145; ThA 104.

Anuggaha2 (adj.) [an + uggaha] not taking up Sn 912 ( = na ga.nhaati Nd1 330).

Anuggahiita (and *ita) [pp. of anugga.nhaati] commiserated, made happy, satisfied M I.457; S II.274; III.91; IV.263; A III.172; J III.428.

Anuggaahaka (adj.) [from anuggaha] helping, assisting S III.5; V.162; Miln 354 (nt. = help).

Anugghaa.teti [an + ugghaa.teti] not to unfasten or open (a door) Miln 371 (kavaa.ta.m).

Anugghaata [an + ugghaata] not shaking, a steady walk J VI.253.

Anugghaatin (adj.) [from last] not shaking, not jerking, J VI.252; Vv 53 (read *ii for i); VvA 36.

Anughaayati [anu + ghaayati1] to smell, snuff, sniff up Miln 343 (gandha.m).

Anucankamati [anu + cankamati] to follow (along) after, to go after D I.235; M I.227; Th 1, 481, 1044; Causative *aapeti M I.253, cp. Lal. Vist. 147, 3; M Vastu I.350.

Anucankamana (nt.) [from anucankamati] sidewalk J I.7.

Anucarati [anu + cariti] to move along, to follow; to practice; pp. anuci.n.na and anucarita (q. v.)

Anucarita (-*) [pp. of anucarati] connected with, accompanied by, pervaded with D I.16, 21 (viima.msa* = anuvicarita DA I.106); M I.68 (id.); Miln 226.

Anuci.n.na (pp.) [pp. of anucarati] 1. pursuing, following out, practising, doing; having attained or practised Vin II.203 = It 86 (pamaada.m); J I 20 (v.126); Th 1, 236; 2, 206; Dpvs IV.9. - 2. adorned with, accompanied by, connected with J IV.286.

Anucintana (nt.) [from anucinteti] thinking, upon, intention, care for PvA 164.

Anucinteti [anu + cinteti] to think upon, to meditate, consider S I.203 (v. l. for anuvicinteti).

Anuccangin see anujjangin.

Anucchavika (and *ya) (adj.) [anu + chavi + ka] "according to one's skin", befitting, suitable, proper, pleasing, fit for, J I.58, 62, 126, 218; II.5; IV.137, 138; Miln 358; DhA I.203, 390; II.55, 56; VvA 68, 78; PvA 13, 26 ( = kappiya), 66, 81, 286. anucchaviya at Vin II.7 (an*); III.120 (id. + ananulomika); Miln 13.

Anucchi.t.tha (adj.) [see ucchi.t.tha] (food) that is not thrown away or left over; untouched, clean (food) J III.257; DhA II.3 (vv. ll. anucci.t.tha).

Anujagghati [anu + jagghati] to laugh at, deride, mock D I.91; DA I.258 (cp. sa~njagghati ibid 256).

Anujavati [anu + javati] to run after, to hasten after, to follow J VI.452 ( = anubandhati).

Anujaata (adj.) [anu + jaata] "born after" i. e. after the image of, resembling, taking after; esp. said of a son (putta), resembling his father, a worthy son It 64 (atijaata +, opp. avajaata); Th 1, 827 (fig. following the example of), 1279; J VI.380; DhA I.129; Daavs II.66.

Anujaanaati [anu + jaanaati] 1. to give permission, grant, allow Vin IV.225; A II.197; Pv IV.167; PvA 55, 79, 142. - 2. to advise, prescribe Vin I.83; II.301: Sn 982. grd. anu~n~neyya that which is allowed A II.197; pp. anu~n~naata (q. v.) Causative anujaanaapeti J I.156.

Anujiivati [anu + jiivati] to live after, i. e. like (acc.), to live for or on, subsist by J IV.271 ( = upajiivati, tassa-nubhaavena jiivita.m laddha.m (C.). -pp. anujiivata (q. v.).

Anujiivita (nt.) [pp. of anujiivati] living (after), living, livelihood, subsistence, life Sn 836 ( = jiivita.m SnA 545).

Anujiivin (adj.-n.) [from anujiivati] living upon, another, dependent; a follower, a dependant A I.152; III.44; J III.485; Daavs v.43.

Anujju (adj.) [an + ujju] not straight, crooked, bent, in compounds *angin (anujjangin) with (evenly) bent limbs, i. e. with perfect limbs, graceful f. *ii Ep. of a beautiful woman J v.40 ( = ka~ncana-sannibha-sariiraa C.); VI.500 (T. anuccangii, C. aninditaa agarahitangii); *gaamin going crooked i. e. snake J IV.330; *bhuuta not upright (fig. of citta) J v.293.

Anujjuka = anujju J III.318.

Anujjhaana (nt.) [anu + jhaana] meditation, reflection, introspection Miln 352 (*bahula).

Anu~n~naata (adj.) [pp. of anujaanaati] permitted, allowed; sanctioned, given leave, ordained D I.88; J I.92; II.353, 416; Pv I.123 (na a. = ananu~n~naata at id. p. Th 2, 129; explained. at PvA 64 by ananumata); Pug 28; DA I.247, 248, 267; PvA 12, 81.

Anu~n~naatatta (nt.) [abstr. to anu~n~naata] being permitted, permission J II.353.

Anu.t.thaka (adj.) [from an + u.t.thahati] not rising, not rousing oneself, inactive, lazy Th 1, 1033.

---[ Page 36 ]---

Anu.t.thahati [anu + .thahati = *thaati, see *ti.t.thati] to carry out, look after, practise do J v.121. -pp. anu.t.thita (q. v.).

Anu.t.thahaana (adj.) [ppr. of an + u.t.thahati] one who does not rouse himself, not getting up, inactive Dh 280 ( = anu.t.thahanto avaayaamanto DhA III.409).

Anu.t.thaatar [n. ag. to an + u.t.thahati] one without energy or zeal Sn 96 (niddaasiilin sabhaasiilin +) SnA 169 ( = viriya-tejavirahita).

Anu.t.thaana (nt.) [an + u.t.thaana] "the not getting up", inactivity, want of energy Dh 241 (sariira-pa.tijaggana.m akaronto DhA III.347).

Anu.t.thita [pp. of anu.t.thati = anuti.t.thati] practising, effecting or effected, come to, experienced, done D II.103; S IV. 200; A III.290 sq.; IV.300; J II.61; Miln 198; PvA 132 (cp. anugata).

Anu.t.thubhati [formally Sanskrit anus..tobhati, but in meaning = *anus..tiivati; anu + .t.thubhati, the etymology of which see under ni.t.thubhati] to lick up with one's saliva DA I.138.

Anu.t.thurin v. l. at SnA 569, see ni.t.thurin.

Anu.dasati [anu + .dasati] to bite J VI.192.

Anu.dahati [anu + .dahati] to burn over again, burn thoroughly, fig. to destroy, consume J II.330; VI.423. Pass. *.dayhati J v.426. - Also spelt *dahati, e. g. at S IV. 190 = v.53; Th 2, 488.

Anu.dahana (nt.) [from anu.dahati] conflagration, burning up, consumption J v.271; ThA 287 (d).

Anu.n.nata (adj.) [u.n.nata] not raised, not elated, not haughty, humble Sn 702 (care = uddhacca.m na-pajjeyya SnA 492).

Anutappati [anu + tappati1; Sanskrit anutapyate, Pass. of anutapati] to be sorry for, to regret, repent, feel remorse J I.113; IV.358; v.492 (ppr. an-anutappa.m); Dh 67, 314; Pv II.942; DhA II.40. grd. anutappa to be regretted A I.22, 77; III.294, and anutaapiya A III.46 (an*).

Anutaapa [from anu + taapa] anguish, remorse, conscience Vv 405 ( = vippa.tisaara VvA 180); DhsA 384.

Anutaapin (adj.) [from anutaapa] repenting, regretting Th 2, 57, 190; Vv 21; VvA 115.

Anutaapiya grd. of anutappati, q. v.

Anutaa'eti [anu + ta'eti] to beat J II.280.

Anuti.t.thati [anu + ti.t.thati see also anu.t.thahati] to look after, to manage, carry on J v.113 ( = anugacchati); PvA 78.

Anutiire (adv.) [anu + tiire, loc. of tiira] along side or near the bank (of a river) Sn 18 ( = tiira-samiipe SnA 28). Cp. anu A b.

Anuttara (adj.) [an + uttara] "nothing higher", without a superior, incomparable, second to none, unsurpassed, excellent, preeminent Sn 234 ( = adhikassa kassaci abhaavato KhA 193), 1003; Dh 23, 55 ( = asadisa appa.tibhaaga DhA I.423); Pv IV.35 2 (dhamma); Dhs 1294; DA I.129; PvA 1, 5, 6, 18, etc.

Anuttariya (nt.) [abstr. from anuttara] preeminence, superiority, excellency; highest ideal, greatest good. They are mentioned as sets of 3 (viz. dassana*, pa.tipadaa*, vimutti*) at D III.219, or of 6 (viz. dassana*, savana*, laabha*, sikkhaa*, paaricariyaa*, anussata*) at D III.250, 281; A I.22; III.284, 325 sq., 452; Ps I.5. Cp. M I.235; A v.37. See also aanuttariya.

Anuttaana (adj.) [an + uttaana] not (lying) open, not exposed; fig. unexplained, unclear J VI.247.

Anutthunaa (f.) [from anutthunaati] wailing, crying, lamenting Nd1 167 ( = vaacaapalaapa vippalaapa etc.).

Anutthunaati [anu + thunati (thunaati); anu + stan] to wail, moan, deplore, lament, bewail D III.86; Sn 827 (cp. Nd1 167); Dh 156; J III.115; v.346, 479; DhA III.133; PvA 60 (wrongly applied for ghaayati, of the fire of conscience).

Anutraasin (adj.) [an + utraasin] not terrified, at ease Th 1, 864.

Anuthera [anu + thera] an inferior Thera, one who comes next to the elder Vin II.212 (thera-nutheraa Th. and next in age).

Anudadaati [anu + dadaati] to concede, grant, admit, fut. anudassati Miln 276, 375.

Anudayati (to sympathise with) see under anuddaa.

Anudassita [pp. of anudasseti] manifested Miln 119.

Anudahati see anu.dahati.

Anudi.t.tha [pp. of anudisati] pointed out, appointed, dedicated, nt. consecration, dedication J v.393 (anudi.t.tha = asukassa naama dassatii ti C.); Pv I.107 ( = uddi.t.tha PvA 50).

Anudi.t.thi (f.) [anu + di.t.thi] an "after-view", sceptical view, speculation, heresy D I.12; M II.228; S III.45 sq.; Th 1, 754; Miln 325; DA I.103. atta-nudi.t.thi (q. v.) a soul-speculation.

Anudisati [anu + disati] to point out, direct, bid, address PvA 99 (aor. anudesi + anvesi). -pp. anudi.t.tha (q. v.).

Anudisaa (f.) [anu + disaa] an intermediate point of ihe compass, often collectively for the usual 4 intermediate points D I.222; S I.122; III.124.

Anudiipeti [anu + diipeti] to explain Miln 227 (dhamma-dhamma.m).

Anuduuta [anu + duuta] a person sent with another, a travelling companion Vin II.19, 295; DhA II.76, 78.

Anudeva see anvadeva.

Anuddayataa (f.) [abstr. to anuddayaa] sympathy with (-*) compassion, kindness, favour, usually as par* kindness to or sympathy with other people S II.218; v.169 (T. anudayataa); A III.184; It 72; Vbh 356.

Anuddayaa (and anudayaa) (f.) [anu + dayaa] compassion, pity, mercy, care Vin II.196; S I.204; II.199; IV.323; A II.176; III.189; Pug 35 (anukampaa); J I.147, 186, 214; PvA 70, 88, 181 ( = anukampaa). In compounds anudaya* e. g. *sampanna full of mercy J I.151, 262; PvA 66.

Anuddaa (f.) [contracted form of anuddayaa] = anuddayaa Dhs 1056, where also the other abstr. formations anuddaayanaa and anuddaayitatta.m "care, forbearance and consideration"; DhsA 362 (anudayatii ti anu.ddaa).

Anuddha.mseti [anu + dha.mseti] to spoil, corrupt, degrade Vin IV.148 (explination. here in slightly different meaning = codeti vaa codaapeti vaa to reprove, scold, bring down); It 42. Usually in stereotype phrase raago citta.m a. lust degrades the heart Vin III.111; M I.26; S I.186; A I.266; II.126; III. 393 sq. -pp. anuddhasta (q. v.).

Anuddhata (adj.) [an + uddhata] not puffed up, not proud, unconceited calm, subdued Sn 850 ( = uddhacca-virahita SnA 549, cp. anu.n.nata); It 30; Dh 363 ( = nibbutacitta DhA IV.93); Vv 648; Pug 59.

Anuddharin (adj.) [an + uddharin] not proud Sn 952 ( = anussukin SnA 569) see ni.t.thurin.

---[ Page 37 ]---

Anuddhasta (adj.) [anu + dhasta, pp. of anuddha.mseti, cp. Sanskrit apadhvasta] spoilt, corrupt, degraded M I.462 (citta); A II.126 (id.).

Anudhamma [anu + dhamma] 1. in compounds. with dhamma as dhamma-nudhamma to be judged as a redupl. cpd. after the manner of compounds mentioned under anu IV. and meaning "the Law in all its parts, the dhamma and what belongs to it, the Law in its fullness". For instances see dhamma C. IV. Freq. in phrase dh*-a-nudh*-pa.tipanna "one who mastereotype the completeness of the Dh.", e. g. S II.18; III.163; It 81; Ps II.189. - 2. conformity or accordance with the Law, lawfulness, relation, essence, consistency, truth; in phrase Dhammassa (c*) anudhamma.m vyaakaroti to explain the truth of the Dh. Vin I.234; D I.161; M I.368, 482; S II.33; III.6; IV.51; V.7. See further M III.30; Sn 963 (cp. Nd1 481 for exegesis). Also in cpd. *caarin living according to the Dhamma, living in truth S II.81, 108; A II.8; Dh 20 (cp. DhA I.158); Vv 317; Sn 69 (see Nd2 51).

Anudhammataa (f.) [abstr. to anudhamma) lawfulness, conformity to the Dhamma A II.46; Ps I.35, 36.

Anudhaareti [anu + dhaareti] to hold up DA I.61 (chatta.m), cp. J 1.53, dhariyamaana.

Anudhaavati [anu + dhaavati] to run after, to chase, follow, persecute, pursue M I.474; S I.9; Dh 85; Th 1, 1174; Miln 253, 372.

Anudhaavin (adj.-n.) [from anudhaavati] one who runs after S I.9, 117.

Anunadii (-tire) along the bank of the river S IV.177 should be read anu nadiitiire ( = anu prep. c. loc.; see under anu A).

Anunamati [anu + namati] to incline, bend (intrs.), give way Miln 372 (of a bow).

Anunaya [from anuneti] "leading along", friendliness, courtesy, falling in with, fawning D III.254 (*sa'nyojana); A IV.7 sq. (id.) M I.191; Dhs 1059; Vbh 145; Nett 79; combined. w. opp. pa.tigha (repugnance) at Miln 44, 122, 322.

Anunayana (nt.) [from anuneti] fawning DhsA 362.

Anunaasika (adj.) [anu + naasaa + ika] nasal; as tt. g. the sound .m; in *lopa apocope of the nasal .m VvA 114, 253, 275, 333.

Anuniita (adj.) [pp. of anuneti] led, induced S IV.71; Sn 781.

Anunetar [n. ag. from anuneti] one who reconciles or conciliates Ps II.194 (netaa vinetaa anunetaa).

Anuneti [anu + neti] to conciliate, appease, win over, flatter S I.232 (ppr. anunayamaana); pp. anuniita (q. v.).

Anupa see anuupa.

Anupakampati [anu + pakampati] to shake, move, to be unsteady Th 1, 191 = Ud 41.

Anupakkama [an + upakkama] not attacking, instr. *ena not by attack (from external enemies) Vin II.195.

Anupakku.t.tha (adj.) [an + upak.r] blameless, irreproachahle D I.113; Vin IV.160; Sn p. 115; DA I.281.

Anupakkhandati [anu + pa + khandati] to push oneself forward, to encroach on D I.122 ( = anupavisati DA I.290); ger. anupakhajja pushing oneself in, intruding Vin II.88 ( = antopavisati), 213; IV.43 ( = anupavisati); M I.151, 469; S III.113; Vism 18.

Anupakhajjati [den. from anupakhajja, ger. of anupakkhandati] to encroach, intrude Vin V.163.

Anupagacchati [anu + pa + gacchati] to go or return into (c. acc.) D I.55 (anupeti +).

Anupaghaata [an + upaghaata] not hurting Dh 185 (anuupa* metri causa; explained. by anupahanana~n c-eva anupaghaatana~n ca DhA III.238).

Anupacita (adj.) [anu + pa + cita, pp. of anupacinaati] heaped up, accumulated ThA 56.

Anupacinaati [an + upacinaati] not to observe or notice J V.339 ( = anoloketi C.; v. l. anapavi.naati).

Anupajagghati [anu + pa + jagghati] to laugh at, to deride, mock over A I.198 (v. l. anusa'n*).

Anupajjati [anu + pad] to follow, accompany J IV.304. pp. anupanna (q. v.).

Anupa~ncaaha.m (adv.) [anu + pa~ncaa + aha.m] every five days PvA 139 (+ anudasaaha.m).

Anupa~n~natti (f.) [anu + pa~n~natti] a supplementary regulation or order Vin II.286; V.2 sq.

Anupa.tipaati (f.) [anu + pa.tipaati] succession; as adv. in order, successively DA I.277 (kathaa = anupubbikathaa); DhA III.340 (anupa.tipaa.tiyaa = anupubbena); Vism 244.

Anupa.t.thita (adj.) [anu + pa + .thita] setting out after, following, attacking J V.452.

Anupatati [anu + patati] 1. to follow, go after, J VI.555 anupatiyaasi Subj.). - 2. to fall upon, to befall, attack Vin III.106 = M I.364; S I.23 (read *patanti for *patatanti) = Dh 221 (dukkhaa); Th 1, 41 = 1167 (of lightning). pp. anupatita (q. v.). Cp. also anupaata and anupaatin.

Anupatita [pp. of anupatati] "befallen", affected with, oppressed by (-*) S II.173 (dukkha*); III.69 (id.); Sn 334 (pamaada*).

Anupatitatta (nt.) [abstr. of anupatita] the fact of being attacked by, being a victim of (-*) SnA 339.

Anupatta (anuppatta) [pp. of anupaapu.naati; cp. Sanskrit anupraapta] (having) attained, received, got to (c. acc), reached D I.87-111; II 2; It 38; Sn 027, 635; Dh 386, 403; Pv IV.166; PvA 59 (dukkha.m), 242. In phrase addhagata vayo-anuppatta having reached old age, e. g. Vin II.188; D I.48; Sn pp. 50, 92; PvA 149.

Anupatti (anuppatti) (f.) [anu + patti] attainment, accomplishment, wish, desire (fulfilled), ideal S I.46, 52.

Anupathe at J V.302 should be read as anu pathe by the way at the wayside; anu to be taken as prep. c. loc. (see anu A). C. explinations. as janghamagga-mahaamaggaana.m antare.

Anupada [cp. Sanskrit anupada.m adv., anu + pada] 1. the "afterfoot", i. e. second foot a verse, also a mode of reciting, where the second foot is recited without the first one Vin IV.15 (cp. 355); Miln 340 (anupadena anupada.m katheti). - 2. (adj.) (following) on foot, at every, step, continuous, repeated, in *dhamma-vipassanaa uninterrupted contemplation M III.25; *va.n.nanaa word-by-word explanation DhsA 168. As nt. adv. *.m close behind, immediately after (c. gen.) J II.230 (tassa-nupada.m agamaasi); VI.422. Esp. frequent in combination. pada-nupada.m (adv.) foot after foot, i. e. in the footsteps, immediately behind J III. 504; VI.555; DhA I.69; II.38.

Anupadaatar (anuppadaatar) [n. ag. of anupadeti] one who gives, or one who sets forth, effects, designs D I.4 (cp. DA I.74); A II.209.

Anupadaana (anuppadaana) (nt.) [anu + pa + daana, cp. anupadeti] giving, administereotypeng, furnishing, the giving of (-*) D I.12 (cp. DA I.98; both read anuppaadaana); J III.205; Miln 315.

---[ Page 38 ]---

Anupadinna (anuppadinna) [pp. of anupadeti] given, handed over, furnished, dedicated Pv I.512.

Anupadeti (anuppadeti) [anu + pa + dadaati] to give out, give as a present, hand over; to design, set forth, undertake S III.131 (Pot. anuppadajju.m); M I.416 (Pot. anupadajjeyya. see dadaati I.3); Miln 210 (*deti). fut. *dassati (see dadaati I.1); D III.92; S IV.303 (v. l. SS for T. anusarissati); A III.43; Sn 983. ger. *datvaa SnA 35. inf. *daatu.m A I.117. pp. *dinna (q. v.).

Anupaddava (adj.) [an + upaddava] free from danger, uninjured, safe Vin II.79 = 124 (+ aniitika); III.162; Dh 338; DhA IV.48; PvA 250 (explination. for siva).

Anupadhaareti [an + upadhaar*] to disregard, to heed not, to neglect DhA IV.197; VvA 260.

Anupadhika (adj.) [an + upadhi + ka] free from attachment (see upadhi) Vin I 36 (anupadhiika); D. III 112 (anupadhika opp. to sa-upadhika); Sn 1057 (anuupadhiika T., but Nd2 anuupadhika. with uu for u metri causa).

Anupanna, [pp. of anupajjati] gone into, reached, attained Sn 764 (maaradheyya*).

Anupabandhati (anuppa*) [anu + pa + bandhati] to follow immediately, to be incessant, to keep on (without stopping), to continue Miln 132. - Causative *aapeti ibid.

Anupabandhanataa (anuppa*) (f.) [abstr. to prec.] nonstopping, not ceasing Miln 132.

Anupabandhanaa (anuppa*) (f.) [abstr. from anupabandhati] continuance, incessance, Pug 18 = Vbh 357 (in exegesis of upanaaha).

Anupabbajjaa (f.) [anu + pabbajjaa, cp. BSanskrit anupravrajati Divy 61] giving up worldly life in imitation of another S V.67 = It 107.

Anupaya (adj.) [an + upaya] unattached, "aloof" S I.181 (akankha apiha +).

Anuparigacchati [anu + pari + gacchati] to walk round and round, to go round about (c. acc.) Vin III.119; S I.75 (ger. *gamma); Sn 447 (aor. *pariyagaa = parito parito agamaasi Sn A 393); J IV.267.

Anuparidhaavati [anu + pari + dhaavati] to run up and down or to move round and round (cp. anuparivattati) S. III.150 (khiilan).

Anupariyaati [auu + pari + yaati] to go round about, to go about, to wander or travel all over (c. acc.) Vin II.111; S I.102, 124; Th 1, 1235 (*pariyeti), 1250 (id. to search); Pv III.34 ( = anuvicarati); Miln 38; PvA 92 (*yaayitvaa, ger.) 217.

Anupariyaaya (adj) [adjectivised ger. of anupariyaati] going round, encircling, in *patha the path leading or going round the city D II.83 = S IV 194 = A V.195; A IV.107.

Anuparivattati [anu + pari + vrt] to go or move round, viz. 1. to deal with, be engaged in, perform, worship Vin III.307 (aadicca.m); D I.240; PvA 97. - 2. to meet Miln 204 (Devadatto ca Bodhisatto ca ekato anuparivattanti). - 3. to move round and round, move on and on, keep on rolling (c. acc.), evolve S. III.150 (anuparidhaavati +) Miln 253 (anudhaavati + kaayan).

Anuparivatti (f.) (-*) [anu + parivatti] dealing with, occupation, connection with S III.16.

Anuparivaareti [anu + pari + vaareti] to surround, stand by, attend on (c. acc.) Vin I.338; M I.153; DhA 1.55.

Anuparive.niya.m [anu + parive.niya.m = loc. of parive.ni] should be written anu parive.niya.m ("in every cell, cell by cell"), anu here functioning as prep. c. loc. (see anu A) Vin I.80, 106.

Anuparisakkati [anu + pari + sakkati] to move round, to be occupied with, take an interest in (c. acc.) S IV.312 (v.l. *vattati).

Anuparisakkana (nt.) [from anuparisakkati] dealing with, interest in S IV.312 (v.l. *vattana).

Anupariharati [anu + pari + harati] to surround, enfold, embrace M I.306.

Anupalitta (adj.) [an + upalitta] unsmeared, unstained, free from taint M I.319, 386 (in verse); as *uupalitta in verse of Sn and Dh: Sn 211 ( = lepaana.m abhaavaa SnA 261), 392, 468, 790, 845; Dh 353.

Anupavajja (adj.) [grd. of an + upavadati] blameless, without fault, Miln 391.

Anupavattaka (anuppa*) (adj.) to anupavatteti] one who succeeds (another) King or Ruler in the ruling of an empire (cakka.m) Miln 342, 362; SnA 454. See also anuvattaka.

Anupavatteti (anuppa*) [anu + pa + vatteti, from vrt] to keep moving on after, to continue rolling, with cakka.m to wield supreme power after, i.e. in succession or imitation of a predecessor S I.191; Miln 362. See also anuvatteti.

Anupavaada [an + upavaada] not blaming or finding fault, abstaining from grumbling or abuse Dh 185 (anuupa* in metre; explained at DhA III.238 as anupavaadana~n c'eva anupavaadaapana~n ca "not scolding as well as not inciting others to grumbling"); adj. *vaadaka Pug 60, and *vaadin M I.360.

Anupavi.t.tha (anuppa*) [pp. of anupavisati] entered, gone or got into, fallen into (c. acc.) Miln 270, 318 sq., 409 (coming for shelter); PvA 97, 152 (Gangaanadi.m a. nadii: flowing into the G.).

Anupavi.t.thataa (f.) [abstr. to anupavi.t.tha] the fact of having entered Miln 257.

Anupavisati [anu + pa + visati] to go into, to enter Dh I.290; VvA 42 ( = ogaahati). -pp. *pavi.t.tha (q.v.) Causative *paveseti (q.v.).

Anupavecchati (anuppa*) [see under pavecchati] to give, give over to, offer up, present, supply Vin I.221 (*pavacchati); D I.74 ( = pavesati DA I.218); II.78; M I.446; III.133; A II.64; III.26 (v.l. *vacch*); J V.394; Sn 208 (v.l. *vacch*); SnA 256 ( = anupavesati); PvA 28.

Anupaveseti [anu + pa + vis, cp. BSanskrit anupraveshayati Divy 238] to make enter, to give over, to supply SnA 256 ( = *pavecchati).

Anupasankamati1 [anu + pa + sa'nkamati] to go along up to (c. acc.) PvA 179.

Anupasankamati2 [an + upasank.r] not to go to. not to approach DhA II.30 (+ apayirupaasati).

Anupasa.n.thapanaa (f.) [an + upasa.n.thapanaa] not stopping, incessance, continuance Pug 18 (but id. p. at Vbh 357 has anusansandanaa instead); cp. anupabandhanaa.

Anupassaka (adj.) [from anupassati] observing, viewing, contemplating Th 1, 420.

Anupassati [anu + passati] to look at, contemplate, observe Sn 477; Ps I.57, 187; Sn A 505.

---[ Page 39 ]---

Anupassanaa (f.) [abstr. of anupassati, cf. Sanskrit anudarshana] looking at, viewing, contemplating, consideration, realisation S V.178 sq., Sn p. 140; Ps I.10, 20, 96; II.37, 41 sq., 67 sq.; Vbh 194. See [pp. of anupaapeti] having been lead to or made to reach, attained, found Miln 252.

Anupaapu.naati (anuppaa*) [anu + paapu.naati] to reach, attain, get to, find S I.105; ger. anuppatvaana Pv II.924 ( = *paapu.nitvaa PvA 123). -pp. anupatta (q. v.). - Causative anupaapeti (q. v.).

Anupaapeti [Causative of anupaapu.naati] to make reach or attain, to lead to, to give or make find J VI.88; Cp. XI. 4 (aor. anupaapayi); Miln 276. -pp. anupaapita (q. v.).

Anupaaya [an + upaaya] wrong means J I.256; Sdhp 405.

Anupaayaasa see upaayaasa.

Anupaalaka (adj.) [anu + paalaka] guarding, preserving Sdhp 474.

Anupaalana (nt.) [from anupaaleti] maintenance, guarding, keeping Dpvs III.2.

Anupaaleti [anu + paaleti] to safeguard, warrant, maintain Miln 160 (santati.m).

Anupaahana (adj.) [an + upaahana] without shoes J VI.552.

Anupiya (anuppiya) (adj) [anu + piya] flattering, plessant, nt. pleasantness, flattery, in *bhaa.nin one who flatters I) III.185; J II.390; V.360; and *bhaa.nitar id. Vbh 352.

Anupii'a.m at PvA 161 is to be read anuppii'an (q. v.).

Anupucchati [anu + pucchati] to ask or inquire after (c. acc.) Sn 432, 1113. -pp. anupu.t.tha (q. v.).

Anupu.t.tha [pp. of anupucchati] asked Sn 782 ( = pucchita SnA 521).

Anupubba (adj.) [anu + pubba] following in one's turn, successive, gradual, by and by, regular Vin II.237 (mahaasamuddo a*-ninno etc.); D I.184; Sn 511; J V.155 (regularly formed, of uuruu). Cases adverbially: anupubbena (instr.) by and by, in course of time, later, gradually Vin I.83; Dh 239 ( = anupa.tipaa.tiyaa DhA III.340); Pug 41, 64; J II.2, 105; III.127; Miln 22; PvA 19. anupubbaso (abl. cp. Sanskrit anupuurvasha*) in regular order Sn 1000. In compounds. both anupubba* and anupubbi* (q. v.). -kaara.na gradual performance, graded practice M I.446. -nirodha successive passing away, fading away in regular succession, i. e. in due course. The nine stages of this process are the same as those mentioned under *vihaara, and are enumerated as such at D III.266, 290; A IV.409, 456; Ps I.35. -vihaara a state of gradually ascending stages, by means of which the highest aim of meditation and trance is attained, viz. complete cessation of all consciousness. These are 9 stages, consisting of the 4 jhaanas, the 4 aayatanaani and as the crowning phrase "sa~n~naa-vedayitanirodha" (see jhaana1). enumerated as such in var. places, esp. at the following: D II.156; III.265, 290; A IV.410; Nd2 under jhaana; Ps I.5; Miln 176. -sikkhaa regular instruction or study (dhammavinaye) M I.479; III.1 (+ *kiriyaa *pa.tipadaa).

Anupubbaka (adj.) = anupubba, in cpd. pubba-nupubbaka all in succession or in turn, one by one (on nature of this kind of cpd. see anu B IV.) Vin I.20 (*aana.m kulaana.m puttaa the sons of each clan, one by one).

Anupubbata (nt.) [from anupubba] acting in turn, gradation, succession Vv 6414 ( = anukuula kiriyaa i. e. as it pleases VvA 280) cp. aanupubbataa.

Anupubbi-kathaa (f.) [anupubba + kathaa, formation like dhammi-kathaa] a gradual instruction, graduated sermon, regulated exposition of the ever higher values of four subjects (daana-kathaa, siila*, sagga*, magga*) i. e. charity, righteousness, the heavens, and the Path. Bdhgh. explains the term as anupubbikathaa naama daana-nantara.m siila.m siila-nantaro saggo sagga-nantaro maggo ti etesa'n diipana-kathaa" (DA I.277). Vin I.15, 18; II.156, 192; D I.110; II.41; M I.379; J I.8; VvA 66, 197, 208; DA I.308; DhA I.6; Miln 228. - The spelling is frequently aanupubbikathaa (as to lengthening of anu see anu Note (a)), e. g. at D I.110; II.41; M I.379; J I.8; Miln 228.

Anupekkhati [anu + pekkhati] 1. to concentrate oneself on, to look carefully A III.23. - 2. to consider, to show consideration for, Nd2 50 (ppr. *amaana = anukampamaana). - Causative anupekkheti to cause some one to consider carefully Vin II.73.

Anupekkhanataa (f.) [abstr. from anupekkhana, see anupekkhatii] concentration (of thought) Dhs 8, 85, 284, 372.

Anupeti [anu + pa + i] to go into D I.55 (+ anupagacchati) S III.207; DA I.165.

Anupeseti [anu + pa + is.] to send forth after Miln 36.

Anuposathika.m see anva.d.dhamaasa'n.

Anuposiya (adj.) [grd. of anu + pus.] to be nourished or fostereotyped Sdhp 318.

Anuppa* in all combinations. of anu + ppa see under headings anupa*.

Anuppadajju.m (S III.131) see anupadeti.

Anuppanna (*uppaada, *uppaadeti) see uppanna etc.

Anuppii'a (adj.) [an + uppii'a] not molested, not oppressed (by robbers etc.) not ruined, free from harm J III.443; V.378; VvA 351; PvA 161.

Anuphara.na (nt.) [anu + phara.na] flashing through, pervading Miln 148.

Anuphusiiyati [anu + phusiiyati, cp. Sanskrit prus.aayati, Causative of prus.] to sprinkle, moisten, make wet J V.242 (hima.m; C. pateyya).

Anubajjhati at PvA 56 is faulty reading for anubandhati (q. v.).

Anubaddha [pp. of anubandhati] following, standing behind (pi.t.thito) D I.1, 226.

Anubandha [anu + bandh] bondage M III.170; It 91.

Anubandhati [anu + bandhati] to follow, run after, pursue J I.195; II.230; VI.452 ( = anujavati); PvA 56 (substitute

---[ Page 40 ]---

for anubajjhanti!), 103, 155. aor. *bandhi J II.154, 353; III.504; PvA 260 ( = anvaagacchi). ger. *bandhitvaa J I.254. grd. *bandhitabba M I.106. -pp. anubaddha (q. v.).

Anubandhana (nt.) [from anubandhati] that which connects or follows, connection, consequence J VI.526 (*dukkha).

Anubala (nt.) [anu + bala] rear-guard, retinue, suite, in *.m bhavati to accompany or follow somebody Miln 125.

Anubujjhati [anu + bujjhati, Med. of budh, cp. Sanskrit avabudhyate] to remember, recollect J III.387 (with avabujjhati in prec. verse).

Anubujjhana (nt.) [from anubujjhati] awakening, recognition Ps I.18 (bujjhana +).

AnuBuddha [pp. of anu + bodhati] 1. awakened (act. and pass.), recognised, conceived, seen, known D II.123 (*aa ime dhammaa); S I.137 (dhammo vimalen- a-nubuddho) II.203; IV.188; A II.1; III.14; IV.105; SnA 431. In phrase Buddha-nuBuddha (as to nature of cpd. see anu B IV.) either "fully awakened (enlightened)" or "wakened by the wake" (Mrs. Rh. D.) Th 1, 679 = 1246. - 2. a lesser Buddha, inferior than the Buddha DA I.40. Cp. Buddha-nuBuddha.

Anubodha [anu + budh] awakening; perception, recognition, understanding S I.126 (*) = A V.46 (anubodhi.m as aor. of anubodhati*); Pug 21; Miln 233. Freq. in compounds. ananubodha (adj.) not understanding, not knowing the truth S II.92; III.261; V.431; A II.1; IV.105; Dhs 390, 1061; VvA 321 ( = anavabodha) and duranubodha (adj.) hard to understand, difficult to know D I.12, 22; S I.136.

Anubodhati [anu + budh] to wake up, to realise, perceive, understand; aor. anubodhi.m A V.46 (*) = S I.126 (anubodha.m). - Causative *bodheti to awaken, fig. to make see to instruct J VI.139 (*ayamaana) -pp. anuBuddha (q. v.).

Anubodhana (nt.) [from anubodhati] awakening, understanding, recognition Ps I.18 (bodhana +).

Anubbajati [anu + vraj] to go along, wander, follow, tread (a path) J IV.399 (magga.m = pabbajati C.).

Anubbata (adj.) [Vedic anuvrata, anu + vata] subject to the will of another, obedient, faithful, devoted J III.521; VI.557.

Anubbillaavitatta see ubbill*.

Anubya~njana see anuvya~njana.

Anubruuhita [pp. of anubruuheti] strengthened with (-*), full of Ps I.167.

Anubruuheti [bruuheti] to do very much or often, to practice, frequent, to be fond of (c. acc.), fostereotypeS I.178 (anubruuhaye); M III.187 (id., so read for manu*), Th 2, 163 (*ehi); Cp. III.12 (sa'nvega.m anubruuhayi.m aor.); J III.191 (su~n~naagaara.m). Often in phrase viveka.m anubruuheti to devote oneself to detachment or solitude, e.g. J I.9 (inf. *bruuhetu.m); III.31 (*bruuhessaami), Dh 75 (*bruuhaye = *bruuheyya va.d.dheyya DhA II.103). -pp. anubruuhita (q.v.) Cp. also bruuhana.

Anubha.nanaa (f.) [anu + bha.nana] talking to, admonition, scolding Vin II.88 (anuvadanaa +).

Anubhavati and Anubhoti [anu + bhavati] to come to or by, to undergo, suffer (feel), get, undertake, partake in, experience D I.129; II.12 (*bhonti); M II.204; A I.61 (attha.m *bhoti to have a good result); J VI.97 (*bhoma); Pv I.1011 (*bhomi vipaaka.m); PvA 52 (*issati = vedissati); Sdhf 290. Esp. frequent with dukkha.m to suffer pain, e.g. PvA I.1110 (*bhonti); PvA 43, 68, 79 etc. (cp. anubhavana). - ppr. med. *bhavamaana J I.50; aor. *bhavi PvA 75 (sampatti.m); ger. *bhavitvaa J IV.1; PvA 4 (sam patti.m), 67 (dukkha.m), 73 (sampatti.m); grd. *bhaviyaana (in order to receive) Pv II.85 ( = anubhavitvaa PvA 109). Pass. anubhuuyati and *bhaviiyati to be undergone or being experienced; ppr. *bhuuyamaana PvA 8, 159 (mayaa a. = anubhuuta), 214 (attanaa by him) and *bhaviiyamaana PvA 33 (dukkha.m). -pp. anubhuuta (q.v.).

Anubhavana (nt.) [from anubhavati] experiencing, suffering; sensation or physical sensibility (cf. Cpd.229, 2321) Nett 28 (i.t.tha-ni.t.th-a-nubhavana-lakkhanaa vedanaa "feeling is characterised by the experiencing of what is pleasant and unpleasant"); Miln 60 (vedayita-lakkha.naa vedanaa anubhavana-lakkha.naa ca); PvA 152 (kamma-vipaaka*). Esp. in combination. with dukkha* suffering painful sensations, e.g. at J IV.3; Miln 181; DhA IV.75; PvA 52.

Anubhaaga [anu + bhaaga] a secondary or inferior part, (after-)share, what is left over Vin II.167.

Anubhaayati [anu + bhaayati] to be afraid of J VI.302 (kissa nv- a-nubhaayissa'n, so read for kissa-nu*).

Anubhaava [from anubhavati] orig. meaning "experience, concomitance" and found only in compounds as -*, in meaning "experiencing the sensation of or belonging to, experience of, accordance with", e.g. maha* sensation of greatness, raaja-* s. belonging to a king, what is in accordance with kingship, i. e. majesty. Through preponderance of expressions of distinction there arises the meaning of anubhaava as "power, majesty, greatness, splendour etc." and as such it was separated from the 1st component and taken as aanubhaava with aa instead of a, since the compositional character had obliterated the character of the a. As such (aanubhaava abs.) found only in later language. - (1) anubhaava (-*): mahaanubhaava (of) great majesty, eminence, power S I.146 sq.; II.274; IV.323; Sn p. 93; Pv II.112; PvA 76. deva* of divine power or majesty D II.12; devataa* id. J I.168; dibba* id. PvA 71, 110. raajaa* kingly splendour, pomp D I.49; J IV 247; PvA 279 etc. -anubhaavena (instr. -*) in accordance with, by means of J II.200 (angavijjaa*); PvA 53 (iddh*), 77 (kamma*), 148 (id.), 162 (raaja*), 184 (daana*), 186 (pu~n~na*). yatha-nubhaava.m (adv.) in accordance with (me), as much as (1 can); after ability, according to power S I.31; Vv 15 ( = yathaabala.m VvA 25). - (2) aanubhaava majesty power, magnificence, glory, splendour J V.10, 456; Pv II.811; VvA 14; PvA 43, 122, 272. See also aanu*.

Anubhaavataa (f.) [ = anubhaava + taa] majesty, power S I.156 (maha-*).

Anubhaasati [anu + bhaasati] to speak after, to repeat D I.104; Miln 345; DA I.273.

Anubhuuta [pp. of anubhavati] (having or being) experienced, suffered, enjoyed PvA II.1218. nt. suffering, experience J I.254; Miln 78, 80.

Anubhuuyamaanatta (nt.) [abstr. from ppr. Pass. of anubhavati] the fact of having to undergo, experiencing PvA 103.

Anuma (-dassika) see anoma*.

Anumagge at J V.201 should be read anu magge along the road, by the way; anu here used as prep. c. loc. (see anu A b).

Anumajjati [anu + majjati] 1. to strike along, to stroke, to touch DA I.276 ( = anumasati). - 2. to beat, thresh, fig. to thresh out J VI.548; Miln 90. - Pass. anumajjiiyati Miln 275 (cp. p. 428).

Anumajjana (nt.) [abstr. from anumajjati] threshing out, pounding up (Dhs. trsl. 11), always used with reference to the term vicaara (q.v.) Miln 62; DhsA 114; DA I.63, 122.

Anumajjha (adj.) [anu + majjha] mediocre, without going to extremes J IV.192; V.387.

Anuma~n~nati [anu + ma~n~nati] to assent, approve, give leave Th 1, 72. -pp. anumata (q.v.).

---[ Page 41 ]---

Anumata [pp. of anuma~n~nati] approved of, given consent to, finding approval, given leave D I.99 ( = anu~n~naata DA I.267); J V.399 ( = muta); Miln 185, 212, 231, 275; PvA 64 ( = annu~n~naata).

Anumati (f.) [from anuma~n~nati] consent, permission, agreement, assent, approval Vin II.294, 301, 306; D. I.137, 143; Dpvs IV.47, Cf. V.18; DA I.297; VvA 17, PvA 114.

Anumatta see a.nu*.

Anumasati [anu + masati] to touch D I.106 ( = anumajjati DA I.276).

Anumaana [from anu + man] inference Miln 330 (naya +), 372, 413; Sdhp 74.

Anumitta [anu + mitta] a secondary friend, a follower. acquaintance J V.77.

Anuminaati [cf. Sanskrit anumaati, anu + minaati from mi, Sanskrit minoti, with confusion of roots maa andmi] to observe, draw an inference M I.97; PvA 227 (*anto + naya'n nento). See also anumiiyati.

Anumiiyati [Sanskrit anumiiyate, Pass. of anu + maa, measure, in sense of Med.] to observe, conclude or infer from S III.36. Cp. anuminaati.

Anumodaka (adj.) [from anumodati] one who enjoys, one who is glad of or thankful for (c. acc.) Vin V.172; PvA 122; Sdhf 512.

Anumodati [anu + modati] to find satisfaction in (acc.), to rejoice in, be thankful for (c. acc.), appreciate, benefit from, to be pleased, to enjoy Vin II.212 (bhattagge a. to say grace after a meal); S II.54; A III.50 (*modaniiya); IV.411; Dh 177 (ppr. *modamaana); It 78; Pv II.919 (daana.m *modamaana = enjoying, gladly receiving); 1,54 (anumodare = are pleased; pitisomanassajaataa honti PvA 27); J II.112; PvA 19, 46, 81, 201) imper. modaahi); Sdhp. 501 sq. -pp. anumodita (q.v.).

Anumodana (nt.) [from anumodati] "according to taste", i.e. satisfaction, thanks, esp. after a meal or after receiving gifts = to say grace or benediction, blessing, thanksgiving. In latter sense with dadaati (give thanks for = loc.), karoti ( = Latin gratias agere) or vacati (say or tell thanks): *.m datvaa PvA 89; *.m katvaa J I.91; DhA III.170, 172; VvA 118; PvA 17, 47; *.m vatvaa VvA 40 (paaniiyadaane for the gift of water), 295, 306 etc. *.m karoti also "to do a favour" PvA 275. Cp. further DhA I.198 (*gaathaa verses expressing thanks, benediction); II.97 (Satthaara.m *.m yaaci.msu asked his blessing); PvA 23 (*attha.m in order to thank), 26 (id.), 121, 141 (katabhatta*), 142; Sdhp 213, 218, 516.

Anumodita [pp. of anumodati] enjoyed, rejoiced in PvA 77.

Anummatta (adj.) [an + ummatta] not out of mind, sane, of sound mind Miln 122; Sdhp 205.

Anuyanta at A V.22 is doubtful reading (v.l. anuyutta). The meaning is either "inferior to, dependent on, a subject of, a vassal" or "attending on". The explanation may compare Sanskrit anuyaata.m attendance [anu + yaa, cp. anuyaayin] or Sanskrit yantr ruler [yam], in which latter case anu-yantr would be "an inferior ruler" and Paali yanta would represent the n. a.g. yantaa as a-stem. The v. l. is perhaps preferable as long as other passages with anuyanta are not found (see anuyutta 2). [MO: see SN 5.45.145]; 'are subject to']

Anuyaagin (adj) [from anu + yaj] offering after the example of another D I.142.

Anuyaata [pp. of anuyaati] gone through or after, followed, pursued S II.105 (magga); A V.236; It 29; Miln 217.

Anuyaati (and anuyaayati) [anu + yaa] 1. to go after, to follow J VI.49 (fut. *yissati), 499 (yaayan ta.m anuyaayati = anugacchati C). - 2. to go along by, to go over, to visit Miln 391 (*yaayati). -pp. anuyaata (q. v.). See also anusa'nyaayati.

Anuyaayin (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit anuyaayin, anu + yaa] going after, following, subject to (gen.) Sn 1017 (ana-nuyaayin); J VI.309; Miln 284.

Anuyu~njanaa (f.) (and *yu~njana nt.) [abstr. from anuyu~njati] application or devotion to (-*) Miln 178; VvA 346 (anuyujjana.m wrong spelling*)

Anuyu~njati [anu + yu~njati] 1. to practice, give oneself up to (acc.), attend, pursue S I.25, 122 (*yu~njan "in loving self-devotion" Mrs. Rh. D.); III.154; IV.104, 175; Dh 26 (pamaada.m = pavatteti DhA I.257), 247 (suraameraya-paana.m = sevati bahuliikaroti DhA III.356); PvA 61 (kamma.t.thaaQa.m). - 2. to ask a question, to call to account, take to task Vin II.79; Vv 335; ppr. Pass. *yu~njiyamaana PvA 192. -pp. anuyutta (q. v.). - Causative anuyojeti "to put to", to address, admonish, exhort DhA IV.20.

Anuyutta [pp. of anuyu~njati] 1. applying oneself to, dealing with, practising, given to, intent upon D I.166, 167; III. 232 = A II.205 (attaparitaapan- a-nuyoga.m a.); S III.153; IV.104; Sn 663 (lobhagu.ne), 814 (methuna.m = samaayutta SnA 536), 972 (jhaan*); Pug 55; PvA 163 (jaagariya*), 206. - 2. following, attending on; an attendant, inferior, vassal, in expression khattiya or raajaa anuyutta a prince royal or a smaller king (see khattiya 3 b) A V.22 (v l. for T. anuyanta, q. v.); Sn 553 ( = anugaamin, sevaka SnA 453).

Anuyoga [Sanskrit anuyoga, from anu + yuj] 1. application, devotion to (-*), execution, practice of (-*); often combined. with anuyutta in phrase *anuyoga.m anuyutta = practising, e. g. Vin I.190 (ma.n.dan- a-nuyoga.m anuyutta); D III.113 (attakilamath- a-nuyoga.m a.); A II.205 (attaparitaapan- a-nuyoga.m a.). - As adj. (-*) doing, given to, practising (cp. anuyutta). D I.5; III.107; M I.385; S I.182; III.239; IV.330; V.320; A I.14; III.249; IV.460 sq.; V. 17 sq., 205; J I.90 (padhaan- a-nuyogakicca.m); Vv 8438 (dhamma*); Miln 348; DA I. 78, 104. - 2. invitation, appeal, question (cp. anuyu~njati 2) Miln 10 (aacariyassa *.m datvaa).

Anuyogavant (adj.) [anuyoga + vant] applying oneself to, full of application or zeal, devoted PvA 207.

Anuyogin (adj.) [from anuyoga] applying oneself to, devoted to (-*) Dh 209 (atta* given to oneself, self-concentrated).

Anurakkhaka (adj.) [from anurakkhati, cp. *rakkhin] preserving, keeping up J IV.192 (va.msa*); VI.1 (id.).

Anurakkha.na (nt.) and *aa (f.) [abstr. from anurakkhati] guarding, protection, preservation D III.225 sq.; A II.16 sq.; J I.133; Pug 12; Dpvs IV.24 (adj.); VvA 32 (citta*); Sdhp 449.

Anurakkhati [anu + rakkhati] to guard, watch over (acc.), preserve, protect, shield Sn 149; Dh 327; J I.46; Pug 12. - ppr. med.* rakkhamaana(ka) as adj. Sdhp 621.

Anurakkhaa (f.) [ = anurakkha.naa] guarding, protection, preservation S IV.323 (anuddayaa a. anukampaa).

Anurakkhin (adj.) [from anurakkhati] guarding, preserving, keeping J V.24.

Anurakkhiya (adj.) [f. anurakkhati] in dur* difficult to guard Vin III.149.

Anura~njita [pp. of anu + ra~njeti, Causative of ra~nj] illumined, brighterted, beautified Bu I.45 (byaamapabhaa* by the shine of the halo); VvA 4 (sa~njhaatapa* for sa~njhaapabhaa*).

---[ Page 42 ]---

Anuratta (adj.) pp. of anu + ra~nj] attached or devoted to, fond of, faithful Th 2, 446 (bhattaara.m); J I.297; Miln 146.

Anuravati [anu + ravati] to resound, to sound after, linger (of sound) Miln 63.

Anuravanaa (f.) [abstr. from anuravati] lingering of the sound, resounding Miln 63.

Anuraho (adv.) [anu + raho] in secret, face-to-face, private M I.27.

Anurujjhati [Sanskrit anurudhyate, Pass. of anu + rudh] to conform oneself to, have a regard for, approve, to be pleased A IV.158; Dhs A 362. -pp. Anuruddha (q. v.).

Anuruddha [pp. of anurujjhati] enggaged in, devoted to; compliant or complied with, pleased S IV.71, (anaanuruddha).

Anuruupa (adj.) [anu + ruupa] suitable, adequate, seeming, fit, worthy; adapted to, corresponding, conform with (-*) J I.91; VI.366 (tad*); PvA 61 (ajjhaasaya* according to his wish), 128 (id.) 78, 122, 130, 155; etc. Cp. also pa.tiruupa in same meaning.

Anurodati [anu + rodati] to cry after, cry for J III.166 = Pv I.127 (daarako canda.m a.).

Anurodha [from anu + rudh] compliance, consideration satisfaction (opp. virodha) S I.111; IV.210; Sn 362; Dhs 1059; Vbh 145; DhsA 362.

Anulapanaa (f.) [anu + lapanaa, lap] scolding, blame, accusation Vin II.88 (spelt anullapanaa; combined. with anuvadana and anubha.nanaa).

Anulitta (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit anulipta, pp. of anulimpati] anointed, besmeared J I.266; PvA 211.

Anulimpati [anu + limpati] to anoint, besmear, Miln 394 (*limpitabba). Causative *limpeti in same meaning Miln 169, and *lepeti Milm 169 (grd. *lepaniiya to be treated with ointment). -pp. anulitta (q. v.).

Anulimpana (nt.) [from anulimpati] anointing Miln 353, 394.

Anulepa [from anu + lip] anointing Miln 152.

Anulokin (adj.) [from anu + loketi, cp. Sanskrit and Paali avalokin and anuviloketi] looking (up) at, seeing (-*) M I.147 (siisa*).

Anuloma (adj.) [Sanskrit anu + loma] "with the hair or grain", i. e. in natural order, suitable, fit, adapted to, adaptable, straight forward D II.273 (anaanuloma, q. v.) S IV.401; Ps II.67, 70; DhA II.208. - nt. direct order, state of fitting in, adaptation Miln 148. -~naa.na insight of adaptation (cp. Cpd.66, 68) DhA II.208. -pa.tiloma in regular order and reversed, forward and backward (Ep. of pa.ticcasamuppaada, also in BSanskrit) Vin I.1; A IV.448.

Anulomika (and *ya) (adj.) [from anuloma] suitable, fit, agreeable; in proper order, adapted to (-*) Vin II.7 (an*); III.120 (an* = ananucchaviya); IV.239; A I.106; III.116 sq.; It 103 (saama~n~nassa*); Sn 385 (pabbajita*); KhA 243 (ananulomiya); DhsA 25; Sdhp 65.

Anulometi [v. denom. from anuloma] to conform to, to be in accordance with Miln 372.

Anu'aaratta (nt.) [abstr. from an + u'aara] smallness, littleness, insignificance VvA 24.

Anuvajja (adj.) [grd. of anu + vadati, cp. anuvaada and Sanskrit avavadya] to be blamed, censurable, worthy of reproach Sn p. 78 (an* = anuvaadavimutta SnA 396).

Anuvattaka (adj.) [from anuvatteti] 1. = anupavattaka (q. v.) Th 1, 1014 (cakka*). - 2. following, siding with (-*) Vin IV.218 (ukkhitta-nuvattikaa f.).

Anuvattati [Sanskrit anuvartati, anu + vattati] 1. to follow, imitate, follow one's example (c. acc.), to be obedient D II.244; Vin II.309 (Bdhgh.); IV.218; J I.125, 300; DA I.288; PvA 19. - 2. to practice, execute Pv IV. 712. - Causative *vatteti (q. v.).

Anuvattana (nt.) [abstr. from anuvattati] complying with, conformity with (-*), compliance, observance, obedience J I.367 (dhamma*); V.78.

Anuvattin (adj.) [from anuvattati] following, acting according to or in conformity with (-*), obedient J II.348 (f. *inii); III.319 (id.); Dh 86 (dhamma*); Vv 155 (vasa* = anukuulabhaavena vattana siila VvA 71); DhA II.161.

Anuvatteti [anu + vatteti] = anupavatteti (q. v.) Th 1, 826 (dhammacakka.m: "after his example turn the wheel" Mrs. Rh. D.).

Anuvadati [Sanskrit ava*; anu + vadati] to blame, censure, reproach Vin II.80, 88. - grd. anuvajja (q. v.).

Anuvadanaa (f.) [from anuvadati] blaming, blame, censure Vin II.88 (anuvaada +).

Anuvasati [anu + vasati] to live with somebody, to dwell, inhabit J II.421. Causative *vaaseti to pass, spend (time) J VI.296. -pp. *vuttha (q. v.).

Anuvassa'n (adv.) [anu + vassa] for one rainy season; every rainy season or year, i. e. annually C. on Th 1, 24.

Anuvassika (adj.) [from anuvassa'n] one who has (just) passed one rainy season Th 1, 24 ("scarce have the rains gone by" Mrs. Rh. D.; see trsl. p. 29 n. 2).

Anuvaaceti [anu + Causative of vac] to say after, to repeat (words), to recite or make recite after or again D I.104 ( = tehi a~n~nesa'n vaacita.m anuvaacenti DA I.273); Miln 345. Cp. anubhaaseti.

Anuvaata1 [anu + vaa to blow] a forward wind, the wind that blows from behind, a favourable wind; *.m adv. with the wind, in the direction of the wind (opp. pa.tivaata.m). A I.226 (*pa.tivaata.m); Sdhp 425 (pa.tivaata*). In anuvaate (anu + vaate) at J II.382 "with the wind, facing the w., in front of the wind" anu is to be taken as prep. c. loc. and to be separated from vaate (see anu A b.).

Anuvaata2 [anu + vaa to weave (*) in analogy to vaata from vaa to blow] only in connection with the making of the bhikkhus' garments (ciivara) "weaving on, supplementary weaving, or along the seam", i. e. hem, seam, binding Vin I.254, 297; II.177; IV.121 (aggala +); PvA 73 (anuvaate appabhonte since the binding was insufficient).

Anuvaada [from anuvadatii, cp. Sanskrit anuvaada in meaning of "repetition"] 1. blaming, censure, admonition Vin II.5, 32; A II.121 (atta*, para*); Vbh 376. - 2. in combination. vaada-nuvaada: talk and lesser or additional talk, i. e. "small talk" (see anu B IV.) D I.161; M I.368. -adhikara.na a question or case of censure Vin II.88 sq.; III.164 (one of the 4 adhikara.naani, q. v.).

Anuvaasana (nt.) [from anuvaaseti] an oily enema, an injection Miln 353.

Anuvaaseti [anu + vaaseti, Causative of vaasa3 odour, perfume] to treat with fragrant oil, i. e. to make an injection or give an enema of salubrious oil Miln 169; grd. *vaasaniiya ibid.; pp. *vaasita Miln 214.

Anuvikkhitta (adj.) [anu + vi + khitta, pp. of anu + vikkhipati] dispersed over S V.277 sq. (+ anuvisa.ta).

Anuviga.neti [anu + vi + ga.neti] to take care of, regard, heed, consider Th 1, 109.

---[ Page 43 ]---

Anuvicarati [anu + vi + carati] to wander about, stroll roam through, explore D I.235; J II.128; III.188; PvA 189 ( = anupariyaati). - Causative *vicaareti to think over (lit. to make one's mind wander over), to meditate, ponder (cp. anuvicinteti); always combined. with anuvitakketi (q. v.) A I.264 (cetasaa), III.178 (dhamma.m cetasaa a.). -pp. anuvicarita (q. v.).

Anuvicarita [pp. of anuvicaareti] reflected, pondered over, thought out S III.203 (manasaa); DA I.106 ( = anucarita).

Anuvicaara [anu + vicaara, cf. anuvicaareti] meditation, reflexion, thought Dhs 85 ( = vicaara).

Anuvicinaka [from anu + vicinaati] one who examines, an examiner Miln 365.

Anuvicinteti [anu + vi + cinteti] to think or ponder over, to meditate D II.203; S I 203 (yoniso *cintaya, imper. "marshall thy thoughts in ordered governance" Mrs. Rh. D.; v. l. anucintaya); Th 1, 747; Dh 364; It 82 (dhamma.m *aya'n); J III.396; IV.227; V.223 (dhamma.m *cintayanto).

Anuvicca [ger. of anuvijjati, for the regular from anuvijja prob. through influence of anu + i (anu-v-icca for anvicca), cf. anveti and adhicca; and see anuvijjati] having known or found out, knowing well or thoroughly, testing, finding out M I.301, 361 (v. l. *vijja); A II.3, 84; V.88; Dh 229 ( = jaanitvaa DhA III.329); Sn 530 ( = anuviditvaa SnA 431); J I.459 ( = jaanitvaa C.); III.426; Pug. 49. -kaara a thorough investigation, examination, test Vin I.236 (here spelt anuvijja) = M I.379 ( = *viditvaa C.) = A IV.185.

Anuvijjaka [from anuvijja, ger. of anuvijjati] one who finds out, an examiner Vin V.161.

Anuvijjati [anu + vid, with fusion of Vedic vetti to know, and Pass. of vindati to find ( = vidyate)] to know thoroughly, to find out, to trace, to come to know; inf. *vijjiti.m J III.506; ger. *viditvaa Sn A 431, also *vijja and vicca (see both under anuvicca); grd. ananuvejja not to be known, unfathomable, unknowable M I.140 (Tathaagato ananuvejjo). - Causative anuvijjaapeti to make some one find out J V.162. -pp. anuvidita (q. v.).

Anuvijjhati [anu + vyadh] 1. to pierce or be pierced, to be struck or hurt with (instr.) J VI.439 - 2. to be affected with, to fall into, to incur DhA III.380 (aparaadha.m). -pp. anuviddha (q. v.).

Anuvitakketi [anu + vi + takketi] to reflect, think, ponder over, usually combined with anuvicaareti D I.119; III.242; S V.67 = It 107 (anussarati +); A III.383.

Anuvidita [pp. of anuvijjati] found out, recognised; one who has found out or knows well Sn 528, 530 ( = anuBuddha Sn A 431). Same in B.Sanskrit, e.g. M Vastu III.398.

Anuviddha (adj.) [pp. of anuvijjhati] pierced, intertwined or set with (-*) VvA 278.

Anuvidhiiyati [cf. Sanskrit anuvidhiiyate and adj. anuvidhaayin; Pass. of anu + vi + dhaa, cf. vidahati] to act in conformity with, to follow (instruction) M II.105 = Th 1, 875; S IV.199; J II.98; III.357.

Anuvidhiiyanaa (f.) [abstr. from anuvidhiiyati] acting according to, conformity with M I.43.

Anuviloketi [anu + vi + loketi; B.Sanskrit anuvilokayati] to look round at, look over, survey, mustereotypeM I.339; Sn p. 140; J I.53; Miln 7 (laka.m), 21 (parisa'n), 230.

Anuviva.t.ta [anu + viva.t.ta] an "after-evolution", devolution; as part of a bhikkhu-s dress: a sub-viva.t.ta (q. v.) Vin I.287 (viva.t.ta +).

Anuvisa.ta (anu + visa.ta, pp. of anu + vi + sr] spread over S V.277 sq.; J IV.102.

Anuvuttha [pp. of anuvasati, cf. Sanskrit anuus.ita] living with, staying, dwelling J II.42 (cira*); V.445 (id.).

Anuvejja (adj.) in an* see anuvijjati.

Anuvya~njana and anubya~njana (e. g. Vin IV.15; J I.12) (nt.) [anu + vya~njana] accompanying (i. e. secondary) attribute, minor or inferior characteristic, supplementary or additional sign or mark (cf. mahaapurisa-lakkha.na) Vin I.65 (abl. anuvya~njanaso "in detail"); M III.126; S IV.168; A IV.279 (abl.); V.73 sq.; Pug 24, 58; Miln 339; VvA 315; DhsA 400. -gaahin taking up or occupying oneself with details, taken up with lesser or inferior marks D I.70 (cf. MVastu III.52); III.225; S IV.104; A I.113; II.16, 152 sq.; Dhs 1345 (cf. Dhs trsl. 351).

Anusa'nyaayati [anu + sa'n + yaayati] to traverse; to go up to, surround, visit (acc.) M I.209 (Bhagavanta.m *itvaa), J IV.214 (v.l. anuyaayitvaa). See also anuyaati and anusa~n~naati.

Anusa'nvacchara (adj.) [anu + sa'nv*] yearly DhA I.388 (nakkhatta.m). Usually nt. *.m as adv. yearly, every year J I.68; V.99. On use of anu in this combination. see anu A a.

Anusa~ncarati [anu + sa'n + carati] to walk along, to go round about, to visit M I.279; S V.53, 301; J I.202; III.502; PvA 279 (nagara.m). -pp. anusa~ncarita (q. v.).

Anusa~ncarita [pp. of anusa~ncarati] frequented, visited, resorted to Miln 387.

Anusa~nceteti [anu + sa'n + ceteti] to set ones mind on, concentrate, think over, meditate Pug 12.

Anusa~n~naati [either anu + sa'n + j~naa (jaanaati) or (preferably) = anusa'nyaati as short form of anusa'nyaayati, like anuyaati > anuyaayati of anu + sa'n + yaa, cf. Sanskrit anusa'nyaati in same meaning] to go to, to visit, inspect, control; ppr. med. *sa~n~naayamaana Vin III.43 (kammante); inf. *sa~n~naatu.m A I.68. (janapade).

Anusa.ta [Sanskrit anusrta, pp. of anu + sr] sprinkled with (-*), bestrewn, scattered Vv 53 (paduma* magga = vippaki.n.na VvA 36).

Anusatthar [n. ag. to anu + saas, cf. Sanskrit anushaasitr and Paali satthar] instructor, adviser J IV.178 (aacariya +). Cp. anusaasaka.

Anusatthi (f.) [Sanskrit anushaasti, anu + shaas, cp. anusaasana] admonition, rule, instruction J I.241; Miln 98, 172, 186 (dhamma*), 225, 227, 347.

Anusandati [Vedic anusyandati, anu + syad] to stream along after, to follow, to be connected with. Thus to be read at Miln 63 for anusandahati (anuravati +; of sound), while at A IV.47 the reading is to be corrected to anusandahati.

Anusandahati [anu + sa'n + dhaa, cf. Vedic abhi + sa'n + dhaa] to direct upon, to apply to A IV.47 sq. (citta.m samaapattiyaa; so to be read with v. l. for anusandati); Miln 63 (but here prob. to be read as anusandati, q.v.).

Anusandhanataa (f.) [ = anusandhi] application, adjusting Dhs 8 (cittassa).

Anusandhi (f.) [from anu + sa'n + dhaa] connection, (logical) conclusion, application DA I.122 (where 3 kinds are enumerated, viz. pucchaa*, ajjhaasayaa*, yathaa*); Nett 14 (pucchato; Hard., in Index "complete cessation"*!). Esp. frequent in (Jaataka) phrase anusandhi.m gha.teti "to form the connection", to draw the conclusion, to show the application of the story or point out its maxim J I.106; 308; DhA II.40, 47; etc.

---[ Page 44 ]---

Anusampavankataa (f.) [anu + sa'n + pavankataa; is reading correct*] disputing, quarrelling(*) Vin II.88 (under anuvaada-dhikara.na).

Anusaya [anu + shii, seti Sanskrit anushaya has a different meaning] (see Kvu trsl. 234 n. 2 and Cpd.172 n. 2). Bent, bias, proclivity, the persistance of a dormant or latent disposition, predisposition, tendency. Always in bad sense. In the oldest texts the word usually occurs absolutely, without mention of the cause or direction of the bias. So Sn. 14 = 369, 545; M. III.31; S. III.130, IV.33, V.28 236; A. I.44; II.157; III.74, 246, 443. Or in the triplet obstinacy, prejudice and bias (adhi.t.thaana-bhinivesa-nusayaa) S. II.17; III.10, 135, 161; A. V.III. Occasionally a source of the bias is mentioned. Thus pride at S. I.188; II.252 ff., 275; III.80, 103, 169, 253; IV.41, 197; A I.132, IV.70 doubt at M. I.486 - ignorance lust and hatred at S IV.205, M III.285. At D III.254, 282; S V.60; and A IV.9. we have a list of seven anusaya's, the above five and delusion and craving for rebirth. Hence-forward these lists govern the connotation of the word; but it would be wrong to put that connotation back into the earlier passages. Later references are Ps I.26, 70 ff., 123, 130, 195; II.36, 84, 94, 158; Pug 21; Vbh 340, 383, 356; Kvu 405 ff. Dpvs I.42.

Anusayita [pp. of anuseti, anu + shii] dormant, only in combination. diigharatta* latent so long Th 1, 768; Sn 355, 649. Cp. anusaya and anusayin.

Anusayin (adj.) [from anusaya] D II.283 (me diigharatta*), "for me, so long obsessed (with doubts)". The reading is uncertain.

Anusarati [anu + sr] to follow, conform oneself to S IV. 303 (phala.m anusarissati BB, but bala.m anupadassati SS perhaps to be preferred). - Causative anusaareti to bring together with, to send up to or against Miln 36 (a~n~nama~n~na.m a. anupeseti).

Anusavati at S II.54 (aasavaa na a.; v. l. anusayanti) and IV. 188 (akusalaa dhammaa na a.; v. l. anusenti) should preferably be read anusayati: see anuseti 2.

Anusahagata (adj.) having a residuum, accompanied by a minimum of . . S III.130; Kvu 81, see a.nu*.

Anusaayika (adj.) [from anusaya] attached to one, i. e. inherent, chronic (of disease) M II.70 (aabaadha, v. l. BB anussaayika); DhA I.431 (roga).

Anusaara [from anu + sr] "going along with", following, conformity. Only in obl. eases (-*) anusaarena (instr.) in consequence of, in accordance with, according to J I.8; PvA 187 (tad), 227; and anusaarato (abl.) id. Sdhp 91.

Anusaarin (-*) (adj.) [from anu + sarati] following, striving after, acting in accordance with, living up to or after. Freq. in formula dhamma-nusaarin saddha-nusaarin living in conformity with the Norm and the Faith D III.254; M I.142, 479; S III.225; V.200 sq.; A I.74; IV.10; Pug 15. - Cp. also S I.15 (bhavasota*); IV.128 (id.); J VI.444 (pa.n.ditassa* = veyyaavaccakara C.); Sdhp 528 (attha*).

Anusaareti see anusarati.

Anusaasaka [from anusaasati] adviser, instructor, counsellor J II.105; Miln 186, 217, 264. Cp. anusatthar.

Anusaasati [Vedic anushaasati, anu + saas] 1. to advise, admonish, instruct in or give advice upon (c. acc.) to exhort to Vin I.83; D I.135; II.154; Dh 77, 159 (a~n~na.m); J VI.368; cp. I.103; Pv II.68; PvA 148. - grd. anusaasiya Vin I.59; and *saasitabba DhA III.99. - Pass *saasiyati Vin II.200; Miln 186. - 2. to rule, govern (acc.) aadministereotypeto (dat.) S I.236 = Sn 1002 (pa.thavi.m dhammenam-anusaasati, of a Cakkavattin); J II.2; VI.517 (rajjassa = rajja.m C., i. e. take care of) DA I.246 (read *saasantena); PvA 161 (rajja.m). -pp. anusi.t.tha (q. v.); cp. anusatthar, anusatthi and ovadati.

Anusaasana (nt.) [Vedic anushaasana, from anu + shaas] advice, instruction, admonition D III.107; A I.292 (*paa.tihaariya, cp. anusaasanii); Miln 359.

Anusaasanii (f.) [from anusaasati, cp. anusaasana] instruction, teaching, commandment, order S V.108; A II.147; III.87; V.24 sq., 49, 338; J V.113; Th 2, 172, 180; Pv III.76; ThA 162; VvA 19, 80, 81. -paa.tihaariya (anusaasani*) the miracle of teaching, the wonder worked by the commandments (of the Buddha) Vin II.200; D I.212, 214; III.220; A I.170; V.327; J III.323; Ps II.227 sq.

Anusikkhati [Vedic anushik.sati; anu + Desid. of shak] to learn of somebody (gen.); to follow one's example, to imitate Vin II.201 (ppr. med. *amaana); S I.235; A IV. 282, 286, 323; Sn 294 (vatta.m, cp. RV III.59, 2: vratena shik.sati), 934; J I.89; II.98; III.315; V.334; VI.62; Th 1, 963; Miln 61. - Caus anusikkhaapeti to teach [ = Sanskrit anushik.sayati] Miln 352.

Anusikkhin (adj.) [from anusikhati] studying, learning M I. 100; Dh 226 (ahoratta* = divaa ca ratti~n ca tisso sikkhaa sikkhamaana DhA III.324).

Anusi.t.tha (Vedic anushis..ta, pp. of anusaasati] instructed, admonished, advised; ordered, commanded M II.96; J I.226; Pv II.811; Miln 284, 349.

Anusibbati [anu + sibbati, siv to sew] to interweave Vin III.336 (introd. to Sam. Paas.).

Anusu.naati [anu + shru] to hear; pret. anassu.m [Sanskrit anvashruva.m] I heard M I.333.

Anusumbhati [anu + sumbhati (sobhati); shubh or (Vedic) shumbh] to adorn, embellish, prepare J VI.76.

Anusuyya.m [cp. Sanskrit anasuuya.m] reading at J III.27, see anasuyya.m.

Anusuyyaka (adj.) [an + usuyyaka] not envious, not jealous Sn 325 ( = usuyyaavigamena a. SnA 332); J II.192 (v. l. anussuyyaka); V.112.

Anuse.t.thi [anu + se.t.thi] 1. an under-se.t.thi (banker, merchant) J V.384 (see anu B III. a.). - 2. in redupl. cpd. se.t.tha-nuse.t.thi (see anu B IV) "bankers and lesser bankers", i. e. all kinds of well-to-do families J VI.331.

Anuseti [anu + seti. cp. Sanskrit anushayate or* shete, from shii] to "lie down with", i. e. (1) trs. to dwell on, harp on (an idea) S II.65; III.36; IV.208. - 2. (of the idea) to obsess, to fill the mind persistently, to lie dormant and be continually cropping up. M I.40, 108, 433; S II.54 (so read with SS for anusavanti) IV.188; A I.283; III.246; Pug 32, 48. -pp. anusayita (q. v.).

Anusocati [anu + socati] to mourn for, to bewail Sn 851 (atiita.m na a.; cp. Nd1 222); Pv I.127; II.68; PvA 95.

Anusocana (nt.) [abstr. from anusocati] bewailing, mourning PvA 65.

Anusota* [anu + sota, in *.m as adv. or acc. to explination. under anu A a.] in anusota.m (adv.) along the stream or current, down-stream A II.12; J I.70 (opp. pa.tisota.m against the stream); PvA 169 (Gangaaya a. aagacchanto). -gaamin "one who follows the stream", i. e. giving way to ones inclinations, following ones will A II.5, 6 (opp. pa.ti*); Sn. 319 ( = sota.m anugacchanto Sn A 330); Pug 62.

---[ Page 45 ]---

Anussati (f.) [Sanskrit anusmrti, from anu + smr, cp. sati] remembrance, recollection, thinking of, mindfulness. A late list of subjects to be kept in mind comprises six anussati-.t.thaanaani, viz. Buddha-, Dhamma-, Sangha-, siila-, caaga-, devataa-, i. e. proper attention to the Buddha, the Doctrines, the Church, to morality, charity, the gods. Thus at D III.250, 280 (cp. A I.211); A III.284, 312 sq., 452; V.329 sq.; Ps I.28. Expanded to 10 subjects (the above plus aanaapaana-sati, mara.na-sati, kaayagataa-sati, upasama-nussati) at A I.30, 42 (cp. Lal. Vist 34). For other references see D I.81; S V.67 = It 107 (anussara.na at latter pass.); A III.284, 325, 452. Ps I.48, 95, 186; Pug 25, 60; Dhs 14, 23, 1350 (anussati here to be corr. to asati, see Dhs. trsl. 351); Sdhp. 225, 231, 482. See also anuttariya (anussat-a-nuttariya).

Anussada (adj.) [an + ussada without haughtiness Sn 624 (vv. ll. anusaddha and anussuda; Sn A 467 explination. by ta.nhaa ussada-bhaava) = Dh 400 (which pass. has anussuta; v.l. K.B. anussada; DhA IV.165 expls. with ta.nhaa-ussaava-bhaava, vv. ll. *ussada*); It 97 (vv. ll. anussata and anussara).

Anussara.na (nt.) [abstr. to anussarati] remembrance, memory, recollection It 107 ( = anussati at id. p. S V.67); PvA 25, 29.

Anussarati [Vedic anusmarati, anu + smr] to remember, recollect, have memory of (acc.), bear in mind; be aware of D II.8, 53, 54 (jaatito etc.); S III.86 sq. (pubbe nivaasa'n); V.67 (dhamma.m a. anuvitakketi), 303 (kappasahassa'n); A I.25, 164 (pubbe nivaasa'n), 207 (Tathaagata.m, Dhamma.m etc.); III.285 (id.), 323 (nivaasa'n), 418; V.34, 38, 132, 199, 336 (kalyaa.namitte); It 82 (dhamma.m), 98 (pubbe nivaasa'n); J I.167; II.111; Dh 364; Pv I.59; Pug 60; Sdhp 580, 587; DA I.257; KhA 213; DhA II.84; IV.95; PvA 29, 53, 69, 79, 107. -pp. anussarita (see anussaritar). - Caus anussaraapeti to remind someone, to call to mind J II.147.

Anussaritar [n. ag. to anussarita, pp. of anussarati] one who recollects or remembers S V.197, 225 (saritar +); A V.25, 28.

Anussava [anu + sava from shru, cp. Vedic shravas nt.] hearsay, report, tradition M I.520; II.211; S II.115; IV.138; A I.26; J I.158 (with reference to part. kira = annussav'atthe nipaato; so also at VvA 322, cf. anussavana); II.396, 430 (id.); IV.441; instr. *ena from hearsay, by report A II.191 (cf. itihiitiha.m).

Anussavana (nt.) [anu + savana from shru] = anussava PvA 103 (kira-saddo anussavane, from hearsay).

Anussavika (adj.) [from anussava] "belonging to hearsay", traditional; one who is familiar with tradition or who learns from hearsay M I.520; II.211. Cp. anussutika.

Anussaavaka [from anussaaveti] one who proclaims or announces, a speaker (of a kammavaacaa) Vin I.74.

Anussaavana (nt.) and *aa (f.) [from anussaaveti] a proclamation Vin I.317, 340; V.170, 186, 202 sq.

Anussaavita [pp. of anussaaveti] proclaimed, announced Vin I.103.

Anussaaveti [anu + saaveti, Causative of shru, cp. B.Sanskrit anushraavayati "to proclaim aloud the guilt of a criminal" AvSH. I.102; II.182] to cause to be heard or sound; to proclaim, utter, speak out Vin I.103 (*ssaaviyamaana ppr. Pass.); II.48 (sadda.m a.). -pp. anussaavita.

Anussuka (adj.) [an + ussuka] free from greed Dh 199; cf. anussukin v. l. D III.47, also anissukin and apalaasin.

Anussukita [an + ussuk.r] VvA 74 and anussukin Pug 23 = anussuka.

Anussuta1 (adj.) [an + ussuta, ud + sr] free from lust Dh 400 ( = ussaava-vena anussuta C.). See also anussada.

Anussuta2 [anu + suta, pp. of shru] heard of; only in cpd. ananussuta unheard of S II.9; Pug 14.

Anussutika (adj.) [from anu + shru, cp. anussavika] according to tradition or report, one who goes by or learns from hearsay DA I.106, 107.

Anussuyyaka see anusuyyaka.

Anuhasati [anu + hasati] to laugh at, to ridicule DA I.256.

Anuhiirati [for *hariyati, anu + hr] to be held up over, ppr. anuhiiramaana D II.15 (vv. ll. v. l. anubhiram*; glosses B. K. anudhaariyam*, cp. Trenckner, Notes 79).

Anuuna (adj.) [Vedic anuuna, an + uuna] not lacking, entire, complete, without deficiency J VI 273; Dpvs V.52; Miln 226; DA I.248 (+ paripuura, explained by anavaya).

Anuunaka = anuuna Dpvs IV.34.

Anuunataa (f.) [abstr. from anuuna] completeness Cp. III.611.

Anuupa (adj.) [Vedic anuupa, anu + ap: see aapa, orig. alongside of water] watery, moist; watery land , lowland J. IV.358 (anopa T; anupa C. p. 359), 381 (*khetta); Miln 129 (*khetta).

Anuupaghaata [metrically for anupa*] not killing, not murdering. Dh 185 ( = anupahanana~n c-eva anupaghaatana~n ca DhA III.238).

Anuupadhika for anu* in metre Sn 1057, see upadhi.

Anuupanaahin (adj.) [an + upanaahin, with uu metri causa] not bearing ill-will, not angry with J IV.463.

Anuupama at It 122 is metric reading for anupama (see upama).

Anuupalitta (adj.) [an + upalitta, with uu in metre] free from taint, unstained, unsmeared Sn 211, 392, 468, 790, 845; Dh 353; cf. Nd1 90 and DhA IV.72.

Anuupavaada [an + upavaada, with metrically lengthened u] not grumbling, not finding fault Dh 185 ( = anupavaadana~n c- eva anupavadaapana~n ca DhA III.238).

Anuuhata (adj.) [pp. of an + uuha~n~nati, ud + han] not rooted out, not removed or destroyed Th 1, 223 = Nd2 974; Dh 338 ( = asamucchinna DhA IV.48).

Aneka (adj.) (usually *-) [an + eka] not one, i. e. many, various; countlcss, numberless It 99 (sa'nva.t.takappaa countless aeons); Sn 688 (*saakhaa); Dh 153 (*jaatisaara); J IV.2; VI.366. -pariyaayena (instr.) in many ways Vin I.16; Sn p. 15. -ruupa various, manifold Sn 1049, 1079, 1082; Nd2 54 ( = anekavidha). -vidha manifold Nd2 54; DA I.103. -vihita various, manifold D I.12, 13, 178; It 98; Pug 55; DA I.103 ( = anekavidha).

Aneka.msaa (f.) [an + eka.msaa] doubt Nd2 1.

Aneka.msikataa (f.) [abstr. from aneka.msa + kata] uncertainty, doubtfulness Miln 93.

Aneka (adj.) [an + ejaa] free from desires or lust D II.157; Sn 920, 1043, 1101, 1112; It 91 (opp. eja-nuga Nd1 353 = Nd2 55; Dh 414 ( = ta.nhaaya abhaavena DhA IV. 194), 422; Pv IV.135 (nitta.nha PvA 230).

Anedha (adj.) [an + edha] without fuel J IV.26 ( = anindhana).

Ane'a (adj.) [an + e'a = ena, see ne'a and cp. BSanskrit e.da (muuka); Vedic anena] faultless, pure; only in following compounds: *gala free from the dripping or oozing of impurity (thus

---[ Page 46 ]---

explained. at DA I.282, viz. elagalana-virahita), but more likely in lit. meaning "having a pure or clear throat" or, of vaacaa speech: "clearly enunciated" (thus Mrs. Rh. D. at Kindred Sayings I.241) Vin I.197 = D I.114 = S I.189; A II.51, 97; III.114, 195. Cp. also M Vastu III. 322. - *muuga same as prec. "having a clear throat", i. e. not dumb, fig. clever, skilled D III.265; Sn 70 ( = alaalaamukha SnA 124), cp. Nd2 259.

Ane'aka (adj.) [cp. BSanskrit ane.daka, e. g. Av. SH. I.187, 243; M Vastu I.339; III.322] = ane'a, pure, clear M II.5; J VI.529.

Anesanaa (f.) [an + esanaa] impropriety S II.194; J II.86; IV.381; Miln 343, 401; DA I.169; DhA IV.34; Sdhp 392, 427.

Ano- is a frequent form of compounds. an-ava, see ava.

Anoka (nt.) [an + oka] houselessness, a houseless state, fig freedom from worldliness or attachment to life, singleness S V.24 = A V.232 = Dh 87 (okaa anoka.m aagamma). adj. homeless, free from attachment S I.176; Dh 87 ( = anaalaya DhA II.162); Sn 966 (adj.; explained at Nd1 487 by abhisankhaara-sahagatassa vi~n~naa.nassa okaasa'n na karoti, and at SnA 573 by abhisankhaara-vi~n~naan- aadiina.m anokaasabhuuta). saarin living in a houseless state, fig. being free from worldly attachment S III.10 = Nd1 197; Sn 628 ( = anaalaya-caarin SnA 468); Ud 32; Dh 404 (v. l. anokka*); DhA IV.174 ( = anaalaya-caarin); Miln 386.

Anogha in anogha-ti.n.na see ogha.

Anojaka = anojaa Vv 354 ( = VvA 161, where classed with yodhikaa bandhujiivakaa).

Anojagghati at D I.91 is v. l. for anujagghati.

Anojaa (f.) [*Sanskrit anujaa] a kind of shrub or tree with red flowers J VI.536 (korandaka +); usually in cpd. anojapuppha the a. flower, used for wreaths etc. J I.9 (*daama, a garland of a flowers); VI.227 (id.); DhA II.116 (*cango.taka).

Anottappa (nt.) [an + ottappa] recklessness, hardness D III.212; It 34 (ahirika +); Pug 20; Dhs 365. Cp. anottaapin.

Anottaapin and Anottappin (adj.) [from anottappa] not afraid of sin, bold, reckless, shameless D III.252, 282 (pp; ahirika); Sn 133 (p; ahirika +); It 27, 115 (anataapin anottappin, vv. ll. anottaapin); Pug 20, 24.

Anodaka (adj.) [an + udaka] without water, dry J I.307; DhA I.52; Sdhp 443.

Anodissaka (adj.) [an + odissa + ka] unrestricted, without exception, general, universal; only in cpd. *vasena universally, thoroughly (with reference to mettaa) J I.81; II 146; VvA 97 (in general; opp. odissaka-vasena). See also Mrs. Rh. D. Psalms of the Brethren p. 5 n. 1.

Anonamati [an + onamati] not to bend, to be inflexible, in following expressions: anonamaka (nt.) not stooping DhA II.136; auonamanto (ppr.) not bending D II.17 = III. 143; anonami-da.n.da (for anonamiya*) an inflexible stick Miln 238 (ano.nami* T, but anonami* vv. ll., see Miln 427).

Anopa see anuupa.

Anoma (adj.) (only *-) [an + oma] not inferior, superior, perfect, supreme, in following compounds -gu.na supreme virtue DA I.288. -dassika of superior beauty Vv 207, VvA 103 (both as v. l.; T. anuma*); Vv 437. -dassin one who has supreme knowledge; of unexcelled wisdom (Name of a Buddha) J I.228. -naama of perfect name S I.33 ("by name the Peerless" Mrs. Rh. D.), 235; Sn 153, 177 (cp. SnA 200). -nikkama of perfect energy Vv 6427 ( = paripu.n.na-viriyataaya a. VvA 284). -pa~n~na of lofty or supreme wisdom (Ep. of the Buddha) Sn 343, 352 ( = mahaapa~n~na SnA 347); Th 2, 522 ( = paripu.n.na-pa~n~na ThA 296), DhA I.31. -va.n.na of excellent colour Sn 686 J VI.202. -viriya of supreme exertion or energy Sn 353.

Anomajjati [anu + ava + majjati, mrj] to rub along over, to stroke, only in phrase gattaani paa.ninaa a. to rub over one's limbs with the hand M I.80, 509; S V.216.

Anorapaara (adj.) [an + ora + paara] having (a shore) neither on this side nor beyond Miln 319.

Anoramati [an + ava + ram] not to stop, to continue J III.487; DhA III.9 (ger. *itvaa continually).

Anovassa (nt.) [an + ovassa; cp. Sanskrit anavavar.sana] absence of rain, drought J V.317 (v. l. BB for anvaavassa T.; q. v.).

Anovassaka (adj.) [an + ovassaka] sheltered from the rain, dry Vin II.211; IV.272; J I.172; II.50; III.73; DhA II. 263; ThA 188.

Anosita (adj.) [an + ava + sita, pp. of saa] not inhabited (by), not accessible (to) Sn 937 ( = anajjhosita.m Nd1 441; jaraadiihi anajjhaavuttha.m .thaana.m SnA 566).

Anta1 [Vedic anta; Goth. andeis = Ohg. anti = E. end; cp. also Latin antiae forehead (: E. antler), and the prep. anti opposite, antika near = Latin ante; Gr. a)nti/ and a)/nta opposite; Goth., Ags. and; Ger. ant-; orig. the opposite (i. e. what stands against or faces the starting-point)]. 1. end, finish, goal S IV.368 (of Nibbaana); Sn 467; J II.159. anta.m karoti to make an end (of) Sn 283, 512; Dh 275, cp. antakara, *kiriyaa. - loc. ante at the end of, immediately after J I.203 (vijay*). - 2. limit, border, edge Vin I.47; Dh 305 (van*); J III.188. - 3. side: see ekamanta.m (on one side, aside). - 4. opposite side, opposite, counterpart; pl. parts, contrasts, extremes; thus also used as "constituent, principle" (in tayo and cattaaro antaa; or does it belong to anta2 2. in this meaning* Cp. ekanta.m extremely, under anta2): dve antaa (two extremes) Vin I.10; S II.17; III.135. ubho antaa (both sides) Vin I.10; S II.17; J I.8; Nd1 109. eko, dutiyo anto (contrasts) Nd1 52. As tayo antaa or principles(*), viz. sakkaaya, s.-samudaya, s.-nirodha D III.216, cp. A III. 401; as cattaaro, viz. the 3 mentioned plus s.-nirodhagaamini-pa.tipadaa at S III.157. Interpreted by Morris as "goal" (J P T S. 1894, 70). - Often pleonastically, to be explained as a "pars pro toto" figure, like kammanta (q. v.) the end of the work, i. e. the whole work (cp. E. sea-side, country-side); vananta the border of the wood = the woods Dh 305; Pv II.310 (explained by vana PvA 86; same use in BSanskrit, vana-nta e. g. at Jtm VI.21; cp. also graama-nta Av. SH. I.210); suttanta (q. v.), etc. Cp. aakaasanta J VI.89 and the pleonastic use of patha. -ananta (n.) no end, infinitude; (adj.) endless, corresponds either to Sanskrit anta or antya, see anta2. -a-nanta end and no end, or finite and endless, D I.22; DA I.115. -a-nantika (holding views of, or talking about) finiteness and infinitude D I.22 (see explination. at DA I.115); S III.214, 258 sq.; Ps I.155. -kara putting an end to, (n.) a deliverer, saviour; usually in phrase dukkhass-a. (of the Buddha) M I.48, 531; A II.2; III.400 sq.; Th 1, 195; It 18; Sn 32, 337, 539; Pug 71. In other combination. A II.163 (vijjaay-); Sn 1148 (pa~nhaan-). -kiriyaa putting an end to, ending, relief, extirpation; always used with reference to dukkha S IV.93; lt 89; Sn 454, 725; DhA IV.45. -gata = antaguu Nd2 436 (+ ko.tigata). -gaahikaa (f.), viz. di.t.thi, is an attribute of micchaadi.t.thi, i. e. heretical doctrine. The meaning of anta in this combination. is not quite clear: either "holding (wrong) principles (goals, Morris)", viz. the 3 as specified above 4 under tayo antaa (thus Morris J P T S. 1884, 70), or "taking extreme sides, i. e. extremist", or "wrong, opposite ( = antya, see anta2)" (thus Kern, Toev. s. v.) Vin I.172; D III.45, 48 (an*); S I.154; A I.154; II.240; III.130; Ps I.151 sq. -guu one

---[ Page 47 ]---

who has gone to the end, one who has gone through or overcome (dukkha) A IV.254, 258, 262; Sn 401 ( = va.t.tadukkhassa antagata); 539. -ruddhi at J VI.8 is doubtful reading (antaruci*). -va.t.ti rimmed circumference J III.159. -sa~n~nin being conscious of an end (of the world) D I.22, cp. DA I 115.

Anta2 (adj.) [Vedic antya] 1. having an end, belonging to the end; only in negative ananta endless, infinite, boundless (opp. antavant); which may be taken as equal to anta1 (corresponds with Sanskrit anta (adj.) or antya; also in doublet ana~nca, see aakaas-a-na~nca and vi~n~naa.n-a-na~nca); D I.23, 34 = D III.224, 262 sq.; Sn 468 (*pa~n~na); Dh 179, 180 (*gocara having an unlimited range of mental vision, cp. DhA III.197); J I.178. - 2. extreme, last, worst J II.440 (C. hiina, laamaka); see also anta1 4. - acc. as adv. in ekanta.m extremely, very much, "utterly" Dh 228 etc. See eka.

Anta3 (nt.) [Vedic aantra, contr. from antara inner = Latin interus, Gr. e)/ntera intestines] the lower intestine, bowels, mesentery It 89; J I.66, 260 (*vaddhi-ma.msa etc.); Vism 258; DhA I.80. -ga.n.thi twisting of the bowels, lit. "a knot in the intestines" Vin I.275 (*aabaadha). -gu.na [see gu.na2 = gula1] the intestinal tract, the bowels S II.270; A IV.132; Kh III. = Miln 26; Vism 42; KhA 57. -mukha the anus J IV.402. -va.t.ti = *gu.na Vism 258.

Antaka [Vedic antaka] being at the end, or making an end, Ep. of Death or Maara Vin I.21; S I.72; Th 2, 59 (explained by ThA 65 as laamaka va Maara, thus taken = anta2); Dh 48 ( = mara.na-sankhaato antako DhA II.366), 288 ( = mara.na DhA III.434).

Antamaso (adv.) [orig. abl. of antama, *Sanskrit antamashah; cp. BSanskrit antashah as same formation from anta, in same meaning ("even") Av. SH. I.314; Divy 161] even Vin III. 260; IV.123; D I.168; M III.127; A V.195; J II.129; DA I.170; SnA 35; VvA 155.

Antara (adj.) [Vedic antara, cp. Gr. e)/ntera = Sanskrit antra (see anta3), Latin interus from prep. inter. See also ante and anto]. Primary meanings are "inside" and "in between"; as adj. "inner"; in prep. use and in compounds "inside, in between". Further development of meaning is with a view of contrasting the (two) sides of the inside relation, i. e. having a space between, different from; thus nt. antara.m difference. I. (Adj.-n) 1. (a) inner, having or being inside It 83 (tayo antaraa malaa three inward stains); esp. as -* in compounds aamis* with greed inside, greedy, selfish Vin I.303; dos* with anger inside, i. e. angry Vin II.249; D III.237; M I.123; PvA 78 (so read for des*). Abl. antarato from within It 83. (b) in between, distant; dvaadasa yojan* antara.m .thaana.m PvA 139 139. - 2. In noun-function (nt.): (a). spatial: the inside (of) Vv 361 (piitantara a yellow cloak or inside garment = piitava.n.na uttariya VvA 116); Daavs I.10 (diip- antara-vaasin living on the island); DhA I.358 (ka.n.na-chidd* the inside of the ear; VvA 50 (kacch* inner room or apartment). Therefore also "space in between", break J V.352 ( = chidda C.), and obstacle, hindrance, i. g. what stands in between: see compounds and antara-dhaayati (for antara.m dhaayati). - (b). temporal: an interval of time, hence time in general, and also a specified time, i. e. occasion. As interval in Buddhantara.m the time between the death of one Buddha and the appearance of another, PvA 10, 14, 21, 47, 191 etc. As time: It 121 (etasmi.m antare in that time or at this occasion); Pv I.1011 (diigha.m antara.m = diigha.m kaala.m PvA 52); PvA 5 (etasmi.m antare at this time, just then). As occasion: J V.287; Pug 55 (e'aka-m-antara.m occasion of getting rain). S I.20, quoted DA I.34, (ma~n ca ta~n ca ki.m antara.m what is there between me and you*) C. expls. ki.m kaara.naa. Mrs. Rh. D. in translation. p. 256 "of me it is and thee (this talk) - now why is this"; J VI.8 (assa antara.m na passi.msu they did not see a different in him). - 3. Phrases: antara.m karoti (a) to keep away from or at a distance (trs. and intrs.), to hold aloof, lit. "to make a space in between" M III.14; J. IV.2 (*katvaa leaving behind); Pug A 231 (umMaara.m a. katvaa staying away from a threshold); also adverbially: dasa yojanaani a. katvaa at a distance of 10 y. PvA 139. - (b.) to remove, destroy J VI.56 (v. l. BB. antaraaya.m karoti). II. In prep. use (*-) with acc. (direction) or loc. (rest): inside (of), in the midst of, between, during (cp. III. use of cases). (a.) w. acc.: antaraghara.m pavi.t.tha gone into the house Miln 11. - (b.) w. loc.: antaraghare nisiidanti (inside the house) Vin II.213; *diipake in the centre of the island J I.240; *dvaare in the door J V.231; *magge on the road (cp. antaraamagge) PvA 109; *bhatte in phrase ekasmi.m yeva a. during one meal J I 19 = DhA I.249; *bhattasmi.m id. DhA IV.12; *viithiyan in the middle of the road PvA 96. *satthiisu between the thighs Vin II.161 (has antaraa satthiina.m) = J I.218. III. Adverbial use of cases, instr. antarena in between D I.56; S IV.59, 73; J I.393; PvA 13 (kaal* in a little while, na kaalantarena ib. 19). Often in combination. antarantarena (c. gen.) right in between (lit. in between the space of) DhA I.63, 358. - loc. antare in, inside of, in between (-* or c. gen. KhA 81 (sutt* in the Sutta); DhA III.416 (mama a.); PvA 56, 63 (rukkh*). Also as antarantare right inside, right in the middle of (c. gen.) KhA 57; DhA I.59 (vanasa.n.dassa a.). - abl. antaraa (see also sep. article of antaraa) in combination. antarantaraa from time to time, occasionally; successively time after time Sn p. 107; DhA II.86; IV.191; PvA 272. IV. anantara (adj.) having or leaving nothing in between i. e. immediately following, incessant, next, adjoining J IV.139; Miln 382 (solQ; DhA I.397; PvA 63 (tadantara.m immediately hereafter), 92 (immed. preceding), 97 (next in caste). See also abbhantara. -atiita gone past in the meantime J II.243. -kappa an intermediary kappa (q. v.) D I 54. -kaara.na a cause of impediment, hindrance, obstacle Pug A 231 -cakka "the intermediate round", i. e. in astrology all that belongs to the intermediate points of the compass Miln 178. -cara one who goes in between or inside, i. e. a robber S IV.173. -baahira (adj.) inside and outside J I.125. -bhogika one who has power (wealth, influence) inside the kings dominion or under the king, a subordinate chieftain (cp. antara-ra.t.tha) Vin III.47. -ra.t.tha an intermediate kingdom, rulership of a subordinate prince J V.135. -vaasa an interregnum Dpvs V.80. -vaasaka "inner or intermediate garment", one of the 3 robes of a Buddhist bhikkhu (viz. the sanghaa.tii, uttaraasanga and a.) Vin I.94, 289; II.272. Cf. next. -saa.taka an inner or lower garment [cp. Sanskrit antariiya id.], under garment, i. e. the one between the outer one and the body VvA 166 (q. v.).

Antara.msa [B.Sanskrit antara-.msa; antara + a.msa] "in between the shoulders", i. e. the chest J V.173 = VI.171 (phrase lohitakkho vihat- antara.mso).

Antara.t.thaka (adj.) [antara + a.t.thaka] only in phrases rattisu antara.t.thakaasu and antara.t.thake hima-paatasamaye (in which antara functions as prep. c. loc., according to antara II. b.) i. e. in the nights (and in the time of the falling of snow) between the eighths (i. e. the eighth day before and after the full moon: see a.t.thaka2). First phrase at Vin I.31, 288; III 31; second at M I.79 (cp. p. 536 where Trenckner divides anta-ra.t.thaka); A I.136 (in nom.); J I.390; Miln 396.

Antaradhaana (nt.) [from antaradhaayati] disappearance A I.58 (sadDhammassa); II.147; III.176 sq.; Miln 133; Dhs 645, 738, 871. Cp. *dhaayana.

Antaradhaayati [antara + dhaayati] to disappear Sn 449 (*dhaayatha 3rd sg. med.); Vv 8128 (id.); J I.119 = DhA I.248; DhA IV.191 (ppr. *dhaayamaana and aor. dhaayi) PvA 152, 217, (*dhaayi), 245; VvA 48. - ppr. antarahita (q. v.). - Causative antaradhaapeti to cause to disappear, to destroy J I.147; II.415; PvA 123.

---[ Page 48 ]---

Antaradhaayana (nt.) [from antaradhaayati] disappearance DhA IV.191. (v. l. *adhaana).

Antarayati [cp. denom. from antara] to go or step in between, ger. antaritvaa ( = antarayitvaa) J I.218.

Antarahita (adj.) [pp. of antaradhaayati] 1. disappeared, gone, left D I.222. M I.487. Miln 18. PvA 245. - 2 in phrase anantarahitaaya bhuumiyaa (loc) on the bare soil (lit. on the ground with nothing put in between it and the person lying down, i. e. on an uncovered or unobstructed ground) Vin I.47; II.209; M II.57.

Antaraa (adv.) [abl. or adv. formation from antara; Vedic antaraa.] prep. (c. gen. acc. or loc.), prefix (*-) and adv. "in between" (of space and time), midway, inside; during, meanwhile, between. On interpretation of term see DA I.34 sq. - (1). (prep.) c. acc. (of the two points compared as termini; cp. B.Sanskrit antaraa ca Divy 94 etc.) D I.1 (antaraa ca Raajagaha.m antaraa ca Naa'anda.m between R. and N.). - c. gen. and loc. Vin II.161 (satthiina.m between the thighs, where id. p. at J I.218 has antara-satthiisu); A II.245 (satthiina.m. but v. l. satthimhi). - (2) (adv.) meanwhile Sn 291, 694; It 85; Dh 237. - occasionally Miln 251. - (3). (prefix) see compounds -kathaa "in between talk, talk for pastime, chance conversation, D II.1, 8, 9; S I.79; IV.281; A III.167; Sn p. 115; DA I.49 and frequent passim. -gacchati to come in between, to prevent J VI.295. -parinibbaayin an Anaagaamin who passes away in the middle of his term of life in some particular heaven D III.237; A I.233; Pug 16. -magge (loc.) on the road, on the way J I.253; Miln 16; DhA II.21; III.337; PvA 151, 258, 269, 273 (cp. antara*). -mara.na premature death DhA I.409; PvA 136. -muttaka one who is released in the meantime Vin II.167.

Antaraapa.na (nt.) [antaraa + pa.na "in between the shopping or trading"] place where the trading goes on, bazaar J I.55; VI.52; Miln 1, 330; DhA I.181.

Antaraaya1 [antara + aya from i, lit. "coming in between"] obstacle, hindrance, impediment to (-*); prevention, bar; danger, accident to (-). There are 10 dangers (to or from) enumerated at Vin I.112, 169 etc., viz. raaja*, cora*, aggi*, udaka*, manussa*, amanussa*, vaa'a*, siri.msapa*, jiivita*, brahmacariya*. In B.Sanskrit 7 at Divy 544, viz. raajaa-caura-manus.y-amanus.ya-vyaa.d-agny-udaka.m. - D I.3, 25, 26; A III.243, 306; IV.320; Sn 691, 692; Dh 286 ( = jiivit* DhA III.431); J I.62, 128; KhA 181; DhA II 52; VvA 1 = PvA 1 (hat* removing the obstacles) -antaraaya.m karoti to keep away from, hinder, hold back, prevent, destroy Vin I.15; J VI.171; Vism 120; PvA 20. -kara one who causes impediments or bars the way, an obstructor D I.227; S I.34; A I.161; Pv IV.322.

Antaraaya2 (adv.) [dat. of antara or formation from antara + ger. of i*) in the meantime Sn 1120 (cp Nd2 58) = antaraa Sn A 603.

Antaraayika (adj.) [from antaraaya] causing an obstacle, forming an impediment Vin I.94 = II.272; M I.130; S II.226; ThA 288.

Antaraayikin (adj.-n.) [cp. antaraayika] one who meets with an obstacle, finding difficulties Vin IV.280 (an* = asati antaraaye).

Antaraa'a (nt.) [Sk antaraala] interior, interval Daavs I.52; III.53 (nabh*).

Antarika (adj.) [from antara] "being in between", i. e. 1. intermediate, next, following: see an*. - 2. distant, lying in between PvA 173 (aneka-yojan* .thaana). See also f. antarikaa. - 3. inside: see antarikaa. -anantarika with no interval, succeeding, immediately following, next Vin II.165, 212 (aan*); IV.234.

Antarikaa (f.) [abstr. from antarika] "what lies in between or near", i. e. - 1. the inside of Vin IV.272 (bhaajan*). 2. the neighbourhood, region of (-*), sphere, compass Vin III.39 (ur*, angul*); J I.265 (yakkhassa siim* inside the y* sphere of influence). - 3. interval, interstice Vin II.116 (sutt* in lace); A I.124 (vijj* the interval of lightning).

Antalikkha (nt.) [Vedic antarik.sa = antari-k.sa (ks.i), lit. situated in between sky and earth] the atmosphere or air D II.15; A III.239; IV.199; Sn 222, 688; Dh 127 = Miln 150 = PvA 104; Pv I.31 ( = vehaayasa-sa~n~nita a. PvA 14); KhA 166. -ga going through the air A I.215. -cara walking through the air Vin I.21; D I.17; S I.111; J V.267; DA I.110.

Antavant (aadj.) [anta1 + *vant] having an end, finite D I.22, 31, 187; Ps I.151 sq.; 157; Dhs 1099, 1117, 1175; Miln 145. -anantavant endless, infinite A V.193 (loka). See also loka.

Anti (indecl.) [Vedic anti = Lat ante, Gr. a)nti/, Goth. and; Ags. and-, Ger. ant-, ent-] adv. and prep. c. gen.: opposite, near J V.399 (tav- anti.m aagataa, read as tav- anti-m-aagataa; C. santika.m), 400, 404; VI.565 (saamikass- anti = antike C.). - Cp. antika.

Antika (adj.-n.) -1. [der from anti] near KhA 217; nt. neighbourhood Kh VIII.1. (odak.r); J VI.565 (antike loc. = anti near). - 2. [der from anta = Sanskrit antya] being at the end, final, finished, over S I.130 (purisaa etad-antikaa, v. l. SS antiyaa: men are (to me) at the end for that, i. e. men do not exist any more for me, for the purpose of begetting sons.

Antima (adj.) [Cp. superl. of anta] last, final (used almost exclusively with reference to the last and final reincarnation; thus in combination. with deha and sariira, the last body) D II.15; Dh 351; It 50 (antima.m deha.m dhaareti), 53 (id.); Vv 512; Sn 478 (sariira.m antima.m dhaareti) 502; Miln 122, 148; VvA 106 (sariir- antima-dhaarin); Sdhp 278. -dehadhara one who wears his last body It 101 (dhaara T, *dhara v. l.); VvA 163. -dhaarin = prec. S I.14, 53 (+ khii.naasava); II.278; It 32, 40; Sn 471. -vatthu "the last thing", i. e. the extreme, final or worst (sin) Vin I. 121, 135, 167, 320. -sariira the last body; (adj.) having ones last rebirth S I.210 (Buddho a*-sariiro); A II.37; Sn 624; Dh 352, 400; DhA IV.166 ( = ko.tiya.m .thito attabhaavo).

Ante* (prefix) [Sanskrit anta*, with change of -a* to -e, instead of the usual -o, prob. through interpreting it as loc. of anta] near, inside, within; only in following compounds: *pura (nt.) "inner town", the king's palace, esp. its inner apartments, i. e. harem [Sanskrit anta*pura, cp. also Paali antopura] Vin I.75, 269; A V.81; J II.125; IV.472; Miln 1; PvA 23, 81, 280; *purikaa harem woman DhsA 403; *vaasika one who lives in, i. e. lodges or lives with his mastereotypeor teacher, a pupil Vin I.60; III.25; S I.180; IV.136; J I. 166; II.278; III.83, 463; PvA 12; VvA 138; *vaasin = *vaasika Vin III.66; D I.1, 45, 74, 78, 88, 108, 157; M III.116; DA I.36.

Anto (indecl.) [Sanskrit anta*; Av antar* Latin inter, Oir. etar between, Ohg. untar; Idg. *entar, compar. of *en (in) = inner, inside] prep. inside, either c. acc. denoting direction = into, or c. loc. denoting place where = in. As prefix (*-) in, within, inside, inner (see compounds) (1.) prep. c. acc. anto nivesana.m gata gone into the house J I.158; anto jaala.m pavisati go into the net DhA III.175; anto gaama.m pavisati to go into the village DhA II.273; anto nagara.m pavisati DhA II.89; PvA 47. - (2) c. loc. anto gabbhe J II.182; gaame DhA II.52; gehe DhA II.84; nadiya.m J VI.278; nivesane J II.323; vasse in the rainy season J IV.242; vimaanasmi.m Pv I.101; sattaahe inside of a week PvA 55.

---[ Page 49 ]---

-ko.tisanthaara "house of the Golden Pavement" J IV.113. -gadha (*gata* Kern Toev.) in phrase *hetu, by inner reason or by reason of its intensity PvA 10; VvA 12. -jana "the inside people", i. e. people belonging to the house, the family ( = Latin familia) D III.61 (opp. to servants); A I.152; J VI.301; DA I.300. -jaala the inside of the net, the net DhA IV.41. -jaalikata "in-netted", gone into the net D I.45; DA I.127. -nijjhaana inner conflagration PvA 18. -nimugga altogether immersed D I.75; A III.26. -parisoka inner grief Ps I.38. -pura = antepura J I.262. -mano "turning ones mind inside", thoughtful, melancholy Vin III.19. -bhavika being inside Miln 95. -rukkhataa being among trees J I.7. -vasati to inhabit, live within S IV.136. -va'a~njanaka (parijana) indoorpeople J V.118. -vassa the rainy season (lit. the interval of the r. s.) VvA 66. -vihaara the inside of the V. DhA I.50 (*a-bhimukhii turning towards etc.), -samorodha barricading within Dhs 1157 (so read for anta*, cp. Dhs. trsl. 311). -soka inner grief Ps I.38.

Andu [cp. Sanskrit andu, anduu and anduka] a chain, fetter Vin I.108 = III.249 (ti.n*); D I.245; J I.21 (*ghara prisonhouse); DhA IV.54 (*bandhana).

Andha (adj.) [Vedic andha, Latin andabata (see Walde, Latin Wtb. s. v.), other etymology doubtful] 1. (lit.) blind, blinded, blindfolded J I.216 (dhuum*); Pv IV.148; PvA 3. - dark, dull, blinding M III.151 (-andha.m adv. dulled); Sn 669 (Ep. of timisa, like Vedic andha.m tama*); DhA II.49 (*vana dark forest). - 2. (fig.) mentally blinded, dull of mind, foolish, not seeing D I.191 (+ acakkhuka), 239 (*ve.ni, reading and meaning uncertain); A I.128; Th 2, 394 ( = baala ThA 258). See compounds *kara.na, *kaara, *baala, *bhuuta. -aakula blinded, foolish Vv 849 ( = pa~n~naacakkhuno abhaavena VvA 337). -kara.na blinding, making blind, causing bewilderment (fig.), confusing It 82 (+ acakkhukara.na); Miln 113 (pa~nha, + gambhiira). -kaara blindness (lit. and fig), darkness, dullness, bewilderment Vin I.16; D II.12; A I.56; II.54; III.233; J III.188; Th 1, 1034; Dh 146; Sn 763; Vv 214 ( = avijj* VvA 106); Pug 30; Dhs 617; DA I.228; VvA 51, 53, 116, 161; PvA 6; Sdhp 14, 280. -tamo deep darkness (lit. and fig.) S V.443; It 84 (v. l.; T. andha.m tama.m); J VI.247. -baala blinded by folly, foolish, dull of mind, silly J I.246, 262; VI.337; DhA II.43, 89; III.179; VvA 67; PvA 4, 264. -bhuuta blinded (fig.), mentally blind, not knowing, ignorant S IV.21; A II.72; J VI.139 (spelled *buuta); Dh 59, 174 ( = pa~n~naa-cakkhuno abhaavena DhA III.175). -vesa "blind form", disguise J III.418. -vane dark-woods

Andhaka [from andha] "blind fly", i. e. dark or yellow fly or gad-fly Sn 20 ( = kaa.na-makkhikaana.m adhivacana.m SnA 33).

Anna (nt.) [Vedic anna, orig. pp. of adati to eat] "eating", food, esp. boiled rice, but includes all that is eaten as food, viz. odana, kummaasa, sattu, maccha, ma.msa (rice, gruel, flour, fish, meat) Nd1 372 = 495. Anna is spelt a.n.na in combinations apar- a.n.na and pubb- a.n.na. Under dha~n~na (Nd2 314) are distinguished 2 kinds, viz. raw, natural cereals (pubb- a.n.na.m: saali, viihi, yava, godhuuma, kangu, varaka, kudruusaka) and boiled, prepared food (apar- a.n.na.m: suupeyya curry). SnA 378 (on Sn 403) expls. anna by yaagubhatta-di. - D I.7; A I.107, 132; II.70, 85, 203; Sn 82, 240, 403, 924; J III.190; Pug 51; Sdhp 106, 214. -aapa food and water Sdhp 100. -da giving food Sn 297. -paana food and water, eating and drinking, to eat and to drink Sn 485, 487; Pv I.52, 82; KhA 207, 209; PvA 7, 8, 30, 31, 43.

Annaya in dur* see anvaya.

Anvakaasi 3rd sg. aor. of anukassati 2: drew out, removed, threw down Th 1, 869 ( = khipi, cha.d.desi C.).

Anvakkhara (adj.) [anu + akkhara] "according to the syllable", syll. after syll., also a mode of reciting by syllables Vin IV.15, cp. 355. Cp. anupada.m.

Anvagaa 3rd sg. aor. of anugacchati Mhvs 7, 10. Also in assim. form annagaa J V.258.

Anvaguu 3rd pl. aor. of anugacchati S I.39; Sn 586.

Anva.d.dhamaasa'n (adv.) [anu + a.d.dha + maasa] every fortnight, twice a month M II.8; Vin IV.315 ( = anuposathika.m); DhA I.162; II.25.

Anvattha (adj.) [anu + attha] according to the sense, answering to the matter, having scnse ThA 6 (*sa~n~naabhaava).

Anvadeva (adv.) [anva-d-eva with euphonic d.; like sammad-eva corresponding to Sanskrit anvag-eva] behind, after, later D I.172; M III.172; S V.1 (spelt anudeva); A I.11; V. 214; It 34.

Anvaya (n.-adj.) [Vedic anvaya in different meaning; from anu + i, see anveti and anvaaya] 1. (n.) conformity, accordance D II. 83 = III.100; M I.69 (dhamm* logical conclusion of); S II.58; D III.226 (anvaye ~naa.na.m); Pv II.113 (tassa kammassa anvaaya, v. l. BB anvaya and anvaaya; accordingly, according to = paccayaa PvA 147); PvA 228 (anvayato, adv. in accordance). - 2. (adj.) following, having the same course, behaving according to, consequential, in conformity with (-*) D I.46 (tad*); M I.238 (kaayo citt* acting in conformity to the mind, obeying the mind); Sn 254 (an* inconsistent); It 79 (tass*). - dur* spelt durannaya conforming with difficulty, hard to manage or to find out Dh 92 (gati = na sakkaa pa~n~naapetu.m DhA II.173); Sn 243, 251 ( = duvi~n~naapaya SnA 287 dunneyya ibid. 293).

Anvayataa (f.) [abstr. to anvaya] conformity, accordance M I.500 (kaay* giving in to the body).

Anvaha.m (adv.) [anu + aha] every day, daily Daavs IV.8.

Anvaagacchati [anu + aa + gacchati] 1. to go along after, to follow, run after, pursue; aor. anvaagacchi Pv. IV.56 ( = anubandhi PvA 260). - 2. to come back again J I.454 (ger. *gantvaana). -pp. anvaagata (q. v.).

Anvaagata [pp. of anvaagacchati] having pursued, attained; endowed with Th 1, 63; J IV.385; V.4.

Anvaadisati [anu + aa + disati] to advise, dedicate, assign; imper. *disaahi Pv II.26 ( = uddissa dehi PvA 80); III.28 ( = aadisa PvA 181).

Anvaadhika (adj.) [derivation uncertain] a tailoring term. Only at Vin I.297. Rendered (Vinaya Texts II.232) by "half and half" ; that is a patchwork, half of new material, half of old. Bdhgh's note (see the text, p. 392) adds that the new material must be cut up.

Anvaamaddati [anu + aa + maddati] to squeeze, wring J III. 481 (galaka.m anvaamaddi wrung his neck; vv. ll. anvaanuma.t.ti and anvaavamaddi; C. giiva.m maddi).

Anvaaya [ger. of anveti; cp. anvaya] undergoing, experiencing, attaining; as prep. (c. acc.) in consequence of, through, after D I.13 (aatappa.m by means of self-sacrifice), 97 (sa'nvaasa'n as a result of their cohabitation); J I.56 (buddhi.m), 127 (piyasa'nvaasa'n), 148 (gabbhaparipaaka.m). Often in phrase vuddhi.m anvaaya growing up, e. g. J I.278; III. 126; DhA II.87.

Anvaayika (adj.-n.) [from anvaaya] following; one who follows, a companion D III.169; Nd2 59; J III.348.

Anvaarohati [anu + aa + rohati] to go up to, visit, ascend J IV.465 (aor. anvaaruhi).

---[ Page 50 ]---

Anvaavassa at J V.317 should be read with v. l. BB as anovassa absence of rain.

Anvaavi.t.tha [pp. of anvaavisati] possessed (by evil spirits) S I.114.

Anvaavisati [anu + aa + visati] to go into, to take possession of, to visit M I.326; S I.67; Miln 156. -pp. anvaavi.t.tha (q. v.). Cp. adhimuccati.

Anvaasatta [pp. of anu + aa + sa~nj, cp. anusatta = Sanskrit anusakta] clung on to, befallen by (instr.), attached to A IV.356 (v. l. anvaahata), cp. Ud 35 (anvaasanna q. v.). See also following

Anvaasattataa (f.) [abstr. from anvaasatta] being attacked by, falling a prey to (instr.), attachment to DhA I.287 (in same context as anvaasatta A IV.356 and anvaasanna Ud 35).

Anvaasanna [pp. of anu + aa + sad] endowed with, possessed of, attacked by, Ud 35 (doubtfull; v. l. ajjhaapanna), = A IV.356 which has anvaasatta.

Anvaassavati [anu + aa + savati, sru] to stream into, to attack, befall D I.70; A III.99; Pug 20, 58.

Anvaahata [pp. of anu + aa + han] struck, beaten; perplexed Dh 39 (*cetasa).

Anvaahi.n.dati [anu + aa + hi.n.dati] to wander to (acc.) A IV.374, 376 [BSanskrit same, e. g. Divy 68 etc.].

Anveti [cp. anu + eti, from i] to follow, approach, go with Sn 1103 ( = anugacchati anvaayiko hoti Nd2 59); Dh 1 ( = kaayika.m . . . dukkha.m anugacchati DhA I.24), 2, 71, 124; perhaps at Pv II.620 (with v. l. BB at PvA 99) for anvesi (see anvesati; explained. by anudesi = was anxious for, helped, instructed).

Anvesa [from next] seeking, searching, investigation, M I.140 (*.m n- a-dhigacchanti do not find).

Anvesati [anu + esati] to look, for search, seek S I.112 (ppr. anvesa'n = pariyesamaana C.); Cp III.117 (ppr. anvesanto). - aor. anvesi [Sanskrit anve.si from icchati] Pv II.620 (* perhaps better with v. l. PvA 99 as anventi of anveti).

Anvesin [anu-esin] (adj.) striving after, seeking, wishing for Sn 965 (kusala*).

Anha [Vedic ahan] see pubbanha, majjhanha, saayanha. Cp. aha.

Apa* [Vedic apa; Idg. *apo = Gr. a)po/, Av. apa, Latin ab from *ap (cp. aperio); Goth. af, Ger. Qb, Ags. E. of. A compar. form from apa is apara "futher away"] Well defined directional prefix, meaning "away from, off". Usually as base-prefix (except with aa), and very seldom in compounds. with other modifying prefixes (like sam, abhi etc.). 1. apa = Vedic apa (Idg. *apo): apeti to go away = Gr. a)/peimi, Latin abeo, Goth. afiddja; apeta gone away, rid; *ka.d.dhati to draw away, remove; *kamati walk away; *gacchati go away; *nidhaati put away ( = a)potiqhmi, abdo); *nudati push away; *neti lead away; *vattati turn away ( = aaverto); *sakkati step aside; *harati take away. 2. apa = Vedic ava (Idg. *aue; see ava for details). There exists a widespread confusion between the two preps. apa and ava, favoured both by semantic (apa = away, ava = down, cp. E. off) and phonetic affinity (p softened to b, esp. in BB Mss., and then to v, as b > v is frequent, e. g. bya* > vya* etc.). Thus we find in Paali apa where Vedic and later literary Sanskrit have ava in the following instances: apakanti, *kassati, *kirati, *gata, *caara, *jhaayati, *tha.ta, *daana, *dhaareti, *nata, *naameti, *niita, *lekhana, *loketi, *vadati.

Apaka.d.dhati [apa + ka.d.dhati, cp. Sanskrit apa-kar.sati] to draw away, take off, remove D I.180; III.127; DhA II.86. Causative apaka.d.dhaapeti J I.342; IV.415; Miln 34. - Cp. apakassati; and see pakattheti.

Apakata [pp. of apakaroti] put off, done away, in aajiivik a-pakata being without a living M I.463 (the usual phrase being *apagata); Miln 279 (id.). At It 89 the reading of same phrase is aajiivikaa pakataa (v. l. aa* vakataa).

Apakata~n~nu (adj.) [a + pa + kata~n~nu] ungrateful Vin II.199.

Apakantati [apa + kantati, Sanskrit ava + krntati] to cut off Th 2, 217 (gale = giiva.m chindati ThA 178; Kern, Toev. corrects to kabale a.).

Apakaroti [apa + karoti, cp. Sanskrit apakaroti and apakrta in same meaning] to throw away, put off; hurt, offend, slight; possibly in reading T. apakirituuna at Th 2, 447 (q. v.). -pp. apakata (q. v.). Cp. apakaara.

Apakassati [Sanskrit apa- and ava-kar.sati, cp. apaka.d.dhati] to throw away, remove Sn 281 (v.l. BB and SnA ava*; explained. by niddhamati and nikka.d.dhati SnA 311). -ger. apakassa Sn II.198 = Miln 389. See also apakaasati.

Apakaara and *ka [cf. Sanskrit apakaara and apakaroti] injury, mischief; one who injures or offends DhA III.63; Sdhp 283.

Apakaasati at Vin II.204 is to be read as apakassati and interpreted as "draw away, distract, bring about a split or dissension (of the Sangha)". The v. l. on p. 325 justifies the correction (apakassati) as well as Bdhgh's explination. "parisa'n aaka.d.dhanti". - Cp. A III.145 and see avapakaasati. The reading at the id. p. at A V.74 is avakassati (combined. w. vavakassati, where Vin II.204 has avapakaasati), which is much to be preferred (see vavakassati).

Apakirituuna at Th 2, 447 T (reading of C. is abhi*) is explained ThA 271 to mean apakiritvaa cha.d.detvaa throwing away, slighting, offending. The correct etym = Sanskrit avakirati (ava + kr2 to strew, cast out) in sense "to cast off, reject", to which also belongs kiraata in meaning "cast off" i. e. man of a so-called low tribe. See also avakirati 2.

Apakkamati [cp. Sanskrit apakramati, apa + kram] to go away, depart, go to one side J III.27; Sdhp 294. - aor. apakkami Pv IV.75; ger. apakkamitvaa PvA 43, 124, and apakkamma Pv II.928.

Apagacchati [apa + gam] to go away, turn aside DhA I.401 (*gantvaa). -pp. apagata (q. v.).

Apagata [pp. of apagacchati] 1. gone, gone away from (c. abl.), removed; deceased, departed It 112; PvA 39, 63 ( = peta), 64 ( = gata). - 2. (*-) frequent as prefix, meaning without, lit. having lost, removed from; free from Vin II.129 (*gabbhaa having lost her foetus, having a miscarriage); J I.61 (*vattha without clothes); PvA 38 (*soka free from grief), 47 (*lajja not shy), 219 (*vi~n~naa.na without feeling). - Cp. apakata.

Apagabbha (adj.) [a + pa + gabbha] not entering another womb, i. e. not destined to another rebirth Vin III.3.

Apagama [Sanskrit apagama] going away, disappearance Sdhp 508.

Apanga (apaanga) [Sanskrit apaanga] the outer corner of the eye J III.419 (asita-pangin black-eyed); IV.219 (bahi*). Spelt avanga at Vin II.267, where the phrase avanga.m karoti, i. e. explained. by Bdhgh. ibid p. 327 as "avangadese adhomukha.m lekha.m karonti". According to Kern, Toev. 20, Bdhgh's explination is not quite correct, since avanga stands here in the meaning of "a coloured mark upon the body" (cp. PW. apaanga).

Apacaya [from apa + ci] falling off, diminution (opp. aacaya gathering, heaping up), unmaking, esp. loss (of wordliness), decrease (of possibility of rebirth Vin II.2 = III.21 = IV.213; cp. J III.342; S II.95 (kaayassa aacayo pi apacayo pi); A IV.280 = Vin II.259 (opp. aacaya); J III.342 (sekho *ena na tappati); Vbh 106, 319, 326, 330.

---[ Page 51 ]---

-gaamin going towards decrease, "making for the undoing of rebirth" (Dhs trsl. 82) A V.243, 277; Dhs 277, 339, 505, 1014; Vbh 12, 16 sq.; Nett 87 (cp. Kvu 156).

Apacaayati [from apa-ci, cp. cinaati and cayati, with different meaning in Sanskrit; better explained. perhaps as denom. from *apacaaya in meaning of apacaayana, cp. apacita] to honour, respect, pay reverence D I.91 (puujeti +); J III.82. Pot. apace (for apaceyya, may be taken to apacinaati 2) A IV.245; ThA 72 (here to apacinaati 1). -pp. apacita (q. v.).

Apacaayana (nt.) [abstr. from apa + caay, which is itself a der. from ci, cinaati] honouring, honour, worship, reverence J I.220; V.326; DA I.256 (*kamma); VvA 24 (*.m karoti = a~njalika.m karoti); PvA 104 (*kara, adj.), 128 (+ paricariya).

Apacaayika (adj.) [from *apacaaya, cp. B.Sanskrit apacaayaka MVastu I.198; Divy 293] honouring, respecting J IV.94 (vaddha*, cp. vaddha-pacaayin); Pv II.7 8 (je.t.tha*); IV.324 (id.). In B.Sanskrit the corresponds phrase is jyes..tha-pacayaka.

Apacaayin (adj.) [from *apacaaya; cp. apacaayika] honouring, paying homage, revering Sn 325 (vaddha* = vaddhaana.m apaciti kara.nena SnA 332) = Dh 109; J I.47, 132, 201; II.299; V.325; Miln 206; Sdhp 549.

Apacaara [from apa + car, cp. Sanskrit apa and abhi-carati] falling off, fault, wrong doing J VI.375.

Apacita [pp. of apacayati or apacinaati] honoured, worshipped, esteemed Th 1, 186; J II.169; IV.75; Vv 510 ( = puujita VvA 39); 3511 (cp. VvA 164); Miln 21.

Apaciti (f.) [Vedic apaciti in different meaning, viz. expiation] honour, respect, esteem, reverence Th 1, 589; J I.220; II.435; III.82; IV.308; VI.88; Miln 180, 234 (*.m karoti), 377 (puujana +); SnA 332 (*kara.na). Cp. apacaayana.

Apacinaati [apa + cinaati] 1. [in meaning of Sanskrit apaciiyate cp. Paali upaciyyati Pass. of upacinaati] to get rid of, do away with, (cp. apacaya), diminish, make less S III.89 (opp. aacinaati); Th 1, 807; J IV.172 (apacineth- eva kaamaani = viddha.mseyyatha C.). Here belong prob. aor. 3rd pl. apaciyi.msu (to be read for upacci.msu) at J VI. 187 (akkhiini a. "the eyes gave out") and Pot. pres. apace ThA 72 (on v.40). - 2. [ = apacayati] to honour, esteem; observe, guard Vin I.264 (apacinayamaana ciivara.m (*) v. l apacitiyamaana; trsl. guarding his claim is, Vin Texts); M I.324 (see detail under apavi.naati) Th 1, 186 (grd. apacineyya to be honoured); J V.339 (anapacinanto for T. anupacinanto, v. l. anapavinati). -pp. apacita (q.v.).

Apacca [Vedic apatya nt.; der. from apa] offspring, child D I.90 (bandhupaada* cp. mu.n.daka), 103 (id.); S I.69 (an*) Sn 991; DA I.254.

Apaccakkha (adj.) [a + pa.ti + akkha] unseen; in instr. f. apaccakkhaaya as adv. without being seen, not by direct evidence Miln 46 sq.

Apacchapurima (adj.) [a + paccha + purima] "neither after nor before", i. e. at the same time, simultaneous J III.295.

Apajaha (adj.) [a + pajaha] not giving up, greedy, miserly A III.76 (v. l. apaanuta; C. expls. (a)va.d.dhinissita maanatthaddha).

Apajita (nt.) [pp. of apa + ji] defeat Dh. 105.

Apajjhaayati [apa + jhaayati1; cp. Sanskrit abhi-dhyaayati] to muse, meditate, ponder, consider M I.334 (nijjhaayati +); III.14 (id.).

Apa~n~naka (adj.) = apa~n~na, ignorant Dpvs VI.29.

Apa.t.thapeti [Causative from apa-ti.t.thati, cp. Sanskrit apa + sthaa to stand aloof] to put aside, leave out, neglect J IV.308; V.236.

Apa.n.naka (adj.) [a + pa.n.naka; see pa.n.naka; Weber Ind. Str. III.150 and Kuhn, Beitr. p. 53 take it as *a-prashna-ka] certain, true, absolute M I.401, 411; A V.85, 294, 296; J I.104 (where explained as eka.msika aviruddha niyyaanika).

Apan.n.nakataa (f.) [abstr. of apa.n.naka] certainty, absoluteness S IV.351 sq.

Apatacchika only in khaaraapataacch* (q. v.) a kind of torture.

Apattha1 (adj.) [Sanskrit apaasta, pp. of apa + as2] thrown away Dh 149 ( = cha.d.dita DhA III.112).

Apattha2 2nd pl. pret. of paapunaati (q. v.).

Apattha.ta = avattha.ta covered Th 1, 759.

Apatthita and Apatthiya see pattheti.

Apadaana (nt.) 1. [ = Sanskrit apadaana] removing, breaking off, D III.88. - 2. [ = Sanskrit avadaana cp. ovaada] advice, admonition, instruction, morals Vin II.4 (an* not taking advice), 7 (id.) M I.96; A V.337 sq. (saddhaa*) Th 1, 47. - 3. legend, life history. In the title Mahaapadaana suttanta it refers to the 7 Buddhas. In the title Apadaana.m, that is "the stories" , it refers almost exclusively to Arahants. The other, (older), connotation seems to have afterwards died out. See Dialogues II.3. - Cp. also pariyaapadaana.

Apadisa [fr apa + dish] reference, testimony, witness DhA II.39.

Apadisati [apa + disati] to call to witness, to refer to, to quote Vin III.159; J I.215; III.234; IV.203; Miln 270; DhA II.39; Nett 93.

Apadesa [cp. Sanskrit apadesha] 1. reason, cause, argument M I.287 (an*). - 2. statement, designation PvA 8. - 3. pretext J III.60; IV.13; PvA 154. Thus also apadesaka J VI.179.

Apadhaareti [Causative of apa + dhr, cp. Sanskrit ava-dhaarayati, but also BSanskrit apadhaarayati Divy 231] to observe, request, ask ThA 16.

Apanata [pp. of apanamati] "bent away", drawn aside, in stereotype combination. abhinata + apanata ("strained forth and strained aside" Mrs Rh. D. Kindred S. p. 39) M I.386; S I.28.

Apanamati [semantically doubtful] to go away Sn 1102 (apanamissati, v. l. apalaam* and apagam*; explained at Nd2 60 by vajissati pakkhamissati etc. -pp. apanata (q. v.) Causative apanaameti.

Apanaameti [Causative from apanamati] 1. to take away, remove M I.96 = A I.198 (katha.m bahiddhaa a. carry outside); Kh VIII.4 ( = a~n~na.m .thaana.m gameti KhA 220). - 2. [ = Sanskrit ava-namati] to bend down, lower, put down Vin II.208 (chatta.m); S I.226 (id.); J II.287 (id., v. l. apanetvaa); D I.126 (hattha.m, for salute).

Apanidahati (and apanidheti) [apa + ni + dhaa, cp. Vedic apadhaa hiding-place; Sanskrit apadadhaati = Gr. a)poti(qhmi = Latin abdo "do away"] to hide, conceal Vin IV.123 (*dheti, *dheyya, *dhessati); PvA 215 (*dhaaya ger.). -pp. apanihita. - Causative apanidhaapeti to induce somebody to conceal Vin IV.123.

Apanihita [pp. of apanidahati] concealed, in abstr. *tta.m (nt.) hiding, concealing, theft PvA 216.

Apaniita [Sanskrit apaniita, pp. of apa + nii, see apaneti and cp. also oniita = apaniita] taken away or off. removed, dispelled PvA 39.

Apanudati and Apanudeti [apa + nud, cp. Vedic apanudati and Causative Sanskrit apanodayati] to push or drive away, remove, dispel; pres. apanudeti Miln 38. aor. apaanudi Pv I.86 ( = apanesi PvA 41); II.314 ( = avahari aggahesi PvA 86); Daavs I.8. ger. apanujja D II.223. See also der. apanudana.

---[ Page 52 ]---

Apanudana and Apanuudana (nt.) [Sanskrit apanodana, from apanudati] taking or driving away, removal Vin II.148 = J I.94 (dukkha*); Sn 252 (id.); PvA 114 (id.).

Apanuditar [n. ag. from apanudati, Sanskrit apanoditr] remover, dispeller D III.148.

Apaneti [apa + nii] to lead away, take or put away, remove J I.62, 138; II.4, 155 (aor. apaanayi) III.26; Miln 188, 259, 413; PvA 41, 74, 198 ( = harati) Sdhp 63. Pass. apaniiyati S I.176. -pp. apaniita (q. v.).

Apapibati [apa + pibati] to drink from something J II.126 (aor. apaapaasi).

Apabbuuhati and Apabyuuhati [apa + vi + uuh] to push off, remove, scrape away A III.187 (apaviyuuhitvaa, vv. ll. *bbuuhitvaa); J I.265 (pa.msu.m). - Causative *byuuhaapeti to make remove or brush J IV.349 (pa.msu.m).

Apabyaama see apavyaama.

Apamaara [Sanskrit apasmaara] epilepsy Vin I.93. Cp. apasmaara.

Apamaarika (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit apasmaarin] epileptic Vin IV.8, 10, 11.

Apayaati [Sanskrit apayaati, apa + yaa] to go away J VI.183 (apaayaati metri causa; explained. by C. as apagacchati palaayati). - Causative apayaapeti [Sanskrit apayaapayati] to make go, drive away, dismiss M III.176; S II.119.

Apayaana (nt.) [Sanskrit apayaana, from apayaati] going away, retreat D I.9 (opp. upa*); DA I.95.

Apara (adj.) [Vedic apara, der. from apa with compar. suffix -ra = Idg. *aporos "further away, second"; cp. Gr. a)pwte/rw farther, Latin aprilis the second month (after March, i. e. April). Goth. afar = after] another, i. e. additional, following, next, second (with pronoun. inflexion, i. e. nom. pl. apare) D III.190 (*pajaa another, i. e. future generation); Sn 791, 1089 (n-); J I.59 (apara.m divasa'n on some day following); III.51 (apare tayo sahaayaa "other friends three", i. e. three friends, cp. similarly Fr. nous autres Franc*ais); IV.3 (diipa); PvA 81 (*divase on another day), 226; with other part. like aparo pi D III 128. - nt. apara.m what follows i. e. future state, consequence; future Vin I.35 (na-para.m nothing more); Sn 1092 (much the same as punabbhava, cp. Nd2 61). Cases adverbially; apara.m (acc.) further, besides, also J I.256; III.278; often with other part. like atha-para.m and further, moreover Sn 974; and puna c- apara.m It 100; Miln 418 (so read for puna ca para.m) and passim; aparam pi Vism 9. - aparena in future D III.201. - Repeated (reduplicative formation) apara-para.m (local) to and fro J I.265, 278; PvA 198; (temporal) again and again, off and on J II.377; Miln 132 VvA 271; PvA 176 ( = punappuna.m). -anta (aparanta) = apara.m, with anta in same function as in compounds vananta (see anta1 5): (a.) further away, westward J v.471; Miln 292 (janapada). (b.) future D I.30 (*kappika, cp. DA I.118); M II.228 (*a-nudi.t.thi - thought of the future); S III.46 (id.). -a-pariya (from apara-para) ever-following, successive, continuous, everlasting; used with reference to kamma J V.106; Miln 108. -bhaaga the future, lit. a later part of time, only in loc. aparabhaage at a future date, later on J I.34, 262; IV.1; VvA 66.

Aparajju (adv.) [Sanskrit apare-dyus] on the following day Vin II.167; S I.186; Miln 48.

Aparajjhati [Sanskrit aparaadhyate, apa + raadh] to sin or offend against (c. loc.) Vin II.78 = III.161; J V.68; VI.367; Miln 189; PvA 263. -pp. aparaddha and aparaadhita (q. v.).

Apara.n.na (nt.) [apara + a.n.na = anna] "the other kind of cereal", prepared or cooked cereals, pulse etc. Opp. to pubba.n.na the unprepared or raw corn ( = aamakadha~n~na Vin IV.265; Vin III.151 (pubb* +); IV.265, 267; A IV. 108, 112 (tila-mugga-maasaa*; opp. saali-yavaka etc.); Nd2 314 (apara.n.na.m naama suupeyya.m); J V.406 (*jaa = hare.nukaa, pea); Miln 106 (pubba.n.na*). See also dha~n~na and harita.

Aparaddha [pp. of aparajjhati] missed (c. acc.), gone wrong, failed, sinned (against = loc.) D I.91, 103, 180; S I.103 (suddhimagga.m); Th 1, 78; Sn 891 (suddhi.m = viraddha khalita Nd1 300); PvA 195.

Aparapaccaya (adj.) [a + para + paccaya] not dependent or relying on others Vin I.12 (vesaarajja-ppatta +); D I.110 (id.); M II 41; M I.491; S III.83; DA I.278 ( = na-ssa paro paccayo).

Aparaajita (adj.) [Vedic aparaajita; a + paraajita] unconquered Sn 269; J I.71, 165.

Aparaadha [from apa + raadh] sin, fault, offence, guilt J I.264 (nir*); III.394; IV.495; VvA 69; PvA 87, 116.

Aparaadhika (adj.) [from aparaadha, cp. Sanskrit aparaadhin] guilty, offending, criminal J II.117 (vaaja*); Miln 149 (issara*), 189 (aparaadhikataa).

Aparaadhita [pp. of aparaadheti, Causative of apa + raadh; cp. aparaddha] transgressed, sinned, failing J V.26 (so read for aparadh- ito).

Aparaayin (adj.) [a + paraayin, cp. paraayana] having no support J III.386 (f. *ii; C. appati.t.thaa appa.tisara.naa).

Apalaapin see apalaasin [Sanskrit apalaapin "denying, concealing" different].

Apalaa'eti [apa + laa'eti] to draw over to Vin I.85.

Apalaayin (adj.) [a + palaayin] not running away, steadfast, brave, fearless Nd2 13 (abhiiru anutraasin apalaayin as explination. of acchambhin and viira); J IV.296; V.4 (where C. gives variant "apalaapinii ti pi paa.tho", which latter has v. l. apalaasinii and is explained. by C. as palaapa-rahite anavajjasariire p. 5). See also apalaasin.

Apalaasin (adj.) [apa'aasin; but spelling altogether uncertain. There seems to exist a confusion between the forms apalaayin, apalaapin and apalaasin, owing to frequent miswriting of s, y, p in MSS. (cp. Nd2 introd. p. XIX.). We should be inclined to give apalaasin, as the lectio difficilior, the prefix. The explination. at Pug 22 as "yassa puggalassa aya'n pa'aaso pahiino aya'n vuccati puggalo apa'aasii" does not help us to clear up the etymology nor the vv. ll.] either "not neglectful, pure, clean" ( = apalaapin from palaasa chaff, cp. apalaayin at J V.4), or "not selfish, not hard, generous" (as inferred from combination. with amakkhin and amaccharin), or "brave, fearless, energetic" ( = apalaayin) D III.47, cp. Pug 22. See palaasin.

ApaliBuddha and Apalibodha [a + paliBuddha, pp. of pari + brh, see palibujjhati] unobstructed, unhindered, free J III. 381 (*bodha); Miln 388; DhA III.198.

Apalekhana (nt.) [apa + lekhana from likh in meaning of lih, corresponding to Sanskrit ava-lehana] licking off, in cpd. hattha-palekhana "hand-licking" (i. e. licking one's hand after a meal, the practice of certain ascetics) M 177 (with v. l. hattha-valekhana M I.535; Trenckner compares BSanskrit hastapralehaka Lal. Vist. 312 and hasta-valehaka ibid. 323), 412; Pug 55 (explained. at Pug A 231 as hatthe pi.n.damhe ni.t.thite jivhaaya hattha.m apalekhati).

Apalekhati [apa + lekhati in meaning of Sanskrit avalihati] to lick off Pug A 231 (hattha.m).

Apalepa Jin "so -palepa patito jaraagharo" at Th 2, 270 is to be read as "so palepa*". Morris's interpret. J.Paali Text Society 1886, 126 therefore superfluous.

Apalokana (nt.) [from apaloketi] permission, leave, in *kamma proposal of a resolution, obtaining leave (see kamma I.3) Vin II.89; IV.152.

Apalokita [pp. of apaloketi; Sanskrit avalokita] 1. asked permission, consulted S III.5. - 2. (nt.) permission, consent, M I.337 (Naaga-palokita.m apalokesi). - 3. (nt.) an Ep. of Nibbaana S IV.370.

---[ Page 53 ]---

Apalokin (adj.) [Sanskrit avalokin] "looking before oneself", looking at, cautious Miln 398.

Apaloketi [BSanskrit ava-lokayati] 1. to look ahead, to look before, to be cautious, to look after M I.557 (v. l. for apaci.naati, where J V.339 C. has avaloketi); Miln 398. 2. to look up to, to obtain permission from (acc.), to get leave, to give notice of Vin III.10, 11; IV.226 (anapaloketvaa = anaapucchaa), 267 (+ aapucchitvaa); M I.337; S III.95 (bhikkhusangha.m anapaloketvaa without informing the Sangha); J VI.298 (vaajaana.m); DhA I.67. -pp. apalokita (q. v.). See also apalokana and *lokin.

Apavagga [Sanskrit apavarga] completion, end, final delivery, Nibbaana; in phrase sagga-pavagga Daavs II.62; III.75.

Apavattati [apa + vrt, cp. Latin aaverto] to turn away or aside, to go away J IV.347 (v. l. apasakkati).

Apavadati [apa + vadati] to reproach, reprove, reject, despise D I.122 ( = pa.tikkhipati DA I.290); S V.118 (+ pa.tikkosati).

Apavahati [apa + vahati] to carry or drive away; Causative apavaaheti to remove, give up Miln 324 (kaddama.m).

Apavi.t.tha at Pv III 82 is to be read apaviddha (q. v.).

Apavi.naati is probably misreading for apaci.naati (see apac* 2). As v. l. at J V.339 (anapavinanto) for T. anupacinanto (explained. by avaloketi C.). Other vv. ll. are anuvi* and apavii*; meaning "not paying attention". The positive form we find as apavii.nati "to take care of, to pay attention to" (c. acc.) at M I.324, where Trenckner unwarrantedly assumes a special root ve.n (see Notes p. 781), but the vv. ll. to this passage (see M. I.557) with apavii.naati and apacinati confirm the reading apaci.naati, as does the gloss apaloketi.

Apaviddha [pp. of apavijjhati, Vedic apa + vyadh] thrown away, rejected, discarded, removed S I.202; III.143; Sn 200 (susaanasmi.m = cha.d.dita SnA 250); Th 1, 635 = Dh 292 ( = cha.d.dita DhA III.452); Pv III.82 (susaanasmi.m; so read for T. apavi.t.tha); J I.255; III.426; YI.90 ( = cha.d.dita C.). Sdhp 366.

Apaviyuuhati see appabbuuhati.

Apavii.nati see apavi.naati ( = apaci.naati).

Apavyaama [apa + vyaama] disrespect, neglect, in phrase apayvaamato (apaby*) karoti to treat disrespectfully, to insult, defile S I.226 (v. l. abyaamato; C. expls. apabyaamato karitvaa abyaamato katvaa); Kvu 472 (vv. ll. asabyaakato, abyaato, apabyaato; Kvu trsl. 270 n. 1 remarks: "B. trsl.: abyaasakato. The Burmese scholar U. Pandi, suggests we should read apabyaakato, by which he understands blasphemously"; it is here combined. with ni.t.thubhati, as at DhA II.36); DhA II.36 ("want of forbearance" Ed.; doubtful reading; vv. ll. appabyaayakamma and apasaama). For further detail see apasavya.

Apasakkati [apa + sakkati] to go away, to go aside J IV.347 (v. l. for apavattati); VvA 101; PvA 265 (aor. *sakki = apakkami).

Apasavya (adj.) [apa + savya] right (i. e. not left), contrary Ud 50 (T. has ni.t.thubhitvaa abyaamato karitvaa; vv. ll. are apabhyaamaato, abhyaamato and C. apasabyaamato), where C. expls. apasabyaamato karitvaa by apasabya.m katvaa, "which latter corresponds in form but not in meaning to Sanskrit apasavya.m karoti to go on the right side" (Morris J P T S. 1886, 127). - See apavyaama.

Apasaada [from apa + sad] putting down, blame, disparagement M III.230.

Apasaadita [pp. of apasaadeti] blamed, reproached, disparaged S II.219; SnA 541.

Apasaadeti [Causative of apa + sad] 1. to refuse, decline Vin IV.213, 263; J V.417 ( = uyyojeti). - 2. to depreciate, blame, disparage Vin III.101; M III.230 (opp. ussaadeti); DA I.160. -pp. apasaadita (q. v.).

Apasmaara [Sanskrit apasmaara, lit. want of memory, apa + smr] epilepsy, convulsion, fit J IV.84. Cp. apamaara.

Apassanto etc. see passati.

Apassaya [cp. Sanskrit apaashraya, from apasseti] 1. support, rest ThA 258. - 2. bed, bolstereotype mattress, in ka.n.tak.r a mattress of thorns, a bolstereotypefilled with thorns (as cushion for asceties) M I.78; J I 493; III.235. -sa-ppassaya with a head rest J IV.299. -pii.thaka a chair with a head-rest J III.235.

Apassayika (adj.) [from apassaya; cp. Sanskrit apaashrayin -*] reclining on, in ka.n.taka* one who lies on a bed of thorns (see ka.n.taka) M I.78; J IV.299 (v. l, ka.n.dikesayika); Pug 55.

Apassita [pp. of apasseti] 1. leaning against J II.69 (taalamuula.m = nissaaya .thita C.). - 2. depending on, trusting in (c. acc. or loc.) Vv 101 (para-gaara.m = nissita VvA 101); J IV.25 (balamhi = balanissita). See also avassita.

Apasseti [Sanskrit apaashrayati, apa + aa + sri] to lean against, have a support in (acc.), to depend on. - 1. (lit.) lean against Vin II.175 (bhitti apassetabbo the wall to be used as a head-rest). - 2. (fig.) mostly in ger. apassaaya dependent upon, depending on, trusting in (loc. or acc. or -*) Vin III.38; J I.214; PvA 189. -pp. apassita (q. v.). - See also avasseti.

Apassena (nt.) [from apasseti] a rest, support, dependence M III.127 (*ka); D III.224 (cattaari apassenaani); as adj. catura-passena one who has the fourfold support viz. sankhaay- eka.m pa.tisevati, adhivaaseti, parivajjeti, vinodeti A V.30. -phalaka (cp. Morris J.Paali Text Society 1884, 71) a bolstereotypelab, head-rest Vin I.48; II.175, 209.

Apahattar [n. ag. to apaharati] one who takes away or removes, destroyer M I 447 = Kvu 528.

Apahara [Sanskrit apahaara, from apaharati] taking away, stealing, robbing J II.34.

Apahara.na (nt.) = apahara Miln 195.

Apaharati [apa + hr] to take away, remove, captivate, rob J III.315 (aor. apahaarayi.m); Miln 413; DA I.38.

Apaaka.tataa (f.) [a + paaka.ta + taa] unfitness Miln 232 (v. l. apaakatatta perhaps better).

Apaakatika (adj.) [a + paakata + ika] not in proper or natural shape, out of order, disturbed DhA II.7. Cp. appakaara.

Apaaciina (adj.) [Vedic apaaciina; cp. apaaca* and apaaka, westereotype; to Latin opaacus, orig. turned away (from the east or the sun) i. e. opposite, dark] westereotypey, backward, below S III.84; It 120 (apaaciina.m used as adv. and taking here the place of adho in combination. with uddha.m tiriya.m; the reading is a conjecture of Windisch's, the vv. ll. are apaacina.m; apaacini, apaaci and apaamina.m, C. expls. by he.t.thaa).

Apaa.tuka (adj.) [a + paatu + ka (*), acc. to Morris J.Paali Text Society 1893, 7 der. from apa.tu not sharp, blunt, uncouth. This is hardly correct. See paatur] not open, sly, insidious Th 1, 940 (as v. l. for T. avaa.tuka, trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. as "unscrupulous", by Neumann as "ohne Redlichkeit"). Context suggests a meaning similar to the preceding nekatika, i. e. fraudulent. See also next.

Apaa.tubha (adj.) [a + paatu + bha (*), at the only passage changed by Morris J. Paali T. S. 1893, 7 to apaa.tuka but

---[ Page 54 ]---

without reason] = apaa.tuka, i. e. sly, fraudulent J IV.184 (in context with nekatika; C. expls. apaa.tubhaava dhanuppaada-virahita, in which latter virahita does not fit in; the pass. seems corrupt).

Apaada (*) [apa + aa + daa] giving away in marriage J IV. 179 (in explination. of anaapaada unmarried; reading should prob. be aapaada = pariggaha).

Apaadaka (adj.) [a + paada + ka] not having feet, footless, creeping, Ep. of snakes and fishes Vin II.110 = J II.146 (where see explination.). Spelt apada(ka) at It 87 (v. l. apaada).

Apaana (nt.) breathing out, respiration (so Ch.; no reference in Paali Canon*) On Praa.na and Apaana see G. W. Brown in J. Am. Or. Soc. 39, 1919 pp. 104-112. See aanaapaana.

Apaanakatta (nt.) [a + paanaka + tta.m] "waterless state", living without drinking water J V.243.

Apaapaka (adj.) [a + paapaka] guiltless, innocent f. *ikaa Vv 314; 326.

Apaapata (adj.) [apa + aa + pata] falling down into (c. acc.) J IV.234 (aggi.m).

Apaapurana (nt.) [from apaapurati] a key (to a door) Vin I.80; III.119; M III.127. See also avaapura.na.

Apaapurati and Apaapu.nati [Sanskrit apaavr.noti, apa + aa + vr, but Vedic only apa-vr.noti corresponding to Latin aperio = *apa-*erio. On form see Trenckner, Notes 63] to open (a door) Vin I.5 (apaapur- eta.m Amatassa dvaara.m: imper.; where id. p. S I.137 has avaapur*, T., but v. l. apaapur*); Vv 6427 (apaapuranto Amatassa dvaara.m, explained. at VvA 284 by vivaranto); It 80 (apaavu.nanti A. dv. as T. conj., with v. l. apaanu*anti, apaapurenti and apaapuranti). -pp. apaaruta (q. v.). - Pass. apaapuriiyati [cp. BSanskrit apaavuriiyati M Vastu II.158] to be opened M III.184 (v. l. avaa*); J I.63 (avaa*); Th 2, 494 (apaapu.nitvaa). See also avaapurati.

Apaabhata [pp. of apa + aa + bhr cp. Vedic apa-bharati, but Latin aufero to ava*] taken away, stolen J III.54.

Apaaya [Sanskrit apaaya, from apa + i, cp. apeti] "going away" viz. - 1. separation, loss Dh 211 (piya* = viyoga DhA III.276). - 2. loss (of property) D III.181, 182; A II. 166; IV.283; J III.387 (atth*). - 3. leakage, out flow (of water) D I.74; A II.166; IV.287. - 4. lapse, falling away (in conduct) D I.100. - 5. a transient state of loss and woe after death. Four such states are specified purgatory (niraya), rebirth as an animal, or as a ghost, or as a Titan (Asura). Analogous expressions are vinipaata and duggati. All combined at D I.82; III.111; A I.55; It 12, 73; Nd2 under kaaya; and frequent elsewhere. - apaayaduggativinipaata as attr. of sa'nsaara S II.92, 232; IV.158, 313; V.342; opp. to khii.na-paaya-duggati-vinipaata of an Arahant A IV.405; V.182 sq. - See also following pass.: M III.25 (anapaaya); Sn 231; Th 2, 63; J IV.299; Pug 51; VvA 118 (opp. sugati); PvA 103; Sdhp 43, 75 and cp. niraya, duggati, vinipaata. -gaamin going to ruin or leading to a state of suffering DhA III.175; cp. *gamaniiya id. Ps. I.94, *gamaniiyataa J IV.499. -mukha "facing ruin", leading to destruction ( = vinaasa-mukha DA I.268), usually as nt. "cause of ruin" D I.101 (cattaari apaaya mukhaani); III.181, 182 (cha bhogaana.m a* -mukhaani, i. e. causes of the loss of one's possessions); A II.166; IV.283, 287. -samudda the ocean of distress DhA III 432. -sahaaya a spendthrift companion D III.185.

Apaayika (adj.) [also as aapaayika (q. v.); from apaaya] belonging to the apaayas or states of misery D I.103; III.6, 9, 12; It 42; PvA 60 (dukkha).

Apaayin (adj.) [from apaaya] going away J I.163 (a.d.dharattaav-apaayin = a.d.dharatte apaayin C.). -an* not going away, i. e. constantly following (chaayaa anapaayinii, the shadow) Dh 2; Th 1, 1041; Miln 72.

Apaara (nt.) [a + paara] 1. the near bank of a river J III.230 (+ ati.n.na.m, C. paratiira.m ati.n.na.m). - 2. (fig.) not the further shore (of life), the world here, i.e. (opp. paara.m = Nibbaana) Sn 1129, 1130; Nd2 62; Dh 385 (explained. as baahiraani cha aayatanaani DhA IV.141). See paara and cp. avara.

Apaara.neyya (adj.) [grd. of paraneti + a*] that which cannot be achieved, unattainable J VI.36 ( = apaapetabba).

Apaaruta [Sanskrit apaavrta, pp. of apaapurati] open (of a door) Vin I.7 = M I.169 (apaarutaa tesa'n Amatassa dvaaraa); D I.136 ( = viva.ta-dvaara DA I.297); J I.264 (*dvaara).

Apaalamba ["a Vedic term for the hinder part of a carriage" Morris J P T S. 1886, 128; the "Vedic" unidentified] a mechanism to stop a chariot, a safe guard "to prevent warriors from falling out" (C.) S I.33 (Mrs Rh. D. trsl. "leaning board"); J VI.252 (v. l. upaa*; Kern trsl. "remhout", i. e. brake).

Apaahata [pp. of apa + hr] driven off or back, refuted, refused Sn 826 (*smi.m = apasaadite vade SnA 541).

Api (indecl.) [Sanskrit api and pi; Idg. *epi *pi *opi; cp. Gr. e)/pi on to, o)/pi (o)/piqen behind, o)pi/ssa back = close at one's heels); Latin ob. in certain functions; Goth. iftuma. The assimilated form before vowels is app- ( = Sanskrit apy-). See further details under pi.] both prep. and conj., orig. meaning "close by", then as prep. "towards, to, on to, on" and as adv. "later, and, moreover". - 1 (prep. and prefix) (a) prep. c. loc.: api ratte later on in the night (q. v.) - (b) prefix: apidhaana putting on to; api'ahati bind on to, apihita ( = Gr. e)piqeto/s, epithet) put on to, (q. v.). - 2. (conj. and part.). (a) in affirmative sentences meaning primarily "moreover, further, and then, even": - (a) (single) prothetic: api dibbesu kaamesu even in heavenly joys Dh 187; ko disvaa na pasiideyya api ka.nha-bhijaatiko even an unfortunate-born Sn 563 api yojanaani gacchaama, even for leagues we go Pv IV.107 ( = anekaani yojanaani pi g. PvA 270. Epithetic (more frequent in the form pi): muhuttam api even a little while Dh 106, 107; aham api da.t.thukaamo I also wish to see Sn 685. Out of prothetic use ( = even = even if) develops the conditional meaning of "if", as in api sakku.nemu (and then we may = if we may) J V.24 (c. = api naama sakku.neyyaama; see further under b app-eva naama). - api-api in correlation corresponds to Latin et-et Sk ca-ca, meaning both . . . and, and . . . as well as, and is esp. frequent in combination. app' ekacce . . . app' ekacce (and) some . . . and others, i. e. some . . . others [not with Kern Toev. s. v. to appa!], e. g. at D I.118; Th 2, 216; VvA 208, etc. -app' ekadaa "morever once" = sometimes Vin IV.178; S I.162; IV.111; J I.67; DhA III.303, etc. - (b) (in combination with other emphatic or executive particles) api ca further, and also, moreover D I.96; Miln 25, 47. -api ca kho moreover, and yet, still, all the same It 89 (+ pana v. l.); Miln 20, 239. -api ca kho pana all the same, never mind, nevertheless J I.253. -api ssu so much so Vin II.76. -app' eva naama (with pot.) (either) surely, indeed, yes, I reckon, (or) I presume, it is likely that, perhaps Vin I.16 (surely); II.85 (id.); cp. pi D I.205 (sve pi upasa'nkameyyaama tomorrow I shall surely come along), 226 (siyaa thus shall it be); M I.460 = It 89 (moreover, indeed); J I.168 (surely) Vin II.262 (perhaps) J V.421 (id., piyavaaca.m labheyyaama). - (b) in interrog.-dubit. sentences as part. of interrog. (w. indic. or pot.) corresponding to Latin nonne, i e. awaiting an affirmative answer ("not, not then"): api Yasa'n kulaputta.m passeyya do you not see . . . Vin I.16; api sama.na balivadde addasaa have you not then seen . . . S I.115; api ki~nci labhaamase shall we then not get anything* J III.26; api me pitara.m passatha do you then not see my father* PvA 38. - Also combined. with other interr. part. e. g. api nu J. II.415.

Apitika (adj.) [a + pitika] fatherless J V.251.

---[ Page 55 ]---

Apithiiyati [for apidhiiyati; api + dhaa] Pass. of apidahati to be obstructed, covered, barred, obscured J II.158. See also pithiiyati.

Apidahati [api + dhaa, cp. Gr. e)piti(qhmi] to put on (see api 1 b), to cover up, obstruct, J V.60 (inf. apidhetu.m). pp. apihita, Pass. apithiiyati, Der. apidhaana (q. v.).

Apidhaana (nt.) [Vedic apidhaana in same meaning] cover, lid Vin I.203, 204; II.122. See apidahati.

Apiratte [read api ratte, see api 1 a] later in the night J VI.560.

Apilaapana (nt.) [from api + lap] counting up, repetition [Kern, Toev, s.v. gives der. from a + plaavana] Nett 15, 28, 54; Miln 37.

Apilaapanataa (f.) in the pass. at Dhs 14 = Nd2 628 is evidently meant to be taken as a + pilaapana + taa (from pilavati, plu), but whether the der. and interpret. of Dhs A is correct, we are unable to say. On general principles it looks like popular etymology Mrs. Rh. D. translates (p. 16) "opposite of superficiality" (lit "not floating"); see her detailed note Dhs trsl. 16.

Apilaapeti [api + lap] "to talk close by", i. e. to count up, recite, or: talk idly, boast of Miln 37 (saapatheyya.m).

Api'andha (adj.) at Vv 361 should be read as api'addha ( = Sanskrit apinaddha) pp. of api'andhati (api'andhati) "adorned with", or (with v. l. SS) as api'andhana; VvA 167 expls. by analankata, mistaking the a of api for a negation.

Api'andhana (nt.) [from api'andhati, also in shorter (and more usual) form pi'andhana, q. v.] that which is tied on, i.e. band, ornament, apparel, parure Vv 6410, 6418 (explained. inacurately at VvA 279 by; a-kaaro nipaatamatta.m, pilandhana.m = aabhaara.na.m); J VI.472 (c. pilandhitu.m pi ayutta.m*).

Api'ahati and Api'andhati [Sanskrit apinahyati, on n: ' see note on gala, and cp. gu.na: gu'a, ve.nu: ve.lu etc. On ndh for yh see avanandhati] to tie on, fasten, bind together; to adorn oneself with (acc.) J V.400 (ger. api'ayha = pi'andhitvaa C.) - Cp. api'andhana and pp apiladdha.

Apiha (adj.) [apihaalu* a + piha, uncertain origin, see next. Morris J.PaaliI.S. 1886 takes it as a + sprha] "unhankering" (Mrs Rh. D.) S I 181 (+ akankha; v. l. BB asita).

Apihaalu (adj.) [a + pihaalu, analysed by Fausboll Sn. Gloss. p. 229 as a-sprhayaalu, but Bdhgh evidently different (see below)] not hankering, free from craving, not greedy S I.187 = Th 1, 1218 (akuhako nipako apihaalu); Sn 852 (+ amaccharin, explained. at SnA 549 as apihana-siilo, patthanaatanhaaya rahito ti vutta.m hoti, thus perhaps taking it as a + pi ( = api) + hana (from dhaa, cp. pidahati and pihita); cp. also Nd2 227).

Apihita [pp. of apidahati] covered J IV.4.

Apucca.n.dataa (f.) [a + puuti + a.n.da + taa] "not being a rotten egg," i. e. normal state, healthy birth, soundness M I.357.

Apuccha (adj.) [a + pucchaa] "not a question", i. e. not to be asked Miln 316.

Apekkha (adj.) [ = apekkhaa] waiting for, looking for S I.122 (otaara*).

Apekkhati 1. [Sanskrit apiik.sate, apa + iiks.] to desire, long for, look for, expect Sn 435 (kaame n-a-pekkhate citta.m), 773 (ppr. apekkhamaana); J IV.226 (id.); Dhs A 365. anapekkhamaana paying no attention to (acc.) Sn 59; J V.359. 2. [Sanskrit aviik.sate, ava + iiks.; see avekk.rati] to consider, refer to, look at, ger. apekkhitvaa (cp. Sanskrit aviiks.ya) with reference to VvA 13. -pp. apekkhita (q. v.).

Apekkhavant (adj.) [from apekkhaa] full of longing or desire, longing, craving Vin IV.214; S III.16; Th 1, 558; J V.453 ( = sata.nha); Sn A 76.

Apekkhaa and Apekhaa (f.) [Sanskrit apeks.aa, from apa + iiks.. The spelling is either kkh or kh, they are both used promiscuously, a tendency towards kh prevailing, as in upekhaa, sekha] attention, regard, affection for (loc.); desire, longing for (c. loc.) S I.77; III.132; V.409 (maataa-pitusu); Vin IV.214; Sn 38 ( = vuccati ta.nhaa etc. Nd2 65; = ta.nhaa sineha SnA 76); J I.9, 141; Th 1, 558; Dh 345 (puttesu daaresu ca = ta.nhaa DhA IV.56); Dhs 1059, 1136 ( = aalayakara.na-vasena apekkhatii ti apekkhaa Dhs A 365, cp. Dhs trsl. 279). Freq. as adj. (-*or in combination. with sa* and an*), viz. Vin III.90 (visuddha*); S I.122 (otara*); sa* A III.258, 433; IV.60 sq.; an* without consideration, regardless, indifferent S V.164; A III.252, 347, 434; Sn 200 (anapekkhaa honti ~naatayo); J I.9. Cp. anapekkhin and apekkhavant; also B.Sanskrit avek.sataa.

Apekkhita [pp. of apekkhati] taken care of, looked after, considered J VI.142, 149 ( = olokita C.).

Apekkhin (adj.) [Sanskrit apeks.in, but B.Sanskrit aveks.in, e.g. Jtm 215; from apa + iiks.] considering, regarding, expecting, looking for; usually negative an* indifferent (against) = loc.) S I.16, 77; II.281; III.19, 87; Sn 166 (kaamesu), 823 (id.), 857; Dh 346. Cp. apekkhavant.

Apeta (adj.) [pp. of apeti] gone away; (med.) freed of, rid of, deprived of (instr., abl. or *-) Dh 9 (damasaccena); PvA 35 (dukkhato); usually *- in sense of "without, -less", e. g. apeta-kaddama free from mud, stainless Dh 95; *vattha without dress J V.16; *vi~n~naa.na without feeling, senseless Dh 41; Th 2, 468; *vi~n~naa.natta.m senselessness, lack of feeling PvA 63.

Apetatta (nt.) [abstr. to apeta] absence (of) PvA 92.

Apeti [apa + i, cp. Gr. a)/peimi, Latin abeo, Goth. af-iddja] to go away, to disappear D I.180 (upeti pi apeti pi); J I.292; Sn 1143 ( = n- apagacchanti na vijahanti Nd2 66). -pp. apeta (q. v.).

Apetteyyataa (f.) [a + petteyyataa, abstr. from *paitrya fatherly] in combination. with amatteyyataa irreverence against father and mother D III.70 (cp. Dh 332 and DhA IV.34).

Apeyya (adj.) [a + peyya, grd. of paa] not to be drunk, not drinkable J VI.205 (saagara).

Apesiya (nt.) [* of uncertain origin] a means of barring a door Vin II.154 (Bdhgh. explinations on p. 321: apesii ti diighadaarumhi khaa.nuke pavesetvaa ka.n.daka-saakhaahi vinandhitvaa kata.m dvaara-tthakanaka.m).

Apesiyamaana (adj.) [ppr. from a + peseti (q. v.)] not being in service Vin II.177.

App' in app- ekacce etc. see api.

Appa (adj.) [Vedic alpa, cp. Gr. a)lapa/zw (lapa/zw) to empty (to make little), a)lapadno/s weak; Lith. alpnas weak, alpst.s to faint] small, little, insignificant, often in the sense of "very little = (next to) nothing" (so in most compounds); thus explained. at VvA 334 as equivalent to a negative part. (see appodaka) D I.61 (opp. mahant, DA I.170 = parittaka); Sn 713, 775, 805, 896 ( = appaka, omaka, thoka, lamaka, jatukka, parittaka Nd1 306); Dh 174; J I.262; Pug 39. - nt. appa.m a little, a small portion, a trifle; pl. appaani small things, trifles A II.26 = It 102; A II.138; Dh 20 ( = thoka.m eka-vagga-dvi-vagga-mattam pi DhA I.158), 224 (*smi.m yaacito asked for little), 259. -aggha of little value (opp. mahaggha priceless) J I.9; Pug 33; DhA IV.184. -assaada [BSanskrit alpa-svaada, cp. Divy 224 = Dh 186; alpa + aa + svaad] of little taste or enjoyment, affording little pleasure (always used of kaamaa) Vin II.25 = M I.130 = A III.97 = Nd2 71; Sn 61; Dh

---[ Page 56 ]---

186 ( = supina-sadisataaya paritta-sukha DhA III 240); Th 2, 358 ( = ThA 244); J II.313; Vism 124. -aatanka little (or no) illness, freedom from illness, good health ( = appaabaadha with which often combined.) [BSanskrit alpaatanka and alpaatankataa] D I.204 (+ appaabaadha); III.166; A III.65, 103; Miln 14. -aabaadha same as appaatanka (q. v.) D I.204; III.166, 237; M II.125; A I.25; II.88; III.30, 65 sq., 103, 153; Pv IV.144; *aabaadhataa id. [cp. BSanskrit alpaabaadhataa good health] A I.38. -aayuka short lived D I.18; PvA 103, also as *aayukin Vv 416. -aahaara taking little or no food, fasting M II.5; Sn 165 ( = ekaasana-bhojitaaya ca parimita-bhojitaaya ca SnA 207), also as *aahaarataa M I.245; II.5. -odaka having little or no water, dry Sn 777 (macche va appodake khii.nasote = parittodake Nd1 50); Vv 843 (+ appabhakkha; explained. at VvA 334 as "appa-saddo h- ettha abhaavattho appiccho appanigghoso ti aadisu viya"); J I.70; DhA IV.12. -kasira in instr. *kasirena with little or no difficulty D I.251; S V.51; Th 1, 16. -kicca having few duties, free from obligations, free from care Sn 144 ( = appa.m kicca.m assaa ti KhA 241). -gandha not smelling or having a bad smell Miln 252 (opp. sugandha). -.t.tha "standing in little"; i. e. connected with little trouble D I.143; A I.169. -thaamaka having little or no strength, weak S IV.206. -dassa having little knowledge or wisdom Sn 1134 (see Nd2 69; explained. by paritta-pa~n~na SnA 605). -nigghosa with little sound, quiet, still, soundless (cp. VvA 334, as quoted above under *odaka) A V.15 (+ appasadda); Sn 338; Nd1 377; Miln 371. -pa~n~na, of little wisdom J II.166; III.223, 263. -pu~n~na of little merit M II.5. -pu~n~nataa having little merit, unworthiness Pv IV.107. -phalataa bringing little fruit PvA 139. -bhakkha having little or nothing to eat Vv 843. -bhoga having little wealth, i. e. poor, indigent Sn 114 ( = sannicitaana.m ca bhogaana.m aayamukhassa ca abhaavato SnA 173). -ma~n~nati to consider as small, to underrate: see separately. -matta little, slight, mean, (usually as *ka; not to be confounded with appamatta2) A III.275; J I.242; also meaning "contented with little" (of the bhikkhu) It 103 = A II.27; f. *aa trifle, smallness, insignificance D I.91; DA I.55. -mattaka small, insignificant, trifling, nt. a trifle (cp. *matta) Vin 1, 213; II.177 (*vissajjaka the distributor of little things, cp. A III.275 and Vin IV.38, 155); D I.3 ( = appamattaa etassaa ti appamattaka.m DA I.55); J I.167; III.12 ( = a.nu); PvA 262. -middha "little slothful", i. e. diligent, alert Miln 412. -rajakkha having little or no obtuseness D II.37; M I.169; Sdhp 519. -ssaka having little of one's own, possessing little A I.261; II.203. -sattha having few or no companious, lonely, alone Dh 123. -sadda free from noise, quiet M II.2, 23, 30; A V.15; Sn 925 ( = appanigghosa Nd1 377); Pug 35; Miln 371. -siddhika bringing little success or welfare, dangerous J IV.4 ( = mandasiddhi vinaasabahula C.); VI.34 (samuddo a. bahu-antaraayiko). -ssuta possessing small knowledge, ignorant, uneducated D I.93 (opp. bahussuta); III.252, 282; S IV.242; It 59; Dh 152; Pug 20, 62; Dhs 1327. -harita having little or no grass S I.169; Sn p. 15 ( = paritta-harita-ti.na SnA 154).

Appaka (adj.) [appa + ka] little, small, trifling; pl. few. nt. *.m adv. a little D II.4; A V.232 sq., 253 sq.; Sn 909 (opp. bahu); Dh 85 (appakaa = thokaa na bahuu DhA II. 160); Pv I.102 ( = paritta PvA 48); II.939; Pug 62; PvA 6, 60 ( = paritta). f. appikaa J I.228. - instr. appakena by little, i. e. easily DA I.256. -anappaka not little, i. e. much, considerable, great; pl. many S IV.46; Dh 144; Pv I.117 ( = bahuu PvA 58); PvA 24, 25 (read anappake pi for T. *appakeci; so also KhA 208).

Appakaara (adj.) [a + pakaara] not of natural form, of bad appearance, ugly, deformed J V.69 ( = sariirappakaara-rahita dussa.n.thaana C.). Cp. apaakatika.

Appaki.n.na [appa + ki.n.na, although in formation also = a + paki.n.na] little or not crowded, not overheaped A V.15 (C. anaaki.n.na).

Appagabbha (adj.) [a + pagabbha] unobtrusive, free from boldness, modest S II.198 = Miln 389, Sn 144, 852 (cp. Nd1 228 and KhA 232); Dh 245.

Appaccaya [a + paccaya] 1. (n.) discontent, dissatisfaction, dejection, sulkiness D I.3 ( = appatiitaa honti tena atu.t.thaa asomanassitaa ti appacayo; domanass- eta.m adhivacana.m DA I.52); III.159; M I.442; A I.79, 124, 187; II.203; III.181 sq.; IV.168, 193; J II.277; Sn p. 92 (kapa + dosa + appacaya); Vv 8331 ( = domanassa'n VvA 343); SnA 423 ( = appatiita.m domanassa'n). - 2. (adj.) unconditioned Dhs 1084, 1437.

Appa.ti* [a + pa.ti*] see in general under pa.ti*.

Appa.tikaarika (adj.) [a + pa.tikaarika] "not providing against", i. e. not making good, not making amends for, destructive J V.418 (spelling here and in C. appati*).

Appa.tikopeti [a + pa.tikopeti] not to disturb, shake or break (fig.) J V.173 (uposatha.m).

Appa.tikkhippa (adj.) [a + pa.tikkhippa, grd. of pa.tikkhipati] not to be refused J II.370.

Appa.tigandhika and *iya (adj.) [a + pa.ti + gandha + ika] not smelling disagreeable, i. e. with beautiful smell, scented, odorous J V.405 (*ika, but C. *iya; explained. by sugandhena udakena samannaagata); VI.518; Pv II.120; III.226.

Appa.tigha (adj.) [a + pa.tigha] (a) not forming an obstacle, not injuring, unobstructive Sn 42 (see explained. at Nd2 239; SnA 88 expls. "katthaci satte vaa sankhaare vaa bhayena na pa.tiha~n~natii ti a."). - (b) psychol. t. t. applied. to ruupa: not reacting or impinging (opp. sappa.tigha) D III.217; Dhs 660, 756, 1090, 1443.

Appa.ticchavi (adj.) at Pv II.113 is faulty reading for sampatitacchavi (v. l.).

Appa.tibhaaga (adj) [a + pa.tibhaaga] not having a counterpart, unequalled, incomparable DhA I.423 ( = anuttara).

Appa.tibhaa.na (adj.) [a + pa.tibhaa.na] not answering back, bewildered, cowed down Vin III.162; A III.57; *.m karoti to intimidate, bewilder J V.238, 369.

Appa.tima (adj.) [a + pa.tima from prep. pa.ti but cp. Vedic apratimaana from prati + maa] matchless, incomparable, invaluable Th 1, 614; Miln 239.

Appa.tivattiya (adj.) [a + pa.ti + vattiya = vrtya, grd. or vrt] (a) not to be rolled back Sn 554 (of dhammacakka, may however be taken in meaning of b.). - (b) irresistable J II.245 (siihanada). Note. The spelling with .t is only found as v. l. at J II.245; otherwise as t.

Appa.tivaa.na (nt.) [a + pa.tivaa.na, for *vraa.na, the gu.na-form of vr, cp. Sanskrit prativaara.na] non-obstruction, not hindering, not opposing or contradicting A I.50; III.41; V.93 sq.; adj. J I.326.

Appa.tivaa.nitaa (f.) [abstr. from (ap)pa.tivaa.na] not being hindered, non-obstruction, free effort; only in phrase "asantu.t.thitaa ca kusalesu dhammesu appa.tivaa.nitaa ca padhaanasmi.m" (discontent with good states and the not shrinking back in the struggle Dhs trsl. 358) A I.50, 95 = D III.214 = Dhs 1367.

Appa.tivaa.nii (f.) [almost identical w. appa.tivaa.nitaa, only used in different phrase] non-hindrance, non-restriction, free action, impulsive effort; only in stock phrase chando vaayaamo ussaaho usso'hii appa.tivaa.nii S II.132; V.440; A II.93, 195; III.307 sq.; IV.320; Nd2 under chanda C. [cp. similarly Divy 654].

Appa.tivaa.niiya (adj.) [grd. of a + pa.ti + vr; cp. BSanskrit aprativaa.ni* Divy 655; M Vastu III.343] not to be obstructed, irresistible S I.212 (applied. to Nibbaana; Mrs. Rh. D. Kindred S. p. 274 translations. "that source from whence there is no turning back"), Th 2, 55.

---[ Page 57 ]---

Appa.tividdha (adj.) [a + pa.ti + viddha] "not shot through" i. e. unhurt J VI.446.

Appa.tivibhatta (*bhogin) (adj.) [a + pa.ti + vibhatta] (not eating) without sharing with others (with omission of another negative: see Trenckner, Miln p. 429, where also Bdhgh's explination.) A III289; Miln 373; cp. Miln trsl. II.292.

Appa.tivekkhiya [ger. of a + pa.ti + avekkhati] not observing or noticing J IV.4 ( = apaccavekkhitvaa anavekkhitvaa C.).

Appa.tisankhaa (f.) [a + pa.tisankhaa] want of judgment Pug 21 = Dhs 1346.

Appa.tisandhika (and *iya) (adj.) [a + pa.tisandhi + ka (ya)] 1. what cannot be put together again, unmendable, irreparable (*iya) Pv I.129 ( = puna paakatiko na hoti PvA 66) = J III.167 ( = pa.tipaakatiko kaatu.m na sakkaa C.). 2. incapable of reunion, not subject to reunion, i. e. to rebirth J V.100 (*bhaava).

Appa.tisama (adj.) [a + pa.ti = sama; cp. BSanskrit apratisama M Vastu I.104] not having it's equal, incomparable J I.94 (Baddha-sirii).

Appa.tissavataa (f.) [a + pa.tissavataa] want of deference Pug 20 = Dhs 1325.

Appa.nihita (adj.) [a + pa.nihita] aimless, not bent on anything, free from desire, usually as nt. aimlessness, combined. w. animitta.m Vin III.92, 93 = IV.25; Dhs 351, 508, 556. See on term Cpd.67; Dhs trsl. 93, 143 and cp. pa.nihita.

Appati.t.tha (adj.) [a + pati.t.tha] 1. not standing still S I.1. - 2. without a footing or ground to stand on, bottomless Sn 173.

Appatissa (and appa.tissa) (adj.) [a + pa.ti + shru] not docile, rebellious, always in combination. with agaarava A II.20; III.7 sq., 14 sq., 247, 439. Appatissa-vaasa an unruly state, anarchy J II.352. See also pa.tissaa.

Appatiita (adj.) [a + patiita, of prati + i, Sanskrit pratiita] dissatisfied, displeased, disappointed (cp. appaccaya) J V.103 (at this passage preferably to be read with v. l. as appatika = without husband, C. expls. assaamika), 155 (cp. C. on p. 156); DA I.52; SnA 423.

Appadu.t.tha (adj.) [a + padu.t.tha] not corrupt, faultless, of good behaviour Sn 662 ( = padosa-bhaavena a. SnA 478); Dh 137 ( = niraparaadha DhA III.70).

Appadha.msa (adj.) [ = appadha.msiya, Sanskrit apradhva.msya] not to be destroyed J IV.344 (v. l. duppadha.msa).

Appadha.msika (and *iya) (adj.) [grd. of a + padha.mseti] not to be violated or destroyed, inconquerable, indestructible D III.175 (*ika, v. l. *iya); J III.159 (*iya); VvA 208 (*iya); PvA 117 (*iya). Cp. appadha.msa.

Appadha.msita (adj.) [pp. of a + padha.mseti] not violated, unhurt, not offended Vin IV.229.

Appanaa (f.) [cp. Sanskrit arpa.na, abstr. from appeti = arpayati from of r, to fix, turn, direct one's mind; see appeti] application (of mind), ecstasy,fixing of thought on an object, conception (as psychol. t. t.) J II.61 (*patta); Miln 62 (of vitakka); Dhs 7, 21, 298; Vism 144 (*samaadhi); DhsA 55, 142 (def. by Bdhg. as "ekagga.m citta.m aaramma.ne appeti"), 214 (*jhaana). See on term Cpd.pp. 56 sq., 68, 129, 215; Dhs trsl. XXVIII, 10, 53, 82, 347.

Appabhoti (Appahoti) see pahoti.

Appama~n~nati [appa + ma~n~nati] to think little of, to underrate, despise Dh 121 ( = avajaanaati DhA III.16; v. l. avapama~n~nati).

Appama~n~naa (f.) [a + pama~n~naa, abstr. from pamaa.na = Sanskrit *pramaanya] boundlessness, infinitude, as psych. t. t. applied. in later books to the four varieties of philanthropy, viz. mettaa karu.maa muditaa upekkhaa i. e. love, pity, sympathy, desinterestedness, and as such enumerated at D III.223 (q. v. for detailed reference as to var. passages); Ps I.84; Vbh 272 sq.; DhsA 195. By itself at Sn 507 ( = mettajjhaanasankhaataa a. SnA 417). See for further explination. Dhs trsl. p. 66 and mettaa.

Appamatta1 (adj.) [appa + matta] see appa.

Appamatta2 (adj.) [a + pamatta, pp. of pamadati] not negligent, i. e. diligent, careful, heedful, vigilant, alert, zealous M I.391-92; S I.4; Sn 223 (cp. KhA 169), 507, 779 (cp. Nd1 59); Dh 22 (cp. DhA I.229); Th 2, 338 = upa.t.thitasati Th A 239).

Appamaada [a + pamaada] thoughtfulness, carefulness, conscientiousness, watchfulness, vigilance, earnestness, zeal D I.13 (: a. vuccati satiyaa avippavaaso DA I.104); III.30, 104 sq., 112, 244, 248, 272; M I.477 (*phala); S I.25, 86, 158, 214; II.29, 132; IV.78 (*vihaarin), 97, 125, 252 sq.; V.30 sq. (*sampadaa), 41 sq., 91, 135, 240, 250, 308, 350; A I.16, 50. (*adhigata); III.330, 364, 449; IV.28 (*gaaravataa) 120 (*.m garu-karoti); V.21, 126 (kusalesu dhammesu); Sn 184, 264, 334 ( = sati-avippavaasa-sankhaata a. SnA 339); It 16 (*.m pasa'nsanti pu~n~nakiriyaasu pa.n.ditaa), 74 (*vihaarin); Dh 57 (*vihaarin, cp. DhA I.434); 327 (*rata = satiyaa avippavaase abhirata DhA IV.26); Daavs II. 35; KhA 142.

Appamaa.na (frequent spelled appamaana) (adj.) [a + pamaa.na] 1. "without measure", immeasurable, endless, boundless, unlimited, unrestricted all-permeating S IV.186 (*cetaso); A II.73; V.63; Sn 507 (metta.m citta.m bhaavaya'n appaamaa.na.m = anavasesa-phara.nena SnA 417; cp. appama~n~naa); It 21 (mettaa), 78; J II.61; Ps II.126 sq.; Vbh 16, 24, 49, 62, 326 sq.; Dhs 182, 1021, 1024, 1405; DhsA 45, 196 (*gocara, cp. anantagocara). See also on term Dhs trsl. 60. - 2. "without difference", irrelevant, in general (in commentary style) J I.165; II.323.

Appameyya (adj.) [a + pameyya = Sanskrit aprameya, grd. of a + pra + maa] immeasurable, infinite, boundless M I.386; S V.400; A I.266; Th 1, 1089 (an*); Pug 35; Miln 331; Sdhp 338.

Appavattaa (f.) [a + pavattaa] the state of not going on, the stop (to all that), the non-continuance (of all that) Th 1, 767; Miln 326.

Appasaada see pasaada.

Appassaada see appa.

Appahiina (adj.) [a + pahiina, pp. of pahaayati] not given up, not renounced M I.386; It 56, 57; Nd2 70 D1; Pug 12, 18.

Appaa.naka (adj.) [a + paa.na + ka] breathless, i. e. (1) holding one's breath in a form of ecstatic meditation (jhaana) M I.243; J I.67 [cp. BSanskrit aasphaanaka Lal. V.314, 324; M Vastu II.124; should the Paali form be taken as *a + praa.naka*]. (2) not holding anything breathing, i. e. inanimate, lifeless, not containing life Sn p. 15 (of water).

Appikaa (f.) of appaka.

Appiccha (adj.) [appa + iccha from is., cp. icchaa] desiring little or nothing, easily satisfied, unassuming, contented, unpretentious S I.63, 65; A III.432; IV.2, 218 sq., 229; V.124 sq., 130, 154, 167; Sn 628, 707; Dh 404; Pv IV.73; Pug 70.

Appicchataa (f.) [abstr. from prec.] contentment, being satisfied with little, unostentatiousness Vin III.21; D III.115; M I.13; S II 202, 208 sq.; A I.12, 16 sq.; III.219 sq., 448; IV.218, 280 (opp. mahicchataa); Miln 242; SnA 494 (catubbidhaa, viz. paccaya-dhutanga-pariyatti-adhigama-vasena); PvA 73. As one of the 5 dhutanga-dhammaa at Vism 81.

---[ Page 58 ]---

Appita (adj.) [pp. of appeti, cp. BSanskrit arpita, e. g. priityarpita.m caks.u* Jtm 3169] 1. fixed, applied, concentrated (mind) Miln 415 (maanasa) Sdhp 233 (citta). - 2. brought to, put to, fixed on J VI.78 (mara.namukhe); visappita (an arrow to which) poison (is) applied, so read for visap(p)iita at J V.36 and Vism 303.

Appiya and Appiyataa see piya etc.

Appekadaa (adv.) see api 2 ax.

Appeti [Vedic arpayati, Causative of r, r.noti and rcchati (cp. icchati2), Idg. *ar (to insert or put together, cp. also *er under a.n.nava) to which belong Sanskrit ara spoke of a wheel; Gr. a)rari/skw to put together, a(/rma chariot, a)/rqron limb, a)reth/ virtue; Latin arma = E. arms (i. e. weapon), artus fixed, tight, also limb, ars = art. For further connections see a.n.nava] 1. (*er) to move forward, rush on, run into (of river) Vin II.238; Miln 70. - 2. (*ar) to fit in, fix, apply, insert, put on to (lit. and fig.) Vin II.136, 137; J III.34 (nimba-suulasmi.m to impale, C. aavu.naati); VI.17 (T. suulasmi.m acceti, vv. ll. abbeti = appeti and upeti, C. aavu.nati); Miln 62 (daaru.m sandhismi.m); VvA 110 (sa~n~naa.na.m). Cp. Trenckner, Notes 64 n. 19, who defends reading abbeti at T. passages.

Appesakkha (adj.) [acc. to Childers = Sanskrit *alpa + iisha + aakhya, the latter from aa + khyaa "being called lord of little"; Trenckner on Miln 65 (see p. 422) says: "appesakkha and mahesakkha are traditionally explained. appaparivaara and mahaaparivaara, the former, I suppose, from appe and sakkha (Sanskrit saakhya), the latter an imitation of it". Thus the etymology would be "having little association or friendship" and resemble the term appasattha. The BSanskrit forms are alpeshaakhya and maheshaakhya, e. g. at Av. SH II. 153; Divy 243] of little power, weak, impotent S II.229; Miln 65; Sdhp 89.

Appoti [the contracted form of aapnoti, usually paapu.naati, from aap] to attain, reach, get Vism 350 (in etymology of aapo).

Appodaka see appa.

Appossukka (adj.) [appa + ussuka, Sanskrit alpotsuka, e. g. Lal. V. 509; Divy 41, 57, 86, 159. It is not necessary to assume a hypothetic form of *autsukya as der. from ussuka] unconcerned, living at ease, careless, "not bothering", keeping still, inactive Vin II.188; M III.175, 176; S I 202 (in stock phrase appossukka tu.nhiibhuuta sankasaaya "living at ease, given to silence, resigned" Mrs. Rh. D. Dhs trsl. 258, see also J.Paali Text Society 1909, 22); II. 177 (id.); IV.178 (id.); Th 2, 457 ( = nirussukka ThA 282); Sn 43 ( = abyaava.ta anapekkha Nd2 72); Dh 330 ( = niraalaya DhA IV.31); J I.197; IV.71; Miln 371 (a. ti.t.thati to keep still); DA I.264.

Appossukkataa (f.) [abstr. from prec.] inaction, reluctance, carelessness, indifference Vin I.5; D II.36; Miln 232; DhA II.15.

Apphuta (and apphu.ta) [Sanskrit *aa-sphrta for a-sphaarita pp. of sphar, cp. phurati; phu.ta and also phusati] untouched, unpervaded, not penetrated. D I.74 = M I.276 (piitisukhena).

Appho.taa (f.) [from appo.teti to blossom] N. of a kind of Jasmine J VI.336.

Appho.tita [pp. of appho.teti] having snapped one's fingers or clapped one's hands J II.311 (*kaale).

Appho.teti [aa + pho.teti, sphu.t] to snap the fingers or clap the hands (as sign of pleasure) Miln 13, 20. pp. appho.tita.

Aphusa [Sanskrit *asprshya, a + grd. of phusati to touch] not to be touched Miln 157 (trsl. unchangeable by other circumstances; Tr. on p. 425 remarks "aphusaani kiriyaani seems wrong, at any rate it is unintelligible to me").

Aphegguka (adj.) [a + pheggu + ka] not weak, i. e strong J III.318.

Abaddha [a + baddha] not tied, unbound, unfettered Sn 39 (v. l. and Nd2 abandha; explained- by rajju-bandhan- aadisu yena kenaci abaddha SnA 83).

Abandha (n.-adj.) [a + bandha] not tied to, not a follower or victim of It 56 (maarassa; v. l. abaddha).

Abandhana (adj.) [a + bandhana] without fetters or bonds, unfettered, untrammelled Sn 948, cp. Nd1 433.

Ababa [of uncertain origin, prob. onomatopoetic]. N. of a cert. Purgatory, enumerated with many other similar names at A V.173 = Sn p. 126 (cp. a.ta.ta, abbuda and also Av. SH I.4, 10 and see for further explination. of term SnA 476 sq.

Abala (adj.) [a + bala] not strong, weak, feeble Sn 1120 ( = dubbala, appabala, appathaama Nd2 73); Dh 29 (*assa a weak horse = dubbalassa DhA I.262; opp. siighassa a quick horse).

Abbaje T. reading at A II.39, evidently interpreted by ed. as aa + vraje, pot. of aa + vraj to go to, come to (cp. pabbajati), but is preferably with v. l. SS to be read a.n.daje (corresponding with vihangama in prec. line).

Abba.na (adj.) [a + va.na, Sanskrit avra.na] without wounds Dh 124.

Abbata (n.-adj.) [a + vata, Sanskrit avrata] (a) (nt.) that which is not "vata" i. e. moral obligation, breaking of the moral obligation Sn 839 (asiilata +); Nd1 188 (v. l. SS abhabbata; explained. again as a-vatta). SnA 545 ( = dhutangavata.m vinaa. - (b) (adj.) one who offends against the moral obligation, lawless Dh 264 ( = siilavatena ca dhutavatena ca virahita DhA III.391; vv. ll. k. adhuuta and abhuuta; B. abbhuta, C. abbuta).

Abbaya in uday* at Miln 393 stands for avyaya.

Abbahati (and abbuhati) [the first more frequent for pres., the second often in aor. forms; Sanskrit aabrhati, aa + brh1, pp. br.dha (see abbuu'ha)] to draw off, pull out (a sting or dart); imper. pres. abbaha Th 1, 404; J II.95 (v. l. BB appuha = abbuha; C. expls. by uddharatha). - aor. abbahi J V.198 (v. l. BB abbuhi), abbahii (metri causa) J III.390 (v. l. BB dhabbu'i = abbu'hi) = Pv I.86 (which reads T. abbuu'ha, but PvA 41 expls. niihari) = DhA I.30 (vv. ll. sabbahi, sabbamhi; gloss K. B abbuu'ha.m) = Vv 839 (T. abbu'hi; v. l. BB abbu'ha.m, SS avyahi; VvA 327 expls. as uddhari), and abbuhi A III.55 (v. l. abbahi, C. abbahii ti niihari), see also vv. ll. under abbahi. - ger. abbuyha Sn 939 ( = abbuhitvaa uddharitvaa Nd1 419; v.l. SS abbuyhitvaa; SnA 567 reads avyuyha and expls. by uddharitvaa); S I.121 (ta.nha.m); III.26 (id.; but spelt abbhuyha). -pp. abbu'ha (q. v.). - Causative abbaaheti [Sanskrit aabarhayati] to pull out, drag out J IV.364 (sattha.m abbaahayanti; v. l. abbhaa*); DhA II.249 (asi.m). ger. abbaahitvaa ( = *hetvaa) Vin II 201 (bhisa-mu'aala.m) with v. l. BB aggahetvaa, SS abbuuhitvaa, cp. Vin I.214 (vv. ll. aggahitvaa and abbaahitvaa). pp. abbuu'hita (q. v.).

Abbaahana (nt.) [abstr. from abbahati] pulling out (of a sting) DhA III.404 (sic. T.; v. l. abbuuhana; Fausboll a.dahana; glosses C. a.t.thangata and a.t.thangika, K. nibbaapana). See also abbu'hana and abbhaahana.

Abbuda (nt.) [etymology unknown, orig. meaning "swelling", the Sanskrit form arbuda seems to be a trsl. of Paali abbuda] 1. the foetus in the 1st and 2nd months after conception, the 2nd of the five prenatal stages of development, viz. kalala, abbuda, pesi, ghana, pasaakha Nd1 120; Miln 40; Vism 236. - 2. a tumour, canker, sore Vin III.294, 307 (only in Samantapaasaadikaa; both times as saasanassa a). - 3. a very high numeral, applied. exclusively to the denotation of a vast period of suffering in Purgatory; in this sense used as adj. of Niraya (abbudo nirayo the "vast-period"

---[ Page 59 ]---

hell, cp. nirabbuda). S I.149 = A II.3 (chatti.msati pa~nca ca abbudaani); S I.152 = A V.173 = Sn p. 126 (cp. SnA 476: abbudo naama koci pacceka-nirayo n- atthi, Aviicimhi yeva abbuda-ga.nanaaya paccanokaaso pana abbudo nirayo ti vutto; see also Kindred Sayings p. 190); J III.360 (sata.m ninnahuta-sahassaana.m eka.m abbuda.m). - 4. a term used for "hell" in the riddle S I.43 (ki.msu lokasmi.m abhuda.m "who are they who make a hell on earth" Mrs. Rh. D. The answer is "thieves"; so we can scarcely take it in meaning of 2 or 3. The C. has vinaasa-kara.na.m.

Abbu'hati (*) and Abbuhati see abbahati.

Abbu'hana (nt.) [from abbahati = abbuhati (abbu'hati)] the pulling out (of a sting), in phrase ta.nhaa-sallassa abbu'hana.m as one of the 12 achievements of a Mahesi Nd1 343 = Nd2 503 (eds. of Nd1 have abbuuhana, v. l. SS abbussaana; ed. of Nd2 abbu'hana, v. l. SS abbahana, BB abbuhana). Cp. abbaahana.

Abbuu'ha (adj.) [Sanskrit aabr.dha, pp. of a + brh1, see abbahati] drawn out, pulled (of a sting or dart), fig. removed, destroyed. Most frequent in combination. *salla with the sting removed, having the sting (of craving thirst, ta.nhaa) pulled out D II.283 (v. l. SS asammuu'ha); Sn 593, 779 ( = abbuu'hita-salla Nd1 59; raaga-di-sallaana.m abbuu'hattaa a. SnA 518); J III.390 = Vv 8310 = Pv I.87 = DhA I.30. - In other connection: M I.139 = A III.84 (*esika = ta.nhaa pahiinaa; see esikaa); Th 1, 321; KhA 153 (*soka).

Abbuu'hatta (nt.) [abstr. of abbuu'ha] pulling out, removal, destroying SnA 518.

Abbuu'hita (and abbuuhitta at J III.541) [pp. of abbaaheti Causative of abbaahati] pulled out, removed, destroyed Nd1 59 (abbuu'hita-sallo + uddha.ta* etc. for abbuu'ha); J III.541 (uncertain reading; v. l. BB appahita, SS abyuuhita; C. expls. pupphaka.m .thapita.m appaggharaka.m kata.m; should we explain as aa + vi + uuh and read abyuuhita*).

Abbeti [Trenckner, Notes 64 n. 19] at J III.34 and VI.17 is probably a mistake in MSS for appeti.

Abboki.n.na [ = abbhoki.n.na, abhi + ava + ki.n.na, cp. abhiki.n.na] 1.filled M I.387 (paripu.n.na +); DhA IV.182 (pa~nca jaati-sataani a.). - 2. [seems to be misunderstood for abbocchinna, a + vi + ava + chinna] uninterrupted, constant, as *.m adv. in combination. with satata.m samita.m A IV.13 = 145; Kvu 401 (v. l. abbhoki.n.na), cp. also Kvu trsl. 231 n. 1 (abboki.n.na undiluted*); Vbh 320. - 3. doubtful spelling at Vin III.271 (Bdhgh on Paaraaj. III.1, 3).

Abbocchinna see abboki.n.na 2 and abbhochinna.

Abbohaarika (adj.) [a + vi + ava + haarika of voharati] not of legal or conventional status, i. e. - (a) negligible, not to be decided Vin III.91, 112 (see also Kvu trsl. 361 n. 4). - (b) uncommon, extraordinary J III.309 (v. l. BB abbho); V.271, 286 (Kern: ineffective).

Abbha (nt.) [Vedic abhra nt. and later Sanskrit abhra m. "dark cloud"; Idg. *m*bhro, cp. Gr. a)fro\s scum, froth, Latin imber rain; also Sanskrit ambha water, Gr. o)/mbros rain, Oir ambu water]. A (dense and dark) cloud, a cloudy mass A II.53 = Vin II.295 = Miln 273 in list of to things that obscure moon- and sunshine, viz. abbha.m mahikaa (mahiyaa A) dhuumarajo (megho Miln), Raahu. This list is referred to at SnA 487 and VvA 134. S I.101 (*sama pabbata a mountain like a thunder-cloud); J VI.581 (abbha.m rajo acchaadesi); Pv IV.39 (niil* = niila-megha PvA 251). As f. abbhaa at Dhs 617 and DhsA 317 (used in sense of adj. "dull"; DhsA expls. by valaahaka); perhaps also in abbhaamatta. -kuu.ta the point or summit of a storm-cloud Th 1, 1064; J VI.249, 250; Vv 11 ( = valaahaka-sikhara VvA 12). -ghana a mass of clouds, a thick cloud It 64; Sn 348 (cp. SnA 348). -pa.tala a mass of clouds DhsA 239. -mutta free from clouds Sn 687 (also as abbhaamutta Dh 382). -sa'nvilaapa thundering S IV.289.

Abbhakkhaati [abhi + aa + khyaa, cp. Sanskrit aakhyaati] to speak against to accuse, slander D I.161 = A I.161 (an-abbhakkhaatu-kaama); IV.182 (id.); J IV.377. Cp. Intens. abbhaacikkhati.

Abbhakkhaana (nt.) [from abbhakkhaati] accusation, slander, calumny D III.248, 250; M I.130; III.207; A III.290 sq.; Dh 139 (cp. DhA III.70).

Abbhacchaadita [pp. of abhi + aa + chaadeti] covered (with) Th 1, 1068.

Abbha~njati [abhi + a~nj] to anoint; to oil, to lubricate M I.343 (sappi-telena); S IV.177; Pug 56; DhA III.311 = VvA 68 (sata-paaka-telena). Causative abbha~njeti same J I.438 (telena *etvaa); V.376 (sata-paaka-telena *ayi.msu); Causative II. abbhanjaapeti to cause to anoint J III.372.

Abbha~njana (nt.) [from abbha~njati] anointing, lubricating, oiling; unction, unguent Vin I.205; III.79; Miln 367 (akkhassa a.); Vism 264; VvA 295.

Abbhatika (adj.) [aa + bhata + ika, bhr] brought (to), procured, got, J VI.291.

Abbhatikkanta [pp. of abhi + ati + kram, cp. atikkanta] one who has thoroughly, left behind J V.376.

Abbhatiita [pp. of abhi + ati + i, cp. atiita and atikkanta] emphatic of atiita in all meanings, viz. 1 passed, gone by S II.183 (+ atikkanta); nt. *.m what is gone or over, the past J III.169. - 2. passed away, dead M I.465; S IV.398; Th 1, 242, 1035. - 3. transgressed, overstepped, neglected J III.541 (sa'nyama).

Abbhattha (nt.) [abhi + attha2 in acc. abhi + attha.m, abhi in function of "towards" = homeward, as under abhi I.1 a; cp. Vedic abhi sadhastha.m to the seat R. V. IX. 21. 3] = attha2, only in phrase abbhattha.m gacchati "to go towards home", i. e. setting; fig. to disappear, vanish, M I.115, 119; III.25; A IV.32; Miln 305; pp. abhhattangata "set", gone, disappeared Dhs 1038 (atthangata +); Kvu 576.

Abbhatthataa (f.) [abstr. from abbhatta] "going towards setting", disappearance, death J V.469.

Abbhanumodati [abhi + anu + modati] to be much pleased at to show great appreciation of Vin I.196; D I.143, 190; S IV.224; Miln 29, 210; DhA IV.102 (v. l. *aanu*).

Abbhanumodana (nt.) (and *aa f.) [from abbhanumodati] being pleased, satisfaction, thanksgiving DA I.227; VvA 52 (*aanu*); Sdhp 218.

Abbhantara (adj.) [abhi + antara; abhi here in directive function = towards the inside, in there, with-in, cp. abhi I.1 a] = antara, i. e. internal, inner, being within or between; nt. *.m the inner part, interior, interval (also as *-) Vin I.111 (satt* with interval of seven); A IV.16 (opp. baahira); Dh 394 (id.); Th 1, 757 (*a-passaya lying inside); J III.395 (*amba the inside of the Mango); Miln 30 (*e vaayo jivo), 262, 281 (baahir-abbhantara dhana); DhA II.74 (adj. c. gen. being among; v. l. abbhantare). Cases used adverbially: instr. abbhantarena in the meantime, in between DhA II.59. loc. abbhantare in the midst of, inside of, within (c. gen. or -*) J I.262 (ra~n~no), 280 (tuyha.m); DhA II.64 (v. l. antare), 92 (sattavass*); PvA 48 ( = anto).

Abbhantarika (adj.-n.) [from abbhantara, cp. Sanskrit abhyantara in same meaning] intimate friend, confidant, "chum" J I.86 (+ ativissaasika), 337 ("insider", opp. baahiraka).

Abbhantarima (adj.) [superl. formation from abbhantara in contrasting function] internal, inner (opp. baahirima) Vin III.149; J V.38.

---[ Page 60 ]---

Abbhaaku.tika (adj.) [a + bhaaku.ti + ka; Sanskrit bhraku.ti frown] not frowning, genial Vin III.181 (but here spelt bhaaku.tikabhaaku.tika); D I.116, cp. DA I.287; DhA IV.8 (as v. l.; T. has abbhoku.tika).

Abbhaagata [abhi + aa + gata] having arrived or come; (m.) a guest, stranger Vv 15 ( = abhi-aagata, aagantuka VvA 24).

Abbhaagamana (nt.) [abhi + aa + gamana; cp. Sanskrit abhyaagama] coming arrival, approach Vin IV.221.

Abbhaaghaata [abhi + aaghaata] slaughtering-place Vin III.151 (+ aaghaata).

Abbhaacikkhati [Intens. of abbhaakkhaati] to accuse, slander, calumniate D I.161; III.248, 250; M I.130, 368, 482; III.207; A I.161.

Abbhaana (nt.) [abhi + aayana of aa + yaa (i)] coming back, rehabilitation of a bhikkhu who has undergone a penance for an expiable offence Vin I.49 (*a-raha), 53 (id.), 143, 327; II.33, 40, 162; A I.99. - Cp. abbheti.

Abbhaamatta (adj.) [abbhaa + matta (*) according to the Paali Com.; but more likely = Vedic abhva huge, enormous, monstrous, with aa metri causa. On abhva (a + bhuu what is contradictory to anything that is) cp. abbhuta and abbhu.m, and see Walde, Latin Wtb. under dubius] monstrous, dreadful, enormous, "of the size of a large cloud" (thus C. on S I.205 and J III.309) S I.205 = Th 1, 652 (v. l. abbha* and abbhaamutta) = J III.309 (v. l. *mutta).

Abbhaahata [abhi + aa + hata, pp. of han] struck, attacked, afflicted S I.40 (maccunaa); Th 1, 448; Sn 581; J VI.26, 440; Vism 31, 232; DA I.140, 147; DhA IV.25.

Abbhaahana (nt.) [either = abbaahana or aavaahana] in udaka* the pulling up or drawing up of water Vin II.318 (Bdhgh. on Cullavagga V.16, 2, corresponding to udaka-vaahana on p. 122).

Abbhita [pp. of abbheti] 1. come back, rehabilitated, reinstated Vin III.186 = IV.242 (an*). - 2. uncertain reading at Pv I.123 in sense of "called" (an* uncalled), where id. p. at J III.165 reads anavhaata and at Th 2, 129 ayaacita.

Abbhu [a + bhuu most likely = Vedic abhva and Paali abbhu.m, see also abbhaamatta] unprofitableness, idleness, nonsense J V.295 ( = abhuuti ava.d.dhi C.).

Abbhu.m (interj.) [Vedic abhva.m, nt. of abhva, see explained. under abbhamatta. Not quite correct Morris J P T S. 1889, 201: abbhu.m = aa + bhuk; cp also abbhuta] alas! terrible, dreadful, awful (excl. of fright and shock) Vin II. 115 (Bdhgh. expls. as "utraasa-vacanam-eta.m"); M I.448. See also abbhu and abbhuta.

Abbhukkira.na (nt.) [abhi + ud + kr] drawing out, pulling, in da.n.da-sattha* drawing a stick or sword Nd2 5764 (cp. abbhokkira.na). Or is it abbhuttiira.na (cp. utti.n.na outlet).

Abbhukkirati [abhi + ud + kirati] to sprinkle over, to rinse (with water) D II.172 (cakkaratana.m; neither with Morris J P T S. 1886, 131 "give up", nor with trsl. of J II.311 "roll along"); J V.390; PvA 75. Cp. abbhokkirati.

Abbhuggacchati [abhi + ud + gacchati] to go forth, go out, rise into D I.112, 127; A III.252 (kitti-saddo a.); Pug 36. ger. *gantvaa J I 88 (aakaasa'n), 202; DhA IV.198. aor. *ga~nchi M I.126 (kittisaddo); J I.93. -pp. abbhuggata.

Abbhuggata [pp. of abbhuggacchati] gone forth, gone out, risen D I.88 (kitti-saddo a., cp. DhA I.146: sadevaka.m loka.m ajjhottharitvaa uggato), 107 (saddo); Sn p. 103 (kittisaddo).

Abbhuggamana (nt.-adj.) [from abbhuggacchati] going out over, rising over (c. acc.) PvA 65 (canda.m nabha.m abbhuggamana.m; so read for T. abbhuggamaana.m).

Abbhujjalana (nt.) [abhi + ud + jalana, from jval] breathing out fire, i. e. carrying fire in one's month (by means of a charm) D I.11 ( = mantena mukhato aggi-jala-niihara.na.m DA I.97).

Abbhu.t.thaati (*.t.thahati) [abhi + ud + sthaa] to get up to, proceed to, D I.105 (cankama.m).

Abbhu.n.nata [pp. of abbhunnamati] standing up, held up, erect J V.156 (in abbhu.n.natataa state of being erect. stiffness), 197 (*unnata; v. l. abbhantara, is reading correct*).

Abbhu.nha (adj.) [ahhi + u.nha] (a) very hot DhA II.87 (v. l. accu.nha). (b) quite hot, still warm (of milk) DhA II.67.

Abbhuta1 (adj. nt.) [*Sanskrit adbhuta which appears to be constructed from the Paali and offers like its companion *aashcarya (acchariya abbhuta see below) serious difficulties as to etymology The most probable solution is that Paali abbhuta is a secondary adj.-formation from abbhu.m which in itself is nt. of abbha = Vedic abhva (see etymology under abbhaamatta and cp. abbhu, abbhu.m and J.Paali Text Society 1889, 201). In meaning abbhuta is identical with Vedic abhva contrary to what usually happens, i. e. striking, abnormal, gruesome, horrible etc.; and that its significance as a + bhuu ("unreal*") is felt in the background is also evident from the traditional etymology of the Paali Commentators (see below). See also acchariya] terrifying, astonishing; strange, exceptional, puzzling, extraordinary, marvellous, supernormal. Described as a term of surprise and constereotypeation (vimhay- aavahass- adhivacana.m DA I.43 and VvA 329) and explained. as "something that is not" or "has not been before", viz. abhuuta.m ThA 233; abhuuta-pubbataaya abbhuta.m VvA 191, 329; abhuuta-pubba.m DA I.43. - 1. (adj.) wonderful, marvellous etc. Sn 681 (ki.m *.m, combined. with lomaha.msana); J IV.355 (id.); Th 2, 316 (abbhuta.m vata vaaca.m bhaasasi = acchariya.m ThA 233); Vv 449 (*dassaneyya); Sdhp 345, 496. - 2. (nt.) the wonderful, a wonder, marvel S IV.371, also in *dhamma (see Cpd.). Very frequent in combination. with acchariya.m and a part. of exclamation, viz, acchariya.m bho abbhuta.m bho wonderful indeed and beyond comprehension, strange and stupefying D I.206; acch. vata bho abbh. vata bho D I.60; acch. bhante abbh. A II.50; aho acch. aho abbh. J I.88; acch. vata abbh. vata Vv 8316. - Thus also in phrase acchariyaa abbhutaa dhammaa wonderful and extraordinary signs or things M III.118, 125; A II.130; IV.198; Miln 8; and in acchariya-abbhutacitta-jaata dumbfounded and surprised J I.88; DhA IV.52; PvA 6, 50. -dhamma mystereotypeous phenomenon, something wonderful, supernormal; designation of one of the nine angas or divisions of the Buddhist Scriptures (see nava B 2) Vin III.8; M I.133; A II.103; III.86, 177; Pug 43; Miln 344; PvA 2, etc.

Abbhuta2 (nt.) [ = abbhuta1 in the sense of invoking strange powers in gambling, thus being under direct spell of the "unknown"] a bet, a wager, only in phrase abbhuta.m karoti (sahassena) to make a bet or to bet (a thousand, i. e. kahaapa.na's or pieces of money) Vin III.138; IV.5; J I.191; V.427; VI.192; PvA 151; and in phrase pa~ncahi sahassehi abbhuta.m hotu J VI.193.

Abbhudaaharati [abhi + ud + aa + harati] to bring towards, to fetch, to begin or introduce (a conversation) M II.132.

Abbhudiireti [abhi + ud + iireti] to raise the voice, to utter Th 2, 402; DA I.61; Sdhp 514.

Abbhudeti [abhi + ud + eti] to go out over, to rise A II.50, 51 (opp. attha.m eti, of the sun). - ppr. abbhuddaya'n Vv 6417 ( = abhi-uggacchanto VvA 280; abbhusaya'n ti pi paa.tho).

Abbhuddhunaati [abhi + ud + dhunaati] to shake very much Vv 649 ( = adhika.m uddhunaati VvA 278).

---[ Page 61 ]---

Abbhunnadita [pp. of abhi + ud + nadati] resounding, resonant Th 1, 1065).

Abbhunnamati [abhi, + ud + namati] to, spring up, burst forth D II.164. -pp. abbhu.n.nata (and *unnata), q. v. Causative abbhunnaameti to stiffen, straighten out, hold up, erect D I.120 (kaaya.m one's body); A II.245 (id.); D I.126 (patodala.t.thi.m; opp. apanaameti to bend down).

Abbhuyyaata [pp. of abbhuyyaati] marched against, attacked Vin I.342; M II.124.

Abbhuyyaati [abhi + up + yaati of yaa] to go against, to go against, to march (an army) against, to attack S I.82 (aor *uyyaasi). -pp. abbhuyyaata (q. v.).

Abbhusuuyaka (adj.) [abhi + usuuyaa + ka] zealous, showing zeal, endeavouring in (-*) Pgdp 101.

Abbhussakati and *usukkati [abhi + ud + s.vas.k, see sakkati] to go out over, rise above (acc.), ascend, frequent in phrase aadicco nabha.m abbhussakkamaano M I.317 = S III.156 = It 20. - See also S I.65; V.44; A I.242 (same simile); V.22 (id.).

Abbhussahanataa (f.) [abstr. from abhi + *utsahana, cp. ussaaha] instigation, incitement Vin II.88.

Abbhusseti [abhi + ud + seti of shii] to rise; v. l. at Vv 6417 according to VvA 280: abbhuddaya'n (see abbhudeti) abbhussayan ti pi paa.tho.

Abbheti [abhi + aa + i] to rehabilitate a bhikkhu who has been suspended for breach of rules Vin II.7 (abbhento), 33 (abbheyya); III.112 (abbheti), 186 = IV.242 (abbhetabba) -pp. abbhita (q. v.). See also abbhaana.

Abbhokaasa [abhi + avakaasa] the open air, an open and unsheltered space D I.63 ( = alagganatthena a. viya DA I.180), 71 ( = acchanna DA I.210), 89; M III.132; A II.210; III.92; IV.437, V.65; Sn p. 139 (*e nissinna sitting in the open) J I.29, 215; Pug 57.

Abbhokaasika (adj.) [from abbhokaasa] belonging to the open air, one who lives in the open, the practice of certain ascetics. D I.167; M I.282; A III.220; Vin V.131, 193; J IV.8 (+ nesajjika); Pug 69; Miln 20, 342. (One of the 13 Dhuta.mgas). See also Nd1 188; Nd2 587. -anga the practice or system of the "campers-out" Nd1 558 (so read for abbhokaasi-kankhaa, cp. Nd1 188).

Abbhoki.n.na [pp. of abbhokirati] see abboki.n.na.

Abbhokirati [abhi + ava + kirati] to sprinkle over, to cover, bedeck Vv 59 ( = abhi-okirati abhippakirati), 3511 (v. l. abbhuk.r). Cp. abbhukkirati and abbhokkira.na pp. abbhoki.n.na see under abboki.n.na.

Abbhoku.tika spelling at DhA IV.8 for abbhaaku.tika.

Abbhokkira.na (nt.) [from abbhokirati] in na.taana.m a. "turnings of dancers" DA I.84 in explanation. of sobha-nagaraka.m of D I.6.

Abbhocchinna (besides abbocch*, q.v. under abboki.n.na2) [a + vi + ava + chinna] not cut off, uninterrupted, continuous J I.470 (v. l. abbo); VI.254, 373; Cp. I.63; Miln 72; Vism 362 (bb), 391 (bb).

Abbhohaarika see abbo.

Aby* see avy*.

Abhabba (adj.) [a + bhavya. The Sanskrit abhavya has a different meaning] impossible, not likely, unable D III.13 sq., 19, 26 sq., 133; It 106, 117; Sn 231 (see KhA 189); Dh 32; J I 116; Pug 13. -.t.thaana a (moral) impossibility of which there are 9 enumerated among things that are not likely to be found in an Arahant's character: see D III.133 and 235 (where the five first only are given as a set).

Abhabbataa (f.) [abstr. from abhabba] an impossibility, unlikelihood Sn 232, cp. KhA 191.

Abhaya (adj.) [a + bhaya] free from fear or danger, fearless, safe Dh 258. - nt. abhaya'n confidence, safety Dh 317, cp. DhA III.491. For further refs. see bhaya.

Abhi- [prefix, Vedic abhi, which represents both Idg -m -bhi, as in Gr. a)mfi/ around, Latin ambi, amb round about, Oir. imb, Gall. ambi, Ohg. umbi, Ags. ymb, cp. also Vedic (Paali) abhita- on both sides; and Idg. -obhi, as in Latin ob towards, against (cp. obsess, obstruct), Goth. bi, Ohg. Ags. bii = E. be-. I. Meaning. - 1. The primary meaning of abhi is that of taking possession and mastereotypeng, as contained in E. coming by and over-coming, thus literally having the function of (a) facing and aggressing = towards, against, on to, at (see II. 1, a); and (b) mastereotypeng = over, along over, out over, on top of (see II. 1, b). 2. Out of this is developed the fig. meaning of increasing, i. e., an intensifying of the action implied in the verb (see III. 1). Next to sa'n- it is the most frequent modification preflx in the meaning of "very much, greatly" as the first part of a double-prefix cpd. (see III. 2), and therefore often seemingly superfluous, i. e., weakened in meaning, where the second part already denotes intensity as in abhi-vi-ji (side by side with vi-ji), abhi-aa-kkhaa (side by side with aa-kkhaa), abhi-anu-mud (side by side with anu-mud). In these latter cases abhi shows a purely deictic character corresponding to Ger. her-bei-kommen (for bei-kommen), E. fill up (for fill); e. g., abbhatikkanta ( = ati - C.), abbhatiita ("vorbei gegangen"), abbhantara ("with-in", b-innen or "in here"), abbhudaaharati, abhipuureti ("fill up"), etc. (see also II. 1, c). II. Lit. Meaning. - 1. As single prefix: (a) against, to, on to, at-, viz., abbhatthangata gone towards home, abhighaata striking at, -jjhaa think at, -mana thinking on, -mukha facing, turned towards, -yaati at-tack, -ruuhati ascend, -laasa long for, -vadati ad-dress, -sapati ac-curse, -hata hit at. (b) out, over, all around: abbhudeti go out over, -kamati exceed, -jaati off-spring, -jaanaati know all over, -bhavati overcome, -va.d.dhati increase, -vu.t.tha poured out or over, -sandeti make over-flow, -si~ncati sprinkle over. (c) abhi has the function of transitivising intrs. verbs after the manner of E. be- (con-) and Ger. er-, thus resembling in meaning a simple Causative formation, like the following: abhigajjati thunder on, -jaanaati "er-kennen" -jaayati be-get, -tthaneti = -gajjati, -nadati "er tonen", -nandati approve of (cp. anerkennen), -passati con-template, -ramati indulge in, -ropeti honour, -vu.d.dha increased, -saddahati believe in. - 2. As base in compounds. (2nd part of cpd.) abhi occurs only in combination. sam-abhi (which is, however, of late occurrence and a peeuliarity of later texts, and is still more frequent in BSanskrit: see under sam-). III. Fig. Meaning (intensifying). - 1. A single prefix: abhiki.n.na strewn all over, -jalati shine forth, -jighacchati be very hungry, -tatta much exhausted, -taapa very hot, -toseti pleuse greatly, -nava quite fresh, -nipu.na very clever, -niila of a deep black, -manaapa very pleasant, -mangaly very lucky, -yobbana full youth, -rati great liking, -ratta deep red, -ruci intense satisfaction, -ruupa very handsome ( = adhika-ruupa C.), -samBuddha wide and fully-awake, cp. abbhuddhunaati to shake greatly ( = adhika.muddh- C.). - As 1st part of a prep.-cpd. (as modification-prefix) in following combinations: abhi-ud (abbhud-) -ati, -anu, -ava, -aa, -ni, -ppa, -vi, -sa'n. See all these s. v. and note that the contraction (assimilation before vowel) form of abhi is abbh-. - On its relation to pari, see pari-, to ava see ava-. IV. Dialectical Variation. - There are dial. variations in the use and meanings of abhi. Vedic abhi besides corresponding to abhi in Paali is represented also by ati-, adhi- and anu-, since all are similar in meaning, and psychologically easily fused and confused (cp. meanings: abhi = on to, towards; ati = up to and beyond; adhi = up to, towards, over; anu = along towards). For all the

---[ Page 62 ]---

following verbs we find in Paali one or other of these three prefixes. So ati in -jaati, -pii'ita, -bruuheti, -vassati, -vaayati, -ve.theti; also as vv. ll. with abhi-kiirati, -pavassati, -roceti, cp. atikkanta-abhi- (Sanskrit abhikraanta); adhi in -patthita, -paateti, -ppaaya, -ppeta, -baadheti, -bhuu, -vaaha (vice versa Paali abhi-ropeti compared with Sanskrit adhiropayati); anu in -gijjhati, -bruuheti, -sandahati.

Abhikankhati [abhi + kankhati] to desire after, long for, wish for S I.140, 198 (Nibbaana.m); J II.428; IV.10, 241; VvA 38, 283; ThA 244. -pp. abhikankhita. Cp. BSanskrit abhikaank.sati, e. g. Jtm. p. 221.

Abhikankhanataa (f.) [abhi + kankhana + taa] wishing, longing, desire DA I.242.

Abhikankhita [pp. of abhikankhati] desired, wished, longed for VvA 201 ( = abhijjhita).

Abhikankhin (adj.) cp. wishing for, desirous (of -*) Th 2, 360 (siitibhaava*).

Abhiki.n.na [pp. of abhikirati] 1. strewn over with (-*), adorned, covered filled Pv II.112 (puppha*). - 2. overwhelmed, overcome, crushed by (-*) It 89 (dukkh*; vv. ll. dukkha-ti.n.na and oti.n.na) = A I.147 (which reads dukkhoti.n.na). See also avati.n.na.

Abhikirati - 1. [Sanskrit abhikirati] to sprinkle or cover over: see abhiki.n.na 1. - 2. [Sanskrit avakirati, cp. apakirituuna] to overwhelm, destroy, put out, throw away, crush S I.54; Th 1, 598; 2, 447 (ger. *kirituuna, reading of C. for T. apa*, explained. by cha.d.detvaa); Dh 25 (*kiirati metri causa; diipa.m abhikiirati = viddha.mseti vikirati DhA I.255; v. l. atikirati); J IV.121 (*kiirati; diipa.m = viddha.mseti C.); VI.541 (nandiyo m* abhikiirare = abhikiranti abhikkamanti C.); DhA I.255 (inf. *kiritu.m). -pp. abhiki.n.na see abhiki.n.na 2.

Abhikii'ati [abhi + kii'ati] to play (a game), to sport Miln 359 (kii'a.m).

Abhikuujita [abhi + kuujita, pp. of kuuj] resounding (with the song of birds) Pv II.123 (cakkavaaka*; so read for kujita). Cp. abhinikuujita.

Abhikkanta (adj.-n.) [pp. of abhikkamati, in sense of Sanskrit and also Paali atikkanta] (a) (adj.) lit. gone forward, gone out, gone beyond. According to the traditional explination. preserved by Bdhgh. and Dhp (see e. g. DA I.227 = KhA 114 = VvA 52) it is used in 4 applications: abhikkantasaddo khaya (+ pabbaniya KhA) sundar--a-bhiruupa-abbhanumodanesu dissati. These are: 1. (lit.) gone away, passed, gone out, departed (+ nikkhanta, meaning khaya "wane"), in phrase abhikkantaaya rattiyaa at the waning of the night Vin I.26; D II.220; M I.142. 2. excellent, supreme ( = sundara) Sn 1118 (*dassaavin having the most exellent knowledge = aggadassaavin etc. Nd2 76); usually in compar *tara (+ pa.niitatara) D I.62, 74, 216; A II.101; III.350 sq.; V.140, 207 sq.; DA I.171 ( = atimanaapatara). 3. pleasing, superb, extremely wonderful, as exclamation *.m repeated with bho (bhante), showing appreciation ( = abbha-numodana) D I.85, 110, 234; Sn p. 15, 24, etc. frequent 4. surpassing, beautiful (always with *va.n.na = abhiruupa) Vin I.26; D II.220; M I.142; Pv II.110 = Vv 91 ( = atimanaapa abhiruupa PvA 71); KhA 115 ( = abhiruupachavin). - (b) (nt.) abhikkanta.m (combined. with and opp. to pa.tikkanta.m) going forward (and backward), approach (and receding) D I.70 ( = gama.na + nivattana DA I.183); Vin III.181; A II.104, 106 sq.; VvA 6.

Abhikkama going forward, approach, going out Pv IV.12 (opp. pa.tikkama going back); DhA III.124 (*pa.tikkama).

Abhikkamati [Vedic abhikramati, abhi + kamati] to go forward, to proceed, approach D I.50 ( = abhimukho kamati, gacchati, pavisati DA I.151); II.147, 256 (abhikkaa mu.m aor.); DhA III.124 (eva.m *itabba.m eva.m pa.tikkamitabba.m thus to approach and thus to withdraw). -pp. abhikkanta (q. v.).

Abhikkha.na1 (nt.) [from abhikkhanati] digging up of the ground M I.143.

Abhikkha.na2 (nt.) [abhi + *ikkha.na from iiks., cp. Sanskrit abhiiks..na of which the eontracted form is Paali abhi.nha] only as acc. adv. *.m constantly, repeated, often Vv 2412 ( = abhi.nha.m VvA 116); Pv II.84 ( = abhi.nha.m bahuso PvA 107); Pug 31; DhA II.91.

Abhikkha.nati [abhi + kha.nati] to dig up M I.142.

Abhikkhipati [abhi + khipati] to throw Daavs III.60; cp. abhinikkhipati ibid. 12.

Abhigajjati [abhi + gajjati from garj, sound-root, cp. Paali gaggara] (a) to roar, shout, thunder, to shout or roar at (c. acc.) Sn 831 (shouting or railing = gajjanto uggajjanto Nd1 172); ger. abhigajjiya thundering Cp. III.108. (b) hum, chatter, twitter (of birds); see abhigajjin.

Abhigajjin (adj.) [from abhigajjati] warbling, singing, chattering Th 1, 1108, 1136.

Abhigamaniiya (adj.) [grd. of abhigacchati] to be approached, accessible PvA 9.

Abhigijjhati [abhi + gijjhati] 1. to be greedy for, to crave for, show delight in (c. loc.) Sn 1039 (kaamesu, cp. Nd2 77). - 2. to envy (acc.) S I.15 (a~n~nam-a~n~na.m).

Abhigiita [pp. of abhigaayati, cp. giita] 1. sung for. Only in one phrase, gaathaabhigiita.m, that which is gained by singing or chanting verses (Ger. "ersungen") S I.173 = Sn 81 = Miln 228. See SnA 151. - 2. resounding with, filled with song (of birds) J VI.272 ( = abhiruda).

Abhighaata [Sanskrit abhighaata, abhi + ghaata] (a) striking, slaying, killing PvA 58 (da.n.da*), 283 (sakkhara*). (b) impact, contact DhsA 312 (ruupa* etc.).

Abhicetasika (adj.) [abhi + ceto + ika] dependent on the clearest consciousness. On the spelling see aabhic* (of jhaana) M I.33, 356; III.11; S II.278; A II.23; V.132. (Spelt. aabhi* at M I.33; A III.114; Vin V.136). See Dial. III.108.

Abhiceteti [abhi + ceteti] to intend, devise, have in mind J IV.310 (manasaa paapa.m).

Abhicchanna (adj.) [abhi + channa] covered with, bedecked or adorned with (-*) J II.48 (hema-jaala*, v. l. abhisa~nchanna), 370 (id.); Sn 772 ( = ucchanna aavu.ta etc. Nd1 24, cp. Nd2 365).

Abhicchita (adj.) [abhi + icchita, cp. Sanskrit abhiipsita] desired J VI.445 (so read for abhijjhita).

Abhijacca (adj.) [Sanskrit aabhijaatya; abhi + jacca] of noble birth J V.120.

Abhijaneti occasional spelling for abhijaaneti.

Abhijappati [abhi + jappati] to wish for, strive after, pray for S I.143 (read asma-bhijappanti and cp. Kindred Sayings p. 180) = J III.359 ( = namati pattheti piheti C.); *n 923, 1046 (+ aasi.msati thometi; Nd2 79 = jappati and same under icchati). Cp. in meaning abhigijjhati.

Abhijappana (nt.) [doubtful whether to jappati or to japati to mumble, to which belongs jappana in ka.n.ma* DA I.97] in hattha* casting a spell to make the victim throw up or wring his hands D I.11; DA I.97.

Abhijappaa (f.) [abstr. from abhijappati, cp. jappaa] praying for, wishing, desire, longing Dhs 1059 = Nd2 ta.nhaa II.; Dhs 1136.

---[ Page 63 ]---

Abhijappin (adj.) [from abhijappati] praying for, desiring A III.353 (kaama-laabha*).

Abhijalati [abhi + jalati] to shine forth, ppr. *anto resplendent PvA 189.

Abhijavati [abhi + javati] to be eager, active Sn 668.

Abhijaata (adj.) [abi + jaata] of noble birth, well-born, S I.69; Vv 293; Miln 359 (*kulakuliina belonging to a family of high or noble birth).

Abhijaati (f.) [abhi + jaati] 1. Species. Only as t. t. in use by certain non-Buddhist teachers. They divided mankind into six species, each named after a colour D I.53, 54; A III.383 ff. (quoted DA I.162) gives details of each species. Two of them, the black and the white, are interpreted in a Buddhist sense at D III.250, M II.222, and Netti 158. This interpretation (but not the theory of the six species) has been widely adopted by subsequent Hindu writers. - 2. Rebirth, descent, Miln 226.

Abhijaatika (adj.) [from abhijaati] belonging to ones birth or race, born of, being by birth; only in cpd. ka.nha-bhijaatika of dark birth, that is, low in the social scale D III.251 = A III.348; Sn 563 = Th 1, 833; cp. J P T S. 1893, 11; in sense of "evil disposed or of bad character" at J V.87 ( = kaa'aka-sabhaava C.).

Abhijaatitaa (f.) [abstr. from abhijaati] the fact of being born, descendency VvA 216.

Abhijaana (nt. or m*) [Sanskrit abhij~naana] recognition, remembrance, recollection Miln 78. See also abhi~n~naa.

Abhijaanaati [abhi + j~naa, cp. jaanaati and abhi~n~naa] to know by experience, to know fully or thoroughly, to recognise, know of (c. acc.), to be conscious or aware of D I.143; S II.58, 105, 219, 278; III.59, 91; IV.50, 324, 399; V.52, 176, 282, 299; Sn 1117 (di.t.thi.m Gotamassa na a.); J IV.142; Pv II.710 = II.103 (n-aabhijaanaami bhutta.m vaa piita.m); Sdhp 550; etc. - Pot. abhijaaneyya Nd2 78a, and abhija~n~naa Sn 917, 1059 ( = jaaneyyaasi SnA 592); aor. abha~n~naasi Sn p. 16. - ppr. abhijaana.m S IV.19, 89; Sn 788 ( = *jaananto C.), 1114 ( = *jaananto Nd2 78b) abhijaanitva DhA IV.233; abhi~n~naaya S IV.16; V.392; Sn 534 (sabbadhamma.m), 743 (jaatikkhaya'n), 1115, 1148; It 91 (dhamma.m); Dh 166 (atta-d-attha.m); frequent in phrase saya'n abhi~n~naaya from personal knowledge or self-experience It 97 (v.l. abhi~n~naa); Dh 353; and abhi~n~naa [short form, like aadaa for aadaaya, cp. upaadaa] in phrase saya'n abhi~n~naa D I.31 (+ sacchi-katvaa); S II.217; It 97 (v.l. for *abhi~n~naaya), in abhi~n~naa-vosita perfected by highest knowledge S I.167 = 175 = Dh 423 ("mastereotypeof supernormal lore" Mrs Rh. D. in kindred S. p. 208; cp. also DhA IV.233); It 47 = 61 = 81, and perhaps also in phrase sabba.m abhi~n~napari~n~neyya S IV.29. - grd. abhi~n~neyya S IV.29; Sn 558 (*.m abhi~n~naata.m known is the knowable); Nd2 s.v.; DhA IV.233. -pp. abhi~n~naata (q. v.).

Abhijaayati [abhi + jaayati, Pass. of jan, but in sense of a Causative = janeti] to beget, produce, effect, attain, in phrase aka.nha.m asukka.m Nibbaana.m a. D III.251; A III.384 sq. At Sn 214 abhijaayati means "to behave, to be", cp. SnA 265 (abhijaayati = bhavati).

Abhijigi.msati [abhi + jigi.msati] to wish to overcome, to covet J VI.193 ( = jinitu.m icchati C). Burmese scribes spell *jigiisati; Th 1, 743 ("cheat"* Mrs Rh. D.; "vernichten" Neumann). See also abhijeti, and nijigi.msanataa.

Abhijighacchati [abhi + jighacchati] to be very hungry PvA 271.

Abhijiivanika (adj.) [abhi + jiivana + ika] belonging to one's livehood, forming one's living Vin I.187 (sippa).

Abhijiihanaa (f.) [abhi + jiihanaa of jeh to open ones mouth] strenuousness, exertion, strong endeavour J VI.373 (viriyakara.na C.).

Abhijeti [abhi + jayati] to win, acquire, conquer J VI.273 (aabhi* metri causaa).

Abhijoteti [abhi + joteti] to make clear, explain, illuminate J V.339.

Abhijjanaka (adj.) [a + bhijjana + ka, from bhijja, grd. of bhid] not to be broken, not to be moved or changed, uninfluenced J II.170; DhA III.189.

Abhijjamaana (adj.) [ppr. passive of a + bhid, see bhindati] that which is not being broken up or divided. In the stock descriiption of the varieties of the lower Iddhi the phrase udake pi abhijjamaane gacchati is doubtful. The principal passages are D I.78, 212; III.112, 281; M I.34, 494; II.18; A I.170, 255; III.17; V.199; S II 121; V.264. In about half of these passages the reading is abhijjamaano. The various rcadings show that the MSS also are equally divided on this point. Bdgh. (Vism 396) reads *maane, and explains it, relying on Ps II.208, as that sort of water in which a man does not sink. Pv III.11 has the same idiom. Dhammapaala's note on that (PvA 169) is corrupt. At D I.78 the Colombo ed. 1904, reads abhejjamaane and tr. "not dividing (the water)" ; at D I.212 it reads abhijjamaano and tr. "not sinking (in the water)" .

Abhijjhaa (f.) [from abhi + dhyaa (jhaayati1), cp. Sanskrit abhidhyaana], covetousness, in meaning almost identical with lobha (cp. Dhs. trsl. 22) D I.70, 71 (*aaya citta.m parisodheti he cleanses his heart from coveting; abhijjhaaya = abl.; cp. DA I.211 = abhijjhaato); M I.347 (id.); D III.49, 71 sq., 172, 230, 269; S IV.73, 104, 188, 322 (adj. vigat-a-bhijjha), 343 (*aayavipaaka); A I.280; III.92; V.251 sq.; It 118; Nd1 98 (as one of the 4 kaaya-ganthaa, q. v.); Nd2 ta.nhaa II.1; Pug 20, 59; Dhs 1136 (*kaayagantha); Vbh 195, 244 (vigat-a-bhijjha), 362, 364, 391; Nett 13; DhA I.23; PvA 103, 282; Sdhp 56, 69. - Often combined with *domanassa covetousness and discontent, e. g. at D III.58, 77, 141, 221, 276; M I.340; III.2; A I.39, 296; II.16, 152; IV.300 sq., 457 sq.; V.348, 351; Vbh 105, 193 sq. -anabhijjhaa absence of covetousness Dhs 35, 62. - See also anupassin, gantha, domanassa, siila.

Abhijjhaatar see abhijjhitar.

Abhijjhaati [cp. abhidyaati, abhi + jhaayati1; see also abhijjhaayati] to wish for (acc.), long for, covet S V.74 (so read for abhijjhati); ger. abhijjhaaya J VI.174 ( = patthetvaa C.). -pp. abhijjhita.

Abhijjhaayati [Sanskrit abhidhyaayati, abhi + jhaayati1; see also abhijjhaati] to wish for, covet (c. acc.). Sn 301 (aor. abhijjhaayi.msu = abhipatthayamaana jhaayi.msu Sn A 320).

Abhijjhaaluu (and *u) (adj.) [cp. jhaayin from jhaayati1; abhijjhaalu with *aalu for *aagu which in its turn is for aayin. The B.Sanskrit form is abhidyaalu, e. g. Divy 301, a curious reconstruction] covetous D I.139; III.82; * II.168; III.93; A I.298; II.30, 59, 220 (an* + avyapannacitto sammaadi.t.thiko at conclusion of siila); V.92 sq., 163, 286 sq.; It 90, 91; Pug 39, 40.

Abhijjhi.t.ta v. l. at DhA IV.101 for ajjhi.t.tha.

Abhijjhita [pp. of abhijjhaati] coveted, J. VI.445; usually negative an* not coveted, Vin I.287; Sn 40 ( = anabhipatthita Sn A 85; cp. Nd2 38); Vv 474 ( = na abhikankhita VvA 201).

Abhijjhitar [n. ag. from abhijjhita in med. function] one who covets M I.287 (T. abhijjhaatar, v. l. *itar) = A V.265 (T. *itar, v. l. *aatar).

Abhi~n~na (adj.) (usually -*) [Sanskrit abhij~na] knowing, possessed of knowledge, esp. higher or supernormal knowledge (abhi~n~naa), intelligent; thus in chalabhi~n~na one

---[ Page 64 ]---

who possesses the 6 abhi~n~naas Vin III.88; dandh* of sluggish intellect D III.106; A II.149; V.63 (opp. khipp*); mah* of great insight S II.139. - Compar. abhi~n~natara S V.159 (read bhiyyo *bhi~n~nataro).

Abhi~n~nataa (f.) [from abhi~n~naa] in cpd. mahaa* state or condition of great intelligence or supernormal knowledge S IV.263; V.175, 298 sq.

Abhi~n~naa1 (f.) [from abhi + j~naa, see jaanaati]. Rare in the older texts. It appears in two contexts. Firstly, certain conditions are said to conduce (inter alia) to serenity, to special knowledge (abhi~n~naa), to special wisdom, and to Nibbaana. These conditions precedent are the Path (S V.421 = Vin I.10 = S IV.331), the Path + best knowledge and full emancipation (A V.238), the Four Applications of Mindfulness (S V.179) and the Four Steps to Iddhi (S. V.255). The contrary is three times stated; wrong-doing, priestly superstitions, and vain speculation do not conduce to abhi~n~naa and the rest (D III.131; A III.325 sq. and V.216). Secondly, we find a list of what might now be called psychic powers. It gives us 1, Iddhi (cp. levitation); 2, the Heavenly Ear (cp. clairaudience); 3, knowing others' thoughts (cp. thought-reading); 4, recollecting one's previous births; 5, knowing other people's rebirths; 6, certainty of emancipation already attained (cp. final assurance). This list occurs only at D III.281 as a list of abhi~n~naas. It stands there in a sort of index of principal subjects appended at the end of the Diigha, and belongs therefore to the very close of the Nikaaya period. But it is based on older material. Descriptions of each of the six, not called abhi~n~naa's, and interspersed by expository sentences or paragraphs, are found at D I.89 sq. (trsl. Dial. I.89 sq.); M I.34 (see Buddhist Suttas, 210 sq.); A I.255, 258 = III.17, 280 = IV.421. At S I.191; Vin II.16; Pug 14, we have the adj. cha'abhi~n~naa ("endowed with the 6 Apperceptions"). At S II.216 we have five, and at S V.282, 290 six abhi~n~naa's mentioned in glosses to the text. And at S II.217, 222 a bhikkhu claims the 6 powers. See also M II.11; III.96. It is from these passages that the list at D III. has been made up, and called abhi~n~naa's.

Afterwards the use of the word becomes stereotypeotyped. In the Old Commentaries (in the Canon), in the later ones (of the 5th cent. A.D.), and in medieval and modern Paali, abhi~n~naa, nine times out ten, means just the powers given in this list. Here and there we find glimpses of the older, wider meaning of special, supernormal power of apperception and knowledge to be acquired by long training in life aud thought. See Nd1 108, 328 (explination. of ~naa.na); Nd2 s. v. and N0. 466; Ps I.35; II.156, 189; Vbh 228, 334; Pug 14; Nett 19, 20; Miln 342; Vism 373; Mhvs XIX.20; DA I.175; DhA II.49; IV.30; Sdhp 228, 470, 482. See also the discussion in the Cpd.60 sp., 224 sq. For the phrase saya* abhi~n~naa sacchi-katvaa and abhi~n~naa-vosita see abhijaanaati. The late phrase yath- abhi~n~na- means "as you please, according to liking, as you like" , J V.365 ( = yathaadhippaaya* yathaaruci* C.). For abhi~n~naa in the use of an adj. (*abhi~n~na) see abhi~n~na.

Abhi~n~naa2 ger. of abhijaanaati.

Abhi~n~naata [pp. of abhijaanaati] 1. known, recognised Sn 588 (abhi~n~neyya.m *.m). - 2. (well)-known, distinguished D I.89 (*kola~n~na = paaka.ta-kulaja DA I.252), 235; Sn p. 115.

Abhi~n~neyya grd. of abhijaanaati.

Abhi.thaana (nt.) [abhi + .thaana, cp. abhiti.t.thati; lit. that which stands out above others] a great or deadly crime. Only at Sn 231 = Kh VI.10 (quoted Kvu 109). Six are there mentioned, and are explained (KhA 189) as "matricide, parricide, killing an Arahant, causing schisms, wounding a Buddha, following other teachers". For other relations and suggestions see Dhs trsl. 267. - See also aanantarika.

Abhi.nha.m (adv.) [contracted form of abhikkha.na.m] repeatedly, continuous, often M I.442 (*aapattika a habitual offender), 446 (*kaara.na continuous practice); Sn 335 (*sa'nvaasa continuous living together); J I.190; Pug 32; DhA II.239; VvA 116 ( = abhikkha.na), 207, 332; PvA 107 ( = abhikkha.na.m). Cp. abhi.nhaso.

Abhi.nhaso (adv.) [adv. case from abhi.nha; cp. bahuso = Sanskrit bahusha*] always, ever S I.194; Th 1, 25; Sn 559, 560, 998.

Abhitakketi [abhi + takketi] to search for Daavs V.4.

Abhitatta [pp. of abhi +tapati] scorched (by heat), dried up, exhausted, in phrases u.nha* Vin II.220; Miln 97, and ghamma* S II.110, 118; Sn 1014; J II.223; VvA 40; PvA 114.

Abhitaapa [abhi + taapa] extreme heat, glow; adj. very hot Vin III.83 (siisa* sunstroke); M I.507 (mahaa* very hot); Miln 67 (mahaabhitaapatara much hotter); Pv IV.18 (mahaa*, of niraya).

Abhitaa'ita [abhi + taa'ita from taa'eti] hammered to pieces, beaten, struck Vism 231 (muggara*).

Abhiti.t.thati [abhi + ti.t.thati] to stand out supreme, to excel, surpass D II.261; J VI.474 (abhi.t.thaaya = abhibhavitvaa C.).

Abhitunna (tu.n.na) [not as Morris, J.Paali Text Society 1886, 135, suggested from abhi + tud, but acc. to Kern, Toev. p. 4 from abhi + tuurv. (Cp. turati and tarati2 and Ved. turvati). Thus the correct spelling is *tu.n.na = Sanskrit abhituur.na. The latter occurs as v. l. under the disguise of (sok-)a-hitu.n.da for *abhitu.n.na at M. Vastu III.2]. Overwhelmed, overcome, overpowered S II.20; Ps I.129 (dukkha*), 164; J I.407; 509 (*tu.n.na); II.399, 401; III.23 (soka*); IV.330; V.268; Sdhp 281.

Abhito (indecl.) adv. case from prep. abhi etymology]. - 1. round about, on both sides J VI.535 ( = ubhayapassesu C.), 539. - 2. near, in the presence of Vv 641 ( = samiipe VvA 275).

Abhitoseti [abhi + toseti] to please thoroughly, to satisfy, gratify Sn 709 ( = atiiva toseti Sn A 496).

Abhitthaneti [abhi + thaneti] to roar, to thunder J I.330, 332 = Cp. III.107.

Abhittharati [abhi + tarati2, evidently wrong for abhittarati] to make haste Dh 116 ( = turitaturita.m siighasiigha.m karoti DhA III.4).

Abhitthavati [abhi + thavati] to praise J I.89; III.531; Daavs III.23; DhA I.77; PvA 22; cp. abhitthunati.

Abhitthavana (nt.) [from prec.] praise Th A 74.

Abhitthunati [abhi + thunati; cp. abhitthavati] to praise J I.17 (aor abhitthuni.msu); cp. thunati 2. -pp. *tthuta DhA I.88.

Abhida1 (adj.) as attr. of sun and moon at M II.34, 35 is doubtful in reading and meaning; vv. ll. abhidosa and abhidesa, Neumann trsl. "unbeschrankt". The context seems to require a meaning like "full, powerful" or unbroken, unrestricted (abhijja or abhiita "fearless"*") or does abhida represent Vedic abhidyu heavenly*

Abhida2 Only in the difficult old verse D II.107 ( = S V.263 = A IV.312 = Nd 64 = Nett 60 = Divy 203). Aorist 3rd sg. from bhindati he broke.

Abhidassana (nt.) [abhi + dassana] sight, appearance, show J VI.193.

Abhideyya in sabba* at PvA 78 is with v. l. BB to be read sabbapaatheyya.m.

Abhidosa (*-) the evening before, last night; *kaalakata M I.170 = J I.81; *gata gone last night J VI.386 ( = hiyyo pa.thama-yaame C.).

---[ Page 65 ]---

Abhidosika belonging to last night (of gruel) Vin III.15; Miln 291. See aabhi*.

Abhiddavati [abhi + dru, cp. dava2] to rush on, to assail Mhvs 6, 5; Daavs III.47.

Abhidhamati [abhi + dhamati, cp. Sanskrit abhi* and api-dhamati] blow on or at A I.257.

Abhidhamma [abhi + dhamma] the "special Dhamma," i. e., 1. theory of the doctrine, the doctrine classified, the doctrine pure and simple (without any admixture of literary grace or of personalities, or of anecdotes, or of arguments ad personam), Vin I.64, 68; IV.144; IV.344. Coupled with abhivinaya, D III.267; M I.272. - 2. (only in the Chronicles and Commentaries) name of the Third Pi.taka, the third group of the canonical books. Dpvs V.37; PvA 140. See the detailed discussion at DA I.15, 18 sq. [As the word abhidhamma standing alone is not found in Sn or S or A, and only once or twice in the Dialogues, it probably came into use only towards the end of the period in which the 4 great Nikaayas grew up.] -kathaa discourse on philosophical or psychological matters, M I.214, 218; A III.106, 392. See dhammakathaa.

Abhidhammika see aabhidhammika.

Abhidhara (adj.) [abhi + dhara] firm, bold, in *maana firmminded Dh p. 81 (acc. to Morris J.Paali Text Society 1886, 135; not verified).

Abhidhaayin (adj.) [abhi + dhaayin from dhaa]" putting on", designing, calling, meaning Pgdp 98.

Abhidhaareti [abhi + dhaareti] to hold aloft J I.34 = Bu IV.1.

Abhidhaavati [abhi + dhaavati] to run towards, to rush about, rush on, hasten Vin II.195; S I.209; J II.217; III.83; DhA IV.23.

Abhidhaavin (adj.) from abhidhaavati] "pouring in", rushing on, running J VI.559.

Abhinata [pp. of abhi + namati] bent, (strained, fig. bent on pleasure M I.386 (+ apanata); S I.28 (id.; Mrs. Rh. D. "strained forth", cp. Kindred S I.39). See also apanata.

Abhinadati [abhi + nadati] to resound, to be full of noise J VI.531. Cp. abhinaadita.

Abhinandati [abhi + nandati] to rejoice at, find pleasure in (acc.), approve of, be pleased or delighted with (acc.) D I.46 (bhaasita.m), 55 (id.), 158, 223; M I.109, 458; S I.32 (anna.m), 57, 14, (cakkhu.m, ruupe etc.); A IV.411; Th 1, 606; Dh 75, 219; Sn 1054, 1057, 1111; Nd2 82; Miln 25; DA I.160; DhA III.194 (aor. abhinandi, opp. pa.tikkosi) VvA 65 (vacana.m). -pp. abhinandita (q. v.). Often in combination. with abhivadati (q. v.).

Abhinandana (nt.) and *aa (f.) [from abhinandati, cp. nandanaa], pleasure, delight, enjoyment D I.244; M I.498; J IV.397.

Abhinandita [pp. of abhinandati] only in an* not enjoyed, not (being) an object of pleasure S IV.213 = It 38; S V. 319.

Abhinandin (adj.) [from abhinandati, cp. nandin] rejoicing at, finding pleasure in (loc. or -*), enjoying A II.54 (piyaruupa); esp. frequent in phrase (ta.nhaa) tatratatr-a-bhinandinii finding its pleasure in this or that [cp. B.Sanskrit trs..naa tatra-tatr-a-bhinandinii M Vastu III.332] Vin I.10; S V.421; Ps II.147; Nett 72, etc.

Abhinamati [abhi + namati] to bend. -pp. abhinata (q.v.).

Abhinaya [abhi + naya] a dramatic representation VvA 209 (saakhaa*).

Abhinava (adj.) [abhi + nava] quite young, new or fresh Vin III.337; J II.143 (devaputta), 435 (so read for accu.nha in explination of paccaggha; v.v. ll. abbhu.nha and abhi.nha); ThA 201 (*yobbana = abhiyobbana); PvA 40 (*sa.n.thaana), 87 ( = paccaggha) 155.

Abhinaadita [pp. of abhinaadeti, Causative of abhi + nad; see nadati] resounding with (-*), filled with the noise (or song) of (birds) J VI.530 ( = abhinadanto C.); PvA 157 ( = abhiruda).

Abhinikuujita (adj.) [abhi + nikuujita] resounding with, full of the noise of (birds) J V.232 (of the barking of a dog), 304 (of the cuckoo); so read for *ku~njita T.). Cp. abhikuujita.

Abhinikkhamati [abhi + nikkhamati] to go forth from (abl.), go out, issue Dhs A 91; esp. fig. to leave the household life, to retire from the world Sn 64 ( = gehaa abhinikkhamitvaa kaasaaya-vattho hutvaa Sn A 117).

Abhinikkhamana (nt.) [abhi + nikkhamana] departure, going away, esp. the going out into monastic life, retirement, renunciation. Usually as mahaa* the great renunciation J I.61; PvA 19.

Abhinikkhipati [abhi + nikkhipati] to lay down, put down Davs III.12, 60.

Abhinigga.nhanaa (f.) [abstr. from abhinigga.nhaati] holding back Vin III.121 (+ abhinippii'anaa).

Abhinigga.nhaati [abhi + nigga.nhaati] to hold back, restrain, prevent, prohibit; always in combination. with abhinippii'eti M I.120; A V.230. - Cp. abhinigga.nhanaa.

Abhinindriya [vv. ll. at all passages for ahiinindriya] doubtful meaning. The other is explained by Bdhgh at DA I.120 as paripu.n.n*; and at 222 as avikal-indriya not defective, perfect sense-organ. He must have read ahiin*. Abhi-n-indriya could only be explained as "with supersenseorgans", i. e. with organs of supernormal thought or perception, thus coming near in meaning to *abhi~n~nindriya; We should read ahiin* throughout D I.34, 77, 186, 195. II.13; M II.18; III.121; Nd2 under pucchaa6 (only ahiin*).

Abhininnaameti [abhi + ninnaameti cp. BSanskrit abhinir.naamayati Lal. V. 439] to bend towards, to turn or direct to D I.76 (citta.m ~naa.na-dassanaaya); M I.234; S I.123; IV.178; Pug 60.

Abhinipajjati [abhi + nipajjati] to lie down on Vin IV.273 (+ abhinisiidati); A IV.188 (in = acc. + abhinisiidati); Pug 67 (id.).

Abhinipatati [abhi + nipatati] to rush on (to) J II.8.

Abhinipaata (-matta) destroying, hurting (*) at Vbh 321 is explained. by aapaatha-matta [cp. Divy 125 shastra-bhinipaata splitting open or cutting with a knife].

Abhinipaatana (nt.) [from abhi-ni-paateti in da.n.da-sattha* attacking with stick or knife Nd2 5. Q4.

Abhinipaatin (adj.) [abhi + nipaatin] falling on io (-*) J II.7.

Abhinipu.na (adj.) [abhi + nipu.na] very thorough, very clever D III.167.

Abhinippajjati [abhi + nippajjati] to be produced, accrue, get, come (to) M I.86 (bhogaa abhinipphajjanti: sic) = Nd2 99 (has n'a-bhinippajjanti). - Cp. abhinipphaadeti.

Abhinippata at J VI.36 is to be read abhinippanna (so v. l. BB.).

Abhinippatta at Dhs 1035, 1036 is to be read abhinibbatta.

Abhinippanna (and *nipphanna) [abhi + nippanna, pp. of *nippajjati] produced, effected, accomplished D II.223 (siloka); J VI.36 (so read for abhinippata); Miln 8 (pph.).

---[ Page 66 ]---

Abhinippii'anaa (f.) [abstr. to abhinippii'eti, cp. nippii'ana] pressing, squeezing, taking hold of Vin III.121 (+ abhinigga.nhanaa).

Abhinippii'eti [abhi + nippii'eti] to squeeze, crush, subdue Vism 399; often in combination. with abhinigga.nhaati M I. 120; A V.230.

Abhinipphatti (f.) [abhi + nipphatti] production, effecting D II.283 (v. l. *nibbatti).

Abhinipphaadeti [abhi + nipphaadeti] to bring into existence, produce, effect, work, perform D I.78 (bhaajana-vikati.m); Vin II.183 (iddhi.m); S V.156, 255; Miln 39.

Abhinibbatta [abhi + nibbatta, pp. of abhinibbattati] reproduced, reborn A IV.40, 401; Nd2 256 (nibbatta abhi* paatubhuuta); Dhs 1035, 1036 (so read for* nippatta); VvA 9 (pu~n~n-a-nubhaava* by the power of merit).

Abhinibbattati [abhi + nibbattati] to become, to be reproduced, to result Pug 51. -pp. abhinibbatta. - Cp. B.Sanskrit wrongly abhinivartate].

Abhinibbatti (f.) [abhi + nibbatti] becoming, birth, rebirth, D I.229; II.283 (v. l. for abhinipphatti) S II.65 (punabbhava*), 101 (id.); IV.14, 215; A V.121; PvA 35.

Abhinibbatteti [abhi + nibbatteti, caus. of *nibbattati] to produce, cause, cause to become S III.152; A V.47; Nd2 under jaaneti.

Abhinibbijjati [either Med. from nibbindati of vid for *nirvidyate (see nibbindati B), or secondary formation from ger. nibbijja. Reading however not beyond all doubt] to be disgusted with, to avoid, shun, turn away from Sn 281 (T. abhinibbijjayaatha, v. l. BB* nibbijjiyaatha and *nibbajjiyaatha, SnA expls. by vivajjeyyaatha maa bhajeyyaatha; v. l. BB. abhinippajjiyaa) = A IV.172 (T. abhinibbajjayaatha, vv. ll. *nibbajjeyyaatha and *nibbijjayaatha); ger. abhinibbijja Th 2, 84.

Abhinibbijjhati [abhi + nibbijjhati] to break quite through (of the chick coming through the shell of the egg) Vin III.3; M I.104 = S III.153 (read* nibbijjheyyun for nibbijjeyyun - Cp. Buddh. Suttas 233, 234.

Abhinibbidaa (f.) [abhi + nibbidaa; confused with abhinibbhidaa] disgust with the world, taedium Nett 61 (taken as abhinibbhidaa, according to explination. as "padaalanaa-pa~n~natti avijj*a.n.da-kosaana.m"), 98 (so MSS, but C. abhinibbidhaa).

Abhinibbuta (adj.) [abhi + nibbuta] perfectly cooled, calmed, serene, esp. in two phrases, viz. di.t.tha dhamm' a-bhinibbuta A I.142 = M III.187; Sn 1087; Nd2 83, and abhinibbutatta of cooled mind Sn 343 ( = apari.dayhamaana-citta SnA 347), 456, 469, 783. Also at Sdhp. 35.

Abhinibbhidaa (f.) [this the better, although not correct spelling; there exists a confusion with abhinibbidaa, therefore spelling also abhinibbidhaa (Vin III.4, C. on Nett 98). To abhinibbijjhati, cp. B.Sanskrit abhinirbheda M Vastu I.272, which is wrongly referred to bhid instead of vyadh.] the successful breaking through (like the chick through the shell of the egg), coming into (proper) life Vin III.4; M I.104; 357; Nett 98 (C. reading). See also abhinibbidaa.

Abhinimantanataa (f.) [abstr. to abhinimanteti] speaking to, adressing, invitation M I.331.

Abhinimanteti [abhi + nimanteti] to invite to (c. instr.), to offer to D I.61 (aasanena).

Abhinimmadana (nt.) [abhi + nimmadana] crushing, subduing, levelling out M III.132; A IV.189 sq.

Abhinimmita [abhi + nimmita, pp. of abhinimminaati] created (by magic) Vv 161 (pa~nca rathaa sataa; cp. VvA 79).

Abhinimminaati [abhi + nimminaati, cp. BSanskrit abhinirmaati Jtm 32; abhinirminoti Divy 251; abhinirmimiite Divy 166] to create (by magic), produce, shape, make S III.152 (ruupa.m); A I.279 (o'aarika.m attabhaava.m); Nd2 under pucchaa6 (ruupa.m manomaya'n); VvA 16 (mahanta.m hatthi-raaja-va.n.na.m). -pp. abhinimmita (q. v.).

Abhiniropana (nt.) and aa (f.) [from abhiniropeti] fixing one's mind upon, application of the mind Ps I.16, 21, 30, 69, 75, 90; Vbh 87; Dhs 7, 21, 298 (cp. Dhs trsl. II.19). See also abhiropana.

Abhiniropeti [abhi + niropeti] to implant, fix into (one's mind), inculcate Nett 33.

Abhinivajjeti [abhi + nivajjeti] to avoid, get rid of D III. 113; M I.119, 364, 402; S V.119, 295, 318; A III.169 sq.; It 81.

Abhinivassati [abhi + ni + vassati from vrs.] lit. to pour out in abundance, fig. to produce in plenty. Cp I.103 (kalyaa.ne good deeds).

Abhinivi.t.tha (adj.) [abhi + nivi.t.tha, pp. of abhi-nivisati] "settled in", attached to, clinging on Nd2 152 (gahita paraama.t.tha a.); PvA 267 ( = ajjhaasita Pv IV.84).

Abhinivisati [abhi + nivisati] to cling to, adhere to, be attached to Nd1 308, 309 (paraamasati +). -pp. abhinivi.t.tha; cp. also abhinivesa.

Abhinivesa [abhi + nivesa, see nivesa2 and cp. nivesana] "settling in", i. e. wishing for, tendency towards (-*), inclination, adherence; as adj. liking, loving, being given or inclined to D III.230; M I.136, 251; S II.17; III.10, 13, 135, 161, 186 (sa'nyojana* IV.50; A III.363 (pa.thavii*, adj.); Nd2 227 (gaaha paraamasa +); Pug 22; Vbh 145; Dhs 381, 1003, 1099; Nett 28; PvA 252 (micchaa*), 267 (ta.nhaa*); Sdhp 71. - Often combined. with adhi.t.thaana e. g. S II.17; Nd2 176, and in phrase ida'n-sacc- a-bhinivesa adherence to one's dogmas, as one of the 4 Ties: see kaayagantha and cp. Cpd.171 n. 5.

Abhinisiidati [abhi + nisiidati] to sit down by or on (acc.), always combined. with abhinipajjati Vin III.29; IV.273; A V.188; Pug 67.

Abhinissa.ta (pp.) [abhi + nissa.ta] escaped Th 1, 1089.

Abhinihata (pp.) [abhi + nihata] oppressed. crushed, slain J IV.4.

Abhiniita (pp.) [pp. of abhi-neti] led to, brought to, obliged by (-*) M I.463 = Miln 32 (raajaa and cora*); M I.282; S III.93; Th 1, 350 = 435 (vaataroga* "foredone with cramping pains" Mrs. Rk. D.); Pug 29; Miln 362.

Abhiniila (adj.) [abhi + niila] very black, deep black, only with reference to the eyes, in phrase *netta with deep-black eyes D II.18; III.144, 167 sq. [cp. Sp. Av. SH I.367 and 370 abhiniila-padma-netra]; Th 2, 257 (nettaa ahesu.m abbiniila-m-aayataa).

Abhiniihanati [abhi + nis + han, cp. Sanskrit nirhanti] to drive away, put away, destroy, remove, avoid M I.119 (in phrase aa.ni.m a. abhiniiharati abhinivajjeti).

Abhiniiharati [abhi + niiharati] 1. to take out, throw out M I.119 (see abhiniihanati). - 2. to direct to, to apply to (orig. to isolate* Is reading correct*) in phrase ~naa.nadassanaaya citta.m abhiniiharati abhininnaameti D I.76 ( = tanninna.m tappo.na.m karoti DA I.220, 224; v. l. abhini*) Cp. the latter phrase also in BSanskrit as abhij~na-bhinirhaara Av. SH II.3 (see reference and note Index p. 221); and the pp. abhinirhrta (rddhi*) in Divy 48, 49 to obtain* Ind.), 264 (take to burial), 542.

---[ Page 67 ]---

Abhiniihaara [abhi + niihaara, to abhiniiharati; cp. BSanskrit sariir- a-bhinirhaara taking (the body) out to burial, lit. meaning, see note on abhiniiharati] being bent on ("downward force" Dhs trsl. 242), i. e. taking oneself out to, way of acting, (proper) behaviour, endeavour, resolve, aspiration S III.267 sq. (*kusala); A II.189; III.311; IV.34 (*kusala); J I.14 (Buddhabhaavaaya a. resolve to become a Buddha), 15 (Buddhattaaya); Ps I.61 sq.; II.121; Nett 26; Miln 216; DhA I.392; II.82 (kata*).

Abhipattika (adj.) [from abhipatti] one who has attained, attaining (-*), getting possession of S I.200 (devaka~n~na*).

Abhipatthita (pp.) [from abhipattheti] hoped, wished, longed for Miln 383; SnA 85.

Abhipattheti [abhi + pattheti] to hope for, long for, wish for Kh VIII.10; SnA 320; DhA I.30. -pp. abhipatthita (q. v.).

Abhipassati [abhi + passati] to have regard for, look for, strive after A I.147 (Nibbaana.m); III.75; Sn 896 (khema*), 1070 (rattamahaa*) Nd1 308; Nd2 428; J VI.370.

Abhipaateti [abhi + paateti] to make fall, to bring to fall, to throw J II.91 (ka.n.da.m).

Abhipaaruta (adj.) [abhi + paaruta, pp. of abhipaarupati] dressed Miln 222.

Abhipaaleti [abhi + paaleti] to protect Vv 8421, cp. VvA 341.

Abhipii'ita (pp.) [from abhipi'eti] crushed, squeezed Sdhp 278, 279.

Abhipii'eti [abhi + pii'eti] to crush, squeeze Miln 166. pp. abhipii'ita (q. v.).

Abhipucchati [abhi + pucchati] Sanskrit abhiprcchati] to ask J IV.18.

Abhipuureti [abhi + puureti] to fill (up) Miln 238; Daavs III. 60 (pa.msuuhi).

Abhippaki.n.na [pp. of abhippakirati] completely strewn (with) J I.62.

Abhippakirati [abhi + pakirati] to strew over, to cover (completely) D II.137 (pupphaani Tathaagatassa sariira.m okiranti ajjhokiranti a.); VvA 38 (for abbhokirati Vv 59). pp. abhippaki.n.na (q. v.).

Abhippamodati [abhi + pamodati] to rejoice (intrs.); to please, satisfy (trs, c. acc.) M I.425; S V.312, 330; A V.112; J III 530; Ps I.95, 176, 190.

Abhippalambati [abhi + palambati] to hang down M III. 164 (olambati ajjholambati a.).

Abhippavassati [abhi + pavassati] to shed rain upon, to pour down; intrs. to rain, to pour, fall. Usually in phrase mahaamegho abhippavassati a great cloud bursts Miln 8, 13, 36, 304; PvA 132 (v. l. ati*); intrs. Miln 18 (pupphaani *i.msu poured down). -pp. abhippavu.t.tha.

Abhippavu.t.tha (pp.) [from abhippavassati] having rained, poured, fallen; trs. S V.51 (bandhanaani meghena *aani) = A V.127; intrs. M II.117 (mahaamegho *o there has been a cloudburst).

Abhippasanna (adj.) [pp. of abhippasiidati, cp. BSanskrit abhiprasanna] finding one's peace in (c. loc.), trusting in, having faith in, believing in, devoted to (loc.) Vin III.43; D I.211 (Bhagavati) S I.134; IV.319; V.225, 378; A III. 237, 270, 326 sq.; Sn p. 104 (braahma.nesu); PvA 54 (saasand), 142 (id.). Cp. vippasanna in same meaning.

Abhippasaada [abhi + pasaada, cp. BSanskrit abhiprasaada Av. SH 12 (cittasyu*) and vippasaada] faith, belief, reliance, trust Dhs 12 ("sense of assurance" trsl., + saddhaa), 25, 96, 288; PvA 223.

Abhippasaadeti [Causative of abhippasiidati, cp. BSanskrit abhiprasaadayati Divy 68, 85, pp. abhiprasaadita-manaa* Jtm 213, 220] to establish one's faith in (loc.), to be reconciled with, to propitiate Th 1, 1173 = Vv 212 (mana.m arahantamhi = citta.m pasaadeti VvA 105).

Abhippaasaareti [abhi + pasaareti, cp. BSanskrit abhiprasaarayati Divy 389] to stretch out Vin I.179 (paade).

Abhippasiidati [abhi + pasiidati] to have faith in D I.211 (fut. *issati). -pp. abhippasanna; Causative abhippasaadeti.

Abhippahara.na (nt.) [abhi + pahara.na] attacking, fighting, as adj. f. *a.nii fighting, Ep. of Maarassa senaa, the army of M. Sn 439 (ka.nhassa* the fighting army of k. = sama.na-braahma.naana.m nippothanii antaraayakaarii SnA 390).

Abhibyaapeti [abhi + vyaapeti, cp. Sanskrit vyaapnoti, vi + aap] to pervade Miln 251.

Abhibhakkhayati [abhi + bhakkhayati] to eat (of animals) Vin II.201 (bhinko panka.m a.).

Abhibhava [from abhibhavati] defeat, humiliation SnA 436.

Abhibhavati [abhi + bhavati] to overcome, mastereotype be lord over, vanquish, conquer S I.18, 32, 121 (mara.na.m); IV. 71 (raagadose), 117 (kodha.m), 246, 249 (saamika.m); J I.56, 280; PvA 94 ( = baliiyati, va.d.dhati). - fut. abhihessati see abhihaareti 4. - ger. abhibhuyya Vin I.294; Dh 328; It 41 (Maara.m sasena.m); Sn 45, 72 (*caarin), 1097, Nd2 85 ( = abhibhavitvaa ajjhottharitvaa, pariyaadiyitvaa); and abhibhavitvaa PvA 113 ( = pasayha), 136. - grd. abhibhavaniiya to be overcome PvA 57. - Pass. ppr. abhibhuuyamaana being overcome (by) PvA 80, 103. -pp. abhibhuuta (q. v.).

Abhibhavana (nt.) [from abhibhavati] overcoming, vanquishing, mastereotypeng S II.210 (v. l. BB abhipatthana).

Abhibhavaniiyataa (f.) [abstr. from abhibhavaniiya, grd. of abhibhavati] as an* invincibility PvA 117.

Abhibhaayatana (nt.) [abhibhuu + aayatana] position of a mastereotypeor lord, station of mastereotype. The traditional account of these gives 8 stations or stages of mastereotype over the senses (see Dial. II.118; Exp. I.252), detailed identically at all the following passages, viz. D II.110; III.260 (and 287); M II.13; A I.40; IV.305, 348; V.61. Mentioned only at S IV.77 (6 stations); Ps I.5; Nd2 466 (as an accomplishment of the Bhagavant); Dhs 247.

Abhibhaasana (nt.) [abhi + bhaasana from bhaas] enlightenment or delight ("light and delight" trsl.) Th 1, 613 ( = tosana C.).

Abhibhuu (n.-adj.) [Vedic abhibhuu, from abhi + bhuu, cp. abhibhavati] overcoming, conquering, vanquishing, having power over, a Lord or Mastereotypeof (-*) D III.29; S II. 284; Sn 211 (sabba*), 545 (Maara*, cp. Maarasena-pamaddana 561), 642. - Often in phrase abhibhuu anabhibhuuta a~n~nadatthudasa vasavattin, i. e. unvanquished Lord of all D I 18; III.135 = Nd2 276; A II.24; IV.94; It 122; cp. DA I.111 ( = abhibhavitvaa .thito je.t.thako- ham asmiiti).

Abhibhuuta [pp. of abhibhavati] overpowered, overwhelmed, vanquished D I.121; S I.137 (jaati-jaraa*); II.228 (laabhasakkaara-silokena); A I.202 (paapakehi dhammehi); J I.189; PvA 14, 41 ( = pareta), 60 ( = upagata), 68, 77, 80 ( = pareta). Often negative an* unconquered, e. g. Sn 934; Nd1 400; and see phrase under abhibhuu.

Abhimangala (adj.) [abhi + mangala] (very) fortunate, lucky, anspicious, in *sammataa (of Visaakhaa) "benedicted", blessed Vin III.187 = DhA I.409. Opp. avamangala.

Abhima.n.dita (pp. -*) [abhi + ma.n.dita] adorned, embellished, beautified Miln 361; Sdhp 17.

Abhimata (adj.) [BSanskrit abhimata, e. g. Jtm 211; pp. of abhimanyate] desired, wished for; agreeable, pleasant C. on Th 1, 91.

---[ Page 68 ]---

Abhimatthati (*eti) and *mantheti [abhi + math or manth, cp. nimmatheti] 1. to cleave, cut; to crush, destroy M I.243 (sikharena muddhaana.m *mantheti); S I.127; Dh 161 (v. l. *nth*); J IV.457 (matthako sikharena *matthiyamaano); DhA III.152 ( = kantati viddha.mseti). - 2. to rub, to produce by friction (esp. fire, aggi.m; cp. Vedic agni.m nirmanthati) M I.240.

Abhimaddati [Sanskrit abhimardati and *mrdnaati; abhi + mrd] to crush S I.102; A I.198; Sdhp 288.

Abhimana (adj.) [abhi + mano, BSanskrit abhimana, e. g. M Vastu III.259] having one's mind turned on, thinking of or on (c. acc.) Th 1, 1122; J VI.451.

Abhimanaapa (adj.) [abhi + manaapa] very pleasing VvA 53 (where id. p. at PvA 71 has atimanaapa).

Abhimantheti see abhimatthati.

Abhimaara [cp. Sanskrit abhimara slaughter] a bandit, bravo, robber J II.199; DA I.152.

Abhimukha (adj.) [abhi + mukha] facing, turned towards, approaching J II.3 (*aa ahesu.m met each other). Usually -* turned to, going to, inclined towards D I.50 (purattha*); J I.203 (devaloka*), 223 (vara.na-rukkha*); II.3 (nagara*), 416 (Jetavana*); DhA I.170 (tad*); II.89 (nagara*); PvA 3 (kaama*, opp. vimukha), 74 (uyyaana*). - nt. *.m adv. to, towards J I.263 (matta-vaara.ne); PvA 4 (aaghaatana*, may here be taken as pred. adj.); DhA III.310 (uttara*).

Abhiyaacati [abhi + yaacati] to ask, beg, entreat Sn 1101, cp. Nd2 86.

Abhiyaati [Vedic abhiyaati in same meaning; abhi _ yaa] to go against (in a hostile manner, to attack (c. acc.) S I.216 (aor. abhiya.msu, v. l. SS abhijiyi.msu); DhA III.310 (aor. abhiyaasi as v. l. for T. reading paayaasi; the id. p. VvA 68 reads paayaasi with v. l. upaayaasi).

Abhiyujjhati [abhi + yujjhati from yudh] to contend, quarrel with J I.342.

Abhiyu~njati [abhi + yuj] to accuse, charge; intrs. fall to one's share Vin III.50; IV.304.

Abhiyoga [cp. abhiyu~njati] practice, observance Daavs IV.7.

Abhiyogin (adj.) [from abhiyoga] applying oneself to, practised, skilled (an augur, sooth sayer) D III.168.

Abhiyobbana (nt.) [abhi + yobbana] much youthfulness, early or tender youth Th 2, 258 ( = abhinavayobbanakaala ThA 211).

Abhirakkhati [abhi + rakkhati] to guard, protect J VI.589 ( = paaleti C.). Cp. parirakkhati.

Abhirakkhaa (f.) [from abhirakkhati] protection, guard J I.204 ( = aarakkhaa 203).

Abhirata (adj.) (-*) [pp. of abhiramati] found of, indulging in, finding delight in A IV.224 (nekkhamma*); V.175 (id.), Sn 86 (nibbaana*), 275 (vihesa*), 276 (kalaha*); J V.382 (daana*); PvA 54 (pu~n~nakamma*), 61 (satibhavana*), 105 (daana-dipu~n~na*).

Abhiratatta (nt.) [abstr. from abhirata] the fact of being fond of, delighting in (-*) J V.254 (kaama*).

Abhirati (f.) [from abhi + ram] delight or pleasure in (loc. or -*) S I.185; IV.260; A V.122; Dh 88. -an* displeasure, discontent, distaste Vin II.110; D I.17 (+ paritassanaa); S I.185; V.132; A III.259; IV.50; V.72 sq., 122; J III.395; DA I.111; PvA 187.

Abhiratta (adj.) [abhi + ratta] very red J V.156; fig. very much excited or affected with (-*) Sn 891 (sandi.t.thiraagena a.).

Abhiraddha (adj.) [pp. of abhi + raadh] propitiated, satisfied A IV.185 (+ attamana).

Abhiraddhi (f.) [from abhiraddha] only in negative an* displeasure, dislike, discontent A I.79; DA I.52 ( = kopass- eta.m adhivacana.m).

Abhiramati [abhi + ram] to sport, enjoy oneself, find pleasure in or with (c. loc.), to indulge in love Sn 718, 1085; J I.192; III.189, 393; DhA I.119; PvA 3, 61, 145. - ppr. act. abhiranto only as nt. *.m in adv. phrase yatha-bhiranta.m after one's liking, as much as he pleases, after one's heart's content Vin I.34; M I.170; Sn 53. ppr. med. abhiramamaana J III.188, PvA 162. -pp. abhirata (q. v.). - 2nd Causative abhiramaapeti (q. v.).

Abhiramana (nt.) [from abhiramati] sporting, dallying, amusing oneself PvA 16.

Abhiramaapana (nt.) [from abhiramaapeti, Caus2 of abhiramati] causing pleasure to (acc.), being a source of pleasure, making happy M III.132 (gaamante).

Abhiramaapeti [Causative II. from abhiramati] 1. to induce to sport, to cause one to take pleasure J III.393. - 2. to delight, amuse, divert J I.61. - Cp. abhiramaapana.

Abhiravati [abhi + ravati] to shout ont Bu II.90 = J I.18 (V.99)

Abhiraadhita [pp. of abhiraadheti] having succeeded in, fallen to one's share, attained Th 1, 259.

Abhiraadhin (adj.) (-*) [from abhiraadheti] pleasing, giving pleasure, satisfaction J IV.274 (mitta* = aaraadhento tosento C.).

Abhiraadheti [abhi + raadheti] to please, satisfy, make happy J I.421; DA I.52. - aor. (pret.) abhiraadhayi Vv 315 ( = abhiraadhesi VvA 130); Vv 6423 (gloss for abhirocayi VvA 282); J I.421; III.386 ( = paritosesi C.). -pp. abhiraadhita.

Abhiruci (f.) [Sanskrit abhiruci, from abhi + ruc] delight, longing, pleasure, satisfaction PvA 168 ( = ajjhaasaya).

Abhirucita (adj.) [pp. from abhi + ruc] pleasing, agreeable, liked J I.402; DhA I.45.

Abhiruda (adj. -*) [Sanskrit abhiruta] resounding with (the cries of animals, esp. the song of birds), full of the sound of (birds) Th 1, 1062 (ku~njara*), 1113 (mayuura-ko~nca*); J IV.466 (adaasakunta*); V.304 (mayuura-ko~nca*); VI.172 (id., = upagiita C.), 272 (sakunta*; = abhigiita C.), 483 (mayuura-ko~nca*), 539; Pv II.123 (ha.msa-ko~nca*; = abhinaadita PvA 157). - The form abhiruta occurs at Th 1, 49.

Abhiruupa (adj.) [abhi + ruupa] of perfect form, (very), handsome, beautiful, lovely Sn 410 ( = dassaniya- angapaccanga SnA 383); J I.207; Pug 52; DA I.281 ( = a~n~nehi manussehi adhikaruupa); VvA 53; PvA 61 ( = abhikkanta). Occurs in the idiomatic phrase denoting the characteristics of true beauty abhiruupa dassaniiya paasaadika (+ paramaaya va.n.na-pokkharataaya samannaagata), e. g. Vin I.268; D I.47, 114, 120; S II.279; A II.86, 203; Nd2 659; Pug 66; DhA I.281 (compar.); PvA 46.

Abhiruu'ha [pp. of abhiruuhati] mounted, gone up to, ascended J V.217; DhA I.103.

Abhiruuhati (abhiruhati) [abhi + ruh] to ascend, mount, climb; to go on or in to (c. acc.) Dh 321; Th 1, 271; J I.259; II.388; III.220; IV.138 (nava.m); VI.272 (peculiar aor. *rucchi with aabhi metri causa; = abhiruuhi C.); DA I.253. - ger. abhiruyha J III.189; PvA 75, 152 (as v. l.; T. has *ruyhitva), 271 (naava.m), and abhiruuhitvaa J I.50 (pabbata.m) II.128.

Abhiruuhana (nt.) [BSanskrit *ruuhana, e. g. M Vastu II.289] climbing, ascending, climb Miln 356.

---[ Page 69 ]---

Abhiroceti [abhi + roceti, Causative of ruc] 1. to like, to find delight in (acc.), to desire, long for J III.192; V.222 ( = roceti); Vv 6423 (vata.m abhirocayi = abhirocesi ruccitvaa puuresi ti attho; abhiraadhayi ti pi paa.tho; saadhesi nipphaadesii ti attho VvA 282). - 2. to please, satisfy, entertain, gladden Vv 6424 (but VvA 292: abhibhavitvaa vijjotati, thus to no. 3). - 3. v. l. for atiroceti (to surpass in splendour) at Vv 8112, cp. also no. 2.

Abhiropana (nt.) [from abhiropeti] concentration of mind, attention (seems restricted to Ps II. only) Ps II.82 (v. l. abhiniropana), 84, 93, 115 (buddhi*), 142 (*viraaga), 145 (*vimutti), 216 (*abhisamaya). See also abhiniropana.

Abhiropeti [abhi + ropeti, cp. Sanskrit adhiropayati, Causative of ruh] to fix one's mind on, to pay attention, to show reverence, to honour Vv 377 (aor. *ropayi = ropesi VvA 169), 3710 (id.; = puuja.m kaaresi VvA 172), 604 ( = puujesi VvA 253); Daavs V.19.

Abhilakkhita (adj.) [Sanskrit abhilaks.ita in different meaning; pp. of abhi + laks.] fixed, designed, inaugurated, marked by auspices J IV.1; DA I.18.

Abhilakkhitatta (nt.) [abstr. from abhilakkhita] having signs or marks, being characterised, characteristics DhsA 62.

Abhilanghati [abhi + langhati] to ascend, rise, travel or pass over (of the moon traversing the sky) J III.364; VI.221.

Abhilambati [abhi + lambati] to hang down over (c. acc.) M III.164 = Nett 179 (+ ajjholambati); J V.70 (papaata.m), 269 (Vetara.ni.m). -pp. abhilambita (q. v.).

Abhilambita (adj.) [pp. of abhilambati] hanging down J V.407 (niiladuma*).

Abhilaapa [from abhi + lap] talk, phrasing, expression Sn 49 (vaaca-bhilaapa making phrases, talking, idle or objectionable speech = tiracchanakathaa Nd2 561); It 89 (* reading abhilaapaaya.m uncertain, vv. ll. abhipaaya.m abhipaapaaya.m, abhisaapaaya.m, abhisapaaya.m, atisappaaya.m. The corresponds passage S III.93 reads abhisapaya'n: curse, and C. on It 89 expls. abhilaapo ti akkoso, see Brethren 376 n. 1); Dhs 1306 = Nd2 34 (as exegesis or paraphrase of adhivacana, combined. with vya~njana and trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. as "a distinctive mark of discourse"); DA I.20, 23, 281; DhsA 51.

Abhilaasa [Sanskrit abhilaa.sa, abhi + las.] desire, wish, longing PvA 154.

Abhilekheti [Causative of abhi + likh] to cause to be inscribed Daavs V.67 (caaritta-lekha.m *lekhayi).

Abhilepana (nt.) [abhi + lepana] "smearing over", stain, pollution Sn 1032, 1033 = Nett 10, 11 (see Nd2 88 = laggana "sticking to", bandhana, upakkilesa).

Abhivagga [abhi + vagga] great mass (*), superior force (*), only in phrase *ena omaddati to crush with sup. force or overpower M I.87 = Nd2 1996.

Abhiva~ncana (nt.) [abhi + va~nc] deceit, fraud Daavs III.64.

Abhiva.t.ta [pp. of abhivassati, see also abhivu.t.tha] rained upon Dh 335 (gloss *vu.t.tha; cp. DhA IV.45); Miln 176, 197, 286. - Note. Andersen Paali R. prefers reading abhiva.d.dha at Dh 335 "the abounding Biira.na grass").

Abhiva.d.dhati [Vedic abhivardhati, abhi + vrdh] 1. to increase (intrs.) D I.113, 195 (opp. haayati); M II.225; A III.46 (bhogaa a.); Dh 24; Miln 374; PvA 8, 133; Sdhp 288, 523. - 2. to grow over or beyond, to outg ow J III.399 (vanaspati.m). -pp. abhivu.d.dha and *vuddha (q.v.).

Abhiva.d.dhana (adj.-nt.) [from abhiva.d.dhati] increasing (trs.), augmenting; f. *ii Sdhp 68.

Abhiva.d.dhi (f.) [cp. Sanskrit abhivrddhi, from abhi + vrdh] increase, growth Miln 94. - See also abhivuddhi.

Abhiva.n.nita [pp. of abhivanneti] praised Dpvs I.4.

Abhiva.n.neti [abhi + vanneti] to praise Sdhp 588 (*ayi). pp. abhiva.n.nita.

Abhivadati [abhi + vadati] 1. to speak out, declare, promise J I.83 = Vin I.36; J VI.220. - 2. to speak (kindly) to, to welcome, salute, greet. In this sense always combined. with abhinandati, e. g. at M I.109, 266, 458; S III.14; IV.36 sq.; Miln 69. - Causative abhivaadeti.

Abhivandati [abhi + vandati] to salute respectfully, to honour, greet; grd. *vandaniiya Miln 227.

Abhivassaka (adj.) [from abhivassati] raining, fig. shedding, pouring ont, yielding VvA 38 (puppha*).

Abhivassati [abhi + vassati from vrs.] to rain, shed rain, pour; fig. rain down, pour out, shed D III.160 (aabhivassa'n metri causa); A III.34; Th 1, 985; J I.18 (V.100; pupphaa a. stream down); cp. III.106; Miln 132, 411. pp. abhiva.t.ta and abhivu.t.tha (q. v.). - Causative II. abhivassaapeti to cause (the sky to) rain Miln 132.

Abhivassin (adj.) = abhivassaka It 64, 65 (sabbattha*).

Abhivaadana (nt.) [from abhivaadeti] respectful greeting, salutation, giving welcome, showing respect or devotion A II.180; IV.130, 276; J I.81, 82, 218; Dh 109 (*siilin of devout character, cp. DhA II.239); VvA 24; Sdhp 549 (*siila).

Abhivaadeti [Causative of abhivadati] to salute, greet, welcome, honour Vin II.208 sq.; D I.61; A III.223; IV.173; Vv 15 (abhivaadayi.m aor. = abhivaadana.m kaaresi.m vandi.m VvA 24); Miln 162. Often in combination with padakkhi.na.m karoti in sense of to bid goodbye, to say adieu, farewell, e. g. D I.89, 125, 225; Sn 1010. - Causative II. abhivaadaapeti to cause some one to salute, to make welcome Vin II.208 (*etabba).

Abhivaayati [abhi + vaayati; cp. Sanskrit abhivaati] to blow through, to pervade Miln 385.

Abhivaareti [abhi + vaareti, Causative of vr] to hold back, refuse, deny J V.325 ( = nivaareti C.).

Abhivaaheti [abhi + vaaheti, Causative of vah] to remove, to put away Bu X.5.

Abhivijayati (and vijinaati) [abhi + vijayati] to overpower, to conquer. Of *jayati the ger. *jiya at D I.89, 134; II.16. Of *jinaati the pres. 3rd pl. *jinanti at Miln 39; the ger. *jinitvaa at M I.253; Pug 66.

Abhivi~n~naapeti [abhi + vi~n~naapeti] to turn somebody's mind on (c. acc.), to induce somebody (dat.) to (acc.) Vin III.18 (puraa.nadutiyikaaya methuna.m dhamma.m abhivi~n~naapesi).

Abhivitarati [abhi + vitarati] "to go down to", i. e. give in, to pay heed, observe Vin I.134 and in stereotype explination. of sa~ncicca at Vin II.91; III.73, 112; IV.290.

Abhivinaya [abhi + vinaya] higher discipline, the refinements of discipline or Vinaya; combined. with abhidhamma, e. g. D III.267; M I.472; also with vinaya Vin V.1 sg.

Abhivindati [abhi + vindati] to find, get, obtain Sn 460 ( = labhati adhigacchati SnA 405).

Abhivisi.t.tha (adj.) [abhi + visi.t.tha] most excellent, very distinguished DA I.99, 313.

Abhivissajjati [abhi + vissajjati] to send out, send forth, deal out, give D III.160.

Abhivissattha [abhi + vissattha, pp. of abhivissasati, Sanskrit abhivishvasta] confided in, taken into confidence M II.52 (v. l. *visa.t.tha).

---[ Page 70 ]---

Abhivu.t.tha [pp. of abhivassati, see also abhiva.t.ta] poured out or over, shed out (of water or rain) Th 1, 1065; Dh 335 (gloss); PvA 29.

Abhivu.d.dha [pp. of abhiva.d.dhati, see also *vuddha] increased, enriched PvA 150.

Abhivuddha [pp. of abhiva.d.dhati, see also *vu.d.dha] grown up Miln 361.

Abhivuddhi (f.) [Sanskrit abhivrddhi, see also abhiva.d.dhi] increase, growth, prosperity Miln 34.

Abhive.theti: Kern's (Toev. s. v.) proposed reading at J V.452 for ati*, which however does not agree with C. explination. on p. 454.

Abhivedeti [abhi + Causative of vid] 1. to make known, to communicate Daavs V.2, 11. - 2. to know J VI.175 ( = jaanaati C.).

Abhivihacca [ger. of abhi + vihanati] having destroyed, removed or expelled; only in one simile of the sun driving darkness away at M I.317 = S III.156; V.44 = It 20.

Abhivyaapeti see abhibyaapeti.

Abhisa'nvisati [abhi + sa'nvisati]. Only in abhisa'nvisseyyagatta.m (or-bhasta.m or-santu.m) Th 2, 466 a compound of doubtful derivation and meaning. Mrs. Rh. D., following Dhammapaala (p. 283) "a bag of skin with carrion filled" .

Abhisa'nsati [Vedic abhisha.msati, abhi + sha.ms] to execrate, revile, lay a curse on J V.174 (*sa'nsittha 3rd sg. pret. med. = paribhaasi C.) - aor. abhisasi J VI.187, 505, 522 ( = akkosi C.), 563 (id.). -pp. abhisattha. Cp. also abhisi.msati.

Abhisa'nsanaa (f.) [* abhisa'nsati] is doubtful reading at Vv 6410; meaning "neighing" (of horses) VvA 272, 279.

Abhisankhata (adj.) [abhi + sankhata, pp. of abhisankharoti] prepared, fixed, made up, arranged, done M I.350; A II.43; V.343; J I.50; Nd1 186 (kappita +); PvA 7, 8.

Abhisankharoti (and *khaareti in Pot.) [abhi + sankharoti] to prepare, do, perform, work, get up Vin I.16 (iddh- a-bhisankhaara.m *khaareyya); D I.184 (id.); S II.40; III.87, 92; IV.132, 290; V.449; A I.201; Sn 984 (ger. *itvaa: having got up this curse, cp. SnA 582); PvA 56 (iddh- a-bhisa'nkhaara.m), 172 (id.), 212 (id.). -pp. abhisankhata (q. v.).

Abhisankhaara [abhi + sankhaara] 1. putting forth, performance, doing, working, practice: only in two combinations., viz. (a) gamiya* (or gamika*) a heathenish practice Vin I.233; A IV.180, and (b) iddha* ( = idd*i*) working of supernormal powers Vin I.16; D I.106; S III.92; IV.289; V.270; Sn p. 107; PvA 56, 172, 212. - 2. preparation, store, accumulation (of kamma, merit or demerit), substratum, state (see for detail sankhaara) S III.58 (an*); Nd1 334, 442; Nd2 s. v.; Vbh 135 (pu~n~na* etc.), 340; DhsA 357 (*vi~n~naana "storing intellect" Dhs trsl. 262).

Abhisankhaarika (adj.) [from abhisankhaara] what belongs to or is done by the sankhaaras; accumulated by or accumulating merit, having special (meritorious) effect (or specially prepared*) Vin II.77 = III.160; Sdhp 309 (sa *paccaya).

Abhisankhipati [abhi + sankhipati] to throw together, heap together, concentrate Vbh 1 sq., 82 sq., 216 sq., 400; Miln 46.

Abhisanga [from abhi + sa~nj, cp. abhisajjati and Sanskrit abhisanga] Q sticking to, cleaving to, adherence to J V.6; Nett 110, 112; DhsA 129 (*hetuka.m dukkha.m) 249 (*rasa).

Abhisangin (adj.) [from abhisanga] cleaving to (-*) Sdhp 566.

Abhisajjati [abhi + sa~nj; cp. abhisanga] to be in ill temper, to be angry, to curse, imprecate (in meaning of abhisanga 2) D I.91 ( = kodha-vasena laggati DA I.257); III.159; J III.120 (+ kuppati); IV.22 (abhisajji kuppi vyaapajji, cp. BSanskrit abhi.sajyate kupyati vyaapadyate. Av. SH I.286); V.175 ( = kopeti C.); Dh 408 (abhisaje Pot. = kujjhaapana-vasena laggapeyya DhA IV.182); Pug 30, 36. See also abhisajjana and abhisajjanaa.

Abhisajjana (nt.-adj.) [abstr. from abhisajjati in meaning of abhisanga 2] only as adv. f. *nii Ep. of vaacaa scolding, abusing, cursing A V.265 (para*). Cp. next.

Abhisajjanaa (f.) [abstr. from abhisajjati, cp. abhisajjana] at Sn 49 evidently means "scolding, cursing, being in bad temper" (cp. abhisajjati), as its combination. with vaac- a-bhilaapa indicates, but is explained. both by Nd2 and Bdhgh. as "sticking to, cleaving, craving, desire" ( = ta.nhaa), after the meaning of abhisanga. See Nd2 89 and 107; SnA 98 (sineha-vasena), cp. also the compromise-explination by Bdhgh. of abhisajjati as kodha-vasena laggati (DA I.257).

Abhisa~ncinaati (and *cayati) [abhi + sa~ncinaati] to accumulate, collect (merit) Vv 476 (Pot. *sa~nceyya.m = *sa~ncineyya.m VvA 202).

Abhisa~ncetayita [pp. of abhisa~nceteti] raised into consciousness, thought out, intended, planned M I.350; S II. 65; IV.132; A V.343.

Abhisa~nceteti [abhi + sa~nceteti or *cinteti] to bring to consciousness, think out, devise, plan S II.82. -pp. abhisa~ncetayita (q. v.).

Abhisa~n~naa (f.). Only in the compound abhi-sa~n~naa-nirodha D I.179, 184. The prefix abhi qualifies, not sa~n~naa, but the whole compound, which means "trance" . It is an expression used, not by Buddhists, but by certain wanderers. See sa~n~naa-vedayita-nirodha.

Abhisa~n~nuuhati [abhi + sa~n~nuuhati, i. e. sa'n-ni-uuhati] to heap up, concentrate Vbh 1, 2, 82 sq.; 216 sq., 400; Miln 46. Cp. abhisankhipati.

Abhisa.ta [pp. of abhisarati, abhi + sr to flow] 1. (med.) streamed forth, come together J VI.56 ( = sannipatita C.). 2. (pass.) approached, visited Vin I.268.

Abhisatta [pp. of abhisapati, cp. Sanskrit abhishapta, from abhi + shap] cursed, accursed, railed at, reviled J III.460; V.71; SnA 364 ( = akku.t.tha); VvA 335.

Abhisattha [pp. of abhisa'nsati] cursed, accursed Th 1, 118 "old age falls on her as if it had been cursed upon her" (that is, laid upon her by a curse). Morris J P T S. 1886, 145 gives the commentator's equivalents, "commanded, worked by a charm". This is a curious idiom. Any European would say that the woman herself, not the old age, was accursed. But the whole verse is a riddle and Kern's translation (Toev. s. v.) "hurried up" seems to us impossible.

Abhisaddahati [abhi + saddahati, cp. Sanskrit abhishraddadhaati, e. g. Divy 17, 337] to have faith in, believe in (c. acc.), believe S V.226; Th 1, 785; Pv IV.113, 125 (*saddaheyya = pa.ti~neyya PvA 226); Nett 11; Miln 258; PvA 26; Daavs III.58.

Abhisantaapeti [ahhi + santaapeti, Causative of santapati] to burn out, scorch, destroy M I.121.

Abhisanda [abhi + sanda of syad, cp. BSanskrit abhisyanda, e. g. M Vastu II.276] outflow, overflow, yield, issue, result; only in following phrases: cattaaro pu~n~n- a-bhisandaa kusal- a-bhisandaa (yields in merit) S V.391 sq.; A II.54 sq.; III.51, 337; VI.245, and kamm- a-bhisanda result of kamma Miln 276. - Cp. abhisandana.

Abhisandana (nt.) [ = abhisanda] result, outcome, consequence Ps I.17 (sukhassa).

---[ Page 71 ]---

Abhisandahati [abhi + sandahati of sa'n + dhaa] to put together, to make ready Th 1, 151; ger. abhisandhaaya in sense of a prep. = on account of, because of J II.386 ( = pa.ticca C.).

Abhisandeti [abhi + sandeti, Causative of syad] to make overflow, to make full, fill, pervade D I.73, 74.

Abhisanna (adj.) [pp. of abhisandati = abhi + syand, cp. Sanskrit abhisanna] overflowing, filled with (-*), full Vin I. 279 (*kaaya a body full of humours, cp. II.119 and Miln 134); J I.17 (V.88; piitiyaa); Miln 112 (duggandha*).

Abhisapati [abhi + sapati, of shap] to execrate, curse, accurse Vin IV.276; J IV.389; V.87; DhA I.42. -pp. abhisatta.

Abhisapana (nt.) [from abhisapati] cursing, curse PvA 144 (so read for abhisampanna).

Abhisamaya [abhi + samaya, from sam + i, cp. abhisameti and sameti; BSanskrit abhisamaya, e. g. Divy 200, 654] "coming by completely", insight into, comprehension, realization, clear understanding, grasp, penetration. See on term Kvu trsl. 381 sq. - Esp. in full phrases: attha* grasp of what is proficient S I.87 = A III.49 = It 17, cp. A II.46; ariyasaccaana.m a. full understanding of the 4 noble truths S V.415, 440, 441 [cp. Divy 654: anabhisamitaanaa.m caturnaa.m aaryasatyaanaa.m a.]; Sn 758 (sacca* = sacc- a-vabodha SnA 509); Miln 214 (catusacc*); Sdhp 467 (catusacc*), 525 (saccaana.m); dhamm- a-bhisamaya full grasp of the Dhamma, quasi conversion [cp. dharm- a-bhisamaya Divy 200] S II.134; Miln 20, 350; VvA 219; PvA 9 etc. frequent; sammaa-maan- a-bhisamaya full understanding of false pride in stereotype phrase" acchecchi (for acchejji) ta.nha.m, vivattayi sa~n~nojana.m sammaamaana-bhisamayaa antam akaasi dukkhassa" at S IV.205, 207, 399; A III.246, 444; It 47; cp. maana* S I.188 = Th 2, 20 (tato maana-bhisamayaa upasanto carissasi, trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. in K. S. 239 "hath the mind mastereotyped vain imaginings, then mayst thou go thy ways calm and serene"); Sn 342 (explained. by maanassa abhisamayo khayo vayo pahaana.m SnA 344). Also in following passages: S II.5 (pa~n~naaya), 104 (id.), 133 sq. (Abhisamaya Sa'nyutta); Sn 737 (phassa*, explained. ad sensum but not at verbum by phassa-nirodha SnA 509); Ps II.215; Pug 41; Vv 1610 ( = saccapa.tivedha VvA 85); DA I.32; DhA I.109; VvA 73 (bhaavana*), 84 (sacchikiriya*); Dpvs I.31. -anabhisamaya not grasping correctly, insufficient understanding, taken up wrongly S III.260; Pug 21; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162 (Mrs. Rh. D. translations. "lack of coordination").

Abhisamaagacchati [abhi + sam + aagacchati, cp. in meaning adhigacchati] to come to (understand) completely, to grasp fully, to mastereotypeKhA 236 (for abhisamecca Sn 143).

Abhisamaacaarika (adj.) [abhi + samaacaarika, to samaacaara] belonging to the practice of the lesser ethics; to be practiced; belonging to or what is the least to be expected of good conduct, proper. Of sikkhaa Vin V.181; A II.243 sq.; of dhamma M I.469; A III.14 sq.; 422.

Abhisamikkhati (and *ekkhati), [abhi + sam + iiks, cp. samikkhati] to behold, see, regard, notice J. IV.19 (2nd sg. med. *samekkhase = olokesi C.). - ger. *samikkha and *samekkha [B.Sanskrit *samiiks.ya, e.g. Jtm. p. 28, 30 etc.] J V.340 (*samikkha, v. l. sa~ncikkha = passitvaa C.); 393, 394 ( = disvaa C.).

Abhisameta [pp. of abhisameti, from abhi + sam + i, taken as caus. formation, against the regular form SanskritPaali samita and B.Sanskrit abhisamita] completely grasped or realised, understood, mastereotyped S V.128 (dhamma a.), 440 (anabhisametaani cattaari ariyasaccaani, cp. Divy 654 anabhisamitaani c.a.); A IV.384 (appatta.m asacchikata.m +).

Abhisametaavin (adj.) [possess. adj. -formation, equalling a n. ag. form., pp. abhisameta] commanding full understanding or penetration, possessing complete insight (of the truth) Vin III.189; S II.133; V.458 sq.

Abhisameti [abhi + sameti, sam + i; in inflexion base is taken partly as ordinary and partly as causative, e. g. aor. *sami.msu and *samesu.m, pp. sameta: Sanskrit samita. Cp. B.Sanskrit abhisamayati, either caus. or denom. formation, Divy 617: caturaaryasatyaani a.] to come by, to attain, to realise, grasp, understand (cp. adhigacchati) Miln 214 (catusacca-bhisamaya'n abhisameti). Freg. in combination. abhisambujjhati, abhisameti; abhisambujjhitvaa abhisametvaa, e. g. S II.25; III.139; Kvu 321. - fut. *samessati S V.441. - aor. *sami.msu Miln 350; *samesu.m S V.415. - ger. *samecca (for *icca under influence of *sametvaa as caus. form.; Trenckner's explination. Notes 564 is unnecessary and hardly justifiable) S V.438 (an* by not thoroughly understanding); A V.50 (samm-attha* through complete realisation of what is proficient); Sn 143 ( = abhisamaagantvaa KhA 236); and *sametvaa S II.25; III.139. -pp. abhisameta (q.v.).

Abhisampanna at PvA 144 is wrong reading for v. l. abhisapana (curse).

Abhisamparaaya [abhi + samparaaya] future lot, fate, state after death, future condition of rebirth; usually in following phrases: kaa gati ko abhisamparaayo (as hendiadys) "what fate in the world-to-come" , D II.91; Vin I.293; S IV.59, 63; V.346, 356, 369; DhA I.221. - eva.m-gatika evan abhisamparaaya (adj.) "leading to such and such a revirn, such and such a future state" D I.16, 24, 32, 33 etc. ( = eva.m-vidhaa paralokaa ti DA I.108). -abhisamparaaya.m (acc. as adv.) in future, after death A I.48; II.197; III.347; IV.104; Pv III.510 ( = punabbhave PvA 200). - di.t.the c-eva dhamme abhisamparaaya~n ca "in this world and in the world to come" A II.61; Pug 38; Miln 162; PvA 195 etc. (see also di.t.tha). - Used absolutely at PvA 122 ( = fate).

Abhisambujjhati [abhi + sambujjhati] to become wideawake, to awake to the highest knowledge, to gain the highest wisdom (sammaasambodhi.m) D III.135; It 121. aor. *sambujjhi S V.433; PvA 19. In combination. abhisambujjhati abhisameti, e. g. S. II.25; III.139. - ppr. med. *sambudhaana; pp. *samBuddha - Causative *sambodheti to make awake, to awaken, to enlighten; pp. *bodhita.

Abhisambujjhana (nt.) = abhisambodhi J I.59.

AbhisamBuddha [pp. of abhisambujjhati] (a) (pass.) realised, perfectly understood D III.273; S IV.331; It 121. an* not understood M I.71, 92, 114, 163, 240. - (b) (med.) one who has come to the realisation of the highest wisdom, fully-awakened, attained Buddhahood, realising, enlightened (in or as to = acc.) Vin I.1; D II.4; M I.6 (sammaasambodhi.m); S I.68, 138, 139 and passim PvA 94, 99.

AbhisamBuddhatta (nt.) [abstr. from abhisamBuddha] thorough realisation, perfect understanding S V.433.

Abhisambudhaana (adj.) [formation of a ppr. med. from pp. abhsam + budh instead of abhisam + bujjh*] awaking, realising, knowing, understanding Dh 46 ( = bujjhanto jaananto ti attho DhA I.337).

Abhisambodhi (f.) [abhi + sambodhi] the highest enlightenment J I.14 (parama*). Cp. abhisambujjhana and (sammaa-) sambodhi.

Abhisambodhita (adj.) [pp. of abhisambodheti, Causative of abhi + sambujjhati] awakened to the highest wisdom PvA 137 (Bhagavaa).

Abhisambhava [from abhisambhavati] only in dur* hard to overcome or get over, hard to obtain or reach, troublesome S V.454; A V.202; Sn 429, 701; J V.269, VI.139, 439.

Abhisambhavati (*bhoti) [abhi + sambhavati] "to come up to", i. e. to be able to (get or stand or overcome); to attain, reach, to bear A IV.241; Th 1, 436; Nd1 471,

---[ Page 72 ]---

485; J III.140; V.150, 417; VI.292, 293, 507 (fut. med. *sambhossa'n = sahissaami adhivaasessaami C.); Ps II.193. ger. *bhutvaa Th 1, 1057 and *bhavitvaa Sn 52 (cp. Nd2 85). - aor. *bhosi D II.232. - grd. *bhavaniiya D II.210; Ps II.193. - See also abhisambhu.naati.

Abhisambhu.naati [considered to be a bastard form of abhisambhavati, but probably of different origin and etymology; also in Bh. Sanskrit frequent] to be able (to get or reach); only in negative ppr. anabhisambhu.nanto unable D I.101 ( = asampaapu.nanto avisahamaano vaa DA I.268); Nd1 77, 312.

Abhisambhuu (adj.) [from abhi + sam + bhuu] getting, attaining (*) D II.255 (lomaha.msa*).

Abhisambhuuta [pp. of abhisambhavati] attained, got Sdhp 556.

Abhisammati [abhi + sam, Sanskrit abhishamyati] to cease, stop; trs. (Causative) to allay, pacify, still J VI.420 (pp. abhisammanto for *shammento Reading uncertain).

Abhisara [from abhi + sarati, of sr to go] retinue J V.373.

Abhisallekhika (adj) [abhi + sallekha + ika] austereotype, stereotype, only in f. *aa (scil. kathaa) A III.117 sq.; IV.352, 357; V.67.

Abhisavati (better -ssavati*) [abhi + savati, of sru] to flow towards or into J VI.359 (najjo Ganga.m a.).

Abhisasi aor. of abhisa'nsati (q. v.).

Abhisaadheti [abhi + saadheti] to carry out, arrange; to get; procure, attain J VI.180; Miln 264.

Abhisaapa [abhisapati] a curse, anathema S III.93 = It 89 (which latter reads abhilaapa and It A expls. by akkosa: see vv. ll. under abhilaapa and cp. Brethren 376 n. 1.); Th 1,1118.

Abhisaariyaa (f.) [Sanskrit abhisaarikaa, from abhi + sr] a woman who goes to meet her lover J III.139.

Abhisaareti [abhi + saareti, Causative of abhisarati] to approach, to persecute J VI.377.

Abhisi.msati [ = abhisa'nsati, abhi + sha.ms. As to Sanskrit sha.ms > Paali si.ms cp. aasi.msati, as to meaning cp. nature of prayer as a solemn rite to the "infernals", cp. im-precare], to utter a solemn wish, Vv 8118 (aor. *siisi. v. l. *sisi. VvA 316 expls. by icchi sampa.ticchi).

Abhisi~ncati [abhi + si~nQ-ati from sic to sprinkle; see also aasi~ncati and ava*, Vedic only aa*] to sprinkle over, fig. to anoint (King), to consecrate A I.107 (Khattiy- a-bhisekena) J I.399 (fig. *itvaa ger. II.409 (id.); VI.161 (id.); Nd1 298; Miln 336 (amatena loka.m abhisi~nci Bhagavaa); PvA 144 (read abhisi~nci cimillika~n ca . . .) - Pass. abhisi~ncati Miln 359. -pp. abhisitta. - Causative abhiseceti.

Abhisitta [pp. of abhisi~ncati, Sanskrit *sikta] 1. sprinkled over, anointed Sn 889 (manasaa, cp. N1 298); Miln 336 (amatena loka.m Q.).- 2. consecrated (King), inaugurated (more frequent in this conn. is avasitta), Vin III.44; A I.107 (Khattiyo Khattiyehi Khattiy- a-bhisekena a.); II.87 (v.l. for avasitta, also an*).

Abhiseka [from abhi + sic, cp. Sanskrit abhis.eka] anointing, consecration, inauguration (as king) A I.107 (cp. abhisitta); II.87 read abhisek- -anabhisitto; J II.104, 352; DhA I.350; PvA 74. Cp. aabhisekika.

Abhisecana (nt.) = abhiseka, viz. (a) ablution, washing off Th 2, 239 and 245 (udaka*). - (b) consecration J II.353.

Abhiseceti [caus. of abhisi~ncati] to cause to be sprinkled or inaugurated J V.26. (imper. abhisecayassu).

Abhisevanaa (f.) [abhi + sevana from sev] pursuit, indulgence in (-*) Sdhp 210 (paapakamma*).

Abhissara (adj.) [abhi + issara] only negative an* in formula ataa.no loko anabhissaro "without a Lord or protector" M II.68 (v.l. *abhisaro); Ps I.126 (v.l. id.).

Abhiha.msati [abhi + ha.msati from hrs.] 1. (trs.) to gladden, please, satisfy S IV.190 (abhiha.t.thu.m); A V.350 (id.). 2. (intr.) to find delight in (c. acc.), to enjoy S V.74 (ruupa.m manaapa.m); A IV.419 sq. (T. reads *hi.msamaana jhaana.m v.l. *hisamaana).

Abhiha.ta [pp. of abhiharati] brought, offered, presented, fetched D I.166 = Pug 55 ( = puretara.m gahetvaa aaha.ta.m bhikkha.m Pug A 231); DhA II.79.

Abhiha.t.thu.m [ger. of abhiharati]. Only in praise abhiha.t.thu.m pavaareti, to offer having fetched up. M. I.224; A V.350, 352; S IV.190, V.53, 300. See note in Vinaya Texts II.440.

Abhihata [pp. of abhihanati] hit, struck PvA 55.

Abhihanati (and *hanti) [abhi + han] 1. to strike, hit PvA 258. - 2. to overpower, kill, destroy J V.174 (inf. *hantu for T. hantu.m). -pp. abhihata (q. v.).

Abhiharati [abhi + harati, cp. Sanskrit abhyaaharati and Vedic aaharati and aabharati] - 1. to bring (to), to offer, fetch D III.170; J I.54, 157; III.537; IV.421; DA I.272. - 2. to curse, revile, abuse [cp. Sanskrit anuvyaaharati and abhivyaa*] A I.198. - Pass. abhihariyati VvA 172 (for abhiharati of Vv 3710; corresponds with aabhata VvA 172). -pp. abhiha.ta (q.v.). - Causative abhihaareti 1. to cause to be brought, to gain, to acquire D II.188 = 192 = 195 Th 1, 637; J IV.421 (abhihaaraya'n with gloss abhibhaarayi.m). - 2. to betake oneself to, to visit, take to, go to Sn 414 (Pa.n.dava.m *haaresi = aaruhi Sn A 383), 708 (vananta.m abhihaaraye = vana.m gaccheyya SnA 495); Th 2, 146 (aor. *haarayi.m; uyyaana.m = upanesi ThA 138). - 3. to put on (mail), only in fut. abhihessati J IV.92 (kavaca.m; C. expls. wrongly by *hanissati bhindissati so evidently taking it as abhibhavissati). - 4. At J VI.27 ki.m yobbanena ci.n.nena ya.m jaraa abhihessati the latter is fut. of abhibhavati (for *bhavissati) as indicated by gloss abhibhuyyati.

Abhihaara [from abhiharati] bringing, offering, gift S I.82; Sn 710; J I.81 (aasana-).

Abhihi.msati spurious reading at A IV.419 for *ha.msati (q.v.).

Abhihi.msanaa (and *.m) [for abhihesanaa cp. Paali hesaa = Sanskrit hres.aa, and hesita.m] neighing Vv 6410 = VvA 279 (gloss abhihesana). See in detail under abhisa'nsanaa.

Abhihiita S I.50. Read abhigiita with SS. So also for abhihita on p. 51. "So enchanted was I by the Buddha's rune" . The godlet ascribes a magic potency to the couplet.

Abhihesana see abhihi.msanaa.

Abhihessati see abhihaareti 3 and 4.

Abhiita (adj.) [a + bhiita] fearless J VI.193. See also abhida 1.

Abhiiruka (adj.) [a + bhiiru + ka] fearless DA I.250.

Abhumma (adj.) [a + bhumma] groundless, unfounded, unsubstantial, J V.178; VI.495.

Abhuuta (adj.) [a + bhuuta] not real, false, not true, usually as nt. *.m falsehood, lie, deceit Sn 387; It 37; instr. abhuutena falsely D I.161. -vaadin one who speaks falsely or tells lies Sn 661 = Dh 306 = It 42; explained. as "ariy- uupavaada-vasena alika -vaadin" SnA 478; as "tucchena para.m abhaacikkhanto" DhA III.477.

Abhejja (adj.) [grd. of a + bhid, cp. Sanskrit abhedya] not to be split or divided, not to be drawn away or caused to be dissented, inalienable Sn 255 (mitto abhejjo parehi); J I.263 (varasuura . . .) III.318 (*ruupa of strong character =

---[ Page 73 ]---

abhijja-hadaya); Pug 30 ( = acchejja Pug A 212); Miln 160 (*parisaa); Sdhp 312 (+ appadusiya); Pgdp 97 (*parivaara).

Amacca [Vedic amaatya (only in meaning "companion"), adj. formation from amaa an adverbial loc.-gen. of pronoun. 1st person, Sanskrit aha.m = Idg. *emo (cp. Sanskrit m-ama), meaning "(those) of me or with me", i. e. those who are in my house] 1. friend, companion, fellow-worker, helper, esp. one who gives his advice, a bosom-friend It 73; J VI. 512 (sahajaataa amaccaa); Pv II.620 (a *- paricaarikaa welladvising friends as company or around him). Freq. in combination. with mitta as mitt- a-maccaa, friends and colleagues D III.189-90; S 190 = A II.67; PvA 29; or with ~naatii (~naati-saalohitaa intimate friends and near-relations), mitta-maccaa ~naatisaalohitaa Vin II.126; Sn p. 104 ( = mittaa ca kammakaraa ca SnA 447); mittaa vaa amaccaa vaa ~naatii vaa saalohitaa vaa A I.222; PvA 28; amaccaa ~naati-sanghaa ca A I.152. 2. Especially a king's intimate friend, king's favourite, confidant J I.262; PvA 73 (*kula), 74 (amaccaa ca purohito ca), 81 (sabba-kammika amacca), 93; and his special adviser or privy councillor, as such distinguished from the official ministereotype (purohita, mahaamatta, paarisajja); usually combined. with paarisajjaa (pl.) viz. D I.136 ( = piya-sahaayaka DA I.297, but cp. the following explination. of paarisajjaa as "sesaa aa.natti-karaa"); Vin I.348; D III.64 (amaccaa paarisajjaa ga.nakamahaamattaa); A I.142 (catunna.m Mahaaraajaana.m a. paarisajjaa). See on the question of ministereotype in general Fick, Sociale Gliederung p. 93, 164 and Banerjea, Public Administration in Ancient India pp. 106-120.

Amajja [etymology*] a bud J V.416 ( = makula C.).

Amajjapaayaka [a + majja + paayaka, cp. Sanskrit amadyapa] one who abstains from intoxicants, a teetotaler J II.192.

Amata1 (nt.) [a + mata = mrta pp. of mr, Vedic amrta = Gr. a)-m(b)rot-oanda)mbrosi/a = Latin im-mort-a(lis] 1. The drink of the gods, ambrosia, water of immortality, (cp. BSanskrit amrta-var.sa "rain of Ambrosia" Jtm 221). - 2. A general conception of a state of durability and non-change, a state of security i. e. where there is not any more rebirth or re-death. So Bdhgh at KhA 180 (on Sn 225) "na jaayati na jiiyati na miiyati ti amatan ti vuccati", or at DhA I.228 "ajaatattaa na jiyyati na miyyati tasmaa amatan ti vuccati". - Vin I.7 = M I.169 (apaarutaa tesa'n amatassa dvaaraa); Vin I.39; D II.39, 217, 241; S I.32 ( = raagadosamoha-khayo), 193; III.2 (*ena abhisitta "sprinkled with A."); IV.94 (*assa daataa), 370; V.402 (*assa patti); A I.45 sq.; III.451; IV.455; V.226 sq., 256 sq. (*assa daataa); J I.4 (V.25); IV.378, 386; V.456 (*mahaa-nibbaana); Sn 204, 225, 228 ( = nibbaana KhA 185); Th 1, 310 ( = agada antidote); It 46 = 62 (as dhaatu), 80 (*assa dvaara); Dh 114, 374 ( = amata-mahaa-nibbaana DhA IV.110); Miln 258 (*dhura savanuupaga), 319 (agado amata.m and nibbaana.m amata.m), 336 (amatena loka.m abhisi~nci Bhagavaa), 346 (dhamm- a-mata.m); DA I.217 (*nibbaana); DhA I.87 (*.m paayeti); Daavs II.34; V.31; Sdhp 1, 209, 530, 571. -ogadha diving into the ambrosia (of Nibbaana) S V. 41, 54, 181, 220, 232; A III.79, 304; IV.46 sq., 317, 387; V.105 sq.; Sn 635; Th 1, 179, 748; Dh 411 ( = amata.m nibbaana.m ogahetvaa DhA IV.186); Vv 5020. -osadha the medicine of Ambrosia, ambrosial medicine Miln 247. -gaamin going or leading to the ambrosia (of Nibbaana) S I.123; IV.370; V.8; A III.329; Th 2, 222. -dasa one who sees Amata or Nibbaana Th 1, 336. -dundubhi the drum of the Immortal (Nibbaana) M I.171 = Vin I.8 (has *dudrabhi). -dvaara the door to Nibbaana M I.353; S I. 137 = Vin I.5; S II.43, 45, 58, 80; A V.346. -dhaatu the element of Ambrosia or Nibbaana A III.356. -patta having attained to Ambrosia A IV.455. -pada the region or place of Ambrosia S I.212 ("Bourne Ambrosial" translation. p. 274); II.280; Dh 21 ( = amatassa adhigama-vupaayo vutta.m hoti DhA I.228). -phala ambrosial fruit S I.173 = Sn 80. -magga the path to Ambrosia DhA I.94.

Amata2 (adj.) [see amata1] belonging to Amrta = ambrosial Sn 452 = S I.189 (amataa vaacaa = amata-sadisaa saadubhaavena SnA 399: "ambrosial"), 960 (gacchato amata.m disa'n = nibbaana.m, ta.m hi amatan ti tathaa niddisitabbato disaa caa ti SnA 572). Perhaps also at It 46 = 62 (amata.m dhaatu.m = ambrosial state or Amrta as dhaatu).

Amatabbaaka (*) at VvA 111, acc. to Hardy (Index) "a precious stone of dark blue colour".

Amatta~n~nu (adj.) [a + matta + *~nu = Sanskrit amaatraj~na] not knowing any bounds (in the taking of food), intemperate, immoderate It 23 (bhojanamhi); Dh 7 (id.); Pug 21.

Amatta~n~nutaa (f.) [abstr. to prec.] immoderation (in food) D III.213; It 23 (bhojane); Pug 21; Dhs 1346 (bhojane); DhsA 402.

Amatteyyataa (f.) [from matteyyataa] irreverence towards one's mother D III.70, 71.

Amanussa [a + manussa] a being which is not human, a fairy demon, ghost, god, spirit, yakkha Vin I.277; D I. 116; S I.91, J I.99; Dhs 617; Miln 207; DhsA 319; DhA I.13 (*pariggahiita haunted); PvA 216. - Cp. amaanusa.

Amanussika (adj.) [from amanussa] belonging to or caused by a spirit Vin I.202, 203 (*a-baadha being possessed by a demon).

Amama (adj.) [a + mama, gen. of aha.m, pronoun. 1st person, lit. "not (saying: this is) of me"] not egotistical, unselfish Sn 220 (+ subbata), 777; J IV.372 (+ niraasaya); VI.259 ( = mamaayana-ta.nhaa-rahita C.); Pv IV.134 ( = mama.mkaaravirahita PvA 230); Mhvs 1, 66, combined. with niraasa (free from longing), at Sn 469 = 494; Ud 32; J IV.303; VI.259.

Amara (adj.) [a + mara from mr] not mortal, not subject to death Th 1, 276; Sn 249 ( = amara-bhaava-patthanataaya pavatta-kaaya-kilesa SnA 291); J V.80 ( = amara.na-sabhaava), 218; Daavs V.62.

Amaratta (nt.) [abstr. from amara] immortality J V.223 ( = devatta C.).

Amaraa (*) a kind of slippery fish, an eel (*) Only in expression amaraa-vikkhepika eel-wobbler, one who practices eel-wriggling, from *vikkhepa "oscillation like the a. fish". In English idiom "a man who sits on the fence" D I.24; M I.521; Ps I.155. The explination. given by Bdhgh at DA I.115 is "amaraa naama maccha-jaati, saa ummujjana-nimmujjan-aadi vasena . . gahetu.m na Sakkoti" etc. This meaning is not beyond doubt, but Kern's explination. Toev. 71 does not help to clear it up.

Amala (adj.) [a + mala] without stain or fault J V.4; Sdhp 246, 591, 596.

Amassuka (adj.) [a + massu + ka] beardless J II.185.

Amaajaata (adj.) [amaa + jaata; amaa adv. "at home", Vedic amaa, see under amacca] born in the house, of a slave J I.226 (daasa, so read for aamajaata, an old mistake, explained. by C. forcibly as "aama aha.m vo daasii ti"!). See also aamaaya.

Amaatika (adj.) [a + maatika from maataa] without a mother, motherless J V.251.

Amaanusa (adj.) [Vedic amaanu.sa, usually of demons, but also of gods; a + maanusa, cp. amanussa] non- or superhuman, unhuman, demonic, peculiar to a non-human (Peta or Yakkha) Pv II.1220 (kaama); IV.157 (as n.); IV.36 (gandha, of Petas). - f. *ii Dh 373 (rati = dibbaa rati DhA IV.110); Pv III.79 (ratti, love).

Amaamaka (adj.) [a + mama + ka, cp. amama] "not of me" i. e. not belonging to my party, not siding with me DhA I.66.

Amaaya (adj.) [a + maayaa] not deceiving, open, honest Sn 941 (see Nd1 422: maayaa vuccati va~ncanikaa cariyaa). Cp. next.

---[ Page 74 ]---

Amaayaavin (adj.) [a + maayaavin, cp. amaaya] without guile, not deceiving, honest D III.47 (asa.tha +), 55 (id.), 237; DhA I.69 (asa.thena a.).

Amitaabha (adj.) [a + mita (pp. of maa) + aa + bhaa] of boundless or immeasurable splendour Sdhp 255.

Amitta [Vedic amitra; a + mitta] one who is not friend, an enemy D III.185; It 83; Sn 561 ( = paccatthika SnA 455); Dh 66, 207; J VI.274 (*taapana harassing the enemies).

Amilaatataa (f.) [a + milaata + taa] the condition of not being withered J V.156.

Amu* base of demonstr. pronoun. "that", see asu.

Amucchita (adj.) [a + mucchita] not infatuated (lit. not stupified or bewildered), not greedy; only in phrase agathita amucchita anajjhaapanna (or anajjhopanna) D III.46; M I.369; S II.194. See ajjhopanna.

Amutta (adj.) [a + mutta] not released, not free from (c. abl.) It 93 (maarabandhanaa).

Amutra (adv.) [pronoun. base amu + tra] in that place, there; in another state of existence D I.4, 14, 184; It 99.

Amuu'ha-vinaya "acquittal on the ground of restored sanity" (Childers) Vin I.325 (IX.6, 2); II.81 (IV.5), 99 (IV.14, 27); IV.207, 351; M II.248.

Amoha (adj.) [a + moha, cp. Sanskrit amogha] not dull. As n. absence of stupidity or delusion D III.214; Pug 25. The form amogha occurs at J VI.26 in the meaning of "efficacious, auspicious" (said of ratyaa nights).

Amba [Derivation unknown. Not found in pre-Buddhist literature. The Sanskrit is aamra. Probably non-Aryan], the Mango tree, Mangifera Indica D I.46, 53, 235; J II.105, 160; Vv 7910; Pug 45; Miln 46; PvA 153, 187. -a.t.thi the kernel or stone of the m. fruit DhA III.207, 208. -aaraama a garden of mangoes, mango grove Vv 795; VvA 305. -ka~njika mango gruel Vv 3337 ( = ambilaka~njika VvA 147). -pakka a (ripe) mango fruit J II.104, 394; DhA III.207. -panta a border of mango trees VvA 198. -paanaka a drink made from mangoes DhA III.207. -pi.n.di a bunch of mangoes J III.53; DhA III.207. -pesikaa the peel, rind, of the m. fruit Vin II.109. -potaka a mango sprout DhA III.206 sq. -phala a m. fruit PvA 273, 274. -rukkha a m. tree DhA III.207; VvA 198. -vana a m. grove or wood D II.126; J I.139; VvA 305. -si~ncaka one who waters the mangoes, a tender or keeper of mangoes Vv 797.

Ambaka1 (adj.) [ = ambakaa*] "womanish" (*), inferior, silly, stupid, of narrow intellect. Occurs only with reference to a woman, in combination. with baalaa A III.349 (v. l. amma*) = V.139 (where spelt ambhaka with v. l. appaka* and gloss andhaka); V.150 (spelt ambhaka perhaps in different meaning). -maddarii see next.

Ambaka2 [demin. of amba] a little mango, only in *maddarii a ki.nd of bird [etymology uncertain] A I.188.

Ambakaa (f.) [Sanskrit ambikaa demin. of ambii mother, wife, see Paali amma and cp. also Sanskrit ambaalikaa f.] mother, good wife, used as a general endearing term for a woman Vin I.232 = D II.97 (here in play of words with Ambapaalii explained. by Bdhgh at Vin I.385 as ambakaa ti itthiyikaa).

Ambara1 (nt.) [Vedic ambara circumference, horizon] the sky, Daavs I.38; IV.51; V.32. - Note. At J V.390 we have to read muraja-aalambara, and not mura-jaala-ambara.

Ambara2 (m.-nt.) [etymology = ambara1 (*) or more likely a distortion of kambala; for the latter speaks the combination. rattambara = ratta-kambala. - The word would thus be due to an erroneous syllable division rattak-ambala ( = ambara) instead of ratta-kambala] some sort of cloth and an (upper) garment made of it (cp. kambala) Vv 537 (ratt* = uttariya VvA 236).

Ambala at J II.246 (*ko.t.thaka-aasana-saalaa) for ambara1 (*) or for ambaka2 (*), or should we read kambala**.

Ambaa.taka the hog-plum, Spondias Mangifera (a kind of mango) Vin II.17 (*vana); DA I.271 (*rukkha).

Ambila (adj.) [Sanskrit amla = Latin amarus] sour, acid; one of the 6 rasas or tastes, viz. a., lava.na, tittaka, ka.tuka, kasaaya, madhura (see under rasa): thus at Miln 56. Another enumeration at Nd2 540 and Dhs 629. - J I.242 (*anambila), 505 (lo.n*); II.394 (lo.n*); DA I.270 (*yaagu sour gruel); DhA II.85 (ati-ambila, with accu.nha and atisiita).

Ambu (nt.) [Vedic ambu and ambhas = Gr. o)/mbros, Latin imber rain; cp. also Sanskrit abhra rain-cloud and Gr. a)fro/s scum: see Paali abbha] water J V.6; Nd1 202 (a. vuccati udaka.m); Daavs II.16. - Cp. ambha. -caarin "living in the water", a fish Sn 62 ( = maccha Nd2 91). -sevaala a water-plant Th 1, 113.

Ambuja (m. and nt.) [ambu + ja of jan] "water-born", i. e. 1. (m.) a fish S I.52. - 2. (nt.) a lotus Sn 845 ( = paduma Nd1 202); Daavs V.46; Sdhp 360.

Ambuda [ambu + da from daa] "water-giver", a cloud Daavs V.32; Sdhp 270, 275.

Ambha and Ambho (nt.) [see ambu] water, sea Daavs IV.54.

Ambhaka see ambaka.

Ambho (indecl.) [from ha.m + bho, see bho, orig. "hallo you there"] part. of exclamation, employed: 1. to draw attention = look here, hey! hallo! Vin III.73 ( = aalapan- a-dhivacana); J II.3; PvA 62. - 2. to mark reproach and anger = you silly, you rascal D I.194; It 114; J I.174 (v. l. amho), 254; Miln 48.

Amma (indecl.) [voc. of ammaa] endearing term, used (1) by children in addressing their mother = mammy, mother dear D I.93; J II.133; IV.1, 281 (amma taata u.t.thetha daddy, mammy, get up!); DhA II.87; PvA 73, 74. (2) in general when addressing a woman familiarly = good woman, my (good) lady, dear, thus to a woman J I.292; PvA 63; DhA II.44; to a girl PvA 6; to a daughter DhA II.48; III.172. - Cp. ambakaa.

Amma.na (nt.) [of uncertain etymology; Sanskrit arma.na is Sanskritised Paali. See on form and meaning Childers s. v. and Kern, Toev. p. 72] 1. a trough J V.297; VI.381 (bhatt*). 2. a certain measure of capacity J I.62; II.436 (ta.n.dul*). As *ka at J II.117 (v. l. ampa.naka); DA I.84.

Ammaa (f.) [onomat. from child language; Sanskrit ambaa, cp. Gr. a)mma/s mother, Oisl. amma "granny", Ohg. amma "mammy", nurse; also Latin amita father's sistereotypeand amaare to love] mother J III.392 (gen. ammaaya). - Voc. amma (see sep.).

Amha and Amhan (nt.) [Sanskrit ashman, see also asama2] a stone Sn 443 (instr. amhanaa, but SnA 392 reads asmanaa = paasaa.nena). -maya made of stone, hard Dh 161 ( = paasaa.na* DhA III.151).

Amha, Amhi see atthi.

Amhaa (f.) [etymology uncertain; Morris J.Paali Text Society 1889, 201 too vague] a cow (*) A I.229. The C. says nothing.

Amhaaka.m, Amhe see aha.m.

Amho = ambho J I.174 (v. l.).

Aya1 see ayo.

---[ Page 75 ]---

Aya2 (from i, go) 1. income, in aya-potthaka receipt book J I.2. - 2. inlet (for water, aya-mukha) D I.74; A II. 166, IV.287.

Aya.m (pronoun.) [Sanskrit aya'n etc., pronoun. base Idg. *i (cp. Sanskrit iha), f. *ii. Cp. Gr. i)n, min; Latin is (f. ea, nt. id); Goth is, nt. ita; Ohg. er ( = he), nt. ez ( = it); Lith. jiis (he), f. jii (she).] demonstr. pronoun. "this, he"; f. aya'n; nt. ida'n and ima.m "this, it" etc. This pronoun. combines in its inflection two stems, viz. as* (aya'n in nom. m. and f.) and im* (id* in nom. nt.). I. Forms. A. (sg.) nom. m. aya'n Sn 235; J I.168, 279; f. aya'n [Sanskrit iya.m] Kh VII.12; J II.128, 133; nt. ida'n Sn 224; J III.53; and ima.m Miln 46. acc. m. ima.m J II.160; f. ima.m [Sanskrit iimaa.m] Sn 545, 1002; J I.280. gen. dat. m. imassa J I.222, 279 and assa Sn 234, 1100; Kh VII.12 (dat.); J II.158; f. imissaa J I.179 and assaa [Sanskrit asyaa*] J I.290; DhA III.172. instr. m. nt. iminaa J I.279; PvA 80 and (peculiarly or perhaps for amunaa) aminaa Sn 137; f. imaaya [Sanskrit anayaa] J I.267. The instr. anena [Sanskrit anena] is not proved in Paali. abl. asmaa Sn 185; Dh 220; and imasmaa (not proved). loc. m. nt. imasmi.m Kh III.; J II. 159 and asmi.m Sn 634; Dh 242; f. imissaa PvA 79 (or imissa'n*) and imaaya.m (no reference). - B. (pl.) nom. m. ime J I.221; Pv I.83; f. imaa [Sanskrit imaa*] Sn 897 and imaayo Sn 1122; nt. imaani [ = Sanskrit] Vin I.84. acc. m. ime [Sanskrit imaan] J I.266; II.416; f. imaa [Sanskrit imaa*] Sn 429; J II.160. gen. imesa'n J II.160 and esa'n [Sanskrit es.aa.m] M II.86, and esaana.m M II.154; III.259; f. also aasa'n J I.302 ( = etaasa'n C.) and imaasa'n. instr. m. nt imehi J VI.364; f. imaahi. loc. m. nt. imesu [Sanskrit es.u] J I.307. II. Meanings (1) aya'n refers to what is immediately in front of the speaker (the subject in question) or before his eyes or in his present time and situation, thus often to be translated. by "before our eyes", "the present", "this here", "just this" (and not the other) (opp. para), viz. atthi imasmi.m kaaye "in this our visible body" Kh III.; yath- a-ya.m padiipo "like this lamp here" Sn 235; aya'n dakkhi.naa dinnaa "the gift which is just given before our eyes" Kh VII.12; ime paadaa ima.m siisa'n aya'n kaayo Pv I.83; asmi.m loke paramhi ca "in this world and the other" Sn 634, asmaa lokaa para.m loka.m katha.m pecca na socati Sn 185; cp. also Dh 220, 410; J I.168; III.53. - (2) It refers to what immediately precedes the present of the speaker, or to what has just been mentioned in the sentence; viz. ya.m ki~nci vitta.m . . . idam pi Buddhe ratana.m "whatever . . . that" Sn 224; ime divase these days (just gone) J II.416; cp. also Vin I.84; Sn 429; J II.128, 160. - (3) It refers to what immediately follows either in time or in thought or in connection: dve ime antaa "these are the two extremes, viz." Vin I.10; aya'n eva ariyo maggo "this then is the way" ibid.; cp. J I.280. (4) With a touch of (often sarcastic) characterisation it establishes a closer personal relation between the speaker and the object in question and is to be translated. by "like that, such (like), that there, yonder, yon", e. g. imassa vaanarindassa "of that fellow, the monkey" J I.279; cp. J I. 222, 307; II 160 (imesa'n sattaana.m "creatures like us"). So also repeated as aya~n ca aya~n ca "this and this", "so and so" J II.3; ida~n c- ida~n ca "such and such a thing" J II.5. - (5) In combination with a pronoun. rel. it expresses either a generalisation (whoever, whatever) or a specialisation ( = that is to say, what there is of, i. e. Ger. und zwar), e. g. ya-ya.m ta.nhaa Vin I.10; yo ca aya'n . . . yo ca aya'n "I mean this . . . and I mean" ibid.; ye kec- ime Sn 381; yadida'n "i. e." Miln 25; yatha-y-ida'n "in order that" (w. pot.) Sn 1092. See also seyyathiida.m. - (6) The gen. of all genders functions in general as a possessive pronoun. of the 3rd = his, her, its (lit. of him etc.) and thus resembles the use of tassa, e. g. aasava- ssa na vijjanti "his are no intoxications" Sn 1100; siila.m assaa bhindaapessaami "I shall cause her character to be defamed" J I.290; assa bhariyaa "his wife" J II.158 etc. frequent

Ayana (nt.) [Vedic ayana, from i] (a) "going", road. - (b) going to, goal S V.167 (ekaayano maggo leading to one goal, a direct way), 185 (id.); DA I.313; Daavs IV.40. See also eka*.

Ayasa (nt.) [a + yasa, cp. Sanskrit ayasha*] ill repute, disgrace Miln 139, 272; Daavs I.8.

Ayira (and Ayyira) (n.-adj.) [Vedic aarya, Metathesis for ariya as diaeretic form of aarya, of which the contracted (assimilation) form is ayya. See also ariya] (n.) ariyan, nobleman, gentleman (opp. servant); (adj.) ariiyan, wellborn, belonging to the ruling race, noble, aristocratic, gentlemanly J V.257; Vv 396. - f. ayiraa lady, mistress (of a servant) J II.349 (v. l. oyyakaa); voc. ayire my lady J V.138 ( = ayye C.).

Ayiraka = ayira; cp. ariyaka and ayyaka; D III.190 (v. l. BB yy); J II.313.

Ayo and Aya (nt.) [Sanskrit aya* nt. iron and ore, Idg. *ajes-, cp. Av. ayah, Latin aes, Goth. aiz, Ohg. er ( = Ger. Erz.), Ags. aar ( = E. ore).] iron. The nom. ayo found only in set of 5 metals forming an alloy of gold (jaataruupa), viz. ayo, loha (copper), tipu (tin), siisa (lead), sajjha (silver) A III.16 = S V.92; of obl. cases only the instr. ayasaa occurs Dh 240 ( = ayato DhA III.344); Pv I.1013 (pa.tikujjita, of Niraya). - Iron is the material used kat)e)coxh/n in the outfit and construction of Purgatory or Niraya (see niraya and Aviici and cp. Vism 56 sq.). - In compounds. both ayo and aya* occur as bases. I. ayo: -kapaala an iron pot A IV.70 (v. l. *guhala); Nd2 304 III. D 2 (of Niraya). -kuu.ta an iron hammer PvA 284. -khiila an iron stake S V.444; M III.183 = Nd2 304 III. C; SnA 479. -gu'a an iron ball S V.283; Dh 308; It 43 = 90; Th 2, 489; DA I.84. -ghana an iron club Ud 93; VvA 20. -ghara an iron house J IV.492. -pa.tala an iron roof or ceiling (of Niraya) PvA 52. -paakaara an iron fence Pv I.1013 = Nd2 304 III. D 1. -maya made of iron Sn 669 (kuu.ta); J IV.492 (naavaa); Pv I.1014 (bhuumi of N.); PvA 43, 52. -muggara an iron club PvA 55. -sanku an iron spike S IV.168; Sn 667. II. aya*: -kapaala = ayo DhA I.148 (v. l. ayo). -kaara a worker in iron Miln 331. -kuu.ta = ayo J I.108; DhA II.69 (v. l.). -nangala an iron plough DhA I.223; III.67. -pa.t.taka an iron plate or sheet (cp. loha*) J V.359. -pa.thavi an iron floor (of Aviici) DhA I.148. -sanghaa.taka an iron (door) post DhA IV.104. -suula an iron stake Sn 667; DhA I.148.

Ayojjha (adj.) [Sanskrit ayodhya] not to be conquered or subdued M II.24.

Ayya (n.-adj.) [contracted form for the diaeretic ariya (q. v. for etymology). See also ayira] (a) (n.) gentleman, sire, lord, mastereotypeJ III.167 = PvA 65; DhA I.8 (ayyaa pl. the worthy gentlemen, the worthies), 13 (amhaaka.m ayyo our worthy Sir); II.95. - (b) (adj.) worthy, gentlemanly, honourable Vin II.191; DhA II.94 sq. - The voc. is used as a polite form of address (cp. Ger. "Sie" and E. address "Esq.") like E. Sir, milord or simply "you" with the implication of a pluralis majestatis; thus voc. proper ayya J I.221, 279, 308; pl. nom. as voc. ayyaa in addressing several J II.128, 415; nom. sg. as voc. (for all genders and numbers) ayyo Vin II.215; J III.126, 127. - f. ayyaa lady, mistress M II.96 ( = mother of a prince); DhA I.398; voc. ayye my lady J V.138. -putta lit. son of an Ariyan, i. e. an aristocratic (young) man gentleman (cp. in meaning kulaputta); thus (a) son of my mastereotype(lit.) said by a servant J III.167; (b) lord, mastereotype "governor" J I.62 (by a servant); DA I.257 ( = saami, opp. daasi-putta); PvA 145 (by a wife to her husband); DhA II.110; (c) prince (see W.Z.K.M. XII., 1898, 75 sq. and Epigraphia Indica III.137 sq.) J VI.146.

Ayyaka [demin. of ayya] grandfather, (so also BSanskrit, e. g. M Vastu II.426; III.264) J III.155; IV.146; VI.196; Pv I.84; Miln 284. ayyaka-payyakaa grandfather and great grandfather,

---[ Page 76 ]---

forefathers, ancestors J I.2; PvA 107 ( = pitaamahaa). - f. ayyakaa grandmother, granny Vin II.169; S I.97; J II.349 (here used for "lady", as v. l. BB); and ayyikaa Th 2, 159; Vism 379.

Ara [Vedic ara from r, r.noti; see etymology under appeti and cp. more esp. Latin artus limb, Gr. a(/rma chariot, also Paali a.n.nava] the spoke of a wheel D II.17 (sahass- a-ra adj. with thousand spokes), cp. Miln 285; J IV.209; VI.261; Miln 238; DhA II.142; VvA 106 (in allegorical etymology of arahant = sa'nsaara-cakkassa araana.m hatattaa "breaker of the spokes of the wheel of transmigration") = PvA 7 (has sa'nsaara-va.t.tassa); VvA 277.

Arakkhiya (adj.) [a + rakkhiya, grd. of rakkhati] not to be guarded, viz. (1) impossible to watch (said of women folk) J II.326 (a. naama itthiyo); III.90 (maatugaamo naama a.). - (2) unnecessary to be guarded Vin II.194 (Tathaagataa).

Arakkheyya (adj.) [in form = arakkhiya] only in nt. "that which does not need to be guarded against", what one does not need to heed, superfluous to beware of A IV.82 (cattaari Tathaagatassa a* aani). - 3 arakkheyyaani are enumerated at D III.217 (but as aarakkh*, which is also given by Childers).

Aragha.t.ta [Sanskrit aragha.t.taka (so Halaayudha, see Aufrecht p. 138), dialect.] a wheel for raising water from a well Bdgh. on cakkava.t.taka at CV V.16, 2 (Vin II.318). So read for T. arahatta-gha.ti-yanta acc to Morris, J.Paali Text Society 1885, 30; cp. also Vin. Texts III.112. - The 2rd part of the cpd. is doubtful; Morris and Aufrecht compare the modern Hindii form arha.t or raha.t "a well-wheel".

Araja (adj.) [a + raja] free from dust or impurity S IV.218 (of the wind); Vv 536 ( = apagata-raja VvA 236).

Ara~n~na (nt.) [Vedic ara.nya; from ara.na, remote, + ya. In the Rig V. ara.nya still means remoteness (opp. to amaa, at home). In the Ath V. it has come to mean wilderness or forest. Connected with aaraad and aare, remote, far from]. forest D I.71; M I.16; III.104; S I.4, 7, 29, 181, 203 (mahaa); A I.60 (*vanapatthaani); II.252; III.135, 138; Sn 39, 53, 119; Dh 99, 329, 330; It 90; Vv 567; Ps I.176. [The commentators, give a wider meaning to the word. Thus the O. C. (Vin III.46, quoted Vism 72 and SnA 83) says every place, except a village and the approach thereto, is ara~n~na. See also Vin III.51; DA I.209; PvA 73; VvA 249; J I.149, 215; II.138; V.70]. -aayatana a forest haunt Vin II.201; S II.269; J I.173; VvA 301; PvA 54, 78, 141. -ku.tikaa a hut in the forest, a forest lodge S I.61; III.116; IV.116, 380; DhA IV.31 (as v. l.; T. has *ku.ti). -gata gone into the forest (as loneliness) M I.323; A III.353; V.109 sq., 207, 323 sq. -.thaana a place in the forest J I.253. -vaasa a dwelling in the forest, a hermitage J I.90. -vihaara living in (the) loneliness (of the forest) A III.343 sq.

Ara~n~naka (and aara~n~naaka) (adj.) [ara~n~na + ka] belonging to solitude or to the forest, living in the forest, fond of solitude, living as hermits (bhikkhuu) M I.214 (aa*), 469; III.89; S II.187, 202 (v. l. aa*), 208 sq.; 281; A III.343, 391; IV.291, 344, 435; V.10. See also aara~n~naka.

Ara~n~nakatta (nt.) [abstr. from ara~n~naka] the habit of one who lives in the forest, indulgence in solitude and sequestration, a hermit's practice, seclusion S II.202, 208 sq. See also aara~n~nakatta.

Ara.na1 (adj.-n.) [Vedic ara.na from *ara vr, which as abl. aaraa is used as adv. far from, cp. Paali aarakaa. Orig. meaning "removed from, remote, far". See also ara~n~na]. (adj.) living in solitude, far from the madding crowd M III.237 (*vibhanga-sutta); S I.44, 45; J I.340 (tittha**).

Ara.na2 (nt.) [a + ra.na] quietude, peace Nett 55 (+ taa.na), 176 (or as adj. = peaceful) ThA 134 (+ sara.na); Vbh 19 sq. (opp. sara.na). See sara.na2. -vihaarin (or ara.naa-vihaarin) [to be most likely taken as ara.naa*, abl. of ara.na in function of aarakaa, i. e. adv. far from, away; the spelling ara.na would refer it to ara.na2. As regards meaning the Paali Commentators explination. it as opp. of ra.na fight, battle, i. e. peacefullness, friendliness and see in it a syn. of metta. Thus Dhammapaala at PvA 230 expls. it as "mettaa-vihaarin", and in this meaning it is found frequent in BSanskrit e. g. Divy 401; Av. SH II.131 (q. v. for further reference under note 3); M Vastu I.165; II.292. Cp. also the epithet of the Buddhas ra.na~njaha] one who lives in seclusion, an anchoret, hermit; hence a harmless, peaceful person A I.24; Th 2, 358, 360; Pv IV.133 ( = PvA 230); ThA 244. Cp. Dhs trsl. 336.

Ara.ni and *ii (f.) [Vedic ara.nii and ara.ni from r] wood for kindling fire by attrition, only in following compounds: *potaka small firewood, all that is needed for producing fire, chiefly drill sticks Miln 53; *sahita (nt.) same Vin II.217; J I. 212 (ii); V.46 (ii); DhA II.246; *mathana rubbing of firewood J VI.209. - Note. The reading at PvA 211 ara.niyehi devehi sadisa-va.n.na is surely a misreading (v. l. BB ariyehi).

Arati (f.) [a + rati] dislike, discontent, aversion Sn 270, 436, 642, 938; Dh 418 ( = ukka.n.thitatta.m DhA IV.225); Th 2, 339 ( = ukka.n.thi ThA 239); Sdhp 476.

Aravinda [ara + vinda (*) Halaayudha gives as Sanskrit aravinda nt.] a lotus, Nymphaea Nelumbo Daavs V.62.

Araha (adj.) (-*) [Vedic arha of arh] 1. worthy of, deserving, entitled to, worth Dh 195 (puujaa*); Pv II.86 (dakkhi.naa*); VvA 23 (da.n.da* deserving punishment). Freq. in cpd. maha-raha [Sanskrit maha-rgha] worth much, of great value, costly, dear J I.50, 58; III.83, etc. (see mahant). - 2. fit for, apt for, suitable PvA 26 (paribhoga* fit for eating).

Arahati [Vedic arhati, etymology uncertain but cp. agghati] to be worthy of, to deserve, to merit ( = Latin debeo) Sn 431, 552 (raajaa arahasi bhavitu.m); J I.262; Dh 9, 10, 230; Pv III.66. - ppr. arahant (q. v.). Cp. also adj. araha.

Arahatta1 (nt.) [abstr. formation from arahat*, 2nd base of arahant in compounds.: see arahant IV.2] the state or condition of an Arahant, i. e. perfection in the Buddhist sense = Nibbaana (S IV.151) final and absolute emancipation, Arahantship, the attainment of the last and highest stage of the Path (see magga and anaagaamin). This is not restricted by age or sex or calling. There is one instance in the Canon of a child having attained Arahantship at the age of 7. One or two others occur in the Comy ThA 64 (Selaa); PvA 53 (Sankicca). Many women Arahants are mentioned by name in the oldest texts. About 400 men Arahants are known. Most of them were bhikkhus, but A III.451 gives the names of more than a score lay Arahants (cp. D II.93 = S V.360, and the references in Dial. III.5 n4). Arahatta.m is defined at S IV.252 as raaga-kkhaya, dosa*, moha*. Descriptions of this state are to be found in the formulae expressing the feelings of an Arahant (see arahant II.). Vin II.254; D III.10, 11, 255; A III.34, 421, 430; V.209; Pug 73; Nett 15, 82; DA I.180, 188, 191; DhA II 95; IV.193; PvA 14. - Phrases: arahatta.m sacchikaroti to experience Arahantship Vin II.74; D I.229; arahatta.m paapu.naati to attain or reach Arahantship (usually in aor. paapu.ni) J II.229 ThA 64; DhA II.49 (saha pa.tisambhidaahi) 93 (id.); PvA 53, 54, 61, 233 and frequent elsewhere; cp. arahattaaya pa.tipanna D III.255; A I.120; IV.292 sq., 372 sq. -gaha.na attainment of Arahantship DhA I.8. -patta (and patti) one who has attained Ar. S I.196; V.273; A II.157; III.376; IV.235. -phala the fruit of Ar. Vin I.39, 41, 293; III.93; D III.227, 277; S III.168; V.44; A I.23, 45; III.272; IV.276; Dhs 1017; Vbh 326. -magga the Path of Ar. S I.78; A III.391; DA I.224. -vimokkha the emancipation of Ar. Nd2 19.

Arahatta2 in *gha.ti see aragha.t.ta.

---[ Page 77 ]---

Arahant (adj.-n.) [Vedic arhant, ppr. of arhati (see arahati), meaning deserving, worthy]. Before Buddhism used as honorific title of high officials like the English "His Worship" ; at the rise of Buddhism applied popularly to all ascetics (Dial. III.3-6). Adopted by the Buddhis.ts as t. t. for one who has attained the Summum Bonum of religious aspiration (Nibbaana). I. Cases nom. sg. araha.m Vin I.9; D I.49; M I.245, 280; S I.169; see also formula C. under II., and arahaa Vin I.8, 25, 26; II.110, 161; D III.255; It 95; Kh IV.; gen. arahato S IV.175; Sn 590; instr. arahataa S III.168; DA I.43; acc. arahanta.m D III.10; Dh 420; Sn 644; Loc. arahantamhi Vv 212. - nom. pl. arahanto Vin I.19; IV.112; S I.78, 235; II.220; IV.123; gen. arahata.m Vin III.1; S I.214; Sn 186; It 112; Pv I.1112. Other cases are of rare occurrence. II. Formulae. Arahantship finds its expression in frequent occurring formulae, of which the standard ones are the following: A. khii.naa jaati vusita.m brahmacariya.m kata.m kara.niiya.m na-para.m itthattaaya "destroyed is (re-) birth, lived is a chaste life, (of a student) done is what had to be done, after this present life there is no beyond". Vin I.14, 35, 183; D I.84, 177, 203; M I.139; II.39; S I. 140; II.51, 82, 95, 120, 245; III.21, 45, 55, 68, 71, 90, 94, 195, 223; IV.2, 20, 35, 45, 86, 107, 151, 383; V.72, 90, 144, 222; A I.165; II.211; III.93; IV.88, 179, 302; V.155, 162; Sn p. 16; Pug 61, etc. - B. eko vuupaka.t.tho appamatto aataapii pahitatto "alone, secluded, earnest, zealous, mastereotypeof himself" D I.177; II.153 and continued with A: S I.140, 161; II.21; III.36, 74; IV.64; V.144, 166; A I.282; II.249; III.70, 217, 301, 376; IV. 235. - C. araha.m khii.naasavo vusitavaa katakara.niiyo ohitabhaaro anupatta-sadattho parikkhii.na-bhava-sa~n~nojano sammad-a~n~naa vimutto: D III.83, 97; M I.4, 235; S I.71; III.161, 193; IV.125; V.145, 205, 273, 302; A I.144; III.359, 376; IV.362, 369, 371 sq., It 38. D. ~naa.na~n ca pana me dassana.m udapaadi akuppaa me ceto-vimutti aya'n antimaa jaati n'atthi daani punabbhavo "there arose in me insight, the emancipation of my heart became unshake able, this is my last birth, there is now no rebirth for me: S II.171; III.28; IV.8; V.204; A I.259; IV.56, 305, 448. III. Other passages (selected) Vin I.8 (arahaa siitibhuuto nibbuto), 9 (araha.m Tathaagato Sammaasambuddho), 19 (ekaadasa loke arahanto), 20 (ekasa.t.thi id.). 25 sq.; II. 110, 161; III.1; IV.112 (te arahanto udake kii'anti); D I.49 (Bhagavaa araha.m), 144; III.10, 255: M I.245 (Gotamo na pi kaala.m karoti: araha.m Sama.no Gotamo), 280; S I.9, 26, 50 (Tathaagato), 78, 140, 161, 169, 175, 178 (+ siitibhuuta), 208, 214, 235 (khiinaasavaa arahanto); III. 160 (arahaa tissa*), 168; IV.123, 175, 260, 393; V.159 sq., 164, 200 sq.; A I.22 (Sammaasambuddho), 27, 109, 266; Iii.134; III.376, 391, 439; IV.364, 394; V.120; Sn 186, 590, 644, 1003; It 95 (+ khii.naasava), 112; Kh IV. (dasahi angehi samannaagato arahaa ti vuccati: see KhA 88); Vv 212; I.217; Dh 164, 420 (khii.naasava +); Ps II.3, 19, 194, 203 sq.; Pug 37, 73; Vbh 324, 336, 422; Pv I.11 (khettuupamaa arahanto), 1112; IV.132. IV. In compounds. and der. we find two bases, viz. (1) arahanta* in *ghaata the killing or murder of an Arahant (considered as one of the six deadly crimes): see abhi.thaana; *ghaataka the murderer of the A.: Vin I.89, 136, 168, 320; *magga (arahatta**) the path of an A.: D II 144. - (2) arahat* in (arahad-)dhaja the flag or banner of an A.: J I.65. V. See further details and passages under anaagaamin, khii.na, Buddha. On the relationship of Buddha and Arahant see Dial. II.1-3; III.6. For riddles or word-play on the form arahant see M I.280; A IV.145; DA I.146 = VvA 105, 6 = PvA 7; DhA IV.228; DhsA 349.

Araati [a + raati, cp. Sanskrit araati] an enemy Daavs IV.1.

Ari [Ved. ari; from r] an enemy. - The word is used in exegesis and word explination, thus in etymology of arahant (see reference under arahant v.); of bhuuri Ps II.197. - Otherwise in late language only, e. g. Sdhp 493 (*bhuuta). See also arindama and aribhaaseti.

Ari~ncamaana [ppr. med. of Paali ri~ncati for ricyati] not leaving behind, not giving up, i. e. pursuing earnestly Sn 69 (jhaana.m = aja*hamana SnA 123, cp. Nd2 94).

Ari.t.tha1 (adj.) [a + ri.t.tha = Vedic aris..ta, pp of a + ris. to hurt or be hurt] unhurt Sdhp 279.

Ari.t.tha2 [Sanskrit aris..ta, N. of a tree] a kind of spirituous liquor Vin IV.110.

Ari.t.thaka (adj.) [from ari.t.tha] (a) unhurt; perfect DA 1,94 (*.m ~naa.na.m). - (b) [from ari.t.tha in meaning of "soap-berry plant"*] in phrase mahaa ari.t.thako ma.ni S I.104 "a great mass of soap stone" (cp. Rh. D. in J. R. A. S. 1895, 893 sq.), "a shaped block of steatite" (Mrs. Rh. D. in K. S 130).

Aritta (nt.) [Vedic aritra, Idg. *ere to row (Sanskrit r to move); cf. Gr. e)re/ssw to row, e)retmo/s rudder, Latin remus, Ohg. ruodar = rudder; Ags. rowan = E. row] a rudder. Usually in combination. with piya (phiya) oar, as piya-ritta.m (phiy*) oar and rudder, thus at S I.103 (T. piya*, v. l. phiya*); A II.201 (piya*); J IV.164 (T. piya*, v.l. phiya*); Sn 321 (piya +; SnA 330 phiya = dabbi-padara, aritta = ve.luda.n.da). DhsA 149.

Arindama [Sanskrit arindama, ari.m + dama of dam] a tamer of enemies, victor, conqueror Pv IV.315 ( = ariina.m damanasiila PvA 251); Sdhp 276.

Aribhaaseti [ = ari.m bhaaseti] to denounce, lit. to call an enemy J IV.285. Correct to Pari* according to Fausboll (J V. corr.)

Ariya (adj.-n.) [Vedic aarya, of uncertain etymology The other Paali forms are ayira and ayya] 1. (racial) Aryan D II.87. 2. (social) noble, distinguished, of high birth. - 3. (ethical) in accord with the customs and ideals of the Aryan clans, held in esteem by Aryans, generally approved. Hence: right, good, ideal. [The early Buddhists had no such ideas as we cover with the words Buddhist and Indian. Ariya does not exactly mean either. But it often comes very near to what they would have considered the best in each]. - (adj.): D I.70 = (*ena siilakkhanhena samannaagata fitted out with our standard morality); III.64 (cakkavatti-vatta), 246 (di.t.thi); M I.139 (pannaddhaja); II.103 (ariyaaya jaatiyaa jaato, become of the Aryan lineage); S II.273 (tu.nhiibhaava); IV.250 (vaddhi), 287 (dhamma); V.82 (bojjhangaa), 166 (satipa.t.thaanaa), 222 (vimutti), 228 (~naa.na), 255 (iddhipaadaa), 421 (maggo), 435 (saccaani), 467 (pa~n~naa-cakkhu); A I.71 (parisaa); II.36 (~naaya); III.451 (~naa.na); IV.153 (tu.nhiibhaava); V.206 (siilakkhandha); It 35 (pa~n~naa), 47 (bhikkhu sammaddaso); Sn 177 (patha = a.t.thangiko maggo SnA 216); Dh 236 (bhuumi), 270; Ps II.212 (iddhi). -alamariya fully or thoroughly good D I.163 = III.82 = A IV.363; na-lamariya not at all good, object, ignoble ibid. - (m.) Vin I.197 (na ramati paape); D I.37 = (ya.m ta.m ariyaa aacikkhanti upekkhako satimaa etc.: see 3rd. jhaana), 245; III.111 (*aana.m anupavaadaka one who defames the noble); M I.17, 280 (sottiyo ariyo araha.m); S I.225 (*aana.m upavaadaka); II.123 (id.); IV.53 (*assa vinayo), 95 (id.); A I.256 (*aana.m upavaadaka); III.19, 252 (id.); IV.145 (dele! see ariihatatta); V.68, 145 sq., 200, 317; It 21, 108; Dh 22, 164, 207; J III.354 = Miln 230; M I.7, Q35 (ariyaana.m adassaavin: "not recognising the Noble Ones") PvA 26, 146; DhA II.99; Sdhp 444 (*aana.m va.msa). anariya (adj. and n.) not Ariyan, ignoble, undignified, low, common, uncultured A I.81; Sn 664 ( = asappurisa SnA 479; DhsA 353); J II.281 ( = dussiila paapadhamma C.); V.48 (*ruupa shameless), 87; DhA IV.3. - See also ~naa.na, magga, sacca, saavaka. -a-vakaasa appearing noble J V.87. - uposatha the ideal feast day (as one of 3) A I.205 sq., 212. - kanta loved by the Best D III.227. - ga.naa (pl.) troops of worthies

---[ Page 78 ]---

J VI.50 ( = braahma.na-ga.naa, te kira taada ariya-caaraa ahesu.m, tena te evam aaha C.). - garahin casting blame on the righteous Sn 660. - citta a noble heart. - traja a true descendant of the Noble ones Dpvs V.92. - dasa having the ideal (or best) belief It 93 = 94. - dhana sublime treasure; always as sattavidha* sevenfold, viz. saddhaa*, siila*, hiri*, ottappa*, suta*, caaga*, pa~n~naa* "faith, a moral life, modesty, fear of evil, learning, self-denial, wisdom" ThA 240; VvA 113; DA II.34. - dhamma the national customs of the Aryans ( = ariyaana.m eso dhammo Nd1 71, 72) M I.1, 7, 135; A II.69; V.145 sq., 241, 274; Sn 783; Dhs 1003. - puggala an (ethically) model person, Ps I.167; Vin V.117; ThA 206. - magga the Aryan Path. - va.msa the (fourfold) noble family, i. e. of recluses content with the 4 requisites D III.224 = A II.27 = Ps I.84 = Nd2 141; cp. A III.146. - vattin leading a noble life, of good conduct J III.443. - vataa at Th 1, 334 should be read *vattaa (nom. sg. of vattar, vac) "speaking noble words": - vaasa the most excellent state of mind, habitual disposition, constant practice. Ten such at D III.269, 291 = A V.29 (Passage recommended to all Buddhists by Asoka in the Bhabra Edict). - vihaara the best practice S V.326. - vohaara noble or honorable practice. There are four, abstinence from lying, from slander, from harsh language, from frivolous talk. They are otherwise known as the 4 vacii-kammantaa and represent siila nos. 4-7. See D III.232; A II.246; Vin V.125. - sangha the communion of the Nobles ones PvA 1. - sacca, a standard truth, an established fact, D I.189, II.90, 304 sq.; III 277; M I.62, 184; III.248; S V.415 sq. = Vin I.10, 230. It 17; Sn 229, 230, 267; Dh 190; DhA III.246; KhA 81, 151, 185, 187; ThA 178, 282, 291; VvA 73. - saavaka a disciple of the noble ones ( = ariyaana.m santike sutattaa a. SnA 166). M I.8, 46, 91, 181, 323; II.262; III.134, 228, 272; It 75; Sn 90; Miln 339; DhA I.5, (opp. putthujjana). - siilin of unblemished conduct, practising virtue D I.115 ( = siila.m ariya.m uttama.m parisuddha.m DA I.286); M II.167. When the commentators, many centuries afterwards, began to write Paali in S. India and Ceylon, far from the ancient seat of the Aryan clans, the racial sense of the word ariya was scarcely, if at all, present to their minds. Dhammapaala especially was probably a non-Aryan, and certainly lived in a Dravidian environment. The then current similar popular etmologies of ariya and arahant (cp. next article) also assisted the confusion in their minds. They sometimes therefore erroneously identify the two words and explain Aryans as meaning Arahants (DhA I.230; SnA 537; PvA 60). In other ways also they misrepresented the old texts by ignoring the racial force of the word. Thus at J V.48 the text, speaking of a hunter belonging to one of the aboriginal tribes, calls him anariya-ruupa. The C. explains this as "shameless", but what the text has, is simply that he looked like a non-Aryan. (cp "frank" in English).

Ariihatatta in phrase "ariihatta ariyo hoti" at A IV.145 is wrong reading for ariina.m hatattaa. The whole phrase is inserted by mistake from a gloss explaining arahaa in the following sentence "aarakattaa kilesaana.m ariina.m hatattaa . . . arahaa hoti", and is to be deleted (omitted also by SS).

Aru (nt.) [Vedic aru*, unknown etymology] a wound, a sore, only in compounds: *kaaya a heap of sores M II.64 = Dh 147 = Th 1, 769 ( = navanna.m va.namukhaana.m vasena arubhuuta kaaya DhA III.109 = VvA 77); *gatta (adj.) with wounds in the body M I.506 (+ pakka-gatta); Miln 357 (id); *pakka decaying with sores S IV.198 (*aani gattaani); *bhuuta consisting of wounds, a mass of wounds VvA 77 = DhA III.109.

Aruka = aru; only in cpd. *uupamacitto (adj.) having a heart like a sore (of a man in anger) A I.124 = Pug 30 (explained at Pug A 212 as puraa.na-va.na-sadisa-citto "an old wound" i. e. continually breaking open).

Aru.na [Vedic aru.na (adj.) of the colour of fire, i. e. ruddy, nt. the dawn; of Idg. *ereu as in Sanskrit aru.sa reddish, Av. auru.sa white, also Sk ravi sun; an enlarged from of Idg. *reu as in Sanskrit rudhira, rohita red (bloody; see etymology under rohita), Gr. e)rudro/s, Latin ruber.] the sun Vin II.68; IV.245; J II.154; V.403; VI.330; Dpvs I.56; DA I.30. a. uggacchati the sun rises J I.108; VvA 75, and see compounds -ugga sunrise Vin IV.272; S V.29, 78, 101, 442 (at all Sa'nyutta pass. the v.l. SS is aru.nagga); Vism 49. -uggamana sunrise (opp. oggamanna). Vin III.196, 204, 264; IV.86, 166, 230, 244; DhA I.165; II.6; PvA 109. -utu the occasion of the sun (-rise) DhA I.165. -va.n.na of the colour of the sun, reddish, yellowish, golden Vism 123; DhA I 1.3 = PvA 216. -sadisa (va.n.na) like the sun (in colour) PvA 211 (gloss for suriyava.n.na).

Arubheda the Rigveda ThA 206.

Aruupa (adj.) [a + ruupa] without form or body, incorporeal, D I.195 sq.; III.240; Sn 755; It 62; Sdhp 228, 463, 480. See details under ruupa. -a-vacara the realm or world of Formlessness, Dhs 1281-1285; Ps I.83 sq., 101. -kaayika belonging to the group of formless beings Miln 317 (devaa). -.thaayin standing in or being founded on the Formless It 62. -ta.nhaa "thirst" for the Formless D III.216. -dhaatu the element or sphere of the Incoporeal (as one of the 3 dhaatus ruupa*, aruupa*, nirodha*; see dhaatu) D III.215, 275; It 45. -bhava formless existence D III.216. -loka the world of the Formless, Sdhp 494. -sa~n~nin not having the idea of form D II.110; III.260; Exp. I.252.

Aruupin (adj.) [a + ruupin] = aruupa; D I.31 (aruupii attaa hoti: see DA I.119), 195; III.111, 139; It 87 (ruupino va aruupino va sattaa).

Are (indecl.) [onomat. Cp. Sanskrit lalallaa, Gr. lale/w, Latin lallo = E. lull, Ger. lallen and without redupl. Ags. holaa, Ger. halloh, E. lo. An abbrev. form of are is re. Cf. also alaalaa] exclam. of astonishment and excitement: he! hallo! I say!, implying an imprecation: Away with you (with voc.) J I.225 (daasiputta-ce.taka); IV.391 (du.t.tha-ca.n.daala); DA I.265 ( = re); VvA 68 (dubbinii), 217 ("how in the world").

Ala1 frequent spelling for a'a.

Ala2 (adj.) [ala.m adv. as adj.] enough, only in negative anala insufficient, impossible M I.455; J II.326 = IV.471.

Ala.m (indecl.) [Vedic ara.m. In meaning 1. ala.m is the expanded continuation of Vedic ara.m, an adv. acc. of ara (adj.) suitable; fitly, aptly rightly from r Cp. a.n.nava, appeti, ara. In meaning 2. ala.m is the same as are] emphatic particle 1. in affirmative sentences: part. of assurance and emphasis = for sure, very much (so), indeed, truly. Note. In connection with a dat. or an infin. the latter only apparently depend upon ala.m, in reality they belong to the syntax of the whole sentence (as dat. or inf. absolute). It is customary however (since the practice of the Paali grammarians) to regard them as interdependent and interpret the construction as "fit for, proper" ( = yutta.m Paali Com.), which meaning easily arises out of the connotation of ala.m, e.g. alam eva kaatu.m to be sure, this is to be done = this is proper to be done. In this sense (c. dat.) it may also be compd. with Vedic ara.m c. dat. - (a) (abs.) only in combination. with dat. or inf. (see c. and Note above). - (b.) (*-) see compounds - (c.) with dat. or infin.: ala.m antaraayaaya for certain an obstacle M I.130 (opp. na-la.m not at all); ala.m te vippa.tisaaraaya you ought to feel sorry for it Vin II.250; ala.m vacanaaya one says rightly S II.18; ala.m hitaaya untold happiness DhA II.41. - ito ce pi so bhava.m Gotamo yojana sate viharati alam eva . . . . . upasankamitu.m even if he were 100 miles from here, (surely) even so (i. e. it is fit or proper even then) one must go to him D I.117 (explained. at DA I.288 by yuttam eva = it is proper); alam eva kaatu.m kalyaa.na.m indeed one

---[ Page 79 ]---

must do good = it is appropriate to do good Pv II.923 ( = yutta.m PvA 122); ala.m pu~n~naani kaatave "come, let us do meritorious works" Vv 4415 ( = yutta.m VvA 191). 2. in negative or prohibitive sentences: part. of disapprobation reproach and warning; enough! have done with! fie! stop! alas! (etc. see are). - (a) (abs.) enough: na-la.m thutu.m it is not enough to praise Sn 217; te pi na honti me ala.m they are not enough for me Pv I.63. - (b) with voc.: ala.m Devadatta maa te rucci sanghabhedo "look out D. or take care D. that you do not split up the community" Vin II.198; ala.m Vakkali kin te iminaa puutikaayena di.t.thena . . . S III.120. - (c) enough of (with instr.): ala.m ettakena enough of this, so much of that Miln 18; alam me Buddhena enough for me of the Buddha = I am tired of the B. DhA II.34. -attha (adj.) "quite the thing", truly good, very profitable, useful D II.231; M II.69 (so read for alamatta); A II.180; Th 1, 252; J I.401 (so read for *atta). -ariya truly genuine, right noble, honourable indeed, only in *~naa.na-dassana [cp. BSanskrit alamaarya-j~naana-darshana Lal V.309, 509] Vin I.9; A III.64, 430; V.88; J I.389 (cp. ariya). -kammaniya (quite or thoroughly) suitable Vin III.187. -pateyya: see the latter. -vacaniiyaa (f.) a woman who has to be addressed with "ala.m" (i. e. "fie"), which means that she ceases to be the wife of a man and returns to her parental home Vin III.144, cp. 274 (Bdhgh's. explination.). -samakkhaatar one who makes sufficiently clear It 107. -saajiiva one who is thoroughly fit to associate with his fellow A III.81. -saa.taka "curse-coat", one who curses his waist-coat (ala.m saa.taka!) because of his having eaten too much it will not fit; an over-eater; one of the 5 kinds of gluttons or improper eaters as enumerated at DhA IV.16 = DhsA 404.

Alakkhika (and iika) (adj.) [a + lakkhika] unfortunate unhappy, of bad luck Vin III.23; J III.259.

Alakkhii (f.) [a + lakkhi] bad luck, misfortune Th 1, 1123.

Alagadda [Der. unknown. In late Sanskrit alagarda is a watersnake] a kind of snake M I.133 = DA I.21; DhA IV. 132 (*camma, so read for T. alla-camma, vv. ll. alanda* and alandu*).

Alagga (adj.) [pp. of laggati] not stuck or attached Nd2 107 (also alaggita); alaggamaana (ppr.) id. DhA III.298.

Alaggana (nt.) [a + laggana] not hanging on anything, not being suspended DA I.180.

Ala.mkata [pp. of alankaroti] 1. "made too much", made much of, done up, adorned, fitted out Dh 142 ( = vattha-bhara.na-pa.tima.n.dita DhA III.83); Pv II.36; Vv 11; J III.392; IV.60. - 2. "done enough" (see ala.m, use with instr.), only negative analankata in meaning "insatiate" S I.15 (kaamesu).

Ala.mkara.na (nt.) [ala.m + kara.na, from alankaroti] doing up, fitting out, ornamentation J I.60.

Ala.mkara.naka (adj.) [from alankara.na] adorning, embellishing, decorating DhA I.410.

Ala.mkaroti [ala.m + karoti, Vedic ara*karoti] to make much of i. e. to adorn, embellish, decorate J I.60; III.189; VI. 368. ger. *karitvaa DhA I.410; PvA 74. -pp. alankata. - Causative alankaaraapeti to cause to be adorned J I.52.

Ala.mkaara [from alankaroti, cp. Vedic ara*krti] "getting up" i. e. fitting ont, ornament, decoration; esp. trinkets, oQnaments D III.190; A III.239; 263 sq.; J VI.368; PvA 23, 46, 70 (-* adj. adorned with), 74; Sdhp 249.

Alattaka [Sanskrit alaktaka] lac, a red animal dye J IV.114 (*paa.tala); DhA II.174; IV.197.

Alanda and Alandu see alagadda.

Alamba (adj.) [a + lamba] not hanging down, not drooping, short J V.302; VI.3 (*tthaniyo not flabby: of a woman's breasts cp. alamb- ordhva-stanii Sushruta I.371).

Alasa (adj.) [a + lasa] idle, lazy, slack, slothful, languid S I.44, 217; Sn 96 ( = jaati-alaso SnA 170); J IV.30; Dh 280 ( = mahaa-alaso DhA III.410). Opp. analasa vigorous, energetic S I.44; D III.190 (dakkha +); Vin IV.211; Nd2 141 (id.).

Alasataa (f.) [abstr. from alasa] sloth, laziness; only in negative analasataa zeal, industry VvA 229.

Alassa (nt.) at S I.43 is spurious spelling for aalassa idleness, sloth; v. l. BB aalasya.

Alaata (nt.) [Sanskrit alaata, related to Latin altaare altar, adoleo to burn] a firebrand A II.95 (chava* a burning corpse, see chava); J I.68; Pug 36; DhA III.442.

Alaapu (nt.) [ = alaabu, with p for b: so Trenckner Notes 6216] a gourd, pumpkin Dh 149 ( = DhA III.112; vv. ll. alaabu and alaabbu).

Alaabu [Sanskrit alaabuu f.] a long white gourd, Cucurbita Lagenaris M I.80 (tittaka*), 315 (id.); PvA 47 (id.); DhsA 405. - See also alaapu.

Alaabhaka [a + labhaka] not getting, loss, detriment Vin III.77.

Alaalaa (indecl.) [a + laalaa interjection from sound root *lal, see etymology under are] "not saying laa laa" i. e. not babbling, not dumb, in *mukha not (deaf &) dumb SnA 124 ( = ane'amuuga of Sn 70).

Alika (adj.) [Sanskrit aliika] contrary, false, untrue S I.189; J III.198; VI.361; Miln 26, 99. - nt. *.m a lie, falsehood Dh 264. -vaadin one who tells a lie, a liar Dh 223 = VvA 69 (has aliika*); J II.4; SnA 478 (for abhuuta-vaadin Sn 661).

Aliinataa (f.) [abstr. of aliina] open mindedness, prudence, sincerity J I.366.

Alu'ita (adj.) [a + lu'ita, pp. of lul] umoved, undisturbed Miln 383.

Alo.nika (adj.) [a + lo.nika] not salted J III.409; VvA 184.

Aloma (adj.) [a + loma] not hairy (upon the body) J VI.457.

Alola (adj.) [a + lola] undisturbed, not distracted (by desires), not wavering: of firm resolution, concentrated Sn 65 ( = nillolupa Nd2 98; = rasavisesesu anaakula SnA 118).

Alla (adj.) (only *-) [Vedic aardra, to Gr. a)/rdw moisten, a)/rda dirt] - 1. moist, wet M III.94 (*mattikaa-pu~nja a heap of moist clay; may be taken in meaning 2). - 2. fresh (opp. stale), new; freshly plucked, gathered or caught, viz.*a-valepana see adda3; *kusamu.t.thi freshly plucked grass A V.234 = 249; *gomaya fresh dung A V.234; DhA I.377; *camma living skin Vism 195; *ti.na fresh grass DA I.77; PvA 40; *daaruuni green sticks J I.318; *madhu fresh honey DhA II.197; *ma.msa-sariira a body of living flesh DhA II.51 = IV.166; *rasa fresh-tasting DhA II.155; *rohita-maccha fresh fish J III.333. 3. wet = with connotation of clean (through being washed), freshly washed, *kesa with clean hair PvA 82 (siisa'n nahaatvaa allakesa); usually combined. with allavattha with clean clothes (in an ablution; often as a sign of mourning) Ud 14, 91; DhA IV.220; or with odaata vattha (id.) J III.425. *paa.ni with clean hand Pv II.99 ( = dhotapaa.ni PvA 116). [For analla-gatta at S I.183 better read, with ibid 169, an-alliina-gatta. For allacamma at DhA IV.132 alagadda-camma, with the v.l., is preferable].

Allaapa [Sanskrit aalaapa; aa + laapa] conversation, talk; only in cpd. *sallaapa conversation (lit. talking to and fro or together) J I.189; Miln 15; VvA 96; PvA 86.

---[ Page 80 ]---

Allika (*) [either from alla = allika.m nt. in meaning defilement, getting soiled by (-*), or from alliiyati = alliyaka.m, a der. from ger. alliya clinging to, sticking to. The whole word is doubtful.] only in cpd. (kaama-) sukh- allik-a-nuyoga given to the attachment to sensual joys Vin I.10; D III.113, 130; S IV.330; V.421; Nett 110.

Alliina [pp. of alliiyati; Sanskrit aaliina] (a) sticking to, adhering or adhered to, clinging M I.80; A V.187; Nd2 under nissita (in form asita alliina upagata). - (b.) soiled by (-*), dirtied A II.201. -analliina "to which nothing sticks", i. e. pure, undefiled, clean S I.169 (id. p. on p. 183 reads analla: see alla). Cp. aalaya.

Alliiyati [aa + liiyati, lii, liiyate, layate] to cling to, stick to, adhere to (in both senses, good or bad); to covet. - (a) lit. kesaa siisa'n alliiyi.msu the hair stuck to the head J I.64; khaggo lomesu alliiyi the sword stuck in the hair J I.273. - (b) fig. to covet, desire etc.: in idiomatic phrase alliiyati (S III.190 v. l.; T. aalayati) kelaayati vanaayati (S III.190 v.l.; T. manaayati; M I.260 T. dhanaayati, but v.l. p. 552 vanaayati) mamaayati "to caress dearly and be extremely jealous of" (c. acc.) at M I.260 and S III.190. J IV.5; V.154 (alliiyitu.m, v.l. illiiyitu.m); DhsA 364 (vanati bhajati a); pp. alliina - Causative alliyaapeti [cp. Sanskrit aalaapayati, but B.Sanskrit alliipeti M Vastu III.144; pp. alliipita ibid. I.311; III.408; pass. alliipiiyate III.127.] to make stick, to to bring near to (c. acc. or loc.) J II.325 (hatthi.m mahaabhittiyan alliyaapetvaa); IV.392 (siisena siisa'n alliyaapetvaa).

A'a [etymology unknown] 1. the claw of a crab M I.234; S I.123; J I.223, 505 (*chinno kakka.tako; T. spells ala*); II.342; III.295; - 2. the nails (of finger or toe) (*) in *chinna one whose nails are cut off Vin I.91.

A'aara (adj.) [Is it the same as u'aara*] only used with reference to the eyelashes, and usually explained. by visaala, i.e. extended, wide, but also by bahala, i.e. thick. The meaning and etymology is as yet uncertain. Kern, (Toev. s.v.) transls. by "bent, crooked, arched". *akkhin with wide eyes (eyelashes*) J I.306 ( = visaala-netta C.); -pamha with thick eye-lashes Vv 357 ( = bahala-sa'nyata-pakhuma C.; v.l. -pamukha); -bhamuka having thick eyebrows or *lashes J VI.503 (so read for *pamukha; C. expls by visaal-akkhiga.n.da). Cp. aa'aara.

A'haka in udak- a'haka VvA 155 read aa'haka.

Ava- (prefix) I. Relation between ava and o. Phonetically the difference between ava and o is this, that ava is the older form, whereas o represents a later development. Historically the case is often reversed - that is, the form in o was in use first and the form in ava was built up, sometimes quite independently, long afterwards. Oka.d.dhati, okappati, okappanaa, okassati, okaara, okantati, okkamati, ogacchati, odaata and others may be used as examples. The difference in many cases has given rise to a differentiation of meaning, like E. ripe: rife, quash: squash; Ger. Knabe: Knappe etc. (see below B 2). - A. The old Paali form of the prefix is o. In same cases however a Vedic form in ava has been preserved by virtue of its archaic character. In words forming the 2nd part of a cpd. we have ava, while the absolute form of the same word has o. See e.g. avakaasa (-*) > okaasa (*-); avacara > ocaraka; avatata; avadaata; avabhaasa; avasaana. - B. 1. the proportion in the words before us (early and later) is that o alone is found in 65% of all cases, ava alone in 24%, and ava as well as o in 11%. The proportion of forms in ava increases as the books or passages become later. Restricted to the older literature (the 4 Nikaayas) are the following forms with o: okiri, okkanti, okkamati, okkhipati, ogacchati, ossajati. - (1) The Paali form (o) shows a differentiation in meaning against the later Sanskrit forms (ava*). See the following: avakappanaa harnessing: okappanaa confidence; avakkanti (not Sanskrit): okkanti appearance; avakkhitta thrown down: okkhitta subdued; avacara sphere of motion: ocaraka spy; avati.n.na descended: oti.n.na affected with love; avaharati to move down, put off: oharati to steal. (2) In certain secondary verb-formations, arisen on Paali grounds, the form o is used almost exclusively pointing thus to a clearly marked dialectical development of Paali. Among these formations are Deminutives in *ka usually; the Gerund and the Infinitive usually; the Causatives throughout. II. Ava as prefix. [Paali ava = Vedic ava and occasionally o; Av. ava; Latin au- (aufero = avabharati, aufugio etc.); Obg. u-; Oir. o, ua. See further relations in Walde, Latin Wtb. under au]. - Meaning. (Rest:) lower, low (opp. ut*, see e. g. ucca-vaca high and low, and below III. c), explained. as he.t.thaa (DhA IV.54 under ava.m) or adho (ibid. 153; SnA 290). - (Motion:) down, downward, away (down), off; e. g. avasuura sun-down; adv. ava.m (q. v., opp. uddha.m). - (a) lit. away from, off: ava-kantati to cut off; *ga.na away from the crowd; *chindati cut off; *yiiyati fall off; *bhaasati shine out, effulge; *mu~ncati take off; *si.t.tha left over. - down, out, over: *kirati pour down or out over; *khitta thrown down; *gacchati go down; *gaaheti dip down; *tarati descend; *patita fallen down; *sajjati emit; *si~ncati pour out over; *siidati sink down. - (b) fig. down in connection with verbs of emotion (cp. Latin de- in despico to despise, lit. look down on), see ava-jaanaati, *bhuuta, *maanita, *vajja, *hasati. away from, i. e. the opposite of, as equivalent to a negation and often taking the place of the negative prefix a* (an*), e. g. in avajaya ( = ajaya), *jaata, *mangala ( = a*), *pakkhin, *patta. Affinities of ava. - (a) apa. There exists an exceedingly frequent interchange of forms with apa* and ava*, the historical relation of which has not yet been thoroughly investigated. For a comparison of the two the BSanskrit forms are indispensable, and often afford a clue as to the nature of the word in question. See on this apa 2 and cp. the following words under ava: avakata, *karoti, *khalita, *anga, ottappa, avattha, *niita, *daana, *pivati, *rundhati, *lekhati, *vadati, *varaka, *sakkati, avassaya, avasseti, *hita, avaapuriiyati, avekkhati. - (b) abhi. The similarity between abhi and ava is seen from a comparison of meaning abhi II. b and ava II. a. The two prefixes are practically synonymous in the following words: *kankhati, *kamati, *ki.n.na, *khipati, *maddati, *rata, *lambati, *lekheti, *lepana, *si~ncati. - (c) The contrary of ava is ut (cp. above II.2). Among the frequent contrast-pairs showing the two, like E. up and down, are the following ukka.msa-vaka.msa, uggaman-oggamana, ucca-vaca, ullangheti-olangheti, ullitta-valitta; ogilitu.muggilitu.m, onaman-unnamana. Two other combinations. founded on the same principle (of intensifying contrast) are chidda-vacchidda and ava* in contrast with vi* in olambavilamba, olugga-vilugga.

Ava.m (adv.) [Vedic avaak and avaa.m] the prep. ava in adv. use, down, downward; in C. often explained. by adho. Rarely absolute, the only passage found so far being Sn 685 (ava.m sari he went down, v. l. avasari, explained. by otari SnA 486). Opp. uddha.m (above, up high). Freq. in cpd. ava.msira (adj.) head downward (+ uddha.mpaada feet up), a position characteristic of beings in Niraya (Purgatory), e. g. S I.48; Sn 248 (patanti sattaa niraya'n ava.msiraa = adhogata-siisaa SnA 290); Vv 5225 (of Revatii, + uddha.mpaada); Pv IV.146; J I.233 (+ uddhapaada); IV.103 (niraya'n vajanti yathaa adhammo patito ava.msiro); Nd1 404 (uddha.mpaada +); DhA IV.153 (gloss adhosira). - On ava.m* cp. further avakkaara, avaakaroti, avekkhipati.

Avaka.msa [from ava-kar.sati; on .ms: *rs. cp. ha.msati: har.sati] dragging down, detraction, abasement, in cpd. ukka.msa-vak.r lifting up and pulling down, raising and lowering, rise and fall D I.54.

Avakankhati (-*) [ava + kankhati; cp. Sanskrit anu-kaank.sati] to wish for, strive after S IV.57 (n'); J IV.371 (n'); V 340 (n'), 348 (n' = na pattheti C).

---[ Page 81 ]---

Avaka.d.dhati [ava + ka.d.dhati, cp. avakassati and apakassati] Nett 4 (avaka.d.dhayitvaa). Pass. avaka.d.dhati J IV.415 (hadaya'n me a. my hcart is weighed down = sokena avaka.d.dhiiyati C; v.l. avakassati). -pp. avaka.d.dhita.

Avaka.d.dhita [pp. of avaka.d.dhati] pulled down, dragged away DhA III.195.

Avakata = apakata, v.l. at It 89.

Avakanta [for *avakatta, Sanskrit avakrtta; pp. of avakantati, see kanta2] cut, cut open, cut off J IV.251 (galak- a-vakanta.m).

Avakantati and okantati (okk.r) [cp. Sanskrit avakrntati, ava + kantati, cp. also apakantati] to cut off, cut out, cut away, carve - (ava:) J IV.155. -pp. avakanta and avakantita.

Avakantita [pp. of avakantati] cut out PvA 213.

Avakappanaa and okappanaa (f.) [ava + kappanaa] preparation, fixing up, esp. harnessing J VI.408.

Avakaroti [Sanskrit apakaroti, cp. Paali apa*] "to put down", to despise, throw away; only in der, avakaara and avakaarin. pp. avakata (q. v.). - See also avaakaroti and cp. avakirati 2.

Avakassati and okassati [cp. Sanskrit avakar.sati, ava + krs.; see also apakassati and avaka.d.dhati] to drag down, to draw or pull away, distract, remove. - A V.74 = Vin II.204 (+ vavakassati).

Avakaaraka.m (adv.) [from avakaara] throwing away, scattering about Vin II.214.

Avakaarin (adj.) (-*) [from avakaara] despising, degrading, neglecting Vbh 393 sq. (an*).

Avakaasa and okaasa [ava + kaash to shine, cp. Sanskrit avakaasha] 1. "appearance": akkhudda-vakaaso dassanaaya not little (or inferior) to behold (of appearance) D I.114; ariyaavakaasa appearing noble or having the app. of an Aryan J V.87; kata-vakaasa put into appearance Vv 229. - 2. "opportunity": kata* given leave D I.276 Sn 1030; anavakaasakaarin not giving occasion Miln 383. - anavakaasa not having a chance or opportunity (to happen), impossible; always in stereotype phrase a.t.thaana.m eta.m anavakaaso Vin II.199; A I.26; V.169; Pug 11, 12; PvA 28.

Avakirati and okirati [ava + kirati] 1. to pour down on, to pour out over; aor. avakiri PvA 86; ger. *kiritvaa J V.144. - 2. to cast out, reject, throw out; aor. avaakiri Vv 305 = 485 (v.l. *kari; VvA 126 expls by cha.d.desi vinaasesi). - Pass. avakiriiyati Pv III.110 ( = cha.d.diiyati PvA 174); grd. *kiriya (see sep.). See also apakirituuna. pp. oki.n.na.

Avakiriya [grd of avakirati] to be cast out or thrown away; rejectable, low, contemptible J V.143 (taken by C. as ger. = avakiritvaa).

Avakujja (adj.) [ava + kujja, cp. B.Sanskrit avakubja M Vastu I.29, avakubjaka ibid. 213; II.412] face downward, head first, prone, bent over (opp. ukkujja and uttaana) J I.13 = Bu II.52; J V.295; VI.40; Pv IV.108; PvA 178. -pa~n~na (adj.) one whose reason is turned upside down (like an upturned pot, i.e. empty) A I.130; Pug 31 ( = adhomukha-pa~n~na Pug A 214).

Avakkanta (-*) [pp. of next] entered by, beset with, overwhelmed by (instr.) S III.69 (dukkha*, sukha* and an*).

Avakkanti (f.) [from avakkamati] entry, appearance, coming down into, opportunity for rebirth S II.66 (naamaruupassa); III.46 (pa~ncanna.m indriyaana.m); Pug 13 ( = okkanti nibbatti paatubhaavo PugA 184); Kvu 142 (naamaruupassa); Miln 123 (gabbhassa).

Avakkama [from avakkamati] entering, appearance J V.330 (gabbhassa).

Avakkamati and okkamati [ava + kamati from kram] to approach. to enter, go into or near to, to fall into, appear in, only in ger. (poetically) avakamma J III.480 (v.l. apa*).

Avakkaara [Sanskrit avaskara faeces, from ava.m + karoti] throwing away, refuse, sweepings; only in cpd. *paatii a bowl for refuse, slop basin, ash-bin Vin I.157, 352; II.216; M I.207; DhA I.305.

Avakkhalita [pp. of avakkhaleti, Causative of k.sal] washed off, taken away from, detracted DA I.66 (v.l. apa*).

Avakkhitta and okkhitta [pp. of avakkhipati] 1. [ = Sanskrit avaks.ipta] thrown down, flung down, cast down, dropped; thrown out, rejected. (ava:) M I.296 (ujjhita +); DA I.281 (an*), 289 (pin.da); PvA 174 (pi.n.da). 2. [ = Sanskrit utks.ipta*] thrown off, gained, produced, got (cp. uppaadita), in phrase sed- a-vakkhitta gained by sweat A II.67; III.45.

Avakkhipati and okkhipati [ava + khipati; cp. Sanskrit avaks.ipati] to throw down or out, cast down, drop; fig. usually applied to the eyes = to cast down, hence transferred to the other senses and used in meaning of "to keep under, to restrain, to have control over" (cp. also avakkhaayati), aor. *khipi DA I.268 (bhusa'n, v. l. avakkhasi).

Avakkhipana (nt.) [from avakkhipati] throwing down, putting down J I.163.

Avagacchati [ava + gacchati] to come to, approach, visit (cp. Vedic avagacchati) PvA 87.

Avaga.n.da (-kaaraka) (adj.) [ava + ga.n.da*] "making a swelling", i. e. puffing out the cheeks, stuffing the cheeks, full (when eating); only nt. *.m as adv. after the manner or in the way of stuffing etc. Vin II.214; IV.196.

Avagata [pp. of avagacchati] at PvA 222 is uncertain reading; the meaning is "known, understood" (a~n~naata Pv IV.111); perhaps we should read aavikata or adhigata (so v.l. BB).

Avagaahati and ogaahati [ava + gaahati] to plunge or enter into, to be absorbed in (acc. and loc.) Vism 678 (vipassanaaviithi.m); Sdhp 370, 383.

Avagu.n.thana (adj.) (-*) [from ogu.n.theti] covering Sdhp 314.

Avaggaha [Sanskrit avagraha] hindrance, impediment, used at DA I.95 as syn. for drought (dubu.t.thikaa).

Avanga see apanga.

Avaca (adj.) [der. from ava after the analogy of ucca > ut] low, only in combination. ucca-vacaa (pl.) high and low, see ucca. KvuA 38.

Avacana (nt.) [a + vacana] "non-word", i. e. the wrong word or expression J I.410.

Avacara (-*) (n.-adj.) [ava + car, also BSanskrit avacara in same sense, e.g. anta*pura-vacaraa the inmates of the harem Jtm 210] (a) (adj.) living in or with, moving in D I.206 (santika* one who stays near, a companion); fig. dealing or familiar with, at home in A II.189 (atakka*); IV.314 (parisaa*); J I.60 (taa'a* one conversant with music, a musician, see taa'a1); II.95 (sangaama*); Miln 44 (id. and yoga*). - (b) (n.) sphere (of moving or activity), realm, plane (of temporal existence); only as t.t in kaama-vacara rupa-vacara aruupa-vacara or the 3 realms of sense-desires, form and non-form: kaama* D I.34 (*deva); Dhs 431 (as adj.); ruupa* Pug 37; aruupa* Pug 38; Ps I.83, 84, 101; Dhs A 387; PvA 138, 163; to be omitted in Dhs 1268, 1278.

Avacaraka and ocaraka (adj.-n.) [from avacara] 1. only in cpd. kaama-vacarika as adj. to kaama-vacara, belonging to the sphere of sense experiences, Sdhp. 254. - 2. Late form of ocaraka, spy, only in C. on Th 1, 315 ff. quoted in Brethren 189, n 3. Occurs in BSk (Divy 127).

---[ Page 82 ]---

Avacara.na (nt.) [from avacarati 1] being familiar with, dealing with, occupation J II.95.

Avacuttha 2nd pret. of vac, in prohib form maa eva.m avacuttha do not speak thus J VI.72; DhA IV.228.

Avacchidda (-*) (adj.) [ava + chidda] perforated, only in redupl. (intensive) cpd. chidda-vacchidda perforated all over, nothing but holes J III.491; DhA I.122. 284, 319. Cp. chidda-vicchidda.

Avacchedaka (-*) (adj) [ava + cheda + ka] cutting off, as nt. *.m adv. in phrase kaba'a-vacchedaka.m after the manner of cutting off mouthfuls (of food) Vin II.214; IV.196; cp. aasaavacchedika whose hope or longing has been cut off or destroyed Vin I. 259.

Avajaya [ava + jaya, cp. apajita] defeat DhA II.228 (v.l. for T. ajaya).

Avajaata (adj.) [ava + jaata; cp. B.Sanskrit avajaata in meaning misborn, miscarriage] low-born, of low or base birth, fig. of low character (opp. abhijaata) Sn 664 ( = Buddhassa avajaataputta SnA 479); It 63; Miln 359.

Avajaanaati [ava + j~naa] 1. to deny Vin II.85; A III.164 = Pug 65. - 2. (later) to despise DhA III.16; PvA 175 (grd. *jaanitabba) - Of short stem-form ~naa are found the foll: grd. ava~n~neyya PvA 175, and with o: grd. o~naatabba PvA 195; pp. ava~naata, besides ava~n~naata.

Avajiiyati [ava + jiiyati; Sanskrit avajiryate] to be diminished, to be lost, be undone J I.313 (jita.m a; v.l. avajiijy*); Dh 179 (jita.m a = dujjita.m hoti DhA III.197).

Avajja (adj.) [Sanskrit avadya, seemigly a + vadya, but in reality a der. from ava. According to Childers = Sanskrit avarjya from vraj, thus meaning "not to be shunned, not forbidden". This interpretn is justified by context of Dh 318, 319. The Paali commentator refers it to ava + vad (for *ava-vadya) in sense of to blame, cp. apavadati] low, inferior, blamable, bad, deprecable Dh 318, 319; Dhs 1160. More fig. in negative form anavajja blameless, faultless D I.70 ( = anindita DA I.183); A II.26 = It 102; Sn 47 (*bhojin carrying on a blameless mode of livelihood, see Nd2 39), 263 ( = anindita agarahita KhA 140): Ps II.116, 170; Pug 30, 41, 58; Sdhp 436. Opp. saavajja.

Avajjataa (f.) [abstr. to prec.), only negative an* blamelessness, faultlessness Pug 25, 41; Dhs 1349.

Avajjha (adj.) [grd of a + vadhati, Sanskrit vadhya, vadh] not to be killed or destroyed, inviolable Sn 288; J V.69; VI.132.

Ava~ncana (adj.) [a + va~ncana from va~nc] not (even) tottering, i.e. unfit for any motion (esp. walking), said of crippled feet J I.214 = Cp III.910.

Ava~n~na (adj.) [to ava~n~naa] despised, despicable Pv III.113 ( = ava~n~neyya avajaanitabba PvA 175).

Ava~n~natti (f.) [ava + ~natti = Sanskrit *avaj~napti, from ava + j~naa] only as negative an* the fact of not being despised, inferior or surpassed, egotism, pride, arrogance It 72; Vbh 350, 356; *kaama (adj.) wishing not to be surpassed, unvilling to be second, wanting to be praised A II.240; IV.1 sq.

Ava~n~naa (f.) [Sanskrit avaj~naa, from ava + j~naa] contempt, disregard, disrespect J I.257 (*ya).

Ava~n~naata (adj.) [pp. of avajaanaati] despised, treated with contempt PvA 135 (an*); Sdhp 88, 90.

Ava.ta.msaka ( = va.t*) see Vin Texts II.347.

Ava.t.thaana (nt.) [Sanskrit avasthaana] position, standing place J I.508; PvA 286.

Ava.t.thita (ad.) [Sanskrit avasthita, ava + thita] "standing down" = standing up, firm, fixed, settled, lasting Th 1, 1140. Usually negative an* unsettled, unsteady; not lasting, changeable Dh 38 (*citta; cp. DhA I.308 citta.m thaavara.m n'atthi); PvA 87 ( = na sassata not lasting for ever).

Ava.t.thitataa (f.) [abstr. from prec.] steadiness, only as negative an* unsteadiness, fickleness ThA 259.

Ava.t.thiti (f.) [Sanskrit avasthiti] (firm) position, posture, steadfastness S V.228; Dhs 11, 570.

Ava.d.dhi (f.) [a + va.d.dhi] "non-growth", decay DhA III.335; C on A III.76 (cp. apajaha).

Ava.n.ta (adj.) [a + va.n.ta] without a stalk J V.155.

Ava.n.na [a + va.n.na] blame, reproach, fault D I.1 ( = dosaa nindaa DA I.37); It 67; Pug 48, 59.

Ava.n.naniiya (adj.) [grd. of a + va.n.neti] indescribable J V.282.

Avata.msa see vata.msaka.

Avatata and otata [ava + tata, pp. of tan] stretched over, covered, spread over with Vv 643 (-*); VvA 276 ( = chaadita).

Avati.t.thati [ava + ti.t.thati] to abide, linger, stand still. D I.251 = S IV.322 = A V.299 (tatra*); S I.25 (v.l. oti.t.thati); Th. 1, 21; J II.62; IV.208 (aor. ava.t.thaasi). pp. ava.t.thita (q. v.).

Avati.n.na and oti.n.na [pp. of otarati] fallen into, affected with (-*), as ava* rare late or poetical form of o, e. g. J V.98 (issa-*). See oti.n.na.

Avattha1 [der. uncertain] aimless (of caarikaa, a bhikkhu's wandering, going on tour) A III.171 (C. avavatthika).

Avattha2 [Sanskrit apaasta, apa + aasta, pp. of as2] thrown away J V.302 ( = cha.d.dita C.).

Avatthara.na (nt.) [from avattharati] setting in array, deploying (of an army) J II.104 (of a robber-band), 336.

Avattharati [ava + tharati, str] to strew, cover over or up J I.74 (*amaana ppr.), 255 (*itvaa ger.); IV.84; Daavs I.38. -pp. ottha.ta Cp. pariy*.

Avatthaara.na (nt.) = avatthara.na DA I.274.

Avatthu (and* ka) (adj.) [a + vatthu] groundless, unfounded (fig) Vin II.241; J I.440 (*ka.m vacana.m). For lit meaning see vatthu.

Avadaata ( = odaata) Daavs III.14 (metri causa).

Avadaana see apadaana.

Avadaaniya (adj.) [from avadaana cutting off; ava + daa2 to cut] stingy, niggardly Sn 774 ( = Nd1 36 which expls. as follows: ava.m gacchanti ti pi avadaaniyaa; maccharino pi vuccanti avadaaniyaa; buddhaana.m vacana.m n-a-diyantii ti avadaaniyaa. Sn A 516 condenses this explination. into the following: avangamanataaya maccharitaaya Buddha-diina.m vacana.m anaadiyanataaya ca avadaaniyaa).

Avadaapana (cleansing): see vodaapana.

Avadaapeti (to deal out) only BSk pary* Divy 202.

Avadaayati [denom. from avadaa in same meaning as anuddaa, to daa1: see dayati2] to have pity on, to feel sorry for J IV.178 (bhuutaana.m na-vadaayissa'n, gloss n-a-nukampiya.m).

Avadiiyati [Sanskrit avadiiryati, ava + .dr1, .dr.naati, see etymology under darii] to burst, split open J VI.183 ( = bhijjati C.) see also uddiiyati,

---[ Page 83 ]---

Avadehaka (-*) (adj.) [ava + deha + ka but more likely direct from ava + dih] in the idiom udaraavadehaka.m bhu~njati, to eat one's fill M I.102; Th 1, 935. Vism 33 has udaraavadehaka-bhojana, a heavy meal.

Avadhaara.na (nt.) [Cp. Sanskrit avadhaara.na, from ava + dhr] calling attention to, affirmation, emphasis; as t.t. used by C's in explanation of eva.m at DA I.27; and of kho at PvA 11, 18.

Avadhi 3 sg. aor. of vadhati. - At DhA II.73 avadhi = odhi.

Avanata see o.nata.

Avanati (-*) (f.) [from avanamati] stooping, bending, bowing down, humiliation Miln 387 (unnat-a-vanati).

Avani (f.) [Vedic avani] bed or course of a river; earth, ground Daavs IV.5.

Avapakaasati [ava + pa + kaasati = kassati, from krs.] is a doubtful compd. of kassati, the combined. ava + pa occurring only in this word. In all likelihood it is a distortion of vavakassati (vi + ava + kassati), supplementing the ordinary apakassati. See meaning and further discussion under apakaasati - Vin II.204 (apakaasati +; v.l. avapakassati; Bdhgh. in explination. on p. 325 has apapakaasati which seems, to imply (a)vavakassati); A III.145 sq. (avapakaasitu.m).

Avapatta see opatta.

Avapaayin (-*) (adj.) [cp. avapivati] coming for a drink, drinking J I.163.

Avapivati [ava + paa, cp. apapibati] to drink from J I.163.

Avabujjhati (-*) [Cp. BSanskrit avabudhyate] to understand A IV.96 = It 83 (n-avabujjhati); A IV.98 (id.) J I.378 = III.387 (interchanging with anubujjhati at the latter pass.).

Avabodha [ava + bodha] perception, understanding, full knowledge Sn A 509 (sacca*). - Neg. an* not awakened to the truth Vv 826 ( = ananubodha VvA 319).

Avabodhati (-*) [cp. Sanskrit avabodhati] to realise, perceive, pay attention to J III.151 na-va*).

Avabhaasa [later form of obhaasa] Only in cpd. gambhiiraavabhaaso D II.55, looking deep. Same cpd. at A II.105 = Pug 46 has obhaasa.

Avabhaasaka (-*) (adj.) [from avabhaasa] shining, shedding light on, illuminating Sdhp 14.

Avabhaasita (-*) [late form of obhaasita] shining with, resplendent Sdhp 590.

Avabhu~njati [ava + bhu~njati] to eat, to eat up J III.272 (inf. *bhottu.m), 273.

Avabhuuta (adj.) [ava + bhuuta, pp. of ava + bhuu] "come down", despised, low, unworthy M II.210.

Avamangala (adj.) [ava + mangala, ava here in privative function] of bad omen, unlucky, infaustus (opp. abhimangala); nt. bad luck, ill omen J I.372, 402; II.197; VI.10, 424; DhA III.123; PvA 261. Cf. next.

Avama~n~nati [Sanskrit avamanyate] to slight, to disregard, despise DhA I.170; PvA 37, 175; Sdhp 271. -pp. Causative avamaanita.

Avamangalla (adj.) [from avamangala] of bad omen, nt. anything importune, unlucky J I.446.

Avamaana and omaana [from ava + man, think] disregard, disrespect, contempt J II.386; III.423; V.384. Cp. next.

Avamaanana (nt.) [from avamaana] = avamaana J I.22.

Avamaaneti [Causative of avama~n~nati] to despise J V.246. pp. avamaanita PvA 36.

Avaya only in negative anavaya.

Avayava [Dern uncertain. Cp. mediaeval Sanskrit avayava] limb, member, constituent, part VvA 53 (sariira* = gattaa). 168, 201, 276; PvA 211 (sariira* = gattaa), 251 (muul* the fibres of the root). As t. t. g. at SnA 397. In the commentaries avayava is often used where a.mga would have been used in the older texts.

Avarajjhati (-*) [ava + rajjhati of raadh, cp. Sanskrit avaraadhyate] to neglect, fail, spurn Th 1, 167; J IV.428 (v.l. *rujjh*).

Avaruddha [from avarundhati] 1. Doubtful reading at Vin IV.181, apparently meaning "in revolt, out of hand" (of slaves) - 2. [late form of oruddha] restrained Sdhp. 592.

Avaruddhaka [avruddha + ka] subdued, expelled, banished J VI.575; Dpvs I.21 (Np).

Avaruddhati [Sanskrit aparundhati; ava + ruddhati of rudh] to expel, remove, banish J VI.505 ( = niiharati C.), 515. See also avarundhati.

Avarundhati [ava + rundhati. Only referred to by Dhp. in his Cy (ThA 271) on oruddha] to put under restraint, to put into one's harem as subsidiary wife.

Avalambati [ = olambati]. Only in late verse. To hang down. Pv II.118; 102. Ger. avalamba (for *bya) Pv III.35; cp. olubbha.

Avalitta (-*) [Sanskrit avalipta, pp. of ava-limpati] besmeared; in cpd. ullitta-valitta "smeared up and down" i. e. plastereotyped inside and outside A I.101.

Avalekhati [ava + lekhati, likh, Sanskrit avalikhati] to scrape off Vin II.221 (v. l. apa*).

Avalekhana1 (nt.) [from avalekhati] (a) scraping, scraping off Vin II.141 (*pidhara), 221 (*ka.t.tha). (b) scratching in, writing down J IV.402, (*sattha a chisel for engraving letters).

Avalekhana2 (nt.) v. l. for apalekhana.

Avalepana (-*) (nt.) [from ava + lip] smearing, daubing, plastereotypeng M I.385 (piita*); Sn 194 (kaayo taca-ma.ms- a-valepano the body plastereotyped with skin and flesh).

Avasa (adj.) [a + vasa] powerless Sdhp 290.

Avasa.ta and Osa.ta [Sanskrit apasrta, cp. also samavasrta, pp. of ava + sr] withdrawn, gone away; one who has left a community and gone over to another sect, a renegade Vin IV.216, 217 ( = titthaayatana.m sa'nkata).

Avasarati [ava + sr] to go down, to go away (to) Sn 685 (v. l. BB. T. ava.msari).

Avasaana (-*) [for osaana] (nt.) stopping ceasing; end, finish, conclusion J I.87 (bhattakicc-a-vasaane at the end of the meal); PvA 76 (id.).

Avasaaya [from avaseti] stopping, end, finish Th 2, 12 ( = avasaana.m ni.t.thaana.m ThA 19). But the id. p. at Dhp 218 has anakkhaate.

Avasi~ncanaka (-*) (adj.) [from osi~ncati] pouring over (act. and med.), overflowing J I.400 (an*).

Avasi.t.tha (sic and not osi.t.tha) [pp. of avasissati, Sanskrit avashis..ta] left, remaining, over S II.133; J I.138; V.339; VvA 66, pl. avasi.t.thaa all who are left, the others PvA 165 (janaa).

Avasi.t.thaka (adj.) [from avasi.t.tha] remaining, left J III.311.

---[ Page 84 ]---

Avasitta (-*) [pp. of osi~ncati] besprinkled, anointed, consecrated, only in phrase raajaa khattiyo muddha-vasitto of a properly consecrated king (see also khattiya) D I. 69; II.227; III.64; Pug 56; DA I.182 (T. muddha-vassita, v. l. *abhisitta); etc. - See also abhisitta.

Avasin (adj.-n.) [a + vasin from vash] not having control over oneself, D II.275.

Avasissati [Sanskrit avashis.yate; Pass. of ava + shis; but explained. by Kern, Toev. s. v. as fut of avasiidati] to be left over, to remain, in phrase ya.m pamaa.na-kata.m kamma.m na ta.m tatra-vasissati D I.251; A V.299 = S IV.322; J II.61 (see explination. on p. 62). Also in the phrases taco ca nahaaruu ca a.t.thi ca avasissatu sariire upasussatu ma.msa-lohita.m M I.481; A I.50; S II.28, and sariiraani avasissanti S II. 83. With the latter phrases cp. avasussati.

Avasii metri causa for avasi, a + vasi, aor. of vas4 to stop, stay, rest J V.66 (maa avasii).

Avasussati [Sanskrit *ava-sus.yati of shus.] to dry up, to wither; in later quotations of the old kaama.m taco ca nahaaru ca a.t.thi ca avasussatu (upasussatu sariire ma.msalohita.m) J I.71, 110; Sdhp 46. It is a later spelling for the older avasissatu see Trenckner (M I.569). - fut. avasucchati ( = Sanskrit **shoks.yati, fut. of Intens.) J VI.550 (v. l. BB *sussati; C. avasucchissati).

Avasuura [ava + suura; ava here in function of *ava.ms see ava II] sundown, sunset, acc. *.m as adv. at or with sundown J V 56 (anaavasuura.m metrically).

Avasesa1 [Sanskrit avashe.sa, from ava + shis., cp. avasissati] remainder, remaining part; only in compounds an* (adj.) without any remainder, i. e. fully, completely M I.220 = A V.347 (*dohin); A I.20 sq., 88; Sn 146; Pug 17; Dhs 363, 553; SnA 417 (*phara.na); PvA 71 (*ato, adv. altogether, not leaving anything out); and sa-vasesa leaving something over, having something left A I.20 sq., 88; Pv III.55 (jiivita* having still a little life left).

Avasesa2 (adj.) [see prec.] remaining, left Sn 694 (aayu avaseso); J III.19; Vbh 107 (ta.nhaa ca avasesaa ca kilesaa); PvA 19 (avasesaa ca ~naatakaa the rest of the relatives), 21 (avasesaa parisaa), 201 (a.t.thi-tacamatt- a-vasesa-sariira with a body on which nothing but skin and bones were left), 206 (a.t.thi-sanghaatamatt- a-vasesa-sariira). - nt. (as pred.) *.m what is left PvA 52 (app- avasesa'n); KhA 245 (n- atthi tesa'n avasesa'n).

Avasesaka (adj.) [from avasesa2] being left, overflowing, additional, more J I.400 (an*); Dpvs IV.45.

Avassa (adj.) [a + vash] against one's will, inevitable J I. 19 (*bhaavin); V.319 (*gaamitaa). Usually as nt. *.m adv. inevitably (cp. BSanskrit avashya.m Divy 347; Av. SH I.209 etc.) J III.271; DA I.263; Sdhp 293.

Avassaka.m (adv.) [see avassa] inevitably Dpvs IX.13.

Avassajati and ossajati [ava + srj, perhaps ud + srj = Sanskrit utsrjati, although the usual Vedic form is avasrjati. The form ossajati puzzled the BSanskrit writers in their sanskritisation apotsrjati = apa + ut + srj Divy 203] to let loose, let go, send off, give up, dismiss, release (ava): J IV.425; V.487 (aor. avassaji read for avissaji).

Avassana (nt.) [a + vassana, Sanskrit vaasana of vaash to bleat] not bleating J IV.251.

Avassaya [Sanskrit *avaashraya for the usual apaashraya, see Paali apassaya1] support, help, protection, refuge J I.211; II. 197; IV.167; Miln 160; DhA II.267; IV.198; PvA 5, 113.

Avassava [ava + sava, Sanskrit *srava from sru to flow] outflow, effect, only negative anassava no further effect Vin II.89; M I.93; II.246; A III.334 sp.

Avasseti [ava + aa + shri, for the usual *apaashrayati; see apasseti] to lean against, to depend on, find shelter in (loc.) J II.80 (aor. avassayi.m = vaasa'n kappesi.m C.). pp. avassita.

Avassaavana (nt.) [from ava + Causative of sru to flow] straining, filtering (*) J II.288.

Avassita [for apassita, Sanskrit apashrita] depending on, dealing with J V.375. See apassita.

Avassuta (adj.) [Sanskrit *avasruta, pp. of ava + sru, cp. avassava] 1. (lit.) flowing out or down, oozing, leaking J IV. 20. - 2. (fig.) (cp. anvaassava and aasava) filled with desire, lustful (opp. anavassuta, q. v.) Vin II.236; S IV.70, 184 (an*); A I.261, 262 (an*); II.240; IV.128, 201; Sn 63 (an*); Pug 27, 36; Dpvs II.5 (T. reads avassita). Neg. anavassuta: 1. not leaking, without a leak J IV.20 (naavaa = udaka-pavesan- a-bhaavena a. C.). - 2. free from leakage, i. e. from lust or moral intoxication Dh 39 (*citta); Sn 63 (see explained. in detail at Nd2 40); SnA 116 ( = kilesa-anvaassava-virahita).

Avaha.ta [pp. of avaharati] taken away, stolen Miln 46.

Avahara.na (-*) [from avaharati in both meanings] taking away, removal; theft PvA 47 (saa.taka*), 92 (soka*).

Avaharati and oharati [ava + hr] to steal J I.384; PvA 47 (avahari vattha.m), 86 (id., = apaanudi). -pp. avaha.ta (q. v.).

Avahasati [ava + has] to laugh at, deride, mock J V.111 (a~n~nama~n~na.m); PvA 178. - aor. avahasi J IV.413.

Avahaara [from avaharati] taking, acquiring, acquisition Vin V.129 (pa~nca avahaaraa, viz. theyya*, pasayha*, parikappa*, pa.ticchanna*, kusa*).

Avahiiyati [for ohiiyati] to be left behind, to stay behind J V.340.

Avaagata [ava + aa + gacchati] only in phrase dhammaa avaagat-amhaa, we are fallen from righteousness, J V.82. (C. explains apaagata).

Avaakaroti [either ava + aa + karoti or ava.m + karoti, the latter more probable. It is not necessary to take it with Kern, Toev. s. v. as Sanskrit apaakr.noti, apa + aa + kr] 1. to revoke, undo, rescind, not fulfill, spoil, destroy J III.339 (avaakayiraa = avakareyya chindeyya C.); V.495, 500; VI. 280. - 2. to give back, restore J VI.577 ( = deti C.).

Avaakirati wrong by Hardy VvA Index for avakirati (q. v.).

Avaa.tuka see apaa.tuka.

Avaapura.na (nt.) [same as apaapura.na] a key S III.132; A IV.374.

Avaapurati [same as apaapurati] to open (a door) J I.63; VI.373.

Avaava.ta (adj.) [a + vaava.ta] unobstructed, unhindered, free. Of a woman, not married J V.213 ( = apeta-vara.naa, which read for *bhara.naa, apariggahitaa C.).

Avikampamaana (adj.) [a + vi + kampamaana, ppr. med. of kamp] not hesitating, not wavering, not doubting J IV.310 ( = anosakkamaana C.; Kern takes it at this passage as a + vikalpamaana, see Toev. s.v., but unnecessarily); VI.176 ( = niraasanka C.); J VI.273.

Avikampin (adj.) [from a + vi + kamp] unmoved, not shaking, steady Vv 5022 ( = acala VvA 215).

Avikopin (adj.) [a + vikopin; from vi + kup] not agitated, not moving, unshaken, undisturbed J VI.226 (acchejja +).

Avikkhepa [a + vikkhepa] calmness, balance, equanimity D III.213; A I.83; Ps I.94; II.228; Dhs 11, 15, 570.

---[ Page 85 ]---

Avicaareti [a + vicaareti] not to examine VvA 336.

Avicca.m at J V.434 read avivicca.m [a + vivicca.m] i. e. not secretly, openly.

Avijaana.m [a + vijaana.m] not knowing, ignorant *h 38, 60; It 103.

Avijjaa (f.) [Sanskrit avidyaa; from a + vid] ignorance; the main root of evil and of continual rebirth (see pa.ticca-samuppaada, cp. S II.6, 9, 12; Sn p. 141 and many other passages). See on term Cpd.83 n. 3, 187 sq, 262 sq. and for further detail vijjaa. avijjaa is termed an anusaya (D III.254, 282; S IV.205, 208 sq., 212); it is one of the aasavaa (Vin III.4; D I.84; III.216; It 49; Dhs 1100, 1109), of the oghaa (D III.230, 276; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162), of the niivara.naani (S II.23; A I.223; It 8; Dhs 1162, 1486), of the sa'nyojanaani (D III.254; Dhs 1131, 1460). See for various characterisatons the following passages: Vin I.1; III.3; D III.212, 230, 234, 274; M I.54, 67, 144; S II.4, 26, 263; III.47, 162; IV.256; V.52; A I.8, 285; II.132, 158, 247; III.84 sq., 414; IV.228; It 34 (yaa kaac- imaa duggatiyo asmi.m loke paramhi ca avijjaamuulakaa sabbaa icchaa-lobha-sammussayaa), 57, 81; Sn 199, 277, 729 (jaati-mara.na-sa'nsaara.m ye vajanti punappuna.m . . . avijjaay-eva saa gati), 730, 1026, 1033 (avijjaaya nivuto loko); Dh 243; Nd2 99; Pug 21; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162; DhA III.350; IV.161 (*paligha).

Avi~n~naa.naka (adj.) [a + vi~n~naa.na + ka] senscless, without feeling or consciousness, unfeeling DhA I.6 (savi~n~naa.naka +).

Avi~n~nuu (adj.) = aviddasu.

Avitakka (adj.) [a + vitakka] free from thought D III.219, 274; Th 2, 75 ("where reasonings cease" trsl.); Dhs 161 ("free from the working of conception" trsl.), 504 etc.

Aviduura (adj.) [a + viduura] not far, near; usually in loc. -e as adv. near Sn. 147.

Aviddasu (adj.) [a + viddasu] ignorant, foolish Sn 762 ( = baala Sn A 509); Dh 268 = Nd2 514 ( = avi~n~nuu DhA III.395); PvA 18 (so read for avindasu).

Avinaasaka (*ika) (adj.) [a + vinaasa + ka] not causing destruction A III.38 (*ika); J V.116 ( = anaasaka C.).

Avinaasana (adj.) [a + vinaasana] imperishable Dpvs IV.16.

Avinicchaya~n~nuu (adj.) [a + vinicchaya + ~nuu] not knowing how to decide J V.367.

Avinibbhuja.m (adj.) [ppr. of a + vinibbhujati] unable to distinguish or to know J v.121 ( = atiirento C.).

Avinibbhoga (ad.) [a + vinibbhoga] not to be distinguished, indistinct J III.428 (*sadda).

Avipari.naama [a + viparinaama] absence of change, steadfastness, endurance D I.18; III.31, 33 (*dhamma); DA I.113 ( = jaraa-vasena vipari.naamassa abhaavato).

Avippa.tisaara [a + vippa.tisaara] absence of regret or remorse A III.46.

Avippavaasa (adj.-n.) [a + vippavaasa] thoughtfulness, mindfulness, attention; adj. not neglectful, mindful, attentive, eager Vin V.216; Sn 1142 (cp. Nd2 101: anussatiyaa bhaavento); DA I.104 (appamaado vuccati satiyaa avippavaaso); DhA IV.26 (appamaada = satiyaa avippavaasa).

Aviruddha (adj.) [a + viruddha] not contrary, unobstructed, free, without difficulties Dh 406; Sn 365, 704, 854.

Aviruu'hi (f.) [a + viruu'hi] absence or cesssation of growth Sn 235; DhA I.245 (*dhamma).

Avirodha [a + virodha] absence of obstruction, gentleness M II.105 = Th 1, 875.

Avirodhana (nt.) = avirodha J III.320, 412; V.378.

Avivaada [a + vivaada] absence of contesting or disputing, agreement, harmony D III.245; Sn 896 (*bhuuma SnA 557 or *bhumma Nd1 308, explained. as Nibbaana).

Avisa'nvaadaka (adj.) [a + visa'nvada + ka] not deceiving, not lying D I.4; III.170; Pug 57; DA I.73.

Avisa'nvaadanataa (f.) [abstr. from a + visa'nvaada] honesty, faithfulness, uprightness D III.190.

Avisa'nvaadeti [a + visa'n + Causative of vad] to keep one's word, to be honest, to be true J V.124.

Avisaggataa (f.) [a + visaggataa, v.l. viy*, thus as a + viyagga, Sanskrit vyagra = aakula] state of being undisturbed, harmony, balance J VI.224 (C. avisaggata). Cp. avyagga.

Avisare at J V.117 according to Kern, Toev. s.v. corrupted from avisaye, i. e. towards a wrong or unworthy object [a + visaya, loc], C. differently: avisare = avisaritvaa atikkamitva; v.l. adhisare.

Avisaaha.ta (adj.) [a + visaaha.ta] imperturbed Dhs 15, 24, 287, 570. (*maanasata).

Avissaji at J VI.79 is with Kern, Toev. s. v. better to be read avassaji (see avassajati).

Avissajjiya (adj.) [grd. of a + vissajjati] not to be given away, inalienable (cp. avebhangiya) Vin I.305 (*ika for *iya); II.170 (five such objects in detail); V.216 (+ avebh*); J VI.568.

Avissaasaniya (adj.) [a + visaasana + iya, ika] not to be trusted, untrustworthy J III.474.

Aviha [of uncertain etymology] the world of the Aviha's, i.e. the 12th of the 16 Brahmaa-worlds, cp. Kindred Sayings 48 n. 3; Cpd.139. - S I.35, 60; A I.279; Pug 17.

Avihi.msa (Avihesa) (f.) [a + vihi.msaa] absence of cruelty, mercy, humanity, friendliness, love D III.213, 215, 240 (avihesaa); Sn 292 ( = sakaru.nabhaava SnA 318); It 82 (*vitakka).

Avihe.thaka (adj.) [a + vihe.thaka] not harassing, not hurting D III.166 (but cp. SnA 318 avihesaka in same context); Miln 219.

Avii* in general see vii*.

Aviici [B.Sanskrit aviici a + viici (*) no intermission, or no pleasure (*), unknown, but very likely popular etymology] 1. aviiciniraya, one of the (great) hells (see niraya), described in vivid colours at many passages of the Paali canon, e.g. at Vin II.203 = It 86; Nd1 18, 347, 405 = Nd2 304 IIID; Ps I.83; Dhs 1281; J I.71, 96; III.182; IV.159; DhA I.148; PvA 52; SnA 290; Sdhp 37, 194; Pgdp 5 sq.; etc etc. - 2. disintegration, decay Vism 449 (a. jaraa naama).

Avekalla (*-) adj.) [a + vekalla] without deficiency, in *buddhi complete knowledge J VI.297.

Avekkhati [B.Sanskrit aviik.sate. The regular Paali form however is apekkhati, to which the BSanskrit av* corresponds] to look at, to consider, to see It 33 (v.l. ap*); Dh 28, 50, J IV.6; DhA I.259 ( = passati).

Avekkhipati [ava.m + khipati, ava.m here in form ave corresponds to ava*, cp. pure for pura* etc.] to jump, hop, lit. to throw (a foot) down J IV.251 ( = pacchimapaade khipati C.).

Avecca (adv.) [Usually taken as ava + ger. of i (*itya), cp. adhicca and abhisamecca, but by Paali grammarians as a + vecca. The form is not sufficiently clear semantically; B.Sanskrit avetya, e.g. Jtm. 210, is a Sanskritisation of the Paali form] certainly, definitely, absolutely, perfectly, explained. by Bdhgh. as acala (on D II.217), or as pa~n~naaya ajjhogahetvaa (on Sn 229); by Dhp. as apara-paccaya-bhaavena (on Pv IV.125). - Usually in phrase Buddhe Dhamme Sanghe avecca-pasaado perfect faith in the B., the Dhamma and the Sangha, e.g. at M I.47; S II.69; IV.271 sq., 304; V.344, 405; A I.222; II.56; III.212, 332, 451; IV.406; V.183; further at Ps I.161 (*pasanna); Sn 229 (yo ariyasaccaani avecca passati); Pv IV.125.

---[ Page 86 ]---

Avedha (adj.) [a + vedha, grd. of vidh (vyadh) to pierce, Sanskrit avedhya] not to be hurt or disturbed, inviolable, unshakable, imperturbable Sn 322 (*dhamma = akampanasabhaava SnA 331).

Avebhangika (adj.) [from a + vi + bhanga] not to be divided or distributed Vin I.305. Cp. next.

Avebhangiya (nt.) [ = avebhangika] that which is not to be divided, an inalienable possession; 5 such objects enumerated at Vin II.171, which are the same as under avissajjiya (q. v.); V.129.

Avera (adj.) [a + vera] peaceable, mild, friendly Sn 150 ( = veravirahita KhA 248); Sdhp 338. - *.m (nt.) friendliness, kindness D I.247 (*citta); Dh 5 ( = khantimetta DhA I 51).

Averin (adj.-n.) = avera Dh 197, 258.

Avosita [reading uncertain, cp. avyosita] only in negative an* unfulfilled, undone Th 1, 101.

Avyagga (ad) [a + vyagga, Sc. vyagra] not bewildered, not confused S V.66. Cp. avisaggataa.

Avyattataa (f.) [abstr. from avyatta] state or condition of not being manifest or visible, concealment, hiding DhA II.38.

Avyatha (adj.) [a + vyatha, cp. Sanskrit vyathaa misfortune] not miserable, fortunate J III.466 ( = akilamaana C.).

Avyaya [a + vyaya | absence of loss or change, safety D. I.72 (instr. *ena safely); Miln 393 (as abbaya T.).

Avyaapajjha1 (abyaabajjha) (nt.) [a + vyapajjha or bajjha, a confusion between the roots baadh or pad] (act.) kindness of heart; (pass.) freedom from suffering (Ep. of Nibbaana) Vin I.183 (avyaapajjh*a-dhimutQa); It 31 (abyaabajjh-aaraama).

Avyaapajjha2 (abyaabajjha) adj.) [either a + *vyaapadya or more likely a + *vyaabaadhya] free from oppression or injury; not hurting, kind D II.242 (avera +), 276; M I.90; It 16 = 52 (sukha.m); Miln 410 (avera +).

Avyaapanna (adj.) [a + vyaapanna] free from desire to injure, free from malice, friendly, benevolent D III.82,83 (*citta); A II.220 (id.); Pug 68 (id.). - Same in B.Sanskrit e.g. Divy 105, 302.

Avyaapaada [a + vyaapaada] absence of desire to injure, freedom from malice D III.215, 229, 240; It 82 (all MSS. have aby*); Dhs 33, 36, 277, 313, 1056.

Avyaayata (adj.) [a + vyaayata of yam] at random, without discrimination, careless J I.496 ( = avyatta C.).

Avyaayika (adj.) [from avyaya] not liable to loss or change, imperishable J V.508 ( = avigacchanaka C.).

Avyaava.ta (adj.) [a + vyaava.ta = Sk vyaaprta] not occupied, i. e. careless, neglectful, not worrying Vin III.136; Nd2 72 (abyaava.ta for appossukka Sn 43); J III.65; VI.188. Miln 177 (abyaa*).

Avyaaseka (adj.) [a + vy + aaseka] untouched, unimpaired D I.182 (*sukha = kilesa vyaaseka-virahitattaa avyaaseka DA I.183); Pug 59.

Avyaaharati [a + vy + aaharati] not to bring or procure J V.80.

Avyosita (adj.) [a + vyosita, Sanskrit vyavasita] not having reached perfection, imperfect Th 1, 784 (aby*).

Avhaya [from avhayati; cp. Sanskrit aahvaya "betting"] calling, name; adj. (-*) called, having the name of Sn 684 (isi*), 686 (Asit*), 689 (kanhasiri*), 1133 (Sace*, cp. Nd2 624).

Avhayati and Avheti [Sanskrit aahvayati, aa + huu or hvaa] - 1. to call upon, invoke, appeal to D I.244 (avhayaama imper.); PvA 164. - 2. to call, call up, summon M 1.17; J II.10, 252 ( = pakkosati); V.220 (avhayesi); VI.18, 192, 273 (avhettha pret.); Vv 331 (avheti). - 3. to give a name, to call, to address SnA 487 ( = aamanteti aalapati). -pp. avhaata (q. v.).

Avhaata [pp. of avhayati] called, summoned J III.165 = (an* = anaahuta ayaactia) = Pv I.123, cp. PvA 64. The id. p. at Th 2, 129 reads ayaacita.

Avhaana (nt.) [from avhayati, Sanskrit aahvaana in different meaning] 1. begging, calling, asking Sn 710; Vism 68 (*a-nabhin and anaa). - 2. addressing, naming SnA 605 ( = naama).

Avhaayana (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit aahvayana] calling to, asking, invocation, imploration D I.11 (Sir-avhaayane, v. l. avhayana; explained. at DA I.97 with reading Sirivhaayana as "ehi Siri mayha.m sire pati.t.thaahii ti eva.m sire Siriyaa avhayana.m"), 244, 245 (v. l. avhaana).

Avhaayika (adj.) [from avhaya] calling, giving a name; (m.) one who gives a name J I.401 = III.234.

Asa (adj.) [for asa'n = asanto, a + santo, ppr. of as in meaning "good"] bad J IV.435 = VI.235 (sata.m vaa asa'n, acc. sg. with v. l. santa.m . . ., explained- by sappurisa'n vaa asappurisa'n vaa C.); V.448 (n. pl. f. asaa explained. by asatiyo laamikaa C.; cp. p. 446 V.319).

Asa'nvata (adj.) [pp. of + sa'nvu.nati, cp. sa'nvuta] unrestricted, open J VI.306.

Asa'nvara [a + sa'nvaara] absence of closing or restraint, no control Dhs 1345.

Asa'nvaasa (adj.) [a + sa'nvaasa] deprived of co-residence, expelled from the community Vin IV.213, 214.

Asa'nvinda.m [ppr. a + sa'nvindati] not finding, not knowing Th 1, 717.

Asa'nvuta (adj.) [pp. of a + sa'nvu.naati, cp. sa'nvata] not restrained Dhs 1345, 1347.

Asa'nsa.t.tha (adj.) [a + sa'nsa.t.tha] not mixed or mixing, not associating, not given to society M I.21Q; S I.63; Sn 628 = Dh 404 ( = dassana-savana-samullaapa paribhogakaaya-sa'nsaggaana.m abhaavena SnA 468 = DhA IV.173).

Asa'nhaarima (adj.) = asa'nhaariya (*) Vin IV.272.

Asa'nhaariya (adj.) [grd. of a + sa'nharati] not to be destroyed or shattered It 77; Th 1, 372; Nd2 110.

Asa'nhiira (adj.) [ = asa'nhaariya of sa'n + hr] immovable, unconquerable, irrefutable Vin II.96; S I.193; A IV.141; V.71; Sn 1149 (as Ep. of Nibbaana, cp. Nd2 110); J I. 62; IV.283 (*citta unfaltering); Dpvs IV.12.

Asakka (adj.) [a + sakka; Sanskrit ashakya] impossible J V. 362 (*ruupa).

Asakku.neyya (adj.) [grd. of a + Sakkoti] impossible, unable to J I.55; KhA 185 and passim.

Asakkhara (adj.) [a + sakkhara] not stony, free from gravel or stones, smooth J V.168; DhA III.401 (opp. sasakkhara).

ASakyadhiitaa (f.) [a + Sakyadhiitaa] not a true Buddhist nun Vin IV.214.

---[ Page 87 ]---

Asaggu.na [a + saggu.na] bad quality, vice Sdhp 382 (*bhaavin, the a* belongs to the whole cpd.).

Asankita and *iya (adj.) [a + sankita, pp. of shank] not hesitating, not afraid, not anxious, firm, bold J I.334 (*iya); V.241; Sdhp 435, 541.

Asankuppa (adj.) [a + sankuppa, grd. of kup] not to be shaken; immovable; steady, safe (Ep. of Nibbaana) Sn 1149 (cp. Nd2 106); Th 1, 649.

Asankusaka (adj.) [a + sankusaka, which is distorted from Sanskrit sankasuka splitting, crumbling, see Kern, Toev. p. 18] not contrary J VI.297 (*vattin, C. appa.tilomavattin, cp. J translation. VI.143).

Asankheyya (adj.) [a + sankheyya, grd. of sa'n-khyaa] incalculable, innumerable, nt. an immense period A II.142; Miln 232 (cattaari a.), 289 DhA I.5, 83, 104.

Asanga (adj.) [a + sanga] not sticking to anything, free from attachment, unattached Th 2, 396 (*maanasa, = anaasattacitta ThA 259); Miln 343. Cp. next.

Asangita (adj.) [from asanga, a + sangita, or should we read asangika*] not sticking or stuck, unimpeded, free, quick J V.409.

Asacca (adj.) [a + sacca] not true, false J V.399.

Asajjamaana (adj.) [ppr. med. of a + sajjati, sa~nj] not clinging, not stuck, unattached Sn 38, 71 (cp. Nd2 107); Dh 221 (naamaruupasmi.m a. = alaggamana DhA III.298).

Asajjittho 2nd sg. pret. med. of sajjati to stick or cling to, to hesitate J I.376. See sajjati.

Asajjhaya [a + sajjhaaya] non-repetition Dh 241 (cp. DhA III.347).

Asa~n~na (adj.) [a + sa~n~naa] unconscious, *sattaa unconscious beings N. of a class of Devas D I.28 (cp. DA I.118 and BSanskrit asa'nj~nika-sattvaa* Divy 505).

Asa~n~nata (adj.) [a + sa~n~nata, pp. of sa'n + yam] unrestrained, intemperate, lacking self-control It 43 = 90 = Sn 662 = Dh 307.

Asa~n~nin (adj.) [a + sa~n~nin] unconscious D I.54 (*gabbhaa, cp. DA I.163); III.111, 140, 263; It 87; Sn 874.

Asa.tha (adj.) [a + sa.tha] without guile, not fraudulent, honest D III.47, 55, 237; DhA I.69.

Asa'n.thita (adj.) [a + sa.n.thita] not composed, unsettled, fickle It 62, 94.

Asat (Asanto) [a + sat, ppr. of asti] not being, not being good, i. e. bad, not genuine (cp. asa); frequent, e. g. Sn 94, 131, 881, 950; Dh 73, 77, 367; It 69 (asanto niraya'n nenti). See also asaddhamma.

Asati (and Asanaati q. v.) [Sanskrit ashnaati, ash to partake of, to eat or drink cp. a.msha share, part] to eat; imper. asnaatu J V 376; fut. asissaami Th 1, 223; Sn 970. - ppr. med. asamaana J V.59; Sn 239. ger. asitvaa Miln 167; and asitvaana J IV.371 (an*). pp. asita (q. v.). See also the spurious forms asmiye and a~nhati (a~nhamaana Sn 240), also aasita1.

Asatiyaa (adv.) [instr. of a + sati] heedlessly, unintentionally J III.486.

Asatta (adj.) [pp. of a + sajjati] not clinging or attached, free from attachment Sn 1059; Dh 419; Nd2 107, 108; DhA IV.228.

Asattha (n. adj.) [a + sattha] absence of a sword or knife, without a knife, usually combined. with ada.n.da in var. phrases: see under da.n.da. Also at Th 1, 757 (+ ava.na).

Asadisa (adj.) [a + sadisa] incomparable, not having its like DhA II.89; III.120 (*daana).

Asaddha (adj.) [a + saddha] not believing, without faith D III.252, 282.

Asaddhamma [a + sat + dhamma, cp. asat and BSanskrit asaddharma] evil condition, sin, esp. sexual intercourse; usually mentioned as a set of several sins, viz. as 3 at It 85; as 4 at A II.47; as 7 at D III.252, 282; as 8 at Vin II.202.

Asana1 (nt.) [Vedic ashan(m)] stone, rock J II.91; V.131.

Asana2 (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit ashana of ash, cp. asati] eating, food; adj. eating J I.472 (ghata-sana Ep. of the fire; V.64 (id.). Usually in negative form anasana fasting, famine, hunger Sn 311 ( = khudaa SnA 324); DA I.139. See also nirasana.

Asana3 (nt.) [Sanskrit asana] the tree Pentaptera Tomentosa J I.40 (as Bodhi-tree of Gotama); II.91; V.420; VI.530.

Asana4 (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit asanaa, to asyati to hurl, throw] an arrow M I.82 = S I.62. Cp. asani.

Asanaati [see asati] to eat, to consume (food) J I.472; V. 64; VI.14 (Esb. note: read asnaati; C. paribhu~njati).

Asani (f.) [Vedic ashani in same meaning; with Sanskrit ashri corner, caturashra four cornered (see assa), to Latin aacer pointed, sharp, Gr. a)/kros pointed, Ags. egl sting, Ohg. ekka corner, point. Connected with this is Sanskrit ashan (see asana1). Cp. also a.msa and asama2] orig. a sharp stone as hurling-weapon thence in mythol. Indra's thunderbolt, thunder-clap, lightning J I.71, 167; II.154; III.323; Miln 277; VvA 83. -aggi the fire of thunder, i. e. lightning or fire caused by lightning DhA III.71. -paata the falling of the thunderbolt, thunderclap, lightning DA I.280 (or should we read asannipaata*); PvA 45. -vicakka same as *paata (*) S II. 229 ( = laabha-sakkaara-silokassa adhivacana); D III.44, 47.

Asantasa'n and -anto (adj.) [ppr. of a + santasati] fearless, not afraid Sn 71, 74; J IV.101; VI.306; Nd2 109.

Asantaasin (adj.) [a + santaasin, cp. asantaasa'n] fearless, not trembling, not afraid Sn 850; Dh 351; Nd2 109; DhA IV.70.

Asantu.t.tha [pp. of a + santussati] not contented with, greedy, insatiate, unhappy Sn 108. Cp. next.

Asantu.t.thitaa (f.) [abstr. from asantu.t.thita = asantu.t.tha] dissatisfaction, discontentment D III.214 (so read for tutth*) = A I.95.

Asanthava [a + santhava] dissociation, separation from society, seclusion Sn 207.

Asandhitaa (f.) [a + sandhi + taa] absence of joints, disconnected state J VI.16.

Asannata (adj.) [a + sannata] not bent or bending Sdhp 417.

Asapatta (adj.-n.) [a + sapatta = Sanskrit sapatna] (act.) without enmity, friendly (med.) having no enemy or foe, secure, peaceful D II.276; Sn 150 ( = vigata-paccatthika, mettavihaarin KhA 249); Th 2, 512.

Asapattii (f.) [a + sapattii] without co-wife or rival in marriage S IV.249.

Asappurisa [a + sappurisa, cp. asat] a low, bad or unworthy man M III.37; SnA 479 ( = anariya Sn 664).

Asabala (adj.) [a + sabala] unspotted D II.80 = III.245.

Asabbha (adj.) [a + sabbha, i. e. *sabhya cp. sabhaa and in meaning court: courteous, hof: hoflich etc.] not belonging to the assembly-room, not consistent with good manners,

---[ Page 88 ]---

impolite, vile, low, of base character J III.527 (maatugaama); Dh 77 = J III.367 = Th 1, 994; Miln 221; DhA I.256; ThA 246 (akkhi). Cp. next. - Note. Both sabbha and sabbhin occur only in the negative form.

Asabbhin = asabbna J I.494, more frequent in compounds as asabbhi*, e.g. -kaara.na a low or sinful act Miln 280. -ruupa low, common J VI.386 ( = asaadhu-jaatika, laamaka), 387 ( = asabbhijaatika), 414 ( = apa.n.dita-jaatika). Cp. prec.

Asabha [Sanskrit r.sabha] see usabha.

Asama1 (adj.) [a + sama] unequal, incomparable J I.40 (+ appa.tipuggala); Sdhp 578 (+ atula). Esp. frequent in cpd. *dhura lit. carrying more than an equal burden, of incomparable strength, very steadfast or resolute Sn 694 ( = asama-viriya SnA 489); J I.193; VI.259, 330.

Asama2 (nt.) [the diaeretic form of Sanskrit ashman hurling stone, of whieh the contracted form is amha (q. v.); connected with Latin ocris "mons confragosus"; Gr. a)/kmwn anvil; Lith. akmu*~ stone, see also asana1 (Sanskrit ashan stone for throwing) and asani] stone, rock DA I.270, 271 (*mu.t.thika having a hammer of stone; v. l. BB. ayamu.t.thika); SnA 392 (instr. asmanaa).

Asamaggiya (nt.) [abstr. from a + samagga] lack of concord, disharmony J VI.516 (so read for asaamaggiya).

Asama.na at Pug 27 is to be read assama.na (q. v.).

Asamapekkhana (nt.) and *aa (f.) [from a + sam + apekkhati] lack of consideration S III.261; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162.

Asamaahita (adj.) [a + samaahita] not composed, uncontrolled, not firm It 113 (opp. susamaahita); Dh 110, 111; Pug 35.

Asamijjhanaka (adj.) [a + samijjhana + ka] unsuccessful, without result, fruitless; f. *ikaa J III.252.

ASamiddhi (f.) [a + Samiddhi] misfortune, lack of success J VI.584.

Asamosara.na (nt.) [a + samosara.na] not coming together, not meeting, separation J V.233.

Asampakampiya (adj.) [grd. of a + sampakampeti] not to be shaken, not to be moved Sn 229 ( = kampetu.m vaa caaletu.m vaa asakku.neyyo KhA 185).

Asampaja~n~na (nt.) [a + sampaja~n~na] lack of intelligence D III.213; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162, 1351.

Asampaayanto [ppr. of a + sampaayati] unable to solve or explain Sn p. 92.

Asambaadha (adj.) [a + sambaadha] unobstructed Sn 150 ( = sambaadha-virahita KhA 248); J I.80; ThA 293.

Asammodiya (nt.) [a + sammodiya] disagreement, dissension J VI.517 ( = asamaggiya C.).

Asammosa [a + sammosa cp. B.Sanskrit asammo.sadharman Ep. of the Buddha; Divy 49 etc] absence of confusion D III.221 = Dhs 1366.

Asaya'nvasin (adj.) [a + saya'n + vasi.m] not under one's own control, i. e. dependent D II.262; J I.337.

Asayha (adj.) [a + sayha, grd. of sah = Sanskrit asahya] impossible, insuperable J VI.337. Usually in cpd. *saahin conquering the unconquerable, doing the impossible, acchieving what has not been achieved before Th 1, 536, Pv II.922 (Angiirasa); It 32.

Asahana (nt.-adj.) [a + sahana] not enduring, non-endurance, inability J III.20; PvA 17.

Asahaaya (adj.) [a + sahaaya] one who is without friends; who is dependent on himself Miln 225.

Asaa see aasa.

Asaata (adj.) [a + saata, Sanskrit ashaata, Kern's interpretation and etymology of asaata at Toev. s.v. p. 90 is improbable] disagreeable Vin I.78 (asaataa vedanaa, cp. asaataa vedanaa M Vastu I 5); Sn 867; J I.288, 410; II.105; Dhs 152, 1343.

Asaadhaara.na (adj.) [a + saadhaara.na cp. asaadhaara.na Divy 561] not general, not shared, uncommon, unique Vin III.35; Kh VIII.9; J I.58, 78; Miln 285; DA I.71; Sdhp 589, 592.

Asaamapaaka (adj.) [a + saama + paaka] one who does not cook (a meal) for himself (a practice of ascetics) DA I.270.

Asaara (n. adj.) [a + saara] that which is not substance, worthlessness; adj. worthless, vain, idle Sn 937 ( = asaara nissaara saara-pagata Nd1 409); Dh 11, 12 (cp. DhA I.114 for interpretation).

Asaaraka (adj.) [a + saaraka] unessential, worthless, sapless, rotten Th 1, 260; J II.163 = DhA I.144.

Asaaraddha (adj.) [a + saaraddha] not excited, cool A I.148 = It 119 (passaddho kaayo a.; v.l. assaaraddha).

Asaahasa (nt.) [a + saahasa] absence of violence, meekness, peaceableness D III.147 (asaahase rata fond of peace); acc. as adv. asaahasa'n without violence, not arbitrarily J III.319; instr. asaahasena id. J VI.280; Dh 257 ( = amusaavaadena DhA III.382).

Asi [Vedic asi, Av. a.mhuu Latin ensis] a sword, a large knife D I.77 ( = DA I.222); M II.99; A I.48 = (asinaa siisa'n chindante); IV.97 (asinaa hanti attaana.m); J IV.118 (asi sunisito), 184; V.45 (here meaning "sickle"), 475 (asi~n ca me ma~n~nasi, probably faulty for either "aasi~n ca me" or "aasi~ncam me"); Vism 201 (~naa.na-si the sword of knowledge); PvA 253 (asinaa paha.ta). -camma sword and shield Vin II.192; A III.93; J VI.449. -tharu the hilt of a sword DhA IV.66. -nakha having nails like swords Pgdp 29. -patta having sword-like leaves, with swords (knives) for leaves (of the sword-leaf-wood in Niraya, a late feature in the descriptions of Purgatory in Indian speculative Theology, see e. g. Maark-a.n.deyapuraa.na XII.24 sq.; Mhbhaarata XII.321; Manu IV.90; XII. 75; Scherman, Visionsliteratur pp. 23 sq.) J VI.250 (*niraya); PvA 221 (*vana); Sdhp 194. -paasa having swords for snares (a class of deities) Miln 191. -maala (-kamma) sword-garland (-torture) J III.178 (+siisa'n chindaapeti); Daavs III.35. Preferable to interpretation "sword-dirt", see maala (maalaa). -lakkhana "swordsign", i.e. (fortune-telling from) marks or a sword D I.9; J I.455. -loma having swords for hair S II.257, cp. Vin III.106. -suuna slaughter-house (so also B.Sanskrit asisuunaa Divy 10, 15; see further detail under "kaama" similes) Vin II.26; M I.130, 143; A III.97. -suula a swordblade Th 2, 488 (explained. at ThA 287 by adhiku.t.tanatthena, i.e. with reference to the executioner's block, cp. also sattisuula).

Asika (adj.) (-*) [asi + ka] having a sword, with a sword in phrase ukkhitt-asika with drawn sword, M I.377; J I.393.

Asita1 [Sanskrit ashita, pp. of *asati, Sanskrit ashnaati] having eaten, eating; (nt.) that which is eaten or enjoyed, food M I.57; A III.30, 32 (*piita-khaayita etc.); PvA 25 (id.); J VI.555 *(aasana having enjoyed one's food, satisfied). Cp. aasita1.

Asita2 (adj.) [a + sita pp. of *shri, Sanskrit ashrita] not clinging to, unattached, independent, free (from wrong desires) D II.261 (*a-tiga); M I.386; Th 1, 38, 1242 (see Mrs Rh. D. in Brethren 404 note 2); J II.247; It 97; Sn 251, 519, 593, 686 (Asitavhaya, called the Asita i.e. the Unattached; cp. SnA 487), 698 (id.), 717, 957, 1065 (cp. Nd2 111 and nissaya).

---[ Page 89 ]---

Asita3 (adj.) [Sanskrit asita; Idg. *aas, cp. Latin aareo to be dry, i. e. burnt up; Gr. a)/zw to dry; orig. meaning burnt, hence of burnt, i. e. black colour (of ashes)] black-blue, black M II.180 (*vyaabhangii); A III.5 (id.); Th 2, 480 ( = indaniila ThA 286); J III.419 (*a-pangin black-eyed); v. 302; Daavs I.45.

Asita4 (m. nt.) [from asi] a sickle J III.129; V 46.

Asiiti (num.) [Sanskrit ashiiti] 80 (on symbolical meaning and frequent application see a.t.tha1 B 1 c, where also most of the ref's. In addition we mention the following:) J I.233 (*hattha 80 hands, i. e. 80 cubits deep); III.174 (*sahassa-vaara.na-parivuta); VI.20 (vassasahassaani); Miln 23 (asiitiyaa bhikkhusahassehi saddhi.m); Viism 46 (satako.tiyo) DhA I.14, 19 (mahaatheraa); II.25 (*ko.ti-vibhava). Cp. aa*siitika.

Asu (pronoun.) [Sanskrit asau (m.), adas (nt.); base amu* in oblique cases and derivation, e.g. adv. amutra (q.v.)] pronoun. d*monstr. "that", that one, usually combined. with yo (ya.m), e. g. asu yo so puriso M I.366; ya.m adu.m khetta.m S IV.315. nom. sg. m. asu S IV.195; Miln 242; f. asu J V.396 (asuu metri causa-); nt. adu.m M I.364, 483; A I.250. Of oblique cases e. g. amunaa (instr.) A I.250. Cp. also next.

Asuka (pronoun.-adj.) [asn + ka] such a one, this or that, a certain Vin III.87; J I.148; PvA 29, 30, 35, 109, 122 (*.m gati.m gata).

Asuci (adj.) [a + suci] not clean, impure, unclean Sn 75 (*manussaa, see Nd2 112); Pug 27, 36; Sdhp 378, 603.

Asuciika (nt.) [abstr. from asuci] impurity, unclean living, defilement Sn 243 (*missita = asucibhaava-missita SnA 286.

Asubha (adj.) [a + subha] impure, unpleasant, bad, ugly, nasty; nt. *.m nastiness, impurity. Cp. on term and the Asubha-meditation, as well as on the 10 asubhas or offensive objects Dhs. trsl. 70 and Cpd.121 n. 6. - S IV.111 (asubhato manasikaroti); V.320; Sn 341; Sdhp 368. -subha-subha pleasant unpleasant, good and bad Sn 633; J III. 243; Miln 136. -a-nupassin realising or intuiting the corruptness (of the body) It 80, 81; DhA I.76. -kathaa talk about impurity Vin III.68. -kamma.t.thaana reflection on impurity DhA III.425. -nimitta sign of the unclean i. e. idea of impurity Vism 77. -bhaavanaa contemplation of the impurity (of the body) Vin III.68. -sa~n~naa idea of impurity D III.253, 283, 289, 291. -sa~n~nin having an idea of or realising the impurity (of the body) It 93.

Asura [Vedic asura in more comprehensive meaning; connected with Av. ahuro Lord, ahuro mazdaa*; perhaps to Av. anhu.s and Latin erus mastereotype a fallen angel, a Titan; pl. asuraa the Titans, a class of mythological beings. Dhpaala at PvA 272 and the C. on J V.186 define them as kaa'aka~njaka-bhedaa asuraa. The are classed with other similar inferior deities, e. g. with garu'aa, naagaa, yakkhaa at Miln 117; with supa.n.naa, Gandhabbaa, yakkhaa at DA I.51. The fight between Gods and Titans is also reflected in the oldest books of the Paali Canon and occurs in identical description at the following passages under the title of deva-sura-sangaama: D II.285; S I.222 (cp. 216 sq.), IV.201 sq., V.447; M I.253; A IV.432. - Rebirth as an Asura is considered as one of the four unhappy rebirths or evil fates after death (apaayaa; viz. niraya, tiracchaana-yoni, petaa or pettivisaya, asuraa), e. g. at It 93; J V.186; Pv IV.111, see also apaaya. - Other passages in general: S I.216 sq. (fight of Devas and Asuras); IV.203; A II.91; IV.198 sq., 206; Sn 681; Nd1 89, 92, 448; DhA I.264 (*ka~n~naa); Sdhp 366, 436. -inda Chief or king of the Titans. Several Asuras are accredited with the role of leaders, most commonly Vepacitti (S I.222; IV.201 sq.) and Raahu (A II.17, 53; III.243). Besides these we find Pahaaraada (gloss Mahaabhadda) at A IV.197. -kaaya the body or assembly of the asuras A I.143; J V.186; ThA 285. -parivaara a retinue of Asuras A II.91. -rakkhasaa Asuras and Rakkhasas (Rak.sasas) Sn 310 (defined by Bdhgh at SnA 323 as pabbata-paada-nivaasino daanava-yakkha-sa~n~nitaa).

Asuropa [probably a haplological contraction of asura-ropa. On various suggestions as to etymology and meaning see Morris's discussion at J P T S. 1893, 8 sq. The word is found as aasulopa in the Asoka inscriptions] anger, malice, hatred; abruptness, want of forbearance Pug 18 = Vbh 357; Dhs 418, 1060, 1115, 1341 (an*); DhsA 396.

Asussuusa'n [ppr. of a + susuusati, Desid. of shru, cp. Sanskrit shushruu.sati] not wishing to hear or listen, disobedient J V.121.

Asuuyaka see anasuuyaka.

Asuura (adj.) [a + sura1] - 1. not brave, not valiant, cowardly Sn 439. - 2. uncouth, stupid J VI.292 (cp. Kern. Toev. p. 48).

Asekha (and Asekkha) (adj. n.) [a + sekha] not requiring to be trained, adept, perfect, m. one who is no longer a learner, an expert; very often meaning an Arahant (cp. B.Sanskrit ashaik.sa occurring only in phrase shaik.sa-shaiks.aah those in training and the adepts, e.g. Divy 261, 337; Av. SH I.269, 335; II.144) Vin I.62 sq.; III.24; S I.99; D III.218, 219; It 51 (asekho siilakkhandho; v. l. asekkha); Pug 14 ( = arahant); Dhs 584, 1017, 1401; Kvu 303 sq. -muni the perfectly Wise DhA III.321. -bala the power of an Arahant, enumerated in a set of 10 at Ps II.173, cp. 176.

Asecanaka (adj.) [a + secana + ka, from sic to sprinkle, cp. B.Sanskrit asecanaka-darshana in same meaning e. g. Divy 23, 226, 334] unmixed, unadulterated, i. e. with full and unimpaired properties, delicious, sublime, lovely M I.114; S I.213 (a. ojava "that elixir that no infusion needs" Mrs Rh. D.) = Th 2, 55 (explained. as anaasittaka.m pakatiyaa -va mahaarasa'n at ThA 61) = Th 2, 196 ( = anaasittaka.m ojavanta.m sabhaava-madhura.m ThA 168); S V.321; A III. 237 sq. Miln 405.

Asevanaa (f.) [a + sevanaa] not practising, abstinence from Sn 259 ( = abhajanaa apayirupaasanaa KhA 124).

Asesa (adj.) [a + sesa] not leaving a remnant, without a remainder, all, entire, complete Sn 2 sq., 351, 355, 500, 1037 ( = sabba Nd2 113). As *- (adv.) entirely, fully, completely Sn p. 141 (*viraaga-nirodha); Miln 212 (*vacana inclusive statement).

Asesita (adj.) [pp. of a + Causative of shis., see seseti and sissati] leaving nothing over, having nothing left, entire, whole, all J III.153.

Asoka1 (adj.) [a + soka, cp. Sanskrit ashoka] free from sorrow Sn 268 ( = nissoka abbuu'ha-soka-salla KhA 153); Dh 412; Th 2, 512.

Asoka2 [Sanskrit ashoka] the Asoka tree, Jonesia Asoka J V.188; Vv 354, 359 (*rukkha); Vism 625 (*ankura); VvA 173 (*rukkha).

Aso.n.da (adj.) [a + so.n.da] not being a drunkard, abstaining from drink J V.116. - f. aso.n.dii A III.38.

Asotataa (nt.) [abstr. a + sota + ta, having no ears, being earless J VI.16.

Asnaati [Sanskrit ashnaati to eat, to take food; the regular Paali forms are asati (as base) and asanaati] to eat; imper. asnaatu J V.376.

Asman (nt.) [Vedic ashman; the usual Paali forms are amha and asama2] stone, rock; only in instr. asmanaa SnA 362.

Asmasati [spurious form for the usual assasati = Sanskrit aashvasati] to trust, to rely on J V.56 (Pot. asmase).

Asmi (I am) see atthi.

Asmimaana [asmi + maana] the pride that says "I am", pride of self, egotism (same in B.Sanskrit e.g. Divy 210, 314) Vin I.3; D III.273; M I.139, 425; A III.85; Ps I.26; Kvu 212; DhA I.237. Cp. aha.m asmi.

---[ Page 90 ]---

Asmiye 1 sg. ind. pres. med. of ash to eat, in sense of a fut. "I shall eat" J V.397, 405 (C. bhu~njissaami). The form is to be explained. as denom. formn. from -aasha food, = a.msiyati and with metathesis asmiyati. See also a~nhati which would correspond either to *a.mshyati or ashnaati (see asati).

Assa1 [for A.msa1, q. v. for etymology] shoulder; in cpd. assapu.ta shoulder-bag, knapsack i. e. a bag containing provisions, instr. assupu.tena with provisions. Later exegesis has interpreted this as a bag full of ashes, and vv. ll. as well as Commentators take assa = bhasma ashes (thus also Morris J P T S. 1893, 10 without being able to give an etymology). The word was already misunderstood by Bdhgh. when he explained the Diigha passage by bhasmapu.tena, siise chaarika.m okiritvaa ti attho DA I.267. After all it is the same as pu.ta.msa (see under a.msa1). - D I.98, cp. A II.242 (v. l. bhasma*); DA I.267 (v.l. bhassa*).

Assa2 [for a.msa2 = Sanskrit ashra point, corner, cp. Sanskrit ashri, Gr. a)/krosando)cu/s sharp, Latin acer] corner, point; occurs only in cpd. caturassa four-cornered, quadrangular, regular (of symmetrical form, Vin II.316; J IV.46, 492; Pv II.119. Perhaps also at Th 2, 229 (see under assa3). Occurs also in form catura.msa under catur).

Assa3 [Vedic ashva, cp. Av. aspo; Gr. i(/ppos, dial. i(/kkos; Latin equus; Oir. ech; Gall. epo-; Cymr. ep, Goth. aiihva; Os. ehu; Ags. eoh] a horse; often mentioned alongside of and combined. with hatthi (elephant) Vin III.6 (pa~nca-mattehi assa-satehi), 52 (enumerated under catuppadaa, quadrupeds, with hatthi o.t.tha go.na gadrabha and pasuka); A II.207; V.271; Sn 769 (gava-ssa). At Th II.229 the commentary explains caturassa as "four in hand" ; but the context shows that the more usual sense of caturassa (see assa2) was probably what the poet meant; Dh 94, 143, 144 (bhadra, a good horse), 380 (id.); Vv 203 (+ assatarii); VvA 78; DhA I.392 (hatthi-assa-dayo); Sdhp 367 (du.t.th*). -aajaaniya [cp. BSanskrit ashvaajaaneya Divy 509, 511] a thoroughbred horse, a blood horse A I.77, 244; II.113 sq., 250 sq.; III.248, 282 sq.; IV.188, 397; V.166, 323; PvA 216. See also aajaaniya. -a-roha one who climbs on a horse, a rider on horseback, N. of an occupation "cavalry" D I.51 (+ hattha-roha; explained. at DA I.156 by sabbe pi assaacariyaassavejja-assabha.n.daadayo). -ka.n.na N. of a tree, Vatica Robusta, lit. "horse-ear" (cp. similarly Goth. aiihva-tundi the thornbush, lit. horse-tooth) J II.161; IV.209; VI.528. -khalunka an inferior horse ("shaker"), opp. sadassa. A I.287 = IV.397. -tthara a horse cover, a horse blanket Vin I.192; D I.7 -damma a horse to be tamed, a fierce horse, a stallion A II.112; *saarathi a horse trainer A II. 112, 114; V.323 sq.; DhA IV.4. -potaka the young of a horse, a foal or colt J II.288. -bandha a groom J II. 98; V.449; DhA I.392. -bha.n.da (for *bandha* or should we read *pa.n.daka*) a groom or horse-trainer, a trader in horses Vin I.85 (see on form of word Kern, Toev. p. 35). -bha.n.daka horse-trappings J II.113. -ma.n.dala circus Vism 308, cp. M I.446. -ma.n.dalika exercising-ground Vin III.6. -medha N. of a sacrifice: the horse-sacrifice [Vedic ashvamedha as Np.] S I.76 (v. l. sassa*); It 21 (+ purisamedha); Sn 303. -yuddha a horse-fight D I.7. -ruupaka a figure of a horse, a toy horse DhA II.69 (+ hatthi-ruupaka). -lakkha.na (earning fees by judging) the marks on a horse D I.9. -la.n.da horse-manure, horsedung DhA IV.156 (hatthi-la.n.da +). -vaa.nija a horsedealer Vin III.6. -sadassa a noble steed of the horse kind A I.289 = IV.397 (in comparison with purisa*).

Assa4 is gen. dat. sg. of aya'n, this.

Assa5 3. sg. Pot. of asmi (see atthi).

Assaka1 (-*) [assa3 + ka] with a horse, having a horse; an- without a horse J VI.515 (+ arathaka).

Assaka2 (adj.) [a + saka; Sanskrit asvaka] not having one's own, poor, destitute M I.450; II.68; A III.352; Ps I.126 (v. l. asaka).

Assatara [Vedic ashvatara, ashva + compar. suffix tara in function of "a kind of", thus lit. a kind of horse, cp. Latin matertera a kind of mother. i. e. aunt] a mule Dh 322 = DhA I.213; DhA IV.4 ( = va'avaaya gadrabhena jaata); J IV.464 (kambojake assatare sudante; imported from Cambodia); VI.342. - f. assatarii a she-mule Vin II.188; S I.154; II.241; A II.73; Miln 166. - assatarii-ratha a chariot drawn by she-mules Vv 203, 208 (T. assatarii rataa) = 438; Pv I.111 ( = assatariyutta ratha PvA 56); J VI.355.

Assattha1 [Vedic ashvattha, explained. in K Z I.467 as ashva-ttha dial. for ashva-stha "standing place for horses, which etymology is problematic; it is likely that the Sanskrit word is borrowed from a local dialect.] the holy fig-tree, Ficus, Religiosa; the tree under which the Buddha attained enlightenment, i. e. the Bo tree Vin IV.35; D II.4 (sammaa-sambuddho assatthassa muule abhisambuddho); S V.96; J I.16 (V.75, in word-play with assattha2 of V.79).

Assattha2 [pp. of assasati; cp. BSanskrit aasvasta Av. SH I.210] encouraged, comforted A IV.184 (v. l. as gloss assaasaka); Ps I.131 (loka an*; v. l. assaka); J I.16 (V.79 cp. assattha1); VI.309 ( = laddhassasa C.), 566.

Assaddha (adj.) [a + saddhaa] without faith, unbelieving, Sn 663; Pug 13, 20; Dhs 1327; DhA II.187.

Assaddhiya (nt.) [a + saddhiya, in form, but not in meaning a grd. of saddahati, for which usually saddheyya; cp. Sanskrit ashradheyya incredible] disbelief S I.25; A III.421; V.113 sq., 146, 148 sq., 158, 161; Vbh 371; DA I.235; Sdhp 80.

Assama [aa + shram] a hermitage (of a brahmin ascetic esp. a ja.tila) Vin I.24 = IV.108; I.26, 246; III.147; Sn 979; Sn p. 104, 111; J I.315 (*pada) V.75 (id.) 321. VI.76 (*pada). The word is not found anywhere in the Canon in the technical sense of the later Sanskrit law books, where "the 4 aashramas" is used as a t. t. for the four stages in the life of a brahmin priest (not of a brahmin by birth). See Dial. I.211-217.

Assama.na [a + sama.na] not a true Sama.na Vin I.96; Sn 282; Pug 27 (so read for asama.na); Pug A 207. - f. assama.nii Viin IV.214.

Assaya [aa + sayati, shri] resting place, shelter, refuge, seat DA I.67 (pu~n~n*). Cp. BSanskrit raajaashraya Jtm 3156; ashraya also in meaning "body": see Av. SH. I.175 and Index II.223.

Assava (adj.) [aa + sunaati, shru] loyal D I.137; Sn 22, 23, 32; J IV.98; VI.49; Miln 254; an* inattentive, not docile DhA I.7.

Assavati [aa + sru] to flow J II.276 ( = paggharati C.). Cp. also aasavati.

Assavanataa (f.) [abstr. from assavana] not listening to, inattention M I.168.

Assavaniiya (adj.) [a + savaniiya] not pleasant to hear Sdhp 82.

Assasati [aa + shvas, on semantical inversion of aa and pa see under aa1 3] 1. to breathe, to breathe out, to exhale, J I 163; VI.305 (gloss assaasento passaasento susu ti sadda.m karonto); Vism 272. Usually in combination. with passasati to inhale, i. e. to breathe in and out, D II.291 = M I.56, cp. M I.425; J II.53, cp. V.36. - 2. to breathe freely or quietly, to feel relieved, to be comforted, to have courage S IV.43; J IV.93 assasitvaana ger. = vissamitvaa c.); VI.190 (assaasa imper., with maa soci); med. assase J IV.57 (C. for asmase T.; explained. by vissase), 111 (*itvaa). - 3. to enter by the breath, to bewitch, enchant, take possession J IV.495 ( = assaasa-vaatena upahanati aavisati C.). - Causative assaaseti. -pp. assattha2. See also assaasa-passaasa.

---[ Page 91 ]---

Assaada [aa + saadiyati, svad] taste, sweetness, enjoyment, satisfaction D I.22 (vedanaana.m samudaya atthangama assaada etc.); M I.85; S II.84 sq. (*a-nupassin), 170 sq.; III.27 sq. (ko ruupassa assaado), 62, 102; IV.8 sq., 220; V.193, 203 sq.; A I.50 (*a-nupassin), 258, 260; II.10; III.447 (*di.t.thi) J I.508; IV.113, Sn 448; Ps I.139 sq., (*di.t.thi), 157; cp. I.1017; Pv IV.62 (kaam*); Vbh 368 (*di.t.thi); Nett 27 sq.; Miln 388; Vism 76 (paviveka-ras-); Sdhp 37, 51. See also appassaada under appa.

Assaadanaa (f.) [cp. assaada] sweetness, taste, enjoyment S I.124; Sn 447 ( = saadubhaava SnA 393).

Assaadeti [Denominitive from assaada] to taste S II.227 (laabha-sakkaarasiloka.m); Vism 73 (paviveka-sukha-rasa'n); DhA I.318.

Assaaraddha v. l. at It 111 for asaaraddha.

Assaavin (adj.) [aa + sru] only in an* not enjoying or finding pleasure, not intoxicated Sn 853 (saatiyesu a. = saata-vatthusa kaamagu.nesu ta.nhaa-santhava-virahita SnA 549). See also aasava.

Assaasa [Sanskrit aashvaasa, aa + shvas] 1. (lit.) breathing, esp. breathing out (so Vism 272), exhalation, opp. to passaasa inhalation, with which often combined. or contrasted; thus as cpd. assaasa-passaasa meaning breathing (in and out), sign of life, process of breathing, breath D II.157 = S I.159 = Th 1, 905; D III.266; M I.243; S I.106; IV.293; V.330, 336; A IV.409; V.135; J II.146; VI.82; Miln 31, 85; Vism 116, 197. - assaasa in contrast with passaasa at Ps I.95, 164 sq., 182 sq. - 2. (fig.) breathing easily, freely or quietly, relief, comfort, consolation, confidence M I.64; S II.50 (dhamma-vinaye); IV.254 (param-assaasa-ppatta); A I.192; III.297 sq. (dhamma-vinaye); IV.185; J VI.309 (see assattha2); Miln 354; PvA 104 (*matta only a little breathing space); Sdhp 299 (param*), 313.

Assaasaka (adj. n.) [from assaasa] 1. (cp. assaasa 1) having breath, breathing, in an* not able to draw breath Vin III.84; IV.111. - 2. (cp. assaasa2) (m. and nt.) that which gives comfort and relief, confidence, expectancy J I.84; VI. 150. Cp. next.

Assaasika (adj.) [from assaasa in meaning of assaasa 2, cp. assaasaka 2] only in negative an* not able to afford comfort, giving no comfort or security M I.514; III.30; J II.298 ( = a~n~na.m assaasetu.m asamattha.taaya na assaasika). Cp. BSanskrit anaashvaasika in stereotype phrase anitya adhruva anaashvaasika vipari.naamadharman Divy 207; Av. SH. 139, 144; whereas the corresponds Paali equivalent runs anicca addhuva asassata ( = appaayuka) vipari.naama-dhamma thus inviting the conjecture that BSanskrit aashvaasika is somehow distorted out of Paali asassata.

Assaasin (adj.) [Sanskrit aashvaasin] reviving, cheering up, consoled, happy S IV.43 (an*).

Assaaseti [Causative of assasati] to console, soothe, calm, comfort, satisfy J VI.190, 512; DhA I.13.

Assita (adj.) [Sanskrit ashrita, aa + pp. of shri] dependent on, relying, supported by (acc.); abiding, living in or on D II.255 (tad*); Vv 5016 (siiho va guha.m a.); Th 1, 149 (jana.m ev- assito jano); Sdhp 401.

Assirii (adj.) [a + sirii] without splendour, having lost its brightness, in assirii viya khaayati Nett 62 = Ud 79 (which latter has sassar- iva, cp. C. on passage l. c.).

Assu1 (nt.) [Vedic ashru, Av. asruu, Lith aszarà, with etymology not definitely clear: see Walde, Latin Wtb. under lacrima] a tear Vin I.87 (assuuni pavatteti to shed tears); S II.282 (id.); Dh 74; Th 2, 496 (cp. ThA 289); KhA 65; DhA I.12 (*pu.n.na-netta with eyes full of tears); II.98; PvA 125. -dhaaraa a shower of tears DhA IV.15 (pavatteti to shed). -mukha (adj.) with tearful face [cp. BSanskrit ashrumukha e. g. Jtm 3116] D I.115, 141; Dh 67; Pug 56; DA I.284; PvA 39. -mocana shedding of tears PvA 18.

Assu2 is 3rd pl. pot. of atthi.

Assu3 (indecl.) [Sanskrit sma] expletive part. also used in emphatic sense of "surely, yes, indeed" Sn 231 (according to Fausboll, but preferably with Paali T. S. ed. as tayas su for tay- assu, cp. KhA 188); Vv 324 (assa v. l. SS) = VvA 135 (assuu ti nipaata-matta.m). Perhaps we ought to take this assu3 together with the following assu4 as a modification of ssu (see su2). Cp. aasu.

Assu4 part. for Sanskrit svid (and sma*) see under su2. According to this view Fausbolls reading ken- assu at Sn 1032 is to be emended to kena ssu.

Assuka (nt.) [assu1 + ka] a tear Vin II.289; Sn 691; Pv IV.53.

Assutavant (adj.) [a + sutavant] one who has not heard, ignorant M I.1, 8, 135; Dhs 1003, 1217, cp. Dhs trsl. 258.

Aha1 (indecl.) [cp. Sanskrit aha and Paali aho; Germ. aha; Latin ehem etc.] exclamation of surprise, constereotypeation, pain etc. "ch! alas! woe!". Perhaps to be seen in cpd. *kaamaa miserable pleasures lit. "woe to these pleasures!") gloss at ThA 292 for T. kaamakaamaa of Th 2, 506 (explained. by C. as "ahaa ti laamaka-pariyaayo"). See also ahaha.

Aha2 (-*) and Aho (*-) (nt.) [Vedic ahan and ahas] a day. (1) *aha only in following compounds and cases: instr. eka-hena in one day J VI. 366; loc. tadahe on that (same) day PvA 46; acc. katipa-ha.m (for) some or several days J I.152 etc. (kattpa-ha); sattaaha.m seven days, a week Vin I.1; D II. 14; J IV.2, and frequent; anvaha.m daily Daavs IV.8. - The initial a of aha.m (acc.) is elided after i, which often appears lengthened: kati -ha.m how many days* S I.7; eka-ha-dvii -ha.m one or two days J I.292; dviiha-tii -han two or three days J II.103; VvA 45; eka-ha-dvii -h- accayena after the lapse of one or two days J I.253. - A doublet of aha is anha (through metathesis from ahan), which only occurs in phrases pubbanho and saayanha (q. v.); an adj. der. from aha is *ahika: see pa~nca-hika (consisting of 5 days). - (2) aho in cpd. ahoratta (m. and nt.) [cp. BSanskrit ahoraatra.m Av. SH. I.209] and ahoratti (f.) day and night, occurring mostly in oblique cases and adverbially in acc. ahoratta.m: M I.417 (*a-nusikkhin); Dh 226 (id.; explained. by divaa ca ratti~n ca tisso sikkhaa sikkhamaana DhA III. 324); Th 1, 145 (ahorattaa accayanti); J IV.108 (*aana.m accaye); Pv II.131 (*.m); Miln 82 (ena). - ahoratti.m Dh 387; J VI.313 (v. l. BB for T. aho va ratti.m).

Aha.m (prom.) [Vedic aha.m = Av. az*m; Gr. e)gw/(n); Latin ego; Goth. ik, Ags. ic, Ohg. ih etc.] pronoun. of 1st person "I". nom. sg. aha.m S III.235; A IV.53; Dh 222, 320; Sn 172, 192, 685, 989, 1054, 1143; J I.61; II.159. - In pregnant sense (my ego, myself, I as the one and only, i. e. egotistically) in following phrases: ya.m vadanti mama . . na te aha.m S I.116, 123; aha.m asmi "I am" (cp. aha.mkaara below) S I.129; III.46, 128 sq.; IV.203; A II.212, 215 sq.; Vism 13; aha.m pure ti "I am the first" Vv 8450 ( = ahamaha.mkaaraa ti VvA 351). - gen. dat. mayha.m Sn 431, 479; J I.279; II.160, mama S I.115; Sn 22, 23, 341, 997; J II.159, and mama.m S I.116; Sn 253 ( = mama C.), 694, 982. - instr. mayaa Sn 135, 336, 557, 982; J I.222, 279. - acc. ma.m Sn 356, 366, 425, 936; J II. 159; III.26, and mama.m J III.55, 394. - loc. mayi Sn 559; J III 188. The enclitic form in the sg. is me, and functions in different cases, as gen. (Sn 983; J II.159), acc. (Sn 982), instr. (J I.138, 222), and abl. - Pl. nom. maya'n (we) Sn 31, 91, 167, 999; J II.159; VI.365, amhe J II. 129, and vaya'n (q. v.). - gen. amhaaka.m J I.221; II.159 and asmaaka.m Sn p. 106. - acc. amhe J I.222; II.415 and asme J III.359. - instr. amhehi J I.150; II.417 and asmaabhi ThA 153 (Ap. 132). - loc. amhesu J I.222. The enclitic form for the pl. is no (for acc. dat and gen.): see under vaya'n. -kaara selfishness, egotism, arrogance (see also mama.mkaara) M III.18, 32; S II.253; III.80, 136, 169 sq.; IV.41, 197, 202; A I.132 sq.; III.444; Ud 70; Nett 127, and frequent passim.

---[ Page 92 ]---

Ahaha [onomat. after exclamation ahahaa: see aha1] 1. exclamation of woe J III.450 (ahahaa in metre). - 2. (nt.) N. of a certain division of Purgatory (Niraya), lit. oh woe! A V.173 = Sn p. 126.

Ahaasa [a + haasa, cp. Sanskrit ahaasa and ahar.sa] absence of exultancy, modesty J III.466 ( = an-ubbillaavitatta.m C.).

Ahaasi 3rd sg. aor. of harati (q. v.).

Ahi [Vedic ahi, with Av. aži perhaps to Latin anguis etc., see Walde Latin Wtb. s. v.] a snake Vin II.109; D I.77; S IV.198; A III.306 sq.; IV.320; V.289; Nd1 484; Vism 345 (+ kukkura etc.); VvA 100; PvA 144. -ku.napa the carcase of a snake Vin III.68 = M I.73 = A IV.377. -gaaha a snake catcher or trainer J VI.192. -gu.n.thika (* reading uncertain, we find as vv. ll. *gu.n.dika, *gu.n.tika and *ku.n.dika; the BSanskrit paraphrase is *tu.n.dika Divy 497. In view of this uncertainty we are unable to pronounce a safe etymology; it is in all probability a dialectical; may be Non-Aryan, word. See also under ku.n.dika and gu.n.thika and cp. Morris in J.Paali Text Society 1886, 153) a snake charmer J I.370 (*gu.n.d*); II.267; III.348 (*gu.n.d*); IV.456 (T. *gu.n.t; v. l. BB *ku.n.d*) 308 (T. *ku.n.d*, v. l. SS *gu.n.th*), 456 (T. *gu.n.t*; v. l. BB *ku.n.d); VI.171 (T. *gu.n.d*; v. l. BB *ku.n.d*); Miln 23, 305. -chattaka (nt.) "a snake's parasol", a mushroom D III.87; J II.95; Ud 81 (C. on VIII.5, 1). -tu.n.dika = *gu.n.thika Vism 304, 500. -peta a Peta in form of a snake DhA II.63. -mekhalaa "snake-girdle", i. e. outfit or appearance of a snake DhA I.139. -vaataka (-roga) N. of a certain disease ("snakewind-sickness") Vin I.78; J II.79; IV.200; DhA I.169, 187, 231; III.437. -vijjaa "snake-craft", i. e. fortune-telling or sorcery by means of snakes D I.9 ( = sappa-da.t.thatikicchana-vijjaa c- eva sapp- avhaayana-vijjaa ea "the art of healing snake bites as well as the invocation of snakes (for magic purposes)" DA I.93).

Ahi.msaka (adj.) [from ahi.msaa] not injuring others, harmless, humane, S I.165; Th 1, 879; Dh 225; J IV.447.

Ahi.msaa (f.) [a + hi.msaa] not hurting, humanity, kindness D III.147; A I.151; Dh 261, 270; J IV.71; Miln 402.

Ahita (adj.-n.) [a + hita] not good or friendly, harmful, bad; unkindliness D III.246; Dh 163; Sn 665, 692; Miln 199 (*kaama).

Ahirika and Ahiriika (adj.) [from a + hirii] shameless, unscrupulous D III.212, 252, 282; A II.219; Dh 244; Sn 133 (*iika); It 27 (*iika); Pug 19 (also nt. unscrupulousness); Dhs 365; Nett 39, 126; DhA III.352.

Ahiinindriya see discussed under abhinindriya.

Ahuvaasi.m 1st sg. pret. of hotii (q. v.) I was Vv 826 ( = ahosi.m VvA 321).

Ahuhaaliya (nt.) [onomat.] a hoarse and loud laugh J III.223 ( = danta-vida'nsaka-mahaa-hasita C.).

Ahe (indecl.) [ = aho, cp. aha1] exclamation of surprise or bewilderment: alas! woe etc., perhaps in cpd. ahevana a dense forest (lit. oh! this forest, alas! the forest (i. e. how big it is) J V.63 (uttamaahevan and aho, if reading is correct, which is not beyond doubt. C. on p. 64 expls. as "ahevana.m vuccati vanasa.n.do").

Aho (indecl.) [Sanskrit aho, for etymology see aha1] exclamation of surprise, astonishment or constereotypeation: yea, indeed, well; I say! for sure! VvA 103 (aho ti acchariy- atthena nipaato); J I.88 (aho acchariya.m aho abbhuta.m), 140. Usually combined. with similar emphatic particles, e. g. aho vata DhA II.85; PvA 131 ( = saadhu vata); aho vata re D I. 107; Pv II.94 5. Cp. ahe.

Ahosi-kamma (nt.) an act or thought whose kamma has no longer any potential force: Cpd.145. At p. 45 ahosikakamma is said to be a kamma inhibited by a more powerful one. See Buddhaghosa in Vism. Chap. XIX.

-----[ Aa ]-----

Aa1 (indecl.) [Vedic aa, prep. with acc., loc., abl., meaning "to, towards", and also "from". Orig. an emphatic-deictic part. (Idg. -e) = Gr. h)_ surely, really; Ohg. -aa etc., increment of a (Idg. -e), as in Sanskrit a-sau; Gr. e\kei_ (cp. a3), see Brugmann, Kurze Vergl. Gr. 464, 465] a frequent prefix, used as well-defined simple base-prefix (with rootderivations), but not as modification (i. e. first part of a double prefix cpd. like sam-aa-dhi) except in one case aa-ni-sa'nsa (which is doubtful and of different origin, viz. from combination. aasa'nsa-nisa'nsa, see below 3b). It denotes either touch (contact) or a personal (close) relation to the object (aa ti anussara.n- atthe nipaato PvA 165), or the aim of the action expressed in the verb. - (1.) As prep. c. abl. only in J in meaning "up to, until, about, near" J VI.192 (aa sahassehi = yaava s. C.), prob. a late development. As prefix in meaning "forth, out, to, towards, at, on" in following applications: - (a) aim in general or touch in particular (lit.), e. g. aaka.d.dhati pull to, along or up; -kaasa shining forth; -ko.teti knock at; -gacchati go towards; -camati rinse over; -neti bring towards, ad-duce; -bhaa shining forth; -bhujati bend in; -masati touch at; -yata stretched out; -rabhati at-tempt; -rohana a-scending; -laya hanging on; -loketi look at; -vattati ad-vert; -vahati bring to; -vaasa dwelling at; -saadeti touch; -siidati sit by; -hanati strike at. - (b) in reflexive function: close relation to subject or person actively concerned, e. g. aadaati take on or up (to oneself); -daasa looking at, mirror; -dhaara support; -nandati rejoice; -nisa'nsa subjective gain; -baadha being affected; -modita pleased; -rakkha guarding; -raadhita satisfied; -raama (personal) delight in; -lingati embrace (to oneself); -haara taking to (oneself). - (c) in transitive function: close relation to the object passively concerned, e. g. aaghaatana killing; -carati indulge in; -cikkhati point ont, explain; -jiiva living on; -.naapeti give an order to somebody; -disati point out to some one; -bhindati cut; -manteti ad-dress; -yaacati pray to; -roceti speak to; si~ncati besprinkle; -sevati indulge in. - (d) out of meaning (a) develops that of an intensive-frequentative prefix in sense of "all-round, completely, very much", e. g. aaki.n.na strewn all over, -kula mixed up; -dhuta moved about; -raava shouting out or very much; -lu'ati move about; -hi.n.dati roam about. - 2. Affinities. Closely related in meaning and often interchanging are the following prep. (prefixes): anu (-bhati), abhi (-sa'nsati), pa (-tapati), pa.ti (-kankhati) in meaning 1 a-c; and vi (-kirati, -ghaata, -cameti, -lepa, -lopa), sam (-tapati, -dassati) in meaning 1 d. See also 3b. - 3. Combinations: (a) Intensifying combinations. of other modifying prefixes with aa as base: anu + aa (anvaa-gacchati, -disati, -maddati, -rohati, -visati, -sanna, -hata), pa.ti + aa (paccaa-janati, -ttharati, -daati, -savati), pari + aa (pariyaa-~naata, -daati, -pajjati, -harati), sam + aa (samaa-disati, -daana, -dhi, -pajjati, -rabhati). - (b) Contrast-combinations. with other prefix in a double cpd. of noun, adj. or verb (cp. above 2) in meaning of "up and down, in and out, to and fro"; aa + ni: aavedhika-nibbedhika, aasa'nsa-nisa'nsa (contracted to aanisa'nsa), aasevita-nisevita; aa + pa: assasatipassasati (where both terms are semantically alike; in exegesis however they have been differentiated in a way which looks like a distortion of the original meaning, viz. assasati is taken as "breathing out", passasati as "breathing in": see Vism 271), assaasa-passaasa, aamoditapamodita, aahuna-paahuna, aahuneyya-paahuneyya; aa + paccaa:

---[ Page 93 ]---

Aako.tita-paccaako.tita; aa + pari: aaka.d.dhana-parika.d.dhana, aasankita-parisankita; aa + vi: aalokita-vilokita, aavaaha-vivaaha, aave.thana-vinive.thana; a + sam: allaapa-sallaapa: aa + samaa: aaci.n.na-samaaci.n.na. - 4. Before double consonants aa is shortened to a and words containing aa in this form are to be found under a*, e. g. akkama.na, akkhitta, acchaadeti, a~n~naata, appo.teti, allaapa, assaada.

Aa2 gu.na or increment of a* in connection with such suffixes as -ya, -iya, -itta. So in aayaSakya from ayasaka; aaruppa from aruupa; aarogya from aroga; aalasiya from alasa; aadhipacca from adhipati; aabhidosika from abhidosa etc.

Aa3 of various other origins (gu.na e. g. of .r or lengthening of ordinary root a*), rare, as aalinda (for alinda), aasabha (from usabha).

Aa4 infix in repetition-compounds denoting accumulation or variety (by contrast with the opposite, cp. aa1 3b), constitutes a gu.na- or increment-form of negative prefix a (see a2), as in following: phalaaphala all sorts of fruit (lit. what is fruit and not fruit) frequent in Jaatakas, e. g. I.416; II.160; III.127; IV.220, 307, 449; V.313; VI.520; kaara.naakaara.naani all sorts of duties J VI.333; DhA I.385; kha.n.daakha.n.da peele-meele J I.114; III.256; ga.n.daaga.n.da a mass of boils DhA III.297; ciraacira.m continually Vin IV.261; bhavaabhava all kinds of existences Sn 801, cp. Nd1 109; Nd2 664; Th 1, 784 (*esu = mahant-aa-mahantesu bh. C., see Brethren 305); ruupaaruupa the whole aggregate ThA 285; etc.

Aakankhati (asp: Aaka'nkhati Aaka'nkhati) [aa + kaank.s, cp. kankhati] to wish for, think of, desire; intend, plan, design Vin II.244 (-amaana); D I.78, 176; S I.46; Sn 569 (-amaana); Sn p. 102 ( = icchati SnA 436); DhA I.29; SnA 229; VvA 149; PvA 229.

Aakankhaa (asp: Aaka'nkhaa Aaka'nkhaa) f. [from aa + kaank.s] longing, wish; as adj. at Th 1, 1030.

Aaka.d.dhati [aa + ka.d.dhati] to pull along, pull to (oneself), drag or draw out, pull up Vin II.325 (Bdhgh. for apakassati, see under apakaasati); IV.219; J I.172, 192, 417; Miln 102, 135; ThA 117 (*eti); VvA 226; PvA 68. Pass. aaka.d.dhiyati J II.122 (*amaana-locana with eyes drawn away or attracted); Miln 102; Vism 163; VvA 207 (*amaana-hadaya with torn heart). -pp. aaka.d.dhita.

Aaka.d.dhana (nt.) [from aaka.d.dhati] drawing away or to, pulling out, distraction VvA 212 (*parika.d.dhana pulling about); DhsA 363; Miln 154 (*parika.d.dhana), 352. - As f. Vin III.121.

Aaka.d.dhita [pp. of aka.d.dheti] pulled out, dragged along; upset, overthrown J III.256 ( = akkhitta2).

Aakantana (*) a possible reading, for the durakantana of the text at Th 1, 1123, for which we might read duraakantana.

Aakappa [cp. Sanskrit aakalpa aa + kappa] 1. attire, appearance, Vin I.44 (an*) = II.213; J I.505. - 2. deportment Dhs 713 (aa* gamanaadi-aakaaro DhsA 321). -sampanna, suitably attired, well dressed, A III.78; J IV.542; an* sampanna, ill dressed, J I.420.

Aakampita [pp. of aakampeti, Causative of aa + kamp] shaking, trembling Miln 154 (*hadaya).

Aakara [cp. Sanskrit aakara] a mine, usually in cpd. ratan-aakara a mine of jewels Th 1, 1049; J II.414; VI. 459; Dpvs I.18. - Cp. also Miln 356; VvA 13.

Aakassati [aa + kassati] to draw along, draw after, plough, cultivate Nd1 428.

Aakaara [a + karoti, kr] "the (way of) making", i. e. (1) state, condition J I.237 (avasan* condition of inhabitability); II.154 (patan* state of falling, labile equilibrium), cp. pa.n.n*. - (2) property, quality, attribute D I.76 (anaavila sabb*-sampanna endowed with all good qualities, of a jewel); II.157 (*varuupeta); J II.352 (sabb* paripu.n.na altogether perfect in qualities). - (3) sign, appearance, form, D I.175; J I.266 (chaatak.r sign of hunger); Miln 24 (*ena by the sign of . .); VvA 27 (therassa aa. form of the Th.); PvA 90, 283 (ra~n~no aa. the king's person); Sdhp 363. - (4) way, mode, manner, sa-aakaara in all their modes D I.13 = 82 = III.111; J I.266 (aagaman* the mode of his coming). Esp. in instr. sg. and pl. with num. or pronoun. (in this way, in two ways etc.): chah-aakaarehi in a sixfold manner Nd2 680 (cp. kaara.nehi in same sense); Nett 73, 74 (dvaadasah-aakaarehi); Vism 613 (navah-aakaarehi indriyaani tikkhaani bhavanti); PvA 64 (yen-aakaarena aagato ten-aakaarena gato as he came so he went), 99 (id.). (5) reason, ground, account D I.138, 139; Nett 4, 8 sq., 38; DhA I.14; KhA 100 (in explination. of eva.m). In this meaning frequent with dass (dasseti, dassana, nidassana etc.) in commentary style "what is meant by", the (statement of) reason why or of, notion, idea PvA 26 (daatabb*dassana), 27 (thoman*-dassana), 75 (kaaru~n~n *.m dassesi), 121 (pucchan*-nidassana.m what has been asked); SnA 135 (*nidassana). -parivitakka study of conditions, careful consideration, examination of reasons S II.115; IV.138; A II.191 = Nd2 151.

Aakaaraka (nt.) [aakaara + ka] appearance; reason, manner (cp. aakaara4) J I.269 (aakaarakena = kaara.nena C.).

Aakaaravant (adj.) [from aakaara] having a reason, reasonable, founded M I.401 (saddhaa).

Aakaasa1 [Sanskrit aakaasha from aa + kaash, lit. shining forth, i. e. the illuminated space] air, sky, atmosphere; space. On the concept see Cpd.5, 16, 226. On a fanciful etymology of aakaasa (from aa + kassati of krs.) at DhsA 325 see Dhs trsl. 178. D I.55 (*.m indriyaani sankamanti the sense-faculties pass into space); III.224, 253, 262, 265; S III.207; IV.218; V.49, 264; J I.253; II.353; III.52, 188; IV.154; VI.126; Sn 944, 1065; Nd1 428; Pv II.118; SnA 110, 152; PvA 93; Sdhp 42, 464. -aakaasena gacchati to go through the air PvA 75 (aagacch*), 103, 105, 162; *ena carati id. J II.103; *e gacchati id. PvA 65 (cando). - Formula "ananto aakaaso" frequent; e. g. at D I.183; A II.184; IV. 40, 410 sq.; V.345. -anta "the end of the sky", the sky, the air (on *anta see anta1 4) J VI.89. -aana~nca (or a-na~nca) the infinity of space, in cpd. *aayatana the sphere or plane of the infinity of space, the "space-infinity-plane", the sphere of unbounded space. The consciousness of this sphere forms the first one of the 4 (or 6) higher attainments or recognitions of the mind, standing beyond the fourth jhaana, viz. (1) aakaas-, (2) vi~n~naa.n-aana~nc-aayatana (3) aaki~nca~n~n-, (4) n-eva sa~n~naana-sa~n~n-, (5) nirodha, (6) phala. - D I.34, 183; II.70, 112, 156; III.224, 262 sq.; M I.41, 159.; III. 27, 44; S V.119; Ps I.36; Dhs 205, 501, 579, 1418; Nett 26, 39; Vism 326, 340, 453; DA I.120 (see Nd2 under aakaasa; Dhs 265 sq.; Dhs trsl. 71). As classed with jhaana see also Nd2 672 (saadhu-vihaarin). -kasi.na one of the kasi.n-aayatanas (see under kasi.na) D III.268; A I.41. -gangaa N. of the celestial river J I.95; III.344. -gamana going through the air (as a trick of elephants) Miln 201. -caarika walking through the air J II.103. -caarin = *caarika VvA 6. -.t.tha living in the sky (of devataa) Bu I.29; Miln 181, 285; KhA 120; SnA 476. -tala upper story, terrace on the top of a palace SnA 87. -dhaatu the element of space D III.247; M I.423; III.31; A I.176; III.34; Dhs 638.

Aakaasa2 (nt.*) a game, playing chess "in the air" (sans voir) Vin II.10 = D I.6 ( = a.t.thapada-dasapadesu viya aakaase yeva ki'ana.m DA I.85).

Aakaasaka (adj.) [aakaasa + ka] being in or belonging to the air or sky J VI.124.

---[ Page 94 ]---

Aakaasati [from aakaasa1] to shine J VI.89.

Aaki~nca~n~na (nt.) [abstr. from aki~ncana] state of having nothing, absence of (any) possessions; nothingness (the latter as philosophical t. t.; cp. below *aayatana and see Dhs trsl. 74). - Sn 976, 1070, 1115 (*sambhava, cp. Nd2 116); Th 2, 341 ( = aki~ncanabhaava ThA 240; trsl. "cherish no wordly wishes whatsoever"); Nd2 115, see aakaasa; Miln 342. -aayatana realm or sphere of nothingness (cp. aakaasa*) D I.35, 184; II.156; III.224, 253, 262 sq.; M I.41, 165; II.254, 263; III.28, 44, S IV.217; A I.268; IV.40, 401; Ps I.36; Nett 26, 39; Vism 333. See also jhaana and vimokkha.

Aaki.n.na [pp. of aakirati] 1. strewn over, beset with, crowded, full of, dense, rich in (*-) Vin III.130 (*loma with dense hair); S I.204 (*kammanta "in motley tasks engaged"); IV.37 (gaamanto aa. bhikkhuuhi etc.); A III.104 (*vihaaro); IV.4; V.15 (an* C. for appaki.n.na); Sn 408 (*varalakkha.na = vipula-varalakkh* SnA 383); Pv II.124 (naanaa-dijaga.n* = aayutta PvA 157); Pug 31; PvA 32 ( = pariki.n.na); Sdhp 595. - Freq. in idiomatic phrase describing a flourishing city "iddha phiita bahujana aaki.n.na-manussa", e. g. D I.211; II.147 (*yakkha for *manussa; full of yakkhas, i. e. under their protection); A III.215; cp. Miln 2 (*jana-manussa). - 2. (uncertain whether to be taken as above 1 or as equal to avaki.n.na from avakirati 2) dejected, base, vile, ruthless S I.205 = J III.309 = 539 = SnA 383. At K. S. 261, Mrs. Rh. D. translates "ruthless" and quotes C. as implying twofold exegesis of (a) impure, and (b) hard, ruthless. It is interesting to notice that Bdhgh. explains the same verse differently at SnA 383, viz. by vipula*, as above under Sn 408, and takes aaki.n.naludda as vipulaludda, i. e. beset with cruelty, very or intensely cruel, thus referring it to aaki.n.na 1.

Aakirati [aa + kirati] to strew over, scatter, sprinkle, disperse, fill, heap Sn 665; Dh 313; Pv II.49 (daana.m vipula.m aakiri = vippakirati PvA 92); Miln 175, 238, 323 (imper. aakiraahi); Sn 383. -pp. aaki.n.na.

Aakiritatta (nt.) [aakirita + tta; abstr. from aakirita, pp. of aakirati Causative] the fact or state of being filled or heaped with Miln 173 (sakata.m dha~n~nassa aa).

Aakilaayati v. l. at KhA 66 for aagilaayati.

Aakucca (or *aa*) [etymology unknown, prob. non-Aryan] an iguana J VI.538 (C. godhaa; gloss amatt-aakuccaa).

Aakurati [onomat. to sound-root *kur = *kor as in Latin cornix, corvus etc. See gala note 2 B and cp. kukku.ta kokila, kha.ta etc., all words expressing a rasping noise in the throat. The attempts at etymology by Trenckner (Miln p. 425 as Denominitive of aakula) and Morris (J.Paali Text Society 1886, 154 as contr. Denominitive of ankura "intumescence", thus meaning "to swell") are hardly correct] to be hoarse Miln 152 (ka.n.tho aakurati).

Aakula (adj.) [aa + *kul of which Sanskrit-Paali kula, to Idg *quel to turn round, cp. also cakka and carati; lit. meaning "revolving quickly", and so "confused"] entangled, confused, upset, twisted, bewildered J I.123 (salaakagga.m *.m karoti to upset or disturb); Vv 849 (andha*); PvA 287 (an* clear). Often reduplicated as aakulaakula thoroughly confused Miln 117, 220; PvA 56; aakula-paakula Ud 5 (so read for akkula-pakkula); aakula-samaakula J VI.270. On phrase tantaakula-jaataa gulaa-gu.n.thika-jaataa see gu'aa.

Aakulaka (adj.) [from aakula] entangled D II.55 (tant* for the usual tantaakula, as given under gu'aa).

Aakulaniiya (adj.) [grd. of aa + *kulaayati, Denominitive of kula] in an* not to be confounded or upset PvA 118.

Aakulii (-puppha) at KhA 60 (milaata*) read (according to Index p. 870) as milaata-bakula-puppha. Vism 260 (id. p.) however reads aakulii-puppha "tangle-flower" (*), cp. Ud 5, gaathaa 7 bakkula, which is preferably to be read as paakula.

Aako.tana1 (nt.) [from aako.teti] beating on, knocking M I.385; Miln 63, 306; DhsA 144.

Aako.tana2 (adj.) [ = aako.tana1] beating, driving, inciting, urging J VI.253 (f. aako.tanii of pa~n~naa, explained. by "nivaara.napatoda-la.t.thi viya pa~n~naa ko.tinii hoti" p. 254).

Aako.tita [pp. of aako.teti] - 1. beaten, touched, knocked against J I.303; Miln 62 (of a gong). - 2. pressed, beaten down (tight), flattened, in phrase aako.tita-paccaako.tita flattened and pressed all round (of the ciivara) S II. 281; DhA I.37.

Aako.teti [a + ko.t.teti, Sanskrit ku.t.tayati; BSanskrit aako.tayati e. g. Divy 117 dvaara.m trir aa*, Cowell "break" (*); Av. SH. Index p. 222 s. v.] - 1. to beat down, pound, stamp J I.264. 2. to beat, knock, thrash Vin II.217; J II.274; PvA 55 (a~n~nama~n~na.m); Sdhp 159. - 3. Esp. with reference to knocking at the door, in phrases agga'a.m aako.teti to beat on the bolt D I.89; A IV.359; V.65; DA I.252 (cp. agga'a); dvaara.m aa. J V 217; DhA II.145; or simply aako.teti Vv 8117 (aako.tayitvaana = appo.tetvaa VvA 316). - 4. (intrs.) to knock against anything J I.239. -pp. aako.tita (q. v.). Causative II. aako.tapeti J III.361.

Aakhu [Vedic aakhu, from aa + khan, lit. the digger in, i. e. a mole; but given as rat or mouse by Halaayudha] a mouse or rat Pgdp 10.

Aagacchati [aa + gacchati, gam] to come to or towards, approach, go back, arive etc.

I. Forms (same arrangement as under gacchati): (1) vgacch: pres. aagacchati D I.161; J II.153; Pv IV.151; fut. aagacchissati J III.53; aor. aagacchi Pv II.133; PvA 64. - (2) vgam: aor. aagamaasi PvA 81, aagamaa D I.108; J III.128, and pl. aagami.msu J I.118; fut. aagamissati VvA 3; PvA 122; ger. aagamma (q. v.) and aagantvaa J I.151; Miln 14; Causative aagameti (q. v.). - (3) vgaa: aor. aagaa Sn 841; Pv I.123 ( = aagacchi PvA 64). -pp. aagata (q. v.).

II. Mcanings: (1) to come to, approach, arrive D I.108; Pv I.113; II.133; Miln 14; to return, to come back (cp. aagata) PvA 81, 122. - (2) to come into, to result, deserve (cp. aagama2) D I.161 (gaarayha.m .thaana.m deserve blame, come to be blamed); Pv IV.151 (get to, be a profit to = upakappati PvA 241). - (3) to come by, to come out to (be understood as), to refer or be referred to, to be meant or understood (cp. aagata 3 and aagama 3) J I.118 (tii.ni pi.takaani aagami.msu); SnA 321; VvA 3. See also aagamma.

Aagata [pp. of aagacchati] (1) come, arrived Miln 18 (*kaara.na the reason of his coming); VvA 78 (*.t.thaana); PvA 81 (ki.m aagat-attha why have you come here) come by, got attained (*-) A II.110 = Pug 48 (*visa); Mhvs XIV. 28 (*phala = anaagaanuphala) -aagat-aagataa (pl.) people coming and going, passers by, all comers PvA 39, 78, 129; VvA 190 (Ep. of sangha). -sv-aagata "wel-come", greeted, hailed; nt. welcome, hail Th 2, 337; Pv IV.315, opp. duraagata not liked, unwelcome, A II.117, 143, 153; III. 163; Th 2, 337. - (2) come down, handed down (by memory, said of texts) D I.88; DhA II.35; KhA 229; VvA 30; aagataagamo, one to whom the aagama, or the aagamas, have been handed down, Vin I.127, 337; II 8; IV.158; A II.147; Miln 19, 21. - (3) anaagata not come yet, i. e. future; usually in combination. with atiita (past) and paccuppanna (present): see atiita and anaagata.

Aagati (f.) [aa + gati] coming, coming back, return S III.53; J II.172. Usually opp. to gati going away. Used in spe-

---[ Page 95 ]---

cial sense of rebirth and re-death in the course of sa'nsaara. Thus in aagati gati cuti upapatti D I.162; A III.54 sq., 60 sq., 74; cp. also S II.67; Pv II.922 (gati.m aagati.m vaa).

Aagada (m.) and aagadana (nt.) [aa + gad to speak] a word; talk, speech DA I.66 ( = vacana).

Aagantar [N. ag. from aagacchati] one who is coming or going to come A I.63; II.159; It 4, 95 (nom. aagantaa only one MS, all others aagantvaa). an* A I.64; II.160.

Aagantu (adj.) [Sanskrit aagantu] - 1. occasional, incidental J VI.358. - 2. an occasional arrival, a new comer, stranger J VI.529 ( = aagantuka-jana C.); ThA 16.

Aagantuka (adj.-n.) [aagantu + ka; cp. BSanskrit aagantuka in same meaning as Paali viz. aagantukaa bhik.sava* Av. SH I.87, 286; Divy 50] - 1. coming, arriving, new comer, guest, stranger, esp. a newly arrived bhikkhu; a visitor (opp. gamika one who goes away) Vin I.132, 167; II.170; III. 65, 181; IV.24, A I.10; III.41, 366; J VI.333; Ud 25; DhA II.54, 74; VvA 24; PvA 54. - 2. adventitions, incidental ( = aagantu1) Miln 304 (of megha and roga). 3. accessory, superimposed, added Vism 195. -bhatta food given to a guest, meal for a visitor Vin I.292 (opp. gamika*); II.16.

Aagama [from aa + gam] - 1. coming, approach, result, D I.53 (aagamana.m pavattatii ti DA I.160; cp. Sdhp 249 dukkh*). - 2. that which one goes by, resource, reference, source of reference, text, Scripture, Canon; thus a designation of(*) the Paatimokkha, Vin II.95 = 249, or of the Four Nikaayas, DA I.1, 2 (diigh*). A def. at Vism 442 runs "antamaso opamma-vagga-mattassa pi Buddhavacanassa pariyaapu.na.na.m". See also aagata 2, for phrase aagat-aagama, handed down in the Canon, Vin loc. cit. Svaagamo, versed in the doctrine, Pv IV.133 (sv* = su.t.thu aagat-aagamo, PvA 230); Miln 215. BSanskrit in same use and meaning, e. g. Divy 17, 333, aagamaani = the Four Nikaayas. - 3. rule, practice, discipline, obedience, Sn 834 (aagamaa parivitakka.m), cp. Davs V.22 (takk.r, discipline of right thought) Sdhp 224 (aagamato, in obedience to). 4. meaning, understanding, KhA 107 (va.n.n*). - 5. repayment (of a debt) J. VI.245. - 6. as gram. tt. "augment", a consonant or syllable added or inserted SnA 23 (sa-kaar-aagama).

Aagamana (nt.) [from aagacchati, Sanskrit same] oncoming, arrival, approach A III.172; DA I.160; PvA 4, 81; Sdhp 224, 356. an* not coming or returning J I.203, 264.

Aagameti [caus of agacchati] to cause somebody or something to come to one, i. e. (1) to wait, to stay Vin II. 166, 182, 212; D I.112, 113; S IV.291; PvA 4, 55. (2) to wait for, to welcome Vin II.128 (ppr. aagamayamaana); M I.161 (id.) J I.69 (id. + kaala.m).

Aagamma (adv.) [orig. ger. of aagacchati, q. v. under I.2 for form and under II.3 for meaning. BSanskrit aagamya in meaning after the Paali form, e. g. Divy 95, 405 (with gen.); Av. SH I.85, 210 etc.; M Vastu I.243, 313]. With reference to (c. acc.), owing to, relating to; by means of, thanks to. In meaning nearly synonymous with aarabbha, sandhaaya and pa.ticca (see K. S. 318 s. v.) D I.229; It 71; J I.50; VI.424; Kh VIII.14 ( = nissaaya KhA 229); PvA 5, 21 etc.

Aagaamitaa found only in negative form anaagaamitaa.

Aagaamin (adj. n.) [aa + gaamin] returning, one who returns, esp. one who returns to another form of life in sa'nsaara (cp. aagati), one who is liable to rebirth A I.63; II.159; It 95. See anaagaamin.

Aagaara (-*) see agaara.

Aagaaraka and *ika (adj.-n.) (-*) [cp. BSanskrit aagaarika Divy 275, and agaarika] belonging to the house, viz. (1) having control over the house, keeping, surveying, in compounds ko.t.th* possessor or keeper of a storehouse Vin I.209; bandhan* prison-keeper A II.207; bha.n.d* keeper of wares, treasurer PvA 2 (see also bha.n.d*). - (2) being in the house, sharing (the house), companion S III.190 (pa.msv* playmate).

Aagaa'ha (adj.) (aa + gaa'ha 1; cp. Sanskrit samaagaa.dha.m] strong, hard, harsh, rough (of speech), usually in instr. as adv. aagaa'hena roughly, harshly a I.283, 295; Pug 32 (so to be read for agaa'hena, although Pug A 215 has a*, but expls. by atigaa'hena vacanena); instr. f. aagaa'haaya Vin v. 122 (ceteyya; Bdhgh. on p. 230 reads aaga'aaya and expls. by da'habhaavaaya). See also Nett 77 (aagaa'haa pa.tipadaa a rough path), 95 (id.; v. l. agaa'haa).

Aagilaayati [aa + gilaayati; Sanskrit glaayati, cp. gilaana] to be wearied, exhausted or tired, to ache, to become weak or faint Vin II.200; D III.209; M I.354; S IV.184; KhA 66 (hadava.m aa.). Cp. aayamati.

Aagu (nt.) [for Vedic aagas nt.] guilt, offence, S I.123; A III.346; Sn 522 = Nd2 337 (in explination. of naaga as aagu.m na karotii ti naago); Nd1 201. Note. A reconstructed aagasa is found at Sdhp 294 in cpd. akataagasa not having committed sin. -caarin one who does evil, D II.339; M II.88; III.163; S II.100, 128; A II.240; Miln 110.

Aaghaata [Sanskrit aaghaata only in lit. meaning of striking, killing, but cp. BSanskrit aaghaata in meaning "hurtfulness" at M Vastu I.79; Av. SH II.129; cp. ghaata and ghaateti] anger, ill-will, hatred, malice D I.3, 31; III.72 sq.; S I.179; J I.113; Dhs 1060, 1231; Vbh 167, 362, 389; Miln 136; Vism 306; DA I.52; VvA 67; PvA 178. -anaaghaata freedom from ill will Vin II.249; A V.80. -pa.tivinaya repression of ill-will; the usual enumn. of aa-* pa.tivinayaa comprises nine, for which see D III.262, 289; Vin V.137; A IV.408; besides this there are sets of five at A III.185 sq.; SnA 10, 11, and one of ten at Vin V.138. -vatthu occasion of ill-will; closely connected with *pa.tivinaya and like that enumerated in sets of nine (Vin V.137; A IV.408; Ps I.130; J III.291, 404; V.149; Vbh 389; Nett 23; SnA 12), and of ten (Vin V.138; A V. 150; Ps I.130; Vbh 391).

Aaghaatana (nt.) [aa + ghaata(na), cp. aaghata which has changed its meaning] - 1. slaying, striking, destroying, killing Th 1, 418, 711; death D I.31 ( = mara.na DA I.119). 2. shambles, slaughter-house Vin I.182 (gav*); A IV.138; J VI.113. - 3. place of execution Vin III.151; J I.326, 439; III.59; Miln 110; DhA IV.52; PvA 4, 5.

Aaghaateti [Denominitive from aaghaata, in form = aa + ghaateti, but different in meaning] only in phrase citta.m a. (with loc.) to incite one's heart to hatred against, to obdurate one's heart. Sdhp. 126 = S I.151 = A V.172.

Aacamati [aa + cam] to take in water, to resorb, to rinse J III.297; Miln 152, 262 (+ dhamati). - Causative I. aacamcti (a) to purge, rinse one's mouth Vin II.142; M II. 112; A III.337; Pv IV.1Q3 (aacamayitvaa = mukha.m vikkhaaletvaa PvA 241); Miln 152 (*ayamaana). - (b) to wash off, clean oneself after evacuation Vin II.221. - Causative II. aacamaapeti to cause somebody to rinse himself J VI.8.

Aacamana (nt.) [aa + camana of cam] rinsing, washing with water, used (a) for the mouth D I.12 ( = udakena mukhasiddhi-kara.na DA I.98); (b) after evacuation J III 486. -kumbhii water-pitcher used for rinsing Vin I.49, 52; II.142, 210, 222. -paadukaa slippers worn when rinsing Vin I.190; II.142, 222. -saraavaka a saucer for rinsing Vin II.142, 221.

Aacamaa (f.) [from aa + cam] absorption, resorption Nd1 429 (on Sn 945, which both in T. and in SnA reads aajava; explained. by ta.nhaa in Nidd.). Note. Index to SnA (Pj III) has aacaama.

---[ Page 96 ]---

Aacaya [aa + caya] heaping up, accumulation, collection, mass (opp. apacaya). See on term Dhs trsl. 195 and Cpd.251, 252. - S II.94 (kaayassa aacayo pi apacayo pi); A IV.280 = Vin II.259 (opp. apacaya); Dhs 642, 685; Vbh 319, 326, 330; Vism 449; DhA II.25. -gaamin making for piling up (of rebirth) A V.243, 276; Dhs 584, 1013, 1397; Kvu 357.

Aacarati [aa + aarati] - 1. to practice, perform, indulge in Vin I.56; II.118; Sn 327 (aacare dhamma-sandosa-vaada.m), 401; Miln 171, 257 (paapa.m). Cp. pp. aacarita in BSanskrit e. g. Av. S I.124, 153, 213 in same meaning. -pp. aaci.n.na. - 2. to step upon, pass through J V.153.

Aacarin (adj.-n.) [from aa + car] treaching, f. aacarinii a female teacher Vin IV.227 (in contrast to ga.na and in same sense as aacariya m. at Vin IV.130), 317 (id.).

Aacariya [from aa + car] a teacher (almost syn. with upajjhaaya) Vin I.60, 61, 119 (*upajjhaaya); II.231; IV.130 (ga.no vaa aacariyo a meeting of the bhikkhus or a single teacher, cp. f. aacarinii); D I.103, 116 (ga.n*) 238 (sattama-cariyamahaayuga seventh age of great teachers); III.189 sq.; M III.115; S I.68 (ga.n*), 177; IV.176 (yogg*); A I.132 (pubb*); Sn 595; Nd1 350 (upajjhaaya vaa aac*); J II.100, 411; IV.91; V.501; Pv IV.323, 351 ( = aacaara-samaacaara-sikkhaapaka PvA 252); Miln 201, 262 (mastereotypegoldsmith*); Vism 99 sq.; KhA 12, 155; SnA 422; VvA 138. For contracted form of aacariya see aacera. -kula the clan of the teacher A II.112. -dhana a teacher's fee S I.177; A V.347. -paacariya teacher upon teacher, lit. "teacher and teacher's teacher" (see aa1 3b) D I.94, 114, 115, 238; S IV.306, 308; DA I.286; SnA 452 ( = aacariyo c-eva aacariya-aacariyo ca). -bhariyaa the teacher's fee J V.457; VI.178; DhA I.253. -bhariyaa a teacher's wife AN 2 9. -mu.t.thi "the teacher's fist" i. e. close-fistedness in teaching, keeping things back, D II.100; S V.153; J II.221, 250; Miln 144; SnA 180, 368. -va.msa the line of the teachers Miln 148. -vatta serving the teacher, service to the t. DhA I.92. -vaada traditional teaching; later as heterodox teaching, sectarian teaching (opp. theravaada orthodox doctrine) Miln 148; Dpvs V.30; Mhbv 96.

Aacariyaka [aacariya + ka, different from Sanskrit aacariyaka nt. art of teaching] a teacher Vin I.249; III.25, 41; D I.88, 119, 187; II.112; M I.514; II.32; S V.261; A II.170; IV. 310. See also saacariyaka.

Aacaama [Sanskrit aacaama] the scum or foam of boiling rice D I.166; M I.78; A I.295; J II.289; Pug 55; VvA 99 sq.; DhA III.325 (*ku.n.daka).

Aacaameti [for aacameti* cp. Sanskrit aacaamayati, Causative of aa + cam] at M II.112 in imper. aacaamehi be pleased or be thanked(*); perhaps the reading is incorrect.

Aacaara [aa + car] way of behaving, conduct, practice, esp. right conduct, good manners; adj. (-*) practising, indulging in, or of such and such a conduct. - Sn 280 (paapa*); J I.106 (vipassana*); II.280 (*ariya); VI.52 (ariya*); SnA 157; PvA 12 (siila*), 36, 67, 252; Sdhp 441. -an* bad behaviour Vin II.118 (*.m aacarati indulge in bad habits); DhA II.201 (*kiriyaa). Cp. sam*. -kusala versed in good manners Dh 376 (cp. DhA IV.111). -gocara pasturing in good conduct; i. e. practice of right behaviour D I.63 = It 118; M I.33; S V.187; A I.63 sq.; II.14, 39; III.113, 155, 262; IV.140, 172, 352; V.71 sq., 89, 133, 198; Vbh 244, 246 (cp. Miln 368, 370, quot. Vin III.185); Vism I.8. -vipatti failure of morality, a slip in good conduct Vin I.171.

Aacaarin (adj. n.) [from aacaara] of good conduct, one who behaves well A I.211 (anaacaarii virataa l. 4 from bottom is better read as aacaarii virato, in accordance with v. l.).

Aacikkhaka (adj. n.) [aa + cikkha + ka of cikkhati] one who tells or shows DhA I.71.

Aacikkhati [Freq. of aa + khyaa, i. e. akkhaati] to tell, relate, show, describe, explain D I.110; A II 189 (attha.m aa to interpret); Pug 59; DhA I.14; SnA 155; PvA 121, 164 (describe). - imper. pres. aacikkha Sn 1097 ( = bruuhi Nd2 119 and 455); Pv I.109; II.81; and aacikkhaahi DhA II.27. aor. aacikkhi PvA 6, 58, 61, 83. - aacikkhati often occurs in stock phrase aacikkhati deseti pa~n~naapeti pa.t.thapeti vivarati etc., e. g. Nd1 271; Nd2 465; Vism 163. - attaana.m aa. to disclose one's identity PvA 89, 100. -pp. aacikkhita (q. v.). - Causative II. aacikkhaapeti to cause some body to tell DhA II.27.

Aacikkhana (adj.-nt.) [aa + cikkhana of cikkhati] telling, announcing J III.444; PvA 121.

Aacikkhita [pp. of acikkhati] shown, described, told PvA 154 (*magga), 203 (an* = anakkhaata).

Aacikkhitar [n. ag. from aacikkhati] one who tells or shows DhA II.107 (for pavattar).

Aaci.na [pp. of aacinaati* or is it distorted from aaci.n.na*] accumulated; practised, performed Dh 121 (paapa.m = paapa.m aaci.nanto karonto DhA III.16). It may also be spelt aacina.

Aaci.n.na [aa + ci.n.na, pp. of aacarati] practiced, performed, (habitually) indulged in M I.372 (kamma, cp. Miln 226 and the explination. of aaci.n.naka kamma as "chronic karma" at Cpd.144); S IV.419; A V.74 sq.; J I.81; DA I.91 (for avici.n.na at D I.8), 275; Vism 269; DhA I.37 (*samaaci.n.na thoroughly fulfilled); VvA 108; PvA 54; Sdhp 90. -kappa ordinance or rule of right conduct or customary practice (*) Vin I.79; II.301; Dpvs IV.47; cp. V.18.

Aacita [pp. of aacinaati] accumulated, collected, covered, furnished or endowed with J VI.250 ( = nicita); Vv 411; DhsA 310. See also aaci.na.

Aacinaati [aa + cinaati] to heap up, accumulate S III.89 (v. l. aacinati); IV.73 (ppr. aacinato dukkha.m); DhsA 44. -pp. aacita and aaci.na (aacina). - Pass. aaciiyati (q. v.).

Aaciiyati (and aaceyyati) [Pass. of aacinaati, cp. ciiyati] to be heaped up, to increase, to grow; ppr. aaceyyamaana J V.6 ( = aaciiyanto va.d.dhanto C.).

Aacera is the contracted form of aacariya; only found in the Jaatakas, e. g. J IV.248; VI.563.

Aacela in ka~ncanaacela-bhuusita "adorned with golden clothes" Pv II.127 stands for cela*.

Aaja~n~na is the contracted form of aajaaniya.

Aajava see aacamaa.

Aajaana (adj.) [aa + jaana from j~naa] understandable, only in cpd. duraajaana hard to understand S IV.127; Sn 762; J I.295, 300.

Aajaanana (nt.) [aa + jaanana, cp. Sanskrit aj~naana] learning, knowing, understanding; knowledge J I.181 (*sabhaava of the character of knowing, fit to learn); PvA 225.

Aajaanaati [aa + jaanaati] to understand, to know, to learn D I.189; Sn 1064 (*amaana = vijaanamaana Nd2 120). As a~n~naati at Vism 200. -pp. a~n~naata. Cp. also aa.naapeti.

Aajaaniya (aajaaniiya) (adj. n.) [cp. BSanskrit aajaaneya and Sanskrit aajaati birth, good birth. Instead of its correct derivation from aa + jan (to be born, i. e. well-born) it is by Bdhgh. connected with aa + j~naa (to learn, i. e. to be trained). See for these popular etymology e. g. J I.181: saarathissa cittarucita.m kaara.na.m aajaanana-sabhaavo aaja~n~no, and DhA IV.4: ya.m assadamma-saarathi kaara.na.m kaareti tassa khippa.m jaanana

---[ Page 97 ]---

samatthaa aajaaniyaa. - The contracted form of the word is aaja~n~na] of good race or breed; almost exclusively used to denote a thoroughbred horse (cp. assaajaaniya under assa3). (a) aajaaniya (the more common and younger Paali form): Sn 462, 528, 532; J I.178, 194; Dpvs IV.26; DhA I.402; III.49; IV.4; VvA 78; PvA 216. - (b) aajaaniiya: M I.445; A V.323; Dh 322 = Nd2 475. - (c) *ja~n~na = (mostly in poetry): Sn 300 = 304; J I.181; Pv IV.154; purisaaja~n~na "a steed of man", i. e. a man of noble race) S III.91 = Th 1, 1084 = Sn 544 = VvA 9; A V.325. -anaajaaniya of inferior birth M I.367. -susu the young of a noble horse, a noble foal M I. 445 (*uupamo dhamma-pariyaayo).

Aajaaniiyataa (f.) [abstr. from aajaaniya] good breed PvA 214.

Aajira [ = ajira with lengthened initial a] a courtyard Mhvs 35, 3.

Aajiiva [aa + jiiva; Sanskrit aajiiva] livelihood, mode of living, living, subsistence, D I.54; A III.124 (parisuddha*); Sn 407 (*.m = parisodhayi = micchaajiiva.m hitvaa sammaajiiva.m eva pavattayii SnA 382), 617; Pug 51; Vbh 107, 235; Miln 229 (bhinna*); Vism 306 (id.); DhsA 390; Sdhp 342, 375, 392. Esp. frequent in the contrast pair sammaa-aajiiva and micchaa-aa* right mode and wrong mode of gaining a living, e. g. at S II.168 sq.; III.239; V.9; A I.271; II 53, 240, 270; IV.82; Vbh 105, 246. See also magga (ariya.t.thangika). -paarisuddhi purity or propriety of livelihood Miln 336; Vism 22 sq., 44; DhA IV.111. -vipatti failure in method of gaining a living A I.270. -sampadaa perfection of (right) livelihood A I.271; DA I.235.

Aajiivaka (and *ika) [aajiiva + ka, orig. "one finding his living" (scil. in a peculiar way); cp. BSanskrit aajiivika Divy 393, 427] an ascetic, one of the numerous sects of non-buddhist ascetics. On their austereotypeties, practice and way of living see esp. DhA II.55 sq. and on the whole question A. L. Basham, Hist. and Doctrines of the aajiivikas, 1951. - (a) aajiivaka: Vin I.291; II.284; IV.74, 91; M I.31, 483: S I.217; A III.276, 384; J I.81, 257, 390. - (b) aajiivika: Vin I.8; Sn 381 (v. l. BB. *aka). -saavaka a hearer or lay disciple of the aajiivaka ascetics Vin II 130, 165; A I.217.

Aajiivika (nt.) (or aajiivikaa f.*) [from aajiiva] sustenance of life, livelihood, living Vbh 379 (*bhaya) Miln 196 (id.); PvA 274, and in phrase aajiivik-a-pakata being deprived of a livelihood, without a living M I.463 = S III.93 (T. reads jiivikaa pakataa) = It 89 (reads aajiivikaa pakataa) = Miln 279.

Aajiivin (adj.-n.) [from aajiiva] having one's livelihood, finding one's subsistence, living, leading a life of (-*) D III.64; A V.190 (luukha*)

Aa.ta [etymology* Cp. Sanskrit aa.ti Turdus Ginginianus, see Aufrecht, Halaayudha p. 148] a kind of bird J VI.539 ( = dabbimukha C.).

Aa.taviya is to be read for a.taviyo (q. v.) at J VI.55 [ = Sanskrit aa.tavika].

Aa.thapanaa (f.) at Pug 18 and v. l. at Vbh 357 is to be read a.t.thapanaa (so T. at Vbh 357).

Aa.na~nja see aanejja.

Aa.na.nya see aana.nya.

Aa.natti (f.) [aa + ~natti (cp. aa.naapeti), Causative of j~naa] order, command, ordinance, injunction Vin I.62; KhA 29; PvA 260; Sdhp 59, 354.

Aa.nattika (adj.) [aa.natti + ka] belonging to an ordinance or command, of the nature of an injunction KhA 29.

Aa.naa (f.) [Sanskrit aaj~naa, aa + j~naa] order, command, authority Miln 253; DA I.289; KhA 179, 180, 194; PvA 217; Sdhp 347, 576. raaj-aa.naa the king's command or authority J I.433; III.351; PvA 242. aa.na.m deti to give an order J I.398; *.m pavatteti to issue an order Miln 189, cp. aa.naapavatti J III.504; IV.145.

Aa.naapaka (adj. n.) [from aa.naapeti] 1. (adj.) giving an order Vism 303. - 2. (n.) one who gives or calls out orders, a town-crier, an announcer of the orders (of an authority) Miln 147.

Aa.naapana (nt.) [abstr. from aa.naapeti] ordering or being, ordered, command, order PvA 135.

Aa.naapeti [aa + ~naapeti, Causative of aa + jaanaati from j~naa, cp. Sanskrit aaj~naapayati] to give an order, to enjoin, command (with acc. of person) J III.351; Miln 147; DhA II.82; VvA 68 (daasiyo), 69; PvA 4, 39, 81.

Aa.ni (Vedic aa.ni to a.nu fine, thin, flexible, in formation an n-enlargement of Idg. *olenaa, cp. Ohg. lun, Ger. lunse, Ags. lynes = E. linch, further related to Latin ulna elbow, Gr. w)le/nh, Ohg. elina, Ags. eln = E. el-bow. See Walde, Laat. Wtb. under ulna and lacertus]. - 1. the pin of a wheel-axle, a linch-pin M I.119; S II.266, 267; A II.32; Sn 654; J VI.253, 432; SnA 243; KhA 45, 50. - 2. a peg, pin, bolt, stop (at a door) M I.119; S. II 266 (drum stick); J IV.30; VI.432, 460; Th 1, 744; Dh I.39. 3. (fig.) (*-) peg-like (or secured by a peg, of a door), small, little in *colaka a small (piece of) rag Vin II.271, cp. I.205 (va.nabandhana-colaka); *dvaara Th 1, 355; C. khuddaka-dvaara, quoted at Brethren 200, trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. as "the towngate's sallyport" by Neumann as "Gestock" (fastening, enclosure) aa.ni-ga.n.thik-aahato ayopatto at Vism 108; DA I.199 is apparently a sort of brush made of four or five small pieces of flexible wood.

Aatanka [etymology uncertain; Sanskrit aatanka] illness, sickness, disease M I.437; S III.1; Sn 966 (*phassa, cp. Nd1 486). Freq. in cpd. appaatanka freedom from illness, health (cp. appaabaadha) D I.204; III.166; A III.65, 103; Miln 14. - f. abstr. appaatankataa M I.124.

Aatankin (adj.) [from aatanka] sick, ill J V.84 ( = gilaana C.).

Aatata [from aa + tan, pp. tata; lit. stretched, covered over] generic name for drums covered with leather on one side Dpvs XIV.14; VvA 37 (q. v. for enumn. of musical instruments), 96.

Aatatta [aa + tatta1, pp. of aa-tapati] heated, burnt. scorched, dry J V.69 (*ruupa = sukkha-sariira C.).

Aatapa [aa + tapa] - 1. sun-heat Sn 52; J I.336; Dhs 617; Dpvs I.57; VvA 54; PvA 58. - 2. glow, heat (in general) Pv I.74; Sdhp 396. - 3. (fig.) (cp. tapa2) ardour, zeal, exertion PvA 98 (viriyaa-tapa; perhaps better to be read *aataapa q. v.). Cp. aatappa. -vaara.na "warding off the sun-heat", i. e. a parasol, sun-shade Daavs I.28; V.35.

Aatapataa (f.) [abstr. of aatapa] glowing or burning state, heat Sdhp 122.

Aatapati [aa + tap] to burn J III.447.

Aatappa (nt.) [Sanskrit *aataapya, from aataapa] ardour, zeal, exertion D I.13; III.30 sq., 104 sq., 238 sq.; M III.210; S II.132, 196 sq.; A I.153; III.249; IV.460 sq.; V.17 sq.; Sn 1062 ( = ussaaha usso'hi thaama etc. Nd2 122); J III.447; Nd1 378; Vbh 194 ( = vaayaama); DA I.104.

Aataapa [aa + taapa from tap; cp. taapeti] glow, heat; fig. ardour, keen endeavour, or perhaps better "torturing, mortifica-

---[ Page 98 ]---

tion" Miln 313 (cittassa aataapo paritaapo); PvA 98 (viriya*). Cp. aatappa and aataapana.

Aataapana (nt.) [aa + taapana] tormenting, torture, mortification M I.78; A I.296 (*paritaapana); II.207 (id.); Pug 55 (id.); Vism 3 (id.).

Aataapin (adj.) [from aataapa, cp. BSanskrit aataapin Av. SH I.233; II. 194 = Divy 37; 618] ardent, zealous, strenuous, active D III.58, 76 sq., 141 (+ sampajaana), 221, 276; M I.22, 56, 116, 207, 349; II.11; III.89, 128, 156; S 113, 117 sq., 140, 165; II.21, 136 sq.; III.73 sq.; IV.37, 48, 54, 218; V.165, 187, 213; A II.13 sq.; III 38, 100 sq.; IV. 29, 177 sq., 266 sq., 300, 457 sq.; V.343 sq.; Sn 926; Nd1 378; It 41, 42; Vbh 193 sq.; Miln 34, 366; Vism 3 ( = viriyavaa); DhA I.120; SnA 157, 503. - Freq. in the formula of Arahantship "eko vuupaka.t.tho appamatto aataapii pahitatto": see arahant II. B. See also satipa.t.thaana. Opp. anaataapin S II.195 sq.; A II.13; It 27 (+ anottappin).

Aataapeti [aa + taapeti] to burn, scorch; fig. to torment, inflict pain, torture M I.341 (+ paritaapeti); S IV.337; Miln 314, 315.

Aatitheyya (nt.) [from ati + theyya] great theft (*) A I.93; IV. 63 sq. (v. l. ati* which is perhaps to be prcferred).

Aatu [dialectical] father M I.449 (cp. Trenckner's note on p. 567: the text no doubt purports to make the woman speak a sort of patois).

Aatuman [Vedic aatman, diaeretic form for the usual contracted attan; only found in poetry. Cp. also the shortened form tuman] self. nom. sg. aatumo Pv IV.52 ( = sabhaavo PvA 259), aatumaa Nd1 69 (aatumaa vuccati attaa), 296 (id.), and aatumaano Nd1 351; acc. aatumaana.m Sn 782 ( = attaana.m SnA 521), 888, 918; loc. aatume Pv II.1311 ( = attani C.).

Aatura (adj.) [Sanskrit aatura, cp. BSanskrit aatura, e. g. Jtm 3170] ill, sick, diseased; miserable, affected S III.1 (*kaaya); A I. 250; Sn 331; Vv 8314 (*ruupa = abhitunna-kaaya VvA 328); J I.197 (*anna "food of the miserable", i. e. last meal of one going to be killed; C. expls. as mara.nabhojana), 211 (*citta); II.420 (*anna, as above); III.201; V.90, 433; VI.248; Miln 139, 168; DhA I.31 (*ruupa); PvA 160, 161; VvA 77; Sdhp 507. Used by Commentators as syn. of a.t.to, e. g. at J IV.293; SnA 489. -anaatura healthy, well, in good condition S III.1; Dh 198.

Aathabba.na (nt.) [ = athabba.na, q. v.] the Atharva Veda as a code of magic working formulas, witchcraft, sorcery Sn 927 (v. l. ath*, see interpreted at Nd1 381; explained. as aathabba.nika-manta-ppayoga at SnA 564).

Aathabba.nika (adj. n.) [from athabbana] one conversant with magic, wonder-worker, medicine-man Nd1 381; SnA 564.

Aadapeti [Causative of aadaati] to cause one to take, to accept, agree to M II.104; S I.132.

Aadara [Sanskrit aadara, prob. aa + dara, cp. semantically Ger. ehrfurcht awe] consideration of, esteem, regard, respect, reverence, honour J V.493; SnA 290; DA I.30; DhsA 61; VvA 36, 61, 101, 321; PvA 121, 123, 135, 278; Sdhp 2, 21, 207, 560. -anaadara lack of reverence, disregard, disrespect; (adj.) disrespectful S I.96; Vin IV.218; Sn 247 ( = aadara-virahita SnA 290; DA I.284; VvA 219; PvA 3, 5, 54, 67, 257.

Aadarataa (f.) [abstr. from aadara] = aadara, in negative an* want of consideration J IV.229; Dhs 1325 = Vbh 359 (in explination. of dovacassataa).

Aadariya (nt.) [abstr. from aadara] showing respect of honour; negative an* disregard, disrespect Vin II.220; A V.146, 148; Pug 20; Vbh 371; miln 266.

Aadava [aa + dava2*] is gloss at VvA 216 for maddava Vv 5123; meaning: excitement, adj. exciting. The passage in VvA is somewhat corrupt, and therefore unclear.

Aadahati1 [aa + dahati1] to put down, put on, settle, fix Vism 289 (sama.m aa. = samaadahati). Cp. sam* and aadhiyati.

Aadahati2 [aa + dahati2] to set fire to, to burn J VI.201, 203.

Aadaa [ger. of aadaati from reduced base *da of dadaati 1b] taking up, taking to oneself Vin IV.120 ( = anaadiyitvaa C.; cp. the usual form aadaaya).

Aadaati (aadadaati) [aa + dadaati of dadaati base 1 daa] to take up, accept, appropriate, grasp, seize; grd. aadaatabba Vin I.50; inf. aadaatu.m D III.133 (adinna.m theyyasankhaata.m aa.). ger. aadaa and aadaaya (see sep.); grd. aadeyya, Causative aadapeti (q. v.). - See also aadiyati and aadeti.

Aadaana (nt.) [aad + aana, or directly from aa + daa, base 1 of dadaati] taking up, getting, grasping, seizing; fig. appropriating, clinging to the world, seizing on (worldly objects). (1) (lit.) taking (food), pasturing M III.133; J V.371 (and *esana). - (2) getting, acquiring, taking, seizing S II.94; A IV.400 (da.n.d*); PvA 27 (phal*); esp. frequent in adinn* seizing what is not given, i. e. theft: see under adinna. - (3) (fig.) attachment, clinging A V.233, 253 (*pa.tinissagga); Dh 89 (id.; cp. DhA II.163); Sn 1103 (*ta.nhaa), 1104 (*satta); Nd1 98 (*gantha); Nd2 123, 124. -an* free from attachment S I.236 (saadaanesu anaadaano "not laying hold mong them that grip" trsl.); A II.10; It 109; J IV.354; Miln 342; DhA IV.70 ( = khandhaadisu niggaha.no). Cp. upa*, pari*.

Aadaaya [ger. of aadaati, either from base 1 of dadaati (daa) or base 2 (daay). See also aadiya] having received or taken, taking up, seizing on, receiving; frequent used in the sense of a prep. "with" (c. acc.) Sn 120, 247, 452; J V.13; Vbh 245; DhA II.74; SnA 139; PvA 10, 13, 38, 61 etc. - At Vin I.70 the form aadaaya is used as a noun f. aadaayaa in meaning of "a casually taken up belief" (tassa aadaayassa va.n.ne bha.nati). Cp. upa*, pari*.

Aadaayiin (adj.-n.) [from aa + dadaati base 2, cp. aadaaya] taking up, grasping, receiving; one who takes, seiizes or appropriates D I.4 (dinn*); A III.80; V.137 (saar*); DA I.72.

Aadaasa [Sanskrit aadarsha, aa + drsh, Paali dass, of dassati1 2] a mirror Vin II.107; D I.7, 11 (*pa~nha mirror-questioning, cp. DA I.97: "aadaase devata.m otaretvaa pa~nha-pucchana.m"), 80; II.93 (dhamna*-aadaasa'n naama dhamma-pariyaaya.m desessaami); S V.357 (id.); A V.92, 97 sq., 103; J I.504; Dhs 617 (*ma.n.dala); Vism 591 (in simile); KhA 50 (*da.n.da) 237; DhA I.226. -tala the surface of the mirror, in similes at Vism 450, 456, 489.

Aadaasaka = aadaasa Th 2, 411.

Aadi [Sanskrit aadi, etymology uncertain] - 1. (m.) starting-point, beginning Sn 358 (acc. aadi.m = kaara.na.m SnA 351); Dh 375 (nom. aadi); Miln 10 (aadimhi); J VI.567 (abl. aadito from the beginning). For use as nt. see below 2 b. - 2. (adj. and adv.) (a) (*-) beginning, initially, first, principal, chief: see compounds - (b) (*-) beginning with, being the first (of a series which either is supposed to be familiar in its constituents to the reader or hearer or is immediately intelligible from the context), i. e. and so on, so forth (cp. adhika); e. g. rukkha-gumb-aadayo (acc. pl.) trees, jungle etc. J I.150; amba-panas- aadiihi rukkehi sampanno (and similar kinds of fruit) J I.278; amba-labuj-aadiina.m phalaana.m anto J II.159; asi-satti-dhami-aadiini aavudhaani (weapous, such as sword, knife, bow and the like) J I.150; kasi-gorakkh- aadiini karonte manusse J II.128; . . . ti aadinaa nayena in this and similar ways J I.81; PvA 30. Absolute as nt. pl. aadinii with ti (eva.m) (aadiini), closing a quotation, meaning "this and such like", e. g. at J II.128,

---[ Page 99 ]---

416 (ti aadiini viravitvaa). - In phrase aadi.m katvaa meaning "putting (him, her, it) first", i. e. heginning with, from . . . on, from . . . down (c. acc.) e. g. DhA I.393 (raajaana.m aadi.m K. from the king down); PvA 20 (vihaara.m aadikatvaa), 21 (pa~ncavaggiye aadi.m K.). -kammika [cp. BSanskrit aadikarmaka Divy 544] a beginner Vin III.146; IV.100; Miln 59; Vism 241; DhsA 187. -kalyaa.na in phrase aadikalyaa.na majjhe-kalyaa.na pariyosaana-kalyaa.na of the Dhamma, "beautiful in the beginning, the middle and the end" see references under dhamma C. 3 and cp. DA I.175 ( = aadimhi kalyaa.na etc.); SnA 444; abstr. *kalyaa.nataa Vism 4. -pubbangama original Dpvs IV.26. -brahmacariyaka belonging to the principles or fundaments of moral life D I.189; III.284; M I.431; II.125, 211; III. 192; S II.75, 223; IV.91; V.417, 438; f. *ikaa Vin I.64, 68; A I.231 sq. -majjhapariyosaana beginning, middle and end Miln 10; cp. above aadikalyaa.na.

Aadika (adj.) [aadi + ka] from the beginning, initial (see adhika); instr. aadikena in the beginning, at once, at the same time M I.395, 479; II.213; S II.224; J VI.567. Cp. aadiya3.

Aadicca [Vedic aaditya] the sun S I.15, 47; II.284; III.156; V.44, 101; A I.242; V.22, 263, 266 sq.; It 85; Sn 550, 569, 1097 ("aadicco vuccati suriyo" Nd2 125); DhA IV. 143; Sdhp 14, 17, 40. -upa.t.thaanaa sun-worship D I.11 ( = jiivikatthaaya aadiccaparicariyaa DA I.97); J II.72 (*jaataka; aadicca.m upati.t.thati p. 73 = suriya.m namassamaano ti.t.thati C.). -patha the path of the sun, i. e. the sky, the heavens Dh 175 ( = aakaasa DhA III.177). -bandhu "kinsman of the sun", Ep. of the Buddha Vin II.296; S I.186, 192; A II.54; Sn 54, 915, 1128; Nd1 341; Nd2 125b; Vv 425, 7810; VvA 116.

Aadi.n.na [Sanskrit aadiir.na, pp. of aa + dr, see aadiyati2] broken, split open S IV.193 ( = sipaatikaa with burst pod); cp. M I.306.

Aadi.n.nata (nt.) [abstr. from aadi.n.na] state of being broken or split Ps I.49.

Aaditta [aa + ditta1, Sanskrit aadiipta, pp. of aa + diip] set on fire, blazing, burning Vin I.34; Kv 209 (sabba.m aaditta.m); S III.71; IV.19, 108; A IV.320 (*cela); Sn 591; J IV.391; Pv I.85 ( = paditta jalita PvA 41); Kvu 209; DA I.264; PvA 149; Sdhp 599. -pariyaaya the discourse or sermon on the fire (lit. being in fllames) S IV.168 sq.; Vin I.34; DhA I.88.

Aadina only at D I.115 (T. reading aadiina, but v. l. S id. aadina, B p. abhinna) in phrase aadina-khattiya-kula primordial. See note in Dial. I.148.

Aadiya1 (adj.) grd. of admi, ad, Sanskrit aadya] edible, eatable A III.45 (bhojanaani).

Aadiya2 in -mukha is uncertain reading at A III.164 sq. (vv. ll. aadeyya- and aadheyya), meaning perhaps "grasp-mouth", i. e. gossip; thus equal to ger. of aadiyati1. Perhaps to be taken to aadiyati2. The same phrase occurs at Pug 65 (T. aadheyya-, C. has v. l. aadheyya-) where Pug A 248 explinations. "aadito dheyyamukho, pa.thama-vacanasmi.m yeva .thapita-mukho ti attho" (sticking to one's word). See aadheyya.

Aadiya3 = aadika, instr. aadiyena in the beginning J VI.567 ( = aadikena C.).

Aadiya4 ger. of aadiyati.

Aadiyati1 [aa + diyati, med. pass. base of dadaati4, viz. di* and dii*; see also aadaati and aadeti] to take up; take to oneself, seize on, grasp, appropriate, fig. take notice of, take to heart, heed. - pres. aadiyati A IIJ.46; Sn 119, 156, 633, 785, Nd1 67; Nd2 123, 124; J III.296: V.367. - pot. aadiye Sn 400; imper. aadiya M III.133 (so read for aadissa*). - aor. aadiyi D III.65; A III.209, aadiyaasi Pv IV.148 (saya'n da.n.da.m aa. = acchinditvaa ga.nhasi PvA 241), and aadapayi (Causative formation from aadaati*) to take heed S I.132 (v. l. aadiyi, trsl. "put this into thy mind"). - ger. aadiyitvaa Vin IV.120 ( = aadaa); J II.224 (C. for aadiya T.); III.104; IV.352 (an* not heeding; v. l. anaaditvaa, cp. anaadiyanto not attending J III.196); DhA III.32 (id.); PvA 13 (T. anaadayitva not heeding), 212 (vacana.m anaadiyitvaa not paying attention to his word), aadiya S III.26 (v. l. an* for anaadiiya); J II.223 ( = aadiyitvaa C.); see also aadiya2, and aadiiya S III.26 (an*). See also upaadiyati and pariyaadiyati.

Aadiyati2 [aa + diyati, Sanskrit aadiiryate, Pass. of dr to split: see etymology under darii] to split, go asunder, break Ps I.49. pp. aadi.n.na. See also avadiiyati. Cp. also upaadi.n.na.

Aadiyanataa (f.) [abstr. formation aadiyana (from aadiya ger. of aadiyati) + ta] in an* the fact of not taking up or heeding SnA 516.

Aadisati [aa + disati] (a) to announce, tell, point out, refer to. - (b) to dedicate (a gift, dakkhi.na.m or daana.m). pres. ind. aadisati D I.213 = A I.170 (tell or read one's character); Sn 1112 (atiita.m); Nd1 382 (nakkhatta.m set the horoscope); Miln 294 (daana.m); pot. aadiseyya Th 2, 307 (dakkhi.na.m); Pv IV.130 (id. = uddiseyya PvA 228), and aadise Vin I.229 = D II.88 (dakkhi.na.m); imper. aadisa PvA 49. - fut. aadissati Th 2, 308 (dakkhi.na.m) PvA 88 (id.). - aor. aadisi Pv II.28; PvA 46 (dakkhi.na.m); pl. aadisi.msu ibid. 53 (id.) and aadisu.m Pv I.106 (id.). - ger. aadissa Vin III.127; Sn 1018; Pv II.16 (daana.m), and aadisitvaana Th 2, 311. - grd. aadissa (adj.) to be told or shown M I.12.

Aadiso (adv.) [orig. abl. of aadi, Qormed with *sa*] from the beginning, i. e. thoroughly, absolutely D I.180; M III.208.

Aadissa at M III.133 is an imper. pres. meaning "take", and should probably better be read aadiya (in corresponsion with aadaana). It is not grd. of aadisati, which its form might suggest.

Aadissa2 (adj.) blameworthy M I.12; MA = garaayha.

Aadiina at D I.115 and S V.74 (vv. ll. aadina, and abhinna) see aadina. See di.n.na.

Aadiinava [aa + diina + va (nt.), a substantivised adj., orig. meaning "full of wretchedness", cp. BSanskrit aadiinava M Vastu III.297 (misery); Divy 329] disadvantage, danger (in or through = loc.) D I.38 (vedanaana.m assaada~n ca aadiinava~n ca etc.), 213 (iddhi-paa.tihaariye M I.318; S I.9 (ettha bhiiyo); II.170 sq. (dhaatuuna.m); III.27, 62, 102 (ruupassa etc.); IV.7, 168; A I.57 (akara.niiye kayiramaane) 258 (ko loke assaado); III.250 sq.; 267 sq. (duccarite), 270 (puggala-ppasaade); IV.439 sq.; V.81; J I.146; IV.2; It 9 = A II.10 = Nd2 172a; Sn 36, 50 (cp. Nd2 127), 69, 424, 732; Th 2, 17 (kaaye aa. = dosa ThA 23), 485 (kaamesu aa. = dosa ThA 287); Pv III.107 ( = dosa PvA 214); IV.67 ( = dosa PvA 263); Ps I.192 sq.; II.9, 10; PvA 12, 208. - There are several sets of sources of evil or danger, viz. five dussiilassa siila-vipattiyaa aa. at D II.85 = III.235 = A III.252; five akkhantiyaa aa. at Vbh 378; six of six each at D III.182 sq. - In phrase kaamaana.m aa. okaaro sankileso D I.110, 148; M I.115; Nett 42; DhA 16. -a-nupassin realising the danger or evil of S II.85 (upaa daaniyesu dhammesu) abstr. *a-nupassanaa Vism 647 sq., 695. -dassaavin same as *a-nupassin D I.245 (an*); A V.178 (id.); D III.46; S II.194, 269; A III.146; V.181 sq.; Nd2 141. -pariyesanaa search for danger in (-*) S II.171; III.29; IV.8 sq. -sa~n~naa consciousness of danger D I.7); III.253, 283; A III.79.

Aadiipaniiya (adj.) [grd. of aa + diipeti] to be explained Miln 270.

Aadiipita [pp. of aadiipeti, aa + caus. of diip, cp. diipeti] ablaze, in flames S I.31 (loka; v. l. aadittaka) 108; J V.366; DhA III.32 (v. l. aaditta).

Aadu (indecl.) [see also adu] emphatic (adversative) part. (1) of affirmation and emphasis: but, indeed, rather J III.

---[ Page 100 ]---

499 = VI.443; V.180; VI.552. - (2) as 2nd component of a disjunctive question, mostly in corresponsion udaahu . . . aadu ( = ki.m . . . udaahu SnA 350), viz. is it so . . . or" Th 1, 1274 = Sn 354; Pv IV.317 = DhA I.31; J V.384; VI.382; without udaahu at J V.460 (adu). The close connection with udaahu suggests an explination. of aadu as a somehow distorted abbreviation of udaahu.

Aadeti [a + deti, base2 of dadaati (day* and de*), cp. also aadiyati] to take, receive, get Sn 121 ( = ga.nhaati SnA 179), 954 ( = upaadiyati ga.nhaati Nd1 444); cp. I.43; J III. 103, 296; V.366 ( = ga.nhaati C.; cp. aadiyati on p. 367); Miln 336.

Aadeyya (adj.) [grd. of aadaati (q. v.)] to be taken up, acceptable, pleasant, welcome, only in phrase *vacana welcome or acceptable speech, glad words Vin II.158; J VI.243; Miln 110; ThA 42.

Aadeva, aadevanaa [aa + div. devati] lamenting, deploring, crying etc. in stereotype phrase (explaining parideva or pariddava) aadevo paridevo aadevanaa pari aadevitatta.m pari* Nd1 370 = Nd2 416 = Ps I.38.

Aadesa [from aadisati, cp. Sanskrit aadesha] information, pointing out; as tt. g. characteristic, determination, substitute, e. g. kutonidaanaa is at SnA 303 said to equal ki.m-nidaanaa, the to of kuto (abl.) equalling or being substituted for the acc. case: paccatta-vacanassa to-aadeso veditabbo.

Aadesanaa (f.) [aa + desanaa] pointing out, guessing, prophesy; only in phrase *paa.tihaariya trick or marvellous ability of mind-reading or guessing other peoples character Vin II. 200; D I.212, 213; III.220; A I.170, 292; V.327; Ps II. 227. For paa.tihaariya is subsiituted *vidhaa (lit. variety of, i. e. act or performance etc.) at D III.103.

Aadhaana (nt.) [aa + dhaana] - 1. putting up, putting down, placing, laying A IV.41 (aggissa aadhaana.m, v. l. of 6 MSS aadaana.m). - 2. receptacle M I.414 (udak.r), cp. aadheyya. 3. enclosure, hedge Miln 220 (ka.n.tak.r thorny brake, see under ka.n.taka). -gaahin holding one's own place, i. e. obstinate (*), reading uncertain and interchanging with aadaana, only in one stereotype phrase, viz. sandi.t.thi-paraamaasin aadhaana-gaahin duppa.tinissaggin Vin II.89; M I.43, 96; A III.335 (v. l. aadaana*, C. expls by da'hagaahin); D III.247 (adhaana*).

Aadhaara [aa + dhaara] - 1. a container, receptacle, basin, lit. holder A III.27; J VI.257. - 2. "holding up", i. e. support, basis, prop. esp. a (round) stool or stand for the alms-bowl (patta) Vin II.113 (an* patto); M III.95; S V.21; J V.202. - fig. S V.20 (an* without a support, citta.m); Vism 8, 444. - 3. (tt. g.) name for the loc. case ("resting on") Sn 211.

Aadhaaraka (m. and nt.) [aa + dhaaraka, or simply aadhaara + ka] - 1. a stool or stand (as aadhaara2) (always m., except at J I.33 where *aani pl. nt.) J I.33; DhA III.290 = VvA 220; DhA III.120 = 186 (one of the four priceless things of a Tathaagata, viz.: setacchatta.m, nisiidanapallanko, aadhaarako paadapii.tha.m). - 2. a reading desk, pulpit J III.235; IV.299.

Aadhaara.nataa (f.) [aa + dhaara.nataa] concentration, attention, mindfulness SnA 290 (+ da'hiikara.na), 398 (id.).

Aadhaarita [pp. of aa + dhaareti, cp. dhaareti1] supported, held up Miln 68.

Aadhaavati [aa + dhavati1] to run towards a goal, to run after M I.265 (where id. p. S II.26 has upadh*); DA I. 39. Freq. in combination. aadhaavati paridhaavaQi to run about, e. g. J I.127, 134, 158; II.68.

Aadhaavana (nt.) [from aadhaavati] onrush, violent motion Miln 135.

Aadhipacca (and aadhipateyya) (nt.) [from adhi + pati + ya "being over-lord"; see also adhipateyya] supreme rule, lordship, sovereignty, power S V.342 (issariy*); A I.62 (id.), 147, 212; II.205 (id.); III.33, 76; IV.252 sg.; Pv II.959 (one of the .thaanas, cp. .thaana II.2b; see also D III. 146, where spelt aadhipateyya; explained. by issariya at PvA 137); J I.57; Daavs V.17; VvA 126 (gehe aa = issariya). The three (att*, lok.r, dhamm*) at Vism 14.

Aadhuta [aa + dhuta1] shaken, moved (by the wind, i. e. fanned Vv 394 (v. l. adhuta which is perhaps to be preferred, i. e. not shaken, cp. vaatadhuta.m Daavs V.49; VvA 178 expls. by sa.nika.m vidhuupayamaana, i. e. gently fanned).

Aadheyya (adj.) [grd. of aa + dadhaati cp. aadhaana2] to be deposited (in one's head and heart Pug A), to be heeded, to be appropriated [in latter meaning easily mixed with aadheyya, cp. vv. ll. under aadiya2]; nt. depository ( = aadhaatabbataa .thapetabbataa Pug A 217) Pug 34 (*.m gacchati is deposited); Miln 359 (sabbe tass- aadheyya2 honti they all become deposited in him, i. e. his deposits or his property). -mukha see aadiya2.

Aanaka [Sanskrit aanaka, cp. Morris J.Paali Text Society 1893, 10] a kind of kettledrum, beaten only at one end S II.266; J II. 344; Dpvs XVI.14.

Aana~nca, mfn. and n. [S. aanantya], endless; endlessness, infinity; Vism 333, 1 (naassa anto ti ananta.m, anantam eva ~a.m, vi~n~naa.na.m ~a.m); - ifc see aakaasa and vi~n~naa.na

Aana~nja see aanejja, aane~nja.

Aana.nya (nt.) [Sanskrit aanr.nya, so also BSanskrit e. g. Jtm 3118; from a + r.na, Paali i.na but also a.na in composition, thus an-a.na as base of aana.nya] freedom from debt D I.73; A III.354 (Ep. of Nibbaana, cp. ana.na); Nd1 160; Vism 44; DA I.3.

Aanadati [aa + nadati] to trumpet (of elephants) J IV.233.

Aanana (nt.) [Vedic aana, later Sanskrit aanana from an to breathe] the mouth; adj. (-*) having a mouth Sdhp 103; Pgdp 63 (vika.t*).

Aanantarika (and *ya) [from an + antara + ika] without an interval, immediately following, successive Vin I.321; II. 212; Pug 13; Dhs 1291. -kamma "conduct that finds retribution without delay" (Kvu trsl. 275 n. 2) Vin II.193; J I.45; Kvu 480; Miln 25 (cp. Dhs trsl. 267); Vism 177 (as prohibiting practice of kamma.t.thaana).

Aananda [Vedic Aananda, from aa + nand, cp. BSanskrit aanandii joy Divy 37] joy, pleasure, bliss, delight D I.3; Sn 679, 687; J I.207 (*maccha Leviathan); VI.589 (*bheri festive drum); DA I 53 ( = piitiyaa eta.m adhivacana.m).

Aanandati [aa + nandati] to be pleased or delighted J VI. 589 (aor. aanandi in T. reading aanandi vittaa, explained. by C. as nandittha was pleased; we should however read aanandi-cittaa with gladdened heart). See also aanandiya.

Aanandin (adj.) [from aa + nand] joyful, friendly Th 1, 555; J IV.226.

Aanandiya (adj.-.) [grd. of Aanandati] enjoyable, nt. joy, feast J VI.589 (*.m acarati to celebrate the feast = Aanandacha.na C.).

Aanandii (f.) [aa + nandii, cp. Aananda] joy, happiness in cpd. aanandi-citta J VI.589 (so read probably for aanandi vitta: see Aanandati).

Aanaya (adj.) [aa + naya] to be brought, in suvaanaya easy to bring S I.124 = J I.80.

Aanayati see aaneti.

Aanaapaana (nt.) [aana + apaana, compounds of an to breathe] in haled and exhaled breath, inspiration and respiration S V.132,

---[ Page 101 ]---

311 sq.; J I.58; Ps I.162 (-kathaa); usually in cpd. *sati concentration by in-breathing and out-breathing (cp. Man. of Mystic 70) M I.425 (cp. D II.291); III.82; Vin III.70; A I.30; It 80; Ps I.166, 172, 185 (-samaadhi); Nd2 466 B (id.); Miln 332; Vism 111, 197, 266 sq.; SnA 165. See detail under sati. [apnia]

Aanaapeti see aaneti.

Aanaameti [aa + naameti, Causative of namati, which is usually spelt nameti] to make bend, to bend, to bring toward or under J V.154 (doubtful reading fut aanaamayissasi, v. l. aanayissati, C. aanessasi = lead to).

Aanisa'nsa [aa + ni + sa'nsa, BSanskrit distorted to anusha.msa] praise i. e. that which is commendable, profit, merit, advantage, good result, blessing in or from (c. loc.). There are five aanisa'nsaa siilavato siila-sampadaaya or blessings which accrue to the virtuous enumerated at D II.86, viz. bhoga-kkhandha great wealth, kittisadda good report, visaarada self-confidence, asammuulho kaala.m karoti an untroubled death, sagga.m loka.m uppajjati a happy state after death. - D I.110, 143; III.132 (four), 236 (five); M I.204; S I.46, 52; III.8, 93 (mahaa-); V.69 (seven), 73, 129, 133, 237 (seven), 267, 276; A I.58 (kara.niiye kariyamaane); II.26, 185, 239, 243 (sikkhaa-); III.41 (daane), 248 (dhammasavane), 250 (yaaguyaa), 251 (upa.t.thita-satissa), 253 sq. (siilavato siilasampadaaya etc., as above), 267 (sucarite), 441; IV.150 (mettaaya ceto-vimuttiyaa), 361 (dhammasavane), 439 sq. (nekkhamme avitakke nippiitike), 442, 443 sq. (aakaas-aana~ncaayatane); V.I, 106 (mahaa-), 311; It 28, 29, 40 (sikkhaa-); Sn 256 (phala-), 784, 952; J I.9, 94; V.491 (v. l. anu-); Nd1 73, 104, 441; Kvu 400; Miln 198; VvA 6, 113; PvA 9 (daana-) 12, 64 ( = phala), 208, 221 ( = gu.na); Sdhp 263. - Eleven aanisa'nsas of mettaa (cp. Ps II.130) are given in detail at Vism 311 314; on another eight see pp. 644 sq.

Aanisada (nt.) [a + sad] "sit down", bottom, behind M I. 80 = 245; J III.435 (gloss asata) Vism 251 = KhA 45 (-ttaca), 252 (-ma.msa).

Aanuttariya (nt.) [see also anuttariya which as -- probably represents aanutt-] incomparableness, excellency, supreme ideal D III.102 sq.; A V.37.

Aaniita [pp. of aanetii] fetched, brought (here), brought back adduced J I.291; III.127; IV.1.

Aanupu.t.tha metri causa for anupu.t.tha (q. v.).

Aanupubba (nt.) [abstr. from anupubba] rule, regularity, order Th 1, 727 (cp. M Vastu II.224 aanupubbaa).

Aanupubbataa (f.) (or -ta nt.*) [from last] succession; only in tt. g. pad¢nu-pubbataa word sequence, in explination. of iti Nd1 140; Nd2 137 (v. l. -ka).

Aanupubbikathaa [for anupubbi- representing its isolated composition form, cp. aanubhaava and see also anupubbi-] regulated exposition, graduated sermon D I.110; II.41 sq.; M I.379; J I.8; Miln 228; DA I.277, 308; DhA IV.199.

Aanubhaava [the dissociated composition form of anubhaava, q. v. for details. Only in later language] greatness, magnificence, majesty, splendour J I.69 (mahanto); II.102 (of a jewel) V.491; DhA II.58.

Aanejja and aana~nja [abstr. from an + *a~nja or *ejja = *ijja. The Sanskritised equivalent would be *i~njya or *i~ngya of ing to stir, move, with a peculiar substitution of *ang in Paali, referring it to a base with r (probably Sanskrit rj, r~njati) in analogy to a form like Sanskrit r.na = Paali a.na and i.na, both a and i representing Sanskrit r. The form a~nja would thus correspond to a Sanskrit *a~njya (*a~ngya). The third Paali form aan-e~nja is a direct (later, and probably re-instituted) formation from Sanskrit i~njya, which in an interesting way became in BSanskrit re-sanskritised to aa~nijya (which on the other hand may represent aa~nejja and thus give the latter the feature of a later, but more specifically Paali form). The editions of Paali Texts show a great variance of spelling, based on MSS. vacillation, in part also due to confusion of derivation] immovability, imperturbability, impassibility. The word is n. but occurs as adj. at Vin III. 109 (aana~nja samaadhi, with which cp. BSanskrit aanijyaa shaantih. at Av. SH I.199. - The term usually occurs in cpd. aanejja-ppatta (adj.) immovable lit. having attained impassibility, explained. by Bdhgh. at Vin III.267 (on Paar. I.1, 6) as acala, niccala, i. e. motionless. This cpd. is indicated below by (p.) after the reference. - The various spellings of the word are as follows: - 1. aanejja D I.76 (v. l. aana~nja-p.) A II.184 (p.); III.93 (p.), 100 (p.), 377 sq. (p.); Nd2 471 (v. l. aneja, aana~nja) = Vbh 137 (aane~nja); Nd2 569a (v. l. aana~nja), 601 (v. l. anejja and ane~nja); Pug 60 (p.); DA I.219 (v. l. BB aane~nja). - 2. aana~nja Vin III.4 (p.) (v. l. aana~nca-, ana~nja-, aana~nja-; Bdhgh. aanejja- p. 267), 109; Ud 27 (samaadhi, adj. v. l. aana~nca); DhA IV.46. See also below cpd. -kaara.na. - A peculiarity of Trenckner a spelling is aa.na~nja at M II.229 (v. l. a.na~nja, ane~nja, aane~nja), 253, 254. - 3. aane~nja S II.82. (v. l. aa.na~nje, or is it aa.ne~nja*); D III.217 (-¢bhisankhaara of imperturbable character, remaining static, cp. Kvu trsl. 358); Nd1 90 (id.), 206, 442; Ps II.206; Vbh 135, 340; Vism 377 (p.), 386 (sixteen- fold), 571; Nett 87, 99. See also i~njati. -kaara.na trick of immovability, i. e. pretending to be dead (done by an elephant, but see differently Morris J P T S. 1886, 154) J I.415; II.325 (v. l. aa.na~nja, aane~nca, aana~nca); IV.308; V.273, 310.

Aane~njataa (f.) [from aane~nja] steadfastness Vism 330, 386.

Aaneti [aa + neti] to bring, to bring towards, to fetch, procure, convey, bring back Sn 110; PvA 54, 92. pot. 1st pl. aanema (or imper. 2nd pl aanetha M I.371. fut. aanayissati S I.124; Pv II.65; J III.173; V.154 (v. l.), and aanessati J V.154. inf. aanayitu.m Pv II 610, ger. aanetvaa PvA 42, 74. aor. aanesi PvA 3, and aanayi Pv I.77 (sapati.m). -pp. aaniita (q. v.). - Med. pass. aaniiyati and aaniyyati D II.245 (aaniyyata.m imper. shall be brought); M I. 371 (ppr. aaniiyamaana). - Causative II. aanaapeti to cause to be fetched J III.391; V.225.

Aapa and aapo (nt.) [Vedic ap and aap, f. sg. apaa, pl. aapah., later Sanskrit also aapah. nt. - Idg. *ap and *ab, primarily to Lith. .spe water, Old Prussian ape river, Gr. *)lpi/a N. of the Peloponnesus; further (as *ab) to Latin amnis river, Sanskrit abda cloud, and perhaps ambu water] water; philosophically t. t. for cohesion, representative of one of the 4 great elements (cp. mahaabhuuta), viz. pa.thavii, aapo, tejo, vaayo: see Cpd.268 and Dhs trsl. 201, also below -dhaatu. D II.259; M I.327; S II.103; III.54, 207; A IV.312, 375; Sn 307, 391 (-.m), 392 (loc. aape), 437 (id.); J IV.8 (pa.thavi-aapa-teja-); Dhs 652; Miln 363 (gen. aapassa, with pa.thavii etc.); Sdhp 100. -kasi.na the water-device, i. e. meditation by (the element of) water (cp. Mystic 75 n.) D III.268; J I.313; Dhs 203; Vism 170; DhA I 312; III.214. -dhaatu the fluid element, the essential element in water, i. e element of cohesion (see Cpd.155 n. 2; Mystic 9 n. 2; Dhs trsl. 201, 242) D III.228, 247; M I.187, 422: Dhs 652; Nett 74. See also dhaatu. -rasa the taste of water A I.32; SnA 6. -sama resembling water M I.423.

Aapakaa (f.) [ = aapagaa] river J V.452; VI.518.

Aapagaa (f.) [aapa + ga of gam] a river Th 1, 309; Sn 319; J V.454; Daavs I.32; VvA 41.

Aapajjati [Sanskrit aapadyate, aa + pad] to get into, to meet with (acc.); to undergo; to make, produce, exhibit Vin II.126 (sa'nvara.m); D I.222 (pariye.t.thi.m); It 113 (vuddhi.m); J I.73; Pug 20, 33 (di.t.th-¢nugati.m); PvA 29 (ppr. aapajjanto); DhA II.71 - pot. aapajjeyya D I.119 (musaa-vaada.m). - aor. aapajji J V.349; PvA 124 (sankoca.m) and

---[ Page 102 ]---

aapaadi S I.37; A II.34; It 85; J II.293; 3rd pl. aapaadu D II.273. - ger. aapajjitva PvA 22 (sa'nvega.m), 151. pp. aapanna (q. v.). - Causative aapaadeti (q. v.). - Note. The reading aapajja in aapajja na.m It 86 is uncertain (vv. ll. aasajja and aalajja). The id. p. at Vin II.203 (CV. VII.4, 8) has aasajjana.m, for which Bdhgh, on p. 325 has aapajjana.m. Cp. pariyaapajjati.

Aapa.na [Sanskrit aapa.na, aa + pa.n] a bazaar, shop Vin I.140; J I.55; V.445; Pv II.322; Miln 2, 341; SnA 440; DhA I. 317; II.89; VvA 157; PvA 88, 333 (phal- fruit shop), 215.

Aapa.nika [from aapa.na] a shopkeeper, tradesman J I.124; Miln 344; VvA 157; DhA II.89.

Aapatacchika at J VI.17 is C. reading for apatacchika in khaar¢pat- (q. v.).

Aapatati [aa + patati] to fall on to, to rush on to J V.349 ( = upadhaavati C.); VI.451 ( = aagacchati C.); Miln 371.

Aapatti (f.) [Sanskrit aapatti, from aa + pad, cp. apajjati and BSanskrit aapatti, e. g, Divy 330] an ecclesiastical offence (cp. Kvu trsl. 362 n. 1), Vin I.103 (-khandha), 164 (-.m pa.tikaroti), 322 (-.m passati), 354 (avasesaa and anavasesaa); II.2 sq. (-.m ropeti), 59, 60 (-pariyanta), 88 (-adhikara.na), 259 (-.m pa.tikaroti); IV.344; D III.212 (-kusalataa); A I.84 (id.), 87; II.240 (-bhaya); Dhs 1330 sq. (cp. Dhs trsl. 346). anaapatti Vin III.35. -vu.t.thaanataa forgiveness of an offence Vin II.250 (put before anaapatti).

Aapattika (adj.) [aapatti + ka, cp. BSanskrit aapattika Divy 303] guilty of an offence M I.443; Vin IV.224. an- Vin I.127.

Aapatha in micchaapatha, dvedhaapatha as classified in Vbh Ind. p. 441 should be grouped under patha as micchaa-, dvedhaa-.

Aapathaka in -jjhaayin Nd2 3422 is read aapaadaka- at Nd1 226, and aapaataka- at Vism 26.

Aapadaa (f.) [Sanskrit aapad, from aa + pad, cp. aapajjati and BSanskrit aapad, e. g. in aapadgata Jtm 3133] accident, misfortune, distress, D III.190; A II.68 (loc. pl. aapadaasu), 187; III. 45; IV.31; Th 1, 371; J IV.163 (aapadatthaa, a difficult form; vv. ll. T. aparattaa, aapadatvaa, C. aparatthaa; explained. by aapadaaya); V.340 (loc. aapade), 368; PvA 130 (quot.); Sdhp 312, 554. Note. For the contracted form in loc. pl. aapaasu ( = *aapatsu) see *aapaa.

Aapanna [pp. of aapajjati] - 1. entered upon, fallen into, possessed of, having done Vin I.164 (aapatti.m aa.); III.90; D I.4 (dayaapanna merciful); Nd2 32 (ta.nhaaya). - 2. unfortunate, miserable J I.19 (V.124). Cp. pari-.

Aapaa (and aavaa) (f.) [for aapadaa, q. v.] misery, misfortune J II.317 (loc. pl. aapaasu, v. l. avaasu, C. aapadaasu); III.12 (BB aavaasu); V.82 (avaagata gone into misery, v. l. apagata, C. apagata parihiina), 445 (loc. aavaasu, v. l. avaasu, C. aapadaasu), 448 (aavaasu kiccesu; v. l. apassu, read aapaasu). Note. Since *aapaa only occurs in loc. pl., the form aapaasu is to be regarded as a direct contraction of Sanskrit aapatsu.

Aapaa.na [aa + paa.na] life, lit. breathing, only in cpd. -ko.ti the end of life Miln 397; Daavs III.93; adj. -ko.tika M II.120; Vism 10.

Aapaatha [etymology* Trenckner, Miln p. 428 says: "I suspect aa. to be corrupted from aapaata (cp. aapatati), under an impression that it is allied to patha; but it is scarcely ever written so"] sphere, range, focus, field (of consciousness or perception; cp. Dhs trsl. 199), appearance A II.67; J I.336; Vbh 321; Miln 298; Vism 21, 548; DA I.228; DhsA 308, 333; VvA 232 (-kaala); DhA IV.85; Sdhp 356. Usually in phrase aapaatha.m gacchati to come into focus, to become clear, to appear M I.190; S IV.160, or -.m aagacchati Vin I.184; A III.377 sq.; IV.404; Vism 125. Cp. -gata below. -gata come into the sphere of, appearing, visible M I.174 = Nd2 jhaana (an- unapproached); PvA 23 (aapaatha.m gata). -gatatta abstr. from last: appcarance Vism 617.

Aapaathaka (adj.) [from aapaatha] belonging to the (perceptual) sphere of, visible, in -nisaadin lying down visible D III.44, 47. Cp. aapathaka.

Aapaadaka (adj.-n.) [from aa + pad] - 1. (adj.) producing, leading to (*-) VvA 4 (abhi~n~n- catuttha-jjhaana). - 2. (n.) one who takes care of a child, a protector, guardian A I.62 = 132 = It 110 (+ posaka). - f. aapaadikaa a nurse, fostereotypemother Vin II.289 (+ posikaa).

Aapaadaa (f.) [short for aapaadikaa] a nursing woman, in an- not nursing, unmarried J IV.178.

Aapaadi aor. of aapajjati (q. v.).

Aapaadeti [Causative of aapajjati] to produce, make out, bring, bring into M I.78; III.248; S IV.110 (addhaana.m to live one's life, cp. addhaana.m aapaadi J II.293 = jiivit-addhaana.m aapaadi aayu.m vindi C.); SnA 466. - Cp. pari-

Aapaana (nt.) [from aa + paa] drinking; drinking party, banquet; banqueting-hall, drinking-hall J I.52 (-ma.n.dala); V.292 (-bhuumi); Vism 399 (id.); DhA I.213 (id., ra~n~no).

Aapaanaka (adj.) [aapaana + ka] drinking, one who is in the habit of drinking D I.167.

Aapaaniiya (adj.) [from aapaana, aa + paa] drinkable, fit for drinking or drinking with, in -ka.msa drinking-bowl, goblet M I. 316; S II.110.

Aapaayika (adj.-n.) [from apaaya] one suffering in an apaaya or state of misery after death Vin II.202 = It 85 (v. l. ap-); Vin II.205; D I.103; A I.265; It 42; Vism 16; PvA 60.

Aapiyati [from r, cp. appaayati and appeti] to be in motion (in etymology of aapo) Vism 364.

Aapucchati [aa + pucchati] to enquire after, look for, ask, esp. to ask permission or leave; aor. aapucchi J I.140; PvA 110; grd. aapucchitabba DhA I.6; ger. aapucchitvaa Vin IV.267 (apaloketvaa +); Miln 29; PvA 111; aapucchituuna (cp. Geiger * 211) Th 2, 426; aapuccha Th 2, 416, and aapucchaa [ = aaprcchya, cp. Vedic aacyaa for aacya], only in negative form an- without asking Vin II.211, 219; IV.165, 226 ( = anapaloketvaa); DhA I.81. -pp. aapucchita Vin IV.272.

Aapuurati [a + puurati] to be filled, to become full, to increase J III.154 (cando aa. = puurati C.); IV.26, 99, 100.

Aapeti [Causative of aap, see appoti and paapu.naati] to cause to reach or obtain J VI.46. Cp. vy-.

Aaphusati [aa + phusati] to feel, realise, attain to, reach; aor. aaphusi Vv 169 ( = adhigacchi VvA 84).

Aabaddha [pp. of aabandhati] tied, bound, bound up DA I. 127; fig. bound to, attached to, in love with DhA I.88; PvA 82 (Tissaaya -sineha); Sdhp 372 (sineh, -hadaya).

Aabandhaka (adj.) [aa + bandh, cp. Sanskrit aabandha tie, bond] (being) tied to (loc.) PvA 169 (siise).

Aabandhati (aa + bandhati, Sanskrit aabadhnaati, bandh] to bind to, tie, fasten on to, hold fast; fig. to tie to, to attach to, J IV.132, 289; V.319, 338, 359. -pp. aabaddha.

Aabandhana (nt.) [from aa + bandh] - 1. tie, bond DA I. 181 = Pug A 236 (-atthena ~naati yeva ~naati-pariva.t.to). 2. tying, binding Vism 351 (-lakkha.na, of aapodhaatu). 3. reins (*) or harness (on a chariot) J V.319 (but cp. C. explination. "hatthi-assa-rathesu aabandhitabbaani bha.n.dakaani", thus taking it as aa + bha.n.da + na, i. e. wares, loads etc.). With this cp. Sanskrit aabandha, according to Halaayudha 2, 420 a thong of leather which fastens the oxen to the yoke of a plough.

---[ Page 103 ]---

Aabaadha [aa + baadh to oppress, Vedic aabaadha oppression] affliction, illness, disease Vin IV.261; D I.72; II.13; A I.121; III.94, 143; IV.333, 415 sq., 440; Dh 138; Pug 28; Vism 41 (udara-vaata-) 95; VvA 351 (an- safe and sound); SnA 476; Sdhp 85. - A list of aabaadhas or illnesses, as classified on grounds of aetiology, runs as follows: pittasamu.t.thaanaa, semha-, vaata-, sannipaatikaa, utu-pari.naamajaa, visama-parihaarajaa, opakkamikaa, kammavipaakajaa (after Nd2 304I.C., recurring with slight variations at S IV.230; A II.87; III.131; V.110; Nd1 17, 47; Miln 112, cp. 135). Another list of illnesses mentioned in tha Vinaya is given in Index to Vin II., p. 351. - Five aabaadhas at Vin I. 71, viz. ku.t.tha.m ga.n.do kilaaso soso apamaaro said to be raging in Magadha cp. p. 93. - Three aabaadhas at D III.75, viz. icchaa anasana.m jaraa, cp. Sn 311. - See also cpd. appaabaadha (health) under appa.

Aabaadhika (adj.-n.) [from aabaadha] affected with illness, a sick person A III.189, 238; Nd1 160; Miln 302; DA 212; DhA I.31; PvA 271. - f. aabaadhikinii a sick woman A II.144.

Aabaadhita [pp. of aabaadheti, Causative of aa + baadh] afflicted, oppressed, molested Th 1, 185.

Aabaadheti [aa + Causative of baadh, cp. aabaadha] to oppress, vex, annoy, harass S IV.329.

Aabila (adj.) [Sanskrit aavila; see also Paali aavila] turbid, disturbed, soiled J V.90.

Aabhata [pp. of aa + bharati from bhr] brought (there or here), carried, conveyed, taken D I.142; S. I.65; A II.71, 83; It 12, 14 with phrase yathaabhata.m as he has been reared (cp. J V.330 eva.m kicchaa bha.to); Pv III.5 (ratt- = rattiya.m aa. PvA 199); DhA II.57, 81; IV.89; VvA 65. Cp. yathaabhata.

Aabhataka (adj.) = aabhata; DA I.205 (v. l. aabhata).

Aabhara.na (nt.) [Sanskrit aabhara.na, aa + bhr] that which is taken up or put on, viz. ornament, decoration, trinkets D I. 104; Vv 802; J III.11, 31; DhA III.83; VvA 187.

Aabharati [aa + bhr] to bring, to carry; ger. aabhatvaa J IV.351.

Aabhassara (adj.-n.) [etymology uncertain; one suggested in Cpd.138 n. 4 is aa + *bha + *sar, i. e. from whose bodies are emitted rays like lightning, more probably a combination. of aabhaa + svar (to shine, be bright), i. e. shining in splendour] shining, brilliant, radiant, N. of a class of gods in the Brahma heavens "the radiant gods", usually referred to as the representatives of supreme love (piiti and mettaa); thus at D I.17; Dh 200; It 15; DhA III.258 (-loka). In another context at Vism 414 sq.

Aabhaa (f.) [Sanskrit aabhaa, from aa + bhaa, see aabhaati] shine, splendour, lustre, light D II.12; M III.147 (adj. --); S II.150 (-dhaatu); A II.130, 139; III.34; Mhvs XI.11; VvA 234 (of a Vimaana, v. l. pabhaa); DhA IV.191; Sdhp 286.

Aabhaati [aa + bhaa] to shine, shine forth, radiate Dh 387 ( = virocati DhA IV.144); J V.204. See also aabheti.

Aabhaaveti [aa + bhaaveti] to cultivate, pursue Pv II.1319 (mettacitta.m; gloss and v. l. abhaavetvaa; explained. as va.d.dhetvaa bruuhetvaa PvA 168).

Aabhaasa [Sanskrit aabhaasa, from aa + bhaas] splendour, light, appearance M III.215.

Aabhicetasika (adj.) See abhicetasika. This spelling, with gu.na of the first syllable, is probably more correct; but the short a is the more frequent.

Aabhidosika (adj.) [abhidosa+ika] belonging to the evening before, of last night Vin III.15 (of food; stale); M I.170 (-kaalakata died last night); Miln 291.

Aabhidhammika (adj.) [abhidhamma + ika] belonging to the specialised Dhamma, versed in or studying the Abhidhamma Miln 17, 341; Vism 93. As abhi- atKhA 151; J IV.219.

Aabhindati [aa + bhindati] to split, cut, strike (with an axe) S IV.160 (v. l. a-).

Aabhisekika (adj.) [from abhiseka] belonging to the consecration (of a king) Vin V.129.

Aabhujati [aa + bhujati, bhuj1] to bend, bend towards or in, contract; usually in phrase pallanka.m aa- "to bend in the round lap" or "bend in hookwise", to sit crosslegged (as a devotee with straightened back), e. g. at Vin I.24; D I.71; M I.56 (v. l. aabhu~njitvaa), 219; A III. 320; Pug 68; Ps I.176; J I.71, 213; Miln 289; DA I. 58, 210. In other connection J I.18 (V.101; of the ocean "to recede"); Miln 253 (kaaya.m).

Aabhujana (nt.) [from aabhujati] crouching, bending, turning in, in phrase pallank-aabhujana sitting cross-legged J I 17 (V.91); PvA 219.

Aabhujii (f.) [lit. the one that bends, prob. a poetic metaphor] N. of a tree, the Bhuurja or Bhojpatr J V.195 ( = bhuujapatta-vana C.), 405 ( = bhuujapatta C.).

Aabhuu~njati [aa + bhuj2, Sanskrit bhunakti] to enjoy, partake of, take in, feel, experience J IV.456 (bhoge; Rh. D. "hold in its hood"*); DhsA 333.

Aabhu~njana (nt.) [from aabhu~njati] partaking of, enjoying, experiencing DhsA 333.

Aabheti [*aabhayati = aabhaati, q. v.] to shine Pv II.126 (ppr. -entii); Vv 82 (-antii, v. l. -entii; = obhaasentii VvA 50).

Aabhoga [from aabhu~njati, bhuj2 to enjoy etc. The translators of Kvu derive it from bhuj1 to bend etc. (Kvu trsl. 221 n. 4) which however is hardly correct, cp. the similar meaning of gocara "pasturing", fig. perception etc.] ideation, idea, thought D I.37 ( = manasikaaro samannaahaaro DA I.122; cp. semantically aahaara = aabhoga, food); Vbh 320; Miln 97; Vism 164, 325, 354; Daavs 62; KhA 42 (-paccavekkhana), 43 (id.) 68.

Aama1 (indecl.) [a specific Paali formation representing either amma (q. v.) or a gradation of pronoun. base amu- "that" (see asu), thus deictic-emphatic exclamn. Cp. also BSanskrit aama e. g. Av. SH I.36] affirmative part. "yes, indeed, certainly" D I.192 sq. (as v. l. BB.; T. has aamo); J I.115, 226 (in C. explination. of T. amaa-jaata which is to be read for aamajaata); II.92; V.448; Miln 11, 19, 253; DhA I.10, 34; II.39, 44; VvA 69; PvA 12, 22, 56, 61, 75, 93 etc.

Aama2 (adj.) [Vedic aama = Gr. w)mo/s, connected with Latin amaarus. The more common Paali form is aamaka (q. v.)] raw, viz. (a) unbaked (of an earthen vessel), unfinished Sn 443; (b) uncooked (of flesh), nt. raw flesh, only in following compounds: -gandha "smell of raw flesh", verminous odour, a smell attributed in particular to rotting corpses (cp. similarly BSanskrit aamagandha M Vastu III.214) D II.242 sq.; A I.280; Sn 241, 242 ( = vissagandha ku.napagandha SnA 286), 248, 251; Dhs 625; and -giddha greedy after flesh (used as bait) J VI.416 ( = aamasankhaata aamisa C.).

Aamaka (adj.) [ = aama2] raw, uncooked D I.5 = Pug 58 (-ma.msa raw flesh); M I.80 (titta-kalaabu aamaka-cchinno). -dha~n~na "raw" grain, corn in its natural, unprepared state D I.5 = Pug 58 (see DA I.78 for definition); Vin IV.264; V.135. -saaka raw vegetables Vism 70. -susaana "cemetery of raw flesh" charnel grove (cp. aamagandha under ama2), i. e. fetid smelling cremation ground J I.264, 489; IV.45 sq.; VI.10; DhA I.176; VvA 76; PvA 196.

Aama.t.tha [Sanskrit aamrs..ta, pp. of aamasati; cp. aamasita] touched, handled J I.98 (an-); DA I.107 ( = paraama.t.tha); Sdhp 333.

---[ Page 104 ]---

Aama.n.daliya [aa + ma.n.dala + iya] a formation resembling a circle, in phrase -.m karoti to form a ring (of people) or a circle, to stand closely together M I 225 (cp. Sanskrit aama.n.dalikaroti).

Aamata in anaamata at J II.56 is metric for amata.

Aamattikaa (f.) [aa + mattikaa] earthenware, crockery; in -aapa.na a crockery shop, chandler's shop Vin IV.243.

Aamaddana (nt.) [aa + maddana of mrd] crushing VvA 311.

Aamanta (adj.-adv.) [either ger. of aamanteti (q. v.) or root der. from aa + mant, cp. aamanta.naa] asking or asked, invited, only as an- without being asked, unasked, uninvited Vin I.254 (-caara); A III.259 (id.).

Aamantana (nt.) and -naa (f., also -.naa) [from aamanteti] addressing, calling; invitation, greeting Sn 40 (ep. Nd2 128); -vacana the address-form of speech i. e. the vocative case (cp. Sanskrit aamantrita.m id.) SnA 435; KhA 167.

Aamantanaka (adj.-n.) [from aamantana] addressing, speaking to, conversing; f. -ikaa interlocutor, companion, favourite queen Vv 188 ( = allaapa-sallaapa-yoggaa kii'anakaale vaa tena (i. e. Sakkena) aamantetabbaa VvA 96).

Aamanta.niiya (adj.) [grd. of aamanteti] to be addressed J IV.371.

Aamantita [pp. of aamanteti] addressed, called, invited Pv II.313 ( = nimantita PvA 86).

Aamanteti [denom. of aa + *mantra] to call, address, speak to, invite, consult J VI.265; DA I.297; SnA 487 ( = aalapati and avhayati); PvA 75, 80, 127. - aor. aamantesi D II.16; Sn p. 78 ( = aalapi SnA 394) and in poetry aamantayi Sn 997; Pv II.27; 37 (perhaps better with v. l. SS samantayi). - ger. aamanta ( = Sanskrit *aamantrya) J III.209, 315 ( = aamantayitvaa* C.), 329; IV.111; V.233; VI.511. pp. aamantita (q. v.). - Causative II. aamantaapeti to invite to come, to cause to be called, to send for D I.134 (v. l. aamanteti); Miln 149.

Aamaya [etymology* cp. Sanskrit aamaya] affliction, illness, misery; only as an- (adj.) not afflicted, not decaying, healthy, well (cp. BSanskrit niraamaya Ashvagho.sa II.9) Vin I.294; Vv 1510 ( = aroga VvA 74); 177; 368; J III.260, 528; IV. 427; VI.23. Positive only very late, e. g. Sdhp 397.

Aamalaka [cp. Sanskrit aamalaka] emblic myrobalan, Phyllanthus Emblica Vin I.201, 278; II.149 (-va.n.tika piithu); S I.150; A V.170; Sn p. 125 (-matti); J IV.363; V.380 (as v. l. for T. aamala); Miln 11; DhA I.319; VvA 7.

Aamalakii (f.) aamalaka Vin I.30; M I.456 (-vana).

Aamasati [aa + masati from mrsh] to touch (upon), to handle, to lay hold on Vin II.221; III.48 (kumbhi.m); J III.319 (id.); A V.263, 266; J IV.67; Ps II.209; Miln 306; SnA 400; DhsA 302; VvA 17. - aor. aamasi J II.360; ger. aamasitvaa Vin III.140 (udakapatta.m) J II.330; grd. aamassa J II.360 (an-) and aamasitabba id. (C.). -pp. aama.t.tha and aamasita (q. v.).

Aamasana (nt.) [from aamasati] touching, handling; touch Vin IV.214. Cp. III.118; Miln 127, 306; DA I.78.

Aamasita [pp. of aamasati] touched, taken hold of, occupied VvA 113 (an- khetta virgin land).

Aamaaya (adj.) [to be considered either a der. from amaa (see amaajaata in same meaning) or to be spelt amaaya which metri causa may be written aa-] "born in the house" (cp. semantically Gr. i)qagenh/s > indigenous), inborn, being by birth, in cpd. -daasa (daasii) a born slave, a slave by birth J VI.117 ( = gehadaasiyaa kucchismi.m jaatadasii C.), 285 ( = daasassa daasiyaa kucchimhi jaatadaasaa).

Aamaasaya [aama2 + aasaya, cp. Sanskrit aamaashaya and aamaashraya] receptacle of undigested food, i. e. the stomach Vism 260; KhA 59. Opp. pakkaasaya.

Aamilaaka (nt.*) [etymology*] a woollen cover into which a floral pattern is woven DA I.87.

Aamisa (nt.) [der. from aama raw, q. v. for etymology - Vedic aamis (m.); later Sanskrit aami.sa (nt.), both in lit. and fig. meaning] 1. originally raw meat; hence prevailing notion of "raw, unprepared, uncultivated"; thus -khaara raw lye Vin I. 206. - 2. "fleshy, of the flesh" (as opposed to mind or spirit), hence material, physical; generally in opposition to dhamma (see dhamma B 1. a. and also next no.), thus at M I.12 (-daayaada); It 101 (id.); A I.91 = It 98 (-daana material gifts opp. to spiritual ones); Dhs 1344 (-pa.tisanthaara hospitality towards bodily needs, cp. Dhs trsl. 350). - 3. food, esp. palatable food (cp. E. sweetmeat); food for enjoyment, dainties Vin II.269 sq.; J II.6; Miln 413 (lok-); DA I.83 (-sannidhi), - 4. bait S I.67; IV.158; J IV.57, 219; VI.416; DA I.270. - 5. gain, reward, money, douceur, gratuity, " ti." PvA 36, 46; esp. in phrase -ki~ncikkha-hetu for the sake of some (little) gain S II.234; A I.128; V.265, 283 sq., 293 sq.; Pug 29; Pv II.83 ( = ki~nci aamisa'n patthento PvA 107); Miln 93; VvA 241 ( = bhogahetu). - 6. enjoyment Pv II.82 ( = kaamaamise-laggacitto PvA 107). - 7. greed, desire, lust Vin I.303 (-antara out of greed, selfish, opp. mettacitto); A III.144 (id.), 184 (id.); I.73 (-garuu parisaa); J V.91 (-cakkhu); Ps II.238 (maar-). See also compounds with nir- and sa-.

Aamu~ncati [aa + mtic] to put on, take up; to be attached to, cling to DhsA 305. -pp. aamutta (q. v.).

Aamutta [Sanskrit aamukta, pp. of aa + muc, cp. also BSanskrit aamukta jewel Divy 2, 3 etc., a meaning which might also be seen in the later Paali passages, e. g. at PvA 134. Semantically cp. aabhara.na] having put on, clothed in, dressed with, adorned with (always --) D I.104 (-maalaabhara.na); Vin II.156 = Vv 208 (-ma.ni-ku.n.dala); S I.211; J IV.460; V. 155; VI.492; Vv 721 ( = pa.timukka); 802 (-hatthaabhara.na); Pv II.951 (-ma.niku.n.dala);J IV.183; VvA 182.

Aame.n.dita (or aame.dita) [Sanskrit aamre.dita fram aa + mre.d, dialectical] - (nt.) sympathy in -.m karoti to show sympathy (* so Morris J.Paali Text Society 1887, 106) DA I.228 = SnA 155 (v. l. at DA aame.dita).

Aamo = aama D I.192, 3.

Aamoda [Sanskrit aamoda, from aa + mud] that which pleases; fragrance, perfume Daavs V.51.

Aamodanaa (f.) [from aa + mud] rejoicing Dhs 86, 285.

Aamodamaana (adj.) [ppr. med. of aamodeti] rejoicing, glad S I.100 (v. l. anu-) = It 66; Vv 648 ( = pamodamaana VvA 278); J V.45.

Aamodita [pp. from aamodeti] pleased, satisfied, glad J I.17 (V.80); V.45 (-pamodita highly pleased); Miln 346.

Aamodeti [Sanskrit aamodayati, Causative of aa + mud] to please, gladden, satisfy Th 1, 649 (citta.m); J V.34. -pp. aamodita (q. v.).

Aaya [Sanskrit aaya; aa + i] 1. coming in, entrance M III.93. 2. tax J V.113. - 3. income, earning, profit, gain (opp. vaya loss) A IV.282 = 323; Sn 978; J I.228; KhA 38 (in explination. of kaaya), 82 (in etymology of aayatana); PvA 130. 4. (aayaa f.*) a lucky dice ("the incomer") J VI.281. -kammika a treasurer DhA I.184. -kusala clever in earnings Nett 20. -kosalla proficiency in money making D III.220 (one of the three kosallas); Vbh 325. -pariccaaga expediture of one's income PvA 8. -mukha (lit.) entrance, inflow, going in D I.74 ( = aagamana-magga DA

---[ Page 105 ]---

1.78); M II.15; A II.166; (fig.) revenue income, money SnA 173.

Aayata [Sanskrit aayata, pp. of aa + yam, cp. aayamati] - 1. (adj.) outstretched, extended, long, in length (with numeral) D III.73 (~naatikkhaya, prolonged or heavy*); M I.178 (diighato aa-; tiriya~n ca vitthata); J I.77, 273 (tetti.ms--angul-aayato khaggo); III.438; Vv 8415 (-a.msa; cp. explination. at VvA 339); SnA 447; DhsA 48; PvA 152 (daa.thaa fangs; lomaa hair), 185 (-va.t.ta); Sdhp 257. - 2. (n.) a bow J III.438. -agga having its point (end) stretched forward, i. e. in the future (see aayati) It 15, 52. -pa.nhin having long eye-lashes (one of the signs of a Mahaapurisa) D II.17 = III.143. -pamha a long eye-lash Th 2, 384 ( = diighapakhuma ThA 250).

Aayataka (adj.) [ = aayata] - 1. long. extended, prolonged, kept up, lasting Vin II.108 (giitassara); A III.251 (id.); J I.362. - 2. sudden, abrupt, instr. -ena abruptly Vin II.237.

Aayatana (nt.) [Sanskrit aayatana, not found in the Vedas; but frequent in BSanskrit From aa + yam, cp. aayata. The pl. is aayatanaa at S IV.70. - For full definition of term as seen by the Paali Commentators see Bdhgh's explination at DA I. 124, 125, with which cp. the popular etymology at KhA 82: "aayassa vaa tananato aayatassa vaa sa'nsaaradukkhassa nayanato aayatanaani" and at Vism 527 "aaye tanoti aayata~n ca nayatii ti aa."] - 1. stretch, extent, reach, compass, region; sphere, locus, place, spot; position, occasion (corresponding to Bdhgh's definition at DA I.124 as "samosara.na") D III.241, 279 (vimutti-); S II.41, 269; IV.217; V.119 sq., 318. sq.; A III.141 (ariya-); V.61 (abhibh-, q. v.) Sn 406 (rajass- "haunt of passion" = raagaadi-rajassa uppatti-deso SnA 381); J I.80 (raj-). Freq. in phrase ara~n~n- a lonely spot, a spot in the forest J I.173; VvA 301; PvA 42, 54. - 2. exertion, doing, working, practice, performance (comprising Bdhgh's definition at DA I.124 as pa~n~natti), usually --, viz. kamm- Nd1 505; Vbh 324, 353; kasi.n- A V.46 sq., 60; Ps I.28; titth- A I.173, 175; Vbh 145, 367; sipp- (art, craft) D I.51; Nd2 505; Vbh 324, 353; cp. an- non-exertion, indolence, sluggishness J V.121. - 3. sphere of perception or sense in general, object of thought, sense-organ and object; relation, order. - Cpd.p. 183 says rightly: "aayatana cannot be rendered by a single English word to cover both sense-organs (the mind being regarded as 6th sense) and sense objects". - These aayatanaani (relations, functions, reciprocalities) are thus divided into two groups, inner (ajjhattikaani) and outer (baahiraani), and comprise the following: (a) ajjhatt-: 1. cakkhu eye, 2. sota ear, 3. ghaana nose, 4. jivhaa tongue, 5. kaaya body, 6. mano mind; (b) baah-: 1. ruupa visible object, 2. sadda sound, 3. gandha odour, 4. rasa taste, 5. pho.t.thabba tangible object, 6. dhamma cognizable object. - For details as regards connotation and application see Dhs trsl. introduction li sq. Cpd.90 n. 2; 254 sq. - Approximately covering this meaning (3) is Bdhgh's definition of aayatana at DA I.124 as sa~njaati and as kaara.na (origin and cause, i. e. mutually occasioning and conditioning relations or adaptations). See also Nd2 under ruupa for further classifications. - For the above mentioned 12 aayatanaani see the following passages: D II.302 sq.; III.102, 243; A III.400; V.52; Sn 373 (cp. SnA 366); Ps I.7, 22, 101, 137; II. 181, 225, 230; Dhs 1335; Vbh 401 sq.; Nett 57, 82; Vism 481; ThA 49, 285. Of these 6 are mentioned at S I.113, II.3; IV.100, 174 sq.; It 114; Vbh 135 sq., 294; Nett 13, 28, 30; Vism 565 sq. Other sets of 10 at Nett 69; of 4 at D II.112, 156; of 2 at D II.69. - Here also belongs aakaas- aana~nc- aayatana, aaki~nca~n~n- etc. (see under aakaasa etc. and s. v.), e. g. at D I.34 sq., 183; A IV.451 sq.; Vbh 172, 189, 262 sq.; Vism 324 sq. - Unclassified passages: M I.61; II.233; III.32, 216, 273; S I.196; II.6, 8, 24, 72 sq.; III.228; IV.98; V.426; A I.113, 163, 225; III.17, 27, 82, 426; IV.146, 426; V.30, 321, 351, 359; Nd1 109, 133, 171, 340; J I.381 (paripu.n.na-); Vbh 412 sq. (id.). -uppaada birth of the aayatanas (see above 3) Vin I.185. -kusala skilled in the aa. M III.63. -kusalataa skill in the spheres (of sense) D III.212; Dhs 1335. -.t.tha founded in the sense-organs Ps I.132; II.121.

Aayatanika (adj.) [from aayatana] belonging to the sphere of (some special sense, see aayatana 3) S IV.126 (phass- niraya and sagga).

Aayati (f.) [from aa + yam, cp. Sanskrit aayati] "stretching forth", extension, length (of time), future. Only (*) in acc. aayati.m (adv.) in future Vin II.89, 185; III.3; Sn 49; It 115 (T. reads aayati but cp. p. 94 where T. aayati.m, v. l. aayati); J I.89; V.431; DA I 236.

Aayatika (adj.) [from last] future S I.142.

Aayatikaa (f.) [of aayataka] a tube, waterpipe Vin II.123.

Aayatta [Sanskrit aayatta, pp. of aa + yat]. - 1. striving, active, ready, exerted J V.395 (-mana = ussukkamana C.). 2. striven after, pursued J I.341. - 3. dependent on Vism 310 (assaasa-passaasa-); Nett 194; Sdhp 477, 605.

Aayanaa (f.) [*] at DhsA 259 and Vism 26 is a grammarian's construction, abstracted from f. abstr. words ending in -aayanaa, e. g. kankhaa > kankhaayanaa, of which the correct explination. is a derivation from caus.-formation kankhaayati > kankhaay + a + naa. What the idea of Bdhgh. was in propounding his explination. is hard to say, perhaps he related it to i and understood it to be the same as aayaana.

Aayamati [aa + yam] to stretch, extend, stretch out, draw out Miln 176, usually in stereotype phrase pi.t.thi me aagilaayati tam aha.m aayamissaami "my back feels weak, I will stretch it" Vin II.200; D III.209; M I.354; S IV.184; J I.491. Besides this in commentaries e. g. J III.489 (mukha.m aayamitu.m).

Aayasa (adj.) [Sanskrit aayasa, of ayas iron] made of iron S II. 182; A III.58; Dh 345; J IV.416; V.81; Vv 845 (an-* cp. the rather strange explination. at VvA 335).

AayaSakya (nt.) dishonour, disgrace, bad repute A IV.96; J V.17; VvA 110; usually in phrase -.m paapu.naati to fall into disgrace Th 1, 292; J II.33 = 271; III.514. [Bdhgh. on A IV.96 explains it as ayasaka + ya with gu.na of the initial, cp. aarogya].

Aayasmant (adj.) [Sanskrit aayus.mant, the Paali form showing assimilation of u to a] lit. old, i. e. venerable; used, either as adj. or absolute as a respectful appellation of a bhikkhu of some standing (cp. the semantically identical thera). It occurs usually in nom. aayasmaa and is explained. in Nd by typical formula "piya-vacana.m garu-, sagaarava-sappa.tiss¢dhivacana.m", e. g. Nd1 140, 445; Nd2 130 on var. Sn loci (e. g. 814, 1032, 1040, 1061, 1096). - Freq. in all texts, of later passages see SnA 158; PvA 53, 54, 63, 78. - See also aavuso.

Aayaaga [aa + yaaga of yaj] sacrificial fee, gift; (m.) recipient of a sacrifice or gift (deyyadhamma) Sn 486 ( = deyyadhammaana.m adhi.t.thaana-bhuuta SnA 412); Th 1, 566; J VI. 205 (-vatthu worthy objact of sacrificial fees).

Aayaacaka (adj.-n.) [from aa + yaac] one who begs or prays, petitioner Miln 129.

Aayaacati [aa + yaac, cp. Buddh. Sanskrit aayaacate Divy 1.] - 1. to request, beg, implore, pray to (acc.) Vin III.127; D I.240; PvA 160. - 2. to make a vow, to vow, promise A I. 88; J I.169 = V.472; I.260; II.117. -pp. aayaacita (q. v.).

Aayaacana (nt.) [from aayaacati] - 1. asking, adhortation, addressing (t. t. g. in explination. of imperative) SnA 43, 176, 412. - 2. a vow, prayer A I.88; III.47; J I.169 = V.472.

---[ Page 106 ]---

Aayaacita [pp. of aayaacati] vowed, promised J I.169 (-bhattajaataka N.).

Aayaata [pp. of aayaat.; cp. BSanskrit aayaata in same meaning at Jtm 210] gone to, undertaken Sdhp 407.

Aayaati [aa + yaati of yaa] to come on or here, to come near, approach, get into S I.240; Sn 669; Sn p. 116 ( = gacchati SnA 463); J IV.410; pv II.1212 ( = aagacchati PvA 158); DhA I.93 (imper. aayaama let us go). -pp. aayaata.

Aayaana (nt.) [from aa + yaa to go] coming, arrival: see aayanaa.

Aayaama [from aa + yam, see aayamati] - 1. (lit.) stretching, stretching out, extension Vin I.349 = J III.488 (mukh-). 2. (applied) usually as linear measure: extension, length (often combined. with and contrasted to vitthaara breadth or width and ubbedha height), as n. (esp. in abl. aayaamato and instr. aayaamena in length) or as adj. (*-): J I.7, 49 (-ato tii.ni yojanasataani, vitthaarato a.d.dhatiyaani); III.389; Miln 17 (ratana.m so'asahattha.m aayaamena a.t.thahattha.m vitthaarena), 282 (ratana.m catuhatth-aayaama.m); Vism 205 (+ vitth-); Khb 133 (+ vitthaara and parikkhepa); VvA 188 (so'asayojan-), 199 (-vitthaarehi), 221 (-ato + vitth-); PvA 77 (+ vitth-), 113 (id. + ubbedha); DhA I.17 (sa.t.thi-yojan-).

Aayaasa [cp. Sanskrit aayaasa, etymology*] trouble, sorrow, only [ed: * Upaayaasa] negative an- (adj.) peaceful, free from trouble A IV.98; Th 1, 1008.

Aayu (nt.) [Vedic aayus; Av. aayu, gradation form of same root as Gr. ai)w/n "aeon", ai)e/n always; Latin aevum, Goth. aiws. Ohg. ewa, io always; Ger. ewig eternal; Ags. aae eternity, aa always (cp. ever and aye)] life, vitality, duration of life, longevity D III.68, 69, 73, 77; S III.143 (usmaa ca); IV.294; A I.155; II.63, 66 (addh-); III.47; IV.76, 139; Sn 694, 1019; It 89; J I.197 (diigh-); Vv 555 (cp. VvA 247 with its definition of divine life as comprising 30 600 000 years); Vism 229 (length of man's aayu = 100 years); Dhs 19, 82, 295, 644, 716; Sdhp 234, 239, 258. - Long or divine life, dibba.m aayu is one of the 10 attributes of aadhipateyya or majesty (see .thaana), thus at Vin I.294; D III.146; S IV.275 sq.; A I.115; III. 33; IV.242, 396; Pv II.959 ( = jiivita.m PvA 136). -uuhaa see aayuuhaa. -kappa duration of life Miln 141; DhA I.250. -khaya decay of life (cp. jiivita-kkhaya) D I.17 (cp. DA I.110); III.29. -pamaa.na span or measure of life time D II.3; A I.213, 267; II.126 sq.; IV.138, 252 sq., 261; V.172; Pug 16; Vbh 422 sq.; SnA 476. -pariyanta end of life It 99; Vism 422. -sankhaya exhaustion of life or lifetime Dpvs V.102. -sankhaara (usually pl. -aa) constituent of life, conditions or properties resulting in life, vital principle D II.106; M I.295 sq.; S II.266; A IV.311 sq.; Ud 64; J IV.215; Miln 285; Vism 292; DhA I.129; PvA 210. Cp. BSanskrit aayuh.-sa'nskaara Divy 203.

Aayuka (*-) (adj.) [from aayu] - being of life; having a life or age A IV.396 (niyat-); VvA 196 (yaavataayukaa dibbasampatti divine bliss lasting for a lifetime). Esp. frequent in combination. with diigha (long) and appa (short) as diighaayuka A IV.240; PvA 27; appaayuka A IV.247; PvA 103; both at Vism 422. In phrase viisati-vassasahass-aayukesu manussesu at the time when men lived 20 000 years D II.5-12 (see Table at Dial. II.6); DhA II.9; PvA 135; dasa-vassasahass-aayukesu manussesu (10 000 years) PvA 73; cattaa'iisa- DhA I.103; catusa.t.thi-kapp-aayukaa subhaki.nhaa Vism 422.

Aayukin (adj.) [from aayu] = aayuka; in appaayukin short lived Vv 416.

Aayuta (adj.) [Sanskrit ayuta, pp. of aa + yu, yuvati] - 1. connected with, endowed, furnished with Th 1, 753 (dve pannaras-aayuta due to twice fifteen); Sn 301 (naarii-varaga.n- = -sa'nyutta SnA 320); Pv II.124 (naanaa-saraga.n- = -yutta PvA 157). - 2. seized, conquered, in dur- hard to conquer, invincible J VI.271 ( = paccatthikehi duraasada C.).

Aayutta [Sanskrit aayukta; pp. of aa + yuj] - 1. yoked, to connected with, full of Pv I.1014 (tejas-aayuta T., but PvA 52 reads -aayutta and explinations. as samaayutta); PvA 157 ( = aaki.n.na of Pv II.124). - 2. intent upon, devoted to S I.67.

Aayuttaka (adj.-n.) [aayutta + ka] one who is devoted to or entrusted with, a trustee, agent, superintendent, overseer J I.230 (-vesa); IV.492; DhA I.101, 103, 180.

Aayudha is the Vedic form of the common Paali form aavudha weapon, and occurs only spuriously at D I.9 (v. l. aavudha).

Aayuvant (adj.) [from aayu] advanced in years, old, of age Th 1, 234.

Aayusmant (adj.) [Sanskrit aayus.mant; see also the regular Paali form aayasmant] having life or vitality PvA 63 (aayusmaavi~n~naa.na feeling or sense of vitality; is reading correct*).

Aayussa (adj.) [Sanskrit *aayus.ya] connected with life, bringing (long) life A III.145 dhamma).

Aayuuhaka (adj.) [from aayuuhati] keen, eager, active Miln 207 (+ viriyavaa).

Aayuuhati [aa + y + uuhati with euphonic y, from Vedic uuhati, uuh1, a gradation of vah (see etymology under vahati). Kern's etymology on Toev. 99 = aayodhati is to be doubted, more acceptable is Morris' explination. at J.Paali Text Society 1885, 58 sq., although contradictory in part.] lit. to push on or forward, aim at, go for, i. e. (1) to endeavour, strain, exert oneself S I.1 (ppr. anaayuuha.m unstriving), 48; J VI.35 ( = viriya.m karoti C.), 283 ( = vaayamati C.). - (2) to be keen on (w. acc.), to cultivate, pursue, do Sn 210 ( = karoti SnA 258); Miln 108 (kamma.m uuyuuhitvaa), 214 (kamma.m aayuuhi), 326 (magga.m). -pp. aayuuhita (q. v.).

Aayuuhana (adj.-nt.) [from aayuuhati] - 1. endeavouring, striving, Ps I.10 sq., 32, 52; II.218; Vism 103, 212, 462, 579. f. aayuuhanii Dhs 1059 ("she who toils" trsl.) = Vbh 361 = Nd2 ta.nhaa 1. (has aayuuhanaa). - 2. furtherance, pursuit DA I.64 (bhavassa).

Aayuuhaa f. [aayu + uuhaa] life, lifetime, only in -pariyosaana at the end of (his) life PvA 136, 162; VvA 319.

Aayuuhaapeti [Causative II. from aayuuhati] to cause somebody to toil or strive after DhsA 364.

Aayuuhita [*Sanskrit aa + uuhita, pp. of uuh] busy, eager, active Miln 181.

Aayoga [Sanskrit aayoga, of aa + yuj; cp. aayutta] - 1. binding, bandage Vin II.135; Vv 3341; VvA 142 (-pa.t.ta). - 2. yoke Dhs 1061 (avijj-), 1162. - 3. ornament, decoration Nd1 226; J III.447 (-vatta, for v. l. -vanta*). - 4. occupation, devotion to, pursuit, exertion D I.187; Dh 185 ( = payoga-kara.na DhA III.238). - 5. (t. t.) obligation, guarantee(*) SnA 179. - Cp. sam-.

Aarakatta (nt.) [*aarakaat + tva.m] warding off, keeping away, holding aloof, being far from (c. gen.); occurring only in pop. etymology of arahant at A IV.145; DhA IV.228; DA I.146 = VvA 105, 106 = PvA 7; cp. DhsA 349.

Aarakaa (adv.) [Sanskrit aaraat and aarakaat, abl. form. from *aaraka, see aaraa2] far off, far from, away from, also used as prep. c. abl. and as adj. pl. keeping away from, removed, far Vin II.239 = A IV.202 (sanghamhaa); D I.99, 102 (adj.) 167; M I.280 (adj.) S II.99; IV.43 sq.; A I.281; It 91; J I.272; III.525; V.451; Miln 243; VvA 72, 73 (adj. + virataa).

Aarakkha [aa + rakkha] watch, guard, protection, care D II.59; III.289; S IV.97, 175, 195; A II.120; III.38; IV. 266, 270, 281 (-sampadaa), 322 (id.), 400; V.29 sq.; J I.203; II.326; IV.29 (-purisa); V.212 (-.t.thaana, i. e. harem), 374 (-parivaara); Pug 21 (an-), 24; Miln 154; Vism 19

---[ Page 107 ]---

(-gocara preventive behaviour, cautiousness); SnA 476 (-devataa); KhA 120 (id.), 169; DhA II.146; PvA 195; Sdhp 357, 365.

Aarakkhlka [from aarakkha] a guard, watchman J IV.29.

Aarakkheyya see arakkheyya.

Aaragga (nt.) [aaraa + agga; Sanskrit aaraagra of aaraa an awl, a prick] the point of an awl, the head of certain arrows, having the shape of an awl, or an arrow of that kind (see Halayudha p. 151) A I.65; Sn 625, 631; Dh 401, 407; Vism 306; DhA II 51; IV.181.

Aaracayaaracayaa [aa + racayaa a ger. or abl. form. from aa + *rac, in usual Sanskrit meaning "to produce", but here as a sound-root for slashing noise, in reduplication for sake of intensification. Altogether problematic] by means of hammering, slashing or beating (like beating a hide) Sn 673 (gloss aarajayaarajayaa from aa + *ra~nj or *raj). - SnA 481 explinations. the passage as follows: aarajayaarajayaa; i. e. yathaa manussaa allacamma.m bhuumiya.m pattharitvaa khiilehi aako.tenti, eva.m aako.tetvaa pharasuuhi phaa'etvaa ekam eka.m ko.ti.m chinditvaa vihananti, chinnachinnako.ti punappuna samu.t.thaati; aaracayaaracayaa ti pi paa.tho, aavi~njitvaa (v. l. BB. aavijjhitvaa) aavi~njitvaa ti attho. - Cp. aara~njita.

Aara~n~naka (adj.) [from ara~n~na + ka] belonging to solitude or the forest, sequestereotyped; living in the forest, fond of seclusion, living as hermits (bhikkhuu). Freq. spelt ara~n~naka (q. v.). - Vin I.92 (bhikkhuu); II.32, 197, 217 (bh.), 265 (bh.); M I.214; A III.100 sq., 219; IV.21; V.66; J III.174 (v. l. BB. a-); Miln 342; DhA II.94 (vihaara).

Aara~n~nakatta (nt.) [abstr. from aara~n~naka, see also ara~n~nakatta] the habit of sequestration or living in solitude M I.214; III.40; A I.38.

Aara~n~nika (adj.) = aara~n~naka Vin III.15; A I.24; Pug 69; Vism 61, 71 (where defined); Miln 341.

Aara~njita [in form = Sanskrit *aara~njita, aa + pp. of ra~njayati, Causative of ra~nj or raj, but in meaning different. Perhaps to rac (as *racita) to furnish with, prepare, or better still to be regarded as an idiomatic Paali form of soundroot *rac (see aaracayaa-) mixed with ra~nj, of which we find another example in the double spelling of aaracayaa (and aarajayaa) q. v.] furrowed, cut open, dug up, slashed, torn (perhaps also "beaten") M I.178 (hatthipada.m dantehi aara~njita.m an elephant-track bearing the marks of tusks, i. e. occasional slashes or furrows).

Aarata [Sanskrit aarata, pp. of aa + ram, cp. aarati] leaving off, keeping away from, abstaining J IV.372 ( = virata); Nd2 591 (+ virata pa.tivirata).

Aarati (f.) [Sanskrit aarati, aa + ram] leaving off, abstinence Vv 639 ( = pa.tivirati VvA 263); in exegetical style occurring in typ. combination. with virati pa.tivirati verama.nii, e. g. at Nd2 462; Dhs 299.

Aaratta (nt.*) [Sanskrit cp. aarakta, pp. of aa + raj] time, period (orig. affected, tinted with), only in cpd. vassaaratta the rainy season, lent J IV.444; Daavs II.74.

Aaraddha (adj.) [pp. of aa + rabh] begun, started, bent on, undertaking, holding on to, resolved, firm A I.148 (aaraddha.m me viriya.m It 30; PvA 73 (.thapetu.m began to place), 212 (gantu.m). Cp. aaraadhaka 1. -citta concentrated of mind, decided, settled D I.176; M I.414; S II.21; Sn p. 102; SnA 436. Cp. aaraadheti 1. -viriya (adj.) strenuous, energetic, resolute Vin I.182; D III.252, 268, 282, 285; A I.24; Sn 68, 344; It 71 (opp. hiina-viriya); Nd2 131; Ps I.171; ThA 95. Cp. viriyaarambha; f. abstr. -viriyataa M I.19.

Aarabbha (indecl.) [ger. of aarabhati2 in abs. function; cp. Sanskrit aarabhya meaning since, from] - 1. beginning, under taking etc., in cpd. -vatthu occasion for making an effort, concern, duty, obligation D III.256 = A IV.334 (eight such occasions enumd). - 2. (prep. with acc.) lit. beginning with, taking (into consideration), referring to, concerning, with reference to, about D I.180; A II.27 = It 103 (senaasana.m aa.); Sn 972 (upekha.m; v. l. aarambha; C. uppaadetvaa); Pv I.41 (pubbe pete aa.); DhA I.3; II.37; PvA 3 (se.t.thiputta-peta.m aa.), 16, and passim.

Aarabhati1 [not with Morris J.Paali Text Society 1889, 202 from rabh and identical with aarabhati2, but with Kern, Toev. s. v. identical with Sanskrit aalabhate, aa + labh meaning to seize the sacrificial animal in order to kill it; cp. niraarambha] to kill, destroy M I.371 (paa.na.m).

Aarabhati2 and aarabbhati [aa + rabhati, Sanskrit aarabhati and aarambhati, aa + rabh] to begin, start, undertake, attempt S I.156 (aarabbhatha "bestir yourselves") = Miln 245 = Th 1, 256 (bh.); Pug 64 (bh.); viriya.m aarabhati to make an effort, to exert oneself (cp. aarambha) A IV.334. aor. aarabhi DhA II.38 and aarabbhi PvA 35. - ger. aarabbha, see sep. -pp. aaraddha (q. v.).

Aarambha [Sanskrit aarambha in meaning "beginning", fr aa + rabh (rambh) cp. aarabhati] - 1. attempt, effort, inception of energy (cp. Dhs trsl. 15 and K. S. p. 318 giving C. def. as kicca, kara.niiya, attha, i. e. 1. undertaking and duty, 2. object) S I.76 (mah-); V.66, 104 sq. (-dhaatu); III.338 (id.), 166 (-ja; T. arabbhaja, v. l. aarambhaja to be preferred) = Pug 64; Miln 244; Net 41; DhsA 145. -viriyaarambha (cp. aaraddha-viriya) zeal, resolution, energy Vin II.197; S IV.175; A I.12, 16. - 2. support, ground, object, thing Nett 70 sq., 107; an- unsupported, independent Sn 743 ( = nibbaana SnA 507). Cp. also nirambha, upaarambha, saarambha.

Aaramma.na (nt.) [cp. Sanskrit aalambana, lamb, but in meaning confounded with rambh (see rabhati)] primary meaning "foundation", from this applied in the following senses: (1) support, help, footing, expedient, anything to be depended upon as a means of achieving what is desired, i. e. basis of operation, chance Sn 1069 ( = aalambana, nissaya, upanissaya Nd2 132); Pv I.41 (ya.m ki~nc- aaramma.na.m katvaa); aaramma.na.m labhati (+ otaara.m labhati) to get the chance S II.268; IV.185. - (2) condition, ground, cause, means, esp. a cause of desire or clinging to life, pl. -aa causes of rebirth (interpreted by ta.nhaa at Nd1 429), lust Sn 474 ( = paccayaa SnA 410), 945 ( = Nd1 429); KhA 23; DhA I.288 (sappaay-); PvA 279. - (3) a basis for the working of the mind and intellect; i. e. sense-object, object of thought or consciousness, the outward constituent in the relation of subject and object, object in general. In this meaning of "relation" it is closely connected with aayatana (see aayatana3), so that it sometimes takes its place, it is also similar to visaya. Cpd.3 distinguishes a 5 fold object, viz. citta, cetasika, pasaada- and sukhuma-ruupa, pa~n~natti, nibbaana. See on term especially Cpd.3, 14; Dhs trsl. XLI. and 209. - A 1. sq.; IV.385; Sn 506; Ps I.57 sq., 84 (four aa.); II.97, 118, 143; Dhs 1 (dhamm- object of ideation), 180, 584, 1186 et passim; Vbh 12, 79, 92, 319, 332 (four); Nett 191 (six); Vism 87 sq., 375 (-sankantika), 430 sq. (in var. sets with reference to var. objects), 533; DhsA 48, 127; VvA 11, 38. - ruupaaramma.na lit. dependence on form, i. e. object of sight, visible form, especially striking appearance, visibility, sight D III.228; S III.53; A I.82; J I.304; II.439, 442; PvA 265. aaramma.na.m karoti to make it an object (of intellection or intention), to make it one's concern (cp. Pv I.41, above 1). - aaramma.na-kusala clever in the objects (of meditation) S III.266; aa--paccayataa relation of presentation (i. e. of subj. and obj.) Nett 80. - (4) (*-) (adj.) being supported by, depending on, centred in, concentrated upon PvA 8 (nissay-), 98 (ek-); VvA 119 (buddh- piiti rapture centred in the Buddha).

Aaraha (adj.) metri causa for araha deserving J VI.164.

---[ Page 108 ]---

Aaraa1 (f.) [Sanskrit aar¢; *el "pointed", as in Ohg. aala = Ger. ahle, Ags. aael = E awl; Oicel. alr] an awl; see cp. aaragga. Perhaps a der. of aaraa is aa'akaa (q. v.).

Aaraa2 (indecl.) [Vedic aaraad, abl. as adv.; orig. a root der. from *ara remoteness, as in Sanskrit ara.na foreign and ara.nya solitude q. v. under ara.na1 and ara~n~na] far from, remote (from) (adv. as well as prep. with abl.) Sn 156 (pamaadamhaa), 736; Dh 253 (aasavakkhayaa; DhA III.377 expls. by duuragata); J II.449 (jhaanabhuumiyaa; = duure .thita C.); V.78 (sa'nyame; = duurato C.). See also aarakaa. -caara [in this combination. by Kern, Toev. s. v. unecessarily explained. as aaraa = aarya; cp. similar phrases under aarakaa] a life remote (from evil) A IV.389. -caarin living far from evil leading a virtuous life D I.4; M I.179; III.33; A III. 216, 348; IV.249; V.138, 205; DA I.72 ( = abrahmacariyato duura-caarin).

Aaraadhaka (adj.-n.) [from aa + raadh] 1. [perhaps for *aaraddhaka because of analogy to aaraddha of aa + rabh] successful, accomplishing or accomplished, undertaking, eager Vin I.70 (an- one who fails); M I.491; II.197 = A I.69 = Miln 243; S V.19; A V.329 (in correlation with aaraddhaviriya). - 2. pleasing, propitiating Miln 227; VvA 220 (-ikaa f.).

Aaraadhana (nt.) and -aa (f.) (either from aa + raadh or aa + rabh, cp. aaraadhaka] satisfying, accomplishing; satisfaction, accomplishment D II.287 (opp. viraadhanaa failure); M I.479; II.199; A V.211 sq.; J IV.427.

Aaraadhaniiya (adj.) [grd. from aaraadheti] to be attained, to be won; successful Vin I.70 (an-); J II.233 (dur-).

Aaraadhita [pp. of aaraadheti; Sanskrit aaraadhita, but BSanskrit aaraagita, e. g. Divy 131, 233] pleased Sdhp 510.

Aaraadheti [Causative of aa + raadh, in meaning 2 confused with aarabhati. In BSanskrit strangely distorted to aaraagayati; frequent in Divy as well as Av. SH] - 1. to please, win favour, propitiate, convince J I.337 (daarake), 421, 452; II.72 (manusse); IV.274 (for aabhiraadheti T.); Vism 73 (aaraadhayanto Naathassa vana-vaasena maanasa'n); DhA II.71; Daavs III.93 (aaraadhayi sabbajana.m); Miln 352. In older literature only in phrase citta.m aaraadheti to please one's heart, to gladden, win over, propitiate D I.118 sq., 175 (but cp. aaraddha-citta to aarabhati); M I85, 341; S II.107; V.109; J II.372; Miln 25. - 2. to attain, accomplish, fulfill, succeed S V.23 (magga.m), 82, 180, 294; It III. (v. l. aaraam-); Sn 488 = 509. Cp. aaraadhaka 1. -pp. aaraadhita (q. v.). - See also paraabhetvaa.

Aaraama [Sanskrit aaraama, aa + ram] - 1. pleasure, fondness of (*-), delight, always as adj. (*-) delighting in, enjoying, finding pleasure in (usually combined. with rata, e. g. dhammaaraama dhammarata finding delight in the Dh.) S I.235; IV.389 sq. (bhav-, upaadaan-); A I.35, 37, 130; II.28 (bhaavan-); It 82 (dhamm-); Sn 327 (id.; explained. by SnA 333 as rati and "dhamme aaraamo assaa ti"); Pug 53 (samagg-); Vbh 351. - 2. a pleasure-ground, park, garden (lit. sport, sporting); classified at Vin III.49 as pupph- and phal- a park with flowers or with fruit (i. e. orchard), def. at DhA III.246 as ve.luvana-Jiivak- ambavan- aadayo, i. e. the park of ve.luvana, or the park belonging to Jiivaka or mango-groves in general. Therefore: (a) (in general) a park, resort for pastime etc. Vin II.109; D I. 106; Dh 188; Vv 795 (amb- garden of mangoes); VvA 305 (id.); Pv II.78 (pl. aaraamaani = aaraam- uupavanaani PvA 102). - (b) (in special) a private park, given to the Buddha or the Sangha for the benefit of the bhikkhus, where they meet and hold discussions about sacred and secular matters; a place of recreation and meditation, a meeting place for religious gatherings. Amongst the many aaraamas given to the bhikkhus the most renowned is that of Anaathapi.n.dika (Jetavana; see J I.92-94) D I.178; Vin IV.69; others more frequently mentioned are e. g. the park of Ambapaalii (Vin I.233); of Mallikaa (D I.178), etc. - Vin I.39, 140, 283, 291; II.170; III.6, 45, 162; IV.85; A II.176; Dpvs V.18. -paala keeper of a park or orchard, gardener Vin II. 109; VvA 288. -ropa, -ropana planter, planting of pleasuregroves S I.33; PvA 151. -vatthu the site of an aaraama Vin I.140; II. 170; III.50, 90.

Aaraamakinii (f.) see aaraamika.

Aaraamataa (f.) [abstr. from aaraama 1] pleasure, satisfaction A II.28; III.116; Vbh 381; Miln 233.

Aaraamika (adj.) [from aaraama] 1. (to aaraama 1) finding delight in, fond of (c. gen.) (or servant in general*) Miln 6 (sanghassa trsl. at the service of the order). - 2. (to aaraama 2) belonging to an aaraama, one who shares the congregation, an attendant of the aaraama Vin I.207 sq.; II.177 (and -pesaka), 211; III.24; IV.40; V.204; A II.78 (-sama.nuddesa); III.109 (id.), 275 (-pesaka); J I.38 (-kicca) Vism 74 (-sama.nuddesa). - f. aaraamaki.nii a female attendant or visitor of an aaraama Vin I.208.

Aaraava [cp. Sanskrit aaraava, from aa + ru] cry, sound, noise Daavs IV.46.

Aaraha (nt.) only in pl. gihiina.m aarahaani, things proper to laymen, D III.163.

Aariya in anaariya at Sn 815 is metric for anariya (q. v.).

Aaru.n.na (nt.) [orig. pp of aa + rud] weeping, crying, lamenting Miln 357.

Aaruppa (adj.) [from aruupa as aa ( = a2) - *ruupya] formless, incorporeal; nt. formless existence D III.275; M I.410, cp. 472; III.163; S I.131 (-.t.thaayin); II.123; A IV.316; It 61; Sn 754; J I.406; Dhs 1385 (cp. trsl. 57); Vism 338; DA I.224; SnA 488, 508; Sdhp 5, 10; the four: Vism III, 326 sq.

Aaruhati [aa + ruh] to climb, ascend, go up or on to Sn 1014 (aor. aaruha.m); Sdhp 188; ger. aaruhitvaa Sn 321 and aaruyha J VI.452; Sn 139 (v. l. abhiruyha); It 71. Causative aaropeti (q. v.).

Aaruugya see aarogya.

Aaruu'ha [pp. of aaruhati] - 1. ascended, mounted, gone up, gone on to IV.137; J VI.452 (T. aaru'ha); Vism 135 (nekkhamma-pa.tipada.m an-); VvA 64 (magga-); PvA 47 (-naava), 56 (hatthi-). - 2. come about, effected, made, done PvA 2, 144 (cp. BSanskrit pratij~naam aaruu.dha having taken a vow Divy 26). - 3. (of an ornament) put on (to), arrayed J VI.153, 488.

Aaruuha see aaroha.

Aarogataa (f.) [abstr. from a + roga + taa] freedom from illness, health Miln 341.

Aarogya (nt.) [abstr. from aroga, i. e. aa ( = a2) + roga + ya] absence of illness, health D I.11; III.220 (-mada), 235 (-sampadaa); M I.451 (T. aaruugya, v. l. aarogya), 508, 509; S II.109; A I.146 (-mada); II.143; III.72; V.135 sq.; Sn 749, 257 = Dh 204 = J III.196; Nd1 160; Vism 77 (-mada pride of health); PvA 129, 198; Sdhp 234.

Aarocaapana (nt.) [from aarocaapeti, Causative of aaroceti] announcement DhA II.167.

Aarocaapeti (Causative II. of aaroceti] to make some one announce, to let somebody know, usually in phrase kaala.m aa. Sn p. 111; J I.115, 125; DhA II.89; PvA 141.

Aarocita [pp. of aaroceti] announced, called Vin II.213 (kaala).

Aaroceti [aa + roceti, Causative of ruc; cp. BSanskrit aarocayati Sp. Av. SH I.9 etc.] to relate, to tell, announce, speak to, address D I.109, 224; Pv II.89 (aor, aarocayi); PvA 4, 13

---[ Page 109 ]---

(a~n~nama~n~na.m anaarocetvaa not speaking to each other), 81, 274 and frequent passim. -pp. aarocita; Causative II. aarocaapeti (q. v.).

Aarodana (nt.) [from aa + rud, cp. aaru.n.na] crying, lamenting A III.268 sq.; J I.34; DhA I.184; II.100.

Aaropana (nt.) [from aaropeti] "putting on to", impaling Miln 197 (suul-), 290 (id.).

Aaropita [pp. of aaropeti] - 1. produced, come forward, set up PvA 2. - 2. effected, made S III.12; PvA 92, 257. - 3. put on (to a stake), impaled PvA 220 ( = aavuta).

Aaropeti [Causative of aaruhati]. - 1. to make ascend, to lead up to (w. acc.) PvA 76 (paasaada.m), 160 (id.) - 2. to put on, take up to (w. acc. or loc.) Pv II.92 (yakkha.m yaana.m aaropayitvaana); PvA 62 (sariira.m citaka.m aa.), 100 (bha.n.da.m saka.tesu aa.). - 3. to put on, commit to the care of, entrust, give over to (w. loc.) J I.227; PvA 154 (rajja.m amaccesu aa.). - 4. to bring about, get ready, make PvA 73, 257 (sangaha.m aa. make a collection); SnA 51, 142. 5. to exhibit, tell, show, give S I.160 (ovaada.m); Miln 176 (dosa'n); DhA II.75 (id.) - 6. vaada.m aaropeti to refute a person, to get the better of (gen.) Vin I.60; M II.122; S I.160. -pp. aaropita (q. v.).

Aaroha (*-) [from aa + ruh] - 1. climbing up, growth, increase, extent, in cpd. -pari.naaha length and circumference S II.206; A I.288; II.250; IV.397; V.19; J III.192; V. 299; VI.20; Vbh 345 (-maana + pari.naaha-maana); SnA 382. - 2. one who has climbed up, mounted on, a rider, usually in cpd. ass- and hatth- horse-rider and elephantrider S IV.310; A II.166 = III.162 (T. aaruuha); IV.107; DhsA 305. - 3. outfit, possession (or increase, as 1*) Sn 420 (va.n.n-).

Aaroha.na (nt.) [from aa + ruh] climbing, ascending; ascent J I.70; VI.488; Miln 352; Vism 244; PvA 74.

Aalaka-manda [aalaya-*] at Vin II.152 is of uncertain reading and meaning ("open to view"* or "not having pegs" = aa'aka*) vv. ll. aa'akamanta and aalakamandaara; Bdhgh on p. 321 explinations. aa'akamandaa ti ekanga.naa manuss¢bhiki.n.naa, i. e. full of a crowd of people, Ch. quotes aalakamandaa as "the city of Kuvera" (cp. Sanskrit alakaa).

Aalaggeti [aa + Causative of lag] to (make) hang on to (loc.), to stick on, fasten to Vin II.110 (patta.m ve.lagge aalaggetvaa).

Aalapati [aa + lapati] to address S I.177, 212; J V.201; SnA 42, 347, 383, 394 ( = aamantayi of Sn 997), 487 ( avhayati); PvA 11, 13, 33, 69.

Aalapana (nt.) and -aa (f.) [from aa + lap] talking to, addressing, conversation Vin III.73 (with reference to exclam. "ambho"); J V.253 (-aa); Vism 23 (-aa); SnA 396; PvA 131 (re ti aa.).

Aalapanataa (f.) [abstr. from aalapana] speaking to, conversing with, conversation M I.331) (an-).

Aalamba [Sanskrit aalamba, aa + lamb] anything to hang on, support S I.53 (an- without support); Sn 173 (id. + appati.t.tha); J III.396; Miln 343; Sdhp 245, 463.

Aalambati [aa + lamb] to hang on to or up, to take hold of, to fasten to Vin I.28, J I.57; VI.192; Vv 8448; ThA 34. - aalambeti id. VvA 32.

Aalambana (adj.-nt.) [from aa + lamb, cp. aalamba] (adj.) hanging down from, hanging up J III.396; IV.457; SnA 214. - (nt.) support, balustrade (or screen*) Vin II.117, 152 (-baaha) Miln 126.

Aalambara and aa'ambara (nt.) [Sanskrit aa.dambara] a drum Vin I.15 (l); J II.344 ('); V.390 (l); Vv 5418 (').

Aalaya (m. and nt.) [cp. Sanskrit aalaya, aa + lii, liiyate, cp. alliina and alliiyati, also niraalaya] - 1. orig. roosting place, perch, i. e. abode settling place, house J I.10 (geh-); Miln 213; DhA II.162 (an- = anoka), 170 ( = oka). - 2. "hanging on", attachment, desire, clinging, lust S I.136 = Vin I.4 (-raama "devoted to the things to which it clings" K. S.); Vin III.20, 111; S IV.372 (an-); V.421 sq. (id.); A II. 34, 131 (-raama); III.35; It 88; Sn 177 (kaam- = kaamesu ta.nhaa-di.t.thi-vasena duvidho aalayo SnA 216), 535 (+ aasavaani), 635; Nett 121, 123 (-samugghaata); Vism 293 (id.), 497; Miln 203 (Buddh -.m akaasi*); DhA I.121; IV.186 ( = ta.nhaa); SnA 468 ( = anoka of Sn 366). - 3. pretence, pretext, feint [cp. BSanskrit aalaya M Vastu III.314] J I.157 (gilaan-), 438; III.533 (mat-); IV.37 (gabbhinii); VI 20, 262 (gilaan-).

Aalayati see alliiyati.

Aalassa (nt.) [Der. from alasa] sloth, idleness, laziness S I.43; D III.182; A IV.59; V.136; Sdhp 567. Spelling also aalasya S I.43 (v. l. BB); Vbh 352; Miln 289, and aalasiya J I.427; DA I.310; DhA I.299; VvA 43.

Aalaana and aa'aana (nt.) [for aanaahana with substitution of l for n (cp. apil and hana for apinandh- and contraction of -aahana to -aana originally meaning "tying to" then the thing to which anything is tied] a peg, stake, post, esp. one to which an elephant is tied J I.415; IV.308; DhA I.126 (') where all MSS. have aa'aahana, perhaps correctly.

Aali1 (m. or f.* [Sanskrit aa'i] a certain kind of fish J V.405.

Aali2 and aa'i (f.) [Sanskrit aalii] a dike, embankment Vin II.256; M III.96; A II.166 (-pabbheda); III.28; J I.336; III.533, 334.

Aalika in saccaalika at S IV.306 is sacc-alika distortion of truth, falsehood S IV.306.

Aalikhati [aa + likhati] to draw, delineate, copy in writing or drawing J I.71; Miln 51.

Aalinga [aa + ling] a small drum J V.156 (suva.n.n--tala).

Aalingati [aa + ling] to embrace, enfold D I.230; III.73; J I.281; IV.21, 316, 438; V.8; Miln 7; DhA I.101: VvA 260.

Aalitta [pp. of aalimpati; Sanskrit aalipta] besmeared, stained Th 1, 737.

Aalinda (and aa'inda) [Sanskrit alinda] a terrace or verandah before the house-door Vin I.248; II.153; D I.89; M II.119; S IV.290 ('); A V.65 ('); J VI.429; DA I.252; DhA I. 26; IV.196; SnA 55 (-ka-vaasin; v. l. alindaka); Mhvs 35, 3. As aalindaka at J III.283.

Aalippati Pass. of aalimpeti (q. v.).

Aalimpana (nt.) [for aa'imp- = Sanskrit aadiipana, see aalimpeti2] conflagration, burning, flame Miln 43.

Aalimpita [pp. of aalimpeti2] ignited, lit. A IV.102 (v. l. aalepita).

Aalimpeti1 [Sanskrit aalimpayati or aalepayati. aa + lip or limp] to smear, anoint Vin II.107; S IV.177 (va.na.m). - Causative II. aalimpaapeti Vin IV.316. - Pass. aalimpiiyati Miln 74 and aalippati DhA IV.166 (v. l. for lippati). -pp. aalitta (q. v.).

Aalimpeti2 [for Sanskrit aadiipayati, with change of d to l over ' and substitution of limp for 'iip after analogy of roots in -mp, like lup > lump, lip > limp] to kindle, ignite, set fire to Vin II.138 (daayo aalimpetabbo); III.85; D II.163 (citaka.m); A I.257; DhA I.177 (aavaasa'n read aavaapa.m), 225; PvA 62 (ka.t.thaani). -pp. aalimpita (q. v.).

Aalu (nt.) [Sanskrit aalu and -ka; cognate with Latin aalum and alium, see Walde Latin Wtb. under alium] a bulbous plant, Radix

---[ Page 110 ]---

Globosa Esculenta or Amorphophallus (Kern), Arum Campanulatum (Hardy) J IV.371 = VI.578; IV.373.

Aaluka1 = aalu J IV.46 (C. for aalupa).

Aaluka2 (adj.) [etymology*] susceptible of, longing for, affected with (*-) Vin I.288 (siit-); DA I.198 (id.); J II.278 (ta.nh- greedy).

Aalupa (nt.) [etymology* Kern, Toev. s. v. suggests aalu-a > aaluva > aalupa] = aaluka the edible root of Amorphophallus Campanulatus J IV.46 ( = aaluka-ka.n.da C.). The form aaluva occurs at Ap 237.

Aalumpakaara [reading not sure, to aalumpati or aalopa] breaking off, falling off (*) or forming into bits(*) DhA II.55 (-guutha).

Aalumpati [aa + lup or lump, cp. aalopa] to pull out, break off M I.324.

Aalu'a (adj. [from aa + lul] being in motion, confusion or agitation, disturbed, agitated J VI.431.

Aalu'ati [aa + lul; Sanskrit aalolati, cp. also Paali aalo'eti] to move here and there, ppr. med. aalu'amaana agitated, whirling about DhA IV.47 (T. aaluul-; v. l. aa'ul-) confuse DhsA 375. Causative aalu'eti to set in motion, agitate, confound J II.9, 33. -pp. aalu'ita (q. v.).

Aalu'ita [pp. of aalu'eti] agitated, confused J II.101; Miln 397 (+ khalita).

Aalepa [cp. Sanskrit aalepa, of aa + lip] ointment, salve, liniment Vin I.274; Miln 74; DhsA 249.

Aalepana (nt.) [from aa + lip] anointing, application of salve D I.7 (mukkh-).

Aaloka [aa + lok, Sanskrit aaloka] seeing, sight (obj. and subj.), i. e. - 1. sight, view, look S IV.128 = Sn 763; A III. 236 (aaloke nikkhitta laid before one's eye). anaaloka without sight, blind Miln 296 (andha +). - 2. light A I. 164 (tamo vigato aa. uppanno) = It 100 (vihato); A II. 139 (four lights, i.e. canda-, suriya-, agg-, pa~n~n-, of the moon, sun, fire and wisdom); J II 34; Dhs 617 (opp. and hakaara); VvA 51 (diip-). - 3. (clear) sight, power of observation, intuition, in combination. with vijjaa knowledge D II.33 = S II.7 = 105, cp. Ps II.150 sq. (obhaasa.t.thena, S A. on II.7). - 4. splendour VvA 53; DvA 71. -kara making light, bringing light, n. light-bringer It 108. -kara.na making light, illumining It 108. -da giving light or insight Th 1, 3. -dassana seeing light, i. e. perceiving Th 1, 422. -phara.na diffusing light or diffusion of light Vbh 334; Nett 89. -bahula good in sight, fig. full of foresight A III.432. -bhuuta light J VI 459. -sa~n~naa consciousness or faculty of sight or perception D III.223; A II.45; III.93 -sa~n~nin conscious of sight, i. e. susceptible to sight or insight D III.49; M III.3; A II 211; III.92, 323; IV.437; V.207; Pug 69. -sandhi "break for the light", a slit to look through, an opening, a crack or casement Vin I.48 = II.209 = 218; II.172; III.65; IV.47; J IV.310; PvA 24.

Aalokana (nt.) [from aa + lok] looking at, regarding DA I.194.

Aalokita (nt.) [pp. of aaloketi] looking before, looking at, looking forward (opp. vilokita.m looking behind or backward), always in combination. aalokita-vilokita in stereotype phrase at D I.70 = e. g. A II.104, 106, 210; Pug 44, 45, 50; Vism 19; VvA 6; DA I.193 (aalokita.m purato pekkhana.m vil- anudisaa p.).

Aaloketar [n. ag. to aaloketi] one who looks forward or before, a beholder DA I.194 (opp. viloketar).

Aaloketi [Sanskrit aalokayati, aa + lok] to look before, look at, regard, see DA I.193, 194. -pp. aalokita (q. v.).

Aalopa [aa + lup, cp. aalumpati; BSanskrit aalopa, e. g. Av. SH I. 173, 341; Divy 290, 481] a piece (cut off), a bit (of food) morsel, esp. bits of food gathered by bhikkhus D I.5 = A V.206; III.176; A II 209; III.304; IV.318; Th 1, 1055; It 18; Pv II.17; Pug 58; Miln 231, 406; Vism 106; DA I.80 ( = vilopa-kara.na.m).

Aalopati [aalopeti* aa + lopeti, Causative of aalumpati] to break in, plunder, violate Th 1, 743.

Aalopika (adj.) [aalopa + ika] getting or having, or consisting of pieces (of food) A I.295; II.206; Pug 55.

Aalo'a [from aa + lu', cp. aalu'ati and aalo'eti] confusion, uproar, agitation DhA I.38.

Aalo'ii (f.) [a + lu'] that which is stirred up, mud, in cpd. siitaalo'ii mud or loam from the furrow adhering to the plough Vin I.206.

Aalo'eti [Causative of aalu'ati, cp. aalu'eti] to confuse, mix, shake together, jumble S I.175; J II.272, 363; IV.333; VI.331; Vism 105.

Aa'aka (or -aa f.) [Dimin of a'a (*) or of aaQ 1 (*). See Morris J.Paali Text Society 1886, 158] - 1. a thorn, sting, dart, spike, used either as arrow-straightener Miln 418; DhA I.288; or (perhaps also for piece of bone, fishbone) in making up a comb VvA 349 (-sandhaapana = comb; how Hardy got the meaning of "alum" in Ind. to VvA is incomprehensible). - 2 a peg, spike, stake or post (to tie an elephant to, cp. aalaana). Cp. II.13.

Aa'amba = aa'ambara Vv 189 = 5024. See aalambara.

Aa'avaka (and -ika) (adj.-n.) [ = aa.tavika] dwelling in forests, a forest-dweller S II.235. As Np. at Vism 208.

Aa'aadvaaraka (adj.) at J V.81, 82 is corrupt and should with v. l. perhaps better be read advaaraka without doors. Cp. Kern, Toev. 29 (aalaaraka*). J V.81 has aa'aaraka only.

Aa'aara (adj.) [ = a'aara or u'aara or = Sanskrit araala*] thick, massed, dense or crooked, arched (*), only in cpd. -pamha with thick eyelashes Vv 6411 ( = gopakhuma VvA 279); Pv III.35 ( = vellita-diigha-niila-pamukha). Cp. alaara.

Aa'aarika and -iya (adj.-n.) [Sanskrit aaraalika, of uncertain etymology] a cook D I.51 ( = bhattakaaraka DA I.157); J V.296 ( = bhattakaaraka C.); 307; VI.276 (-iya, C. -ika = suupika); Miln 331.

Aa'aahana (nt.) [from aa + .dah or dah, see dahati] a place of cremation, cemetery D I.55; J I.287 (here meaning the funereal fire) 402; III.505; Pv II.122; Vism 76; Miln 350; DA I.166; DhA I.26; III.276; PvA 92, 161, 163 ( = sariirassa da.d.dha-.t.thaana). - Note. For aa'aahana in meaning "peg, stake" see aalaana.

Aa'ika at A III.352, 384 (an-) is preferably to be read aa'hika, see aa'haka.

Aa'ha (nt.) = aa'haka; only at A III.52 (udak-), where perhaps better with v. l. to be read as aa'haka. The id. p. at A II.55 has aalhaka only.

Aa'haka (m. and nt.) [Sanskrit aa.dhaka, from *aa.dha probably meaning "grain"] a certain measure of capacity, originally for grain; in older texts usually applied to a liquid measure (udaka-). Its size is given by Bdhgh. at SnA 476 as follows: "cattaaro patthaa aa'hakaani do.na.m etc." - udakaa'haka S V.400; A II.55 = III.337; VvA 155. - In other connections at J I.419 (a.d.dh-); III.541 (mita.m aa'hakena = dha~n~na-maapaka-kamma.m kata.m C.); Miln 229 (patt-); DhA III.367 (a.d.dh-).

---[ Page 111 ]---

-thaalikaa a bowl of the capacity of an aa'haka Vin I. 240; A III.369; DhA III.370 (v. l. bhatta-thaalikaa).

Aa'hiya (and aa'hika) (adj.) [from *aa'ha, Sanskrit aa.dhya, orig. possessing grain, rich in grain, i. e. wealth; semantically cp. dha~n~na2] rich, happy, fortunate; only in negative anaa'hiya poor, unlucky, miserable M I.450; II.178 (+ da'idda); A III.352 sq. (so read with v. l. BB. -aa'hika for T. -aa'ika; combined. with da'idda; v. l. SS. anaddhika); J V. 96, 97 (+ da'idda; C. na aa'hika).

Aavajati [aa + vajati, vraj] - 1. to go into, to or towards J III.434; IV.49, 107. - 2. to return, come back J V.24, 479.

Aavajjati [not with Senart M Vastu 377 = ava + dhyaa, but = Sanskrit aavr.nakti aa + vrj, with pres. act. aavajjeti = Sanskrit aavarjayati] - 1. to reflect upon, notice, take in, advert to, catch (a sound), listen J I.81; II.423; V.3; Miln 106. - 2. to remove, upset (a vessel), pour out Vin I.286 (kumbhi.m); J II.102 (gloss aasi~ncati). - Causative aavajjeti (q. v.).

Aavajjana (nt.) [from aavajjati, cp. BSanskrit aavarjana in different meaning] turning to, paying attention, apprehending; adverting the mind. - See discussion of term at Cpd.85, 227 (the C. derive aavajjana from aava.t.teti to turn towards, this confusion being due to close resemblance of jj and .t.t in writing); also Kvu trsl. 221 n. 4 (on Kvu 380 which has aava.t.tanaa), 282 n. 2 (on Kvu 491 aava.t.tanaa). - Ps II.5, 120; J II.243; Vbh 320; Miln 102 sq.; Vism 432; DA I.271.

AaVajjita [pp. of aavajjeti cp. BSanskrit aavarjita, e. g. Divy 171; Itin 221] bent, turned to, inclined; noticed, observed Miln 297; Vism 432 (citta); Sdhp 433.

AaVajjitatta (nt.) [abstr. from aaVajjita] inclination of mind, observation, paying attention Ps II.27 sq.

Aavajjeti [Causative of aavajjati] 1. to turn over, incline, bend M III.96; J IV.56 (so read for aavijjhanto); DA I.10 (kaaya.m). 2. to incline (the mind); observe, reflect, muse, think, heed, listen for. According to Cpd.227 often paraphrased in C. by pari.naameti. - J I.69, 74, 81, 89, 108, 200; Miln 297; DhA II.96; PvA 181 ( = manasikaroti). - 3. to cause to yield A III.27 (perhaps better aava.t.t-). pp. aaVajjita (q. v.).

Aava.ta [Sanskrit aavrta, pp. of aa + vr] covered, veiled, shut off against, prohibited D I.97, 246; M I.381 (-dvaara); J VI.267. -anaava.ta uncovered, unveiled, exposed, open D I.137 (-dvaara); III.191 (-dvaarataa); S I.55; J V.213; Pv III.64; Miln 283. Cp. aavuta2 and vy-.

Aava.t.ta (adj.-n.) [Sanskrit aavarta, aa + vrt] - 1. turning round, winding, twisting M I.382; S I.32 (dvi-r-aa- turning twice); J II.217; SnA 439 (-gangaa). - 2. turned, brought round, changed, enticed M I.381; DhA II.153. - 3. an eddy, whirlpool, vortex M I.461 = A II.123 (-bhaya); Miln 122, 196, 377. - 4. circumference J V.337; Daavs V.24; DhA III 184.

Aava.t.tati [ = aavattati] in phrase aa. viva.t.tati to turn forward and backward Vism 504.

Aava.t.tana (nt.) [from aa + vrt, cp. aava.t.ta 2 and aava.t.tanin] turning, twisting; enticement, snare, temptation J III.494; DhA II.153.

Aava.t.tanaa (f.) [most likely for aavajjana. q. v. and see also Kvu trsl. 221, 282] turning to (of the mind), adverting, apprehending Kvu 380, 491.

Aava.t.tanin (adj.) [from aava.t.tana] turning (away or towards), changing, tempting, enticing M I.375, 381; A II.190; J II.330 = IV.471; DA I.250. - Cp. etymologically the same, but semantically different aavattanin.

Aava.t.tin (adj.-n.) [from aava.t.ta instead of aava.t.tana] only at M I.91 in negative an- not enticed by (loc.), i. e. kaamesu. Cp. aavattin.

Aava.t.teti [aa + vatteti, Causative of vrt, cp. BSanskrit aavartayati to employ spells Divy 438] to turn round, entice, change, convert, bring or win over M I.375, 381, 383, 505; A III.27; DA I.272.

Aavatta1 (adj.) [pp. of aavattati] gone away to, fallen back to, in phrase hiinaay-aavatta (see same phrase under aavattati) M I.460; S II.50; J I.206.

Aavatta2 (nt.) [Sanskrit aavarta, of aa + vrt, cp. aava.t.ta[ winding, turn, bent J I.70 (in a river); Nett 81 (v. l. aava.t.ta*), 105 (-haarasampaata).

Aavattaka (adj.) [aavatta + ka] turning, in dakkhi.n- turning to the right, dextrorsal D II.18; cp. dakkhi.n¢vatta at DA I.259.

Aavattati [aa + vattati, of vrt] to turn round, come to, go back, go away to, turn to; only in phrase hiinaaya aavattati to turn to "the low", i. e. to give up orders and return to the world Vin I.17; M I.460; S II.231; IV.191; Sn p. 92 ( = osakkati SnA 423); Ud 21; Pug 66; Miln 246. pp. aavatta (q. v.). Cp. aava.t.tati.

Aavattana (adj.-nt.) [Sanskrit aavartana] turning; turn, return Nett 113; Miln 251.

Aavattanin (adj.) [from aavattana] turning round or back Th 1, 16 (cp. aava.t.tanin).

Aavattin (adj.-n.) [from aavatta, cp. aava.t.tin in different meaning] returning, coming back, one who returns, in spec. meaning of one who comes back in transmigration, syn. with aagaamin (an-), only in negative anaavattin not returning, a non-returner, with -dhamma not liable to return at D I. 156; III.132; S V.346, 357, 376, 406; M I.91; DA I.313.

Aavatthika (adj.) [aa + vatthika] befitting, original, inherent (one of the 4 kinds of nomenclature) Vism 210 = KhA 107.

Aavapati [a + vap] to give away, to offer, to deposit as a pledge Miln 279.

Aavapana (nt.) [from aavapati] sowing, dispersing, offering,depositing, scattering J I.321.

Aavara (adj.) [from aa + vr] obstructing, keeping off from J V.325 (so to be read in ariya-magg-¢vara).

Aavara.na (adj.-n.) [from aa + vr, cp. aavarati; BSanskrit aavara.na in pa~nc- aavara.naani Divy 378] shutting off, barring out, withstanding; nt. hindrance, obstruction, bar Vin I.84 (-.m karoti to prohibit, hinder); II.262 (id.); D I.246 (syn. of pa~nca niivara.naani); S V.93 sq.; A III.63; J I.78 (an-); V.412 (nadi.m -ena bandhaapeti to obstruct or dam off the river); Sn 66 (pahaaya pa~nc- aavara.naani cetaso, cp. Nd2 379), 1005 (an--dassaavi.n); Ps I.131 sq.; II.158 (an-); Pug 13; Dhs 1059, 1136; Vbh 341, 342; Miln 21 (dur- hard to withstand or oppose). - dant- "screen of the teeth", lip J IV.188; VI.590.

Aavara.nataa (f.) [abstr. from aavara.na] keeping away from, withholding from A III 436.

Aavara.niiya (adj.) [grd. from aavarati], M I.273; an- not to be obstructed, impossible to obstruct M III.3; Miln 157.

Aavarati [aa + vr, cp. aavu.naati] to shut out from (abl.), hold back from, refuse, withhold, obstruct M I.380 (dvaara.m); Sn 922 (pot. -aye, cp. Nd1 368); DA I.235 (dvaara.m); Dpvs I.38. -pp. aava.ta and aavuta2 (q. v.).

Aavalii (f.) [cp. Sanskrit aavalii and see valii] a row, range J V.69; DA I.140.

---[ Page 112 ]---

Aavasati [aa + vas] to live at or in, to inhabit, reside, stay M II.72; S I.42; Sn 43, 805, 1134; Nd1 123, 127; Nd2 133; J VI.317. -pp. aavuttha (q. v.).

Aavasatha [SkQ aavasatha, from aa + vas] dwelling-place, habitation; abode, house, dwelling Vin I 226 (-¢gaara restinghouse); IV.304 ( = kavaa.tabaddha); S I.94, 229; IV.329; Sn 287, 672; J IV.396; VI.425; Pug 51; Miln 279.

Aavaha (adj.) (*-) [from aa + vah] bringing, going, causing Pv II.924 (sukh-); Vv 2211 (id); Daavs II.37; PvA 86 (upakaar-), 116 (anatth-); Sdhp 15, 98, 206.

Aavahati [aa + vahati] to bring, cause, entail, give S I.42 = Sn 181, 182 (aavahaati sukha.m metri causaa); J III.169; V. 80; Sn 823; Nd1 302; PvA 6. - Pass. aavuyhati VvA 237 (ppr. -amaana).

Aavahana (adj) (*-) [ = aavaha] bringing, causing Th 1, 519; Sn 256.

Aavahanaka (adj.-nt) [ = aavahana] one who brings VvA 114 (sukhassa).

Aava (misery, misfortune) see avaa.

Aavaa.ta [etymology*] a hole dug in the ground, a pit, a well D I.142 (ya~n~n-); J I.99, 264; II 406; III.286; IV 46 (caturassa); VI.10; DhA I.223; VvA 63; PvA 225.

Aavaapa [if correct, from aa + vaa2 to blow with caus. p. - Cp. J R A S. 1898, 750 sp.] a potter's furnace DhA I.177 (read for aavaasa*), 178.

Aavaara [Sanskrit aavaara, from aa + vr] warding off, protection, guard J VI 432 (yanta-yutta-, does it mean "cover, shield"*). For cpd. khandh-aavaara see khandha.

Aavaareti [Sanskrit aavaarayati, aa + Causative of vr] to ward off, hold back, bar, S IV 298; Nett 99.

Aavaasa [Sanskrit aavaasa; aa + vas] sojourn, stay, dwelling, living; dwelling-place, residence Vin I.92; D III.234; S IV.91; A II 68, 168; III.46, 262; Sn 406; Dh 73 (cp. DhA II.77); Nd1 128; J VI.105; Dhs 1122; Pug, 15, 19, 57; KhA 40; DhA I.177 (aavaasa'n aalimpeti: read aavaapa.m); PvA 13, 14, 36; VvA 113; Sdhp 247. -anaavaasa (n. and adj.) uninhabited, without a home; an uninhabited place A IV.345; J II.77; Pv II.333; PvA 80 ( = anaagaara); VvA 46. -kappa the practice of (holding Uposatha in different) residence (within the same boundary) Vin II.294, 300, 306; Dpvs IV.47, cp. V.18. -palibodha the obstruction of having a home (in set of 10 Paalibodhas) KhA 39; cp. Vism 90 sq. -sappaayataa suitability of residence Vism 127.

Aavaasika (adj.) [aavaasa + ika] living in, residing at home, being in (constant or fixed) residence, usually applied. to bhikkhus (opp. aagantuka) Vin I.128 sq.; II.15, 170; III. 65; V.203 sq.; M I.473; A I.236; III.261 sq., 366; J IV.310; Pv IV.84 ( = nibaddha-vasanaka PvA 267).

Aavaaha [aa + vah] taking in marriage, lit. carrying away to oneself, marriage D I.99; J VI.363; SnA 273, 448; DhA IV.7. Often in cpd. aa- vivaaha(ka) lit. leading to (one's home) and leading away (from the bride's home), wedding feast D III.183 (-ka); J I.452; VvA 109, 157. (v. l. -ka).

Aavaahana (nt.) [aa + vshana, of vah] - 1. = aavaaha, i. e. marriage, taking a wife D I.11 ( = aavaaha-kara.na DA I. 96). - 2. "getting up, bringing together", i. e. a mass, a group or formation, in senaa- a contingent of an army J IV.91.

Aavi (adv.) [Sanskrit aavih., to Gr. a)i/w to hear, Latin audio (from *auizdio) to hear] clear, manifest, evident; openly, before one's eyes, in full view. Only in phrase aavi vaa raho openly or secret A V.350, 353; Pv II.716 = DhA IV.21 (aavii v. l.), explained. at PvA 103 by pakaasana.m paresa'n paaka.tavasana. Otherwise in following compounds (with kar and bhuu): -kamma making clear, evidence, explanation Vin II.88; III.24; Pug 19, 23; -karoti to make clear, show, explain D III.121; Sn 84, 85, 349; J V.457; Pug 57; VvA 79, 150; -bhavati (-bhoti) to become visible or evident, to be explained, to get clear J I.136; Vism 287 (fnt. aavibhavissati); DhA II.51, 82; bhaava appearance, manifestation D I.78; A III.17; J II.50, 111; Vism 390 sq. (revelation, opp. tirobhaava). Cp. paatur.

Aavijjhati (aavi~njati, aavi~nchati) [aa + vijjhati of vyadh to pierce; thus recognised by Morris J P T S. 1884, 72, against Trenckner, Notes 59 (to pi~nj) and Hardy Nett. Ind. = vicchaay] - 1. to encircle, encompass, comprise, go round, usually in ger. aavijjhitvaa (w. acc.) used as prep. round about, near J I.153 (khetta.m), 170 (pokkhara.ni.m); DA I.245 (nagara.m bahi avijjhitvaa round the outer circle of the town). Ordinarily = go round (acc.) at J IV.59 (chaarika-pu~nja.m). - 2. [as in lit. Sanskrit] to swing round, brandish, twirl, whirl round Vin III.127 (da.n.da.m aavi~nji); M III.141 (matthena aavi~njati to churn); J I.313; V.291 (cakka.m, of a potter's wheel); SnA 481 (T. aavi~nj-, v. l. aavijjh-; see aaracaya-); DhA II.277 (aavi~nchamaana T.; v. l. aasi~nciy-, aavajiy-, aaga~nch-). - 3. to resort to, go to, approach, incline to S IV.199 (T. aavi~nch-; v. l. avicch- and aavi~nj-); Nett 13. - 4. to arrange, set in order J II.406. 5. to pull (*) A IV.86 (ka.n.nasotani aavijjeyyaasi, v. l. aavijj-, aavi~nj-, aavicc-, aavi~nch-; cp. Trenckner, Notes 59 aavi~njati "to pull"). -pp. aaviddha (q. v.).

Aavijjhana (so for aavi~nchana and aavi~njana) (adj.-n.) [from aavijjhati, lit. piercing through, i. e. revolving axis] - 1. ( = aavijjhati 2) swinging round, hanging loose, spinning in aavijjhana-rajju a loose, rope, esp. in mythology the swinging or whirling rope by which Sakka holds the world's wheel or axis, in the latter sense at DhA II.143 (T. aavi~nch- (v. l. aavijj-) = III.97, 98 (where aavi~njana.t.thaana for -rajju). Otherwise a rope used in connection with the opening and shutting of a door (pulling rope*) Vin II.120, 148; J V.298, 299 (T. aavi~nj-, v. l. aavicch- and aavij-). - 2. (cp. aavijjhati 3) going to, approach, contact with DhsA 312 (-rasa, T. aavi~nj-, v. l. aavi~nch-; or is it "encompassing"* = aavijjhati 1 *); Vism 444 (aavi~njanarasa). - 3. (cp. aavijjhati 5) pulling, drawing along Vin III.121 ( = aaka.d.dhanaa naama).

Aavijjhanaka (ntQ) [from aavijjhati in meaning 2] whirlirg round, that which spins round, the whirling-round wheel (or pole) of the world (cp. the potter's wheel), the worldaxis DhA II.146 (T. aavi~nch-).

Aaviddha [pp. of aavijjhati 2, cp. BSanskrit aaviddha in meaning curved, crooked Av. S I.87 Lal. V. 207] whirling or spinning round, revolving; swung round, set into whirling motion J IV.6 (cakka.m = kumbhakaara-cakkam iva bhamati C.); V.291. What does an-aaviddha at PvA 135 mean*

Aavila (adj.) [is it a haplological contraction from aa + vi + lul to roll about*] stirred up, agitated, disturbed, stained, soiled, dirty A I.9; III.233; J V.16, 90 (aabila); Nd1 488 (+ lu'ita), 489; ThA 251; DA I.226. More frequent as anaavila undisturbed, clean, pure, serene D I.76; S III. 83; IV,118; A I.9; III.236; Sn 160; Dh 82, 413; J III. 157; Miln 35; VvA 29, 30; ThA 251.

Aavilati [from aavila or is it a direct contraction of aa + vi + lulati*] to whirl round, to be agitated, to be in motion Miln 259 (+ lu'ati).

Aavilatta (nt.) [abstr. from aavila] confusion, disturbance, agitation Sn 967; Nd1 488.

Aavisati [aa + viish] to approach, to enter Vin IV.334; Sn 936 (aor. aavisi); J IV.410, 496; Vism 42.

---[ Page 113 ]---

Aavu.naati [in form = *avr.noti, aa + vr, cp. aavarati, but in meaning = *aavayati, aa + vaa to weave, thus a confusion of the two roots, the latter being merged into the former] to string upon, to fix on to (c. loc.), to impale J I.430; III.35; V.145; VI.105. - Causative II. aavu.naapeti J III.218 (suule). -pp. aavuta1 (q. v.), whereas the other pp. aava.ta is the true derivative of aa + vr.

Aavuta [pp. of aavu.naati in meaning of Sanskrit aavayati, the corresponding Sanskrit form being aa + uta = ota] - 1. strung upon, tied on, fixed on to D I.76 (sutta.m); II.13 (id.); A I.286 (tantaavuta.m web); J III.52 (valliyaa); VI.346 (suttakena); DA I.94 (-sutta). - 2. impaled, stuck on (suule on the pale) J I.430; III.35; V.497; VI.105; PvA 217, 220.

Aavuta2 = aava.ta (see aavu.naati and aavuta1) covered, obstructed, hindered It 8 (mohena); also in phrase aavuta nivuta ophuta etc. Nd1 24 (.t) = Nd2 365 = DA I.59.

Aavuttha [pp. of aavasati] inhabited D II.50 (an-); S I.33.

Aavudha (nt.) [Vedic aayudha, from aa + yudh to fight] an instrument to fight with, a weapon, stick etc. D III 219; M II.100; A IV.107, 110; Sn 1008; J I.150; II.110; III. 467; IV.160, 283, 437; Nd2 on Sn 72; Miln 8, 339; DhA II.2; IV.207; SnA 225, 466 (-jiivika = issattha). See also aayudha.

Aavuyhamaana ppr. of aavuyhati (Pass. of aavahati), being conveyed or brought VvA 237 (reading uncertain).

Aavuso (voc. pl. m.) [a contracted form of aayusmanto pl. of aayusman, of which the regular Paali form is aayasmant, with v for y as frequently in Paali, e. g. aavudha for aayudha] friend, a form of polite address "friend, brother, Sir", usually in conversation between bhikkhus. The grammatical construction is with the pl. of the verb, like bhava.m and bhavanto. - Vin II.302; D I.151, 157; II.8; SnA 227; DhA I.9; II.93; PvA 12, 13, 38, 208.

Aave.thana (nt.) [aa + ve.thana, ves..t] rolling up, winding up or round, fig. explanation Miln 28 (+ nibbe.thana, lit. rolling up and rolling down, ravelling and unravelling), 231 (-vinive.thana).

Aave.thita [pp. of aave.theti, aa + ves..t, cp. aavedhikaa] turned round, slung round or over J IV.383 sq. (v. l. aavedhita and aave.lita, C. expls. by parivattita).

Aave.ni (adj) (*-) [according to Trenckner, Notes 75 from aa + vinaa "Sine quaa non", but very doubtful] special, peculiar, separate Vin II.204 (-uposatha etc.); J I.490 (-sangha-kammaani).

Aave.nika (adj.) [from aave.ni; cp. BSanskrit aave.nika Av. SH I.14, 108; Divy 2, 182, 268, 302] special, extraordinary, exceptional S IV.239; A V.74 sq.; Vism 268; VvA 112 (-bhaava peculiarity, specialty), KhA 23, 35.

Aave.niya (adj.) = aave.nika Vin I.71; J IV.358; VI.128.

Aavedha [cp. Sanskrit aaviddha, aa + pp. of vyadh] piercing, hole, wound J II.276 (v. l. aveddha; C. = viddha-.t.thaane va.na).

Aavedhika (adj. f. scil. pannaa) [aa + vedhaka of aavedha, vyadh, but confused with aave.th- of aa + ves..t, cp. aave.thana and nibbedhaka] piercing, penetrating; or ravelling, turning, rolling up or round (cp. aavijjhati which is derived from aa + vyadh, but takes its meaning from aave.theti), discrimination, thinking over J II.9 (+ nibbedhikaa, v. l. for both .th).

Aave.la (adj. and -aa f.) [not with Muller Paali Gr. 10, 30, 37 = Sanskrit aapii.da, but from aa + ves..th to wind or turn round, which in Paali is represented by aave.theti as well as aavijjhati; ' then standing for either .dh (.th) or dh (aavedha, q. v.). There may have been an analogy influence through vell to move to and fro, cp. aave.lita. Muller refers to aave.laa rightly the late dial. (Prk.) aamela] - 1. turning round, swinging round; diffusion, radiation; protuberance, with reference to the rays of the Buddha at J I.12, 95, 501. 2. (f.) a garland or other ornament slung round and worn over the head Vv 362 (ka~ncan-; = aave.la-pilandhana VuA 167). See aave.lin.

Aavelita ('*) [pp. of aa + vell, cp. aave.la and BSanskrit aaviddha curved, crooked Av. SH I.87, Lal. V. 207] turned round, wound, curved J VI.354 (-singika with curved horns, v. l. aavellita).

Aave.lin (adj.) [from aave.laa] wearing garlands or other headornaments, usually in f. -inii J V.409 ( = ka.n.naalankaarehi yuttaa C.); Vv 302 (voc. aavelinii, but at id. p. 482 aaveline), 323; VvA 125 (on Vv 302 expls. as ratana-maya-pupph- aave.lavatii).

Aavesana (nt.) [from aavisati] entrance; workshop; living-place, house Vin II 117 (-vitthaka, meaning*); M II 53; Pv II.915.

Aasa1 contr.-form of a.msa in cpd. ko.t.thaasa part., portion etc.: see a.msa1. Can we compare BSanskrit aasapaatrii (see next).

Aasa3 [Sanskrit aasha] food, only in cpd. paataraasa morning food, breakfast Sn 387 (paato asitabbo ti paatar-aaso pi.n.dapaatass- eta.m naama.m SnA 374); DhA IV.211; see further reference under paatar; and pacchaa-aasa aftermath S I.74. Can we compare BSanskrit aasa-paatrii (vessel) Divy 246* Der. from aasa is aasaka with abstr. ending aasakatta.m "cating", food, in naanaa- various food or na + anaasak-) Sn 249. See also niraasa, which may be taken either as nir + *aasha or nir + *aasaa.

Aasa3 the adj. form of aasaa (f.), wish, hope. See under aasaa.

Aasa4 archaic 3rd sg. perf. of atthi to be, only in cpd. itihaasa = iti ha aasa "thus it has been".

Aasa'nsa (adj.) [of *aasha.msaa, see next] hoping, expecting something, longing for A I.108 = Pug 27 (explained. by Pug A 208 as "so hi arahatta.m aasa'nsati patthetii ti aasa'nso"); SnA 321, 336. Cp. nir-.

Aasa'nsati [for the usual aasi.msati, aa + sha.ms] to expect, hope for, wish Pug A 208 ( = pattheti). See also aasamaana.

Aasa'nsaa (f.) [from aa + sha.ms] wish, desire, expectation, hope J IV.92. - Cp. niraasa'nsa.

Aasa*.msuka (adj.) [from aasa'nsaa] full of expectation, longing, hankering after, Th 2, 273 ( = aasi.msanaka ThA 217; trsl. "cadging").

Aasaka (adj.) [of aasa2] belonging to food, having food, only in negative an- fasting S IV.118; Dh 141 (f. aa fasting = bhatta-pa.tikkhepa DhA III.77); J V.17; VI.63.

Aasakatta (nt.) [abstr. from aasaka] having food, feeding, in an- fasting Sn 249 ( = abhojana SnA 292).

Aasankati [aa + shank] to be doubtful or afraid, to suspect, distrust, J I.151 (pret. aasankittha), 163 (aor. aasanki); II. 203; SnA 298. -pp. aasankita (q v.),

Aasankaa (fQ) [Sanskrit aashankaa from aa + shank] fear, apprehension, doubt, suspicion J I.338; II.383; III.533; VI.350, 370; DhA III.485; VvA 110. - Cp. saasanka and niraasanka.

Aasankita (adj.) [pp. of aasankati] suspected, in fear, afraid, apprehensive, doubtful (obj. and subj.) Miln 173, 372 (-parisankita full of apprehension and suspicion); DhA I.223; VvA 110. - Cp. ussankita and parisankita.

Aasankin (*-) (adj.) [from aasankaa] fearing, anxious, apprehensive Sn 255 (bhedaa-); J III.192 (id.).

---[ Page 114 ]---

Aasanga [aa + sanga from sa~nj to hang on, cp. Sanskrit aasanga and aasakti] - 1. adhering, clinging to, attachment, pursuit J IV.11. - 2. that which hangs on (the body), clothing, garment, dress; adj. dressed or clothed in (*-); usually in cpd. uttaraasanga a loose (hanging) outer robe e. g. Vin I.289; S IV.290; PvA 73; VvA 33 (suddh-), 51 (id.).

Aasangin (adj.) [from aasanga] hanging on, attached to J IV.11.

Aasajja (indecl.) [ger. of aasaadeti, Causative of aasiidati, aa + sad; Sanskrit aasaadya] - 1. sitting on, going to, approaching; allocated, belonging to; sometimes merely as prep. acc. "near" (cp. aasanna) Sn 418 (aasajja na.m upaavisi he came up near to him), 448 (kaako va sela.m aa. nibbijjaapema Gotama.m); J II.95; VI.194; Miln 271. - 2. put on to (lit. sitting or sticking on), hitting, striking S I.127 (kha.nu.m va urasaa aa. nibbijjapetha Gotamaa "ye've thrust as 't were your breast against a stake. Disgusted, come ye hence from Gotama" trsl. p. 159; C. expls. by paharitvaa, which comes near the usual paraphrase gha.t.tetvaa) 3. knocking against or "giving one a setting-to", insulting, offending, assailing D I.107 (aa. aa. avocaasi = gha.t.tetvaa DA I.276); A III.373 (taadisa'n bhikkhu.m aa.); J V.267 (isi.m aa. Gotama.m; C. p. 272 aasaadetvaa); Pv IV.710 (isi.m aa. = aasaadetva~ PvA 266). - 4. "sitting on", i. e. attending constantly to, persevering, energetically, with energy or emphasis, willingly, spontaneously M I.250; D III.258 = A IV.236 (daana.m deti); Vv 106 (daana.m adaasi.m; cp. VvA 55 samaagantvaa). See aasada, aasaadeti, aasiideti, aasajjana.

Aasajjana (nt.) [from aasajja in meaning of no. 3] "knocking against", setting on, insult, offence Vin II.203 (-.m Tathaagata.m an insult to the T.; quoted as such at VvA 55, where two meanings of aa. are given, corresponding to aasajja 1 and 3, viz. samaagama and gha.t.tana, the latter in this quot.) = It 86 (so to be read with v. l.; T. has aapajja na.m); S I.114 (apu~n~na.m pasavi Maaro aasajjana.m Tathaagata.m; trsl. "in seeking the T. to assail"); J V.208.

Aasati [from as] to sit DA I.208; h. sg. aasi S I.130. pp. aasiina (q. v.).

Aasatta1 [pp. of aa + sa~nj] (a) lit. hanging on, in phrase ka.n.the aasatto ku.napo a corpse hanging round one's neck M I.120; J I.5. - (b) fig. attached to, clinging to J I. 377 (+ satta lagga); ThA 259 (an-).

Aasatta2 [pp. of aa + shap] accursed, cursed J V.446 (an-).

Aasatti (f.) [aa + sa~nj] attachment, hanging on (w. loc.), dependence, clinging Vin II.156 = A I.138; S I.212; Sn 777 (bhavesu); Nd1 51, 221; Nett 12, 128. - Cp. niraasattin.

Aasada [aa + sad; cp. aasajja and aasaadeti] - 1. approach, dealing with, business with (acc.), concern, affair, means of acting or getting Vin II.195 = J V.336 (maa ku~njara naagam aasado); M I.326 (me ta.m aasado = maa eta.m aasado do not meddle with this, lit., be not this any affair); J I 414 (cakka.m aasado you have to do with the wheel; interpreted as adj. in meaning patto = finding, getting); VI.528 (interpreted as ankusa a hook, i. e. means of getting something). - 2. (as adj.) in phrase duraasada hard to sit on, i. e. hard to get at, unapproachable, difficult to attack or manage or conquer Sn p. 107 (cp. SnA 451); J VI.272; Vv 5016 ( = anupagamaniiyato kenaci pi anaasaadaniiyato ca duraasado VvA 213); Miln 21; Dpvs V.21; VI.38; Sdhp 384.

Aasana (nt.) [from aasati] sitting, sitting down; a seat, throne M I.469; Vin I.272 ( = pallankassa okaasa); S I.46 (ek- sitting alone, a solitary seat); A III.389 (an- without a seat); Sn 338, 718, 810, 981; Nd1 131; J IV.435 (aasaan' uudaka-daayin giving seat and drink); V.403 (id.); VI.413; DhA II.31 (dhamm- the preacher's seat or throne); SnA 401; PvA 16, 23, 141. -¢bhihara gift or distinction of the seat J I.81. -uupagata endowed with a seat, sitting down Sn 708 ( = nisinna SnA 495). -pa~n~naapaka one who appoints seats Vin II.305. -pa.tikkhitta one who rejects all seats, or objects to sitting down D I.167; A I.296; II.206; Pug 55. -saalaa a hall with seating accommodation Vism 69; DhA II. 65; IV.46.

Aasana2 (*) eating Vism 116 (visam-, cp. visam-aasita Miln 302). See, however, maasana.

Aasanaka (nt.) [aasana + ka] a small seat Vv 15.

Aasanika (adj.) [from aasana] having a seat; in ek- sitting by oneself Vism 69.

Aasandi (f.) [from aa + sad] an extra long chair, a deck-chair Vin I.192; II.142, 163, 169, 170; D I.7 ( = pamaa.n¢tikkant' aasana.m DA I.86), 55 = M I.515 = S III.307 (used as a bier) A I.181; J I.108. See note at Dial. I.11.

Aasandikaa (f.) from aasandi] a small chair or tabouret Vin II. 149; KhA 44.

Aasanna (adj.) [pp. of aa + sad, see aasiidati] near (cp. aasajja1), opp. duura J II.154; DhA II 91; PvA 42, 243.

Aasappanaa (from) [from + srp] lit. "creeping on to", doubt, mistrust, always combined. with parisappanaa Nd3 1; Dhs 1004 (trsl. "evasion", cp. Dhs trsl. p 116), 1118, 1235; DA I.69.

Aasabha [the gu.na- and compounds. form of usabha, corresponding to Sanskrit aar.sabha > r.sabha, see usabha] (in compounds.) a bull, peculiar to a bull, bull-like, fig. a man of strong and eminent qualities, a hero or great man, a leader, thus in taar- Sn 687; nar- Sn 684, 696; aasabha-camma bull's hide J VI. 453 (v. l. usabha-). -.t.thaana (as aasabha.n.thaana) "bull's place", first place, distinguished position, leadership M I.69; S II.27; A II.8 (C. se.t.tha-.t.thaana uttama-.t.thaana); III.9; V.33 sq.; DA I. 31; KhA 104.

Aasabhin (adj?) [from aasabha] bull-like, becoming to a bull, lordly, majestic, imposing, bold; only in phrase -.m vaaca.m bhaasati "speak the lordly word" D II.15, 82; M III.123j J I.53; DA I.91; cp. Daavs I.28 (nicchaarayi vaaca.m aasabhi.m).

Aasamaana (adj.) [ppr. of aasa'nsati or aasi.msati, for the usual earlier aasasaana] wishing, desiring, hoping, expecting Vv 846 (ki.m aa = ki.m paccaasi.m santo VvA 336); Pv IV.124 ( = aasi.msamaana patthayamana PvA 226).

Aasaya [aa + shii, cp. in similar meaning and derivation anusaya. The semantically related Sanskrit aashraya from aa + shri is in Paali represented by assaya. Cp. also BSanskrit aashayatah. intentionally, in earnest Divy 281; Av. SH II.161] - 1. abode, haunt, receptacle; dependence on, refuge, support, condition S I.38; Vin III.151; J II.99; Miln 257; VvA 60; PvA 210; jal- river VvA 47; Pgdp 80; adj. depending on, living in (*-) Miln 317; Nd1 362 (bil-, dak- etc.). See also aamaasaya, pakkaasaya. - 2. (fig.) inclination, intention, will, hope; often combined. and compared with anusaya (inclination, hankering, disposition), e. g. at Ps I. 133; II.158; Vbh 340; Vism 140 (-posana); PvA 197. SnA 182 (-vipatti), 314 (-suddhi), KhA 103 (-sampatti). Cp. niraasaya. - 3. outflow, excretion Pv III.53 (gabbh- = gabbha-mala PvA 198); Vism 344.

Aasayati [aa + shii; lit. "lie on", cp. Ger. anliegen and Sanskrit aashaya = Ger. Angelegenheit] to wish, desire, hope, intend J IV.291 (grd. aasaayana, gloss esamaana). See aasaya.

Aasava [from aa + sru, would corresponds to a Sanskrit *aasrava, cp. Sanskrit aasraava. The BSanskrit aashrava is a (wrong) sankritisation of the Paali aasava, cp. Divy 391 and ks.iinaashrava] that which

---[ Page 115 ]---

flows (out or on to) outflow and influx. 1. spirit, the intoxicating extract or secretion of a tree or flower, O. C. in Vin IV.110 (four kinds); B. on D III.182 (five kinds) DhsA 48; KhA 26; J IV.222; VI.9. - 2. discharge from a sore, A I.124, 127 = Pug 30. - 3. in psychologQ, t.t. for certain specified ideas which intoxicate the mind (bemuddle it, befoozle it, so that it cannot rise to higher things). Freedom from the "aasavas" constitutes Arahantship, and the fight for the extinction of these aasavas forms one of the main duties of man. On the difficulty of translating the term see Cpd.227. See also discussion of term aasava ( = aasavantii ti aasavaa) at DhsA 48 (cp. Expositor pp. 63 sq). See also Cpd.227 sq., and especially Dhs trsl. 291 sq. - The 4 aasavas are kaam-, bhav-, di.t.th-, avijj-, i. e. sensuality, rebirth (lust of life), speculation and ignorance. - They are mentioned as such at D II.81, 84, 91, 94, 98, 123, 126; A I.165 sq., 196; II.211; III.93, 414; IV.79; Ps I.94, 117; Dhs 1099, 1448; Nd2 134; Nett 31, 114 sq. - The set of 3, which is probably older (kaama-, bhava-, avijjaa-) occurs at M I. 55; A I.165; III.414; S IV.256; V.56, 189; It 49; Vbh 364. For other connections see Vin I.14 (anupaadaaya aasavehi cittani vimucci.msu), 17, 20, 182; II.202; III.5 (-samudaya, -nirodha etc.); D I.83, 167; III.78, 108, 130, 220, 223, 230, 240, 283; M I.7 sq., 23, 35, 76, 219, 279, 445 (-.thaaniya); II.22; III.72, 277; S II.187 sq. (-ehi citta.m vimucci); III.45 (id.); IV.107 (id.), 20; V.8, 28, 410; A I.85 sq. (va.d.dhanti), 98, 165 (-samudaya, -nirodha etc.), 187; II.154 (-ehi citta.m vimutta.m), 196; III.21, 93 (-samudaya, -nirodha etc.), 245, 387 sq., 410, 414; IV.13, 146 (-pariyaadaana end of the aa.), 161 (-vighaata-pari'aaha); V.70, 237; Th 2, 4, 99, 101 (pahaasi aasave sabbe); Sn 162, 374, 535 (pl. aasavaani), 546, 749, 915, 1100; Dh 93, 253, 292; Nd1 331 (pubb-); Vbh 42, 64, 426; Pug 11, 13, 27, 30 sq.; Miln 419; DhsA 48; ThA 94, 173; KhA 26; DA I 224; Sdhp 1; Pgdp 65 (piyaasava-suraa, meaning*).

Referring specially to the extinction (khaya) of the aasavas and to Arahantship following as a result are the following passages: (1) aasavaana.m khaya D I.156; S II.29, 214; III 57, 96 sq, 152 sq; IV.105, 175; V.92, 203, 220, 271, 284; A I.107 sq., 123 sq., 232 sq., 273, 291; II.6, 36, 44 sq., 149 sq., 214; III 69, 114, 131, 202, 306, 319 sq.; IV.83 sq., 119, 140 sq., 314 sq.; V.10 sq., 36, 69, 94 sq, 105, 132, 174 sq., 343 sq.; It 49; Pug 27, 62; Vbh 334, 344; Vism 9; DA I.224; cp. -parikkhaya A V 343 sq. See also arahatta formula C. - (2) khii.naasava (adj.) one whose aasavas are destroyed (see khii.na) S I.13, 48, 53, 146; II 83, 239; III.199, 128, 178; IV.217; A I 77, 109, 241, 266; IV.120, 224, 370 sq.; V 40, 253 sq.; Ps II 173; cp. parikkhii.naa aasavaa A IV.418, 434, 451 sq.; aasavakhii.na Sn 370. - (3) anaasava (adj.) one who is free from the aasavas, an Arahant Vin II.148 = 164; D III.112; S I 130; II.214, 222; III.83; IV.128; A I.81, 107 sqQ, 123 sq., 273, 291; II.6, 36, 87, 146; III.19, 29, 114, 166; IV.98, 140 sq., 314 sq., 400; A V.10 sqQ, 36, 242, 340; Sn 1105, 1133; Dh 94, 126, 386; Th I.100; It 75; Nd2 44; Pv II.615; Pug 27; Vbh 426; Dhs 1101, 1451; VvA 9Q Cp. niraasava ThA 148. - Opp. saasava S III 47; V.232; A I.81 V.242; Dhs 990; Nett 10; Vism 13, 438.

Aasavati [aa + sru, cp. Sanskrit aasravati; its doublet is assavati] to flow towards, come to, occur, happen Nett 116.

Aasasaana [either grd. for *aasa'nsaana or contracted form of ppr. med. of aasa'nsati ( = aasi.msati) for *asa'nsamaana] hoping, wishing, desiring, longing for Sn 369 (an-; SnA 365 however reads aasayaana), 1090; Th 1, 528; J IV.18 ( = aasi.msanto C.), 381; V.391 ( = aasi.msanto C.). See anaasasaana, aasa'nsati, aasamaana and aasayaana.

Aasaa (f.) [cp. Sanskrit aashah. f.] expectation, hope, wish, longing, desire; adj. aasa (*-) longing for, anticipating, desirous of Vin I.255 (-avacchedika hope-destroying), 259; D II. 206; III.88; M III.138 (aasa'n karoti); A I.86 (dve aasaa), 107 (vigat-aaso one whose longings have gone); Sn 474, 634, 794, 864; J I.267, 285; V.401; VI.452 (-chinna = chinnaasa C.); Nd1 99, 261, 213 sq; Vv 3713 (perhaps better to be read with v. l. SS aha.m, cp. VvA 172); Pug 27 (vigat- = arahattaasaaya vigatattaa vigataaso Pug A 208); Dhs 1059 (+ aasi.msanaa etc.), 1136; PvA 22 (chinn- disappointed), 29 (-¢bhibhuuta), 105; Daavs V.13; Sdhp 78, 111, 498, 609.

Aasaa.tikaa (f.) [cp. Maaraa.thi aasaa.dii] a fly's egg, a nit M I.220 sq.; A V.347 sq., 351, 359; Nett 59; J III.176.

Aasaadeti [Causative of aasiidati, aa + sad; cp. aasajja and aasanna] 1. to lay hand on, to touch, strike; fig. to offend, assail, insult M I.371; J I.481; V.197; aor. aasaadesi Th 1, 280 (maa aa. Tathaagate); ger. aasaadetvaa J V.272; Miln 100, 205 (-ayitvaa); PvA 266 (isi.m), aasaadiya J V.154 (aasaadiya metri causa; isi.m, cp. aasajja3), and aasajja (q. v.); infin. aasaadu.m J V.154 and aasaaditu.m ibid.; grd. aasaadaniiya Miln 205; VvA 213 (an-). - 2. to come near to (c. acc.), approach, get J III.206 (khuracakka.m).

Aasaa'haa and aasaa'hii (f.) [Sanskrit aas.aa.dha] N. of a month (JuneJuly) and of a Nakkhatta; only in compounds. as aasa'ha- and aasa'hi-, viz. -nakkhatta J I.50; SnA 208; -pu.n.namaa J I.63; DhA I.87; SnA 199; VvA 66; PvA 137; -maasa SnA 378 ( = vassuupanaayikaaya purimabhaage A.); VvA 307 ( = gimhaana.m pacchimo maaso).

Aasaavati (f.) N. of a creeper (growing at the celestial grove Cittalataa) J III.250, 251.

Aasaasati [cp. Sanskrit aashaasati and aashaasti, aa + shaas] to pray for, expect, hope; confounded with sha.ms in aasa'nsati and aasi.msati (q. v.) and their derivations. -pp. aasi.t.tha (q. v.).

Aasi and aasi.m 3rd and 1st sg. aor. of atthi (q. v.).

Aasi.msaka (adj.) [from aa + si.msati, cp. aasa'nsaa] wishing, aspiring after, praying for Miln 342.

Aasi.msati [Sanskrit aasha.msati, aa + sha.ms, cp. also shaas and aasaasati, further abhisa'nsati, abhisi.msati and aasa'nsati] to hope for, wish, pray for (lit. praise for the sake of gain), desire, (w. acc.) S I.34, 62; Sn 779, 1044, 1046 (see Nd2 135); J I.267; III.251; IV.18; V.435; VI.43; Nd1 60; Mhvs 30, 100; VvA 337; PvA 226 (ppr. aasi.msamaana for aasamaana, q. v.).

Aasi.msanaka (adj.) [from aasi.msanaa] hoping for something, lit. praising somebody for the sake of gain, cadging ThA 217 (for aasa'nsuka Th 2, 273).

Aasi.msanaa (f.) [abstr. from aa + sha.ms, cp. aasi.msati] desire, wish, craving J V.28; Dhs 1059, 1136 (+ aasi.msitatta). As aasiisanaa at Nett 53.

Aasi.msaniya (adj.) [grd. of aasi.msati] to be wished for, desirable Miln 2 (-ratana).

Aasikkhita [pp. of aa + shiks., Sanskrit aashiks.ita] sohooled, instructed PvA 67, 68.

Aasi~ncati [aa + sic, cp. abhisi~ncati and avasi~ncati] to sprinkle, besprinkle Vin I.44; II.208; J IV.376; Vv 796 ( = si~ncati VvA 307); PvA 41 (udakena), 104, 213 (ger. -itvaa). pp. aasitta (q. v.). Cp. vy-.

Aasi.t.tha [pp. of aasaasati, Sanskrit aashis..ta] wished or longed for PvA 104.

Aasita1 [ = asita1*] "having eaten", but probably maasita (pp. of mrsh to touch, cp. Sanskrit mrshita, which is ordinarily in massita), since it only occurs in combinations. where m precedes, viz. J II.446 (dumapakkani-m-asita, where C. reading is maasita and explination. khaaditvaa asita (v. l. aasita) dhaata); Miln 302 (visam-aasita affected with poison = visamaasita).

---[ Page 116 ]---

Cp. also the form maasi(n) touching, eating at J VI.354 (ti.na-, explained. by C. as khaadaka). - aasita at J V.70 is very doubtful, v. l. aasina and asita; C. expls. by dhaata suhita p. 73.

Aasita2 [registereotyped as such with meaning "performed" by Hardy in Index] at VvA 276 is better read with v. l. SS bhaasita (-vaadana etc.).

Aasitta [pp. of aasi~ncati, Sanskrit aasikta] sprinkled, poured out, anointed J V.87; Pug 31; Miln 286; DhsA 307; DhA I.10; VvA 69.

Aasittaka (adj.) [aasitta + ka] mixed, mingled, adulterated Vin II.123 (-uupadhaana "decorated divan"*); ThA 61, 168 (an- for asecanaka, q. v.).

Aasiitika (adj.) [from asiita] 80 years old M II.124; J III.395; SnA 172.

Aasiitika (m.) [etymology* Cp. BSanskrit aasiitakii Lal. V. 319] a certain plant M I 80 = 245 (-pabba).

Aasiidati [cp. Sanskrit aasiidati, aa + sad] - 1. to come together, lit. to sit by D I.248 (v. l. BB aadisitvaa for aasiiditvaa, to be preferred*). - 2. to come or go near, to approach (w. acc.), to get (to) A III.69 (aasiivisa'n), 373 (na saadhuruupa.m aasiide, should perhaps be read without the na); J IV.56. - 3. to knock against, insult, offend attack J V. 267 (Pot. aasiide = pharusa-vacanehe kaayakammena vaa gba.t.tento upagaccheyya C.). -pp. aasanna (q. v.). See also aasajja, aasajjana, aasada and Causative aasaadeti.

Aasiina (adj.) [pp. of aas, see aasati] sitting S I.195 = Nd2 136; Sn 1105, 1136; Dh 227, 386; J I.390; III.95; V. 340; VI.297; Daavs II.17.

Aasiiyati [etymology doubtful; Trenckner Miln p. 422 = aa + shyaa to freeze or dry up, but taken by him in meaning to thaw, to warm oneself; Muller, Paali Gr. 40 same with meaning "cool oneself"; Morris' J.Paali T. S. 1884, 72 as aa + shraa or shrii to become ripe, come to perfection, evidently at fault because of shraa etc. not found in Sanskrit More likely as a Pass. formation to be referred to aa + shii as in aasaya, i. e. to abide etc.] to have one's home, one's abode or support in (loc.), to live in, thrive by means of, to depend on Miln 75 (kaddame jaayati udake aasiiyati i. e. the lotus is born in the mud and is supported or thrives by means of the water).

Aasiivisa Derivation uncertain. The BSanskrit aasiivi.sa (e. g. Jtm 3161) is a Sanskritisation of the Paali. To suppose this to come from ahi + visa (snake's poison) would give a wrong meaning, and leave unexplained the change from ahi to aasi] a snake Vin IV.108; S IV.172; A II.110; III. 69; J I.245; II.274; IV.30, 496; V.82, 267; Pug 48; Vism 470 (in comp.); DhA I.139; II.8, 38; SnA 334, 458, 465; VvA 308.

Aasiisanaa see aasi.msanaa.

Aasu expletive particle = assu3 J V.241 (v. l. assu; nipaatamatta.m C. p.243).

Aasu.m 3rd pl. aor. of atthi.

Aasumbhati (and aasumhati) [aa + shumbh to glide] to bring to fall, throw down or round, sling round Vin IV.263, 265; Vv 5011 (-itvaana); J III.435 (aor. aasumhi, gloss khipi).

Aasevati [aa + sev] to frequent, visit; to practise, pursue, indulge, enjoy A I.10; Sn 73 (cp. Nd2 94); Ps II.93 (magga.m). -pp. aasevita.

Aasevana (nt.) and aasevanaa (f.) [from aasevati] - 1. practice, pursuit, indulgence in Vin II.117; PvA 45. - 2. succession, repetition Dhs 1367; Kvu 510 (cp. trsl. 294, 362); Vism 538.

Aasevita [pp. of aasevati] frequented, indulged, practised, enjoyed J I.21 (V.141; aasevita-nisevita); II.60; Sdhp 93, 237.

Aaha [Vedic aaha, orig. perfect of ah to speak, meaning "he began to speak", thus in meaning of pres. "he says"] a perfect in meaning of pret. and pres. "he says or he said", he spoke, also spoke to somebody (w. acc.), as at J I.197 (cullalohita.m aaha). Usually in 3rd person, very rarely used of 2nd person, as at Sn 839, 840 ( = kathesi bha.nasi Nd 188, 191). - 3rd sg. aaha Vin II.191; Sn 790 ( = bha.nati Nd1 87), 888; J I.280; III.53 and frequent passim; 3rd pl. aahu Sn 87, 181; Dh 345; J I.59; SnA 377, and aaha.msu J I.222; III.278 and frequent

Aahacca1 ger. of aahanati.

Aahacca2 (adj.) [grd. of aaharati, corresponding to a Sanskrit *aahrtya] 1. (cp. aaharati1) to be removed, removable, in -paadaka-pii.tha and -ma~nca a collapsible bed or chair, i e. whose legs or feet can be put on and taken away at pleasure (by drawing out a pin) Vin II.149 (cp. Vin Texts III.164 n. 5); IV.40, 46 (def. as "ange vijjhitvaa .thito hoti" it stands by means of a perforated limb), 168, 169. - 2. (cp. aaharati2) reciting, repeating, or to be quoted, recitation (of the Scriptures); by authority or by tradition M III.139; DhsA 9, and in compounds -pada a text quoted from Scripture), tradition Miln 148 (-ena by reference to the text of the Scriptures); -vacana a saying of the Scriptures, a traditional or proverbial saying Nett 21 (in def. of sutta.m).

Aaha.ta [pp. of aaharati] brought, carried, obtained Vin I.121; III.53; D II.180 (spelt aahata); J III.512 (gloss aaniita); Daavs I.58.

Aahata [pp. of aahanati] struck, beaten, stamped; afflicted, affected with (*-) Vin IV.236 = D III.238 (kupito anattamano aahata-citto); Vin I.75, 76; S I.170 (tilak-, so read for tilakaa-hata, affected with freckles, C. kaa'a-setaadi va.n.nehi tilakehi aahatagatta, K. S. p. 318); J III 456; Sdhp 187, 401.

Aahataka [from aahata] "one who is beaten", a slave, a worker (of low grade) Vin IV.224 (in def. of kammakaara, as bha.taka + aa).

Aahanati [aa + han] to beat, strike, press against, touch ppr. aahananto Miln 21 (dhamma-bheri.m); Daavs IV.50. ger. aahacca touching M I.493; J I.330; VI 2, 200; Sn 716 = uppii'etva SnA 498; Vism 420. -pp. aahata (q. v.). 1st sg. fut. aaha~nhi Vin I.8; D II.72, where probably to be read as aaha~nh' ( = aaha~nha.m). See Geiger, Paali Gr. * 153, 2.

Aahanana (nt.) [from aa + han] beating, striking, coming into touch, "impinging" Vism 142 (+ pariyaahanana, in def. of vitakka) = DhsA 114 (cp. Expos. 151); Vism 515 (id.).

Aahara.na (adj.-n.) [from aaharati] to be taken; taking away; only in phrase acoraahara.no nidhi a treasure not to be taken by thieves Miln 320; Kh VIII.9; KhA 224; Sdhp 589.

Aahara.naka [aahara.na + ka] one who has to take or bring, a messenger J II.199; III.328.

Aaharati [aa + hr] - 1. to take, take up, take hold of, take out, take away M I.429 (salla.m); S I 121; III.123; J I.40 (ger. aaharitvaa "with"), 293 (te hatta.m); Nd2 540c (puttama.msa'n, read aahaareyya*); Pv II.310; DA I.186, 188 2. to bring, bring down, fetch D II.245; J IV 159 (naava.m; v. l. aahaahitvaa); V.466; VvA 63 (bhatta.m); PvA 75. 3. to get, acquire, bring upon oneself J V.433 (padosa'n); DhA II.89. - 4. to bring on to, put into (w. loc.); fig. and intrs. to hold on to, put oneself to, touch, resort to M I.395 (ka.thala.m mukhe aa.; also inf. aahattu.m); Th 1, 1156 (paapacitte aa.; Mrs. Rh. D. Brethren ver. 1156, not as "accost" p. 419, n.). - 5. to assault, strike, offend (for paahari*) Th 1, 1173. - 6. (fig.) to take up, fall or go back on

---[ Page 117 ]---

(w. acc.), recite, quote, repeat (usually with desana.m and dasseti of an instructive story or sermon or homily) J III.383 (desana.m), 401; V.462 (vatthu.m aaharitvaa dassesi told a story for example); SnA 376; PvA 38, 39 (atiita.m), 42, 66, 99 (dhamma-desana.m). See also payirudaaharati. pp. aaha.ta (q. v.). - Causative II. aahaarapeti to cause to be brought or fetched; to wish to take, to call or ask for J III.88, 342; V.466; PvA 215.

Aaharima (adj.) [from aaharati] "fetching", fascinating, captivating, charming Vin IV.299; Th 2, 299; ThA 227; VvA 14, 15, 77.

Aahariya [grd. of aaharati] one who is to bring something J III.328.

Aahavana and aahavaniiya see under aahuneyya.

Aahaara [from aa + hr, lit. taking up or on to oneself] feeding, support, food, nutriment (lit and fig.). The term is used comprehensively and the usual enumn. comprises four kinds of nutriment, viz. (1) kaba'inkaara aahaaro (bodily nutriment, either o'aariko gross, solid, or sukhumo fine), (2) phassaahaaro n. of contact, (3) manosa~ncetanaa- n. of volition ( = cetanaa S. A. on II.11 f.), (4) vi~n~naa.n- of consciousness. Thus at M I.261; D III.228, 276; Dhs 71-73; Vism 341. Another definition of Dhammapaala's refers it to the fourfold tasting as asita (eaten), piita (drunk), khaayita (chewed), saayita (tasted) food PvA 25. A synonym with muula, hetu, etc. for cause, Yamaka, I.3; Yam. A (J.Paali Text Society, 1910-12) 54. See on term also Dhs trsl. 30. - Vin I.84; D I.166; S I.172; II.11, 13, 98 sq. (the 4 kinds, in detail); III.54 (sa-); V.64, 391; A III.51 (sukhass-), 79, 142 sq., 192 sq.; IV.49, 108; V.52 (the four), 108, 113 (avijjaaya etc.), 116 (bhavata.nhaaya), 269 sq. (nerayikaana.m etc.); Sn 78, 165, 707, 747; Nd1 25; Ps I.22 (the four) 122 (id.), 55, 76 sq; Kvu 508; Pug 21, 55; Vbh 2, 13, 72, 89, 320, 383, 401 sq. (the four); Dhs 58, 121, 358, 646; Nett 31, 114, 124; DhsA 153, 401; DhA I.183 (-.m pacchindati to bring up food, to vomit); II.87; VvA 118; PvA 14, 35, 112, 148 (utu- physical nutriment); Sdhp 100, 395, 406; A V.136 gives ten aahaara opposed to ten paripanthaa. -an- without food, unfed M I.487 (aggi); S III.126; V.105; Sn 985. -uupahaara consumption of food, feeding, eating Vin III. 136. -.thitika subsisting or living on food D III.211, 273; A V.50, 55; Ps I.5, 122. -pariggaha taking up or acquirement of food Miln 244 or is it "restraint or abstinence in food"* Same combination. at Miln 313. -maya "food-like", feeding stuff, food J III.523. -lolataa greed after food SnA 35. -samudaya origin of nutriment S III.59.

Aahaarattha.m [aahaara + tta] the state of being food. In the idiom aahaaratta.n pharati; Vin I.199, of medicine, "to penetrate into food-ness" , to come under the category of food; Miln 152, of poison, to turn into food. [According to Oldenberg (Vin I.381) his MSS read about equally -atta.m and -attha.m. Trenckner prints -attha.m, and records no variant (see p. 425)].

Aahaareti [Denominitive from aahaara] to take food, eat, feed on S II.13; III.240; IV.104; A I.114, 295; II.40, 145, 206; IV. 167; Nd2 540c (aahaara.m and puttama.msa'n cp. S II.98).

Aahika (*-) (adj.) [der. from aha2] only in pa~ncaahika every five days (cp. pa~ncaaha.m and sattaaha.m) M III.157.

Aahi.n.dati [aa + hi.n.d, cp. BSanskrit aahi.n.date Divy 165 etc.] to wander about, to roam, to be on an errand, to be engaged in (w. acc.) Vin I.203 (senaasana-caarika.m), 217; II. 132 (na Sakkoti vinaa da.n.dena aahi.n.ditu.m); IV.62; J I.48, 108, 239; Nd2 540B; Pv III.229 ( = vicarati PvA 185); Vism 38, 284 (a.tavi.m); VvA 238 (tattha tattha); PvA 143.

Aahita [pp. of aa + dhaa] put up, heaped; provided with fuel (of a fire), blazing Sn 18 (gini = aabhato jalito vaa SnA 28). See sam-.

Aahu 3rd pl. of aaha (q. v.).

Aahuti (f.) [Vedic aahuti, aa + hu] oblation, sacrifice; veneration, adoration M III 167; S I.141; Th 1, 566 (-iina.m pa.tiggaho recipient of sacrificial gifts); J I.15; V.70 (id.); Vv 6433 (param¢huti.m gato deserving the highest adoration); Sn 249, 458; Kvu 530; SnA 175; VvA 285.

Aahuna = aahuti, in aahuna-paahuna giving oblations and sacrificing VvA 155; by itself at Vism 219.

Aahuneyya (adj.) [a grd. form. from aa + hu, cp. aahuti] sacrificial, worthy of offerings or of sacrifice, venerable, adorable, worshipful D III.5, 217 (aggi); A II.56, 70 (saahuneyyaka), 145 sq. (id.); IV.13, 41 (aggi); It 88 (+ paahuneyya); Vv 6433 (cp. VvA 285). See def. at Vism 219 where explained. by "aahavaniiya" and "aahavana.m arahati" deserving of offerings.

Aahundarika (adj.) [doubtful or aahu.n.d-*] according to Morris J.Paali Text Society 1884, 73 "crowded up, blocked up, impassable" Vin I.79; IV.297; Vism 413 (-.m and ha-tama.m).

----[I]-----

I in i-kaara the letter or sound i SnA 12 (-lopa), 508 (id.).

Ikka [Sanskrit rk.sa, of which the regular representation is Paali accha2] a bear J VI.538 [ = accha C.).

Ikkaasa (*) [uncertain as regard meaning and etymology] at Vin II.151 (+ kasaava) is trsl. by "slime of trees", according to Bdhgh's explination. on p. 321 (to C. V. VI.3, 1), who however reads nikkaasa.

Ikkha.na (nt.) [from iiks.] seeing Vism 16.

Ikkha.nika [from iiks. to look or see, cp. akkhi] a fortuneteller Vin III.107; S II.260; J I.456, 457; VI.504.

Ikkhati [from iiks.] to look J V.153; ThA 147; DhsA 172.

Ingita (nt.) [pp. of ingati = i~njati] movement, gesture, sign J II.195, 408; VI.368, 459.

Ingha (indecl.) [Sanskrit anga prob. after Paali ingha (or a~nja, q. v.); from i~njati, cp. J.Paali Text Society 1883, 84] part. of exhortation, lit. "get a move on", come on, go on, look here, Sn 83, 189, 862, 875 = 1052; J V.148; Pv IV.57; Vv 539 ( = codan'atthe nipaato VvA 237); VvA 47; DhA IV.62.

Inghaa'a [according to Morris J.Paali Text Society 1884, 74 = angaara, cp. Maraathii ingala live coal] coal, embers, in inghaa'akhu Th 2, 386 a pit of glowing embers ( = angaara-kaasu ThA 256). The whole cpd. is doubtful.

Icc' see iti.

Iccha (*-) (adj.) [the adj. form of icchaa] wishing, longing, having desires, only in paap- having evil desires S I.50; II.156; an- without desires S I.61, 204; Sn 707; app- id. Sn 628, 707.

Icchaka (*-) (adj.) [from iccha] wishing, desirous, only in nt. adv. yad-icchika.m (and yen-) after one's wish or liking M III.97; A III.28.

---[ Page 118 ]---

Icchati1 [Sanskrit icchati, is., cp. Av. isaiti, Obulg. iskati, Ohg. eiscon, Ags. aascian = E. ask; all of same meaning "seek, wish"] to wish, desire, ask for (c. acc.), expect S I.210 (dhamma.m sotu.m i.); Sn 127, 345, 512, 813, 836; Dh 162, 291; Nd1 3, 138, 164; Nd2 s. v.; Pv II.63; Pug 19; Miln 269, 327; SnA 16, 23, 321; KhA 17; PvA 20, 71, 74; Pot. icche Dh 84; Sn 835 Pv II.66 and iccheyya D II.2, 10; Sn 35; Dh 73, 88; ppr. iccha.m Sn 826, 831, 937; Dh 334 (phala.m) aor. icchi PvA 31. - grd. icchitabba PvA 8. -pp. i.t.tha and icchita (q. v.). Note. In prep.-compounds the root is.2 (icchati) is confused with root is.1 (i.sati, e.sati) with pp. both -i.t.tha and -is.ita. Thus ajjhesati, pp. ajjhi.t.tha and ajjhesita; anvesati (Sanskrit anvicehati); pariyesati (Sanskrit pariicchati), pp. pariyi.t.tha and pariyesita.

Icchati2 [Sanskrit rcchati of r, concerning which see appeti] see aticchati and cp. icchataa.

Icchataa (*-) (f.) [abstr. from icchaa] wishfulness, wishing: only in aticchataa too great wish for, covetousness, greed Vbh 350 (cp. aticchati, which is probably the primary basis of the word); mah- and paap- Vbh 351, 370.

Icchana (nt.) [from is.2, cp. Sanskrit iipsana] desiring, wish J IV. 5; VI.244.

Icchaa (f.) [from icchati, is.2] wish, longing, desire D II.243; III.75; S I.40 (-dhuupaayito loko), 44 (nara.m parikassati); A II.143; IV.293 sq.; 325 sq.; V.40, 42 sq.; Sn 773, 872; Dh 74, 264 (-lobha-samaapanna); Nd1 29, 30; Pug 19; Dhs 1059, 1136; Vbh 101, 357, 361, 370; Nett 18, 23, 24; Asl. 363; DhsA 250 (read icchaa for issaa* See Dhs trsl. 100); SnA 108; PvA 65, 155; Sdhp 242, 320. -¢vacara moving in desires M I.27 (paapaka); Nett 27. -¢vati.n.na affected with desire, overcome by covetousness Sn 306. -pakata same Vin I.97; A III.119, 191, 219 sq.; Pug 69; Miln 357; Vism 24 (where Bdhgh however takes it as "icchaaya apakata" and puts apakata = upadduta). -vinaya discipline of one's wishes D III.252, A IV.15; V.165 sq.

Icchita [pp. of icchati] wished, desired, longed for J I.208; DhsA 364; PvA 3, 53, 64 (read anicchita for anijjhi.t.tha, which may be a contamination of icchita and i.t.tha), 113, 127 (twice).

Ijjhati [Vedic rdhyate and rdhnoti; Gr. a)/lqomai to thrive, Latin alo to nourish, also Vedic i.daa refreshment and Paali iddhi power] to have a good result, turn out a blessing. succeed, prosper, be successful S I.175 ("work effectively" trsl.; = samijjhati mahapphala.m hoti C.); IV.303; Sn 461, 485; J V.393; Pv II.111; II.913 ( = samijjhati PvA 120); Pot. ijjhe Sn 458, 459; pret. ijjhittha ( = Sanskrit rdhyis..tha) Vv 206 ( = nippajjittha mahapphalo ahuvattha VvA 103). pp. iddha. See also a.d.dha2 and a.d.dhaka. Cp. sam-.

Ijjhana (nt.) and -aa (f.) [from ijjhati] success, carrying out successfully Ps I.17 sq., 74, 181; II.125, 143 sq., 161, 174; Vbh 217 sq.; Vism 266, 383 (-a.t.thena iddhi); DhsA 91, 118, 237.

I~njati [Vedic r~njati (cp. Paali ajjati). Also found as ingati (so Veda), and as ang in Sanskrit anga = Paali a~nja and ingha and Vedic pali-angati to turn about. See also aanejja and a~njati1] to shake, move, turn about, stir D I.56; S I.107, 132, 181 (ani~njamaana ppr. med. "impassive"); III.211; Th 1, 42; 2, 231; Nd2 s. v. (+ calati vedhati); Vism 377; DA I.167. -pp. i~njita (q. v.).

I~njanaa (f.) and -a.m (nt.) [from i~nj, see i~njati] shaking, movement, motion Sn 193 ( = calanaa phandanaa SnA 245); Nett 88 ( = phandanaa C.). an- immobility, steadfastness Ps I.15; II.118.

I~njita [pp. of i~njati] shaken, moved Th 1, 386 (an-). Usually as nt. i~njita.m shaking, turning about, movement, vacillation M I.454; S I.109; IV.202; A II.45; Sn 750, 1040 (pl. i~njitaa), 1048 (see Nd2 140); Dh 255; Vbh 390. On the 7 i~njitas see J.Paali Text Society 1884, 58.

I~njitatta (nt.) [abstr. from i~njita nt.] state of vacillation, wavering, motion S V.315 (kaayassa).

I.t.tha (adj.) [pp. of icchati] pleasing, welcome, agreeable, pleasant, often in the idiomatic group i.t.tha kanta manaapa (of objects pleasing to the senses) D I.245; II.192; M I.85; S IV.60, 158, 235 sq.; V.22, 60, 147; A II.66 sq.; V.135 (dasa, dhammaa etc., ten objects affording pleasure); Sn 759; It. 15; Vbh 2, 100, 337. - Alone as nt. meaning welfare, good state, pleasure, happiness at Sn 154 (+ ani.t.tha); Nett 28 (+ ani.t.tha); Vism 167 (id.); PvA 116 ( = bhadra.m), 140. -ani.t.tha unpleasant, disagreeable PvA 32, 52, 60, 116. - See also pariy-, in which i.t.tha stands for e.t.tha.

I.t.thakaa (Itthakaa) (f.) [BSanskrit is..takaa, e. g. Divy 221; from the Idg. root *idh > *aidh to burn, cp. Sanskrit idhma firewood, inddhe to kindle (idh or indh), edhah. fuel; Gr. a)i/qw burn, ai(_qos fire-brand; Latin aedes, aestas and aestus; more especially Av. i.stya tile, brick] - 1. a burnt brick, a tile Vin II 121 (-paakara a brick wall, distinguished from silaapakaara and daaru-); J III.435, 446 (paakaar i.t.thikaa read -a.t.thakaa); V.213 (ratti.t.thikaa); Vism 355 (-daarugomaya); PvA 4 (-cu.n.na-makkhita-siisa the head rubbed with brickpowder, i. e. plastereotype a ceremony performed on one to be executed, cp. Mrcchaka.tika X.5 pis..ta-cuurn-¢vakiir.nashca puru.so -ha.m pashuukrtah. with striking equation is..taka > pis..ta). 2. pl. (as suva.n.na-) gold or gilt tiles used for covering a cetiya or tope DhA III.29, 61; VvA 157.

I.t.thi- in -khagga-dhaara at J VI.223 should be read iddha.

I.na (nt.) [Sanskrit r.na, see also Paali an-a.na] debt D I.71, 73; A III.352; V.324 (enumerated with baddha, jaani and kali); Sn 120; J I.307; II.388, 423; III.66; IV.184 (i.nagga for nagga*); 256; V.253 (where enumerated as one of the 4 paribhogas, viz. theyya-, i.na-, daaya-, saami-); VI.69, 193; Miln 375; PvA 273, 276, i.na.m ga.nhaati to borrow money or take up a loan Vism 556; SnA 289; PvA 3. - i.na.m mu~ncati to discharge a debt J IV.280; V.238; -.m sodheti same PvA 276; labhati same PvA 3. -apagama absence of debt ThA 245. -gaahaka a borrower Miln 364. -ghaata stricken by debt Sn 246 ( = i.na.m gahetva tassa appadaanena i.naghaata). -.t.tha (with i.na.t.ta as v. l. at all passages, see a.t.ta) fallen into or being in debt M I.463 = S III.93 = It 89 = Miln 279. -pa.n.na promissory note J I.230; IV.256. -mokkha release from debt J IV.280; V.239. -saadhaka negotiator of a loan Miln 365.

I.naayika [from i.na] one connected with a debt, viz. (1) a creditor S I.170; J IV.159, 256; VI.178; ThA 271 see also dhanika); PvA 3. - (2) a debtor Vin I.76; Nd1 160.

Ita [pp. of eti, i] gone, only in cpd. dur-ita gone badly, as nt. evil, wrong Davs I.61; otherwise in compounds. with prep., as peta, viita etc.

Itara1 (adj.) [Ved. itara = Latin iterum a second time; compar. of pronoun. base *i, as in aya'n, eta.m, iti etc.] other, second, next; different Dh 85, 104, 222; J II.3; III.26; IV.4; PvA 13, 14, 42, 83, 117. In repetition cpd. itariitara one or the other, whatsoever, any Sn 42; J V.425; Nd2 141; Miln 395; KhA 145, 147; acc. itariitara.m and instr. itariitarena used as adv. of one kind or another, in every way, anyhow [cp. BSanskrit itaretara M Vastu III. 348 and see Wackernagel Altind. Gram. II. SH 121 c.] J VI 448 (-.m); Dh 331 (-ena); Vv 841 (text reads itritarena, v. l. itaritarena, explained. by itaritara.m VvA 333).

Itara2 (adj.) frequent spelling for ittara (q. v.).

Iti (ti) (indecl.) [Vedic iti, of pronoun. base *i, cp. Sanskrit ittha.m thus, itthaa here, there; Av. ipa so; Latin ita and item thus. Cp. also Paali ettha; lit. "here, there (now), then"] emphatic

---[ Page 119 ]---

deictic particle "thus". Occurs in both forms iti and ti, the former in higher style (poetry), the latter more familiar in conversational prose. The function of "Iti" is explained. by the old Paali C. in a conventional phrase, looking upon it more as a "filling" particle than trying to define its meaning viz. -itii ti padas and hi padasa'nsaggo padapaaripurii akkharasamavaayo etc." Nd1 123 = Nd2 137. The same explination. also for i' ti.ha.m (see below IV.) - I. As deictic adv. "thus, in this way" (Vism 423 iti = eva.m) pointing to something either just mentioned or about to be mentioned: (a) referring to what precedes Sn 253 (n'eso maman ti iti na.m vija~n~naa), 805; It 123 (ito devaa. . . ta.m namassanti); Dh 74 (iti baalassa sankappo thus think the foolish), 286 (iti baalo vicinteti); Vv 7910 ( = eva.m VvA 307); VvA 5. - (b) referring to what follows D I.63 (iti pa.tisa~ncikkhati); A I.205 (id.) - II. As emphatic part. pointing out or marking off a statement either as not one's own (reported) or as the definite contents of (one's own or other's) thoughts. On the whole untranslatable (unless written as quotation marks), often only setting off a statement as emphatic, where we would either underline the word or phrase in question, or print it in italics, or put it in quot. marks (e. g. baalo ti vuccati Dh 63 = baalo vuccati). - 1. in direct speech (as given by writer or narrator), e. g. saadhu bhante Kassapa laabhata.m esaa janataa dassanaayaa ti. Tena hi Siiha tva.m yeva Bhagavato aarocehii ti. Eva.m bhante ti kho Siiho . . . . D I.151. - 2. in indirect speech: (a) as statement of a fact "so it is that" (cp. E. "viz.", Ger. "und zwar"), mostly untranslated Kh IV. (arahaa ti pavuccati); J I.253 (tasmaa pesanaka-coraa t' eva vuccanti); III.51 (tayo sahaayaa ahesu.m makkato sigaalo uddo ti); PvA 112 (ankuro pa~nca-saka.tasatehi . . . a~n~nataro pi braahma.no pa~nca-saka.tasatehii ti dve janaa sakata-sahassehi . . . patipannaa). - (b) as statement of a thought "like this", "I think", so, thus Sn 61 ("sango eso" iti ~natvaa knowing "this is defilement"), 253 ("neso maman" ti iti na.m vija~n~naa), 783 ("I' ti.han" ti), 1094 (eta.m diipa.m anaapara.m Nibbaana.m iti na.m bruumi I call this N.), 1130 (aparaa paara.m gaccheyya tasmaa "Paraayana.m" iti). - III. Peculiarities of spelling. (1) in combination. with other part. iti is elided and contracted as follows: icc' eva, t' eva, etc. - (2) final a, i, u preceding ti are lengthened to aa, ii, uu, e. g. maa eva.m akatthaa ti DhA I.7; kati dhuraanii ti ibid; dve yeva dhuraani bhikkhuu ti ibid. IV. Combinations with other emphatic particles: + eva thus indeed, in truth, really; as icc' eva Pv I.119 ( = evam eva PvA 59); t' eva J I.253; Miin 114; tv' eva J I.203; II.2. -iti kira thus now, perhaps, I should say D I.228, 229, 240. -iti kho thus, therefore D I.98, 103; III.135. iti vaa and so on (*), thus and such (similar cases) Nd1 13 = Nd2 420 A1. -iti ha thus surely, indeed Sn 934, 1084 (see below under iitihiitiha.m; cp. SnA Index 669: itiha* and itikiraa); It 76; DA I.247, as iti ha.m at Sn 783 (same explination. at Nd1 71 as for iti). -kin ti how J II.159. -kiraa (f.) [a substantivised iti kira] hearsay, lit. "so I guess" or "I have heard" A I.189 = II.191 sq. = Nd2 151. Cp. itiha. -bhava becoming so and so (opp. abhava not becoming) Vin II.184 (-abhava); D I.8 (ip = iti bhavo iti abhavo DA I.91); A II.248; It 109 (id.); syn. with itthabhava (q. v.). -vaada "speaking so and so", talk, gossip M I.133; S V.73; A II.26; It III.35. -vuttaka (nt.) [a noun formation from iti vutta.m] "so it has been said", (book of) quotations, "Logia", N. of the fourth book of the Khuddaka-nikaaya, named thus because every sutta begins with vutta.m h'eta.m Bhagavataa "thus has the Buddha said" (see khuddaka and navanga) Vin III.8; M I.133; A II.7, 103; III.86, 177, 361 sq.; Pug 43, 62; KhA 12. Kern, Toev. s. v. compares the interesting BSanskrit distortion itivrtta.m. -haasa [ = iti ha aasa, preserving the Vedic form aasa, 3rd sg. perf. of atthi] "thus indeed it has been", legendary lore, oral tradition, history; usually mentioned as a branch of brahmanic learning, in phrase itihaasa-pa~nca-maana.m padako veyyaakara.no etc. D I.88 = (see DA I.247); A I.163; III.223; Sn 447, 1020. Cp. also M Vastu I.556. -hiitiha [itiha + itiha] "so and so" talk, gossip, oral tradition, belief by hearsay etc. (cp. itikiraa and aniitiha. Nd2 spells iitihiitiha) M I.520; S I.154; Sn 1084; Nd2 151.

Ito (indecl.) [Vedic itah., abl.-adv. formation from pronoun. base *i, cp. iti, aya'n etc.] adv. of succession or motion in space and time "from here". "from now". (1) with reference to space: (a) from here, from this, often implying the present existence (in opp. to the "other" world) It 77; Sn 271 (-ja. -nidaana caused or founded in or by this existence = attabhaava.m sandhaay' aaha SnA 303), 774 (cutaase), 870 (-nidaana), 1062 (from this source, i. e. from me), 1101; Pv I.57 (ito dinna.m what is given in this world); I.62 (i. e. manussalokato PvA 33); I.123 ( = idhalokato PvA 64); Nett 93 (ito bahiddhaa); PvA 46 (ito dukkhato mutti). - (b) here (with implication of movement), in phrases ito c' ito here and there PvA 4, 6; and ito vaa etto vaa here and there DhA II.80. - (2) with reference to time: from here, from now, hence (in chronological records with num. ord. or card., with reference either to past or future). (a) referring to the past, since D II.2 (ito so ekanavuto kappo 91 kappas ago); Sn 570 (ito a.t.thame, scil. divase 8 days ago SnA 457; T. reads atthami); VvA 319 (ito kira ti.msa-kappa-sahasse); PvA 19 (dvaa navuti kappe 92 kappas ago), 21 (id.), 78 (pa~ncamaaya jaatiyaa in the fifth previous re-birth). - (b) referring to the future, i. e. henceforth, in future, from now e. g. ito sattame divase in a week VvA 138; ito para.m further, after this SnA 160, 178, 412, 549; PvA 83; ito pa.tthaaya from now on, henceforward J I.63 (ito daani p.); PvA 41.

Ittara (sometimes spelt itara) (adj.) [Vedic itvara in meaning "going", going along, hence developed meaning "passing"; from i] - 1. passing, changeable, short, temporary, brief, unstable M I.318 (opp. diigha-ratta.m); A II.187; J I.393; III.83 (-dassana = kha.nika- C.), IV.112 (-vaasa temporary abode); Pv I.1111 ( = na cira-kaala-.t.thaayin anicca vipari.naama-dhamma PvA 60); DA I.195; PvA 60 ( = paritta kha.nika). - 2. small, inferior, poor, unreliable, mean M II.47 (-jacca of inferior birth); A II.34; Sn 757 ( = paritta paccupa.t.thaana SnA 509); Miln 93, 114 (-pa~n~na of small wisdom). This meaning (2) also in BSanskrit itvara, e. g. Divy 317 (daana).

Ittarataa (f.) [from ittara] changeableness Miln 93 (of a woman).

Ittha (indecl.) [the regular representative of Vedic ittha here, there, but preserved only in compounds while the Paali form is ettha] here, in this world (or "thus, in such a way"), only in cpd. -bhaav' a~n~nathaa-bhaava such an (i. e. earthly) existence and one of another kind, or existence here (in this life) and in another form" (cp. itibhaava and itthatta) Sn 729, 740 = 752; It 9 (v. l. itthi- for iti-) = A II.10 = Nd2 172a; It 94 (v. l. ittha-). There is likely to have been a confusion between ittha = Sanskrit itthaa and ittha.m = Sanskrit ittha.m (see next).

Ittha.m (indecl.) [adv. from pronoun. base -i, as also iti in same meaning] thus, in this way D I.53, 213; Daavs IV.35; V.18. -naama (itthan-) having such as name, called thus, socalled Vin I.56; IV.136; J I.297; Miln 115; DhA II.98. -bhuuta being thus, of this kind, modal, only in cpd. -lakkha.na or -aakhyaana the sign or case of modality, i. e. the ablative case SnA 441; VvA 162, 174; PvA 150.

Itthatta1 (nt.) [ittha + *tva.m, abstr. from ittha. The curious BSanskrit distortion of this word is icchatta M Vastu 417] being here (in this world), in the present state of becoming, this (earthly) state (not "thusness" or "life as we conceive it", as Mrs. Rh. D. in K. S. I.177; although a confusion between ittha and ittha.m seems to exist, see ittha); "life in these conditions" K. S. II.17; explained. by itthabhaava C. on S I.140 (see K. S. 318). - See also frequent formula A of arahatta. - D I.18, 84; A I.63; II.82, 159, 203; Sn 158; Dhs 633; Pug 70, 71; DA I.112.

---[ Page 120 ]---

Itthatta2 (nt.) [itthi + *tva.m abstr. from itthi] state or condition of femininity, womanhood, muliebrity Dhs 633 ( = itthi-sabhaava DhsA 321).

Itthi and Itthii (f.) [Vedic stri, Av. strii woman, perhaps with Sanskrit saatuh. uterus from Idg. -sii to sow or produce, Latin sero, Goth. saian, Ohg. saaen, Ags. saawan etc., cp. also Cymr. hiil progeny, Oir. siil seed; see J. Schmidt, K. Z. XXV.29. The regular representative of Vedic strii is Paali thii, which only occurs rarely (in poetry and compounds.) see thii] woman, female; also (usually as --) wife. Opp. purisa man (see e. g. for contrast of itthi and purisa J V.72, 398; Nett 93; DhA I.390; PvA 153). - S I.33 (nibbaanass' eva santike), 42, 125 (majjhim-, mah-), 185; A I.28, 138; II.115, 209; III.68, 90, 156; IV.196 (purisa'n bandhati); Sn 112, 769 (nom. pl. thiyo = itthi-sa~n~nikaa thiyo SnA 513); J I.286 (itthi doso), 300 (gen. pl. itthina.m); II.415 (nom. pl. thiyo); V.397 (thi-ghaataka), 398 (gen. dat. itthiyaa), V.425 (nom pl. itthiyo); Vbh 336, 337; DA I.147; PvA 5, 44, 46, 67, 154 (amanuss- of petiis); Sdhp 64, 79. - anitthi a woman lacking the characteristics of womanhood, an unfaithful wife J II.126 ( = ucchi.t.th- C.); kul'-itthi a wife of good descent Vin II.10; A III.76; IV.16, 19; dahar- a young wife J I.291; dur- a poor woman J IV.38. Some general characterisations of womanhood: 10 kinds of women enumerated at Vin III.139 = A V.264 = VvA 72, viz. maatu-rakkhitaa, pitu-, maataapitu- bhaatu-, bhaginii-, ~naati-, gotta-, dhamma-, sarakkhaa, saparida.n.daa; see Vin III.139 for explination. - S I.38 (mala.m brahmacariyassa), 43 (id.); J I.287 (itthiyo naama aasa laamikaa pacchimikaa); IV. 222 (itthiyo papaato akkhaato; pamatta.m pamathenti); V. 425 (siiho yathaa . . . tath' itthiyo); women as goods for sale S I.43 (bha.n.daana.m uttama.m); DhA I.390 (itthiyo vikki.niya bha.n.da.m). -agaara (-aagaara) as ittha**gaara women's apartment, seraglio Vin I.72; IV.158; S I.58, 89; J I.90; also coll. for womenfolk, women (cp. Ger. frauenzimmer) D II.249; J V.188. -indriya the female principle or sex, femininity (opp. puris' indriya) S V.204; A IV.57 sq.; Vism 447, 492; Dhs 585, 633, 653 et passim. -kathaa talk about women D I.7 (cp. DA I.90). -kaama the craving for a woman S IV.343. -kutta a woman's behaviour, woman's wiles, charming behaviour, coquetry A IV.57 = Dhs 633; J I.296, 433; II.127, 329; IV.219, 472; DhA IV.197. -ghaataka a woman-killer J V. 398. -dhana wife's treasure, dowry Vin III.16. -dhutta a rogue in the matter of women, one who indulges in women Sn 106; J III.260; PvA 5. -nimitta characteristic of a woman Dhs 633, 713, 836. -pariggaha a woman's company, a woman Nd1 11. -bhaava existence as woman, womanhood S I.129; Th 2, 216 (referring to a yakkhinii, cp. ThA 178; Dhs 633; PvA 168. -ruupa womanly beauty A I.1; III.68; Th 2, 294. -lakkha.na fortune-telling regarding a woman D I.9 (cp. DhA I.94, + purisa-); J VI. 135. -linga "sign of a woman", feminine quality, female sex Vism 184; Dhs 633, 713, 836; DhsA 321 sq. -sadda the sound (or word) "woman" DhA I.15. -so.n.dii a woman addicted to drink Sn 112.

Itthikaa (f.) [from itthi] a woman Vin III.16; D II.14; J I. 336; Vv 187; Sdhp 79. As adj. itthika in bahutthika having many women, plentiful in women Vin II.256 (kulaani bahuttikaani appapurisakaani rich in women and lacking in men); S II.264 (id. and appitthikaani).

Ida and Ida'n (indecl.) [nt. of aya'n (ida'n) in function of a deictic part.] emphatic demonstr. adv. in local, temporal and modal function, as (1) in this, here: idappaccayataa having its foundation in this, i. e. causally connected, by way of cause Vin I.5 = S I.136; D I.185; Dhs 1004, 1061; Vbh 340, 362, 365; Vism 518; etc. - (2) now, then which idha is more frequent) D II.267, 270, almost syn. (for with kira. - (3) just (this), even so, only: idam-atthika just sufficient, proper, right Th 1, 984 (ciivara); Pug 69 (read so for -ma.t.thika, see Pug A 250); as idam-atthitaa "being satisfied with what is sufficient" at Vism 81: explained. as atthika-bhaava at Pug A 250. ida'nsacc¢bhinivesa inclination to say: only this is the truth, i. e. inclination to dogmatise, one of the four kaaya-ganthaa, viz. abhijjhaa, byaapaada, siilabbata-paraamaasa, ida'n- (see Dhs 1135 and Dhs trsl. 304); D III.230; S V.59; Nd1 98; Nett 115 sq.

Idaani (indecl.) [Vedic idaanii.m] now Dh 235, 237; KhA 247.

Iddha1 [pp. of iddhe to idh or indh, cp. indhana and idhuma] in flames, burning, flaming bright, clear J VI.223 (-khaggadharaa balii; so read for T. i.t.thi-khagga-); Dpvs VI.42.

Iddha2 [pp. of ijjhati; cp. Sanskrit rddha] (a) prosperous, opulent, wealthy D I.211 (in idiomatic phrase iddha phiita bahujana, of a prosperous town); A III.215 (id.); J VI.227, 361 ( = issara C.), 517; Daavs I.11. - (b) successful, satisfactory, sufficient Vin I.212 (bhatta.m); IV.313 (ovaado).

Iddhi [Vedic rddhi from ardh, to prosper; Paali ijjhati]. There is no single word in English for Iddhi, as the idea is unknown in Europe. The main sense seems to be "potency" . - 1. Pre-Buddhistic; the Iddhi of a layman. The four Iddhis of a king are personal beauty, long life, good health, and popularity (D II.177; M III.176, cp. J III.454 for a later set). The Iddhi of a rich young noble is 1. The use of a beautiful garden, 2. of soft and pleasant clothing, 3. of different houses for the different seasons, 4. of good food, A I.145. At M I.152 the Iddhi of a hunter, is the craft and skill with which he captures game; but at p. 155 other game have an Iddhi of their own by which they outwit the hunter. The Iddhi, the power of a confederation of clans, is referred to at D II.72. It is by the Iddhi they possess that birds are able to fly (Dhp 175). - 2. Psychic powers. including most of those claimed for modern mediums (see under Abhi~n~naa). Ten such are given in a stock paragraph. They are the power to project mind-made images of oneself; to become invisible; to pass through solid things, such as a wall; to penetrate solid ground as if it were water; to walk on water; to fly through the air; to touch sun and moon; to ascend into the highest heavens (D I.77, 212; II.87, 213; III.112, 281; S II.121; V.264, 303; A I.170, 255; III.17, 28, 82, 425; V.199; Ps I.111; II.207; Vism 378 sq., 384; DA I.122). For other such powers see S I.144; IV.290; V.263; A III.340. - 3. The Buddhist theory of Iddhi. At D I.213 the Buddha is represented as saying: "It is because I see danger in the practice of these mystic wonders that I loathe and abhor and am ashamed thereof" . The mystic wonder that he himself believed in and advocated (p. 214) was the wonder of education. What education was meant in the case of Iddhi, we learn from M I.34; A III.425, and from the four bases of Iddhi, the Iddhipaadaa. They are the making determination in respect of concentration on purpose, on will, on thoughts and on investigation (D II.213; M I.103; A I.39, 297; II.256; III. 82; Ps I.111; II 154, 164, 205; Vbh 216). It was an offence against the regulations of the Sangha for a Bhikkhu to display before the laity these psychic powers beyond the capacity of ordinary men (Vin II.112). And falsely to claim the possession of such powers involved expulsion from the Order (Vin III.91). The psychic powers of Iddhi were looked upon as inferior (as the Iddhi of an unconverted man seeking his own profit), compared to the higher Iddhi, the Ariyan Iddhi (D III.112; A I.93; Vin II.183). There is no valid evidence that any one of the ten Iddhis in the above list actually took place. A few instances are given, but all are in texts more than a century later than the recorded wonder. And now for nearly two thousand years we have no further instances. Various points on Iddhi discussed at Dial. I.272, 3; Cpd.60 ff.; Expositor 121. Also at Kvu 55; Ps II.150; Vism XII; DhA I.91; J I.47, 360. -¢nubhaava (iddhiinu-) power or majesty of thaumaturgy Vin 31, 209, 240; III.67; S I 147; IV.290; PvA 53. -¢bhisankhaara (iddhiibhi-) exercise of any of the psychic powers Vin I.16, 17, 25; D I.106; S III.92; IV.289; V.270;

---[ Page 121 ]---

Sn p. 107; PvA 57, 172 212. -paa.tihaariya a wonder of psychic power Vin I.25, 28, 180, 209; II.76, 112, 200; D I.211, 212; III.3, 4, 9, 12 sq., 27; S IV.290; A I.170, 292; Ps II.227. -paada constituent or basis of psychic power Vin II.240; D II.103, 115 sq., 120; III.77, 102, 127, 221; M II.11; III.296; S I.116, 132; III.96, 153; IV.360; V.254, 255, 259 sq., 264 sq., 269 sq., 275, 285; A IV.128 sq., 203, 463; V.175; Nd1 14, 45 (-dhiira), 340 (-pucchaa); Nd1 s. v.; Ps I.17, 21, 84; II.56, 85 sq., 120, 166, 174; Ud 62; Dhs 358, 528, 552; Nett 16, 31, 83; DhsA 237; DhA III.177; IV.32. -bala the power of working wonders VvA 4; PvA 171. -yaana the carriage (fig.) of psychic faculties Miln 276. -vikubbanaa the practice of psychic powers Vism 373 sq. -vidhaa kinds of iddhi D I.77, 212; II.213; III.112, 281; S II.121; v.264 sq., 303; A I.170 sq., 255; III.17, 28, 82 sq., 425 sq.; V.199; Ps I.111; II.207; Vism 384; DA I.222. -visaya range or extent of psychic power Vin III.67; Nett 23.

Iddhika1 (*-) (adj.) the compounds. form of addhika in cpd. kapa.n-iddhika tramps and wayfarers (see kapa.na), e. g. at J I.6; IV.15; PvA 78.

Iddhika2 (*-) (adj.) [iddhi + ka] possessed of power, only in cpd. mah-iddhika of great power, always combined. with mah-¢nubhaava, e. g. at Vin I.31; II.193; III.101; S II. 155; M I.34; Th 1, 429. As mahiddhiya at J V.149. See mahiddhika.

Iddhimant (adj.) [from iddhi] - 1. (lit.) successful, proficient, only in negative an- unfortunate, miserable, poor J VI.361. 2. (fig.) possessing psychic powers Vin III.67; IV.108; A I.23, 25; II.185; III.340; IV.312; Sn 179; Nett 23; Sdhp 32, 472.

Idha (indecl.) [Sanskrit iha, adv. of space from pronoun. base *i (cp. aya'n, iti etc.), cp. Latin ihi, Gr. i)qa-genh/s, Av. ida] here, in this place, in this connection, now; esp. in this world or present existence Sn 1038, 1056, 1065; It 99 (idh' uupapanna reborn in this existence); Dh 5, 15, 267, 343, 392; Nd1 40, 109, 156; Nd2 145, 146; SnA 147; PvA 45, 60, 71. -idhaloka this world, the world of men Sn 1043 ( = manussaloka Nd2 552c); PvA 64; in this religion, Vbh 245. On different meanings of idha see DhsA 348.

Idhuma [Sanskrit idhma, see etymology under i.t.thakaa] fire-wood Tela-ka.taaha-gaathaa, p. 53, J.Paali Text Society 1884.

Inda [Vedic indra, most likely to same root as indu moon, viz. *Idg. *eid to shine, cp. Latin iiduus middle of month (after the full moon), Oir. esce moon. Jacobi in K. Z. XXXI.316 sq. connects Indra with Latin neriosus strong and Nero). - 1. The Vedic god Indra D I.244; II.261, 274; Sn 310, 316, 679, 1024; Nd1 177. - 2. lord, chief, king. Sakko devaana.m indo D I.216, 217; II.221, 275; S I.219. Vep-citti asurindo S I.221 ff. manussinda, S I.69, manujinda, Sn 553, narinda, Sn 863, all of the Buddha, "chief of men" ; cp. Vism 491. [Europeans have found a strange difficulty in understanding the real relation of Sakka to Indra. The few references to Indra in the Nikaayas should be classed with the other fragments of Vedic mythology to be found in them. Sakka belongs only to the Buddhist mythology then being built up. He is not only quite different from Indra, but is the direct contrary of that blustereotypeng, drunken, god of war. See the passages collected in Dial. II.294 298. The idiom sa-Indaa devaa, D II.261, 274; A V.325, means "the gods about Indra, Indra's retinue" , this being a Vedic story. But Devaa Taavati.msaa sahindakaa means the T. gods together with their leader (D II.208-212; S III.90; cp. Vv 301) this being a Buddhist story]. -aggi (ind' aggi) Indra's fire, i. e. lightning PvA 56. -gajjita (nt.) Indra's thunder Miln 22. -jaala deception DA I.85. -jaalika a juggler, conjurer Miln 331. -dhanu the rainbow DA I.40. -bhavana the realm of Indra Nd1 448 (cp. Taavati.msa-bhavana). -linga the characteristic of Indra Vism 491. -saala N. of tree J IV.92.

Indaka [dimin. from inda] - 1. Np. (see Dict. of names), e. g. at Pv II.9Q; PvA 136 sq. - 2. (*-) see inda 2.

Indakhiila [inda + khiila, cp. BSanskrit indrakiila Divy 250, 365, 544; Av. SH I.109, 223]. "Indra's post"; the post, stake or column of Indra, at or before the city gate; also a large slab of stone let into the ground at the entrance of a house D II.254 (-.m uuhacca, cp. DhA II.181); Vin IV.160 (explained. ibid. as sayani-gharassa ummaaro, i. e. threshold); S V.444 (ayokhiilo +); Dh 95 (-uupama, cp. DhA II.181); Th 1, 663; J I.89; Miln 364; Vism 72, 466; SnA 201; DA I.209 (nikkhamitvaa bahi -aa); DhA II.180 (-sadisa'n Saariputtassa citta.m), 181 (nagara-dvaare nikhata.m -.m).

Indaguu see hindaguu.

Indagopaka [inda + gopaka, cp. Vedic indragopaa having Indra as protector] a sort of insect ("cochineal, a red beetle", Bohtlingk), observed to come out of the ground after rain Th 1, 13; Vin III.42; J IV.258; V.168; DhA I.20; Brethren p. 18, n.

Indaniila [inda + niila "Indra's blue"] a sapphire J I.80; Miln 118; VvA 111 (+ mahaaniila).

Indavaaru.nii (f.) [inda + vaaru.na] the Coloquintida plant J IV.8 (-ka-rukkha).

Indiivara (nt.) [etymology*] the blue water lily, Nymphaea Stellata or Cassia Fistula J V.92 (-ii-samaa ratti); VI.536; Vv 451 ( = uddaalaka-puppha VvA 197).

Indriya (nt.) [Vedic indriya adj. only in meaning "belonging to Indra"; nt. strength, might (cp. inda), but in specific paali sense "belonging to the ruler", i. e. governing, ruling nt. governing, ruling or controlling principle] A. On term: Indriya is one of the most comprehensive and important categories of Buddhist psychological philosophy and ethics, meaning "controlling principle, directive force, elan, du/namis", in the following applications: (a) with reference to sense-perceptibility "faculty, function", often wrongly interpreted as "organ"; (b) w. reference to objective aspects of form and matter "kind, characteristic, determinating principle, sign, mark" (cp. woman-hood, hood = Goth. haidus "kind, form"); (c) w. reference to moods of sensation and (d) to moral powers or motives controlling action, "principle, controlling" force; (e) w. reference to cognition and insight "category". Definitions of indriya among others at DhsA 119; cp. Expositor 157; Dhs trsl. LVII; Cpd.228, 229. B. Classifications and groups of indriyaani. An exhaustive list comprises the indriyaani enumd under A a-e, thus establishing a canonical scheme of 22 Controlling Powers (baaviisati indriyaani), running thus at Vbh 122 sq. (see trsl. at Cpd.175, 176); and discussed in detail at Vism 491 sq. (a. sensorial) (1) cakkh-undriya ("the eye which is a power", Cpd.228) the eye or (personal potentiality of) vision, (2) sot-indriya the ear or hearing, (3) ghaan- nose or smell, (4) jivh- tongue or taste, (5) kaay- body-sensibility, (6) man-) mind; (b. material) (7) itth- female sex or femininity, (8) puris- male sex or masculinity, (9) jiivit- life or vitality; (c. sensational) (10) sukh- pleasure, (11) dukkh- pain, (12) somanasa- joy, (13) domanass- grief, (14) upekh- hedonic indifference (d. moral) (15) saddh- faith, (16) viriy- energy, (17) sat- mindfulness, (18) samaadh- concentration, (19) pa~n~n- reason; (e. cognitional) (20) ana~n~naata-~nassaamiit- the thought "I shall come to know the unknown", (21) a~n~n- ( = a~n~naa) gnosis, (22) a~n~naataa-v- one who knows. - Jiivitindriya (no. 9) is in some redactions placed before itth- (no. 7), e. g. at Ps I.7, 137. - From this list are detached several groups, mentioned frequently and in various connections, no. 6 manas (mano, man-indriya) wavering in its function, being either included under (a) or (more frequently) omitted, so that the first set (a) is marked off as pa~nc' indriyaani, the 6th being silently included (see below). This uncertainty regarding manas deserves to be noted. The following groups may be mentioned here viz 19 (nos. 1-19) at Ps I.137; 10 (pa~nca ruupiini and

---[ Page 122 ]---

pa~nca aruupiini) at Nett 69; three groups of five (nos. 1-5, 10-14, 15-19) at D III.239, cp. 278; four (group d without pa~n~naa, i. e. nos. 15-18) at A II.141; three (saddh-, samaadh-, pa~n~n-, i. e. nos. 15, 18, 19) at A I. 118 sq. Under a.t.thavidha.m indriya-ruupa.m (Cpd. 159) or ruupa.m as indriya.m "form which is faculty" Dhs 661 (cp. trsl. p. 204) are understood the 5 sensitives (nos. 1-5), the 2 sex-states (nos. 7, 8) and the vital force (no. 9), i. e. groups a and b of enumn.; discussed and defined in detail at Dhs 709-717, 971-973. - It is often to be guessed from the context only, which of the sets of 5 indriyaani (usually either group a or d) is meant. These detached groups are classed as below under C. f. - Note. This system of 22 indriyaani reflects a revised and more elaborate form of the 25 (or 23) categories of the Saankhya philosophy, with its 10 elements, 10 indri, iini and the isolated position of manas. C. Material in detail (grouped according to A a-e) (a) sensorial: (mentioned or referred to as set of 5 viz B. nos. 1-5): M I.295: S III.46 (pa~ncanna.m -aana.m avak kanti), 225; IV.168; A II.151 (as set of 6, viz. B. nos. 1-6): M I.9; S IV.176; V.74, 205, 230; A I.113; II.16, 39, 152; III.99, 163, 387 sq.; V.348. Specially referring to restraint and control of the senses in following phrases: in driyaani sa'nvutaani S II.231, 271; IV.112; pa~ncasu -esu sa'nvuto Sn 340 ( = lakkha.nato pana cha.t.tha.m pi vutta.m yeva hoti, i. e. the 6th as manas included, SnA 343); -esu susa'nvuta Th 2, 196 ( = mana-cha.t.thesu i- su.t.thu sa'nvutaa ThA 168) indriyesu guttadvaara and guttadvaarataa D III.107; S II.218; IV.103, 112, 175; A I.25, 94, 113; II.39; III.70, 138, 173, 199, 449 sq.; IV.25, 166; V.134; It 23, 24; Nd1 14; Vbh 248, 360; DA I.182 ( = manacha.t.tesu indriyesu pihita-dvaaro hoti), i. vippasannaani S II. 275; III.2, 235; IV.294; V.301; A I.181; III.380. -aana.m samataa (v. l. samatha) A III.375 sq. (see also f. below) -aani bhaavitaani Sn 516 ( = cakkh' aadiini cha i. SnA 426); Nd2 475 B8. - Various: S I.26 (rakkhati), 48 (-uupasame rato); IV.40, 140 (-sampanna); V.216, 217 sq. (independent in function, mano as referee); Ps. I.190 (man-); Vbh 13 (ruupa), 341 (mud- and tikkh-) 384 (ahiin-). - (b) physical: (above B 7-9) all three: S V.204; Vism 447; itthi- and purisa- A IV.57; Vbh 122, 415 sq.; puris- A III.404; jiivit- Vbh 123, 137; Vism 230 (-upaccheda = mara.na). See also under itthi, jiivita and purisa. - (c) sensational (above B 10-14): S V.207 sq. (see Cpd.111 and cp. p. 15), 211 sq.; Vbh 15, 71; Nett 88. - (d) moral (above B 15 19): S III.96, 153; IV.36, 365 sq.; V.193 sq., 202, 219 (corresponding to pa~ncabalaani), 220 sq. (and amata), 223 sq. (their culture brings assurance of no rebirth), 227 sq. (pa~n~naa the chief one), 235, 237 (sevenfold fruit of), A IV.125 sq., 203, 225; V.56, 175; Ps II.49, 51 sq., 86; Nd1 14; Nd2 628 (sat- + satibala); Kvu 589; Vbh 341; Nett 15, 28, 47, 54. Often in standard combination. with satipa.t.thaana, sammappadhaana. iddhipaada, indriya, bala, bojjhanga, magga (see Nd2 s. v. p. 263) D II.120; Vin III. 93, Ps II.166 and passim. As set of 4 indriyaani (nos. 16 19) at Nett 83. - (e) cognitional (above B 20-22) D III.219 = S v.204 (as peculiar to Arahantship); It 53; Ps I.115; II.30. - (f) collectively, either two or more of groups a-e, also var. peculiar uses: personal; esp. physical faculties. S I.61 (paakat-), 204 (id.); III.207 (aakaasa'n -aani sankamanti); IV.294 (vipari-bhinnaani); A III.441 (-aana.m avekallataa). magic power A IV.264 sq. (okkhipati -aani). indriyaana.m paripaako (moral or physical) over-ripeness of faculties S II.2, 42; A V.203; Nd2 252 (in def. of jaraa); Vbh 137. moral forces Vin I.183 (-aana.m samataa, + viriyaana.m s. as sign of Arahant); II.240 (pa~nc-). principle of life ekindriya.m jiiva.m Vin III.156; Miln 259. heart or seat of feeling in phrase -aani paricaareti to satisfy one's heart PvA 16, 58, 77. obligation, duty, vow in phrase -aani bhinditvaa breaking one's vow J II.274; IV.190. D. Unclassified material D I 77 (ahiin-); III 239 (domanass- and somanass-) M I.437 (vemattataa), 453 (id.); II. 11, 106; III.296; S III.225; V.209 (dukkh-, domanass-); A I.39, 42 sq., 297; II.38 (sant-), 149 sq.; III.277, 282; Ps I.16, 21, 88, 180; II.1 sq, 13, 84, 119, 132, 143, 145, 110, 223; Nd1 45 (-dhiira), 171 (-kusala), 341 (pucchaa); Dhs 58, 121, 528, 556 (dukkh-), 560, 644. 736; Nett 18 (sotaapannassa), 28 (-vava.t.thaana), 162 (lok'uttara); Vism 350 (-vekallataa); Sdhp 280, 342, 364, 371, 449, 473. E. As adj. (*-) having one's senses, mind or heart as such and such S I.138 (tikkh- and mud-); III.93 (paakat-); V.269 (id.); A I.70 (id) and passim (id.); A I.70 (sa'nvut-) 266 (id.), 236 (gutt-); II.6 (samaahit-); 8n 214 (susamaahit- his senses well-composed); PvA 70 (pii.nit- joyful or gladdened of heart). F. Some compounds: -gutta one who restrains and watches his senses S I.154; Dh 375. -gutti keeping watch over the senses, self-restraint DhA IV.111. a paropariya, b paropariyatta and c paropariyatti (-~naa.na) (knowledge of) what goes on in the senses and intentions of others a J I.78; b A V.34, 38; b Ps I.121 sq., 133 sq.; II.158, 175; b Vbh 340, 342; c S V.205; c Nett 101. See remark under paropariya. -bhaavanaa cultivation of the (five, see above Cd) moral qualities Vin I.294 (+ balabhaavanaa); M III.298. -sa'nvara restraint or subjugation of the senses D II.281; M I.269, 346; S I.54; A III.360; IV.99; V.113 sq., 136, 206; Nd1 483; Nett 27, 121 sq; Vism 20 sq.

Indhana (nt.) [Vedic indhana, of idh or indh to kindle, cp. iddha1] firewood, fuel J IV.27 (adj. an- without fuel, aggi); V.447; ThA 256; VvA 335; Sdhp 608. Cp. idhuma.

Ibbha (adj.) [Ved. ibhya belonging to the servants] menial; a retainer, in the phrase mu.n.dakaa sama.nakaa ibbhaa ka.nhaa (ki.nhaa) bandhupaad¢paccaa D I.90 (v. l. SS imbha; T. ki.nhaa, v. l. ka.nhaa), 91, 103; M I.334 (ki.nhaa, v. l. ka.nhaa). Also at J VI.214. Expld. by Bdhgh. as gahapatika at DA I.254, (also at J VI.215).

Iri.na (nt.) [Vedic iri.na, on etymology see Walde, Latin Wtb. under rarus] barren soil, desert J VI.560 ( = niroja C.). Cp. iiri.na.

Iriyati [from iir to set in motion, to stir, Sanskrit iirte, but pres. formation influenced by iriyaa and also by Sanskrit iyarti of r (see acchati and icchati2); cp. Causative iirayati ( = Paali iireti), pp. iir.na and iirita. See also issaa] to move, to wander about, stir; fig. to move, behave, show a certain way of deportment M I.74, 75; S I.53 (dukkha.m aticca iriyati); IV.71; A III.451; V.41; Sn 947, 1063, 1097; Th 1,276; J III.498 ( = viharati); Nd1 431; Nd2 147 ( = carati etc.); Vism 16; DA I.70.

Iriyanaa (f.) [from iriyati] way of moving on, progress, Dhs 19, 82, 295, 380, 441, 716.

Iriyaa (f.) [cp. from iriyati, BSanskrit iiryaa Divy 485] movement, posture, deportment M I.81; Sn 1038 ( = cariyaa vatti vihaaro Nd2 148); It 31; Vism 145 (+ vutti paalana yapana). -patha way of deportment; mode of movement; good behaviour. There are 4 iriyaapathas or postures, viz. walking, standing, sitting, lying down (see Ps II.225 and DA I.183). Cp. BSanskrit iiryaapatha Divy 37. - Vin I.39; II.146 (-sampanna); Vin I.91 (chinn- a cripple); S V.78 (cattaaro i.); Sn 385; Nd1 225, 226; Nd2 s. v.; J I.22 (of a lion), 66, 506; Miln 17; Vism 104, 128, 290, 396; DhA I.9; IV.17; VvA 6; PvA 141; Sdhp 604.

Irubbeda the Rig-veda Dpvs V.62 (iruveda); Miln 178; DA I.247; SnA 447.

Illiyaa (f.) [from illii, cp. Sanskrit *iilikaa] = illii J V.259; VI.50.

Illii (f.) [cp. Vedic iliibisha Np. of a demon] a sort of weapon, a short one-edged sword J V.259.

Illiiyitu.m v. l. for alliiyitu.m at J V.154.

Iva (indecl.) [Vedic iva and va] part. of comparison: like, as Dh 1, 2, 7, 8, 287, 334; J I.295; SnA 12 ( = opamma-vacana.m). Elided to 'va, diaeretic-metathetic form viya (q. v.).

---[ Page 123 ]---

Isi [Vedic r.si from rs.. - Voc. ise Sn 1025; pl. npm. isayo, gen. isina.m S II.280 and isiina.m S I.192; etc. inst. isibhi Th 1, 1065] - 1. a holy man, one gifted with special powers of insight and inspiration, an anchoret, a Seer, Sage, Saint, "Mastereotype D I.96 (ka.nho isi ahosi); S I.33, 35, 65, 128, 191, 192, 226 sq., 236 (aacaaro isiina.m); II.280 (dhammo isina.m dhajo); A II.24, 51; Vin IV.15 = 22 (-bhaasito dhammo); It 123; Sn 284, 458, 979, 689, 691, 1008, 1025, 1043, 1044, 1116 (dev- divine Seer), 1126, Nd2 149 (isi-naamakaa ye keci isi-pabbajja.m pabbajitaa aajiivikaa niga.n.thaa ja.tilaa taapasaa); Dh 281; J I.17 (v.90: isayo n' atthi me samaa of Buddha); J V.140 (-ga.na), 266, 267 (isi Gotamo); Pv II.614 ( = yama-niyam' aadiina.m esanatthena isayo PvA 98); II.133 ( = jhaan' aadiina.m gu.naana.m esanatthena isi PvA 163); IV.73 ( = asekkhaana.m siilakkhandh' aadiina.m esanatthena isi.m PvA 265); Miln 19 (-vaata) 248 (-bhattika); DA I.266 (gen. isino); Sdhp 200, 384. See also mahesi. - 2. (in brahmanic tradition) the ten (divinely) inspired singers or composers of the Vedic hymns (braahma.naana.m pubbakaa isayo mantaana.m kattaaro pavattaaro), whose names are given at Vin I. 245; D I.104, 238; A III.224, IV.61 as follows: A.t.thaka, Vaamaka, Vaamadeva, Vessaamitta, Yamataggi (Yamadaggi), Angirasa, Bhaaradvaaja, Vaase.t.tha, Kassapa, Bhagu. -nisabha the first (lit. "bull") among Saints, Ep. of the Buddha Sn 698; Vv 167 (cp. VvA 82). -pabbajjaa the (holy) life of an anchoret Vism 123; DhA I.105; IV.55; PvA 162. -vaata the wind of a Saint Miln 19; Vism 18. -sattama the 7th of the great Sages (i. e. Gotama Buddha, as 7th in the sequence of Vipassin, Sikhin, Vessabhu, Kakusandha, Ko.naagamana and Kassapa Buddhas) M I.386; S I.192; Sn 356; Th 1, 1240 ( = Bhagavaa isi ca sattamo ca uttama.t.thena SnA 351); Vv 211 ( = Buddha-isina.m Vipassi-aadiina.m sattamo VvA 105).

Isikaa (isiikaa) (f.) [Sanskrit is.iikaa] a reed D I.77, cp. DA I.222; J VI.67 (isikaa).

Isitta (nt.) [abstr. from isi] rishi-ship D I.104 ( = isi-bhaava DA I.274).

Issati [denom. from issaa. Av. ares.yeiti to be jealous, Gr. e)/ratai to desire; connected also with Sanskrit ar.sati from rs. to flow, Latin erro; and Sanskrit irasyati to be angry = Gr. *)/arhs God of war, a)rh\; Ags. eorsian to be angry] to bear illwill, to be angry, to envy J III.7; ppr. med. issamaanaka Sdhp 89, f. -ikaa A II.203. -pp. issita (q. v.).

Issattha (nt. m.) [cp. Sanskrit is.vastra nt. bow, from i.su ( = Paali usu) an arrow + as to throw. Cp. Paali issaasa. - Bdhgh. in a strange way dissects it as "usu~n ca sattha~n caa ti vutta.m hoti" (i. e. usu arrow + sattha sword, knife) SnA 466] - 1. (nt.) archery (as means of livelihood and occupation) M I.85; III.1; S I.100 (so read with v. l.; T. has issatta, C. explinations. by usu-sippa.m K. S. p. 318); Sn 617 (-.m upajiivati = aavudha jiivika.m SnA 466); J VI.81; Sdhp 390. - 2. (m.) an archer Miln 250, 305, 352, 418.

Issatthaka [issattha + ka] an archer Miln 419.

Issara [Vedic iishvara, from iish to have power, cp. also Paali iisa] lord, ruler, mastereotype chief A IV.90; Sn 552; J I.89 (-jana), 100, 283 (-bheri); IV.132 (-jana); Pv IV.67 (-mada); Miln 253 (an- without a ruler); DhsA 141; DA I.111; PvA 31 (gehassa issaraa); Sdhp 348, 431. - 2. creative deity, Brahmaa, D III.28; M II.222 = A I.173; Vism 598.

Issariya [from issara] rulership, mastereotypehip, supremacy, dominion (Syn. aadhipacca) D III.190; S I.43, 100 (-mada); V.342 (issariy-¢dhipacca); A I.62 (-aadhipacca); II.205, 249; III.38; IV.263; Sn 112; Dh 73; Ud 18; Ps II.171, 176; J I.156; V.443; DhA II.73; VvA 126 (for aadhipacca) PvA 42, 117, 137 (for aadhipacca); Sdhp 418, 583.

Issariyataa (f.) [from issariya] mastereotypehip, lordship Sdhp 422.

Issaa1 (f.) [Sanskrit iirs.yaa to Sanskrit irin forceful, irasyati to be angry, Latin iira anger, Gr. *)/arhs God of war; Ags. eorsian to be angry. See also issati] jealousy, anger, envy, ill-will D II.277 (-macchariya); III.44 (id.); M I.15; S II.260; A I.95, 105 (-mala), 299; II.203; IV.8 (-sa~n~nojana), 148, 349, 465; V.42 sq., 156, 310; Sn 110; J V.90 (-¢vati.n.na); Pv II.37; Vv 155; Pug 19, 23; Vbh 380, 391; Dhs 1121, 1131, 1460; Vism 470 (def.); PvA 24, 46, 87; DhA II.76; Miln 155; Sdhp 313, 510. -pakata overcome by envy, of an envious nature S II.260; Miln 155; PvA 31. See remarks under apakata and pakata.

Issaa2 (f.) [cp. Sanskrit rshya-mrga] in issammiga ( = issaamiga) J V.410, and issaamiga J V.431, a species of antelope, cp. J V.425 issaasinga the antlers of this antelope.

Issaayanaa (and Issaayitatta) [abstr. formations from issaa] = issaa Pug 19, 23; Dhs 1121; Vism 470.

Issaasa [Sanskrit is.vaasa, see issattha] an archer Vin IV.124; M III.1; A IV.423 (issaaso vaa issaas' antevaasii vaa); J II.87; IV.494; Miln 232; DA I.156.

Issaasin [Sanskrit is.vaasa in meaning "bow" + in] an archer, lit. one having a bow J IV.494 ( = issaasa C.).

Issita [pp. of iirs. (see issati); Sanskrit iirs.ita] being envied or scolded, giving offence or causing anger J V.44.

Issukin (adj.) [from issaa, Sanskrit iirs.yu + ka + in] envious, jealous Vin II.89 (+ maccharin); D III.45, 246; M I.43, 96; S IV.241; A III.140, 335; IV.2; Dh 262; J III.259; Pv. II.34; Pug 19, 23; DhA III.389; PvA 174. See also an-.

Iha (indecl.) [Sanskrit iha; form iha is rare in Paali, the usual form is idha (q. v.)] adv. of place "here" Sn 460.

-----[ Ii ]-----

Iigha (*) [doubtful as to origin and etymology since only found in cpd. aniigha and abs. only in exegetical literature. If genuine, it should belong to rgh Sanskrit rghaayati to tremble, rage etc. See discussed under nigha1] confusion, rage, badness SnA 590 (in explination of anigha). Usually as an- (or anigha), e. g. J III.343 ( = niddukkha C.); V.343.

Iiti and iitii (f.) [Sanskrit iiti, of doubtful origin] ill, calamity, plague, distress, often combb. with and substituted for upaddava, cp. BSanskrit iitay' opadrava (attack of plague) Divy 119. Sn 51; J I.27 (V.189); V.401 = upaddava; Nd1 381; Nd2 48, 636 (+ upaddava = santaapa); Miln 152, 274, 418. -aniiti sound condition, health, safety A IV.238; Miln 323.

Iitika (adj.) [from iiti] connected or affected with ill or harm, only in negative an-.

Iitiha a doublet of itiha, only found in negative an-.

Iidisa (adj.) [Sanskrit iidrs, ii + drsh, lit. so-looking] such like, such DhsA 400 (f. -ii); PvA 50, (id.) 51.

Iiri.na (nt.) [ = iri.na, q. v. and cp. Sanskrit iiri.na] barren soil, desert D I.248; A V.156 sq.; J V.70 ( = sukkha-kantaara C.); VI.560; VvA 334.

Iirita [pp. of iireti, Causative of iir, see iriyati] - 1. set in motion, stirred, moved, shaken Vv 394 (vaat'erita moved by

---[ Page 124 ]---

the wind); J I.32 (id.); Vv 6420 (haday'erita); Pv II.123 (malut'erita); PvA 156 (has erita for ii-); VvA 177 ( = calita). - 2. uttered, proclaimed, said Daavs V.12.

Iisa [from ish to have power, perf. iishe = Goth. aih; cp. Sanskrit iishvara = Paali issara, and BSanskrit iisha, e. g. Jtm 3181] lord, owner, ruler J IV.209 (of a black lion = kaa'a-siiha C.); VvA 168. f. iisii see mahesii a chief queen. Cp. also mahesakkha.

Iisaka [dimin. of iisaa] a pole J II.152; VI.456 (-agga the top of a pole).

Iisaka.m (adv.) [nt. of iisaka] a little, slightly, easily M I. 450; J I.77; VI.456; DA I.252, 310; VvA 36; Vism 136, 137, 231, iisakam pi even a little Vism 106; Sdhp 586.

Iisaa (f.) [Vedic iis.aa] the pole of a plough or of a carriage S I.104 (nangal' iisaa read with v. l. for nangala-siisaa T.), 172, 224 (-mukha): A IV.191 (rath-); Sn 77; J I.203 (-mukha); IV.209; Ud 42; Miln 27; SnA 146; VvA 269 (-muula.m = rathassa uro). -danta having teeth (tusks) as long as a plough-pole (of an elephant) Vin I.352; M I.414; Vv 209 = 439 ( = ratha-iisaa-sadisa-danto); J VI.490 = 515.

Iisaaka (adj.) [from iisaa] having a pole (said of a carriage) J VI.252.

Iihati [Vedic iih, cp. Av. iižaa ardour, eagerness, aazi.s greed] to endeavour, attempt, strive after Vin III.268 (Bdhgh.) J VI.518 (cp. Kern, Toev. p. 112); DA I.139; VvA 35.

Iihaa (f.) [from iih] exertion, endeavour, activity, only in adj. nir-iiha void of activity Miln 413.

-----[ U ]-----

U the sound or syllable u, explained. by Bdhgh at Vism 495 as expressing origin ( = ud).

Ukka.msa [from ud + krs. see ukkassati] exaltation, excellence, superiority (opp. avakka.msa) D I.54 (ukka.ms-¢vakka.msa = haayana-va.d.dhana DA I.165); M I.518; Vism 563 (id.); VvA 146 (-gata excellent), 335 (instr. ukka.msena par excellence, exceedingly); PvA 228 (-vasena, with reference to devataas; v. l. SS okk-).

Ukka.msaka (adj.) [from ukka.msa] raising, exalting (oneself), extolling M I.19 (att-; opp. para-vambhin); J II.152. Cp. saamukka.msika.

Ukka.msati [ud + krs., kar.sati, lit. draw or up, raise] to exalt, praise M I.498; J IV.108. -pp. Ukka.t.tha. - ukka.mseti in same meaning M I.402 sq. (attaana.m u. para.m vambheti); A II.27; Nd2 141.

Ukka.msanaa (f.) [abstr. of ukka.msati] raising, extolling, exaltation, in att- self-exaltation, self-praise M I.402 (opp. para-vambhanaa); Nd2 505 (id.).

Ukka.t.tha (adj.) [pp. of ukka.msati] - 1. exalted, high, prominent, glorious, excellent, most frequent opp. to hiina, in phrase hiina-m-Ukka.t.tha-majjhime Vin IV.7; J I.20 (v.129), 22 (v.143); III.218 ( = uttama C.). In other combination. at Vism 64 (u. majjhima mudu referring to the 3 grades of the Dhutangas); SnA 160 (dvipadaa sabbasattaana.m ukka.t.thaa); VvA 105 (superl. Ukka.t.thatama with reference to Gotama as the most exalted of the 7 Rishis); Sdhp 506 (opp. laamaka). - 2. large, comprehensive, great, in ukka.t.tho patto a bowl of great capacity (as different from majjhima and omaka p.) Vin III.243 ( = uk. naama patto a.d.dhaalhak' odana.m ga.nhaati catu-bhaaga.m khaadana.m vaa taduupiya.m vaa bya~njana.m). - 3. detailed, exhaustive, specialised Vism 37 (ati-Ukka.t.tha-desanaa); also in phrase -vasena in detail SnA 181. - 4. arrogant, insolent J V. 16. - 5. used as nom at J I.387 in meaning "battle, conflict". - an- Vism 64 (-ciivara). -niddesa exhaustive exposition, special designation, term par excellence DhsA 70; VvA 231; PvA 7. -pariccheda comprehensive connotation SnA 229, 231, 376.

Ukka.t.thataa (f.) [abstr. from Ukka.t.tha] superiority, eminence, exalted state J IV.303 (opp. hiinataa).

Ukka.t.thita [for ukka.thita, ud + pp. of kvath, see ka.thati and kuthati] boiled up, boiling, seething A III.231 and 234 (udapatto agginaa santatto ukka.t.thito, v. l. ukku.t.thito); J IV.118 (v. l. pakkudhita = pakku.thita, as gloss).

Ukka.n.thati [from ud + ka.n.th in secondary meaning of ka.n.tha neck, lit. to stretch one's neck for anything; i. e. long for, be hungry after, etc.] to long for, to be dissatisfied, to fret J I.386 (-maana); III.143 (-itvaa); IV.3, 160; V.10 (anukkha.n.thanto); DhsA 407; PvA 162 (maa ukka.n.thi, v. l. ukka.nhi, so read for T. maa khu.n.dali). -pp. ukka.n.thita (q. v.). Cp. pari-.

Ukka.n.thanaa (f.) [from ukka.n.thati] emotion, commotion D II.239.

Ukka.n.thaa (f.) [from ukkan.th.-] longing, desire; distress, regret Nett 88; PvA 55 (spelt kkh), 60, 145, 152.

Ukka.n.thi (f.) [from ukkan.th.-] longing, dissatisfaction ThA 239 ( = arati).

Ukka.n.thikaa (f.) [abstr. from ukka.n.thita] = ukka.n.thi, i. e. longing, state of distress, pain J III.643.

Ukka.n.thita [pp. of ukka.n.thati] dissatisfied, regretting, longing, fretting J I.196; II.92, 115; III.185; Miln 281; DhA IV.66, 225; PvA 13 (an-), 55, 187.

Ukka.n.na (adj.) [ud + ka.n.na] having the ears erect (*) J VI.559.

Ukka.n.naka (ad.) [ut + ka.n.na + ka lit. "with ears out" or is it ukkandaka*] a certain disease (* mange) of jackals, S II.230, 271; S. A. "the fur falls off from the whole body".

Ukkantati [ud + kantati] to cut out, tear out, skin Vin I.217 (-itva); J I.164; IV.210 (v. l. for okk-); V.10 (ger. ukkacca); Pv III.94 (ukkantvaa, v. l. BB ukkacca); PvA 210 (v. l. SS ni-), 211 ( = chinditvaa).

Ukkapi.n.daka [etymology unknown] only in pl.; vermin, Vin I.211 = 239. See comment at Vin. Texts II.70.

Ukkantika.m (nt. adv.), in jhaan- and kasi.n-, after the method of stepping away from or skipping Vism 374.

Ukkamati (or okk- which is v. l. at all passages quoted) [ud + kamati from kram] to step aside, step out from (w. abl.), depart from A III.301 (maggaa); J III.531; IV. 101 (maggaa); Ud 13 (id.); DA I.185 (id.). Causative ukkaameti; Causative II. ukkamaapeti J II.3.

Ukkamana (nt.) [from ukkamati] stepping away from Vism 374.

Ukkala in phrase ukkala-vassa-bha~n~na S III.73 = A II.31 = Kvu 141 is translated. as "the folk of Ukkala, Lenten speakers of old" (see Kvu trsl. 95 with n. 2). Another interpretation is ukkalaavassa-, i. e. ukkalaa + avassa- [*avashya-], one who speaks of, or like, a porter (ukkala = Sk utkala porter, one who carries a load) and bondsman M III.78 reads Okkalaa (v. l. Ukkalaa)-Vassa-Bha~n~naa, all as N. pr.

Ukkalaapa see uklaapa.

---[ Page 125 ]---

Ukkalissati [ = ukkilissati* ud + kilissati] to become depraved, to revoke(*) Miln 143.

Ukkaa (f.) [Vedic ulkaa and ulkus.ii, cp. Gr. a)/flac ( = lamprw_s torch Hesychius), velxa/nos ( = Volcanus); Latin Volcanus, Oir. Olcaan, Idg. **I*q to be fiery] 1. firebr and , glow of fire, torch D I.49, 108; S II.264; Th 2, 488 (-uupama); J I.34 (dhamm-okkaa); II.401; IV.291; V.322; Vism 428; ThA 287; DA I.148; DhA I.42, 205; PvA 154. Esp. as ti.n- firebr and of dry grass M I.128, 365; Nd2 40Ie; DhA I.126; Sdhp 573. - 2. a furnace or forge of a smith A I.210, 257; J VI.437; see also below -mukha. 3. a meteor: see below -paata. -dhaara a torch-bearer Sn 335; It 108; Miln 1. -paata "falling of a firebrand ", a meteor D I.10 ( = aakaasato ukkaana.m patana.m DA I.95); J I.374; VI.476; Miln 178. -mukha the opening or receiver of a furnace, a goldsmith's smelting pot A I.257; J VI.217 ( = kammaar-uddhana C.), 574; Sn 686; DhA II.250.

Ukkaacanaa (f.) [from ukkaaceti, ud + *kaac, see ukkaacita] enlightening, clearing up, instruction Vbh 352 (in def. of lapanaa, v. l. -kaapanaa). Note Kern, Toev. s. v. compares Vism p. 115 and Sanskrit uddiipana in same sense. Def. at Vism 27 ( = uddiipanaa).

Ukkaacita [pp. either to *kaac to shine or to kaaceti denom. from kaaca1] enlightened, made bright (fig.) or cleaned, cleared up A I.72, 286 (-viniita parisaa enlightened and trained).

Ukkaaceti [according to Morris J.Paali Text Society 1884, 112 a denom. from kaaca2 a carrying pole, although the idea of a bucket is somewhat removed from that of a pole] to bale out water, to empty by means of buckets J II.70 (v. l. ussi~ncati).

Ukkaameti [Causative of ukkamati] to cause to step aside J VI.11.

Ukkaara [from ud + kr "do out"] dung, excrement J IV.485, otherwise only in cpd. ukkaara-bhuumi dung-hill J I.5, 146 (so read for ukkar-), II.40; III.16, 75, 377; IV.72, 305; Vism 196 (-uupama ku.napa); DhA III.208. Cp. uccaara.

Ukkaasati [ud + kaasati of kas to cough] to "ahem"! to cough, to clear one's throat Vin II.222; IV.16; M II.4; A V.65; aor. ukkaasi J I.161, 217. -pp. ukkaasita.

Ukkaasikaa (f.*) [doubtful] at Vin II.106 is not clear. Vin Texts III.68 leave it untranslated. Bdhgh's explination. is vattava.t.ti (patta-* a leaf* Cp. S III.141), prob. = va.t.ti (Sanskrit varti a kind of pad). See details given by Morris J.Paali Text Society 1887, 113, who translations. "rubber, a kind of pad or roll of cotton with which the delicate bather could rub himself without too much friction".

Ukkaasita [pp. of ukkaasati] coughed, clearing one's throat, coughed out, hawking D I.89; Bu I.52 (+ khipita) -sadda the noise of clearing the throat D I.50; J I.119; DhA I.250 (+ khipita-).

Ukki.n.na [pp. of ud + kr dig2] dug up or out D I.105; J IV.106; Miln 330; DA I.274 ( = khaata).

Ukkiledeti [Causative of ud + klid, see kilijjati] to take the dirt out, to clean out DA I.255 (dosa'n); SnA 274 (raaga.m; v. l. BB. uggileti).

Ukkujja (adj.) [ud + kujja] set up, upright, opp. either nikkujja or avakujja A I.131; S V.89 (ukkujjQ¢vakujja); Pug 32 ( = uparimukho .thapito C. 214).

Ukkujjati (-eti) [Denominitive from ukkujja] to bend up, turn up, set upright Vin I.181; II.126 (patta.m), 269 (bhikkhu.m); mostly in phrase nikkujjita.m ukkujjeyya "(like) one might raise up one who has fallen" D I.85, 110; II.132, 152; Sn p. 15 ( = uparimukha.m karoti DA I.228 = SnA 155).

Ukkujjana (nt.) [from ukkujjati] raising up, setting up again Vin II.126 (patt-).

Ukku.tika [from ud + *ku.t = *ku~nc, as in ku.tila and ku~ncita; lit. "bending up". The BSanskrit form is ukku.tuka, e. g. Av. S I.315] a special manner of squatting. The soles of the feet are firmly on the ground, the man sinks down, the heels slightly rising as he does so, until the thighs rest on the calves, and the hams are about six inches or more from the ground. Then with elbows on knees he balances himself. Few Europeans can adopt this posture, and none (save miners) can maintain it with comfort, as the calf muscles upset the balance. Indians find it easy, and when the palms of the hands are also held together upwards, it indicates submission. See Dial. I.231 n. 4. - Vin I.45 (-.m nisiidati); III.228; A I.296; II.206; Pug 55; Vism 62, 104, 105 (quot. from Papa~nca Suudanii) 426; DhA I.201, 217; II.61 (as posture of humility); III.195; IV.223. -padhaana [in BSanskrit distorted to utku.tuka-prahaa.na Divy 339 = Dh 141] exertion when squatting (an ascetic habit) D I.167; M I.78, 515; A I.296; II.206; J I.493; III.235; IV.299; Dh 141 ( = ukku.tika-bhaavena aaraddha-viriyo DhA III.78).

Ukku.t.thi (f.) [from ud + krush, cp. *kru~nc as in Paali ku~nca and Sanskrit kroshati] shouting out, acclamation J II.367; VI.41; Bu I.35; Miln 21; Vism 245; DhA II.43; VvA 132 (-sadda).

Ukkusa [see ukku.t.thi and cp. BSanskrit utkrosha watchman (*) Divy 453] an osprey J IV.291 (-raaja), 392.

Ukkuula (adj.) [ud + kuula] sloping up, steep, high (opp. vikkuula) A I.35 sq.; Vism 153 (nadi); SnA 42. Cp. utkuulanikuula-sama Lal. V. 340.

Ukko.tana (nt.) [from ud + *ku.t to be crooked or to deceive, cp. kujja and ku.tila crooked] crookedness, perverting justice, taking bribes to get people into unlawful possessions (Bdhgh.) D I.5; III.176; S V.473; A II.209, V.206; DA I.79 = Pug A 240 ("assaamike saamike kaatu.m la~ncagaha.na.m").

Ukko.tanaka (adj.) [from ukko.tana] belonging to the perversion of justice Vin II.94.

Ukko.teti [denom. from *ukko.t-ana] to disturb what is settled, to open up again a legal question that has been adjudged, Vin II.94, 303; IV.126; J II.387; DA I.5.

Ukkhali (-lii) (f.) [der. from Vedic ukha and ukhaa pot, boiler; related to Latin aulla (from *auxla); Goth. auhns oven] a pot in which to boil rice (and other food) J I.68, 235; V. 389, 471; Pug 33; Vism 346 (-mukhava.t.ti), 356 (-kapaala, in comp.); DhA I.136; II.5; III.371; IV.130; Pug A 231; VvA 100. Cp. next.

Ukkhalikaa (f.) = ukkhali. Th 2, 23 ( = bhatta-pacanabhaajana.m ThA 29); DhA IV.98 (Qkaala); DhsA 376.

Ukkhaa (*) [can it be compared with Vedic uk.san*] in ukkhasata.m daana.m, given at various times of the day (meaning = e(kato/mbh*) S II.264 (v. l. ukkaa). Or is it to be read ukhaasata.m d. i. e. consisting of 100 pots (of rice = mahaa dana.m*). S A: pa.niitabhojana-bharitaana.m mahaa-ukkhalina.m sata.m daana.m. Cp. ukhaa cooking vessel ThA 71 (Ap. V.38). Kern, Toev. under ukkhaa trsl. "zeker muntstuck", i. e. kind of gift.

Ukkhita [pp. of uks. sprinkle] besmeared, besprinkled J IV.331 (ruhir-, so read for -rakkhita). Cp. okkhita.

Ukkhitta [pp. of ukkhipati] taken up, lifted up, t.t. of the canon law "suspended" Vin IV.218; J III.487. --aasika with drawn sword M I.377; S IV.173; J I.393; DhsA 329; Vism 230 (vadhaka), 479. -paligha having the obstacles removed M I.139; A III.84; Dh 398 = Sn 622 ( = avijjaa-palighassa ukkhittataaya u. SnA 467 = DhA IV.161). -sira with uplifted head Vism 162.

Ukkhittaka (adj.-n.) [from ukkhitta] a bhikkbu who has been suspended Vin I.97, 121; II.61, 173, 213.

Ukkhipati [ut + khipati, ks.ip]. To hold up, to take up J I.213; IV.391: VI.350; Vism 4 (sattha.m); PvA 265. A

---[ Page 126 ]---

t. t. of canon law, to suspend (a bhikkhu for breach of rules) Vin IV.309; Pug 33. -ukkhipiyati to be suspended Vin II.61. Causative II. ukkhipaapeti to cause to be supported J I.52; II.15, 38; III.285, 436. -pp. ukkhitta, ger. ukkhipitvaa as adv. "upright" Vism 126.

Ukkhipana (nt.) [from ud + ks.ip] 1. pushing upwards J I.163. - 2. throwing up, sneering Vism 29 (vaacaaya).

Ukkhe.tita [pp. of ud + khe.t or *khel, see khe'a] spit out, thrown off, in phrase moho (raago etc) catto vanto mutto pahino pa.tinissa.t.tho u. Vin III.97 = IV.27.

Ukkhepa (adj.-n.) [from ud + ks.ip] (adj.) throwing away DhA IV.59 (-daaya a throw-away donation, tip). - (m.) lifting up raising J I.394 (cel-); VI.508; DA I.273; dur- hard to lift or raise Sdhp 347.

Ukkhepaka (adj.) [from ukkhepa] throwing (up); -.m (acc.) in the manner of throwing Vin II.214 = IV.195 (pi.n.d-).

Ukkhepana (nt.) [from ud + ks.ip] suspension J III.487.

Ukkhepanaa (f.) [ = last] throwing up, provocation, sneering Vbh 352 = Vism 23, explained. at p. 29.

Ukkhepaniya (adj.) [ukkhepana + iya, cp. BSanskrit utks.epaniiya.m karma Divy 329] referring to the suspension (of a bhikkhu), -kamma act or resolution of suspension Vin I.49, 53, 98, 143, 168; II.27, 226, 230, 298: A I.99.

Uklaapa (ukkalaapa) (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit ut-kalaapayati to let go] 1. deserted J II.275 (ukkalaapa T.; vv. ll. uklaapa and ullaapa). - 2. dirtied, soiled Vin II.154, 208, 222; Vism 128; DhA III.168 (ukkalaapa).

Ugga1 (adj.) [Vedic ugra, from uk.sati, weak base of vaks. as in vak.sana, vak.sayati = Gr. a)ve/cw, Goth. wahsjan "to wax", also Latin augeo and Paali oja] mighty, huge, strong, fierce, grave, m. a mighty or great person, noble lord D I.103; S I.51 = VvA 116 (uggateja "the fiery heat"); J IV.496; V.452 (-teja); VI.490 (+ raajaputtaa, explained. with etymologising effort as uggataa pa~n~naataa by C.); Miln 331; DhA II.57 (-tapa); Sdhp 286 (-da.n.da), 304 (id.). Cp. sam-. As Np. at Vism 233 and J I.94. -putta a nobleman, mighty lord S I.185 ("high born warrior" trsl.); J VI.353 ( = amacca-putta C.); Th 1, 1210.

Ugga2 = uggamana, in aru.n-ugga sunrise Vin IV.272.

Uggacchati [ud + gam] to rise, get up out of (lit. and fig.) Th 1, 181; aru.ne uggacchante at sunrise VvA 75; Pv IV.8; Vism 43, ger. ugga~nchitvaana Miln 376. -pp. uggata (q. v.).

Uggajjati [ud + gajjati] to shout out Nd1 172.

Ugga.nhaati [ud + grh, see ga.nhaati] to take up, acquire, learn [cp. BSanskrit udgrh.naati in same sense, e. g. Divy 18, 77 etc.] Sn 912 (uggaha.nanta = uggaha.nanti = ugga.nhanti SnA 561); imper. ugga.nha J II.30 (sippa.m) and ugga.nhaahi Miln 10 (mantaani); ger. uggayha Sn 832, 845; Nd1 173. - Causative uggaheti in same meaning Sdhp 520; aor. uggahesi Pv III.54 (nakkhatta-yoga.m = akari PvA 198); ger. uggahetvaa J V.282, VvA 98 (vipassanaakamma.t.thaana.m); infin. uggahetu.m VvA 138 (sippa.m to study a craft). - Causative II. ugga.nhaapeti to instruct J V. 217; VI.353. -pp. uggahita (q. v.). See also uggahaayati. - A peculiar ppr. med. is uggaahamaana going or wanting to learn DA I 32 (cp. uggaahaka).

Uggata [pp. of uggacchati] come out, risen; high, lofty, exalted J IV.213 (suriya), 296 (-atta), 490; V.244; Pv IV.14 (-atta one who has risen = uggata-sabhaava samiddha PvA 220); VvA 217 (-maanasa); DA I.248; PvA 68 (-phaasuka with ribs come out or showing, i. e. emaciated, for upphaasulika). Cp. acc-.

Uggatta in all Pv. readings is to be read uttatta-, thus at Pv III.32; PvA 10, 188.

Uggatthana at J VI.590 means a kind of ornament or trinket, it should prob. be read uggha.t.tana [from gha.t.teti] lit. " ti.kling", i. e. a bangle.

Uggama [from ud + gam; Sanskrit udgama] rising up Sdhp 594.

Uggamana (-na) (nt.) [from ud + gam] going up, rising; rise (of sun and stars) D I.10, 240; S II.268 (suriy-); J IV.321 (an-), 388; Pv II.941 (suriy-); DA I.95 ( = udayana); DhA I.165 (aru.n-); II.6 (id.); VvA 326 (oggaman-); PvA 109 (aru.n-). Cp. ugga2 and uggama.

Uggaha (adj) (*-) [from ud + grh, see ga.nhaati] - 1. taking up, acquiring, learning Vism 96 (aacariy-), 99 (-paripucchaa), 277 (kanana.t.thaanassa). - 2. noticing, taking notice, perception (as opp. to manasikaara) Vism 125, 241 sq. negative an- Sn 912 ( = ga.nhaati Nd1 330). Cp. dhanuggaha.

Uggaha.na (nt.) [from ugga.nhaati] learning, taking up, studying PvA 3 (sipp-). As ugga.nhana at Vism 277.

Uggahaayati [poetic form of uggaheti (see ugga.nhati), but according to Kern, Toev. s. v. representing Ved. udgrbhaayati] to take hold of, to take up Sn 791 ( = ga.nhaati Nd1 91). - ger. uggahaaya Sn 837.

Uggahita [pp. of ugga.nhaati] taken up, taken, acquired Vin I.212; J III.168 (-sippa, adj.), 325; IV.220; VI 76; Vism 241. The metric form is uggahiita at Sn 795, 833, 1098; Nd1 175 = Nd2 152 ( = gahita paraama.t.tha).

Uggahetar [n. ag. to ugganhaati, Causative uggaheti] one who takes up, acquires or learns A IV.196.

Uggaara [ud + gr or *gI* to swallow, see gala and gilati; lit. to swallow up] spitting out, vomiting, ejection Vism 54; DA I.41; KhA 61.

Uggaahaka (adj.-n.) [from ud + grh, see ugga.nhaati] one who is eager to learn J V.148 [cp. M Vastu III.373 ograahaka in same context].

Uggaahamaana see ugga.nhaati.

Uggirati1 [Sanskrit udgirati, ud + gr2; but BSanskrit udgirati in meaning to sing, chant, utter, formation from gr2 instead of gr1, pres. gr.naati; in gira.m udgirati Jtm 3126. - The by-form uggirati is uggilati with interchange of I* and r, roots *gr* and *gI*, see gala and gilati] to vomit up ("swallow up") to spit out Ud 14 (uggiritvaana); DA I.41 (uggaara.m uggiranto). Cp. BSanskrit prodgiir.na cast out Divy 589.

Uggirati2 [cp. Sanskrit udgurate, ud + gur] to lift up, carry Vin IV.147 = DhA III.50 (talasattika.m explained. by uccaareti); J I.150 (aavudhaani); VI.460, 472. Cp. sam-.

Uggilati = uggirati1, i. e. to spit out (opp. ogilati) M I.393; S IV.323; J III.529; Miln 5; PvA 283.

Uggiiva (nt.) [ud + giiva] a neckb and to hold a basket hanging down J VI.562 (uggiiva~n c-¢pi a.msato = a.msakuu.te pacchi-lagganaka.m C.).

Uggha.mseti [ud + ghrs., see gha.msati1] to rub Vin II.106. pp. uggha.t.tha (q. v.).

Uggha.tita (adj.) [pp. of ud + gha.tati; cp. BSanskrit udgha.taka skilled Divy 3, 26 and phrase at M Vastu III.260 udgha.titaj~na] striving, exerting oneself; keen, eager in cpd. -~n~nuu of quick understanding A II.135; Pug 41; Nett 7-9, 125; DA I.291.

Uggha.teti [ud + gha.tati] to open, reveal (* so Hardy in Index to Nett) Nett 9; uggha.tiyati and uggha.tanaa ibid.

Uggha.t.ta (Uggha.t.tha*) [should be pp. of uggha.msati = Sanskrit udghrs..ta, see gha.msati1, but taken by Bdhgh. either as pp. of or an adj. der. from gha.t.t, see gha.t.teti] knocked, crushed, rubbed against, only in phrase ugha.t.ta-paada

---[ Page 127 ]---

foot-sore Sn 980 ( = maggakkama.nena gha.t.ta-paadatala etc. SnA 582); J IV.20 (.t.th; explained. by u.nha-vaalukaaya gha.t.tapaada); V.69 ( = raj oki.n.na-paada C. not to the point).

Uggharati [ud + k.sar] to ooze Th 1, 394 = DhA III.117.

Ugghaa.tana (nt.*) [from ugghaa.teti] that which can be removed, in -ki.tikaa a curtain to be drawn aside Vin II.153 (cp. Vin Texts III.174, 176). Ch s. v. gives "rope and bucket of a well" as meaning (kavaa.ta.m anugghaa.teti). Cp. uggha.tanaa.

Ugghaa.tita [pp. of ugghaa.teti] opened Miln 55; DhA I.134.

Ugghaa.teti [for uggha.t.teti, ud + gha.t.t but BSanskrit udghaa.tayati Divy 130] to remove, take away, unfasten, abolish, put an end to Vin II.148 (taalaani), 208 (gha.tika.m); IV.37; J II.31; VI.68; Miln 140 (bhava-pa.tisandhi.m), 371; Vism 374. - Causative II. ugghaa.taapeti to have opened J V.381.

Ugghaata [ud + ghaata] shaking, jolting; jolt, jerk Vin II. 276 (yaan-); J VI.253 (an-); DhA III.283 (yaan-).

Ugghaati (f.) [from ud + ghaata] - 1. shaking, shock VvA 36. - 2. striking, conquering; victory, combined. with nighaati Sn 828; Nd1 167; SnA 541; Nett 110 (T. reads ugghaata-).

Ugghaatita [pp. of ugghaateti, denom. from udghaata] struck, killed A III.68.

Ugghosanaa (f.) [abstr. from ugghoseti, cp. ghosanaa] proclamation DA I.310.

Ugghoseti [ud + ghoseti] to shout out, announce, proclaim J I.75; DhA II.94; PvA 127.

Ucca (adj.) [For udya, adj. formation from prep. ud above, up] high (opp. avaca low) D I.194; M II.213; A V.82 (-.thaaniya.m niice .thaane .thapeti puts on a low place which ought to be placed high); Pv IV.74 (ucca.m paggayha lifting high up = uccatara.m katvaa PvA 265); Pug 52, 58; DA I.135; PvA 176. -¢vaca high and low, various, manifold Vin I.70, 203; J IV.115, 363 ( = mahaggha-samaggha C. p. 366); Sn 703, 714, 792, 959; Dh 83; Nd1 93, 467; Vv 121 ( = vividha VvA 60); 311. -kuliinataa high birth A III.48 (cp. uccaa-).

Uccaka (adj.) [from ucca] high Vin II.149 (aasandikaa a kind of high chair).

Uccatta (nt.) [from ucca = Sanskrit uccatva.m] height J III.318.

Uccaya [from ud + ci, see cinaati; Sanskrit uccaya] heaping up, heap, pile, accumulation Dh 115, 191, 192; Vv 4711; 827 ( = cetiya VvA 321); DhA III.5, 9; DhsA 41 (paapassa). -siluccaya a mountain Th 1, 692; J I.29 (V.209); VI.272, 278; Daavs V.63.

Uccaa (*-) (adv.) [cp. Sanskrit uccaa, instr. sg. of ucca.m, cp. pashcaa behind, as well as uccaih. instr. pl. - In BSanskrit we find ucca- (uccakuliina Av. SH III.117) as well as ucca.m (ucca.mgama Divy 476). It is in all cases restricted to compounds] high (lit. and fig.), raised, in following compounds -ka.nerukaa a tall female elephant M I.178. -kaa'aarikaa id. M I.178 (v. l. -ka'aarikaa to be preferred). -kula a high, noble family Pv III.116 ( = uccaa khattiya-kul-¢dino PvA 176). -kuliinataa birth in a high-class family, high rank M III.37; VvA 32. -sadda a loud noise D I.143, 178; A III.30. -sayana a high bed (+ mahaasayana) Vin I. 192; D I.5, 7; cp. DA I.78.

Uccaara [Ud + car] discharge, excrement, faeces Vin III.36 (-.m gacchati to go to stool); IV.265, 266 (uccaaro naama guutho vuccati); DhA II.56 (-kara.na defecation); uccaarapassaava faeces and urine D I.70; M I.83; J I.5; II.19.

Uccaaranaa (f.) [from uccaareti] lifting up, raising Vin III.121.

Uccaarita [pp. of uccaareti] - 1. uttered, let out PvA 280 (akkharaani). - 2. lifted, raised ThA 255.

Uccaareti [ud + caareti, Causative of car] to lift up, raise aloft Vin III.81; IV.147 = DhA III.50; M I.135. -pp. uccaarita (q. v.).

Uccaalinga [etymology*] a maw-worm Vin III.38, 112; J II.146.

Uccinaati [ud + cinaati] to select, choose, search, gather, pick out or up Vin I.73; II.285 (aor. uccini); J IV.9; Pv III.2 4 (nantake = gavesana-vasena gahetvaana PvA 185); Dpvs IV.2.

Ucchanga [Sanskrit utsanga, ts > cch like Sanskrit utsahate > BSanskrit ucchahate see ussahati] the hip, the lap Vin I.225; M I. 366; A I.130 (-pa~n~na); J I.5, 308; II.412; III.22; IV.38, 151; Pug 31; Vism 279; DhA II.72.

Ucchaadana (nt.) [ut + saad, Causative of sad, siidati, cp. ussada] rubbing the limbs, anointing the body with perfumes shampooing D I.7, 76; at the latter passage in combination. anicc- -dhamma, of the body, meaning "erosion, decay", and combined. with parimaddana abrasion (see about detail of meaning Dial. I.87); thus in same formula at M I. 500; S IV.83; J I.146 and passim; A I.62; II.70 (+ nahaapana); IV.54, 386; It 111; Th 2, 89 (nahaapan-); Miln 241 (-parimaddana) 315 (+ nahaapana); DA I.88.

Ucchaadeti [from ut + saad, see ucchaadana] to rub the body with perfumes J VI.298; Miln 241 (+ parimaddati nahaapeti); DA I.88.

Ucchi.t.tha [pp. of ud + shis.] left, left over, rejected, thrown out; impure, vile Vin II.115 (-odaka.m); IV.266 (id.); J II.83 (bhatta.m ucchi.t.tha.m akatvaa), 126 (-nadii impure; also itthi outcast), 363; IV.386 (-.m pi.n.da.m), 388; VI.508; Miln 315; DhA I.52; II.85; III.208; PvA 80 ( = cha.d.dita), 173 (-bhatta.m). At J IV.433 read ucch- for ucci.t.tha. -an- not touched or thrown away (of food) J III.257; DhA II.3. - See also utti.t.tha and ucchepaka.

Ucchi.t.thaka (from ucchi.t.tha) = ucchi.t.tha J IV.386; VI.63, 509.

Ucchindati [ud + chid, see chindati] to break up, destroy, annihilate S V.432 (bhavata.nha.m), A IV.17 (fut. ucchecchaami to be read with v. l. for T. ucchejjissaami); Sn 2 (pret. udacchida), 208 (ger. ucchijja); J V.383; Dh 285. Pass. ucchijjati to be destroyed or annihilated, to cease to exist S IV.309; J V.242, 467; Miln 192; PvA 63, 130 ( = na pavattati), 253 ( = n'atthi). -pp. ucchinna (q. v.).

Ucchinna [pp. of ucchindati] broken up, destroyed S III. 10; A V.32; Sn 746. Cp. sam-.

Ucchu [Sanskrit cp. Vedic Np. Iks.vaaku from iks.u] sugar-cane Vin IV.35; A III.76; IV.279; Miln 46; DhA IV.199 (-uuna.m yanta sugar-cane mill), PvA 257, 260; VvA 124. -agga (ucch-) top of s. c. Vism 172. -kha.n.dikaa a bit of sugar-cane Vv 3326. -khaadana eating s. c. Vism 70. -khetta sugar-cane field J I.339; VvA 256. -ga.n.thikaa a kind of sugar-cane, Batatas Paniculata J I.339; VI.114 (so read for -gha.tika). -paala watchman of s.-c. VvA 256. -pii'ana, cane-pressing, Asl. 274. -pu.ta sugar-cane basket J IV.363. -biija seed of s.-c. A I.32; V.213. -yantra a sugar-mill J I.339. -rasa s.-c. juice Vin I.246; Vism 489; VvA 180 -vaata, Asl. 274. -saalaa, Asl. 274.

Uccheda [from ud + chid, chind, see ucchindati and cp. cheda] breaking up, disintegration, perishing (of the soul) Vin III.2 (either after this life, or after kaamadeva life, or after brahmadeva life) D I.34, 55; S IV.323; Nd1 324; Miln 413; Nett 95, 112, 160; DA I.120. -di.t.thi the doctrine of the annihilation (of the soul), as opp. to sassata- or atta-di.t.thi (the continuance of the soul after death) S II.20; III.99, 110 sq; Ps I.150, 158; NdQ 248 (opp. sassati-); Dhs 1316; Nett 40, 127; SnA 523 (opp. atta-). -vaada (adj.) one who professes the doctrine of annihilation (ucchedadi.t.thi) Vin I.235; III.2; D I.34, 55; S II.18; IV.401; A IV.174, 182 sq.; Nd1 282; Pug 38. -vaadin = -vaada Nett 111; J V.244.

---[ Page 128 ]---

Ucchedana (adj.) [from ud + chid] cutting off, destroying; f. -anii J V.16 (suraa).

Ucchedin (adj.) an adherent of the ucchedavaada J V.241.

Ucchepaka (nt.) [ = ucchi.t.thaka in sense of ucchi.t.thabhatta] leavings of food M II.7 (v. l. uccepaka with cc for cch as ucci.t.tha: ucchi.t.tha). The passage is to be read ucchepake va te rataa. A different connotation would be implied by taking ucchepaka = u~nchaa, as Neumann does (Majjhima trsl.2 II.682).

Uju and Ujju (adj.) [Vedic rju, also rjyati, irajyate to stretch out: cp. Gr. o)re/gw to stretch; Latin rego to govern; Goth. ufrakjan to straighten up; Ohg. recchen = Ger. recken = E. reach; Oir. ren span. See also Paali ajjava] straight, direct; straightforward, honest, upright D III.150 T. ujja), 352 (do.) 422, 550; Vv 187 ( = sabba-jimha-vanka-ku.tilabhaav'¢pagama-hetutaaya u. VvA 96); Pug 59; Vbh 244 (uju.m kaaya.m pa.nidhaaya); Vism 219 (uju avanka aku.tila); DA I.210 (id.), KhA 236; DhA I.288 (citta.m uju.m aku.tila.m nibbisevana.m karoti); VvA 281 (-ko.ti-vanka); PvA 123 (an-). -angin (ujjangin) having straight limbs, negative an- not having straight limbs, i. e. pliable, skilful, nimble, graceful J V.40 ( = ka~ncana-sannibha-sariira C.); VI.500 (T. anuccangin = anindita-agarahitangin C.). -gata walking straight, of upright life M I.46; A III.285 sq. (-citta); V.290 sq.; Sn 350 (ujju-), 477 (id.); Dh 108 (ujju-, see DhA II.234 for interpretation). -gaamin, negative an- going crooked, a snake J IV.330. -cittataa straightness, unwieldiness of heart Vbh 350. -di.t.thitaa the fact of having a straightforward view or theory (of life) Miln 257. -pa.tipanna living uprightly D I.192; S IV.304; V.343; Vism 219. -magga the straight road D I.235; Vin V.149; It 104; J I.344; VI.252; DhA II.192. -bhaava straightness, uprightness SnA 292, 317; PvA 51. -bhuuta straight, upright S I.100, 170; II.279Q V.384, 404; A II.57; IV.292; J I.94; V.293 (an-); Vv 3423 (see VvA 155); Pv I.1010 ( = citta-jimha-vanka Kutiila-bhaava-karaana.m kilesaana.m abhaavena ujubhaavappatta PvA 51). -va.msa straight lineage, direct descendency J V.251. -vaata a soft wind Miln 283. -vipaccaniika in direct opposition D I.1; M I.402; DA I.38.

Ujuka and Ujjuka (adj.) [uju + ka] straight, direct, upright M I.124; S I.33 (ujuko so maggo, the road to Nibbaana), 260 (citta); IV.298; V.143, 165; J I.163; V.297 (opp. khujja); DhA I.18 (-magga); Sdhp 321. -anujjuka crooked, not straight S IV.299; J III.318.

Ujukataa (f.) [abstr. from ujuka] straightness, rectitude Dhs 50, 51 (kaayassa, cittassa); Vism 436 sq.

Ujutaa (f.) [abstr. of uju] straight(forward)ness, rectitude Dhs 50, 51.

Ujjagghati [ud + jagghati] to laugh at, deride, mock, make fun of Vin III.128; Th 2, 74 (spelt jjh = hasati ThA 78); A III.91 (ujjh-, v. l. ujj-) = Pug 67 ( = paa.ni.m paharitvaa mahaahasita.m hasati Pug A 249).

Ujjangala [ud + jangala] hard, barren soil; a very sandy and deserted place D II.146 (-nagaraka, trsl. "town in the midst of a jungle", cp. Dial. II.161); J I.391; Vv 855 ( = ukka.msena jangala i. e. exceedingly dusty or sandy, dry); Pv II.970 (spelt ujjhangala, explained. by ativiya-thaddhabhuumibhaaga at PvA 139); Vism 107. Also in BSanskrit ujjangala, e. g. M Vastu II.207.

Ujjala (adj.) [ud + jval, see jalati] blazing, flashing; bright, beautiful J I.220; Daavs II.63.

Ujjalati [ud + jalati, jval] to blaze up, shine forth Vin I.31; VvA 161 (+ jotati). - Causative ujjaaleti to make shine, to kindle Vin I.31; Miln 259; Vism 428; ThA 69 (Ap. V.14, read diipaa.m ujjaalayi.m); VvA 51 (padiipa.m).

Ujjava (adj.) [ud + java] "running up", in cpd. ujjav-ujjava a certain term in the art of spinning or weaving Vin IV. 300, explained. by "yattaka.m patthena (patthana*) a~ncita.m hoti tasmi takkamhi vedhite".

Ujjavati [ud + javati] to go up-stream Vin II.301.

Ujjavanikaaya instr. fem. of ujjavanaka used as adv. [ud + javanaka, q. v.] up-stream, lit "running up" Vin II.290; IV.65 (in explination. of uddha.mgaamin, opp. ojavanikaaya).

Ujjahati [ud + jahati] to give up, let go; imper. ujjaha S I.188; Th 2, 19; Sn 342.

Ujju and Ujjuka see [ud + *jot of jotati, Sanskrit uddyotate] light, lustre J I.183 (-kara); Miln 321.

Ujjotita [pp. of ujjoteti, ud + joteti] illumined Daavs V.53.

Ujjhaggati see ujjagghati.

Ujjhaggikaa (f.) [from ujjagghati, spelling varies] loud laughter Vin II.213, cp. IV.187.

Ujjhati [Sanskrit ujjhati, ujjh] - 1. to forsake, leave, give up J VI.138; Daavs II.86. - 2. to sweep or brush away J VI.296. -pp. ujjhita (q. vQ).

Ujjhatti (f.) [from ud + jhaayati1, corresponding to a Sanskrit *ud-dhyaati] irritation, discontent A IV.223, 467 (v. l. ujj-); cp. ujjhaana.

Ujjhaana (nt.) [ud + jhaana1 or jhaana2*] - 1. taking offence, captiousness Dh 253 ( = paresa'n randha-gavesitaaya DhA III.377); Miln 352 (an* -bahula). - 2. complaining, wailing J IV.287. -sa~n~nin, -sa~n~nika irritable S I.23; Th 1, 958; Vin II.214, cp. IV.194; Dpvs II.6; DhA III.376 (-sa~n~nitaa irritability).

Ujjhaapana (nt.) [from ud + jhaayati1 or jhaayati2 to burn, to which jhaapeti to bring to ruin etc.* cp. ujjhaana] stirring up, provoking J V.91 (devat-), 94 (-kamma).

Ujjhaapanaka (adj.) [from ujjhaapana] one who stirs up another to discontent Vin IV.38.

Ujjhaapeti [Causative of ujjhaayati] to harass, vex, irritate M I. 126; S I.209 ("give occasion for offence"); Vin IV.38 (cp. p. 356); J V.286; PvA 266.

Ujjhaayati [ud + jhaayati1 or perhaps more likely jhaayati2 to burn, fig. to be consumed. According to Muller Paali G. pp. 12 and 42 = Sanskrit ava-dhyaa, but that is doubtful phonetically as well as semantically] to be irritated, to be annoyed or offended, to get angry, grumble; often in phrase ujjhaayati khiiyati vipaaceti expressing great annoyance Vin I.53, 62, 73; II.207; IV.226; S I.232 and passim. - S I.232 (maa ujjhaayittha); J II.15; DhA II.20; aor. ujjhaayi J I.475; DhA II.88; inf. ujjhaatu.m J II.355. Causative ujjhaapeti (q. v.).

Ujjhita [pp. of ujjhati] destitute, forsaken; thrown out, cast away M I.296 (+ avakkhitta); Th 1, 315 (itthi); 2, 386 (cp. ThA 256 vaatakkhitto viya yo koci dahano); Dh 58 ( = cha.d.dita of sweepings DhA I.445); J III.499; V.302; VI.51.

U~ncha and U~nchaa (f.) [Sanskrit u~ncha and u~nchana, to u~nch. Neumann's etymology u~nchaa = E. ounce, Ger. unze (Majjhima trsl.2 II.682) is incorrect, see Walde Latin Wtb. under uncia] anything gathered for sustenance, gleaning S II. 281; A I.36; III.66 sq., 104; Vin III.87; Sn 977; Th 2, 329, 349; J III.389; IV.23, 28, 434, 471 (-ya, dat. = phal¢phal-atthaaya C.); ThA 235, 242. Cp. samu~nchaka. -cariyaa wandering for, or on search for gleaning, J II.272; III.37, 515; V.3; DA I.270; VvA 103; ThA 208. -caarika (adj.) going about after gleanings, one of 8 kinds of taapasaa SnA 295 (cp. DA I.270, 271). -patta the gleaning-bowl, in phrase u~nchaapattaagate rato

---[ Page 129 ]---

"fond of that which has come into the gl. b." Th 1, 155 = Pv IV.73 ( = u~nchena bhikkhaacaarena laddhe pattagate aahaare rato PvA 265; translated. in Psalms of Brethren "contented with whatever fills the bowl"). a~n~naat-, marked off as discarded (goods) S II.281, so S A.

U~nchati [from u~nch] to gather for sustenance, seek (alms), glean Vism 60 ( = gavesati).

U~n~naa (f.) [ = ava~n~naa (*) from ava + j~naa, or after u~n~naatabba* ] contempt Vin IV.241; Vbh 353 sq. (att-).

U~n~naatabba (adj.) [grd. from ava + j~naa (*)] to be despised, contemptible, only in stock-phrase "daharo na u.n.naatabbo na paribhotabbo" S I.69; Sn p. 93; SnA 424 ( = na avajaanitabbo, na niica.m katvaa jaanitabbo ti). In same connection at J V.63 maa na.m daharo [ti] u~n~naasi (v. l. ma~n~naasi) apucchitvaana (v. l. aa-).

U.t.titvaa at Vin II.131 is doubtful reading (see p. 318, v. l. u.d.dhetvaa), and should perhaps be read u.d.detvaa ( = o.d.detva, see u.d.deti), meaning "putting into a sling, tying or binding up".

U.t.tepaka one who scares away (or catches*) crows (kaak-) Vin I.79 (vv. ll. u.t.the-, u.d.de-, u.de-). See remarks on u.t.tepeti.

U.t.tepeti in phrase kaake u. "to scare crows away" (or to catch them in snares*) at Vin I.79. Reading doubtful and should probably be read u.d.depeti (* Causative of u.d.deti = o.d.deti, or of u.d.deti to make fly away). The vv. ll. given to this passage are u.t.teceti, upa.t.thaapeti, u.d.doyeti. See also u.t.tepaka.

U.t.thapana see vo-.

U.t.thahati and U.t.thaati [ud + sthaa see ti.t.thati and utti.t.thati] to rise, stand up, get up, to arise, to be produced, to rouse or exert oneself, to be active, pres. u.t.thahati Pug 51. - pot. u.t.thaheyya S I.217; as imper. utti.t.the Dh 168 (explained. by utti.t.thitvaa paresa'n gharadvaare .thatvaa DhA III.165, cp. Vin Texts I.152). - imper. 2nd pl. u.t.thahatha Sn 331; 2nd sg. u.t.thehi Pv II.61; J IV.433. - ppr. u.t.thahanto M I.86; S I.217; J I.476. - aor. u.t.thahi J I.117; PvA 75. - ger. u.t.thahitvaa PvA 4, 43, 55, 152, and u.t.thaaya Sn 401. - inf. u.t.thaatu.m J I.187. Note. When u.t.th- follows a word ending in a vowel, and without a pause in the sense, a v is generally prefixed for euphony, e. g. gabbho vu.t.thaasi an embryo was produced or arose Vin II.278; aasanaa vu.t.thaaya arising from his seat, Vism 126. See also under vu.t.thahati. -pp. u.t.thita; Causative u.t.thaapeti. - Cp. pariyu.t.thaati.

U.t.thahaana [ppr. of u.t.thahati] exerting oneself, rousing oneself; an- sluggish, lazy Dh 280 ( = ayaayaamanto DhA III. 409); cp. anu.t.thaha.m S I.217.

U.t.thaatar [n. ag. of ut + s..thaa, see u.t.thahati] one who gets up or rouses himself, one who shows energy S I.214; A IV.285, 288, 322; Sn 187; J VI.297. -an- one who is without energy S I.217; Sn 96.

U.t.thaana (nt.) [from ut + s..thaa] - 1. rising, rise, getting up, standing (opp. sayana and nisiidana lying or sitting down) D II.134 (siiha-seyya.m kappesi u.t.thaana-sa~n~na.m manasikaritvaa); Dh 280 (-kaala); J I.392 (an* -seyyaa a bed from which one cannot get up); Vism 73 (aru.n-u.t.thaanavelaa time of sunrise) DhA I.17. - 2. rise, origin, occasion or oppertunity for; as adj. (*-) producing J I.47 (kapp-); VI.459; Miln 326 (dha~n~n- khetta.m atthi). - 3. "rousing", exertion, energy, zeal, activity, manly vigour, industry, often syn. with viriya M I.86; A I.94; II.135 (-phala); III.45 (-viriya), 311; IV.281 (-sampadaa); It 66 (-adhigata.m dhana.m earned by industry); Pv IV.324; Pug 51 (-phala); Miln 344, 416; ThA 267 (-viriya); PvA 129 (+ viriya). -an- want of energy, sluggishness A IV.195; Dh 241. Note. The form vu.t.thaana appears for u.t.th- after a vowel under the same conditions as vu.t.thahati for u.t.thahati (q. v.) gabbha-vu.t.thaana.m J I.114. See also vu.t.th-, and cp. pariy-.

U.t.thaanaka (*-) (adj.) [from u.t.thaana] - 1. giving rise to yielding (revenue), producing J I.377, 420 (satasahass-); III. 229 (id.); V.44 (id.). Cp. u.t.thaayika. - 2. energetic J VI.246.

U.t.thaanavant (adj.) [u.t.thaana + vant] strenuous, active Dh 24.

U.t.thaapeti [Causative II. of utthahati] - 1. to make rise, only in phrase aru.na.m (suriya.m) u. to let the sun rise, i. e. wait for sunrise or to go on till sunrise J I.318; VI.330; Vism 71, 73 (aru.na.m). - 2. to raise J VI.32 (pa.thavi.m). 3. to fit up J VI.445 (naava.m). - 4. to exalt, praise DA I.256. - 5. to turn a person out DhA IV.69. - See also vu.t.thaapeti.

U.t.thaayaka (adj.) [adj. formation from u.t.thaaya, ger. of u.t.thahati] "getting-up-ish", i. e. ready to get up, quick, alert, active, industrious; f. -ikaa Th 2, 413 ( = u.t.thaana-viriyasampannaa ThA 267; v. l. u.t.thaahikaa)

U.t.thaayika (adj.) [ = u.t.thaanaka] yielding, producing J II.403 (satasahass-).

U.t.thaayin (adj.) [adj. form. from u.t.thaaya, cp. u.t.thaayaka] getting up D I.60 (pubb- + pacchaa-nipaatin rising early and lying down late).

U.t.thaahaka (adj.) [for u.t.thaayaka after analogy of gaahaka etc.] = u.t.thaayaka J V.448; f. -ikaa A III.38 (v. l. -aayikaa); IV.266 sq.

U.t.thita [pp. of u.t.thahati] - 1. risen, got up Pv II.941 (kaal-); Vism 73. - 2. arisen, produced J I.36; Miln 155. - 3. striving, exerting oneself, active J II.61; Dh 168; Miln 213. -an- S II.264; Ps I.172. - Cp. pariy-. Note: The form is vu.t.thiti when following upon a vowel from the seclusion D II.9; paato vu.t.thito risen early PvA 128.

U.d.dayhana (nt.) [from u.d.dayhati, see uddahati] burning up, conflagration Pug 13 (*velaa = jhaayana-kaalo Pug A 187); KhA 181 (T. u.d.dahanavelaa v. 1. preferable u.d.dayh*).

U.d.dahati [ud + .dahati] to burn up (intrs.) KhA 181 (u.d.daheyya vith v. 1. u.d.dayheyya, the latter preferable). Usually in Pass. u.d.dayhati to be burnt, to burn up (intrs.) S III.149,150 (v.1. for .dayhati); J III.22 (udayhate) v.194. fut. u.d.dayhissati J I.48.

U.d.dita [pp. of u.d.deti2] ensnared (*), bound, tied up S 1.40 ( = = ta.nhaaya ullanghita C.; translated. "the world is all strung up").

U.d.deti1 [ud + .deti to fly. The etymology is doubtful, Müller Paali Gr. 99 identifies u.d.deti 1 & u.d.deti 2 both as causatives to .dii. Of u.d.deti2 two forms exist, u.d.d* & o.d.d*, the latter of which may be a variant of the former, but with specialization of meaning ("lay snares"), it may be a cpd. with ava* instead of Ud*. It is extremly doubtful whether u.d.deti 2 belongs here, we should rather separate it and refer it to another root, probably lii, layate (as in alliina, niliiyati etc.), to stick to, adhere, fasten etc. The change l > .d is a frequent Paali phenomenon. Another Causative II. of the same root (.dii*) is u.t.tepeti] to fly up M I.364 (kaako ma'nsapesin aadaaya u.d.dayeyya; vv.l1. ubba.daheyya, uyya, dayeyya); J v.256, 368, 417.

U.d.deti2 [see discussion under u.d.deti l] (a) to bind up, tie up to string up Vin II.l31 (so read for u.t.titvaa, v. I. u.d.dhetvaa). -- (b) to throw away, reject PyA 256 (+ cha.d.dayaami gloss). -- pp. u.d.dita.

U.d.dha (--*) (num. ord.) [the apocope form of catuttha = uttha, dialectically reduced to u.d.dha under the influence of the preceding a.d.dim] the fourth, only in cpd. a.d.dhu.d.dha "half of the fourth unit", i.e. three & a half (cp.

---[ Page 130 ]---

diya.d.dha 1 1/2 and a.d.dha-teyya 2 1/2) J V.417 sq. (-aani itthisahassaani); Mhvs XII.53.

U.n.na (nt.) and U.n.naa (f.) [Sanskrit uur.na and uur.naa; Latin laana wool; Goth. wulla; Ohg. wolla = E. wool; Lith. vilna; Cymr. gwlan ( = E. flannel); Gr. lh_nos, also ou_)los = Latin vellus (fleece) = Ags. wil-mod] - 1. wool A III.37 = IV.265 (+ kappaasaa cotton) J II.147; SnA 263 (patt-). - 2. hair between the eyebrows Sn 1022, and in stock phrase, describing one of the 32 signs of a Mahaapurisa, bhamuk-antare jaataa u.n.naa odaataa etc. D II.18 = III.144 = 170 = SnA 285. Also at Vism 552 in jaati-u.n.naaya. -ja in u.n.naja mukha J VI.218, meaning "rounded, swelling" (C. expls. by ka~ncan-aadaaso viya paripu.n.na.m mukha.m). -naabhi (either u.n.na- or u.n.naa, cp. Vedic uur.navaabhi, uur.na + vaabhi from Idg. **ebh to weave as in Latin vespa = wasp, of which shorter root in Sanskrit vaa) a spider, lit. "wool- i. e. thread-weaver", only in combination. with sarabuu and muusikaa at Vin II.110 = A II.73 = J II.147 ( = makka.taka C).

U.n.nata (adj.) [pp. of u.n.namati, Sanskrit unnata] raised, high, fig. haughty (opp. o.nata) A II.86; Sn 702 (an- care = uddhacca.m n-aapajjeyya SnA 492); Pug 52 ( = ucca uggata Pug A 229). Cp. unnata.

U.n.nati (f.) [from u.n.namati] haughtiness Sn 830; Nd1 158, 170; Dhs 1116, 1233. Cp. unnati.

U.n.nama [from u.n.namati] loftiness, height, haughtiness Dhs 1116, 1233. Cp. unnama.

U.n.namati [ud + nam] to rise up, to be raised, to straighten up, to be haughty or conceited Sn 366, 829, 928; Nd1 169; J VI.346 inf. u.n.nametave Sn 206. Cp. unnamati.

U.n.nii (f.) [Sanskrit aur.nii from aur.na woollen, der. of uur.na] a woollen dress Vin II.108.

U.nha (adj.-n.) [Vedic us..naa f. to o.sati to burn, pp. us..ta burnt, Sanskrit us..na = Latin ustus; cp. Gr. eu)/w, Latin uro to burn, Ags. ysla glowing cinders, Lith. usnis nettle] hot, as adj. only in phrase u.nha.m lohita.m cha.d.deti to spill hot blood, i. e. to kill oneself DhA I.95; otherwise in compounds; abs. only as nt. "heat" and always in contrast to siita.m "cold" Vin II.117 (siitena pi u.nhena pi); D II.15 (opp. siita); M I.85; A I.145 = 170 = J V.417 (siita.m vaa u.nha.m vaa ti.na.m vaa rajo vaa ussaavo vaa); Sn 52, 966 (acc -); Nd1 486 = Nd2 677 (same as under sita); J I.17 (V.93); Miln 410 (megho u.nha.m nibbaapeti); PvA 37 (ati-). -aakaara appearance of heat, often in phrase (Sakkassa) pa.n.du-kambala-sil-aasana.m u.nhaakaara.m dassesi, of Sakka's throne showing an appearance of heat as a sign of some extraordinary event happening in the world, e. g. J I.330; V.92; DhA I.17, and passim. -odaka hot water VvA 68. -kalla glowing-hot embers or ashes J II.94 (so read for -kalala); IV.389 (-vassa, rain of hot ashes, v. l. -kukku'avassa). -kaala hot weather Vin II.209.

U.nhatta (nt.) [abstr. from u.nha] hot state, heat Vism 171.

U.nhiisa [Sanskrit us..nii.sa] a turban D I.7; II.19 = III.145 (-siisa cp. Dial. II.16); J II.88; Miln 330; DA I.89; DhsA 198.

Ut(t)a.n.da see udda.n.da.

Utu (m. and nt.) [Vedic rtu special or proper time, with adj. rta straight, right, rite, rti manner to Latin ars "art", Gr. damar(t), further Latin riitus (rite), Ags. riim number; of *ar to fit in, adjust etc. q. v. under appeti] - 1. (lit.) (a) (good or proper) time, season: aru.na-utu occasion or time of the sun(-rise) DhA I.165; utu.m ga.nhaati to watch for the right time (in horoscopic practice), to prognosticate ibid. sariira.m utu.m ga.nhaapeti "to cause the body to take season", i. e. to refresh the body by cool, sleep, washing etc. J III.527; DA I.252. - (b) yearly change, time of the year, season Vism 128. There are usually three seasons men tioned, viz. the hot, rainy and wintry season or gimha, vassa and hemanta A IV.138; SnA 317. Six seasons (in connection with nakkhatta) at J V.330 and VI.524. Often utu is to be understood, as in hemantikena (scil. utunaa) in the wintry season S V.51. - (c) the menses SnA 317; J V.330 (utusinaataaya read utusi nhaataaya; utusi loc., as explained. by C. pupphe uppanne utumhi nahaataaya). - 2. (applied in a philosophical sense: one of the five fold cosmic order, physical change, physical law of causation (opp. kamma), physical order: see Asl. 272 f.; Dialogues, II, 8, n.; Kvu translation. 207; cp. Mrs. Rh. D. Buddhism, p. 119 f., Cpd.161, Dhs translation. introd. XVII; and cp. compounds So in connection with kamma at Vism 451, 614; J VI.105 (kamma-paccayena utunaa samu.t.thitaa Verara.nii); perhaps also at Miln 410 (megha ututo samu.t.thahitvaa). -aahaara physical nutriment (cp. Dhs translation. 174) PvA 148. -uupasevanaa seasonable activity, pursuit (of activities) according to the seasons, observance of the seasons Sn 249 ( = gimhe aatapa-.t.thaana-sevanaa vasse rukkha-muula-sevanaa hemante jalappavesa-sevanaa SnA 291). -kaala seasonable, favourable time (of the year) Vin I.299; II.173. -ja produced by the seasons or by physical change Miln 268 (kamma-, hetu-, utu-); Vism 451. -nibbatta coming to existence through physical causes Miln 268. -pamaa.na measure of the season, i. e. the exact season Vin I.95. -pari.naama change (adversity) of the season (as cause of disease) S IV.230; A II.87; III.131; V.110; Miln 112, 304; Vism 31. -parissaya danger or risk of the seasons A III.388. -pubba festival on the eve of each of the (6) seasons J VI.524. -vaara time of the season, -vaarena -vaarena according to the turn of the season J I.58. -vikaara change of season Vism 262. -veramanii abstinence during the time of menstruaiiion Sn 291 (cp. SnA 317). -sa'nvacchara the year or cycle of the seasons, pl. -aa the seasons D III.85 = A II.75; S V.442. The phrase utusa'nvaccharaani at Pv II.955 is by Dhammapaala taken as a bahuvriihi cpd., viz. cycles of seasons and of years, i. e. vasanta-gimh aadike bahuu utuu ca citta-sa'nvacchar-adi bahuuni sa'nvaccharaani ca PvA 135. Similarly at J V.330 (with Cy). -sappaaya suitable to the season, seasonable DhA 327. -samaya time of the menses SnA 317.

Utuka (*-) (adj.) [utu + ka] seasonable, only in cpd. sabbotuka belonging to all seasons, perennial D II.179; Pv IV. 122 ( = pupphupaga-rukkhaadiihi sabbesu utuusu sukkhaavaha PvA 275); Sdhp 248.

Utunii (f.) [formed from utu like bhikkhunii from bhikkhu] a menstruating woman Vin III.18; IV.303; S IV.239; A III. 221, 229; Miln 127. an- A III.221, 226.

Utta [pp. of vac, Sanskrit ukta; for which the usual form is vutta only as dur- speaking badly or spoken of badly, i. e. of bad repute A II.117, 143; III.163; Kh VIII.2; KhA 218.

Utta.n.daala (adj.) [ud + ta.n.dula] "grainy", i. e. having too many rice grains (of rice gruel), too thick or solid (opp. atikilinna too thin or liquid) J I.340; III.383 (id.); IV.44 (id.).

Uttatta [ud + tatta1, pp. of ud + tap, Sanskrit uttapta] heated; of metals: molten, refined; shining, splendid, pure J VI. 574 (hema.m uttatta.m agginaa); Vv 8417; Pv III.32 (-ruupa, so read for uggata-, reading correct at PvA 188 -singii); PvA 10 (-kanaka, T. uggatta-); Mhbv 25 (id.).

Uttanta [ = utrasta, is reading correct*] frightened, faint Vin III.84. See uttasta & utrasta.

Uttama (adj.) [superl. of ud*, to which compar. is uttara. See etym. under ud*] "ut-most", highest, greatest, best Sn 1054 (dhamma'n uttama'n the highest ideal = Nibbaana, for which se.t.tha'n' Sn 1064; cp. Nd2 317); Dh 56; Nd1 211; Nd2 502 (in paraphrase of mahaa combd with pavara);

---[ Page 131 ]---

KhA 124; DhA I.430: PvA 1, 50. - dum-uttama a splendid tree Vv 393; nar- the best of men Sn 1021 ( = naraasabha of 996); pur- the most magnificent town Sn 1012; puris- the noblest man Th 1, 629, 1084; nt. uttama.m the highest ideal, i. e. Arahantship J I.96. -anga the best or most important limb or part of the body, viz. (a) the head Vin II.256 = M I.32 = A IV.278 (in phrase uttamange sirasmi.m); J II.163; also in cpd. -bhuuta the hair of the head Th 2, 253 ( = kesa-kalaapa ThA 209, 210) and -ruha id. J I.138 = VI.96 ( = kesaa C.); (b) the eye J IV.403; (c) the penis J V.197. -attha the highest gain or good (i. e. Arahantship SnA 332) Sn 324; Dh 386, 403; DhA IV.142; ThA 160. -adhama most contemptible J V.394, 437. -gu.naa (pl.) loftiest virtues J I.96. -purisa It 97 and -porisa the greatest man ( = mahaapurisa) Dh 97 (see DhA II.188). -bhaava the highest condition, state or place DhA II.188 (-.m patto = puris' uttamo).

Uttamataa (f.) [abstr. from uttama] highest amount, climax, limit DA I.169 (for paramataa).

Uttara1 (adj.) compar. of ud-, q. v. for etymology; the superl. is uttama] - 1. higher, high, superior, upper, only in compounds, J II.420 (musal- with the club on top of him* Cy not clear, perhaps to uttara2); see also below. - 2. northern (with disaa region or point of compass) D I.153; M I.123; S I.224; PvA 75. uttaraamukha (for uttara.mmukha) turning north, facing north Sn 1010. - 3. subsequent, following, second (*-) J I.63 (-aasaa'ha-nakkhatta). 4. over, beyond (*-): a.t.th-utara-sata eight over a hundred, i. e. 108; DhA I.388. - sa-uttara having something above or higher, having a superior i. e. inferior D I.80 (citta), II.299; M I.59; S V.265; Vbh 324 (pa~n~naa); Dhs 1292, 1596; DhsA 50. - anuttara without a superior, unrivalled, unparalleled D I.40; S I.124; II.278; III.84; Sn 179. See also under anuttara. -atthara.na upper cover J VI.253. -¢bhimukha facing North D II.15. -aasanga an upper robe Vin I.289; II. 126; S I.81; IV.290; A I.67, 145; II.146; DhA I.218; PvA 73; VvA 33 = 51. -itara something higher, superior D I.45, 156, 174; S I.81; J I.364; DhA II.60; IV.4. -o.t.tha the upper lip (opp. adhar-) J II.420; III.26; IV. 184. -chada a cover, coverlet, awning (sa- a carpet with awnings or canopy above it) D I.7; A I.181; III.50. -chadana = -chada D II.187; DhA I.87. -dvaara the northern gate J VI.364. -dhamma the higher norm of the world (lok-), higher righteousness D II.188 (pa.tividdha-lok-uttara-dhammataaya uttama-bhaava.m patta). -paasaka the (upper) lintel (of a door) Vin II.120 = 148. -pubba north-eastereotype J VI.518. -sse (v. l. -suve) on the day after tomorrow A I.240.

Uttara2 (adj.) [from uttarati] crossing over, to be crossed, in dur- difficult to cross or to get out of S I.197 (not duruttamo); Miln 158; and in cpd. -setu one who is going to cross a bridge Miln 194 (cp. uttara-setu).

Uttara.na (nt.) [from uttarati] bringing or moving out, saving, delivery Th 1, 418; J I.195. In BSanskrit uttara.na only in sense of crossing, overcoming, e. g. Jtm 31 Q (-setu). Cp. uttara.

Uttarati [ud + tarati1] - 1. to come out of (water) Vin II.221 (opp. otarati); J I.108 (id.). - 2. to go over, to flow over (of water), to boil over Miln 117, 118, 132, 260, 277. - 3. to cross over, to go beyond M I.135; aor. udataari Sn 471 (ogha.m). - 4. to go over, to overspread J V.204 (ger. uttariyaana = avattharitvaa C.). -pp. oti.n.na (q. v.). - Causative uttareti (q. v.).

Uttari (*-) and Uttari.m (adv.) [compounds. form of uttara, cp. angi-bhuuta uttaani-karoti etc.] out, over, beyond; additional, moreover, further, besides. - (1) uttari.m: D I.71; M I.83; III.148; S IV.15; Sn 796 (uttari.m kurute = uttari.m karoti Nd2 102, i. e. to do more than anything, to do best, to esteem especially); J II.23; III.324; Miln 10 (ito uttari.m anything beyond this, any more) DhA IV.109 (bhaveti to cultivate especially; see vuttari); VvA 152. - uttari.m appa.tivijjhanto not going further in comprehension, i. e. reaching the highest degree of comprehension, Vism 314, referring to Ps II.131, which is quoted at Miln 198, as the last of the 11 blessings of mettaa. - (2) uttari- in following compounds -kara.niiya an additional duty, higher obligation S II. 99; III.168; A V.157 = 164; It 118. -bhanga an extra portion, tit-bit, dainties, additional or after-meal bits Vin II.214; III.160; IV.259; J II.419; DhA I.214 sa-uttaribhanga together with dainty bits J I.186, cp. 196 (yaagu). -bhangika serving as dainties J I.196. -manussa beyond the power of men, superhuman, in cpd. -dhamma an order which is above man, extraordinary condition, transcendental norm, adj. of a transcendental character, miraculous, overwhelming Vin I.209; II.112; III.105; IV.24; D I.211; III.3, 12, 18; M I.68; II.200; S IV.290, 300, 337; A III.430; V.88; DhA III.480. -saa.taka a further, i. e. upper or outer garment, cloak, mantle J II.246; DhA IV.200; PvA 48, 49 ( = uttariiya.m).

Uttarika (adj.) [from uttara] transcending, superior, superhuman Nett 50.

Uttariya (nt.) [abstr. from uttara; uttara + ya = Sanskrit *uttarya] - 1. state of being higher. Cp. III.35; negative an- state of being unsurpassed (lit. with nothing higher), preeminence; see anuttariya. - 2. an answer, rejoinder DhA I.44 (kara.n--kara.na).

Uttariiya (nt.) [from uttara] an outer garment, cloak PvI.103 ( = uparivasana.m uparihaara.m uttarisaa.taka.m PvA 49); Daavs III.30; ThA 253.

Uttasati1 [identical in form with next] only in Causative uttaaseti to impale, q. v.

Uttasati2 [ut + tasati2] - 1. to frighten J I.47 (v.267). to be alarmed or terrified Vin I.74 (ubbijjati u. palaayati); III.145 (id.); J II.384; VI.79; ppr. uttasa'n Th 1, 863; and uttasanto Pv II.23. - See utrasati. Causative uttaaseti (q. v.). pp. uttasta and utrasta (q. v.). Cp. also uttanta.

Uttasana (adj.-nt.) [from ud + tras, cp. uttaasana] frightening, fear J I.414 (v. l. for uttasta).

Uttasta [pp. of uttasati2; usual form utrasta (q. v.)] frightened, terrified, faint-hearted J I.414 (-bhikkhu; v. l. uttasana-).

Uttaana (adj.) [from ut + tan, see tanoti and tanta] - 1. streched out (flat), lying on one's back, supine Vin I.271 (ma~ncake uttaana.m nipajjaapetvaa making her lie back on the couch); II.215; J I.205; Pv IV.108 (opp. avakujja); PvA 178 (id.), 265. - 2. clear, manifest, open, evident [cp. BSanskrit uttaana in same sense at Av. S II.106] D I.116; S II.28 (dhammo uttaano viva.to pakaasito); J II.168 ( = paaka.ta); V.460; PvA 66, 89, 140, 168. - anuttaana unclear, not explained J VI.247. - The cpd. form (*-) of uttaana in combination. with kr and bhuu is uttaanii- (q. v.). - 3. superficial, "flat", shallow A I.70 (parisa); Pug 46. -mukha "clear mouthed", speaking plainly, easily understood D I.116 (see DA I.287); DhA IV.8. -seyyaka "lying on one's back", i. e. an infant M I.432; A III.6; Th 1, 935; Miln 40; Vism 97 (-daaraka).

Uttaanaka (adj.) [from uttaana] - 1. ( = uttaana1) lying on one's back J VI.38 (-.m paatetvaa); DhA I.184. - 2. ( = uttaana2) clear, open D II.55; M I.340 = DhA I.173.

Uttaanii (*-) [the compounds. form of uttaana in compounds with kr and bhuu cp. BSanskrit uttaanii-karoti M Vastu III.408; uttaanii-krta Av. SH I.287; II.151] open, manifest etc., in -kamma (uttaani-) declaration, exposition, manifestation S V.443; Pug 19; Vbh 259, 358; Nett 5, 8, 9, 38. - -kara.na id. SnA 445. - -karoti to make clear or open, to declare, show up, confess (a sin) Vin I.103; S II.25, 154; III.132, 139; IV.166; V.261; A I.286; III.361 sq.

---[ Page 132 ]---

Uttaapeti [Causative of uttapati] to heat, to cause pain, torment J VI.161.

Uttaara [from ud + tr as in uttarati] crossing, passing over, -setu a bridge for crossing (a river) S IV.174 = M I.134; cp. uttara2.

Uttaarita [pp. of uttaareti] pulled out, brought or moved out J I.194.

Uttaaritatta (nt.) [abstr. from uttaarita] the fact of having or being brought or moved out J I.195.

Uttaareti [Causative of uttarati] to make come out, to move or pull out J I.194; SnA 349. -pp. uttaarita (q. v.).

Uttaasa [Sanskrit uttraasa, from ud + tras] terror, fear, fright D III.148; S V.386; Miln 170; PvA 180.

Uttaasana (nt.) [from uttaaseti2] impalement J II.444; SnA 61 (suule).

Uttaasavant (adj.) [uttaasa + vant] showing fear or fright, fearful S III.16 sq.

Uttaasita [pp. of uttaaseti2] impaled Pv IV.16 ( = aavuta aaropita VvA 220); J I.499; IV.29.

Uttaaseti1 [Caus of uttasati, ud + tras, of which ta.ms is uttaaseti2 is a variant] to frighten, terrify J I.230, 385; II.117.

Uttaaseti2 [cp. Sanskrit utta.msayati in meaning to adorn with a wreath; ud + ta.ms to shake, a variation of tars to shake, tremble] to impale A I.48; J I.230, 326; II.443; III.34; IV.29. -pp. uttaasita (q. v.). Cp. uttaasana.

Utti.t.tha [ = ucchi.t.tha* Cp. ucchepaka. By Paali Cys. referred to u.t.thahati "alms which one stands up for, or expects"] left over, thrown out Vin I.44 (-patta); Th 1, 1057 (-pi.n.da); 2, 349 (-pi.n.da = viva.tadvaare ghare ghare pati.t.thitvaa labhanaka-pi.n.da ThA 242); J IV.380 (-pi.n.da; C. similarly as at ThA; not to the point); 386 (-pi.n.da = ucchi.t.thaka pi.n.da C.); Miln 213, 214.

Utti.t.the see u.t.thahati.

Utti.na (adj.) [ud + ti.na] in utti.na.m karoti to take the straw off, lit. to make off-straw; to deprive of the roof M II.53. Cp. next.

Utti.n.na [pp. of uttarati] drawn out, pulled out, nt. outlet, passage J II.72 (pa.n.nasaalaaya utti.n.naani karoti make entrances in the hut). Or should it be utti.na*

Utrasta [pp. of uttasati, also cp. uttasta] frightened, terrified, alarmed Vin II.184; S I.53, 54 (an-); Sn 986; Miln 23; DhA II.6 (-maanasa); PvA 243 (-citta), 250 (-sabhaava).

Utraasa [ = uttaasa] terror J II.8 (citt-).

Utraasin (adj.) [from *Sanskrit uttraasa = Paali uttaasa] terrified, frightened, fearful, anxious S I.99, 219. - Usually negative an- in phrase abhiiru anutraasin apalaayin without fear, steadfast and not running away S I.99; Th 1, 864; Nd2 13; J IV.296; V.4; Miln 339. See also apalaayin.

Ud- [Vedic ud-; Goth. uut = Ohg. uuz = E. out, Oir. ud-; cp. Latin uusque "from-unto" and Gr. u(/stereotypes = Sanskrit uttara] prefix in verbal and nominal combination. One half of all the words beginning with u- are combinations. with ud-, which in compounds. appears modified according to the rules of assimilation as prevailing in Paali. - I. Original meaning "out in an upward direction", out of, forth; like ummujjati to rise up out of (water), ujjalati to blaze up high; udeti to come out of and go up; ukka.n.tha stretching one's neck out high (cp. Ger. "empor"); uggilati to "swallow up", i. e. spit out. - The opposites of ud- are represented by either ava or o- (see under II. and IV. and cp. ucc-¢vaca; uddhambhaagiya: orambhaagiya), ni (see below) or vi (as udaya: vi-aya or vaya). - II. Hence develop 2 clearly defined meanings, viz. (1) out, out of, away from -: -a.nha ("day-out"); -agga ("top-out"); -aagacchati; -ikkhati look out for, expect; -kantati tear out; -khitta thrown off; -khipati pick out; -gacchati come out; -gama.na rising (opp. o-); -gajjati shout out; -gilati (opp. o-); -ghoseti shout out; -cinaati pick out; -chi.t.tha thrown out; -jagghati laugh at, cp. Ger. aus-lachen -tatta smelted out; -taana stretched out; -daaleti tear out; -dha.ta lifted out, drawn out; -disati point out to; -driiyati pull out; -pajjati to be produced; -patti and -paada coming out, origin, birth; -pa.tipatiyaa out of reach; -pa'aaseti sound out; -phaasulika "ribs out"; etc. etc. - (2) up (high) or high up, upwards, on to (cp. ucca high, uttara higher) -: -kujja erect (opp. ava-); -kuula sloping up (opp. vi-); -khipati throw-up, -ga.nhaati take up; -chindati cut up; -javati go up-stream, -javana id. (opp. o-); u~n~na pride; -thaana "standing up" -.thita got up; -tarati come out, go up (opp. o-); -nata raised up, high (opp. o-); -nama e-levation; -naamin raised (opp. ni-); -patati fly up; etc. etc. - III. More specialised meanings (from elliptical or figurative use) are: (1) ud- = without, "ex-", e. g. unnangala "outplough" = without a plough; uppabbajita an ex-bhikkhu. (2) ud- = off, i. e. out of the way, wrong, e. g. uppatha a wrong road, ummagga id. - (3) ud- = out of the ordinary, i. e. exceedingly, e. g. ujjangala extremely dusty; uppanduka very pale; uppo.theti to beat hard. - IV. Dialectical variations and combinations. - (1) Owing to semantic affinity we often find an interchange between ud- and ava- (cp. E. break up = break down, grind up or down, tie up or down), according to different points of view. This wavering between the two prefixes was favoured by the fact that o always had shown an unstable tendency and had often been substituted for or replaced by uu, which in its place was reduced to u before a double consonant, thus doing away with the different between uu and u or o and u. For comparison see the following: ukkamati and okk-; u~n~naa: ava~n~na; uddiyati: odd-; u.d.deyya o.d.d-; uppii'eti: opii'-; etc., and cp. abbhokirati > abbhukkirati. - (2) the most frequent combinations. that ud- enters into are those with the intensifying prefixes abhi- and sam-; see e. g. abhi + ud ( = abbhud-) + gacchati, -jalati; -.thaati; -namati etc.; sam + ud + eti; -kamati; -chindati; -tejeti; -pajjati etc.

Uda1 (indecl.) [Sanskrit uta and u, with Latin aut (or), Gr. au(_ti (again), au)ta/r (but, or), Goth. auk = Ger. auch to pronoun. base ava- yonder, cp. ava II.] disjunctive part. "or"; either singly, as at Sn 455, 955, 1090; J V.478 (v. l. udaahu); Nd1 445 (explained. as "padasandhi" with same formula as iti, q. v.); Pv II.1216 (kaayena uda cetasaa); or combined. with other synonymous particles, as uda vaa at Sn 193, 842, 1075; It 82 = 117 (cara.m vaa yadi vaa ti.t.tha.m nisinno uda vaa saya'n walking or standing, sitting or lying down); KhA 191. - See also udaahu.

Uda2 (*-) [Vedic udan (nt.), also later uda (but only --), commonly udaka, q. v.] water, wave. In compounds sometimes the older form udan- is preserved (like uda~njala, uda~n~navant), but generally it has been substituted by the later uda- (see under udakaccha, udakanti, udakumbha, udapatta, udapaana, udabindu).

Udaka (nt.) [Vedic udaka, uda + ka (see uda2), of Idg. **ed, *ud, fuller form *e*ed (as in Sanskrit odatii, odman flood, odana gruel, q. v.); cp. Sanskrit unatti, undati to water, udra = Av. udra = Ags. otor = E. otter ("water-animal"); Gr. u(/dwr water ("hydro"), u(/dra hydra ("water-animal"); Latin unda wave; Goth. wato = Ohg. wazzar = E. water; Obulg. voda water, vydra otter] water Vin II.120, 213; D II.15 (-assa dhaaraa gushes or showers of w.); Dh 80, 145; J I.212; Pv I.57; Pug 31, 32; Miln 318; VvA 20 (udake temana.m aggimhe taapana.m); DhA I.289; DhA III. 176, 256; PvA 39, 70. - Syn. ambu, ela, jala etc. The compounds. form (*-) is either uudaka (aasanuudaka-daayin

---[ Page 133 ]---

J IV.435) or -odaka (paadodaka water for the feet PvA 78). odaka occurs also in abs. form (q. v.), cp. also oka. Bdgh.'s ka.m = udaka.m, tena daaritan: kandaran ti is a false etymology; DA I.209. -a.n.nava water-flood M I.134. -aayatika a water-pipe Vin II.123. -aa'haka a certain measure of water, an aa'haka of w. S V.400; A II.55 = III.337; VvA 155. -uupama resembling water, like water A IV.11 (puggala). -ogaahana plunging into water J III.235. -ogha a water flood VvA 48. -orohaka descending into water, bathing; N. of a class of ascetics, lit. "bather" M I.281; S IV.312; A V. 263. -oroha.na plunging into water, taking a bath, bathing D I.167; S I.182; A I.296; II.206; J IV.299; Pug 55. -kalaha the "water dispute" DhA III.256. -kaaka a water crow J II.441. -kicca libation of water, lit. water-performance; cleansing, washing D II.15. -kii'aa sporting in the w. J VI.420. -gaha.nasaa.taka bathing-gown J V.477. -gha.ta a water pitcher PvA 66. -caa.ti a water jar DhA I.52. -.t.thaana a stand for water Vin II.120. -tumba a water vessel J II.441; DA I.202; DhA II.193. -telaka an oily preparation mixed with water Vin II.107. -dantapo.na water for rinsing the mouth and tooth-cleaner Vin III.51; IV.90, 92, 233; J IV.69. -daha a lake (of water) D I.45. -do.nikaa a water-tub or trough Vin II.220. -dhaaraa a shower of water Ps I.125; J IV.351. -niddhamana a water spout or drain Vin II.120, 123; DhA II.37. -nibbaahana an aquaduct Miln 295. -pa.tiggaha receiving or accepting water Vin II.213. -patta a waterbowl Vin II. 107; D I.80; S III.105. -pu~nchanii a towel Vin II.122. -posita fed or nourished by water VvA 173. -phusita a drop of water S II.135. -bindu a drop of w. It 84 (v. l. for udabindu); PvA 99. -bubbula a w. bubble A IV.137; Vism 109, 479 (in comp.). -bhasta devoid of water ThA 212 (for anodaka Th 2, 265). -ma.nika a water-pot Vin I.227; M I.354; A III.27; Miln 28; DhA I.79. -mallaka a cup for w. A I.250. -rakkhasa a water-sprite DhA III.74. -rahada a lake (of w.) D I.74, 84; A I.9; II.105; III.25; Sn 467; Pug 47. -ruuha a water plant Vv 35Q. -lekhaa writing on w. A I.283 = Pug 32 (in simile -uupama like writing on w.; cp. Pug A 215). -vaara "waterturn", i. e. fetching water DhA I.49. -vaaraka bucket S II.118. -vaaha a flow of water, flowing w. J VI.162. -vaahaka rise or swelling (lit. carrying or pulling along (of water), overflowing, flood A I.178. -vaahana pulling up water Vin II.122 (-rajju). -sadda sound of water Dhs 621. -saraavaka a saucer for w. Vin II.120. -saa.taka = saa.tikaa J II.13. -saa.tikaa "water-cloak", a bathing-mantle Vin I. 292; II.272; IV.279 ( = yaaya nivatthaa nhaayati C.); DhA II.61 (T. -saa.taka). -suddhika ablution with water (after passing urine) Vin IV.262 ( = mutta-kara.nassa dhovanaa C.).

Udakaccha [uda + kaccha] watery soil, swamp J V.137.

Udakumbha [uda + kumbha] a water jug J I.20; Dh 121, 122; Pv I.129.

Udagga (adj.) [ud + agga, lit. "out-top", cp. Sanskrit udagra] topmost, high, lofty Th 1, 110; fig. elated, exalted, exultant, joyful, happy D I.110 (-citta); Sn 689 (+ sumana), 1028 (id.); Pv IV.155 (attamana +); IV.58 (ha.t.tha +); Miln 248; DhA II.42 (ha.t.tha-paha.t.tha udagg-udagga in high glee and jubilant); Vism 346 (id.); Sdhp 323. See also der. odagya.

Udaggataa (f.) [abstr. from udagga] exaltation, jubilation, glee Sdhp 298.

Udaggi- in udaggihutta.m [ = ud + aggi + hutta, cp. Vedic agnihotra] the fire prepared (for sacrifice) J V.396 ( = uda-aggihutta.m C. wrongly), lit. "the sacrifice (being) out"

Udanga.na (nt.) [ud + anga.na1; Kern unnecessarily changes it to uttankana "a place for digging for water" see Toev. p. 96] an open place J I.109.

Udacchidaa 3rd sg. praet. of ucchindati to break up Sn 2, 3 (-aa metri causa).

Uda~ncana (nt.) [from ud + a~nc, see a~nchati] a bucket for drawing water out of a well DhA I.94.

Uda~ncanin (adj.-n.) [ud + a~ncanin to a~nc see a~nchati] draining, pulling up water f. -ii a bucket or pail J I. 417 (f. -ii).

Uda~njala [udan + jala see uda2] in -.m kii'ati a water-game: playing with drops of water (*) Vin III.118 (Bdhgh.: uda~njalan ti udaka-cikkhallo vuccati p. 274)

Uda~n~navant (adj.) [udan = uda(ka) + vant] rich in water, well-watered J V.405 ( = udaka-sampanna C.).

Uda.nha [ud + a.nha] day-break, dawn, sunrise J V.155.

Udataari 3rd sg aor. of uttarati to cross over Sn 471 (ogha.m).

Udatta (adj.) [Sanskrit udaatta] elevated, high, lofty, clever Nett 7, 118, 123 ( = u'aarapa~n~na C.).

Udadhi [uda + dhi, lit. water-container] the sea, ocean S I.67; It 86; Sn 720; J V.326; VI.526; ThA 289; VvA 155 ("udaka.m ettha dhiiyatii ti udadhi"); Sdhp 322, 577.

Udapatta1 [*da for ud, and patta, pp. of pat, for patita* Kern, Toev. s. v. takes it as udak-praapta, risen, flying up, sprung up J III.484 ( = uppatita C.); V.71 ( = u.t.thita C.).

Udapatta2 [uda + patta; Sanskrit udapaatra] a bowl of water, a water-jug, ewer M I.100; S V.121; A III.230 sq., 236; V.92, 94, 97 sq.

Udapaadi 3rd sg. aor. of uppajjati to arise, originate, become D I.110, 180, 185; S II.273; It 52, 99; SnA 346, 462.

Udapaana [uda + paana lit. "(place for) drinking water"; cp. opaana, which in the incorrect opinion of Paali Commentators represents a contracted udapaana] a well, a cistereotype Vin I.139; II.122; M I.80; A IV.171; J III.216; Ud 78; Pv II.78; II.925; Miln 411; Vism 244 (in simile); DA I.298; VvA 40; PvA 78.

Udappatta see udapatta.

Udabindu [uda + bindu] a drop of water M I.78; Sn 812; Dh 121, 122, 336; It 84 (v. l. udaka-); Nd1 135; SnA 114; DhA II.51.

Udabbhadhi aor. 3rd sg. of ubbadhati [ud + vadh] to destroy, kill Sn 4 ( = ucchindanto vadhati SnA 18).

Udabbahe 3rd sg. Pot. of ubbahati [ud + brh1, see also abbahati] to draw out, tear out, remove Th 1, 158; Sn 583 ( = ubbaheyya dhaareyya (*) SnA 460); J II.223 ( = udabbaheyya C.); VI.587 ( = hareyya C.); aor. udabbahi Vin IV.5.

Udaya [from ud + i, cp. udeti] rise, growth; increment, increase; income, revenue, interest A II.199; Ps I.34; Vv 847 (dhan-atthika uddaya'n patthayaana = aanisa'nsa'n atirekalaabha.m VvA 336); 8452; DhA II.270; PvA 146 (ulaar- vipaaka), 273 (-bhuutaani pa~nca kahaapa.na-sataani labhitvaa, with interest); Sdhp 40, 230, 258. - See also uddaya. -attha rise and fall, birth and death (to attha2) M I.356; S V.197 sq., 395; A III.152 sq.; IV.111, 289, 352; V.15, 25. -atthika desirous of increase, interest or wealth (cp. above Vv 847 dhan-atthika) A II.199. -bbaya (ud-aya + vy-aya) increase and decrease, rise and fall, birth and death, up and down D III.223; S I.46 = 52 (lokassa); III.130; A II.90; III. 32; IV.153; It 120; Vism 287; Ps I.54; ThA 90. -vyaya = -bbaya S IV.140; A II.15 (khandhaana.m); Dh 113, 374 (khandhaana.m, see DhA IV.110).

Udaya'n and Udayanto ppr. of udeti (q. v.).

Udayana (nt.) [from ud + i] going up, rise DA I.95.

---[ Page 134 ]---

Udara (nt.) [Vedic udara, Av udara belly, Gr. u(/stereotypes = Latin uterus belly, womb; Lith. vedaras stomach, See also Walde, Latin Wtb. under vensica] - 1 the belly, stomach D II.266; Sn 78, 604, 609, 716; J I.146, 164, 265; Miln 213; PvA 283; KhA 57, 58; DhA I.47 (pregnant); Sdhp 102. - 2. cavity, interior, inside Daavs I.56 (mandir-odare). -uunuudara with empty belly Th 1, 982; Miln 406, 407; cp. uuna. -aggi the fire of the belly or stomach (i. e. of digestion) KhA 59; SnA 462; PvA 33; -¢vadehaka.m (adv.) bhunjati to eat to fill the stomach, eat to satiety, to be gluttonous M I.102; A V.18; Th 1, 935; Vism 33. -pa.tala the mucous membrane of the stomach Vism 359 ( = sariir-abbhantara 261); SnA 248; KhA 55, 61. -puura stomachfilling Vism 108. -va.t.ti "belly-sack", belly Vin III.39, 117; Vism 262 where KhA reads ud. pa.tala). -vaata the wind of the belly, stomach-ache 9J I.33, 433; Vism 41 (-aabaadha); DhA IV.129.

Udariya (nt.) [from udara] the stomach Kh III. (cp. KhA 57); Vism 258, 358. Cp sodariya.

Udassaye 2nd sg. pot. of ud + assayati [aa + shri, cp. assaya] J V.26 (meaning to instal, raise*), explained. by C. as ussayaapesi (*) Reading may be faulty for udaasase (*).

Udahaaraka [uda + haaraka] a water-carrier J II.80.

Udahaariya (adj.) [from udahaara fetching of water, uda + hr] going for water Vv 509.

Udaagacchati [ud + aa + gacchati] to come to completion Da I.288. Cp sam.

Udaana (nt.) [from ud + an to breathe] - 1. "breathing out", exulting cry, i e. an utterance, mostly in metrical form, inspired by a particularly intense emotion, whether it be joyful or sorrowful (cp. K. S. p. 29 n. 2) D I.50, 92; S I.20, 27, 82, 160; A I.67; J I.76; Pug 43, 62; Nett 174; PvA 67; Sdhp 514. - The utterance of such an inspired thought is usually introduced with the standing phrase "ima.m udaana.m udaanesi" i. e. breathed forth this solemn utterance [Cp. BSanskrit udaana.m udaanayati Divy 99 etc.], e. g. at Vin I.2 sq., 12, 230, 353; D I.47; II.107 (udaana of triumph); S III.55; Mhvs XIX.29; DA I.140; Ud. 1 passim; SnA 354 ("the familiar quotation about the Sakyas"). Occasionally (later) we find other phrases, as e. g. udaana.m pavatti J I.61; abhaasi Vin IV.54; kathesi J VI. 38. - 2. one of the angas or categories of the Buddhist Scriptures: see under nava and anga. - Cp. vodaana.

Udaanita [pp. of udaaneti] uttered, breathed forth, said DhA IV.55.

Udaaneti [denom. f. udaana, cp. BSanskrit udaanayati] to breathe out or forth, usually in phrase udaana.m udaanesi: see under udaana1. Absolutely only at J III.218.

Udaapatvaa at J V.255 is uncertain reading (v. l. udapatvaa, C. explinations. reading udapatvaa by uppatitvaa = flying up), perhaps we should read udapatta flew up, pret. of ud + pat = Sanskrit *udapaptat (so Kern, Toev. s. v.).

Udaayati at DA I.266 (udaayissati fut.) is hardly correct; D I.96 has here udriiyissati (q. v.), which belongs to darati to break, tear etc., udaayati could only belong to daayaati meaning to cut, mow, reap. but not to split etc. DA I.266 explinations. udaayissati with bhijjhissati. The difficulty is removed by reading udriiyissati. To v. l. undriyati cp. -undriya for -uddaya (dukkh- for dukkhudraya see udraya). We find udaayati once more at Vism 156 in explination. of ekodi where it is evidently meant for udeti (Causative = u.t.thapeti).

Udaara (adj.) [Sanskrit udaara, of which the usual Paali form is ulaara (q. v.). Cp. BSanskrit audaara and audaarika.] raised, sublime, noble, excellent Daavs III.4 (samussit-odaara-sitaatapatta.m); DA I.50 (-issariya); Sdhp 429, 591.

Udaavatta [pp. of udaavattate, ud + aa vattati] retired, desisting J V.158 ( = udaavattitva nivattitva C).

Udaasiina (adj.) [ud + aasiina, pp. of aas to sit; lit. sit apart, be indifferent] indifferent, passive, neutral DhsA 129.

Udaaha.ta [pp of udaaharati] uttered, spoken; called, quoted Pug 41.

Udaahara.na (nt.) [from udaaharati] example, instance J III.401 (-.m aaharitvaa dassento), 510; Miln 345; SnA 445; VvA 297.

Udaaharati [ud + aa + hr] to utter, recite. speak. Sn 389; J III.289; DA I.140 (see udaahaara). - pp udaaha.ta (q. v.). Cp. pariy-.

Udaahaara [from udaaharati] utterance, speech DA I.140 (-.m udaahari = udaana.m udaanesi); Pug A 223,

Udaahu (indecl.) [uta + aaho, cp. Paali uda and aho and Sanskrit utaaro] disjunctive-adversative particle "or", in direct questions D I 157; II.8; Sn 599, 875, 885; J I.20, 83; VvA 258 ( = aadu); PvA 33, 51; Miln 10. - The first part of the question is often introduced with ki.m, while udaahu follows in the second (disjunctive) part, e. g. kin nakkhatta.m kii'issasi udaahu bhati.m karissasi VvA 63; ki.m amhehi saddhi.m aagamissasi udaahu pacchaa will you come with us or later* DhA II.96: See under ki.m. - Often combined with other expletive particles, e. g. udaahu ve Sn 1075, 1077; udaahu no Sn 347; eva . . . no udaahu (so . . . or not) D I.152; (aya'n) nu kho - udaahu (aya'n) is it (this) - (this) Vism 313.

Udi (or udii) is artificial adj. formn. from udeti, meaning "rising, excelling", in explination. of ekodi at Vism 156 (udayatii ti udi u.t.thapetii ti attho).

Udikkhati [ud + iiks., Sanskrit udiik.sate] - 1. to look at, to survey. to perceive Vin I.25 (udiccare, 3sd. pl. pres. med.); J V.71, 296; Vv 8121 (aor. udikkhisa'n = ullokesi.m VvA 316); Daavs II 109; Sdhp 308. - 2. to look out for, to expect J I.344; VvA 118. - 3. to envy Miln 338.

Udikkhitar [n. ag. of udikkhati] one who looks for or after D III 167.

Udicca (adj.) [apparently an adjectivised ger. of udeti but distorted from and in meaning = Sanskrit uda~nc, f. udiicii northern, the north] "rising", used in a geographical sense of the N. W. country, i. e. north-westereotypey, of north-westereotype origin (cp. Brethren 79, Miln translation. II.45 n. 1) J I.140, 324, 343, 373; Miln 236. - See also uddiya.

Udiccare 3sd. pl. pres. med. of udikkhati (q. v.).

Udita1 [pp. of ud-i, see udeti] risen, high, elevated Miln 222; (-odita); Daavs IV.42; Sdhp 14 (of the sun) 442 (-odita).

Udita2 [pp. of vad, see vadati] spoken, proclaimed, uttered Vuttodaya 2 (quoted by Childers in Khuddaka-paatha ed. 1869, p. 22).

Udiira.na (nt.) [from udiireti] utterance, saying J V.237; Dhs 637, 720; Miln 145.

Udiirita [pp. of udiireti] uttered J III.339; V.394 = 407.

Udiireti [ud + iireti, cp. in meaning iirita] - 1. to set in motion, stir up, cause J III.441 (dukkha.m udiiraye Pot. = udiireyya C.); V.395 (kalaha.m to begin a quarrel). - 2. to utter, proclaim, speak, say S I.190; Sn 632 (pot. -raye = bhaaseyya SnA 468); Dh 408 (gira.m udiiraye = bhaaseyya DhA IV.182); J V.78 (vaakya.m); Pass. udiiyati (uddiyyati = Sanskrit udiiryate) Th 1, 1232 (nigghoso).

Udu (adj.) [ = *rtu* cp. utu and uju] straight, upright, in -mano straight-minded D III.167, 168 ( = uju- in v. l. and explination. by C.).

---[ Page 135 ]---

Udukkhala (m. and nt.) [Sanskrit ulukhala] a mortar Vin I.202 (+ musala pestle); J I.502; II.428; V.49; II.161, 335; Ud 69 (m; + musa'a); DhA II.131 (-sala); Vism 354 (in comp.). The relation between udukkhala and musala is seen best from the description of eating at Vism 344 and DA I.200, where the lower teeth play the role of ud., the upper teeth act as m., while the tongue takes the part of a hand. On this passage and other connections as well as etymology see Morris J.Paali Text Society 1893, 37.

Udukkhalikaa (f.) [from udukkhala] part of a door (threshold*) Vin II.148 (+ uttara-pasaka lintel of a door).

Udumbara [Sanskrit udumbara] the glomerous fig tree, Ficus Glomerata D II.4; Vin IV.35; A IV.283 (-khaadika), 283 (id.), 324 (id.); Sn 5; DhA I.284; SnA 19; KhA 46, 56; VvA 213. Cp. odumbara.

Udeti (ud + eti of i to go] to go out or up, to rise (of the sun), to come out, to increase Asl. 169; Vism 156 (eko udetii ti ekodi); J II.33; III.324; ppr. udaya'n It 85 (aadicco), and udayanto PvA 154 (udayante suriye = sole surgente). -pp. udita (see udita1). Cp. udicca and udi.

Udda1 [Vedic udra, to uda2 water, lit. living in water; Cp. Gr. u(/dros "hydra"; Ohg. ottar = Ags. otor = E. otter; Lith. uudra = Obulg. vydra otter] an aquatic animal, the otter (*) Childers s. v. doubts the identity of this creature with the regular otter, since it lives in the jungle. Is it a beaver - Vin I.186 (-camma otter-skin, used for sandals); Cp. I.102 (-pota); J III.51 sq., 335. The names of two otters at J III.333 are Gambhiira-caarin and Anutiira-caarin.

Udda2 [for uda2*] water, in passage amakkhito uddena, amakkhito semhena, a. ruhirena i. e. not stained by any kind of (dirty) fluid D II.14; M III.122.

Udda.n.da [ud + da.n.da] a kind of building (or hut), in which the sticks stand out (*) Nd1 226 = Nd2 976 (u.tanda) = Vism 25 (v. l. BB u.t.tanda).

Uddaya1 [a (metric*) variant of udaya] gain, advantage, profit Vv 847 (see udaya); J v.39 (satt--mahaapaduma of profit to beings*).

Uddaya2 in compounds dukkh- and sukh-. see udraya.

Uddalomii [ = udda + lomin beaver-hair-y ] a woollen coverlet with a fringe at each end D I.7 ( = ubhato dasa'n u.n.naa-may- atthara.na.m; keci ubhato uggata-puppha.m ti vadanti DA I.87); A I.181. See however uddha-lomin under uddha.m.

Uddasseti [ud + dasseti, Causative of dassati1] to show, reveal, point out, order, inform, instruct D II.321 sq.; M I.480 (read uddassessaami for conjectured reading uddisissaami*); II.60 (v. l. uddiset-) A IV.66.

Uddaana (nt.) [from ud + daa, dayati to bind: see under daama] a group of Suttas, used throughout the Vinaya Pi.taka, with reference to each Khandhaka, in the Sa'nyutta, the Anguttara and other books (cp. Miln 407) for each group of about ten Suttas (cp. DhsA 27). The Uddaana gives, in a sort of doggerel verse, at the end of each group, the titles of the Suttas in the group. It may then be roughly rendered "summary". If all the Uddaanas were collected together, they would form a table of contents to the whole work. - Otherwise the word has only been found used of fishes "macchuddaana" (so J II.425; DhA II.132). It then means a group of fish placed apart for for sale in one lot. Perhaps a set or a batch would meet the case.

Uddaapa [*udvaapa] foundation of a wall, in stock phrase da'h- etc. D III.101; S V.194 = also at J VI.276 ( = paakaara-vatthu C.). Kern, Toev. s. v. refers it to Sanskrit ud-vapati to dig out, and translates "moat, ditch". The meaning "wall" or "mound" however harmonises quite well with the der. from "digging", cp. E. dike > Ger. Teich. See also uddaama 2.

Uddaapavant (adj.) [from uddaapa] having a wall or embankment S II.106 (v. l. uddhaa-); C. expls. as apato uggatattaa J IV.536 (so read with v. l. for T. uddhaa pavatta; C. expls. as tiira-mariyaadaa-bandhana).

Uddaama [from ud + daa as in uddaana, see daama] 1. (adj.) "out of bounds", unrestrained, restless Daavs V.56 (-saagara). - 2. (n.) wall, enclosure (either as "binding in", protecting or as equivalent of uddaapa from ud + vam "to throw up" in sense of to throw up earth, to dig a mound = udvapati) in phrase a.t.taala-uddaama-parikh¢diini watchtowers, enceintes, moats etc. DhA III.488.

Uddaaraka [*] some wild animal J V.416 (reading uncertain, explination. ditto).

Uddaala = uddaalaka, only as Np. J IV.298 sq.

Uddaalaka [from ud + dal, see dalati] the Uddaala tree, Cassia Fistula (also known as indiivara), or Cordia Myxa, lit. "uprooter" Vv 67 ( = vaataghaatako yo raajarukkho ti pi vuccati VvA 43); J IV.301 (-rukkha), 440; V.199 ( = vaataghaataka C.), 405; VI.530 (so read for uddh-); VvA 197 (-puppha = indiivara); PvA 169.

Uddaalanaka (adj.) [from uddaalana > ud + daaleti] referring to destruction or vandalism, tearing out Vin IV.169.

Uddaaleti [ud + daaleti, Causative of dal, see dalati] to tear out or off Vin IV.170; S IV.178.

Uddi.t.tha [pp. of uddisati] - 1. pointed out, appointed, set out, put forth, proposed, put down, codified M I.480 (pa~nha); Sn p. 91 (id. = uddesa-matten- eva vutta, na vibhangena SnA 422); SnA 372. - 2. appointed, dedicated J V.393 (an -.m puppha.m = asukassa naama dassaamii ti); PvA 50; KhA 138.

Uddiya (adj.) [Sanskrit udiicya*] northern, northwestereotype (i. e. Nepalese) J IV.352 (-kambala) in explination. of uddiyaana [Sanskrit udiiciina*]. See udicca and cp. Morris in J.Paali Text Society 1889, 202, and last not least Luders in K. Z. 1920 (vol. 49), 233 sq. The word is not sufficiently cleared up yet.

Uddisati [ud + disati] - to propose, point out, appoint, allot Dh 353, cp. DhA IV.72; Miln 94 (satihaara.m); fut. uddisissati M I.480 (ex conj., is probably to be changed to uddassessati, q. v.). - 2. to specify PvA 22 (aor. uddisi), 25 ( = niiyaadeti, dadaati), 27. - Pass. uddissati to show oneself, to be seen Pv III.212, and uddissiyati PvA 46. -pp. uddi.t.tha (q. v.). - Causative II. uddisaapeti (q. v.). - ger. uddissa (q. v.)

Uddisaapeti [Causative II. of uddisati] - 1. to make recite Vin I.47 = II.224; IV.290. - 2. to dedicate PvA 35 (v. l. aadisati).

Uddissa (indecl.) [orig. ger. of uddisati] - 1. indicating, with signs or indications J III.354 = Miln 230. - 2. prep w. acc.: (a) (lit.) pointing to, tending towards, towards, to PvA 250 Sura.t.tha-visaya'n). - (b) (applied.) with reference to, on account of, for, concerning PvA 8 (pete), 17 ( = aarabbha), 49 (ratanattaya'n), 70 (ma.m), 146. -kata allotted to, specified as, meant for (cp. odissa and odissaka) Vin I.237 (ma.msa); II.163; D I.166 = A I. 295 = Pug 55 (viz. bhikkhaa); M I.77; KhA 222; J II. 262, 263 (bhatta).

Uddissana (nt.) [from uddissa] dedication PvA 27, 80.

Uddiipanaa (f.) [from ud + diipeti] explanation, reasoning, argument Vism 27 (for ukkaacanaa).

Uddiiyati, Uddiiyana ete. see udrii-.

---[ Page 136 ]---

Uddeka [Sanskrit udreka, ud + ric] vomit, spouting out, eruption Vism 261 (where id. p. at KhA 61 reads uggaara); -.m dadaati to vomit Vin I.277.

Uddekanika (adj.) [uddeka + ana + ika] spouting, ejecting M II.39 (ma.nika; perhaps better to be read with v. l. as uda~njanika = uda~ncanika fit for drawing up water).

Uddesa [from uddisati] - 1. pointing out, setting forth, proposition, exposition, indication, programme M III.223 (u. uddi.t.tha), 239; S IV.299; SnA 422. - 2. explanation S V.110 sq.; sa-uddesa (adj.) with (the necessary) explination., point by point, in detail, D I.13, 81; III.111; A III.418; It 99; Nd2 6171. - 3. sama.nuddesa one marked as a Sama.na, a novice (cp. saama.nera) D I.151; M III.128; A IV.343; uddesa-bhatta special or specified food Vin I.58 = 96, cp. II.175, propounding, recitation, repetition Vin I.50 = II.228 (uddesena paripucchaaya ovaadena by recitation, questioning and advice); II.219 (-.m dadaati to hold a recitation + paripuccha.m d); A IV.114 (+ paripucchaa); V.50 sq. (pa~nho, u. veyyaakara.na.m); Nd2 3852 (+ paripucchaa); J I.116; Miln 257 (+paripucchaa). ek'uddesa a single repetition Vin III.47; A III.67, 180; Miln 10, 18.

Uddesaka (adj.) [from uddesa] assigning, defining, determining, in bhatt- one who sorts out the food VvA 92.

Uddesika (adj. nt.) [from uddesa] - 1. indicating, referring to, respecting, defining; (nt.) indication, definition D II. 100 (mam -bhikkhusangho); Miln 159 (id.); KhA 29. Esp. as -- in phrase a.t.tha-vass' uddesika-kaala the time referring to (or indicating) the 8th year, i. e. at the age of 8 PvA 67; so'asa-vass- M I.88; J I.456; VvA 259. In the same application padesika (q. v.). - 2. memorial J IV.228 (cetiya).

Uddehaka (adj.) [from ud + dih, see deha] "bubbling up", only adv. -.m in cpd. phe.n- (paccamaana) boiling) under production of scum (foam) M III.167; A I.141; J III.46; Miln 357.

Uddosita [Derivation uncertain. Cp. Muller Paali Gr. 42] shed, stable (*) Vin I.140; II.278; III.200; IV.223.

Uddha (adj.) [possibly a combination. of a.d.dha2 and uddha.m; or should we read a.d.dh- or vu.d.dh-*] in phrase uddhehi vatthehi in rich, lofty clothes J IV.154 (of a devataa; passage may be corrupt).

Uddha.m (and Uddha-) (indecl.) [nt. of adj. *uddha = Sanskrit uurdhva high; to Idg. *ared(h) as in Latin arduus steep, or *ured as in Sanskrit vardhate to raise, Gr. o)rqo/s straight] high up, on top, above (adv. and prep.). - On uddha.m in spatial, temporal, ethical and psychological application see in detail Nd2 155. I. (adv.). - A. (of space) up, aloft, on top, above (opp. adho) Vin III.121; KhA 248 ( = upari). - In contrast with adho (above > below) D I.23, 153, 251; Vism 176 (u. adho tiriya.m explained.); DA I.98 (see also adho). - Esp. with reference to the points of the compass as "in zenith" (opp. adho "in nadir"), e. g. at D I.222 ("straight up"); It 120; J I.20. B. (of time) in future, ahead, hence Sn 894; Nd1 303 (u. vuccati anaagata.m). II. (prep. with abl. and instr.). A. (of space) in phrase uddha.m paadatalaa adho kesamatthakaa (above the soles and below the scalp) D II. 293, 294; III.104; A III.323; V.109. - B. (of time) after, hence Pv I.1012 (u. catuuhi maasehi after 4 months = catunna.m maasaana.m upari PvA 52); PvA 147 (sattahi vassa satehi u., meaning here 700 years ago, cp. ito in similar application, meaning both past and future), 148 (sattaahato u. after a week; uttari v. l. BB.). - In compounds uddha- and uddha.m- (see below). The reading udhogala.m at PvA 104 is to corrected to adho-. - III. Note (cp. Trenckner, Notes 60). In certain cases we find ubbha.m for uddha.m. Notice the following: ubbha.m yojana.m uggato J V.269; ubbha.t.thako hoti "standing erect" D I.167; M I.78; ubbhamukhu "mouth (face) upwards", turned upwards S III.238; Miln 122. (1) uddha- in: -gaamin going upwards S V.370 sq. cchiddaka (-vaatapaanaa) (windows) having openings above DhA I.211. -paada heels upwards either with adhosira (head down) A IV.133, or avansira Vv 5225 (v. l.); J I. 233. -mukha turned upwards, adv. -aa upwards or backwards (of a river) Miln 295 (Gangaa u. sandati; in same context ubbha- Miln 122). -lomin "having hair on the upper side", a kind of couch or bed (or rug on a couch) Vin I.192 = II.163, 169. So is prob. to be read for uddalomii (q. v.). -virecana action of an emetic (lit. throwing up) (opp. adho-virecana of a purgative) D I.12 ( = uddha.m dosaana.m niihara.na.m DA I.98); DhA III.126; SnA 86. -suddha clean on top Vin II.152. (2) uddha.m- in: -aaghaatanika an after-deather, a teacher who maintains that the soul exists after death D I.31, cp. DA I.119. -paada feet up (and head down) Vv 5225 (v. l. uddha-). -bhaagiya belonging to the upper part (opp. oram-): see sa'nyojana. -virecana v. l. BB. at SnA 86 for uddha-. -sara(.m) (adv.) with raised or lofty voice, lit. "sounding high" Sn 901, see Nd1 315. -sota (adj.) one who is going upwards in the stream of life [cp. BSanskrit uurdhvasrotah. Mahaavy * 46] D III.237; S V.69, 201, 205, 237, 285, 314, 378; A I.233; II.134; IV.14 sq., 73 sq., 146, 380; V.120; Dh 218; Th II.12; Pug 17; Nett 190; DhA III.289; lit. up-stream at J III.371.

Uddha.msati [ud + dha.msati, in lit. meaning of dhva.ms, see dha.msati] to fly out or up (of dust) Vv 784 na tatth- uddha.msati rajo; explained. by uggacchati VvA 304. -pp. uddhasta (q. v.).

Uddhagga (adj.) [uddha + agga] - 1. standing on end (lit. with raised point). bristling, of the hair of a Mahaapurisa D II.18 = III.144, 154. - 2. prominent, conspicuous J IV.345 (-raajin having prominent stripes, of a lion). 3. pointing upwards (of the lower teeth, opp. adhagga point-downwards) J V.156 ( = he.t.thima-danta C.). 4. lofty, beneficial (of gifts) A II.68 (dakkhi.naa); III.46 (id.) see also uddhaggika.

Uddhaggika (adj.) [cp. uddhagga) aiming at or resulting in a lofty end, promoting spiritual welfare, beneficial (of gifts) D I.51 = III.66; S I.90; A III.259; DA I.158.

Uddhacca (nt.) [substantivised ger. of ud-dharati, ud + dhr, cp. uddha.ta and uddhata. The BSanskrit auddhatya shows a strange distortion. BSanskrit uddhava seems to be also a substitute for uddhacca] over-balancing, agitation, excitement, distraction, flurry (see on meaning Dialogues I.82; Dhs translation. 119; Cpd.18, 45, 83). A I.256, 282; III.375, 421, 449; IV.87; V.142, 145, 148; D III.234; S V.277 sq.; DhSA 260; SnA 492 (in sense of "haughtiness"* for Sn 702 u.n.nata); Nd1 220, 501; Ps I.81, 83; II.9, 97 sq.; 119, 142, 145, 169, 176; Pug 18, 59; Dhs 427, 429 (cittassa), 1159, 1229, 1426, 1482; Vbh 168, 369, 372, 377; Vism 137, 469 ( = uddhata-bhaava); Sdhp 459. Together with kukkucca "flurry or worry" u. is enumerated as the 4th of the 5th niivara.na's and as the 9th of the 10 sa'nyojana's (q. v.), e. g. at D I.71, 246; III.49, 234, 269, 278; S I.99; A I.3; III.16; V.30; Nd2 379; Dhs 1486.

Uddhaja (adj.) [uddha.m + ja] upright, honest M I.386 (v. l. for pannadhaja).

Uddha.ta [pp. of uddharati2; see also uddhata, uddhita and uddhacca] - 1. pulled out J II.26. - 2. pulled out, destroyed, extirpated, in phrase- daa.tha with its fangs removed (of a snake) J I.505; II.259; VI.6. - 3. cut off or out Miln 231 (uddha.t-uddha.te aalope whenever a piece is cut off). - 4. drawn out, lifted out, raised J I.143; sass-kaale at the time of lifting the corn; V.49 (-pa.msu). Cp. uddha.ta-biija castrated J II.237.

Uddhata [pp. of uddharati1; as to its relation to uddha.ta see remarks under uddhacca]. - 1. lifted up, raised, risen, high (of the sun, only in this special phrase u. aru.no) Vin II.236; Ud 27 (vv. ll. uggata and uddhasta).

---[ Page 137 ]---

2. unbalanced, disturbed, agitated, shaken S I.61 (+ unna'a "muddled in mind and puffed up" trsl.), 204 (id.) V.112 (liina.m citta.m uddhata.m c.)